WorldWideScience

Sample records for single sex polygonadism

  1. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  2. The Promise of Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is…

  3. The Advantages of Single-Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, single-sex education has been provided in the form of private schooling. Title IX regulations have loosened as a result of the No Child Left Behind Legislation; therefore, public school districts now have the legal right to create single-sex classes or single-sex schools if they deem it to be in the best interest of their students.…

  4. Number of Single-Sex Schools Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Tal

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights has proposed amending the regulations governing Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972--which prohibits sex discrimination in programs that receive federal money--to allow more flexibility in offering single-sex schools or classes. This article discusses the rapid growth of…

  5. Single-Sex Schooling Gets New Showcase

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Single-sex classrooms and schools are common in private education and have emerged as popular options in urban public school districts, such as New York City, particularly as a strategy for raising the achievement of African-American boys. South Carolina is at the forefront of implementing such programs statewide. Ninety-seven schools in South…

  6. Theorising Practice in Single-Sex Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Lyn

    1996-01-01

    The practice of adult educators in single-sex settings is directed by "theories-in-use" about the social construction of gender, such as gender is culturally constructed but people internalize gender stereotypes; gender stereotypes can be challenged and changed; and power to define gender roles lies in patriarchy, but it can be contested…

  7. The Media, Marketing, and Single Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Australian media's interest in education, as in many Anglophone countries, is frequently dominated by concerns about boys in schools. In 2002, in a country region of the Australian State of Queensland, this concern was evident in a debate on the merits of single sex schooling that took place in a small local newspaper. The debate was fuelled…

  8. Single-Sex Schools and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews single-sex schools' history and legal status. Explores constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination delineated in five leading cases (in Philadelphia, New York City, Detroit, Mississippi, and Virginia). Due to claims of Equal Protection Clause and/or Title IX violations, such schools are unlikely to proliferate. (20 references)…

  9. Single-Sex Schools and Classrooms. The Informed Educator Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    In October 2006, the U.S. Department of Education introduced the so-called "single-sex regulations," which brought the issue of single-sex education to the forefront of discussion among educators, policymakers, and parents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that single-sex education can have a positive impact on student achievement. However,…

  10. Effect of Single-Sex Education on Progress in GCSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was carried out on national value-added data to study the effects of single-sex education on the progress of pupils from 2002 Key Stage 3 to 2004 GCSE. The analysis suggests that pupils in a selective environment achieve higher progress in single-sex schools; however, the advantage of single-sex schooling seems to decrease with…

  11. Single-Sex versus Secondary Schooling: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred; Alonso, Alex; Gibson, Doug; Rogers, Kelly; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-sex education refers most generally to education at the elementary, secondary, or postsecondary level in which males or females attend school exclusively with members of their own sex. This report deals primarily with single-sex education at the elementary and secondary levels. Research in the United States on the question of whether public…

  12. "Dangerous Presumptions": How Single-Sex Schooling Reifies False Notions of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent changes in federal regulations about gender equity in education in the USA, some policy makers have resurrected single-sex public education. Because single-sex schooling ignores the complexity of sex, gender, and sexuality, it sets up a "separate but equal" system that is anything but. Discounting the ways in which gender is…

  13. Gender, single-sex schooling and maths achievement

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Donal

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a distinctive feature of the Irish education system to examine the impact of single-sex education on the gender difference in mathematical achievement at the top of the distribution. The Irish primary school system is interesting both for the fact that many children attend single-sex schools, and because these single-sex schools are part of the general educational system, rather than serving a particular socio-economic group. In keeping with research on other co...

  14. Together or Separate: Disentangling the Effects of Single-Sex Schooling from the Effects of Single-Sex Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Do Won Kwak; Hyejin Ku

    2013-01-01

    To separately identify the effects of single-sex “schooling†versus single- sex “schools†, we exploit two unusual experiments in South Korea: students are randomly assigned to academic high schools within districts regardless of school types, and some schools changed their types from single-sex to coeducational over time. While the overall effects of attending a single-sex school are positive for both boys and girls, these are driven by the differences in resources between school types...

  15. Single-Sex Education in Public School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers have studied the effectiveness of single-sex education (SSE), the findings have been mixed. This exploratory study reports the perceived goals and effectiveness of single-sex education based on interviews with a small group of educators involved with SSE in various ways. Research participants included a school principal and…

  16. Single-Sex Classrooms and Reading Achievement: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George

    2012-01-01

    Gendered schooling is growing in the United States, but little research exists on single-sex classes in public elementary schools. This study sought to find out if single-sex classes in two elementary schools made a difference in boys' reading gains in 2008-2009, as judged by scores on the state's annual literacy test. In one school, boys in the…

  17. Single-Sex Schools, the Law, and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the history of single-sex schools and analyzes the legal status of these schools, reviewing constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination and the leading cases that have been litigated on these issues. Offers reflections on why single-sex schools are not likely to hold a major place in the future of urban U.S. public schools.…

  18. Single-Sex Schooling: Friendships, Dating, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Wong, Wang Ivy

    2018-05-01

    Single-sex schooling has been controversial for decades. The current study investigated the differences in friendships, dating, and past, present, and ideal sexual orientation, between 207 college students who attended single-sex secondary schools and 249 college students who attended coeducational secondary schools in Hong Kong, controlling for personal characteristics such as socioeconomic status. We found that, compared to graduates of coeducational schools, graduates of single-sex schools reported a different gender composition in intimate friendships favoring the same sex, less romantic involvement with other-sex close friends, older age at first date, fewer boyfriends or girlfriends, and more past same-sex sexuality. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the interactions with same-sex versus other-sex friends, most aspects of past or present dating engagement, or self-reported present or ideal sexual orientation. These findings give insight into the interpersonal outcomes of single-sex schooling and fill a gap in previous research which has focused on academic achievement and gender role stereotypes.

  19. Single-Sex Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…

  20. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera : an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilgenburg, Ellen van; Driessen, Gerard; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  1. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgenburg, E.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Beukeboom, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  2. Single-sex schooling and labour market outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, A.; Joshi, H.; Leonard, D.

    2011-01-01

    One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact of single-sex schooling on the chances of being employed in 2000, nor on the horizontal or social class segregation of mid-life occupations. But we d...

  3. Sex Differences in Parenting Behaviors in Single-Mother and Single-Father Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Howell, Nyssa C.; Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Lapray, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family structure has led some to claim that sex-based parenting differences exist. But if such differences exist in single-parent families, the absence of a second parent rather than specific sex-typed parenting might explain them. We examine differences in mothering and fathering behavior in single-parent households, where number of…

  4. Students' and teachers' perceptions of single-sex and mixed-sex mathematics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Léonie J.; Parker, Lesley H.

    1997-11-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the learning settings in single-sex and mixed-sex mathematics classes, and teachers' responses to those different classroom contexts. Nearly 300 students in four coeducational secondary schools gave their views of the nature of their participation and interaction in their mathematics classrooms, and data were also obtained from their teachers. There was congruence between students' and teachers' perceptions of the environment in the two kinds of classrooms. Overall, it was perceived that single-sex classrooms provided a more supportive environment for girls, but a rather less supportive environment for boys. Teachers used different strategies with the two kinds of classes and, although many experienced initial difficulty with unruly boys' classes, these problems were overcome. The single-sex environment provided opportunities for teachers to address apparent shortcomings arising from boys' and girls' previous educational experience, which resulted in improved attitudes and performance.

  5. Single-sex middle school science classrooms: Separate and equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Howard M.

    The U.S. Department of Education's amended regulations to Title IX have attempted to expand the circumstances in which single-sex classes are permissible in public schools. This ethnographic study uses grounded theory to investigate aspects of one single-sex offering at a public, coeducational middle school. Applying elements of postmodern, queer, and sociocultural lenses, it examines the perspectives for this offering, shedding insight into the cultures of two single-sex classrooms and what it meant to be a boy or girl in this setting. Additionally, it focuses attention on the all-boy and all-girl science classes that were taught by the same teacher and examines what it meant to learn science as boys and girls in this program. Although participants supplied financial, socio-emotional, and academic reasons for these classes, the initial motivation for these classes stemmed from the teachers' desire to curb the amount of sex talk and related behaviors that were exhibited in their classrooms. Through these conversations and classroom events, the girls were constructed as idealized students, academically and behaviorally, who needed to be protected from boys' behaviors---both boys' dominating classroom behaviors and aggressive (hetero)sexual behaviors. Conversely, boys were constructed as needing help both academically and behaviorally, but in the specific discipline of science boys were identified as the sex that was more interested in the content and gained greater exposure to skills that could assist them in future science courses and careers. Overall, boys and girls, and the culture of their two classrooms, were regularly defined relative to each other and efforts were made to maintain these constructed differences. As a result, the classes and students were hierarchically ranked in ways that often pitted one sex of students, or the entire class, as better or worse than the other. The theory emerging from this study is that single-sex policies arise and survive

  6. Affective Domain Progression in Single-Sex and Coeducational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Salleh, Siti-Zahrani Binti Haji Md

    2018-01-01

    Students who study science in single-sex and coeducational schools have attracted lots of attention from the education community. However, changes to students' attitudes toward science as they progress to higher grades in these schools are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in attitudes toward science among…

  7. Academic Self-Concept, Gender and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…

  8. Parents' Views on Mixed and Single-Sex Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne; Hunter, Jay

    1993-01-01

    Reports on two studies of British parental attitudes toward coeducational and single-sex secondary schools. Finds few differences between the parents of primary school girls and boys who will attend secondary schools in the future. Also finds a large majority of boys' parents believe that social advantages accrue for boys educated with girls. (CFR)

  9. Single-Sex Computer Classes: An Effective Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Sandra L.; Harvey, Douglas M.

    2002-01-01

    Advocates single-sex computer instruction as a temporary alternative educational program to provide middle school and secondary school girls with access to computers, to present girls with opportunities to develop positive attitudes towards technology, and to make available a learning environment conducive to girls gaining technological skills.…

  10. Single-Sex Classes in Co-Educational Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Robin; Kilpatrick, Sue; Hutton, Biddy

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated social and academic outcomes from single-sex classrooms in a Tasmanian coeducational government primary school. Interviews, observations and surveys formed the basis of the evidence. Teachers, parents and children reported positive benefits from the class organisation, but these differed according to gender. Staff…

  11. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Gerard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding, homozygous diploid and sterile males occur which form a genetic burden for a population. We review life history and genetical traits that may overcome the disadvantages of single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD. Behavioural adaptations to avoid matings between relatives include active dispersal from natal patches and mating preferences for non-relatives. In non-social species, temporal and spatial segregation of male and female offspring reduces the burden of sl-CSD. In social species, diploid males are produced at the expense of workers and female reproductives. In some social species, diploid males and diploid male producing queens are killed by workers. Diploid male production may have played a role in the evolution or maintenance of polygyny (multiple queens and polyandry (multiple mating. Some forms of thelytoky (parthenogenetic female production increase homozygosity and are therefore incompatible with sl-CSD. We discuss a number of hypothetical adaptations to sl-CSD which should be considered in future studies of this insect order.

  12. Should the Sexes Be Separated for Secondary Education--Comparisons of Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Pamela; Smithers, Alan

    1999-01-01

    English researchers compared the academic and social benefits of single sex and coeducational schools, examining test scores and interviewing 100 college students (balanced for sex and type of school) about their experiences and their ease of adjustment to higher education. Results indicated that segregating the sexes did not increase…

  13. US Principals' Attitudes about and Experiences with Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabes, Richard A.; Pahlke, Erin; Borders, Adrienne Z.; Galligan, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a lack of scientific evidence supporting the use of single-sex education, the number of US public schools offering single-sex education has increased. However, our understanding as to why decision-makers have implemented single-sex education is lacking. To address this gap, we surveyed US public school principals and assessed their…

  14. Single-Sex Classes in Two Arkansas Elementary Schools: 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra; Denny, George; Tschepikow, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Interest in single-sex classes continues to grow in the United States, but there has been little research at the elementary level in this country or elsewhere to help guide educators' decision-making about the overall value of single-sex classes in public schools and the specific value of single-sex classes in public schools for increasing boy's…

  15. Effects of Single-Sex Secondary Schools on Student Achievement and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valerie E.; Bryk, Anthony S.

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary schooling. Results indicate that single-sex schools deliver specific advantages to their students, especially female students. Single-sex schools may facilitate adolescent academic development by providing an environment where social and academic concerns are separated.…

  16. Winners and Losers in Single-Sex Science and Mathematics Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale; Jacobs, Kathy

    This paper discusses the success of single sex science and mathematics education classrooms. Most studies on single sex learning environments come from countries such as Australia, Jamaica, Nigeria, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Thailand, and there is little research on American public schools. This study investigates single sex mathematics and…

  17. U.S. Principals’ Attitudes About and Experiences with Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabes, Richard A.; Pahlke, Erin; Galligan, Kathrine; Borders, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Despite a lack of scientific evidence supporting the use of single-sex education, the number of U.S. public schools offering single-sex education has increased. However, our understanding as to why decision-makers have implemented single-sex education is lacking. To address this gap, we surveyed U.S. public-school principals and assessed their attitudes about and experiences with single-sex schooling. Sixty-seven principals from single-sex schools and 193 from coeducational schools participated. The results indicated that principals who had experience with single-sex schooling tended to have more positive attitudes about single-sex schooling, viewed it as more effective, and more often evoked gender-essentialist rationales for the use of single-sex schooling than did coeducational principals. However, both single-sex and coeducational principals noted issues with single-sex schooling. It was concluded that single-sex schooling is not a silver bullet to educational reform and that when single-sex schooling is implemented, one set of issues and problems is substituted for another. PMID:26190887

  18. U.S. Principals’ Attitudes About and Experiences with Single-Sex Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Fabes, Richard A.; Pahlke, Erin; Galligan, Kathrine; Borders, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Despite a lack of scientific evidence supporting the use of single-sex education, the number of U.S. public schools offering single-sex education has increased. However, our understanding as to why decision-makers have implemented single-sex education is lacking. To address this gap, we surveyed U.S. public-school principals and assessed their attitudes about and experiences with single-sex schooling. Sixty-seven principals from single-sex schools and 193 from coeducational schools participat...

  19. Single-Sex Schooling and Academic Attainment at School and through the Lifecourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of single-sex schooling on a range of academic outcomes for a sample of British people born in 1958. In terms of the overall level of qualifications achieved, single-sex schooling is positive for girls at age 16 but neutral for boys, while at later ages, single-sex schooling is neutral for both sexes. However,…

  20. Sex and the (older) single girl: experiences of sex and dating in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian

    2015-04-01

    This study explored the sexual subjectivities of older Australian women. In this article we present findings from 15 qualitative interviews with Australian women aged 55-81 who were single at the time of interview. The majority of these women were single following divorce or separation, with a smaller number of women who were widowed or never in a long-term relationship. We found that these women's sexual desire and sexual activity were fluid and diverse across their life course. Although some participants desired a romantic or sexual relationship, they were also protective of their independence and reluctant to re-enter into a relationship in later life. Our findings indicate that these women's sexual subjectivities were shaped by dominant norms of ageing, sex, and gender. At the same time, older women are challenging and resisting these norms, and beginning to renegotiate sexuality in later life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-Sex Versus Coeducational Schooling: A Systematic Review. Doc # 2005-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred; Alonso, Alex; Gibson, Doug; Rogers, Kelly; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-sex education refers most generally to education at the elementary, secondary, or postsecondary level in which males or females attend school exclusively with members of their own sex. This report deals primarily with single-sex education at the elementary and secondary levels. Research in the United States on the question of whether public…

  2. Student Engagement at Two Single-Sex Colleges: Hampden-Sydney and Sweet Briar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Edith L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1960s the higher educational system in the United States has steadily lost its single-sex colleges; and as of 2008 only 51 women's and four men's institutions remain (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2008). Many of the previous single-sex schools have admitted members of the opposite sex, giving in to the national trend of…

  3. The relative effectiveness of single-sex and coeducational schools in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Lockheed, Marlaine E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides evidence regarding the relative effects of single-sex and coeducational school in enhancing eighth grade mathematics achievement in Thailand. It uses pre and post eighth grade test scores to estimate value added equations for single-sex and coeducational schools. The preliminary conclusions are the following. First, girls in single-sex schools do significantly better than their coeducational school counterparts, while boys in coeducational schools do better. Thus there is ...

  4. A Case Study of Single-Sex Middle School Mathematics Classes in a Mixed-Sex Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasha, Fridah Singongi Silishebo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to (a) examine the main and interaction effects of gender, race and class-type on mathematics achievement, mathematics attitudes and sources of mathematics self-efficacy, (b) investigate teacher-student interactions in the single-sex mathematics classes and (c) investigate perspectives about single-sex…

  5. On Reconstructing School Segregation: The Efficacy and Equity of Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billger, Sherrilyn M.

    2009-01-01

    A change to Title IX has spurred new single-sex public schooling in the US. Until recently, nearly all gender-segregated schools were private, and comprehensive data for public school comparisons are not yet available. To investigate the effects of single-sex education, I focus on within private sector comparisons, and additionally address…

  6. Moral Development in Single-Sex Schools: A Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Madonna M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of the research studies on single-sex schools conducted in the last decade. It concludes that there is empirical support to the hypothesis that single-sex schools may be advantageous for both boys and girls in terms of promoting academic achievement with a greater degree of order and control in the classroom and…

  7. Early Implementation of Public Single-Sex Schools: Perceptions and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Cornelius; Faddis, Bonnie J.; Beam, Margaret; Seager, Andrew; Tanney, Adam; DiBiase, Rebecca; Ruffin, Monya; Valentine, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Although for most of the nation's history, coeducation has been the norm in public elementary and secondary school, recent years have marked an increasing interest in public single-sex education. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) authorized school districts to use local or innovative program funds to offer single-sex schools and…

  8. "It All depends...": Middle School Teachers Evaluate Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored the effectiveness of single-sex classes according to key stakeholders in this educational reform--the teachers who choose or are hired to teach in single-sex classes and schools. Specifically, this study examined the on-the-ground experiences of middle school teachers as they attempted to implement a relatively…

  9. Beyond Passivity: Constructions of Femininities in a Single-Sex South African School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…

  10. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  11. Pupils' Perceptions of Discipline and Academic Standards in Belgian Coeducational and Single-Sex Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, single-sex and coeducational schools are compared in terms of pupils' perceptions of disciplinary and academic climates. Use was made of data from 68 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium). Of these schools, 25 were mixed and 43 were single-sex (21 girls, and 22 boys, schools). Respondents were third-year students: 3370 girls and…

  12. Gender and Body Concerns in Adolescent Females: Single Sex and Coeducational School Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell

    This paper involves focus group research with adolescent women from coeducational and single sex independent schools. First, it discusses research that finds girls who attend single sex institutions to be at a distinct advantage with respect to gender issues and academics. In order to obtain a better understanding of these differences, a study is…

  13. The Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Secondary Schooling on Girls' Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The effect of coeducational and single-sex secondary schooling on female students' academic achievement was examined. Reexamination of earlier survey data from Northern Ireland studied six outcomes related to student performance on public examinations. Results indicated a small achievement advantage for single-sex schooling (not significant…

  14. Theoretical Arguments For and Against Single-Sex Schools: A Critical Analysis of the Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred; Smith, Mark; Alonso, Alex; Rogers, Kelly; Gibson, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The question of whether single-sex schooling is preferable to coeducation for some or all students continues to be hotly debated. Much of the debate is philosophical and would be waged even if single-sex schooling were shown to be highly advantageous for one or more subpopulations. However, the actual research evidence, although suggestive that…

  15. Single-Sex School Boys' Perceptions of Coeducational Classroom Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Shirley M.

    2011-01-01

    Reviews in many countries have found little evidence of consistent advantages in either single-sex education or coeducation. Over the last three decades, coeducation has been introduced into many single-sex schools, but there is a dearth of evidence from the student perspective of the impact of such changes on the classroom learning environment.…

  16. Girls' and Boys' Academic Self-Concept in Science in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber; Che, S. Megan; Bridges, William C., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, single-sex classes within public coeducational schools have proliferated across the USA; yet, we still know little about whether and how single-sex science classes influence adolescents' attitude and affect toward science. This exploratory study expands upon our current understanding by investigating the extent in which female and male…

  17. Teachers' implementation of gender-inclusive instructional strategies in single-sex and mixed-sex science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.

  18. Academic Attitudes and Achievement in Students of Urban Public Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Peterca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    Publicly funded single-sex schooling (SSS) has proliferated in recent years and is touted as a remedy to gaps in academic attitudes and achievement, particularly for low-income students of color. Research on SSS is rife with limitations, stemming from selective admissions processes, selection effects related to socioeconomic status, a lack of…

  19. Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kirabo Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases because students who attend single-sex schools differ in unmeasured ways from those who do not. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and estimate the causal effect of attending a single-sex school versus a similar coeducational school. While students (particularly females) with strong expressed preferences for single-sex schools benefit, mo...

  20. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  1. Student and Teacher Perceptions of a Single-Sex Middle School Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nancy

    A study of a single-sex learning environment was conducted in a public school, Edward Hand Middle School in Lancaster, Pennsylvania; sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students were grouped homogeneously by sex for all major subjects for a period of one semester and grouped heterogeneously for one semester. The study examined the effects that the…

  2. Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling: Relationships to Socioemotional and Academic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mael, Fred A.

    1998-01-01

    The role of coeducation versus single-sex schooling in the academic, socioemotional, interpersonal, and career development of adolescents is discussed, and arguments and research support for both types of schooling are reviewed. Separate-sex schooling seems to provide potential benefits for at least some students. (Author/SLD)

  3. University Students from Single-Sex and Coeducational High Schools: Differences in Majors and Attitudes at a Catholic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Christie P.; Buchanan, James P.; Hosey, Megan; Smith, Allison

    2007-01-01

    We conducted an archival study at a coeducational Catholic university to test the proposition that single-sex secondary education predicts lasting differences in college majors. Men from single-sex schools were more likely to both declare and graduate in gender-neutral majors than those from coeducational schools. Women from single-sex schools…

  4. The Role of Single-Sex Education in the Academic Engagement of College-Bound Women: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Linda J.; Riggers, Tiffani A.; Eagan, M. Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: As opportunities for public and private single-sex education have expanded, the debate surrounding this issue has become more heated. Recent reviews of research on single-sex education have concluded that the evidence is mixed, due in large part to the difficulty of attributing differences between single-sex and coeducational…

  5. Students' views on mathematics in single-sex and coed classrooms in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Bofah, Emmanuel Adu-Tutu; Hannula, Markku S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students’ views on themselves as learners of mathematics as a function of school-by-sex (N = 2034, MAge = 18.49, SDAge = 1.25; 12th-grade; 58.2% girls). Using latent variable Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the measurement and structural equivalence as well as the equality of latent means of scores across single-sex and coed schools were tested. Findings regarding the latent mean differences revealed that girls in single-sex schools had significantly higher ...

  6. Single-locus complementary sex determination in the inbreeding wasp Euodynerus foraminatus Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, J K; Cowan, D P

    2004-03-01

    The Hymenoptera have arrhenotokous haplodiploidy in which males normally develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, while females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Multiple sex determination systems are known to underlie haplodiploidy, and the best understood is single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) in which sex is determined at a single polymorphic locus. Individuals heterozygous at the sex locus develop as females; individuals that are hemizygous (haploid) or homozygous (diploid) at the sex locus develop as males. sl-CSD can be detected with inbreeding experiments that produce diploid males in predictable proportions as well as sex ratio shifts due to diploid male production. This sex determination system is considered incompatible with inbreeding because the ensuing increase in homozygosity increases the production of diploid males that are inviable or infertile, imposing a high cost on matings between close relatives. However, in the solitary hunting wasp Euodynerus foraminatus, a species suspected of having sl-CSD, inbreeding may be common due to a high incidence of sibling matings at natal nests. In laboratory crosses with E. foraminatus, we find that sex ratios and diploid male production (detected as microsatellite heterozygosity) are consistent with sl-CSD, but not with other sex determination systems. This is the first documented example of sl-CSD in a hymenopteran with an apparent natural history of inbreeding, and thus presents a paradox for our understanding of hymenopteran genetics.

  7. Learning Separately: The Case for Single-Sex Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    While there are no reliable counts of single-gender schools in the first half of the 20th century, best estimates are that most were schools for white boys. Many of the girls' schools that did exist early on served as "finishing" schools rather than preparation for college. In the 1960s and 1970s, the civil rights and feminist movements…

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Middle Grade Female and Male Students' Single-Sex Mathematical Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber; Che, S. Megan

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a descriptive phenomenological design, this study examines the lived experiences of seven middle grade students, four females and three males, enrolled in a single-sex mathematics classroom within a coeducational school setting. The intent of the study is to understand, from students themselves, about the experience of single-sex…

  9. Single Sex Mathematics Classes: A Critical Analysis of the Impact at a Secondary School

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Angelique; Pugalee, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Single sex classes have recently been emphasized as an effective way to promote mathematics learning. Despite their popularity, the research on the effectiveness of such programs is mixed underscoring the need for additional research and discussion. This research is set in one of the twenty-five largest public school systems in the United States, where schools have recently been allowed to begin instructional initiatives with same sex classes in mathematics. Preliminary data on the effecti...

  10. Encouraging more women into computer science: Initiating a single-sex intervention program in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandell, Gerd; Carlsson, Svante; Ekblom, Håkan; Nord, Ann-Charlotte

    1997-11-01

    The process of starting a new program in computer science and engineering, heavily based on applied mathematics and only open to women, is described in this paper. The program was introduced into an educational system without any tradition in single-sex education. Important observations made during the process included the considerable interest in mathematics and curiosity about computer science found among female students at the secondary school level, and the acceptance of the single-sex program by the staff, administration, and management of the university as well as among male and female students. The process described highlights the importance of preparing the environment for a totally new type of educational program.

  11. Single-Sex Education in the 21st Century. Education Policy Brief. Volume 6, Number 9, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Kelly E.; Spradlin, Terry E.

    2008-01-01

    Single-sex education describes a diverse range of situations, including individual classes, programs after school, required programs, voluntary programs, and programs to remedy gender inequities and encourage cultural and racial pride. This brief addresses the genesis and legality of single-sex classrooms, the merits and critiques of single-sex…

  12. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational) in students from Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo, Enrique G.

    2013-01-01

    Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, at...

  14. Separated by Sex: A Critical Look at Single-Sex Education for Girls (edited by Susan Morse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraulo, Reviewed By Sandra C.

    1999-05-01

    As Cornelius Riordan states in his round-table paper, "The challenge of effective and equitable schooling in the next century is to overcome the resistance and recalcitrance of youth cultures in and out of school" (p 58). While this is admittedly not a new problem, it is more complex in its modern form and innovative ways to solve it are needed. In an old tradition, one such attempt has been single-sex schools, which have had particular success with the disadvantaged and white females in American society, with the notable involvement of Catholic religious communities. The report does not make clear whether their successes can be reproduced in some modification of the public school format. However, the AAUW report on single-sex schools sheds light on some of the characteristics that make true learning communities out of ordinary schools and on what it takes to reach disadvantaged girls. For these reasons, the AAUW report is good reading for educators at all levels.

  15. Urban Elementary Single-Sex Math Classrooms: Mitigating Stereotype Threat for African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Anica G.; Desjardins, Christopher D.; Covington Clarkson, Lesa M.; Lawrenz, Frances

    2017-01-01

    This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to holistically examine single-sex and coeducational urban elementary mathematics classes through situated cognitive theory. Participants came from two urban low-income Midwestern elementary schools with a high representation of minority students (n = 77 sixth graders, n = 4 teachers, n = 2 principals).…

  16. Traditional Single-Sex Fraternities on College Campuses: Will They Survive in the 1990s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Nancy S.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the single-sex admission policy of college fraternities examines the potential for success of those policies in an era in which society and courts are pressing to abolish gender-based stereotypes and provide equal access to places of public accommodation. Five specific recommendations are made for fraternities wishing to preserve…

  17. Why Single-Sex Schools? Discourses of Culture/Faith and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saeeda; Conchar, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper is developed from a study carried out to explore factors influencing the choices of a range of stake-holders in a multi-ethnic urban community--students, parents, teachers, community representatives--with regard to single-sex schooling. The paper discusses competing perspectives underpinning the focus of the study. Recent legislation in…

  18. The Tyranny of Surveillance: Male Teachers and the Policing of Masculinities in a Single Sex School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne; Frank, Blye

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on research into male teachers in one single sex high school in the Australian context to highlight how issues of masculinity impact on their pedagogical practices and relationships with boys. The study is situated within the broader international field of research on male teachers, masculinities and schooling in Australia, the UK…

  19. The Growth of Single-Sex Schools: Federal Policy Meets Local Needs and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings

    2013-01-01

    Changes to Title IX allowing the growth of single-sex schools have garnered media attention promoting the benefits of separating boys and girls. Alternately, civil rights groups such as the ACLU continue to oppose any type of school segregation. Within this context, a private philanthropy, the Foundation for the Education of Young Women (FEYW) has…

  20. Single-Sex Education versus Coeducation in North Georgia Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Catherine Danielle

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education is giving more liberties to school districts to offer single-sex schools in order to adequately serve the needs of students. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to test the theory of students' performances based on their educational environment by comparing students who received…

  1. The High School Environment: A Comparison of Coeducational and Single-Sex Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank W.; Coutts, Larry M.

    1982-01-01

    Grade 10 and 12 students from single-sex and coeducational schools were surveyed, comparing their perceptions of school emphasis on scholarship and achievement affiliation and nonacademic activities, and control and discipline. Coeducational schools were perceived to enjoy an advantage in social-emotional needs and to minimize regimentation and…

  2. The sex-shift in single disease and multimorbid asthma and rhinitis during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Theresa; Hohmann, C; Standl, M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies suggested that allergy prevalence in childhood is higher in boys compared to girls, but it remains unclear if this inequality changes after puberty. We examined the sex-specific prevalence of asthma and rhinitis as single and as multimorbid diseases before and ...

  3. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  4. Character Development in Business Education: A Comparison of Coeducational and Single-Sex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James H.; Ruhe, John; Lee, Monle; Rajadhyaksha, Ujvala

    2011-01-01

    This study questions the widely held assumption, particularly in the United States, that coeducation is best. Previous research supports the development of single-sex education for both female and male students. This study examines how the learning climate of the coeducation environment seems to affect the character development of female business…

  5. Aspirations, Progress and Perceptions of Boys from a Single Sex School Following the Changeover to Coeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Shirley M.

    2004-01-01

    Career and further education aspirations, educational progress and perceptions of the learning environment were measured annually over three years in primary and secondary boys from a single sex non-government school, following the changeover to coeducation. Hierarchical Linear Modelling analyses revealed the significant role played by the career…

  6. Single-Sex Schooling in Trinidad and Tobago: a Holistic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Single-sex schooling has been proposed as a way of addressing the disengagement of boys; the disproportion of gender in certain subjects; stereotyped gender images, and the labelling of some subjects as "masculine" or "feminine". However, there exists no clear research evidence to support such claims. Despite the lack of…

  7. The Historical Context of the Single-Sex Schooling Debate among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Audrey T.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that similarities in the socioeconomic and racial climate and the attempt to refute negative gender and race-inspired images were circumstances that were present in the emergence of single-sex schools for blacks. It examines the worth of such schools in affecting positive social change. (GLR)

  8. Achievement, School Integration, and Self-Efficacy in Single-Sex and Coeducational Parochial High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Kara Hanson

    2014-01-01

    A structural model for prior achievement, school integration, and self-efficacy was developed using Tinto's theory of student attrition and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The model was tested and revised using a sample of 1,452 males and females from single-sex and coeducational parochial high schools. Results indicated that the theoretically…

  9. Problem Solving Strategies of Girls and Boys in Single-Sex Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Megan; Wiegert, Elaine; Threlkeld, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines patterns in middle-grade boys' and girls' written problem solving strategies for a mathematical task involving proportional reasoning. The students participating in this study attend a coeducational charter middle school with single-sex classrooms. One hundred nineteen sixth-grade students' responses are analyzed by gender…

  10. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  11. Single-Sex versus Coeducational Environment and Achievement in Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that, if high school environment reduces discrepancy between conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. Within this context, explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. Issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern is how each of these…

  12. Do Single-Sex Schools Improve the Education of Low-Income and Minority Students? An Investigation of California's Public Single-Gender Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Single-sex public schools are seen as a vehicle for improving the educational experiences of low-income and minority students. Our two-year ethnographic study of low-income and minority students who attended experimental single-sex academies in California indicates that improving achievement involves more than separating students by gender. Using…

  13. Coeducational or Single-Sex School: Does It Make a Difference on High School Girls' Academic Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Roch; Vezeau, Carole; Bouffard, Therese

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to further examine the impact over time of single-sex and coeducational school environments on girls' motivation in language arts and mathematics. Two cohorts comprising 340 girls (7th to 9th grade; 9th to 11th grade) from eight coeducational and two single-sex schools were followed during a period of three…

  14. An Action Research Project to Assess Middle School Educators' Professional Development Needs in Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Lynnette Marie Gresham

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Association of Single-Sex Public Education (NASSPE, 2010), an increase of 540 public schools offering single-sex classrooms in the United States has occurred since 2001. Educators who understand the gender differences between boys and girls can inspire students to learn to the best of their ability; however, the problem…

  15. The Masculinities with Which They Enter: A Phenomenological Study of Precollege Gender Socialization in Single-Sex High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folan, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    This research contributes to a body of literature that looks for effective responses to the gendered performance gap, the research into the effects of single-sex education, and the social construction of masculinities. This qualitative inquiry focuses on a bounded group of male students who graduated from New England single-sex high schools and…

  16. A Comparison of Single-Sex and Coeducational Catholic Secondary Schooling: Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePore, Paul C.; Warren, John Robert

    1997-01-01

    Results from a comparison of single-sex and coeducational Catholic secondary schools using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 suggest that single-sex Catholic high schools are not especially favorable academic settings, and that any advantages of the schools only benefited boys. Pre-enrollment differences may explain…

  17. The Advantages of Single-Sex Catholic Secondary Schooling: Selection Effects, School Effects, or "Much Ado About Nothing?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePore, Paul C.; Warren, John Robert

    Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) were used to investigate whether there are differences between single-sex and coeducational Catholic secondary school students in academic and social psychological outcomes, whether any differences especially favor young women in single-sex Catholic secondary schools, and…

  18. The Effects of Single-Sex Compared with Coeducational Schooling on Mathematics and Science Achievement: Data from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Mertz, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Some U.S. school districts are experimenting with single-sex schooling, hoping that it will yield better academic outcomes for students. Empirical research on the effects of single-sex schooling, however, has been equivocal, with various studies finding benefits, disadvantages, or no effect. Most of this research is marred because families…

  19. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  20. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  1. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Students' attitudes towards mathematics in single-sex and coeducational schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Stephen J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    1998-04-01

    This paper examines students' attitudes towards mathematics at the secondary school level. Using five of the Fennema-Sherman scales, the attitudes of boys and girls in Grades 8 to 12 in four schools were compared: a single-sex boys' and a single-sex girls' private school, and a state and a private coeducational school. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to guide an exploration of how students' attitudes varied according to grade, sex and educational setting. There were no differences between students in the two coeducational schools. In general, students' attitudes were found to be less positive in more senior grades; and overall, boys had more positive attitudes than girls. There were clear differences between boys and girls on the Mathematics as a Male Domain scale, with girls being less stereotyped in their perceptions than boys. Except for this scale, effects related to the sex of the student were small, and effects relating to grade level and school type on all variables were also small. Implications are drawn for future research in this area.

  3. Analysis and evaluation of the rationales for single-sex schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Hayes, Amy Roberson; Liben, Lynn S

    2014-01-01

    Amendments passed as part of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2006 made some forms of single-sex (SS) public education legal in the United States. Proponents offer a host of arguments in favor of such schooling. This chapter identifies and evaluates five broad rationales for SS schooling. We conclude that empirical evidence fails to support proponents' claims but nonetheless suggests ways in which to improve coeducation. Specifically, we (a) show that the purported benefits of SS schooling arise from factors confounded with, but not causally linked to, single-sex composition; (b) challenge claims that biological sex is an effective marker of differences relevant to instruction; (c) argue that sexism on the part of teachers and peers persists in SS contexts; and (d) critique the notion that gender per se "disappears" in SS contexts. We also address societal implications of the use of sex-segregated education and conclude that factors found to be beneficial for students should be implemented within coeducational schools.

  4. The Influence of Single - Sex Tourist Groups on Creating the Identity of Their Members - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Švorcová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    This MA thesis deals with the influence of single-sex tourist groups on creating the identity of their members. The aim is to discover the effect of membership in such a non-coeducational tourist clubs on children, and also how this leisure activity affects children's identity and what impact it has on their development.
 The theoretical part discusses socializing, social environment, gender, gender socialization and gender stereotypes. Furthermore, it also deals with the influence of peers a...

  5. Perbedaan Kecerdasan sosial Siswa Single Sex Schools dan Coeducational Schools di Kota Padang

    OpenAIRE

    Delwis, Nadya Putri

    2014-01-01

    Social intelligence is an ability to understand other peoples and how to react in any situations. Social intelligence is a few skills to help us to better interact with other people (Goleman, 2006). Social intelligence is important in education field. The students who feels connected with study environment will get better academic achievement (Goleman, 2006). Social development according to Gerungan (2004) affected by family and schools. There is type of schools, single sex schools and coeduc...

  6. Challenging Gender in Single-Sex Spaces: Lessons from a Feminist

    OpenAIRE

    Buzuvis, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Published: Erin E. Buzuvis, Challenging Gender in Single-Sex Spaces: Lessons from a Feminist, 80 L. & CONTEMP. PROBS. 155 (2017). This Article explores transgender inclusion within adult recreational women’s leagues by using the example of the Mary Vazquez Women’s Softball League (MVWSL), in Northampton, Massachusetts. A MVWSL policy addressing transgender inclusion became necessary due to a noticeable increase in gender-identity diversity. The resultant policy respects the league’s core ...

  7. Classroom interaction and language learning among boys in coed and single-sex contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Alfaro, Roberto Enrique

    2012-01-01

    This paper will address the differences and similarities in EFL interactive patterns of boys' learning in gender specific learning environments. The presentation will explore the findings of observational research conducted in coeducational and single-sex classrooms in two secondary schools in Costa Rica, namely Yorkin and New Hope schools. Data collection included class observation, interviews, surveys, questionnaires, photo ethnography and artifacts. The results revealed that boys in both c...

  8. Reconstructing school segregation: on the efficacy and equity of single-sex schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Billger, Sherrilyn M.

    2006-01-01

    A change to Title IX has spurred new single-sex public schooling in the US. Until recently, nearly all gender-segregated schools were private, and I therefore address potential selection bias in the effects on educational and labor market outcomes using within private sector comparisons, an index comparing expectations to outcomes, quantile regressions, and other techniques. Descriptive statistics suggest significant benefits, but more consideration of selection bias reveals less consistency....

  9. Impact of Single-sex Instruction on Student Motivation to Learn Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kissau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTo increase male motivation to learn additional languages studies have suggested teaching males in single-sex second and foreign language classes (Carr & Pauwels, 2006; Chambers, 2005. Despite the reported benefits of this unique arrangement, a review of literature found no related research conducted in Canada or the United States. To address this lack of research, a study was conducted in the spring of 2008 to investigate the impact of single-sex instruction on student motivation to learn Spanish. Using Gardner's model of second language motivation (1985, 57 high-school students studying Spanish in either single-sex or coeducational classes completed a pre and post questionnaire to gauge their motivation to learn the language. Follow-up interviews were also conducted with both students and teachers. Results indicated that while both sexes enjoyed some educational advantages from the single-sex environment, the benefits appeared to be greater for the males than the females.RésuméAfin d'accroître la motivation des garçons pour l'apprentissage des langues, certaines études ont suggéré d'enseigner les langues secondes ou étrangères à des classes de garçons exclusivement (Carr & Pauwels, 2006; Chambers, 2005. Malgré le bénéfice confirmé d'un tel contexte, il n'existe aucune recherche similaire connue sur ce sujet au Canada ou aux États Unis. Pour remédier à cette lacune, on a conduit au printemps 2008 une étude portant sur l'impact de l'enseignement non mixte sur la motivation des élèves à apprendre l'espagnol. Selon le modèle de Gardner quant à la motivation dans l'apprentissage d'une langue seconde (1985, 57 élèves au niveau secondaire apprenant l'espagnol dans des classes mixtes et non mixtes ont rempli avant et après le cours, des questionnaires destinés à mesurer leur motivation. Le suivi a été assuré par le biais d' entrevues avec élèves et professeurs. Les résultats montrent que si les élèves des

  10. A Single Sex Pheromone Receptor Determines Chemical Response Specificity of Sexual Behavior in the Silkmoth Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z...

  11. Correlation between disruptive behaviors and school grouping (single-sex vs. coeducational in students from Callao, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Gordillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate on single-sex vs. coeducational schooling has increased over the last years. The purpose of the following study is to produce empirical evidence on this debate by comparing the frequency of disruptive behaviors in students thatattend single-sex and coeducational schools, in order to find statistical correlation.The frequency of disruptive behaviors in students coming from 5 single-sex schools was compared to that coming from 5 coeducational ones. Data came from 844 students aged 14, attending public schools in Callao, Peru. Students from single-sex schools showed less frequent disruptive behavior in each of the three measured categories—disruptive behaviors, behaviors that show lack of responsibility and anti-social behavior. A weak correlation was found between each of the three categories and the main variable. The study controlled for extraneous variables.

  12. Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago. NBER Working Paper No. 16817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases due to student selection to schools and single-sex schools being better in unmeasured ways. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and cleanly estimate an upper-bound single-sex school effect. The…

  13. When "Separate" May Be Better: Exploring Single-Sex Learning as a Remedy for Social Anxieties in Female Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the overall effectiveness of single-sex education remains inconclusive; however, some research does indicate that benefits other than academic achievement may be possible with a single-sex format. Advocates argue that when single-sex environments are structured by not only separating boys and girls but also by leveraging…

  14. Sex, class and consumerism: British sitcom’s negotiation of the single girl

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the representation of working-class femininities in the cycle of female ensemble sitcoms that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the UK. Drawing parallels with The Mary Tyler Moore Show, it will examine how The Liver Birds’ construction of and address to women drew upon the consumerist template of femininity made popular by Helen Gurley Brown in Sex and the Single Girl (1962). However given the historical propensity for working-class women to be marginalised or...

  15. Single-sex versus coeducational environment and achievement in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, N M; Gaier, E L

    1992-01-01

    For women, the nature and range of experiences during the high school years take on special significance, since it is during this period that they usually weigh their various roles and adjust their levels of aspirations accordingly. If the high school environment is successful in reducing the discrepancy between what are often viewed as conflicting roles, adolescent females may place greater emphasis on achievement. It is within this context that the present paper explored the differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling. The issue explored is not whether one is preferable for females; rather, the concern here is how each of these settings influences both achievement and personal fulfillment.

  16. Single-Sex Classes in a Coeducational High School Highlighting Parents' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Gilah C.; Forgasz, Helen J.

    1997-11-01

    A program of single-sex mathematics classes at one coeducational high school was evaluated in 1993 and again three years later in 1996. On both occasions, data were gathered from students, teachers and parents. While also drawing on findings from students and teachers, the focus of this article is on parents' perceptions. In both years more parents supported the program than were opposed to. it. However, support appeared to have waned over the three-year period. The influence of factors both inside and outside the classroom and the school which may partially help to account for the findings are discussed.

  17. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Both COMT Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism and sex-dependent differences influence response inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eMione

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive and proactive control of actions are cognitive abilities that allow to deal with a continuously changing environment by adjusting already programmed actions. They also set forthcoming acts by evaluating the outcome of the previous ones. Earlier studies highlighted sex related differences in the strategies and in the pattern of brain activation during cognitive tasks involving reactive and proactive control. To further identify sex-dependent characteristics in the cognitive control of actions, in this study we have assessed whether/how differences in reactive and proactive control were modulated by the COMT Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism, a genetic factor known to influence the functionality of the dopaminergic system, in particular at the level of prefrontal cortex. Two groups of male and female participants were further sorted according to their genotype (Val/Met, Val/Val and Met/Met and tested in a stop signal task, a consolidated tool to measure reactive and proactive control in experimental and clinical settings. In each group of participants we estimated both a measure of the capacity to react to unexpected events and the ability of monitoring their performance. The between groups comparison of these measures indicated a poorer ability of male individuals carrying the Val/Val genotype in error-monitoring, suggesting that differences between sexes could be influenced by the efficiency of COMT and that other sex-specific factors have to be considered. The comprehension of inter-groups behavioral and physiological correlates of cognitive control will provide more accurate diagnostic tools for predicting the incidence and the development of pathologies like ADHD or deviant behaviors as drug or alcohol abuse.

  19. Stochasticity in the enterococcal sex pheromone response revealed by quantitative analysis of transcription in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Rebecca J; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie A; Barnes, Aaron M T; Hunter, Ryan C; Hu, Wei-Shou; Dunny, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, sex pheromone-mediated transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids can occur under unfavorable conditions, for example, when inducing pheromone concentrations are low and inhibiting pheromone concentrations are high. To better understand this paradox, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization chain reaction (HCR) methodology for simultaneous quantification of multiple E. faecalis transcripts at the single cell level. We present direct evidence for variability in the minimum period, maximum response level, and duration of response of individual cells to a specific inducing condition. Tracking of induction patterns of single cells temporally using a fluorescent reporter supported HCR findings. It also revealed subpopulations of rapid responders, even under low inducing pheromone concentrations where the overall response of the entire population was slow. The strong, rapid induction of small numbers of cells in cultures exposed to low pheromone concentrations is in agreement with predictions of a stochastic model of the enterococcal pheromone response. The previously documented complex regulatory circuitry controlling the pheromone response likely contributes to stochastic variation in this system. In addition to increasing our basic understanding of the biology of a horizontal gene transfer system regulated by cell-cell signaling, demonstration of the stochastic nature of the pheromone response also impacts any future efforts to develop therapeutic agents targeting the system. Quantitative single cell analysis using HCR also has great potential to elucidate important bacterial regulatory mechanisms not previously amenable to study at the single cell level, and to accelerate the pace of functional genomic studies.

  20. The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

  1. Friendship Selection and Influence Processes for Physical Aggression and Prosociality: Differences between Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n  = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n  = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n  = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age  = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.

  2. Single and Multiple Ascending-dose Studies of Oral Delafloxacin: Effects of Food, Sex, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Randall; Hunt, Thomas; Benedict, Michael; Paulson, Susan K; Lawrence, Laura; Cammarata, Sue; Sun, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is describe the results of 2 studies that examined the pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability of single and multiple ascending doses of oral delafloxacin and the effects of food, sex, and age on oral delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability. The first study contained 3 parts and used unformulated delafloxacin in a capsule. Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 mg) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. Part 2 was a single-dose crossover study in which 20 men received 250 mg delafloxacin with or without food. Part 2 also included a parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 16 women and 16 elderly men and women who were randomized (3:1) to receive 250 mg delafloxacin or placebo. Part 3 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple (100, 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg once daily for 5 days) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. The second study was a single-dose, randomized, 3-period crossover study in which participants received 900 mg delafloxacin (2 × 450-mg tablets) under fasted conditions, with a high-fat meal, or fasted with a high-fat meal 2 hours after dosing. Serial blood samples were collected, and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of delafloxacin were determined. Delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ increased with increasing oral dose over the dose range of 50 to 1600 mg. The increases in delafloxacin AUC0-∞ were dose proportional at doses of ≥200 mg. Steady state was reached by day 3 of dosing with minimal accumulation of delafloxacin. The Cmax of delafloxacin was decreased slightly in the presence of food. No sex difference in delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters was observed. In the elderly men and women, mean delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ were 35% higher than observed for young adults, which could be partially explained by a decrease in

  3. Good Intentions: AN Experiment in Middle School Single-Sex Science and Mathematics Classrooms with High Minority Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale

    This study examined the effects of single-sex middle school science and mathematics classrooms with high minority enrollment on achievement, affect, peer, and teacher-student interactions. All students earned higher grades in mathematics than in science. Girls earned higher grades than boys. The higher grades of girls were not clearly attributable to the singlesex environment, and aspects of the single-sex environment interfered with boys' achievement. The single-sex environment contributed to girls', but not boys', feelings of empowerment, peer support, and positive self-concept. The curriculum and pedagogy were better suited to girls than to boys, leading to discipline problems and hostile interactions. However, boys were more engaged in technology-based activities than girls. Overall, all-boy classes were less supportive learning environments than all-girl classes. Although the results replicate findings elsewhere, this is the only study to look at minority students in middle school.

  4. Does the sex of the mathematics teacher make a difference in a single-sex setting? A case for girls

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Jenna Lee

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, girls continue to be outperformed by boys on large scale mathematics tests. One explanation provided in the literature for this gender gap is the interaction between teacher and student in the classroom. This study was inspired by the persistent patterns of gender differences in mathematics achievement favouring boys at the participating school, a large independent school in Victoria, Australia. In this study, the aim was to determine whether the sex of the mathematics teacher h...

  5. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-06-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific behavioral sequence.

  6. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol, is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald, in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species

  7. Body-esteem of pupils who attended single-sex versus mixed-sex schools: a cross-sectional study of intrasexual competition and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Patra, Chanchala; Smith, Joshua H; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    In intrasexual competition (competition for reproductive resources), bullying can be viewed as a tool to devalue competitors, gain a high status and a powerful, dominant position in the peer group which may lead to beneficial gains such as access to potential romantic partners. This study investigated the relationship between intrasexual competition, bullying victimization and body-esteem, in single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. 420 participants completed a body-esteem scale, a retrospective bullying questionnaire, and intrasexual competition scales. Our results showed that relational victimization was associated with low body-esteem for both females and males. Females in single-sex schools experienced higher intrasexual competition which in turn was associated with their body-esteem directly and indirectly via relational victimization. In males, intrasexual competition was indirectly associated with body-esteem via relational victimization. Interventions to improve body esteem may focus on reducing intrasexual competition and peer victimization. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Independent School Experience: Aspects of the Normative Environments of Single-Sex and Coed Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The normative environments of single-sex independent schools were found to be more academic, with greater task and competition orientation, than coeducational independent schools. Representative independent schools were compared to each other and to public schools with a discussion of learning involvement, function, purpose, and student and…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Single-Sex Schools in Terms of Achievement in Reading and Math and Student Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Debra Ann

    2010-01-01

    Single-sex education is a reform initiative that is taking root in the United States and in many countries around the world as a possible solution to closing the racial, achievement, and gender gaps that have emerged where minority students lag behind their White counterparts and boys are falling behind girls academically. Although there have been…

  10. Influence of Gender, Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling on Students' Enjoyment and Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)…

  11. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  12. An Analysis of the Impact of Single-Sex Schools on Seventh Grade Math and Reading Tasks Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Redwood, Tarawa F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a statistically significant mean difference in math and reading student performance by types of schools. The types of schools were identified as all-male and all-female public middle schools. Specifically, this study examined the impact of public single-sex schools on the mathematics and…

  13. The Impact of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on Participation and Achievement in Science: A 10-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alex; Knipe, Damian; Gallagher, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of government science education policy through the uptake of science A level subjects and patterns of attainment among boys and girls. Whereas recent evidence from Britain has been popularly interpreted as showing the educational advantage of single-sex schooling, the evidence of this study suggests that pupils are more likely…

  14. Relational Teaching with Black Boys: Strategies for Learning at a Single-Sex Middle School for Boys of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joseph Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Positive teacher-student relationships are critical for Black boys' learning across single-sex and coeducational environments. Limited attention to these relationships by school professionals is rooted in deficit-oriented conceptions of boyhood and Black masculinity. The popular message of deficiency and pathology is clear:…

  15. A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of African American Males in Single-Sex Classrooms in Rural South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Lynette Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…

  16. Superconducting, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of FeTe1-xSex single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Sudesh, Varma, G. D.

    2018-05-01

    The single crystalline samples with compositions FeTe1-xSex (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) have been prepared via self-flux method and the superconducting, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of the grown crystals were investigated. The superconducting onset temperatures have been determined from the measurements of zero field cooled magnetization and resistance with temperatures. In the present case, highest superconducting transition temperature TC (onset) ˜ 15 K has been obtained for x=0.5. The HC2 (T=0 K) values have been estimated by fitting the experimental HC2 - T plots with WHH model. The highest HC2(0) has been obtained for x=0.5. The activation energy of the thermally activated flux flow has been found from the broadening of superconducting transition in an applied magnetic field using the Arrhenius law. Our results show that the activation energy (U0) decreases with the increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, the magnetization measurements for x=0.4 and 0.5 samples have been performed at T=5 K in the magnetic field range ±7 T to estimate critical current density at different applied magnetic fields using Bean formula. We see that the sample x=0.5 has higher values of JC as compared to that of x=0.4 at all magnetic fields. This is in conformity with the behavior of U0-H plots.

  17. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Concept of a Single-sex Optional Discussion Session in Introductory Astronomy at a Publicly Funded University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, S.

    1996-12-01

    The concept of single-sex education for science and mathematics has recently received renewed discussion in both the popular and professional literature. So important is the topic within higher education that the Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy sponsored a symposium called "Gender & The Higher Education Classroom: Maximizing the Learning Environment" in February 1996 (http://www.duke.edu/ jrd4/djgcnf96.htm). The concept is especially controversial in publicly supported educational institutions. The idea of offering an optional discussion session limited to a single sex in a university-level introductory astronomy course at a State-supported school was considered through discussions with a number of faculty and administrators, and through a questionnaire aimed at determining student attitudes toward the concept. The results of the student questionnaire will be presented. (While the questionnaire results will be seen to be in favor of such an optional discussion session, such sessions have not been offered.)

  19. A Single Question to Examine the Prevalence and Protective Effect of Seroadaptive Strategies Among Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M; Dombrowski, Julia C; Katz, David A; Golden, Matthew R

    2017-11-01

    Seroadaptive behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) are common, but ascertaining behavioral information is challenging in clinical settings. To address this, we developed a single seroadaptive behavior question. Men who have sex with men 18 years or older attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, WA, from 2013 to 2015, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Respondents completed a comprehensive seroadaptive behavior questionnaire which included a single question that asked HIV-negative MSM to indicate which of 12 strategies they used in the past year to reduce their HIV risk. HIV testing was performed per routine clinical care. We used the κ statistic to examine agreement between the comprehensive questionnaire and the single question. We enrolled HIV-negative MSM at 3341 (55%) of 6105 eligible visits. The agreement between the full questionnaire and single question for 5 behaviors was fair to moderate (κ values of 0.34-0.59). From the single question, the most commonly reported behaviors were as follows: avoiding sex with HIV-positive (66%) or unknown-status (52%) men and using condoms with unknown-status partners (53%); 8% of men reported no seroadaptive behavior. Men tested newly HIV positive at 38 (1.4%) of 2741 visits. HIV test positivity for the most commonly reported behaviors ranged from 0.8% to 1.3%. Men reporting no seroadaptive strategy had a significantly higher HIV test positivity (3.5%) compared with men who reported at least 1 strategy (1.3%; P = 0.02). The single question performed relatively well against a comprehensive seroadaptive behaviors assessment and may be useful in clinical settings to identify men at greatest risk for HIV.

  20. Influence of gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling on students' enjoyment and achievement in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.

  1. Students' Views on Mathematics in Single-Sex and Coed Classrooms in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofah, Emmanuel Adu-tutu; Hannula, Markku S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' views on themselves as learners of mathematics as a function of school-by-sex (N = 2034, MAge = 18.49, SDAge = 1.25; 12th-grade; 58.2% girls). Using latent variable Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the measurement and structural equivalence as well as the equality of latent means of scores across…

  2. Reimagining Gender through Policy Development: The Case of a "Single-Sex" Educational Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthirt Cohen, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, a feminist educational organisation in the USA for young women, ages 14-21, adopted a policy in order to clarify their target constituency of girls and young women. The policy defined "girls and young women" not as a designation associated with fixed biological sex, but instead as a self-determined identity label creating an explicit…

  3. Enzymatic amplification of a Y chromosome repeat in a single blastomere allows identification of the sex of preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.W.; Isola, L.M.; Gordon, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been adapted to identify the sex of preimplantation mouse embryos rapidly. PCR was used to amplify a specific repeated DNA sequence on the Y chromosome from a single isolated blastomere in under 12 hr. The remainder of the biopsied embryo was then transferred to a pseudopregnant female and carried to term. Using this technique, 72% of embryos can be classed as potentially either male or female. Transfers of such embryos have produced pregnancies with 8/8 fetuses (100%) being of the predicted sex. Variations of the technique have demonstrated certain limitations to the present procedure as well as indicated possible strategies for improvement of the assay. The PCR technique may have wide application in the genetic analysis of preimplantation embryos

  4. Self-efficacy in introductory physics in students at single-sex and coeducational colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Jennifer; Mills, Mary Elizabeth; Yezierski, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 88 students at four colleges: one men's college, two women's colleges, and one coeducational college. The questions, modified from Reid (2007), asked about in-class participation, how fulfilled they were by their achievement in their calc-based physics class, their attitude toward their class, and their self-efficacy (Bandura 1994) in the class. While a t-test showed no difference between men and women, an ANOVA showed a significant interaction between sex and type of school. Detailed results will be presented and discussed.

  5. The Spectrum of Ovotesticular Disorders of Sex Development in South Africa: A Single-Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Yasmeen; Aldous, Colleen; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Wiersma, Rinus

    2017-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, biochemistry, histopathology, and long-term outcomes in subjects with ovotesticular (OT) disorder of sex development (DSD). This is a retrospective subset analysis of 64 cases of histologically confirmed OT DSD. All subjects were South African; 97% (n = 62) were African and 92% (n = 59) were of Zulu ethnicity. The most common karyotype was 46,XX (88%; n = 56), followed by 46,XY (8%), 46,XY/45,X (3%), and 46,XX/46,XY (1%). The median age at presentation was 7 months (0.5 months to 5.1 years). Sixty-one of the subjects (95%) presented with DSD. The ovotestis was the most frequent gonad (56%), followed by the ovary (23%) and the testis (16%). Testes were more commonly located on the right and ovaries on the left (p gender was the predominant sex of rearing in two-thirds of the subjects. Gender dysphoria was noted in 8 subjects (11%) at a median of 6.4 (4.3-9.3) years. Long-term follow-up (n = 14) revealed spontaneous puberty in 5 subjects, gender dysphoria in 2 subjects, and neuropsychiatric disorders in 4 subjects. OT DSD is an important differential diagnosis in Black South Africans with 46,XX DSD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Sidney A; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-11-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research.

  7. Sex and the Island”: Lives of Single Women in Prince Edward Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie Collins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the significance attributed to Prince Edward Island in managing a marginalized single female identity, as presented by accounts of thirty never-married and previously-married Island women, aged twenty-seven through sixty-five. As popular media and social narratives overwhelmingly position contemporary single women against an urban backdrop, the question arises as to whether unmarried Island women feel “marooned” in ways their urban counterparts may not. In accordance with feminist aims to produce research for, rather than about, women’s lives, the paper focuses on two themes from fieldwork interviews that were of particular interest to participants. The first theme relates to negotiating female singleness within the Island’s family-centered culture, and the second theme presents participants’ talk around advantages and disadvantages of living in Prince Edward Island, Canada, as single women. The paper concludes with a summary of other findings from the study and suggestions for future research on female singleness and island locales.

  8. Sex chromosomes and germline transcriptomics explored by single-cell sequencing and RNA-tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vértesy, Ábel

    2018-01-01

    In our study of germ cell differentiation, we applied two recently developed technologies on the germline of various model organisms: single-cell mRNA sequencing and RNA-tomography. For the first time we could look at gene expression with such a high resolution, and this led us to discover the

  9. Sex differences in the long-lasting effects of a single exposure to immobilization stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Humberto; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    In male rats, a single exposure to a severe stressor such as immobilization (IMO) results in marked activation of the HPA axis and reduction of body weight gain. In addition, the HPA response to the same (homotypic) stressor is reduced, whereas the response to a different (heterotypic) stressor is enhanced for days. Although sex differences in the responsiveness of the HPA axis have been described, there are few studies about the influence of sex on long-lasting effects of stress. Thus, we have compared the consequences of a single exposure to IMO in male and female rats. Females showed a similar ACTH response to the first IMO associated with higher corticosterone, but they were more resistant than males to stress-induced loss of body weight. Unstressed females showed higher resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone, but they did not show the increase in the resting levels of HPA hormones observed in males on the day after IMO. During exposure to a different stressor (open-field) two days after IMO, enhanced corticosterone response and hypoactivity was observed in males, but not in females. Finally, a second exposure to IMO 8 days after the first one resulted in a reduction of the HPA response and of the negative impact on body weight as compared to the first exposure, and this protective effect was greater in females. In sum, IMO-exposed females showed a greater reduction of the response to a second IMO and appear to be more resistant than males to some of the negative impacts of IMO. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The effects of single-sex compared with coeducational schooling on students' performance and attitudes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Allison, Carlie M

    2014-07-01

    Proponents of single-sex (SS) education believe that separating boys and girls, by classrooms or schools, increases students' achievement and academic interest. In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze studies that have tested the effects on students of SS compared with coeducational (CE) schooling. We meta-analyzed data from 184 studies, representing the testing of 1.6 million students in Grades K-12 from 21 nations, for multiple outcomes (e.g., mathematics performance, mathematics attitudes, science performance, educational aspirations, self-concept, gender stereotyping). To address concerns about the quality of research designs, we categorized studies as uncontrolled (no controls for selection effects, no random assignment) or controlled (random assignment or controls for selection effects). Based on mixed-effects analyses, uncontrolled studies showed some modest advantages for single-sex schooling, for both girls and boys, for outcomes such as mathematics performance but not for science performance. Controlled studies, however, showed only trivial differences between students in SS versus CE, for mathematics performance (g = 0.10 for girls, 0.06 for boys) and science performance (g = 0.06 for girls, 0.04 for boys), and in some cases showed small differences favoring CE schooling (e.g., for girls' educational aspirations, g = -0.26). Separate analyses of U.S. studies yielded similar findings (e.g., for mathematics performance g = 0.14 for girls and 0.14 for boys). Results from the highest quality studies, then, do not support the view that SS schooling provides benefits compared with CE schooling. Claims that SS schooling is particularly effective for U.S. ethnic minority boys could not be tested due to the lack of controlled studies on this question. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  12. Metoidioplasty as a single stage sex reassignment surgery in female transsexuals: Belgrade experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Stanojevic, Dusan; Bizic, Marta; Kojovic, Vladimir; Majstorovic, Marko; Vujovic, Svetlana; Milosevic, Alexandar; Korac, Gradimir; Perovic, Sava V

    2009-05-01

    Metoidioplasty represents one of the variants of phalloplasty in female transsexuals. Its main characteristic is that it is a one-stage procedure. It involves lengthening and straightening of hypertrophied clitoris to create a neophallus, urethral lengthening to enable voiding while standing, and scrotal reconstruction with insertion of testicle prostheses. Our aim is to describe our technique and highlight its advantages. Between September 2002 and April 2007, 82 female transsexuals, aged 18-54 years (mean age 31) underwent one-stage metoidioplasty. Clitoris is lengthened and straightened by division of clitoral ligaments and short urethral plate. Urethroplasty is done with combined buccal mucosa graft and genital skin flaps. Scrotum is created from labia majora in which two testicle prostheses are inserted. Simultaneously, female genitalia are removed. Patients' personal satisfaction about sensitivity and length of neophallus, possibility to void in standing position, real length of reconstructed urethra as well as complication rate comparing to other published data. The median follow-up was 32 months (range 14-69). The mean neophallic length was 5.7 cm (range 4-10). Voiding in standing position was reported in all patients, while dribbling and spraying were noticed in 23 cases and solved spontaneously. There were two urethral strictures and seven fistulas that required secondary minor revision. All patients reported preserved sensation and normal postoperative erection. Testicle prostheses rejection was not observed in any of the patients. Metoidioplasty is a single-stage and time-saving procedure. It could be an alternative to total phalloplasty in female transsexuals who do not wish to have sexual intercourse. Also, it represents a first step in cases where additional augmentation phalloplasty is required.

  13. Influence of plant size on female-biased sex allocation in a single-flowered, nectarless herb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying-Ze; Xie, Meng; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Relative allocation to female and male function in hermaphroditic species often departs from strict equisexuality. Increased femaleness with plant size in animal-pollinated species has been proposed in theory and demonstrated in empirical studies. However, such size-dependent sex allocation (SDS) has not been observed in some insect-pollinated species, throwing doubt on the generalization of SDS, that large plants have decelerated male function investment. Himalayan mayapple Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae) produces a single terminal flower and no nectar, providing a simple system for studying SDS without the confounding effects of flower number and nectar production. To investigate the SDS in P. hexandrum, plant size, biomass of floral organs (stamens, pistils and petals) and gamete production (pollen and ovule number) were measured in four populations in Yunnan Province, northwest China. Isometric allocation to female and male function with plant size was found in two populations, but the prediction of SDS was supported in the other two populations. Using pollen and ovule production as the allocation currency, allocation to female and male function was isometric in all studied populations. Resources allocated to attractive (petals) and sexual (pistils and stamens) structures did not show a significantly disproportionate increase with plant size in three of the four studied populations. The general pattern of isometric allocation to female and male function and to attractive and sexual structures could be attributed to the species being capable of automatic self-pollination, related to low pollen loss, minor deleterious effect of selfing and low importance of attractive structures. However, in further studies, careful consideration should be given to the different currencies used to estimate sex allocation. PMID:26602988

  14. Coeducational or Single-Sex Schools? A Review of the Literature. New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Set 76, Number 1 Item 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, James

    This article is part of an informational kit for teachers published by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research. The focus of this article is on the advantages and disadvantages of co-educational and single-sex secondary schools as discussed in research efforts from England and New Zealand. (JLL)

  15. Gender Gap in Maths Test Scores in South Korea and Hong Kong: Role of Family Background and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo Hwan; Law, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In many industrialised societies, women remain underrepresented in the sciences, which can be predicted by the gender gap in math achievement at school. Using PISA 2006 data, we explore the role of family background and single-sex schooling in girls' disadvantage in maths in South Korea and Hong Kong. This disadvantage is found to be associated…

  16. The Single Sex Debate for Girls in Science: A Comparison between Two Informal Science Programs on Middle School Students' STEM Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roxanne M.; Nzekwe, Brandon; Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are policy debates regarding the efficacy and legality of single sex formal and informal education programs. This issue is particularly poignant in science education due to the historical marginalization of women in these fields. This marginalization has resulted in women being positioned as a stigmatized group within many…

  17. Modeling Science Achievement Differences between Single-Sex and Coeducational Schools: Analyses from Hong Kong, SAR and New Zealand from TIMSS 1995, 1999, and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Dana V.

    2012-01-01

    There is a broad interest in narrowing achievement gaps among all groups of students and improving education by scientifically sound methods. On October 25, 2006, the United States Department of Education published new regulations allowing single-sex education in public schools whenever schools think it will improve student achievement. Thus far,…

  18. The Relationship between Student's Quantitative Skills, Application of Math, Science Courses, and Science Marks at Single-Sex Independent High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, David

    2012-01-01

    For independent secondary schools who offer rigorous curriculum to attract students, integration of quantitative skills in the science courses has become an important definition of rigor. However, there is little research examining students' quantitative skills in relation to high school science performance within the single-sex independent school…

  19. Hierarchical Deficiencies: Constructed Differences between Adolescent Boys and Girls in a Public School Single-Sex Program in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Although middle school is a critical time in adolescents' development, little is known about how that development is affected by public single-sex classes even though recent federal policy decisions have led more schools to provide these offerings. This case study used ethnographic methods to explore ways teachers, students, and courses in one…

  20. Teaching Modern Foreign Languages in Single-Sex Classes in a Co-Educational Context--Review of a Project in a North Yorkshire Comprehensive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A co-educational comprehensive school in North Yorkshire, concerned at the gap between boys' and girls' performance in French and German at GCSE, opted to teach Year 8 languages classes as single-sex groups. 2003-04 was to be a pilot year, at the end of which pupils' performance, motivation and attitude, as well as the experiences and views of…

  1. Girl Talk: A Qualitative Study of Girls Talking about the Meaning of Their Lives in an Urban Single-Sex Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Hassell Hughes, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    The suburban-urban achievement gap (diminishing until the 1980s) has stopped its narrowing trend, and single-sex schools are proliferating as a reform model, especially in urban areas. In this study researchers interviewed eight elementary school girls (in an all-girls school) three times over 2 years, and the resulting 23 transcripts were…

  2. A Comparison of Students in Single-Sex Classes and Coeducational Classes in High Poverty Public Elementary Schools in Mathematics and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Ashley Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any statistically significant differences in mathematics and reading academic achievement and academic gains of male and female students taught in single-sex classes existed when compared to male and female students taught in coeducational classes. This study reported findings from mathematics…

  3. The Transition from Single-Sex to Coeducational High Schools: Effects on Multiple Dimensions of Self-Concept and on Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-concept measures and state certificate program achievement grades were used to determine the effects on 7th through 11th graders in Sydney (Australia) of converting two single-sex high schools to coeducational institutions. Pre- to post-transition data were collected from 1982 to 1985. Coeducational organizations benefit self-concept, while…

  4. Can Single-Sex Classes in Co-Educational Schools Enhance the Learning Experiences of Girls and/or Boys? An Exploration of Pupils' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the value of introducing single-sex classes within co-educational schools. Draws upon perspectives of girls and boys involved in one such initiative. Concludes girls-only classes may have positive effects for girls, but curriculum-as-usual boys' classes do nothing to challenge problematic male cultures inherent in schools. (BT)

  5. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo-Australian and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent females in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2009-01-01

    Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity (PA) but few studies have examined this in cultural sub-groups. Female adolescents (n=113; 13.9+/-0.6years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. PA was estimated using the 3 Day Physical Activity Recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support using a specifically designed questionnaire. Anglo-Australians (n=74), whose parents were both born in Australia, were compared with Vietnamese-Australians (n=39), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There were non-significant trends towards higher engagement in all measures of PA among Anglo-Australians. Anglo-Australians perceived higher levels of social support to be physically active. In the whole sample and in cultural sub-groups, support by mothers was a consistent predictor of PA. Among Vietnamese-Australians, activities shared with the mother predicted moderate to vigorous PA. Interventions targeting PA among adolescent females should consider interactions of social support and cultural background.

  6. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo- and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent males in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2007-06-01

    Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences.

  7. Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

    2012-03-01

    In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (∼50 000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment.

  8. When being a girl matters less: accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex and coeducational classes and its impact on students' physics-related self-concept of ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Hannover, Bettina

    2008-06-01

    Establishing or preserving single-sex schooling has been widely discussed as a way of bringing more girls into the natural sciences. We test the assumption that the beneficial effects of single-sex education on girls' self-concept of ability in masculine subjects such as physics are due to the lower accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single-sex classes. N=401 eighth-graders (mean age 14.0 years) from coeducational comprehensive schools. Random assignment of students to single-sex vs. coeducational physics classes throughout the eighth grade. At the end of the year, students' physics-related self-concept of ability was measured using a questionnaire. In a subsample of N=134 students, the accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge during physics classes was assessed by measuring latencies and endorsement of sex-typed trait adjectives. Girls from single-sex physics classes reported a better physics-related self-concept of ability than girls from coeducational classes, while boys' self-concept of ability did not vary according to class composition. For both boys and girls, gender-related self-knowledge was less accessible in single-sex classes than in mixed-sex classes. To the extent that girls' feminine self-knowledge was relatively less accessible than their masculine self-knowledge, their physics-related self-concept of ability improved at the end of the school year. By revealing the importance of the differential accessibility of gender-related self-knowledge in single- and mixed-sex settings, our study clarifies why single-sex schooling helps adolescents to gain a better self-concept of ability in school subjects that are considered inappropriate for their own sex.

  9. Sex and Age Differences in Body-Image, Self-Esteem, and Body Mass Index in Adolescents and Adults After Single-Ventricle Palliation

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Nancy A.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Doering, Lynn V.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B.; Child, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, selfesteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 femal...

  10. The Single Sex Debate for Girls in Science: a Comparison Between Two Informal Science Programs on Middle School Students' STEM Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roxanne M.; Nzekwe, Brandon; Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2013-10-01

    Currently, there are policy debates regarding the efficacy and legality of single sex formal and informal education programs. This issue is particularly poignant in science education due to the historical marginalization of women in these fields. This marginalization has resulted in women being positioned as a stigmatized group within many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related fields. Research points to adolescence as the age where this sense of marginalization begins to develop. As a result, policy responses have utilized various frameworks such as: increased access for women, changing pedagogy to address women's learning styles, changing the language and culture of science to prevent marginalization of stigmatized groups, and finally exploring the role that individual identity plays in the marginalization of women. This study adds to the policy debate as it applies to single sex education by comparing middle school participants' STEM identity formation during two informal science learning environments (an all girls' STEM camp and a co-educational STEM camp). Additionally, this study focuses on the influence of camp activities within two informal science education programs: particularly the provision of role models and authentic STEM research activities, as means to improve STEM identity and make these fields relevant to the lives of middle school students. The results indicate that both camps improved girls' STEM identities. These findings suggest that the single sex environment is not as important to STEM identity as the pedagogy used within the program.

  11. 408 Cases of Genital Ambiguity Followed by Single Multidisciplinary Team during 23 Years: Etiologic Diagnosis and Sex of Rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette Beatriz De Paula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate diagnosis, age of referral, karyotype, and sex of rearing of cases with disorders of sex development (DSD with ambiguous genitalia. Methods. Retrospective study during 23 years at outpatient clinic of a referral center. Results. There were 408 cases; 250 (61.3% were 46,XY and 124 (30.4% 46,XX and 34 (8.3% had sex chromosomes abnormalities. 189 (46.3% had 46,XY testicular DSD, 105 (25.7% 46,XX ovarian DSD, 95 (23.3% disorders of gonadal development (DGD, and 19 (4.7% complex malformations. The main etiology of 46,XX ovarian DSD was salt-wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In 46,XX and 46,XY groups, other malformations were observed. In the DGD group, 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and ovotesticular DSD were more frequent. Low birth weight was observed in 42 cases of idiopathic 46,XY testicular DSD. The average age at diagnosis was 31.7 months. The final sex of rearing was male in 238 cases and female in 170. Only 6.6% (27 cases needed sex reassignment. Conclusions. In this large DSD sample with ambiguous genitalia, the 46,XY karyotype was the most frequent; in turn, congenital adrenal hyperplasia was the most frequent etiology. Malformations associated with DSD were common in all groups and low birth weight was associated with idiopathic 46,XY testicular DSD.

  12. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn F Gerchen

    Full Text Available Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%, many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  13. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wadolowska, Lidia; Weronika Wuenstel, Justyna; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence. The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  14. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, P.; Vogel, H.; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weissflog, J.; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12586-12591 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * Manduca sexta * sex pheromone biosynthesis * pheromone evolution * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  15. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  16. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  17. Acceptability and Potential Efficacy of Single-Sex After-School Activity Programs for Overweight and At-Risk Children: The Wollongong SPORT RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Kelly, Jacque; Cliff, Dylan P; Batterham, Marijka; Okely, Anthony D

    2015-11-01

    Single sex after-school physical activity programs show potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and potential efficacy of single-sex after-school physical activity programs for overweight and at-risk children from low-income communities. 7-month, 2-arm parallel-group, RCT, conducted at an elementary school in a disadvantaged area in Wollongong, Australia (March-November 2010). 20 boys and 17 girls were randomized to intervention (PA) or active comparison groups (HL). Primary outcomes included implementation, acceptability, percentage body fat and BMI z-score. The PA programs were acceptable with high implementation and enjoyment rates. At 7 months postintervention girls in the PA group displayed greater changes in percentage body fat (adjust diff. = -1.70, [95% CI -3.25, -0.14]; d = -0.83) and BMI z-score (-0.19 [-0.36, -0.03]; d= -1.00). At 7 months boys in the PA group showed greater changes in waist circumference (-3.87 cm [-7.80, 0.15]; d= -0.90) and waist circumference z-score (-0.33 [-0.64, -0.03]; d= -0.98). For both boys' and girls' PA groups, changes in adiposity were not maintained at 12-month follow-up. Single-sex after-school physical activity programs are acceptable and potentially efficacious in preventing unhealthy weight gain among overweight and at-risk children. However improvements are hard to sustain once programs finish operating.

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOWALKOWSKA, Joanna; WADOLOWSKA, Lidia; WERONIKA WUENSTEL, Justyna; SŁOWIŃSKA, Małgorzata Anna; NIEDŹWIEDZKA, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI) were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards. Results The odds ratio (OR) for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years) with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls. PMID:25909059

  19. Coeducation and Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the sex role stereotypes held by 538 first-term Australian university students from single-sex and coeducational high schools is presented. Results suggest that coeducational schooling may have some advantages for fostering interactions with the opposite sex. (MSE)

  20. The Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Environments on the Self-Efficacy of Middle School Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Sharon E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of class type, coeducational or same-sex, on the self-efficacy of middle school girls in a unit of volleyball. Four intact certified physical education specialists from two Middle Schools were used in the study. All of the teachers were female. In two of the classes, students were split out according to gender with males being taught by one instructor and the females being taught by the other instructor. For the coeducational class...

  1. Společné, či oddělené vzdělávání dívek a chlapců? / Co-education or single-sex education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article compares co-education and single-sex education. Based oninternational research, the positive and negative sides of both models are discussed. Focusing on gender equality, unreflected coeducation is found problematic because gender stereotypes are usually reproduced. The potential promotion of single-sexeducation in Czech Republic (following international experimental schools should take into account students’ opinions. The article brings the results of a survey (N = 556 that was focused on students’ approaches and experience with single-sex and co-education. Children prefer coeducational settings despite of reporting thegender biased peer harassment and the unequal treatment by teachers.

  2. A study of the attitudes and academic achievement in biology of females in a single-sex school vs. a coeducational school in the Philadelphia Archdiocesan secondary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proach, John Ann

    2000-11-01

    There is proof that the educational system has conveyed unrealistic role expectations and has neglected to address the changing needs of girls. Children form attitudes about themselves and others based on the communications they get over time from parents, other adults, peers, and a variety of societal influences, including school. This study focused on two groups of tenth-grade high school, female, biology students in the Archdiocese of Philadelphia. The purpose was to compare attitude in science and academic achievement of females in a single-sex vs. a coeducational school. Data collection included three attitudinal surveys: Women in Science, Science Attitude Scale, and Perceptions of Science and Scientists, also the National Association of Biology Teachers/National Science Teachers High School Biology Examination Version B. administered as a pretest and posttest to measure academic achievement. These instruments were used to determine if the differences between attitudes and perceptions toward science and achievement in science were alike for females in a single-sex school and a coeducational school. The study also tested to see if females in a single-sex school would attain greater academic achievement in biology than girls in a coeducational school. The Chi-square statistic was used to analyze data in the three attitudinal surveys. The NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination determined the students' initial and final competency levels in general biology. The mean science achievement of each of the two groups was tested for statistical significance using the t-test. In the two schools the t-test statistic showed significant difference between the pretest and a slight statistical difference on the posttest; the preferred analysis was an ANCOVA used to compare the posttest scores using the pretest as a covariate. The data implies that attitudes and perceptions are basically the same in both environments with minor differences. Results of these analyses suggest

  3. A single night of sleep loss impairs objective but not subjective working memory performance in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rångtell, Frida H; Karamchedu, Swathy; Andersson, Peter; Liethof, Lisanne; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Lampola, Lauri; Schiöth, Helgi B; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Benedict, Christian

    2018-01-31

    Acute sleep deprivation can lead to judgement errors and thereby increases the risk of accidents, possibly due to an impaired working memory. However, whether the adverse effects of acute sleep loss on working memory are modulated by auditory distraction in women and men are not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether sleep loss alters the way in which men and women perceive their working memory performance. Thus, 24 young adults (12 women using oral contraceptives at the time of investigation) participated in two experimental conditions: nocturnal sleep (scheduled between 22:30 and 06:30 hours) versus one night of total sleep loss. Participants were administered a digital working memory test in which eight-digit sequences were learned and retrieved in the morning after each condition. Learning of digital sequences was accompanied by either silence or auditory distraction (equal distribution among trials). After sequence retrieval, each trial ended with a question regarding how certain participants were of the correctness of their response, as a self-estimate of working memory performance. We found that sleep loss impaired objective but not self-estimated working memory performance in women. In contrast, both measures remained unaffected by sleep loss in men. Auditory distraction impaired working memory performance, without modulation by sleep loss or sex. Being unaware of cognitive limitations when sleep-deprived, as seen in our study, could lead to undesirable consequences in, for example, an occupational context. Our findings suggest that sleep-deprived young women are at particular risk for overestimating their working memory performance. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  4. An evaluation of a body image intervention in adolescent girls delivered in single-sex versus co-educational classroom settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Candice J; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

    2017-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction is now recognized as having considerable negative impact on social, psychological, and physical health, particularly in adolescent girls. Consequently, we have developed a six-session co-educational body image intervention (Happy Being Me Co-educational) designed to reduce body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in Grade 7 girls. In addition to evaluating the program's efficacy, we aimed to identify whether girls would benefit equally when it was delivered as a universal intervention to a whole class including both boys and girls (co-educational delivery), or delivered as a selective intervention to girls only (single-sex delivery). Participants were 200 Grade 7 girls from five schools in Melbourne, Australia. Schools were randomly allocated to receive the intervention in single-sex classes (n=74), co-educational classes (n=73), or participate as a no-intervention control (n=53). Girls completed self-report assessments of body dissatisfaction, psychological (internalization of the thin ideal, appearance comparison, and self-esteem) and peer environment (weight-related teasing and appearance conversations) risk factors for body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint, at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. Significant improvements in body dissatisfaction and psychological risk factors were observed in the intervention group at post-intervention and these were maintained at follow-up for psychological risk factors. Importantly, no significant differences between universal and selective delivery were observed, suggesting that the intervention is appropriate for dissemination in both modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational

  6. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  7. Effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an analysis of 27,158 singleton infants born after fresh single-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Saito, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer. None. Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants. There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3-53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3-49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8-51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6-53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5-54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Společné, či oddělené vzdělávání dívek a chlapců? / Co-education or single-sex education?

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Smetáčková

    2013-01-01

    The article compares co-education and single-sex education. Based oninternational research, the positive and negative sides of both models are discussed. Focusing on gender equality, unreflected coeducation is found problematic because gender stereotypes are usually reproduced. The potential promotion of single-sexeducation in Czech Republic (following international experimental schools) should take into account students’ opinions. The article brings the results of a survey (N = 556) that was...

  9. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  10. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the novel sex-linked testis-specific retrotransposed PGAM4 gene influences human male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Okuda

    Full Text Available The development of novel fertilization treatments, including in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic injection, has made pregnancy possible regardless of the level of activity of the spermatozoa; however, the etiology of male-factor infertility is poorly understood. Multiple studies, primarily through the use of transgenic animals, have contributed to a list of candidate genes that may affect male infertility in humans. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as a cause of male infertility in an analysis of spermatogenesis-specific genes.We carried out the prevalence of SNPs in the coding region of phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4 on the X chromosome by the direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from male patients. Using RT-PCR and western blot analyses, we identified that PGAM4 is a functional retrogene that is expressed predominantly in the testes and is associated with male infertility. PGAM4 is expressed in post-meiotic stages, including spermatids and spermatozoa in the testes, and the principal piece of the flagellum and acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. A case-control study revealed that 4.5% of infertile patients carry the G75C polymorphism, which causes an amino acid substitution in the encoded protein. Furthermore, an assay for enzymatic activity demonstrated that this polymorphism decreases the enzyme's activity both in vitro and in vivo.These results suggest that PGAM4, an X-linked retrogene, is a fundamental gene in human male reproduction and may escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. These findings provide fresh insight into elucidating the mechanisms of male infertility.

  11. Effects of Sex on Intra-Individual Variance in Urinary Solutes in Stone-Formers Collected from a Single Clinical Laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M L Perry

    Full Text Available Our work in a rodent model of urinary calcium suggests genetic and gender effects on increased residual variability in urine chemistries. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that sex would similarly be associated with residual variation in human urine solutes. Sex-related effects on residuals might affect the establishment of physiological baselines and error in medical assays.We tested the effects of sex on residual variation in urine chemistry by estimating coefficients of variation (CV for urinary solutes in paired sequential 24-h urines (≤72 hour interval in 6,758 females and 9,024 males aged 16-80 submitted to a clinical laboratory.Females had higher CVs than males for urinary phosphorus overall at the False Discovery Rate (P0.3. Males had higher CVs for citrate (P<0.01 from ages 16-45 and females higher CVs for citrate (P<0.01 from ages 56-80, suggesting effects of an extant oestral cycle on residual variance.Our findings indicate the effects of sex on residual variance of the excretion of urinary solutes including phosphorus and citrate; differences in CV by sex might reflect dietary lability, differences in the fidelity of reporting or genetic differentiation in renal solute consistency. Such an effect could complicate medical analysis by the addition of random error to phenotypic assays. Renal analysis might require explicit incorporation of heterogeneity among factorial effects, and for sex in particular.

  12. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  13. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  14. Impact of sex on uric acid levels and its relationship with the extent of coronary artery disease: A single-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, L.; Verdoia, M.; Schaffer, A.; Marino, P.; Suryapranata, H.; Luca, G. De

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) elevation has been largely addressed in the past as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, uric acid has not clearly emerged as independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Several studies in literature have assessed sex-related

  15. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  16. Viability of human dental pulp in determination of sex of an individual by identifying srygene through DNA analysis: A single blind pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Ravikant Naik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of importance of human teeth in personal identification has been recognized from time immemorial. In any natural calamity or man-made catastrophe identification of an individual is of paramount importance. Here tooth plays an important role as it is the last one to get affected in a disaster due to its durable nature and good survival rate. This information comes under the aegis of forensic odontology and is of paramount importance from legal and social viewpoints. This analysis uses highly informative genetic markers and can be carried out easily in a typical forensic lab oratory. The SRY gene marker (sex determining region Y is a sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome in the therians (placental mammals and marsupials and this gene marker is considered as a signature gene to differentiate the male from female sex chromosome. The detection of SRY gene in the DNA from a forensic sample can be confirmatory to type the gender as male. This study was taken up to identify the viability of human tooth pulp by identification of SRY gene in gender determination.

  17. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  18. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  19. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  20. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  1. Sex Determination, Sex Chromosomes, and Karyotype Evolution in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Heath; Ross, Laura; Bachtrog, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Insects harbor a tremendous diversity of sex determining mechanisms both within and between groups. For example, in some orders such as Hymenoptera, all members are haplodiploid, whereas Diptera contain species with homomorphic as well as male and female heterogametic sex chromosome systems or paternal genome elimination. We have established a large database on karyotypes and sex chromosomes in insects, containing information on over 13000 species covering 29 orders of insects. This database constitutes a unique starting point to report phylogenetic patterns on the distribution of sex determination mechanisms, sex chromosomes, and karyotypes among insects and allows us to test general theories on the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes, sex chromosomes, and sex determination systems in a comparative framework. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that male heterogamety is the ancestral mode of sex determination in insects, and transitions to female heterogamety are extremely rare. Many insect orders harbor species with complex sex chromosomes, and gains and losses of the sex-limited chromosome are frequent in some groups. Haplodiploidy originated several times within insects, and parthenogenesis is rare but evolves frequently. Providing a single source to electronically access data previously distributed among more than 500 articles and books will not only accelerate analyses of the assembled data, but also provide a unique resource to guide research on which taxa are likely to be informative to address specific questions, for example, for genome sequencing projects or large-scale comparative studies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Using a modified intervention mapping approach to develop and refine a single-session motivational intervention for methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Coomes, Curtis M; Karg, Rhonda; Harris, Jennie L; Orr, Alex; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2010-05-14

    There is an ongoing need for the development and adaptation of behavioral interventions to address behaviors related to acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases and for preventing the onset of chronic diseases. This paper describes the application of an established systematic approach to the development of a behavioral intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors for HIV among men who have sex with men and who use methamphetamine. The approach includes six steps: (1) a needs assessment; (2) preparing matrices of proximal program objectives; (3) selecting theory-based methods and practical strategies; (4) producing program components and materials; (5) planning for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability; and (6) planning for evaluation. The focus of this article is on the intervention development process; therefore the article does not describe steps 5 and 6. Overall the process worked well, although it had to be adapted to fit the sequence of events associated with a funded research project. This project demonstrates that systematic approaches to intervention development can be applied even in research projects where some of the steps occur during the proposal writing process rather than during the actual project. However, intervention developers must remain flexible and be prepared to adapt the process to the situation. This includes being ready to make choices regarding intervention efficacy versus feasibility and being willing to select the best intervention that is likely to be delivered with available resources rather than an ideal intervention that may not be practical.

  3. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Retrospective Study of 1198 Cases to Assess Indications for Surgical Removal, and Correlation with Age, Sex and Type of Impaction-A Single Institutional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shital; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Shah, Taksh

    2017-03-01

    To study the incidence of mandibular third molar impaction in relation to type and side of impaction, age and sex of patients and indications for its surgical removal through data collected from a single institute over a period of 3 and half years. The records of 1198 patients who underwent the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars were reviewed retrospectively. Records were divided into groups according to sex, age, type and side of impaction. Radiographs were studied to determine angular position of impacted mandible third molar. We found that there was a high incidence of mesioangular lower third molar impaction (33.97 %), highest number of patients were found in 15-30 years of age group (48.33 %), a left side (56.93 %) was more commonly involved, female predominance (63.44 %) was observed and recurrent pericoronitis (33.81 %) was the most common indication. Awareness of the indications for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar to the patients will help to avoid future risk of complications and morbidity associated with the same. This will not only help in saving time and money but also prevents the psychological trauma associated with delayed treatment. Removal of only symptomatic IMTM seems to be the logical choice in view of financial constraint in developing countries like India but at the same time early removal offers freedom from future complications in selected cases. So surgeons should apply a meticulous approach in selecting the patients for SRIMTM.

  4. Sex. Dev.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubiczka, S.; Schröder, C.; Ullmann, R.; Volleth, M.; Ledig, S.; Gilberg, E.; Kroisel, P.; P. Wieacker, P.

    2010-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (MIM 114290) is a severe malformation syndrome frequently accompanied by male-to-female sex reversal. Causative are mutations within the SOX9 gene on 17q24.3 as well as chromosomal aberrations (translocations, inversions or deletions) in the vicinity of SOX9 . Here, we report on a patient with muscular hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism, cleft palate, brachydactyly, malformations of thoracic spine, and gonadal dysgenesis with female external genitalia and müllerian duct ...

  5. Los colegios diferenciados por sexo en Estados Unidos: constitucionalidad y actualidad de una tendencia imparable = Single-sex education in the United States: constitutionality and current developments of an unstoppable trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calvo Charro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años Estados Unidos ha experimentado el resurgir de la educación diferenciada por sexo con el apoyo de políticos de muy diferentes tendencias, educadores, padres, ciertos sectores feministas, así como asociaciones de defensa de los derechos de los afroamericanos y otras minorías. Esta tendencia, lenta pero implacable, entre los colegios públicos, como consecuencia de los excelentes resultados obtenidos, ha generado un encendido debate en ámbitos académicos, legales y políticos. La legislación norteamericana federal los motiva, incentiva y apoya, con ciertas condiciones relativas a garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades entre los sexos y la libertad de elección de los padres del modelo educativo que consideren apropiado para sus hijos. No obstante, la American Civil Liberties Union sigue mostrando su abierta oposición a estos centros educativos a los que considera discriminatorios. En este marco, hasta el momento, el Tribunal Supremo no ha encontrado en estos centros tacha alguna de inconstitucionalidad. In recent years the U.S. has experienced a resurgence of single-sex education with the support of politicians of very different tendencies, educators, parents, some feminist sectors and associations defending the rights of African Americans and other minorities. This trend, slowly but relentlessly, including public schools, has generated a heated debate in academic, legal and political fields. The federal U.S. legislation motivates, encourages and supports, with certain conditions relating to ensuring equality of opportunity between the sexes and freedom of parental choice of educational model they consider appropriate for their children. However, the American Civil Liberties Union continues to show his outspoken opposition to these schools to which they considered discriminatory. In this framework, so far, the Supreme Court has found these centers absolutely constitutional.

  6. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  7. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  8. Sex and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    human life experience makes research examining the contribution of any single factor for the female advantage difficult. However, this information may still prove important to the development of strategies for healthy aging in both sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is

  10. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  11. The sex and sex determination in Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Xing-hong; Aruga, Yusho

    2013-01-01

    Pyropia haitanensis has a biphasic life cycle with macroscopic gametophytic blade (n) and microscopic filamentous conchocelis (2n) phase. Its gametophytic blades have long been believed to be mainly dioecious. However, when crossing the red mutant (R, ♀) with the wild type (W, ♂), the parental colors were segregated in F1 blades, of which 96.1% were linearly sectored with 2-4 color sectors. When color sectors were excised from the color-sectored blades and cultured singly, 99.7% of the color sectors appeared to be unisexual with an equal sex ratio. Although the sex of color sector did not genetically link with its color, the boundaries of both sex and color sectors coincided precisely. About 87.9% of the examined color-sectored blades were monoecious and the percentage increased with the number of color sectors of a blade. The gametophytic blades from each conchocelis strain produced by parthenogenesis of the excised color sectors were unisexual and unicolor, showing the same sex and color as their original sectors. These results indicate that most of the sexually reproduced Py. haitanensis blades are monoecious, and their sex is controlled by segregation of a pair of alleles during meiosis of conchospore, forming a sex-sectored tetrad. During the subsequent development of blades, one or two lower cell(s) of the tetrad contribute mainly to rhizoid formation, and rarely show their sexual phenotype, leading to reduced frequency of full sex phenotype of the meiotic blades. Moreover, the aberrant segregations of sex genes or color genes in a few of F1 blades were probably due to gene conversions, but there was no sex transfer in Py. haitanensis.

  12. Quantitative sexing (Q-Sexing) and relative quantitative sexing (RQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samer

    Key words: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), quantitative sexing, Siberian tiger. INTRODUCTION. Animal molecular sexing .... 43:3-12. Ellegren H (1996). First gene on the avian W chromosome (CHD) provides a tag for universal sexing of non-ratite birds. Proc.

  13. Single-Gender Schools Scrutinized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on publicly run schools in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago which has found that, while single-sex schools may benefit female students who prefer a single-sex environment, they are not inherently beneficial for boys or most girls. While the findings are based on data from one Caribbean nation, experts say they…

  14. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  15. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  16. Interactions of a didomain fragment of the Drosophila Sex-lethal protein with single-stranded uridine-rich oligoribonucleotides derived from the transformer and Sex-lethal messenger RNA precursors: NMR with residue-selective [5-2H]uridine substitutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Insil; Muto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoru; Kitamura, Aya; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Hosono, Kazumi; Kawai, Gota; Takaku, Hiroshi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Takio, Koji; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Shimura, Yoshiro

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that contain two or more copies of the RNA-binding domain [ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain or RNA recognition motif (RRM)] are considered to be involved in the recognition of single-stranded RNA, but the mechanisms of this recognition are poorly understood at the molecular level. For an NMR analysis of a single-stranded RNA complexed with a multi-RBD protein, residue-selective stable-isotope labeling techniques are necessary, rather than common assignment methods based on the secondary structure of RNA. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction of a Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein fragment, consisting of two RBDs (RBD1-RBD2), with two distinct target RNAs derived from the tra and Sxl mRNA precursors with guanosine and adenosine, respectively, in a position near the 5'-terminus of a uridine stretch. First, we prepared a [5- 2 H]uridine phosphoramidite, and synthesized a series of 2 H-labeled RNAs, in which all of the uridine residues except one were replaced by [5- 2 H]uridine in the target sequence, GU 8 C. By observing the H5-H6 TOCSY cross peaks of the series of 2 H-labeled RNAs complexed with the Sxl RBD1-RBD2, all of the base H5-H6 proton resonances of the target RNA were unambiguously assigned. Then, the H5-H6 cross peaks of other target RNAs, GU 2 GU 8 , AU 8 , and UAU 8 , were assigned by comparison with those of GU 8 C. We found that the uridine residue prior to the G or A residue is essential for proper interaction with the protein, and that the interaction is tighter for A than for G. Moreover, the H1' resonance assignments were achieved from the H5-H6 assignments. The results revealed that all of the protein-bound nucleotide residues, except for only two, are in the unusual C2'-endo ribose conformation in the complex

  17. Interactions of a didomain fragment of the Drosophila Sex-lethal protein with single-stranded uridine-rich oligoribonucleotides derived from the transformer and Sex-lethal messenger RNA precursors: NMR with residue-selective [5-2H]uridine substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Insil; Muto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Satoru; Kitamura, Aya; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki [University of Tokyo, Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Hosono, Kazumi; Kawai, Gota; Takaku, Hiroshi [Chiba Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Chemistry (Japan); Dohmae, Naoshi; Takio, Koji [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) (Japan); Sakamoto, Hiroshi [Kobe University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science (Japan); Shimura, Yoshiro [Biomolecular Engineering Research Institute (Japan)

    2000-06-15

    Proteins that contain two or more copies of the RNA-binding domain [ribonucleoprotein (RNP) domain or RNA recognition motif (RRM)] are considered to be involved in the recognition of single-stranded RNA, but the mechanisms of this recognition are poorly understood at the molecular level. For an NMR analysis of a single-stranded RNA complexed with a multi-RBD protein, residue-selective stable-isotope labeling techniques are necessary, rather than common assignment methods based on the secondary structure of RNA. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction of a Drosophila Sex-lethal (Sxl) protein fragment, consisting of two RBDs (RBD1-RBD2), with two distinct target RNAs derived from the tra and Sxl mRNA precursors with guanosine and adenosine, respectively, in a position near the 5'-terminus of a uridine stretch. First, we prepared a [5-{sup 2}H]uridine phosphoramidite, and synthesized a series of {sup 2}H-labeled RNAs, in which all of the uridine residues except one were replaced by [5-{sup 2}H]uridine in the target sequence, GU{sub 8}C. By observing the H5-H6 TOCSY cross peaks of the series of {sup 2}H-labeled RNAs complexed with the Sxl RBD1-RBD2, all of the base H5-H6 proton resonances of the target RNA were unambiguously assigned. Then, the H5-H6 cross peaks of other target RNAs, GU{sub 2}GU{sub 8}, AU{sub 8}, and UAU{sub 8}, were assigned by comparison with those of GU{sub 8}C. We found that the uridine residue prior to the G or A residue is essential for proper interaction with the protein, and that the interaction is tighter for A than for G. Moreover, the H1' resonance assignments were achieved from the H5-H6 assignments. The results revealed that all of the protein-bound nucleotide residues, except for only two, are in the unusual C2'-endo ribose conformation in the complex.

  18. Fungal Sex: The Mucoromycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Idnurm, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales. These findings provide striking parallels with the evolution of mating systems in the Dikarya fungi. Other discoveries in the Mucorales provide the first examples of sex-cell type identity being driven directly by a gene that confers mating type, a trait considered more of relevance to animal sex determination but difficult to investigate in animals. Despite these discoveries, there remains much to be gleaned about mating systems from these fungi.

  19. Fast, reliable sexing of prosimian DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsted, Tina; Villesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    to identify conserved regions in the amelogenin gene. Using these conserved regions, we can target species that have no sequence information. We designed a single, conserved primer pair that is useful for fast and reliable molecular sexing of prosimian primates. A single PCR yields two fragments in males...

  20. Sex-chromosome anaphase movements in crane-fly spermatocytes are coordinated: ultraviolet microbeam irradiation of one kinetochore of one sex chromosome blocks the movements of both sex chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedak, J.A.M.; Forer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Sex chromosomes in crane-fly spermatocytes move polewards at anaphase after the autosomes have reached the poles. We irradiated one kinetochore of one sex chromosome using an ultraviolet microbeam. When both sex chromosomes were normally oriented, irradiation of a single kinetochore permanently blocked movement of both sex chromosomes. Irradiation of non-kinetochore chromosomal regions or of spindle fibres did not block movement, or blocked movement only temporarily. We argue that ultraviolet irradiation of one kinetochore blocks movement of both sex chromosomes because of effects on a 'signal' system. Irradiation of one kinetochore of a maloriented sex chromosome did not block motion of either sex chromosome. However, irradiation of one kinetochore of a normally oriented sex chromosome permanently blocked motion of both that sex chromosome and the maloriented sex chromosome. Thus for the signal system to allow the sex chromosomes to move to the pole each sex chromosome must have one spindle fibre to each pole. (author)

  1. Sex Education: Another View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer

    1977-01-01

    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  2. Atomoxetine in abstinent cocaine users: Sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise E. DeVito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Data presented are from a sex-differences secondary analysis of a human laboratory investigation of single doses of atomoxetine (40 mg and 80 mg versus placebo in abstinent individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD. Subjective drug effects, cognitive performance and cardiovascular measures were assessed. The primary atomoxetine dose analyses (which do not consider sex as a factor are reported in full elsewhere (DeVito et al., 2017 [1].

  3. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  4. sex and Cannibalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 12. The Secret Sex Lives of Rotifers Sex - sex and Cannibalism. T Ramakrishna Rao. General Article Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 41-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  6. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  7. Pleiotropic Mechanisms Indicated for Sex Differences in Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileena Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in common disease is pervasive, including a dramatic male preponderance in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Potential genetic explanations include a liability threshold model requiring increased polymorphism risk in females, sex-limited X-chromosome contribution, gene-environment interaction driven by differences in hormonal milieu, risk influenced by genes sex-differentially expressed in early brain development, or contribution from general mechanisms of sexual dimorphism shared with secondary sex characteristics. Utilizing a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP dataset, we identify distinct sex-specific genome-wide significant loci. We investigate genetic hypotheses and find no evidence for increased genetic risk load in females, but evidence for sex heterogeneity on the X chromosome, and contribution of sex-heterogeneous SNPs for anthropometric traits to ASD risk. Thus, our results support pleiotropy between secondary sex characteristic determination and ASDs, providing a biological basis for sex differences in ASDs and implicating non brain-limited mechanisms.

  8. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Sexing young snowy owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  10. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  11. Helping Behavior: Effects of Sex and Sex-Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Crawley, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Male and female experimenters requested adult shoppers (N=178) to fill out a questionnaire. Refusal data showed shoppers helping other-sex more than same-sex experimenters. Other results showed a significant three-way interaction among helper and helpee sex and sex-typing and situation sex-typing and that helper sex-typing did not have significant…

  12. Doing gender in sex and sex research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-12-01

    Gender is central to sexuality, and vice versa, but there are a number of difficulties with the treatment of gender in sex research. Apparently, it is hard to find a balance between two conflicting needs. First, obviously, it is necessary to make distinctions between women and men, for political as well as research-technical and theoretical reasons. A second requirement, at odds with the first one, is the necessity to understand gender and its relation to sexuality and the body as much more complex than simplistically referring to two sets of individuals. This is all the more necessary when one realizes the possible drawbacks of exaggerating the differences between the sexes (in particular when they are biologically explained), because of stereotyping, stigmatizing, and expectancy confirmatory processes. This essay identifies and discusses 10 difficulties in the treatment of gender in sex research, reflects on their origins, and reviews theory and evidence with the aim to (1) consider the relative strength of gender/sex as an explanatory variable compared to other factors and processes explaining differences between men and women on a number of sexual aspects, (2) inform an understanding of gender and its relation to sexuality as an ongoing, open-ended, multi-determined, situated, interactional process, with the body as a third player, and (3) argue in favor of a nuanced, well-balanced treatment of gender in sex research.

  13. Meeting your match: How attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, I. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Holland, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their

  14. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  15. The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan

    Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic

  16. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  17. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  18. Sex Away from Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Harold

    1971-01-01

    The reasons why people who are normally truthful to their spouses engage in sex away from home are discussed. These reasons can include loneliness, ego building or the opportunity to have homosexual relations. Sex away from home is likely to increase since the number of people traveling is increasing. (Author/CG)

  19. Sex Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Magdoff, Laura

    1969-01-01

    After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…

  20. The Lady Spaceman: Children's Perceptions of Sex-Stereotyped Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Doreen A.; Chapman, Diane C.

    1982-01-01

    Children from single-sex and coeducational schools were asked to name male and female occupants of traditionally sex-linked roles. Children's use of linguistic markers (e.g. lady doctor) was associated with labeling of female occupants of traditionally male roles and male occupants of traditionally female roles, indicating that language reflects…

  1. Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission.

  2. Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Anderson

    Full Text Available Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio, neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate, the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F(2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome.

  3. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  4. Sex: a sensitive issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Health care workers and educators may need to improve their skills in discussing sensitive issues in order to elicit and understand what influences people's attitudes toward sex. While the health worker may be bent upon preventing HIV infection, advising on family planning, or teaching youth about sexual relationships, his or her audience may have other priorities. A good counselor/teacher must learn what people's concerns are and discuss sexual health within that context. It can be difficult talking about sex because sex is a private concern and many people are embarrassed discussing it. Even sex partners often find it difficult to talk to each other about sex. Appropriate communication techniques vary depending upon the situation. It depends upon whether one is addressing people on an individual basis or in groups, which people are being addressed, which organization one is representing, and what one's role is. Good communication is a two-way sharing of information. The different stages of life, common beliefs and myths, culture and religion, relationships between men and women, reasons for having sex, and sex practices are discussed.

  5. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  6. Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Share Print What is dyspareunia? Dyspareunia is painful sex for women. Also, it causes pain during tampon ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  8. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  9. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies......This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  10. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    Jan 31, 2008 ... years old (Charnier 1966 reported it in an African agamid lizard), although it was ... people's attention in Susumu Ohno's now famous book on .... If they do enhance male and female fitness, sex chromosomes would then be.

  11. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    ZW is reserved for female heterogamety.) The Radder et al study used lab incubation regimes that mimic temperature profiles of cool natural nests, so temperature probably determines sex at least occasionally in nature.

  12. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  13. Sex and Horror

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The combination of sex and horror may be disquieting to many, but the two are natural (if perhaps gruesome) bedfellows. In fact, sex and horror coincide with such regularity in contemporary horror fiction that the two concepts appear to be at least partially intertwined. The sex–horror relationship is sometimes connotative rather than overt; examples of this relationship range from the seduction overtones of 'Nosferatu' and the juxtaposition of nudity and horror promised by European exploitat...

  14. The Effects of Sex-Labelling on Adult-Infant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Suzy; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    The influence of sex-labelling on adult-infant interactions is explored in this study. It is hypothesized that, when introduced to a single infant identified as either male or female, adults will (1) offer more masculine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to be male; (2) offer more feminine sex-stereotyped toys to the infant perceived to…

  15. AIDS and sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  16. Inherited XX sex reversal originating from wild medaka populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, A; Otake, H; Hamaguchi, S; Sakaizumi, M

    2010-11-01

    The teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), has an XX/XY sex-determining mechanism. A Y-linked DM domain gene, DMY, has been isolated by positional cloning as the sex-determining gene in this species. Previously, we conducted a field survey of genotypic sex and found that approximately 1% of wild medaka are sex-reversed (XX males and XY females). Here, we performed genetic analyses of nine spontaneous XX sex-reversed males to elucidate its genetic basis. In all cases, the F(1) progeny were all females, whereas XX males reappeared in the backcross (BC) progeny, suggesting that XX sex reversal is a recessive trait. Although the incidences of sex reversal in the BC progeny were mostly low, 40% were males derived from one XX male. We performed linkage analysis using 55 BC males and located a single major factor, sda-1 (sex-determining autosomal factor-1), controlling sex reversal in an autosomal linkage group. Thus, genes involved in the sex-determining pathway can be isolated from spontaneous mutants in wild populations.

  17. The behavioural consequences of sex reversal in dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Holleley, Clare E.; Elphick, Melanie; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour are caused by sex-linked genes, as well as by circulating sex-steroid levels. Thus, a shift from genotypic to environmental sex determination may create an organism that exhibits a mixture of male-like and female-like traits. We studied a lizard species (Central Bearded Dragon, Pogona vitticeps), in which the high-temperature incubation of eggs transforms genetically male individuals into functional females. Although they are reproductively female, sex-reversed dragons (individuals with ZZ genotype reversed to female phenotype) resemble genetic males rather than females in morphology (relative tail length), general behaviour (boldness and activity level), and thermoregulatory tactics. Indeed, sex-reversed ‘females’ are more male-like in some behavioural traits than are genetic males. This novel phenotype may impose strong selection on the frequency of sex reversal within natural populations, facilitating rapid shifts in sex-determining systems. A single period of high incubation temperatures (generating thermally induced sex reversal) can produce functionally female individuals with male-like (or novel) traits that enhance individual fitness, allowing the new temperature-dependent sex-determining system to rapidly replace the previous genetically based one.

  18. Does beauty catch the eye?: Sex differences in gazing at attractive opposite-sex targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, I.; Holland, R.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  19. Gazing behavior during mixed-sex interactions: Sex and attractiveness effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, I. van; Holland, R.W.; Finkenauer, C.; Hollenstein, T.P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated to what extent the length of people's gazes during conversations with opposite-sex persons is affected by the physical attractiveness of the partner. Single participants (N = 115) conversed for 5 min with confederates who were rated either as low or high on physical attractiveness.

  20. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  1. Same sex families and children

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership) and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal ...

  2. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  3. Sex Disparities in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    between 2003 and 2012 (N=79 617), and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Information was available on age, sex, marital status, stroke severity, stroke subtype, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk profile. We studied only deaths due to the index stroke, with the assumption that death.......5%) or 1 month (6.9%), respectively. After the age of 60 years, women had more severe strokes than men. Up to ages in the mid-60s, no difference in the risk of death from stroke was seen between the 2 sexes. For people aged >65 years, however, the risk gradually became greater in men than in women...

  4. Sex steroids and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberden, Christine

    2017-10-01

    The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How Sex Attitudes Develop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, Helene S.

    1976-01-01

    Excerpt from "The Roots of Love" (Helene S. Arnstein, 1975). Book is concerned with feelings that are part of child's developmental stages. Included in excerpt are: genital self-discovery, masturbation, discovery of sex differences, and birth fantasies. Stresses importance of parent's feelings which are communicated to child.

  6. Sex differences in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B

    2016-12-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.

  7. Battle of the Sexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Tu, Q.; List, J.

    2015-01-01

    A vibrant literature has emerged that explores the economic implications of the sex ratio (the ratio of men to women in the population), including changes in fertility rates, educational outcomes, labor supply, and household purchases. Previous empirical efforts, however, have paid less attention to

  8. Sex education and ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the

  9. Sex education in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsalides, N

    1991-05-01

    The objective of educating people on family planning and sexuality issues has been carried forth by the Family Planning Association of Cyprus (FPAC) since 1971. The promotion of sex education in schools has generated respect for their expertise. Sex education has reached the agenda of the General Assembly of Parliament only to be postponed due to the April 1991 end of term dismissal. A newly elected Parliament are not expected to act immediately. The Ministry of Education Committee on Health Education has been actively counseled since 1974, and most recently in their examination of the possibilities of school sex education and training of high school teachers. The Ministry of Education has authority over primary and secondary education, which is compulsory up to 3 years of secondary education. The approach of FPAC has been to work with parents first in education lectures at various well publicized locations. The agenda was to inform about FPAC, explain the purpose and meaning of sex education, and show the Merry-Go-Round educational film followed by a question and answer session. Eventually, presentations involved children with parent observation. In 1977, authorization from the Ministry of Education gave official approval to FPAC, but not on school premises. FPAC went directly to headmasters and gained support in primary schools to organize sessions on school premises, which successfully involved many primary schools even in the much needed rural areas. Home Economics and Child Care, offered in the 5th and 6th grades was the only vehicle for gaining permission to enter secondary schools. In Larnaca, secondary school headmasters at the 3rd and 6th grade levels permitted invitations which requested parental permission. Lecture topics on human reproduction, sex roles, and disease and contraception were also provided in a follow-up letter. Higher education levels were involved through youth clubs and evening lectures. In 1988, FPAC urged the Director General of the

  10. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonela Carabajal Paladino

    Full Text Available We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD. Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  11. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  12. Sex identification of Nigerian indigenous chicks using Auto-sexing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexing has been a challenging task in Nigerian indigenous chickens due to the monomorphism of chicks which makes it impossible to distinguish the male from the female until eight weeks. . Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the sex of Nigerian indigenous chicks using the common auto-sexing methods.

  13. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  14. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  15. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  16. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  17. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  18. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sex after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a ... menstruation after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can women still get pregnant after a spinal cord ...

  19. Hypnotic Psychotherapy with Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)

  20. The presence and absence of sex workers' mothering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    A number of studies demonstrate that some migrants sell sexual services as a survival strategy that allows them to provide for their children and for the family they have left behind. The entanglement of familial intimate relationships and the organisation of female sex work have been largely...... neglected in the literature on sex for sale. This chapter therefore examines how female migrants selling sexual services organise their mothering and the various ways in which their identities as single mothers, migrants, and sex workers intersect. Drawing on the literature of transnational motherhood...

  1. Sex Education with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  2. YY Sex: a Polar Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskiy, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Tazieva, Z. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present spectroscopic investigations of a cataclysmic variable star, YY Sex. There are some uncertainties in the classification of this object. We calculate Doppler maps for Hβ and HeII λ4686Å and show that there is no sign of disk accretion in YY Sex. Consequently, we conclude that YY Sex is a polar.

  3. Sex Education: Challenges and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…

  4. Sex Stereotyping Hurts All Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Melitta J.

    1991-01-01

    Sex stereotyping (raising boys and girls to be different because of their sex) begins at birth. The article reviews studies detailing sex stereotyping practices and offers suggestions on what parents can do to avoid them. A list of suggestions for raising children in a nonsexist way is included. (SM)

  5. COMPLEMENTARY SEX DETERMINATION IN HYMENOPTERAN PARASITOIDS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUZhishan; KeithR.Hopper; PaulJ.Ode; RogerW.Fuester; CHENJia-hua; GeorgeE.Heimpel

    2003-01-01

    In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, unfertilized eggs produce haploid males while fertilized eggs lead to diploid females under most circumstances. Diploid males can also be produced from fertilization under a system of sex determination known as complementary sex determination (CSD). Under single-locus CSD, sex is determined by multiple alleles at a single sex locus. Individuals heterozygous at the sex locus are female while hemizygous and homozygous individuals develop as haploid and diploid males, respectively. In multiple-locus CSD, two or more loci, each with two or more alleles, determine sex. Diploid individuals are female if one or more sex loci are het-erozygous, while a diploid is male only if homozygous at all sex loci. Diploid males are known to occur in 43 hym-enopteran species and single-locus CSD has been demonstrated in 22 of these species. Diploid males are either developmentally inviable or sterile, so their production constitutes a genetic load. Because diploid male production is more likely under inbreeding, CSD is a form of inbreeding depression. It is crucial to preserve the diversity of sex alleles and reduce the loss of genetic variation in biological control. In the parasitoid species with single-locus CSD, certain precautionary procedures can prevent negative effects of single-locus CSD on biological control.

  6. Extraordinary sex ratios: cultural effects on ecological consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Molnár

    Full Text Available We model sex-structured population dynamics to analyze pairwise competition between groups differing both genetically and culturally. A sex-ratio allele is expressed in the heterogametic sex only, so that assumptions of Fisher's analysis do not apply. Sex-ratio evolution drives cultural evolution of a group-associated trait governing mortality in the homogametic sex. The two-sex dynamics under resource limitation induces a strong Allee effect that depends on both sex ratio and cultural trait values. We describe the resulting threshold, separating extinction from positive growth, as a function of female and male densities. When initial conditions avoid extinction due to the Allee effect, different sex ratios cannot coexist; in our model, greater female allocation always invades and excludes a lesser allocation. But the culturally transmitted trait interacts with the sex ratio to determine the ecological consequences of successful invasion. The invading female allocation may permit population persistence at self-regulated equilibrium. For this case, the resident culture may be excluded, or may coexist with the invader culture. That is, a single sex-ratio allele in females and a cultural dimorphism in male mortality can persist; a low-mortality resident trait is maintained by father-to-son cultural transmission. Otherwise, the successfully invading female allocation excludes the resident allele and culture and then drives the population to extinction via a shortage of males. Finally, we show that the results obtained under homogeneous mixing hold, with caveats, in a spatially explicit model with local mating and diffusive dispersal in both sexes.

  7. A major locus on mouse chromosome 18 controls XX sex reversal in Odd Sex (Ods) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangjun; Poirier, Christophe; Truong, Cavatina; Schumacher, Armin; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Bishop, Colin E

    2003-03-01

    We have previously reported a dominant mouse mutant, Odd sex (Ods), in which XX Ods/+ mice on the FVB/N background show complete sex reversal, associated with expression of Sox9 in the fetal gonads. Remarkably, when crossed to the A/J strain approximately 95% of the (AXFVB) F(1) XX Ods/+ mice developed as fully fertile, phenotypic females, the remainder developing as males or hermaphrodites. Using a (AXFVB) F(2) population, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan to identify the number and chromosomal location of potential Ods modifier genes. A single major locus termed Odsm1 was mapped to chromosome 18, tightly linked to D18Mit189 and D18Mit210. Segregation at this locus could account for the presence of sex reversal in 100% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as males, for the absence of sex reversal in approximately 92% of XX Ods/+ mice which develop as females, and for the mixed sexual phenotype in approximately 72% of XX Ods/+ mice that develop with ambiguous genitalia. We propose that homozygosity for the FVB-derived allele strongly favors Ods sex reversal, whereas homozygosity for the A/J-derived allele inhibits it. In mice heterozygous at Odsm1, the phenotypic outcome, male, female or hermaphrodite, is determined by a complex interaction of several minor modifying loci. The close proximity of Smad2, Smad7 and Smad4 to D18Mit189/210 provides a potential mechanism through which Odsm1 might act.

  8. The many costs of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Jennions, Michael D; Kokko, Hanna

    2012-03-01

    Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted. If a cost of this magnitude exists, the benefits of sex must be large for it to have evolved and be maintained. Focusing on benefits can be misleading, as this sidelines important questions about the cost of sex: what is the source of the twofold cost: males, genome dilution or both? Does the cost deviate from twofold? What other factors make sex costly? How should the costs of sex be empirically measured? The total cost of sex and how it varies in different contexts must be known to determine the benefits needed to account for the origin and maintenance of sex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex Differences in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen P

    2018-04-01

    This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women. Data from research on HIV cure points to sex differences in viral reservoir dynamics and a direct role for sex hormones in latency maintenance. Biological sex remains an important variable in determining the risk of HIV infection and subsequent viral pathogenesis, and emerging data suggest sex differences relevant to curative interventions. Recruitment of women in HIV clinical research is a pathway to both optimize care for women and to identify novel therapeutics for use in both men and women.

  10. Single-Sex Schooling: Is it Simply a "Class Act"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolidis, Georgina; Dobson, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    The current debate about boys' education risks taking us back decades in terms of understanding the significance of gender in relation to education. Of particular concern here is the tendency within such debates to rely on dichotomous understandings of gender which reinscribe essentialist understandings of both "girls" and…

  11. Sex and the single Salix: considerations for riparian restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; David R. Dreesen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    Most restoration projects strive to create a sustain able plant community but exclusive use of vegetatively propagated material may be preventing this goal. The dioecious willows and cottonwoods of the Salicaceae are widely used in riparian restoration projects. Hardwood cuttings have traditionally been used to propagate these species in nurseries, and live stakes,...

  12. Adolescents' reported consequences of having oral sex versus vaginal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2007-02-01

    The present study examined whether adolescents' initial consequences of sexual activity differ according to type of sexual activity and gender. Surveys were administered to 618 adolescents recruited from 2 public high schools in the autumn of ninth grade (2002) and at 6-month intervals until the spring of tenth grade (2004). Analyses were limited to the 275 adolescents (44%) who reported engaging in oral sex and/or vaginal sex at any assessment. Participants were 14 years of age at study entry, 56% female, and of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. In comparison with adolescents who engaged in oral sex and/or vaginal sex, adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were less likely to report experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection, feeling guilty or used, having their relationship become worse, and getting into trouble with their parents as a result of sex. Adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were also less likely to report experiencing pleasure, feeling good about themselves, and having their relationship become better as a result of sex. Boys were more likely than girls to report feeling good about themselves, experiencing popularity, and experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection as a result of sex, whereas girls were more likely than boys to report feeling bad about themselves and feeling used. Adolescents experience a range of social and emotional consequences after having sex. Our findings have implications for clinical practice and public health campaigns targeted toward youth.

  13. Sex selection and restricting abortion and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Julie

    2007-11-01

    Sex selection in India and China is fostered by a limiting social structure that disallows women from performing the roles that men perform, and relegates women to a lower status level. Individual parents and individual families benefit concretely from having a son born into the family, while society, and girls and women as a group, are harmed by the widespread practice of sex selection. Sex selection reinforces oppression of women and girls. Sex selection is best addressed by ameliorating the situations of women and girls, increasing their autonomy, and elevating their status in society. One might argue that restricting or prohibiting abortion, prohibiting sex selection, and prohibiting sex determination would eliminate sex selective abortion. But this decreases women's autonomy rather than increases it. Such practices will turn underground. Sex selective infanticide, and slower death by long term neglect, could increase. If abortion is restricted, the burden is placed on women seeking abortions to show that they have a legally acceptable or legitimate reason for a desired abortion, and this seriously limits women's autonomy. Instead of restricting abortion, banning sex selection, and sex determination, it is better to address the practice of sex selection by elevating the status of women and empowering women so that giving birth to a girl is a real and positive option, instead of a detriment to the parents and family as it is currently. But, if a ban on sex selective abortion or a ban on sex determination is indeed instituted, then wider social change promoting women's status in society should be instituted simultaneously.

  14. Talking to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Kids and Teens Talking to Your Kids About Sex Talking to Your Kids About Sex Share Print ...

  15. Defining Probability in Sex Offender Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    There is ongoing debate and confusion over using actuarial scales to predict individuals' risk of sexual recidivism. Much of the debate comes from not distinguishing Frequentist from Bayesian definitions of probability. Much of the confusion comes from applying Frequentist probability to individuals' risk. By definition, only Bayesian probability can be applied to the single case. The Bayesian concept of probability resolves most of the confusion and much of the debate in sex offender risk assessment. Although Bayesian probability is well accepted in risk assessment generally, it has not been widely used to assess the risk of sex offenders. I review the two concepts of probability and show how the Bayesian view alone provides a coherent scheme to conceptualize individuals' risk of sexual recidivism.

  16. Sex Differences Influencing Micro- and Macrovascular Endothelial Phenotype In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Virginia H; Kemp, Scott S; Schramm, Christine; Sieveking, Steve; Bingaman, Susan; Yu, Yang; Zaniletti, Isabella; Stockard, Kevin; Wang, Jianjie

    2018-06-09

    (macro- versus microvessel) and sex influenced multiple phenotypic characteristics. Statistical model analysis of EC growth demonstrated an hierarchy of variable importance, recapitulated for other phenotypic characteristics, wherein predictions assuming EC homogeneity Sex Sex and Vessel Origin. Further, patterns of EC mRNA expression by vessel origin and by sex did not predict protein expression. Overall the study demonstrated that accurate assessment of sex-linked EC dysfunction first requires understanding of EC function by position in the vascular tree and by sex. Results from a single EC tissue source/species/sex cannot provide universal insight into the mechanisms regulating in vivo endothelial function in health, no less disease. (250) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  18. Sex workers talk about sex work: six contradictory characteristics of legalised sex work in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Sufia; Hocking, Jane S; Groves, Jan; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2013-01-01

    Despite research suggesting that legal sex work is safe and that emotional risks and social stigma are of greater concern than health risks, much research on sex work has focused on health risks. Given the legalisation of sex work in Victoria, Australia, it is timely to look beyond health. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 female sex workers on their experience of legal sex work, both positive and negative, and the social acceptability of their profession. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key ways that sex workers described sex work. Women saw legal sex work as safer than illegal sex work, but still not socially acceptable. However, they also described six contradictory elements of sex work, which was seen as: financially rewarding and entrapping; empowering and demeaning; increasing some opportunities while reducing others; flexible and demanding; offering both intimacy and competition; and leading to a 'double life'. While legalisation has improved the safety of sex work, stigma and discrimination persist.

  19. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  20. Stress and sex: does cortisol mediate sex change in fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goikoetxea, Alexander; Todd, Erica V; Gemmell, Neil J

    2017-12-01

    Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid (GC) in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal and morphological) are well studied. However, the exact mechanism behind the transduction of the environmental signals into the molecular cascade that underlies this singular process remains largely unknown. We here synthesize current knowledge regarding the role of cortisol in teleost sex change with a focus on two well-described transformations: temperature-induced masculinization and socially regulated sex change. Three non-mutually exclusive pathways are considered when describing the potential role of cortisol in mediating teleost sex change: cross-talk between GC and androgen pathways, inhibition of aromatase expression and upregulation of amh (the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone). We anticipate that understanding the role of cortisol in the initial stages of sex change will further improve our understanding of sex determination and differentiation across vertebrates, and may lead to new tools to control fish sex ratios in aquaculture. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Sex difference and Allee effects shape the dynamics of sex-structured invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Allison K; Kokko, Hanna; Neubert, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    The rate at which a population grows and spreads can depend on individual behaviour and interactions with others. In many species with two sexes, males and females differ in key life-history traits (e.g. growth, survival and dispersal), which can scale up to affect population rates of growth and spread. In sexually reproducing species, the mechanics of locating mates and reproducing successfully introduce further complications for predicting the invasion speed (spread rate), as both can change nonlinearly with density. Most models of population spread are based on one sex, or include limited aspects of sex differences. Here we ask whether and how the dynamics of finding mates interact with sex-specific life-history traits to influence the rate of population spread. We present a hybrid approach for modelling invasions of populations with two sexes that links individual-level mating behaviour (in an individual-based model) to population-level dynamics (in an integrodifference equation model). We find that limiting the amount of time during which individuals can search for mates causes a demographic Allee effect which can slow, delay, or even prevent an invasion. Furthermore, any sex-based asymmetries in life history or behaviour (skewed sex ratio, sex-biased dispersal, and sex-specific mating behaviours) amplify these effects. In contrast, allowing individuals to mate more than once ameliorates these effects, enabling polygynandrous populations to invade under conditions where monogamously mating populations would fail to establish. We show that details of individuals' mating behaviour can impact the rate of population spread. Based on our results, we propose a stricter definition of a mate-finding Allee effect, which is not met by the commonly used minimum mating function. Our modelling approach, which links individual- and population-level dynamics in a single model, may be useful for exploring other aspects of individual behaviour that are thought to impact the

  2. Sex differentials in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-01

    The questions leing considered are whether a higher female than male mortality rate exists in Ceylon, India, and Pakistan, and whether this sex differential can account for the observed high male sex ratios. There is a choice between explaining the recorded masculinity of the Indian population by assuming that the subordinate position of women caused their omission from the census or that it caused their unrecorded death in childhood. The 1951 census report of India states that there is a traditional fondness for male issues in most parts of the country and a corresponding dislike for female children. However, a life table for India applied to the 1951 census gave a higher average female age at death 34.7 years as opposed to 33.5 years for male. Other estimates for India and Pakistan for the period 1951-1961 give 37.8 years for life expectancy for males and 36.98 for females. In 1953 the female death rate in Ceylon was over 80% higher than that of the males in the most reproductive ages, 20-29. In 1963 the female excess mortality at the same ages was still 25%, and in the age group 30-34 almost a 1/3 higher. In India the female death rate at ages 15-44 was 38% higher than that of the males in the 1958-1959 survey and as much as 174% higher in the Khanna rural survey, 1956-1960. In Pakistan a Population growth Estimate experiment conducted during 1962-1965 on a national probability sample has shown that in the ages 15-44 the female death rate was 75% higher than that of the males. High maternal mortality was the major reason. In addition, female mortality among young children over age 1 year was 24% higher in 1965 and 1963. There was little difference between the rates of mortality of the 2 sexes at age 45 and above. Recent trends in Ceylon show considerable improvement in maternal mortality which has reduced by 22% the ratio of female to male mortality at age 15-44. Also the ratio at ages 1-9 fell by 8%. to .1 of a year for every calendar year to 1980.

  3. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  4. Patterns of Family Formation in Response to Sex Ratio Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Ryan; Kramer, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The impact that unbalanced sex ratios have on health and societal outcomes is of mounting contemporary concern. However, it is increasingly unclear whether it is male- or female-biased sex ratios that are associated with family and social instability. From a socio-demographic perspective, male-biased sex ratios leave many men unable to find a mate, elevating competition among males, disrupting family formation and negatively affecting social stability. In contrast, from a mating-market perspective, males are expected to be less willing to marry and commit to a family when the sex ratio is female-biased and males are rare. Here we use U.S. data to evaluate predictions from these competing frameworks by testing the relationship between the adult sex ratio and measures of family formation. We find that when women are rare men are more likely to marry, be part of a family and be sexually committed to a single partner. Our results do not support claims that male-biased sex ratios lead to negative family outcomes due to a surplus of unmarried men. Rather, our results highlight the need to pay increased attention to female-biased sex ratios.

  5. A qualitative exploration of female sex work in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Semple, Shirley J; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Davila, Wendy; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-08-01

    Previous research has documented high rates of STDs and increased risk of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico; however, little is known about the sexual risk behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to explore work history, context of sex work, sexual risk practices, client characteristics, attitudes toward condoms, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Analysis of qualitative data from 25 FSWs revealed that most women entered the sex trade at a young age ( M = 23 years), primarily as a result of financial need. Forty percent were single mothers supporting children. Women worked an average of 6-7 days per week; work shifts ranged from 4 to 13 hr per day. Clients were both Mexican and foreign (mostly American and Asian), and ranged in age from 18 to 80 years. Positive aspects of the job included flexible work hours and good income. Negative aspects of sex work included risks associated with physical assault, diseases, and unwanted pregnancies. Most clients did not want to use a condom and many offered additional money for unprotected sex. FSWs did not like to use condoms because they were perceived as uncomfortable. Most FSWs did not negotiate the use of condoms, had a low knowledge regarding the proper use of condoms, and were reticent to report their own unsafe sex practices. These results suggest the need to develop culturally appropriate safer sex interventions for FSWs in Mexican border cities.

  6. Avian sex, sex chromosomes, and dosage compensation in the age of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2014-04-01

    Comparisons of the sex chromosome systems in birds and mammals are widening our view and deepening our understanding of vertebrate sex chromosome organization, function, and evolution. Birds have a very conserved ZW system of sex determination in which males have two copies of a large, gene-rich Z chromosome, and females have a single Z and a female-specific W chromosome. The avian ZW system is quite the reverse of the well-studied mammalian XY chromosome system, and evolved independently from different autosomal blocs. Despite the different gene content of mammal and bird sex chromosomes, there are many parallels. Genes on the bird Z and the mammal X have both undergone selection for male-advantage functions, and there has been amplification of male-advantage genes and accumulation of LINEs. The bird W and mammal Y have both undergone extensive degradation, but some birds retain early stages and some mammals terminal stages of the process, suggesting that the process is more advanced in mammals. Different sex-determining genes, DMRT1 and SRY, define the ZW and XY systems, but DMRT1 is involved in downstream events in mammals. Birds show strong cell autonomous specification of somatic sex differences in ZZ and ZW tissue, but there is growing evidence for direct X chromosome effects on sexual phenotype in mammals. Dosage compensation in birds appears to be phenotypically and molecularly quite different from X inactivation, being partial and gene-specific, but both systems use tools from the same molecular toolbox and there are some signs that galliform birds represent an early stage in the evolution of a coordinated system.

  7. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Sex ratio variation and sex determination in Urtica dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glawe, Grit Anja

    2006-01-01

    This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied

  9. Sense about Sex: Media, Sex Advice, Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…

  10. Sex differences in adolescent depression: do sex hormones determine vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is

  11. Sex and Age Differences in Attitude toward the Opposite Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Rawley

    1997-01-01

    Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…

  12. Sex Education: Talking to Toddlers and Preschoolers about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/sex-education/art-20044104 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  13. FMRI to probe sex-related differences in brain function with multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Neuper, Christa; Schmidt, Reinhold; Wood, Guilherme; Kronbichler, Martin; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian; Koini, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Background Although established as a general notion in society, there is no solid scientific foundation for the existence of sex-differences in multitasking. Reaction time and accuracy in dual task conditions have an inverse relationship relative to single task, independently from sex. While a more disseminated network, parallel to decreasing accuracy and reaction time has been demonstrated in dual task fMRI studies, little is known so far whether there exist respective sex-related difference...

  14. Sex determination in honeybees: two separate mechanisms induce and maintain the female pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Organisms have evolved a bewildering diversity of mechanisms to generate the two sexes. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) employs an interesting system in which sex is determined by heterozygosity at a single locus (the Sex Determination Locus) harbouring the complementary sex determiner (csd) gene....... Bees heterozygous at Sex Determination Locus are females, whereas bees homozygous or hemizygous are males. Little is known, however, about the regulation that links sex determination to sexual differentiation. To investigate the control of sexual development in honeybees, we analyzed the functions...... and the regulatory interactions of genes involved in the sex determination pathway. We show that heterozygous csd is only required to induce the female pathway, while the feminizer (fem) gene maintains this decision throughout development. By RNAi induced knockdown we show that the fem gene is essential for entire...

  15. Reexamining trends in premarital sex in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence L. Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a heavily cited paper, Finer (2007 asserted that by age 30, 82Š of US women born 1939-1948 engaged in premarital sex, increasing to 94Š for those born 1969-1978. Using the same data, our age 30 estimates are 55Š and 87Š for women born 1939-1948 and 1969-1978. Our analyses thus document strikingly different levels and trends. Methods: We replicate Finer's single-decrement Kaplan-Meier estimates of premarital sex using Cycles 3-6 of the National Survey of Family Growth, the same data as analyzed by him. We then contrast such single-decrement estimates for both premarital sex and first marriage with estimates of the simple percentages in three states: an origin state in which women begin life as never-married virgins and two destination states for first sex and for first marriage, depending on which occurs first. These analyses provide an empirical illustration of the fact that single-decrement estimates cannot be interpreted as simple percentages for demographic processes involving multiple decrements. Results: Our cohort estimates document increases in the percent of US women who had premarital sex by age 25, rising from 53Š to 75Š, 83Š, and 87Š for those born 1939-1948, 1949-1958, 1959-1968, and 1969-1978, respectively. Contribution: Our cohort analyses reveal sharp increases in premarital sex for US women born between 1939 and 1968, with increases most rapid for those born in the 1940s and 1950s. Our findings also reemphasize a standard lesson from formal demography - that single-decrement life table estimates cannot be interpreted as simple percentages for a multiple-decrement demographic process.

  16. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  17. The trouble with sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2011-12-22

    Sex differences in the brain are real and clinically important but often grossly distorted in popular discourse. Considering the public's deep fascination with sex difference research and its impact on issues from mental health to education and workplace equity, neuroscientists should pay greater heed to its misappropriation and to studying how gender enculturation shapes neural function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  19. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  20. Sex Differences Reappraised: A Rebuttal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.

    1975-01-01

    This rebuttal of the criticisms made by Evans and Sperekas points to the fact that sex differences have been found by the authors on locus of control scales, that the purported sex-biased items in the Future Events Test are not necessarily outside the response repetoire of women, and the criticism of including female relevant items cannot be…

  1. Teaching Sex Education in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Jones, Megan R.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the current situation pertaining to the teaching of sex education and identify barriers to teaching sex education among Thai health education teachers. A survey questionnaire was administered to 193 health education teachers who participated in this study. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts:…

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How should people deal with spasticity during sex? play_arrow What about positions and foreplay after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What about orgasms and sensation during sex after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What ...

  3. Moral Pluralism and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corngold, Josh

    2013-01-01

    How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…

  4. Sex in a test tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesce, Diego; Lehman, Niles; Visser, de Arjan

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of sex, and the associated role of recombination, present a major problem in biology. Sex typically involves recombination of closely related DNA or RNA sequences,which is fundamentally a randomprocess that creates but also breaks up beneficial allele combinations.

  5. Sex reassignment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Marta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transsexualism, or gender incongruence, presents a state in which a person's assigned sex at birth conflicts with their psychological gender. It is classified in International Classification of Diseases as F64. Treating these persons require multidisciplinary approach, including psychiatrist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, urologist, plastic and reconstructive surgeon. Genital reconstruction is the final step in transition, and can be performed when all other conditions required by World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH are accomplished. Female to male sex reassignment surgery Several surgical procedures can be done in female to male transsexuals, including mastectomy, removal of female genitalia, metoidioplasty, scrotoplasty with implantation of testicular implants, as well as total phalloplasty. The current operative technique of metoidioplasty comprise the following steps: vaginal removal, the release of the ventral chordee and clitoral ligaments, straightening and lengthening of the clitoris, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. The goal is to perform all these procedures in one stage, and that makes our team famous worldwide. Metoidioplasty results in excellent cosmetic outcome with completely preserved sensitivity and sexual arousal, enables voiding while standing, but without ability to penetrate due to small size of the neophallus. Considering these advantages, including low complication rate, patients often choose this option. For those who require bigger phallus which enables implantation of penile prosthesis, several surgical techniques have been reported using either available local vascularized tissue or microvascular tissue transfer. However, none of them satisfy all the goals of modern penile construction, i.e. reproducibility, tactile and erogenous sensation, a competent neourethra with a meatus at the top of the neophallus

  6. Constructions of Sex and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Responding to the ethical and performative call of Judith Butler not to propagate the sex- and gender-related violence of the imbedded discourse that we study, this article inquires into the discursive strategies of Jewish scripture by analysing how it orchestrates certain norms of sex and gender...... and make them serve the overall aim of securing cultural survival. Following this, it traces reflections on persons of ambiguous or indeterminate sex from rabbinic to modern Judaism so as to inquire into the rabbinic dependency on scripture when non-conforming individuals challenge its bipolar sex...... Jews and non-Jews are able to influence their own representations of sex and gender and thus liberate themselves from the normativity implied by scriptural discourse....

  7. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  8. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  9. Environmental hormones and their impacts on sex differentiation in fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from lands fertilized with animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a source of hormones to surface water. To test the hypothesis that juvenile fathead minnows exposed to sex steroids singly and in a “typical” CAFO mixture while undergoing sex...

  10. Sex-based differences in brain alterations across chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Fling, Connor; Labus, Jennifer S; Naliboff, Bruce D; Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2017-01-02

    Common brain mechanisms are thought to play a significant role across a multitude of chronic pain syndromes. In addition, there is strong evidence for the existence of sex differences in the prevalence of chronic pain and in the neurobiology of pain. Thus, it is important to consider sex when developing general principals of pain neurobiology. The goal of the current Mini-Review is to evaluate what is known about sex-specific brain alterations across multiple chronic pain populations. A total of 15 sex difference and 143 single-sex articles were identified from among 412 chronic pain neuroimaging articles. Results from sex difference studies indicate more prominent primary sensorimotor structural and functional alterations in female chronic pain patients compared with male chronic pain patients: differences in the nature and degree of insula alterations, with greater insula reactivity in male patients; differences in the degree of anterior cingulate structural alterations; and differences in emotional-arousal reactivity. Qualitative comparisons of male-specific and female-specific studies appear to be consistent with the results from sex difference studies. Given these differences, mixed-sex studies of chronic pain risk creating biased data or missing important information and single-sex studies have limited generalizability. The advent of large-scale neuroimaging databases will likely aid in building a more comprehensive understanding of sex differences and commonalities in brain mechanisms underlying chronic pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sex drives intracellular conflict in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E; MacLean, R C; Koufopanou, V; Burt, A

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction, genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction, this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic progeny have a transmission advantage over the rest of the genome and are able to spread, even where they reduce the fitness of the individual as a whole. Sexual reproduction is therefore expected to drive the evolution of selfish genetic elements (SGEs). Here, we directly test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of two independent SGEs, the 2-μm plasmid and selfish mitochondria, in populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following 22 rounds of sexual reproduction, 2-μm copy number increased by approximately 13.2 (±5.6) copies per cell, whereas in asexual populations copy number decreased by approximately 5.1 (±1.5) copies per cell. Given that the burden imposed by this parasite increases with copy number, these results support the idea that sex drives the evolution of increased SGE virulence. Moreover, we found that mitochondria that are respiratory-deficient rapidly invaded sexual but not asexual populations, demonstrating that frequent outcrossed sex can drive the de novo evolution of genetic parasites. Our study highlights the genomic perils of sex and suggests that SGEs may play a key role in driving major evolutionary transitions, such as uniparental inheritance. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Sex change strategy and the aromatase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, L; Anderson, T; Place, A R; Dixon, B; Elizur, A

    2005-04-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is a common reproductive strategy in many teleosts. Steroid production is known to mediate both the natural and induced sex change, yet beyond this the physiology directing this process has received little attention. Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key enzyme in the hormonal pathway catalysing the conversion of sex steroids, androgens to oestrogens, and thus is highly relevant to the process of sex change. This study reports the isolation of cDNA sequences for aromatase isoforms CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 from teleost species representing three forms of sexual hermaphroditism: Lates calcarifer (protandry), Cromileptes altivelis (protogyny), and Gobiodon histrio (bi-directional). Deduced amino acid analysis of these isoforms with other reported isoforms from gonochoristic (single sex) teleosts revealed 56-95% identity within the same isoform while only 48-65% identity between isoforms irrespective of species and sexual strategy. Phylogenetic analysis supported this result separating sequences into isoform exclusive clades in spite of species apparent evolutionary distance. Furthermore, this study isolates 5' flanking regions of all above genes and describes putative cis-acting elements therein. Elements identified include steroidogenic factor 1 binding site (SF-1), oestrogen response element (ERE), progesterone response element (PRE), androgen response element (ARE), glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer responsive element (PPARalpha/RXRalpha), nuclear factor kappabeta (NF-kappabeta), SOX 5, SOX 9, and Wilms tumor suppressor (WTI). A hypothetical in vivo model was constructed for both isoforms highlighting potential roles of these putative cis-acting elements with reference to normal function and sexual hermaphroditism.

  13. [Sex role and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlison, E

    2000-11-01

    Gender inequality in all areas of life remains a global problem despite efforts over the past twenty years in particular to address the situation. In physical activity and sport the inequality between women and men is particularly pronounced in almost all countries, although it differs in degree. Two of the main reasons why inequality between women and men physical activity and sport is more extreme than in many other areas of social life are the result of the close association between the attributes required for sport and those associated with traditional concepts of stereotypical, hegemonic masculinity, and a lack of understanding of the difference between sex and gender. In sport and physical activity physical differences between men and women have been confused with socially constructed differences i.e. physical differences have been confused with gender differences, and this confusion has been used to justify women's lesser and limited participation at all levels. To achieve equality between women and men in physical activity and sport it will be essential that gender is identified and understood as a socially constructed and fluid concept which is a product of the relations between women and men. The fact that women bear children or are generally less physically powerful than men is not sufficient to justify why it is not considered appropriate for women to participate in certain forms of physical activity or why their participation is less valued than the participation of men. An understanding of gender and of the construction of gender relations is an important pre-requisite to addressing the inequality between women and men in physical activity and sport and in developing policies and programs which include, and are of equal benefit to both sexes. While more research on the benefits of participation in physical activity is needed, there is currently sufficient information available to identify the health related and social value of participation to both

  14. Same sex families and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal recognition of the same sex partnerships, family plans of homosexual teenagers, and raising children within and by the same sex partners. Also the real life cases mirroring legal changes through their life destinies are presented, such is e.g. the Irish way to legalization of the same sex partnerships. In addition, a love story of two women crowned by giving birth of their four children is mentioned. Reasons against and negative reactions the author puts under the title Homophobia. In the Concluding remarks, the author presents the most recent examples of legal changes happened in Norway, Ecuador, and in the American states of California and Connecticut. It was also stated that in European countries of low birth rate, the same sex families are inevitably identified as one of demographically valuable source of creating and raising children, which is worthy to be supported, rather than being hindered without reason and discriminated. Although different than a model of heterosexual family, same sex partnerships neither are harrowing to traditional family values, nor reflex of any kind of promiscuous, antisocial behavior, avoidance of parenthood, and negation of family. Quite opposite, these families are an outcome of endeavors of homosexuals not to be deprived of family, parenthood and all of other values of stabile, monogamous, emotional/sexual socially accepted and legally recognized and regulated conventional family. .

  15. Guardian small RNAs and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuma, Susumu; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Kiuchi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The W chromosome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been known to determine femaleness for more than 80 years. However, the feminizing gene has not been molecularly identified, because the B. mori W chromosome is almost fully occupied by a large number of transposable elements. The W chromosome-derived feminizing factor of B. mori was recently shown to be a female-specific PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA). piRNAs are small RNAs that potentially repress invading "non-self" elements (e.g., transposons and virus-like elements) by associating with PIWI proteins. Our results revealed that female-specific piRNA precursors, which we named Fem, are transcribed from the sex-determining region of the W chromosome at the early embryonic stage and are processed into a single mature piRNA (Fem piRNA). Fem piRNA forms a complex with Siwi (silkworm Piwi), which cleaves a protein-coding mRNA transcribed from the Z chromosome. RNA interference of this Z-linked gene, which we named Masc, revealed that this gene encodes a protein required for masculinization and dosage compensation. Fem and Masc both participate in the ping-pong cycle of the piRNA amplification loop by associating with the 2 B. mori PIWI proteins Siwi and BmAgo3 (silkworm Ago3), respectively, indicating that the piRNA-mediated interaction between the 2 sex chromosomes is the primary signal for the B. mori sex determination cascade. Fem is a non-transposable repetitive sequence on the W chromosome, whereas Masc is a single-copy protein-coding gene. It is of great interest how the piRNA system recognizes "self "Masc mRNA as "non-self" RNA.

  16. Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cold-induced alteration in the global structure of the male sex ... dar et al. 1978). Chromosome preparated from a single pair of salivary glands show extremely puffy and diffuse ..... Akhtar A. 2003 Dosage compensation: an intertwined world of.

  17. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Females in Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Schools in Nnewi. Education Zone ... want to know how things work, why they speak and work the way they do. What then is the ... conversations as negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give ... males and females communication style that makes them so different?

  18. Sex, Preference, and Family - Essays on Law and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlund, David M.; Nussbaum, Marth C.

    1998-06-01

    The public furor over issues of same sex marriages, gay rights, pornography, and single-parent families has erupted with a passion not seen since the 1960s. This book gathers seventeen eminent philosophers and legal scholars who offer commentary on sexuality (including sexual behavior, sexual orientation, and the role of pornography in shaping sexuality), on the family (including both same-sex and single-parent families), and on the proper role of law in these areas. The essayists are all fiercely independent thinkers and offer the reader a range of bold and thought-provoking proposals. Susan Moller Okin argues, for instance, that gender ought to be done away with--that differences in biological sex ought to have "no more social relevance than one's eye color or the length of one's toes"--and she urges that we look to same-sex couples as a model for households and families in a gender-free society. And Cass Sunstein suggests that the Supreme Court case Loving vs. Virginia (which overthrew the ban on interracial marriages in Virginia) might be a precedent for overturning laws that bar same-sex marriage: just as Loving overturned miscegenation laws because they were at the service of white supremacy, Sunstein shows, the laws against same-sex marriages and homosexuality are at the service of male supremacy, and might also be overturned. Of vital importance to anyone interested in sexuality, homosexuality, gender, feminism, and the family. Sex, Preference, and the Family both clarifies the current debate and points the way toward a less divisive future.

  19. Talk to Your Kids about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic En español Talk to Your Kids about Sex Browse Sections The Basics Overview Bodies and Puberty ... healthy expectations for their relationships. Talk about opposite-sex and same-sex relationships. When you talk about ...

  20. Identification of sex using lateral cephalogram: Role of cephalofacial parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas Binnal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition of sex is an important aspect of identification of an individual. Apart from pelvis, skull exhibits highest sexual dimorphism in the human body- Lateral cephalograms are an invaluable tool in identification of sex as they reveal architectural and morphological details of the skull on a single radiograph- The equipment required for lateral cephalometry is readily available and the technique is cost-effective, easy to perform, offers quick results, reproducible and can be implemented in any special training for the forensic examiner. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of lateral cephalograms and the nine cephalometric variables in the identification of sex and also to derive a discriminant function equation for identification of sex. Materials and methods: A total of 100 lateral cephalograms were taken of 50 male and 50 female subjects aged between 25 and 54 years belonging to South Indian population. The nine derived cephabmetnc parameters were used to arrive at a discriminant function equation which was further assessed for its reliability among the study subjects. Results: Among nine cephalometric parameters used, seven were reliable in the identification of sex. The derived discriminant function equation accurately identified 88% of the male study subjects as males and 84% of the female subjects as females. Conclusion: The lateral cephalograms and the nine cephalometric variables employed in the study are simple and reliable tools of sexual discrimination. The derived discriminant functional equation can be used to accurately identify sex of an individual belonging to South Indian population

  1. Fungal Sex: The Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco A; Bakkeren, Guus; Sun, Sheng; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-06-01

    Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation. Independent segregation of the two compatibility factors can create four haploid mating genotypes from meiosis, referred to as tetrapolarity. This condition is thought to be ancestral to the basidiomycetes. Alternatively, cosegregation by linkage of the two mating factors, or in some cases the absence of the pheromone-based discrimination, yields only two mating types from meiosis, referred to as bipolarity. Several species are now known to have large and highly rearranged chromosomal regions linked to mating-type genes. At the population level, polymorphism of the mating-type genes is an exceptional aspect of some basidiomycete fungi, where selection under outcrossing for rare, intercompatible allelic variants is thought to be responsible for numbers of mating types that may reach several thousand. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are yielding new insights by comparative approaches among and within basidiomycete species, with the promise to resolve the evolutionary origins and dynamics of mating compatibility genetics in this major eukaryotic lineage.

  2. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  3. Adolescents, sex, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    In the absence of effective sex education in the United States, the media have arguably become the leading sex educator for children and teenagers. Considerable research now exists that attests to the ability of the media to influence adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex and sexuality. In addition, new research has found a significant link between exposure to sexual content in the media and earlier onset of sexual intercourse. Although there is little research on the behavioral effects of "new" media, they are discussed as well. Suggestions for clinicians, parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry are provided.

  4. Whose crazy investment in sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandlis, Lane R

    2011-01-01

    By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."

  5. Reexamining trends in premarital sex in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence L. Wu; Steven Martin; Paula England

    2018-01-01

    Background: In a heavily cited paper, Finer (2007) asserted that by age 30, 82Š of US women born 1939-1948 engaged in premarital sex, increasing to 94Š for those born 1969-1978. Using the same data, our age 30 estimates are 55Š and 87Š for women born 1939-1948 and 1969-1978. Our analyses thus document strikingly different levels and trends. Methods: We replicate Finer's single-decrement Kaplan-Meier estimates of premarital sex using Cycles 3-6 of the National Survey of Family Growth, the s...

  6. Disentangling the benefits of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction remains one of the most fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. Most of the current hypotheses rely on the fact that sex increases genetic variation, thereby enhancing the efficiency of natural selection; an important body of theoretical work has defined the conditions under which sex can be favoured through this effect. Over the last decade, experimental evolution in model organisms has provided evidence that sex indeed allows faster rates of adaptation. A new study on facultatively sexual rotifers shows that increased rates of sex can be favoured during adaptation to new environmental conditions and explores the cause of this effect. The results provide support for the idea that the benefits of increasing genetic variation may compensate for the short-term costs of sexual reproduction.

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What about oral sex after a spinal cord injury? ... injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  8. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a spinal cord injury? ...

  9. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  10. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How is sexual function in women affected by a spinal cord injury? play_arrow ...

  11. Sex differences, gender and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-02

    This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  13. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  14. Sex and Fertility After SCI

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    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ...

  15. Sex and Fertility After SCI

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  16. Sex and Fertility After SCI

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    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  17. Sex and Fertility After SCI

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    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  18. Sex and Fertility After SCI

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    Full Text Available ... after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Can men and women still have sex after a spinal ... injury? play_arrow How is sexual function in men affected by a spinal cord injury ? play_arrow ...

  19. Gender socialization and sex affilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's depth interviews with students of the University of Nis checked for the possibility of receptivity to sexual stereotypes and conditioning of sexual/gender socialization by sexual group affiliation. Examined the experiences and attitudes of students of both sexes regarding early gender socialization and it's characteristically stereotypes, stereotypes about dressing, instrumentalization of sexuality, the influence of parents/environment on the formation of sexual morality, own the gender socialization in the family, twin rules for the socialization of children of different gender and sex/gender roles in marriage. Belonging to the sex group has no effect on susceptibility to sexual stereotypes regarding early gender socialization and dressing. Difference may be seen in the effort to comment on and evaluate the wear behavior of girls more than a young man dressing, which may be an indicator for further research had sexual dimorphism in terms of dressing and nudity. It seems that the experience of respondents of both sexes are dependent primarily from the general family atmosphere (closeness, openness to communicate with each other, the absence of the traditional gender division of roles in the family/emotional distance from the parent of the opposite sex or of both parents, the rigidity, the strict division of gender roles in the family. In the first case, where both parents are involved in the upbringing of the child, relationships are intimate with both, and vice versa. Therefore, we can conclude about the lack of connection between the sex of the child and separated upbringing (traditional: the mother confides sexual education of women, a father of male child in the first case, and a link to another should only check to prove it. Sex does not condition susceptibility to stereotypes about education and gender roles. Traditionally, transitional and modern attitudes are equally represented in subjects of both sexes.

  20. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  1. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...

  2. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  3. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.

  4. Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michod, Richard E; Bernstein, Harris; Nedelcu, Aurora M

    2008-05-01

    Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great outstanding problems in biology. The challenge comes from the difficulty in identifying the benefits provided by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex. Here, we consider the adaptive value of sex in viruses, bacteria and fungi, and particularly the information available on the adaptive role of sex in pathogenic microorganisms. Our general theme is that the varied aspects of sex in pathogens illustrate the varied issues surrounding the evolution of sex generally. These include, the benefits of sex (in the short- and long-term), as well as the costs of sex (both to the host and to the pathogen). For the benefits of sex (that is, its adaptive value), we consider three hypotheses: (i) sex provides for effective and efficient recombinational repair of DNA damages, (ii) sex provides DNA for food, and (iii) sex produces variation and reduces genetic associations among alleles under selection. Although the evolution of sex in microbial pathogens illustrates these general issues, our paper is not a general review of theories for the evolution of sex in all organisms. Rather, we focus on the adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens and conclude that in terms of short-term benefits, the DNA repair hypothesis has the most support and is the most generally applicable hypothesis in this group. In particular, recombinational repair of DNA damages may substantially benefit pathogens when challenged by the oxidative defenses of the host. However, in the long-term, sex may help get rid of mutations, increase the rate of adaptation of the population, and, in pathogens, may infrequently create new infective strains. An additional general issue about sex illustrated by pathogens is that some of the most interesting consequences of sex are not necessarily the reasons for which sex evolved. For example, antibiotic resistance may be transferred by bacterial sex, but this transfer is probably not the reason sex

  5. Sex reassignment surgery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth; Tiewtranon, Preecha

    2004-11-01

    Many years ago Thai society considered transsexualism (Gender identity disorder or Gender dysphoria) which is commonly known as Kathoey (a word originally used to denote hermaphrodites), Sao Prapet Song or Tut (as in 'Tootsie') were low class citizens, dirty dressing and had to hide in a dark corner selling their services as prostitutes. This made us unwilling to do sex reassignment surgery for this group of people because the idea of eradicating normal sexual organs for the purpose that was not accepted by the society. Consequently the authors have experience in cases where these people wandered seeking doctors who had no competency nor enough experience to do the surgery. The authors could not inhibit the desire of these people who usually suffer from gender identity disorder from strongly wishing to change their genital sex to the sex they want. The outcome of the surgery was not satisfactory for the patients. There were complications and sequelae which caused the authors to correct them later which might be more difficult than doing the original surgery. In addition there were more studies about the etiology and affect of the disorder on these people that changed the social point of view. The women who wanted to be a him and men who would like to be a her should be considered as patients who need to be cured to set the harmony about their genetic sex and the desire to be the opposite sex and also to be regarded by others as a member of that other sex. The treatments of transsexualism usually begin with conventional psychiatric and endocrinological treatment to adjust the mind to the body. For those who failed conservative treatment in adjusting the mind to the body then sex reassignment surgery will be the only way to transform their body to their mind and give the best result in properly selected patients. Preecha Tiewtranon, the pioneer in sex reassignment surgery in Thailand, did his transsexualism case in 1975 together with Dr. Prakob Thongpeaw. Sex

  6. Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. A universal and reliable assay for molecular sex identification of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toli, E-A; Calboli, F C F; Shikano, T; Merilä, J

    2016-11-01

    In heterogametic species, biological differences between the two sexes are ubiquitous, and hence, errors in sex identification can be a significant source of noise and bias in studies where sex-related sources of variation are of interest or need to be controlled for. We developed and validated a universal multimarker assay for reliable sex identification of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The assay makes use of genotype scores from three sex-linked loci and utilizes Bayesian probabilistic inference to identify sex of the genotyped individuals. The results, validated with 286 phenotypically sexed individuals from six populations of sticklebacks representing all major genetic lineages (cf. Pacific, Atlantic and Japan Sea), indicate that in contrast to commonly used single-marker-based sex identification assays, the developed multimarker assay should be 100% accurate. As the markers in the assay can be scored from agarose gels, it provides a quick and cost-efficient tool for universal sex identification of three-spined sticklebacks. The general principle of combining information from multiple markers to improve the reliability of sex identification is transferable and can be utilized to develop and validate similar assays for other species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Review of The Sex EDcyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jeff; Andelloux, Megan

    2012-01-01

    While virtually all sex education books for teenagers focus on sexual health, Jo Langford's "The Sex EDcyclopedia" offers comprehensive and empowering information specifically for teen males about their sexuality and how it may be positively experienced. This review examines the strengths of "The Sex EDcyclopedia" as a sex education resource and…

  9. Sex Hormone Receptor Repertoire in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M. Higa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of breast cancer as endocrine sensitive, hormone dependent, or estrogen receptor (ER positive refers singularly to ERα. One of the oldest recognized tumor targets, disruption of ERα-mediated signaling, is believed to be the mechanistic mode of action for all hormonal interventions used in treating this disease. Whereas ERα is widely accepted as the single most important predictive factor (for response to endocrine therapy, the presence of the receptor in tumor cells is also of prognostic value. Even though the clinical relevance of the two other sex hormone receptors, namely, ERβ and the androgen receptor remains unclear, two discordant phenomena observed in hormone-dependent breast cancers could be causally related to ERβ-mediated effects and androgenic actions. Nonetheless, our understanding of regulatory molecules and resistance mechanisms remains incomplete, further compromising our ability to develop novel therapeutic strategies that could improve disease outcomes. This review focuses on the receptor-mediated actions of the sex hormones in breast cancer.

  10. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  11. Sex selection: treating different cases differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Serour, G I; Cook, R J; Qiu, R-Z

    2005-08-01

    This paper contrasts ethical approaches to sex selection in countries where discrimination against women is pervasive, resulting in selection against girl children, and in countries where there is less general discrimination and couples do not prefer children of either sex. National sex ratio imbalances where discrimination against women is common have resulted in laws and policies, such as in India and China, to deter and prevent sex selection. Birth ratios of children can be affected by techniques of prenatal sex determination and abortion, preconception sex selection and discarding disfavored embryos, and prefertilization sperm sorting, when disfavored sperm remain unused. Incentives for son preference are reviewed, and laws and policies to prevent sex selection are explained. The elimination of social, economic and other discrimination against women is urged to redress sex selection against girl children. Where there is no general selection against girl children, sex selection can be allowed to assist families that want children of both sexes.

  12. Bateman's principles and human sex roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gillian R; Laland, Kevin N; Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff

    2009-06-01

    In 1948, Angus J. Bateman reported a stronger relationship between mating and reproductive success in male fruit flies compared with females, and concluded that selection should universally favour 'an undiscriminating eagerness in the males and a discriminating passivity in the females' to obtain mates. The conventional view of promiscuous, undiscriminating males and coy, choosy females has also been applied to our own species. Here, we challenge the view that evolutionary theory prescribes stereotyped sex roles in human beings, firstly by reviewing Bateman's principles and recent sexual selection theory and, secondly, by examining data on mating behaviour and reproductive success in current and historic human populations. We argue that human mating strategies are unlikely to conform to a single universal pattern.

  13. Sex differences in cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeltchev, Krassen; Wiedmer, Sebastian; Schwerzmann, Markus; Windecker, Stephan; Haefeli, Tobias; Meier, Bernhard; Mattle, Heinrich P; Arnold, Marcel

    2008-09-01

    Sex differences in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic stroke have not been systematically analyzed. We aimed to determine sex influences on demographics, vascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, stroke location, and clinical outcome. One thousand two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were admitted to a single stroke center. All patients underwent a complete stroke workup including clinical examination, standard blood tests, cerebral and vascular imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and 24-hour electrocardiography. In 500 patients, no definite etiology could be established (cryptogenic stroke/TIA). Of them, 167 patients (107 men and 60 women, mean age 52 +/- 13 years) had an PFO. The prevalence of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA was higher in men than in women (38% vs 28%, P = .014). Stroke severity and the prevalence of risk factors did not differ between the 2 sexes. There was an independent association between male sex and stroke location in the posterior cerebral circulation (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5, P = .006). Men and women did not differ in respect to PFO grade, prevalence of right-to-left shunt at rest, or coexistence of atrial septal aneurysm. Clinical outcome at 3 months was similar in both sexes. Patent foramen ovale was more prevalent in men than in women with cryptogenic stroke. There were no sex influences on age, risk factors, echocardiographic characteristics of PFO, or clinical outcome. Male sex was independently associated with stroke in the posterior cerebral circulation.

  14. Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae using the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, K L; Janssen, M C L; Stull, K E; van Rijn, R R; Oostra, R J; de Boer, H H; van der Merwe, A E

    2018-05-01

    Sex estimation techniques are frequently applied in forensic anthropological analyses of unidentified human skeletal remains. While morphological sex estimation methods are able to endure population differences, the classification accuracy of metric sex estimation methods are population-specific. No metric sex estimation method currently exists for the Dutch population. The purpose of this study is to create Dutch population specific sex estimation formulae by means of osteometric analyses of the proximal femur. Since the Netherlands lacks a representative contemporary skeletal reference population, 2D plane reconstructions, derived from clinical computed tomography (CT) data, were used as an alternative source for a representative reference sample. The first part of this study assesses the intra- and inter-observer error, or reliability, of twelve measurements of the proximal femur. The technical error of measurement (TEM) and relative TEM (%TEM) were calculated using 26 dry adult femora. In addition, the agreement, or accuracy, between the dry bone and CT-based measurements was determined by percent agreement. Only reliable and accurate measurements were retained for the logistic regression sex estimation formulae; a training set (n=86) was used to create the models while an independent testing set (n=28) was used to validate the models. Due to high levels of multicollinearity, only single variable models were created. Cross-validated classification accuracies ranged from 86% to 92%. The high cross-validated classification accuracies indicate that the developed formulae can contribute to the biological profile and specifically in sex estimation of unidentified human skeletal remains in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the results indicate that clinical CT data can be a valuable alternative source of data when representative skeletal collections are unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid quantification and sex determination of forensic evidence materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréasson, Hanna; Allen, Marie

    2003-11-01

    DNA quantification of forensic evidence is very valuable for an optimal use of the available biological material. Moreover, sex determination is of great importance as additional information in criminal investigations as well as in identification of missing persons, no suspect cases, and ancient DNA studies. While routine forensic DNA analysis based on short tandem repeat markers includes a marker for sex determination, analysis of samples containing scarce amounts of DNA is often based on mitochondrial DNA, and sex determination is not performed. In order to allow quantification and simultaneous sex determination on minute amounts of DNA, an assay based on real-time PCR analysis of a marker within the human amelogenin gene has been developed. The sex determination is based on melting curve analysis, while an externally standardized kinetic analysis allows quantification of the nuclear DNA copy number in the sample. This real-time DNA quantification assay has proven to be highly sensitive, enabling quantification of single DNA copies. Although certain limitations were apparent, the system is a rapid, cost-effective, and flexible assay for analysis of forensic casework samples.

  16. China's marriage squeeze: A decomposition into age and sex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W

    2016-06-01

    Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.

  17. Child rearing practices amongst brothel based commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Geeta; Bhattacharya, S

    2006-07-01

    The experiences of the commercial sex workers as they fulfill the role of being a parent, have rarely been reported. Considering their socioeconomic background, profession and work pattern, the women are bound to face major challenges. To describe child bearing, family support, dietary practices and various placement options for raising children. A cross-sectional descriptive study of brothel-based commercial sex workers. X2 test, Fisher's Exact test. Some commercial sex workers continued pregnancy with the hope of security and support, while others were compelled to do so, as they report late for medical termination of pregnancy. A group of sex workers (Devdasis) received support during pregnancy, delivery, puerperium and child-rearing. The role and responsibilities of raising the child, depended upon the kind of family support available to the mothers. Being a single parent, stigma of the profession, odd working hours and variable family support were major challenges, while the fact that the women were earning, availability of rehabilitation centers, the homogeneous groups within the brothels, supportive peers and local non governmental organizations were factors which helped them in the process of raising their children. Day care centers and night shelters should be opened up in the red light area where the children can be looked after, during the working hours. The sex workers should be educated about weaning and nutrition. The role of peer workers and NGOs was very important in helping the women raise their children.

  18. "What if you already know everything about sex?" Content analysis of questions from early adolescents in a middle school sex education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; Lee, Alice J; Erkut, Sumru

    2012-05-01

    To assess sixth graders' knowledge and curiosity about sex-related topics that can guide the development of sexual health education and healthcare delivery. Sixth graders (n = 795) in eight ethnically diverse schools participating in an evaluation of a sex education curriculum submitted 859 anonymous questions that were content analyzed. The χ(2) analysis examined whether the themes varied by coed/single-sex environments or by school-level sexual risk. Sexual activity, female anatomy, reproduction, and puberty were the most frequently mentioned topics, whereas, questions on STIs, sexual violence, and drug/alcohol use were fewer. Questions that avoided sexual topics came from lower sexual-risk schools; students at higher-risk schools asked about sexual initiation, contraception, vaginal and anal sex, general health, and pain during sex. Single-sex classrooms elicited more direct and explicit questions about sex. The results are relevant to educators and healthcare providers who ask and answer questions from early adolescents regarding sexual health. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  20. Sex differences in cough reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Ioan, I; Demoulin-Alexikova, S

    2017-11-01

    Majority of patients visiting cough clinics are postmenopausal women, who are affected by intractable cough for years. Why the cough reflex becomes exaggerated in women is not known. Basic research excludes females from the studies contributing to the sex bias which may be responsible for lack of understanding of "hypersensitive" cough in women. Biological and behavioural differences between women and men are the factors affecting cough physiology. Gender also shapes the patterns of behaviour and determines the character of environmental exposures which differs between sexes. The article offers an insight into the physiology of the cough, differences in the maturation of it and biological, social and behavioural factors contributing to the sex differences in cough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Incarcerated Dutch Juvenile Sex Offenders Compared with Non-Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2007-01-01

    There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…

  2. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  3. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinze Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias" - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids. Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals. Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony. Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  4. A heritable component in sex ratio and caste determination in a Cardiocondyla ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohschammer, Sabine; Heinze, Jürgen

    2009-10-28

    Studies on sex ratios in social insects provide among the most compelling evidence for the importance of kin selection in social evolution. The elegant synthesis of Fisher's sex ratio principle and Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory predicts that colony-level sex ratios vary with the colonies' social and genetic structures. Numerous empirical studies in ants, bees, and wasps have corroborated these predictions. However, the evolutionary optimization of sex ratios requires genetic variation, but one fundamental determinant of sex ratios - the propensity of female larvae to develop into young queens or workers ("queen bias") - is thought to be largely controlled by the environment. Evidence for a genetic influence on sex ratio and queen bias is as yet restricted to a few taxa, in particular hybrids.Because of the very short lifetime of their queens, ants of the genus Cardiocondyla are ideal model systems for the study of complete lifetime reproductive success, queen bias, and sex ratios. We found that lifetime sex ratios of the ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi have a heritable component. In experimental single-queen colonies, 22 queens from a genetic lineage with a highly female-biased sex ratio produced significantly more female-biased offspring sex ratios than 16 queens from a lineage with a more male-biased sex ratio (median 91.5% vs. 58.5% female sexuals). Sex ratio variation resulted from different likelihood of female larvae developing into sexuals (median 50% vs. 22.6% female sexuals) even when uniformly nursed by workers from another colony.Consistent differences in lifetime sex ratios and queen bias among queens of C. kagutsuchi suggest that heritable, genetic or maternal effects strongly affect caste determination. Such variation might provide the basis for adaptive evolution of queen and worker strategies, though it momentarily constrains the power of workers and queens to optimize caste ratios.

  5. Sex Chromosome Evolution, Heterochiasmy, and Physiological QTL in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J.G. Sutherland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome duplication (WGD can have large impacts on genome evolution, and much remains unknown about these impacts. This includes the mechanisms of coping with a duplicated sex determination system and whether this has an impact on increasing the diversity of sex determination mechanisms. Other impacts include sexual conflict, where alleles having different optimums in each sex can result in sequestration of genes into nonrecombining sex chromosomes. Sex chromosome development itself may involve sex-specific recombination rate (i.e., heterochiasmy, which is also poorly understood. The family Salmonidae is a model system for these phenomena, having undergone autotetraploidization and subsequent rediploidization in most of the genome at the base of the lineage. The salmonid master sex determining gene is known, and many species have nonhomologous sex chromosomes, putatively due to transposition of this gene. In this study, we identify the sex chromosome of Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis and compare sex chromosome identities across the lineage (eight species and four genera. Although nonhomology is frequent, homologous sex chromosomes and other consistencies are present in distantly related species, indicating probable convergence on specific sex and neo-sex chromosomes. We also characterize strong heterochiasmy with 2.7-fold more crossovers in maternal than paternal haplotypes with paternal crossovers biased to chromosome ends. When considering only rediploidized chromosomes, the overall heterochiasmy trend remains, although with only 1.9-fold more recombination in the female than the male. Y chromosome crossovers are restricted to a single end of the chromosome, and this chromosome contains a large interspecific inversion, although its status between males and females remains unknown. Finally, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for 21 unique growth, reproductive, and stress-related phenotypes to improve knowledge of the genetic

  6. Learning about Sex: Resource Guide for Sex Educators. Revised Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Whether you are someone new to the field of sex education, trying to start a library or resource center on adolescent sexual health, or an old pro, this guide should give you a basic orientation to what's available to support your work. These resources are important to advancing positive attitudes toward adolescent sexual health and the author…

  7. Sex Education: Talking to Your Teen about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might miss the best opportunities. Instead, think of sex education as an ongoing conversation. Here are some ideas to help you get started — and keep the discussion going. Seize the moment. When a TV program or music video raises issues about responsible sexual behavior, use it ...

  8. Sex differences and sex similarities in disgust sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Bryan, A.D.; Lieberman, D.L.; Caldwell Hooper, A.E.; Merriman, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Across two studies, we test for sex differences in the factor structure, factor loadings, concurrent validity, and means of the Three Domain Disgust Scale. In Study 1, we find that the Three Domain Disgust Scale has indistinguishable factor structure and factor loadings for men and women. In Study

  9. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  10. Destabilising Sex work and Intimacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    politikfelt prostitution. Undersøgelsen trækker på poststrukturalistisk feministisk teori og er baseret på interviews med kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex, og socialarbejdere samt deltagende observationer og diverse dokumenter. Afhandlingen falder i to dele. Den første del er rammen for de...... fire artikler, som består af en introduktion, en teoretisk ramme, metodeovervejelser og konklusion samt et overordnet forskningsspørgsmål: Hvordan destabiliserer og reproducerer kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex i Danmark, det danske prostitutionspolitikfelts kategorier ’sexarbejde’ og...

  11. AIDS prevention in the sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C

    1992-01-01

    Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully

  12. Pupil-led sex education in England (RIPPLE study): cluster-randomised intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J M; Strange, V; Forrest, S; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Allen, E; Babiker, A; Black, S; Ali, M; Monteiro, H; Johnson, A M

    Improvement of sex education in schools is a key part of the UK government's strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England. We examined the effectiveness of one form of peer-led sex education in a school-based randomised trial of over 8000 pupils. 29 schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). In intervention schools, peer educators aged 16-17 years delivered three sessions of sex education to 13-14 year-old pupils from the same schools. Primary outcome was unprotected (without condom) first heterosexual intercourse by age 16 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. By age 16 years, significantly fewer girls reported intercourse in the peer-led arm than in the control arm, but proportions were similar for boys. The proportions of pupils reporting unprotected first sex did not differ for girls (8.4% intervention vs 8.3% control) or for boys (6.2% vs 4.7%). Stratified estimates of the difference between arms were -0.4% (95% CI -3.7% to 2.8%, p=0.79) for girls and -1.4% (-4.4% to 1.6%, p=0.36) for boys. At follow-up (mean age 16.0 years [SD 0.32]), girls in the intervention arm reported fewer unintended pregnancies, although the difference was borderline (2.3% vs 3.3%, p=0.07). Girls and boys were more satisfied with peer-led than teacher-led sex education, but 57% of girls and 32% of boys wanted sex education in single-sex groups. Peer-led sex education was effective in some ways, but broader strategies are needed to improve young people's sexual health. The role of single-sex sessions should be investigated further.

  13. [Sex differences and anesthesiology: preface and comments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishno, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In this special issue, the topic of sex difference in the field of anesthesiology is featured. Eight subtopics are discussed including 1) sex differences in cardiovascular medicine, 2) perioperative cardiovascular management, 3) sex differences in the respiratory functions of the upper airway, 4) sex differences in the anesthetic management, 5) sex differences in pain, 6) sex differences in laboratory medicine, 7) sex differences in pharmacokinetics of anesthetics, and 8) postoperative nausea and vomiting. Although recent clinical and experimental studies have shown the existence of sex and/or gender differences in many fields of medicine, our knowledge of sex differences in anesthesiology is apparently insufficient. I believe that anesthesiologists should pay more attention to this topic to improve our daily practice of anesthesia.

  14. Sex, Lies and Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

  15. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  16. Studying Sex Prejudice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nancy J.; Willemsen, Eleanor W.

    1978-01-01

    Explores a methodology for studying sex prejudice in children. First-, third-, and fifth-grade students were asked to rate the performance of an eight-year-old child identified as a girl for half of the subjects and as a boy for the remaining half. (BD)

  17. A Talk on Sex Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    The topic of this speech covers the 1972 amendments to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the subsequent court cases dealing with sex discrimination. The cases discussed cover maternity leaves for tenured as well as untenured teachers and other public employees. The issues basic to these cases involve mandatory maternity leaves at…

  18. Sex, spite, and selfish genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nature's oracle: the life and work of W. D. Hamilton. Ullica Segerstrale .... Stemming partly from his study of sex ratios, Hamilton later began moving on to .... any scientific biography, has to strike a balance between sci- ence and the personal ...

  19. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oral medications for erectile dysfunction? play_arrow What do people do with a catheter during sex? play_arrow How ... after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How do women deal with menstruation after a spinal cord ...

  20. Sex and the Imperfect Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures. We then describe specific studies that led to the discovery of mating and sex in certain Candida , Aspergillus , Penicillium , and Trichoderma species and discuss the implications of sex including the beneficial exploitation of the sexual cycle. We next consider whether there might be any truly asexual fungal species. We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. Finally, we argue that fungal species should not be thought of as simply asexual or sexual, but rather as being composed of isolates on a continuum of sexual fertility.

  1. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How does caregiving for your partner often affect romantic relationships? play_arrow What are the common treatments for ... play_arrow How does a spinal cord injury affect male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and ... Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  3. Great tit hatchling sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of

  4. Sex chromosomes in Ephestia kuehniella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Sahara, K.; Traut, W.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2001), s. 131 ISSN 0003-3995. [European Cytogenetics Conference /3./. 07.07.2001-10.07.2001, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Telomere * sex chromosomes * chromosome fragments Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  6. Sex determination in the Hymenoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimpel, George E.; de Boer, Jetske G.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant and ancestral mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, in which diploid females develop from fertilized eggs and haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs. We discuss recent progress in the understanding of the genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms

  7. The prostitutions: power and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Nunziante Cesaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary scenario features many and unusual versions of the sexual mercenary exchange, articulating new dynamics of desire. Prostitution remains a “question” which interrogates the gender and the difference between the sexes. According to a Freudian perspective, the authors present some reflection on the forms of sexuality today.

  8. Usage of the Terms Prostitution, Sex Work, Transactional Sex, and Survival Sex: Their Utility in HIV Prevention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather; Rawstorne, Patrick

    2018-07-01

    This article considers the terms prostitution, sex work, transactional sex, and survival sex, the logic of their deployment and utility to research concerned with people who are paid for sex, and HIV. The various names for paid sex in HIV research are invested in strategically differentiated positionings of people who receive payment and emphasize varying degrees of choice. The terminologies that seek to distinguish a range of economically motivated paid sex practices from sex work are characterized by an emphasis on the local and the particular, efforts to evade the stigma attached to the labels sex worker and prostitute, and an analytic prioritizing of culture. This works to bestow cultural legitimacy on some locally specific forms of paid sex and positions those practices as artifacts of culture rather than economy. This article contends that, in HIV research in particular, it is necessary to be cognizant of ways the deployment of alternative paid sex categories relocates and reinscribes stigma elsewhere. While local identity categories may be appropriate for program implementation, a global category is necessary for planning and funding purposes and offers a purview beyond that of isolated local phenomena. We argue that "sex work" is the most useful global term for use in research into economically motivated paid sex and HIV, primarily because it positions paid sex as a matter of labor, not culture or morality.

  9. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...

  10. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  11. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation to infer sex ratios from acoustic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Lisa; Schorcht, Wigbert; Karst, Inken; Biedermann, Martin; Kerth, Gerald; Puechmaille, Sebastien J

    2018-01-01

    Population sex ratios are of high ecological relevance, but are challenging to determine in species lacking conspicuous external cues indicating their sex. Acoustic sexing is an option if vocalizations differ between sexes, but is precluded by overlapping distributions of the values of male and female vocalizations in many species. A method allowing the inference of sex ratios despite such an overlap will therefore greatly increase the information extractable from acoustic data. To meet this demand, we developed a novel approach using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to infer the sex ratio of populations from acoustic data. Additionally, parameters characterizing the male and female distribution of acoustic values (mean and standard deviation) are inferred. This information is then used to probabilistically assign a sex to a single acoustic signal. We furthermore develop a simpler means of sex ratio estimation based on the exclusion of calls from the overlap zone. Applying our methods to simulated data demonstrates that sex ratio and acoustic parameter characteristics of males and females are reliably inferred by the ABC approach. Applying both the ABC and the exclusion method to empirical datasets (echolocation calls recorded in colonies of lesser horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus hipposideros) provides similar sex ratios as molecular sexing. Our methods aim to facilitate evidence-based conservation, and to benefit scientists investigating ecological or conservation questions related to sex- or group specific behaviour across a wide range of organisms emitting acoustic signals. The developed methodology is non-invasive, low-cost and time-efficient, thus allowing the study of many sites and individuals. We provide an R-script for the easy application of the method and discuss potential future extensions and fields of applications. The script can be easily adapted to account for numerous biological systems by adjusting the type and number of groups to be

  12. Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clougherty, Jane E; Eisen, Ellen A; Slade, Martin D; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards. We examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14, 618 white- and blue-collar aluminium manufacturing employees in eight US states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine the effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job status, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.97) and partnered men with children less likely (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.83). Education, age at hire and race influenced job status for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.35). Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (eg, single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, and finer exploration of sex-linked biological differences influencing responsivity to workplace exposures, is warranted.

  13. Sex, Sexuality, Sexting, and SexEd: Adolescents and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane D.; Keller, Sarah; Stern, Susannah

    2009-01-01

    The traditional media (television, radio, movies, magazines) and new, digital media (the Internet, Social Networking Sites such as Facebook and Myspace, and cell phones) have become important sex educators for adolescents. Adolescents in the United States spend six to seven hours a day with some form of media, often using more than one kind…

  14. Sex and Prevention Concerns for Positive People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with any comments or concerns. February 17, 2011 Sex and prevention concerns for positive people Facebook Twitter ... partner, and vice versa. The reality of safer sex You put yourself at risk for infections through ...

  15. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.

  16. The Teacher and Sex Role Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1974-01-01

    In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)

  17. Conservation of sex chromosomes in lacertid lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Vukič, J.; Altmanová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Moravec, J.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 13 (2016), s. 3120-3126 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : lizards * molecular sex ing * reptiles * sex chromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  18. Sex differences in intracranial arterial bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    . The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....

  19. SEX DETERMINATION FROM FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-01

    Mar 1, 2000 ... In medico-legal cases where sophisticated methods of sex determination is lacking, these ... scientific methods(3). Using the visual method ... between the sexes and the values of the right and left femoral head diameters.

  20. Sexing the Brain: The Science and Pseudoscience of Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley J. Rogers

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent upsurge in unitary biological explanations for gender differences in behavior (i.e. that they are “hard-wired” in the genetic code, put forward not only in books written for a general audience but also in scientific papers, makes it important to examine the fallacies of these ideas. Such genetic and hormonal explanations of human behavior, formulated with little consideration of the influences of experience, and often without taking experience into account at all, are part of a new wave of genetic explanations for a broad range of human behavior, as explained in the paper. These ideas are far from new; moreover, they are pseudoscientific and are used for political influence under the guise of science. They are a conservative social force that maintains social and educational inequalities between women and men. This paper explains that causal explanations of differences between the sexes are of two completely different types: unitary (genetic determinist versus interactive explanations. The false reasoning used to support genetic determinist explanations of sex differences in behavior is discussed. To illustrate what biology really tells us about gender differentiation, the paper discusses the interactive roles of genetic, hormonal and environmental influences on the development of gender differences. These interactions are illustrated using two model biological systems (e.g. the intertwined influences of genes, sex hormones and experience on the development of sex differences in behavior in rats, and sex differences in neuronal connections in chickens. There is plenty of scientific evidence to show the complex interactive, and ever changing, influences of experience and genes that take place as an organism develops and throughout its life. Malleability of brain and behavior can be shown clearly using animal models, and the processes involved apply also to the development of brain and behavior in humans. We diminish our understanding

  1. Meeting your match: How attractiveness similarity affects approach behavior in mixed-sex dyads

    OpenAIRE

    van Straaten, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Holland, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated approach behavior toward opposite-sex others of similar versus dissimilar physical attractiveness. Furthermore, it tested the moderating effects of sex. Single participants interacted with confederates of high and low attractiveness. Observers rated their behavior in terms of relational investment (i.e., behavioral efforts related to the improvement of interaction fluency, communication of positive interpersonal affect, and positive self-presentation). As ...

  2. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  3. Sex work, immigration and social difference

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Public discourses around ‘migrant sex workers’ are often more confident about what migrant sex workers signify morally (i.e. vulnerability, criminality) but are less clear about who the ‘migrant’ is. This thesis interrogates the implications of the ‘migrant sex worker’ category based on semi-structured interviews with 65 immigrant, migrant and racialised women in sex work and two support staff in Melbourne, Australia and Vancouver, Canada during 2013–2014. Specifically, I employ an intersecti...

  4. Sex differences in the outcomes of stent implantation in mini-swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunio, Mie; Wong, Gee; Markham, Peter M; Edelman, Elazer R

    2018-01-01

    Sex-related differences have been noted in cardiovascular anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment responses, yet we continued to drive evaluation of vascular device development in animal models without consideration of animal sex. We aimed to understand sex-related differences in the vascular responses to stent implantation by analyzing the pooled data of endovascular interventions in 164 Yucatan mini-swine (87 female, 77 male). Bare metal stents (BMS) or drug-eluting stents (DES) were implanted in 212 coronary arteries (63 single BMS implantation, 68 single DES implantation, 33 overlapped BMS implantation, and 48 overlapped DES implantation). Histomorphological parameters were evaluated from vascular specimens at 3-365 days after stent implantation and evaluated values were compared between female and male groups. While neointima formation at all times after implantation was invariant to sex, statistically significant differences between female and male groups were observed in injury, inflammation, adventitial fibrosis, and neointimal fibrin deposition. These differences were observed independently, i.e., for different procedure types and at different follow-up timings. Only subtle temporal sex-related differences were observed in extent and timing of resolution of inflammation and fibrin clearance. These subtle sex-related differences may be increasingly important as interventional devices meld novel materials that erode and innovations in drug delivery. Erodible materials may act differently if inflammation has a different temporal sequence with sex, and drug distribution after balloon or stent delivery might be different if the fibrin clearance speaks to different modes of pharmacokinetics in male and female swine.

  5. Analyzing Medical Students' Definitions of Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Heather; Cho, Janice; Strassberg, Donald S.; Rullo, Jordan E.

    2016-01-01

    An inaccurate definition of what constitutes sex can negatively impact the sexual health and wellbeing of patients. This study aimed to determine which behaviors medical students consider to be sex. Survey questions about various sexual behaviors were administered to medical students. All participants agreed that penile-vaginal penetration is sex.…

  6. More on the New Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, Jacqueline

    1980-01-01

    Replies to Paul V. Crosbie's criticisms. Argues that: reports of teenage sexuality and pregnancy are exaggerated; sex education programs encourage acceptance of every form of sexual expression; parents cannot always control their children's participation in sex education; and teachers are not equipped to teach sex education in a neutral fashion.…

  7. Sex Ideologies in China: Examining Interprovince Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national "sex revolution" is under way. However, China's internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China's distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the "rice theory." The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China's ideational landscape of sex.

  8. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  9. Sexual Stratification and Sex-Role Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanFossen, Beth Ensiminger

    1977-01-01

    Data on sex-role values of a sample of college women are examined to ascertain the effect of family structure, social class, and religion on sex-role values, and to support a structural theory of sex-role socialization. (Author)

  10. Sex Differences in Assertiveness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Charles; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Validates the "College Self-Expression Scale." Shows that females are significantly more assertive, and that in one of the criterion situations each sex was significantly more assertive toward members of the same sex than members of the opposite sex. (RL)

  11. HIV and safe, healthy sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    If a woman wants to become pregnant, how can she reduce her risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections? When a young man is growing up and worried about his future, how can you expect him to be concerned about HIV? Many HIV prevention projects focus on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections without considering people's broader reproductive and sexual health concerns. HIV prevention depends on people being able to make choices about their sexual behavior. This means understanding how their bodies work, knowing what choices are available to them, and having the confidence and skills to discuss and make changes in their sexual and reproductive lives. HIV educators, family planning workers, youth counselors, and others need to be able to respond to a range of questions and concerns in a sensitive and supportive way. This special, double issue of AIDS Action provides basic facts about the reproductive system, fertility, sexually transmitted infections and contraception, and looks at the links between HIV, sex, and reproduction. Talking about sex can be difficult. Sex is a private matter and people often feel embarrassed talking about it. This issue also contains tips for communication and activities to find out what people know already and help them learn. You may find that not everything in this issue is necessary for the people you are working with. This is a 'pick and mix' issue for you to pick out what is useful, adapting it if you wish. full text

  12. MODERN TEENAGER (HIGHLANDER AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Fedyk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The age at which you can start or be sexually active - a very interesting question, which concerned not only parents, but also psychologists. Usually, you can not answer the question of when and to whom to start having sex. However, there are certain statistics that the average age of sexual debut in adolescents - is 15 years for girls and 14 for boys. Now we are talking about European society, about what is happening in Ukraine, particularly in mountainous areas. The fact that the willingness in principle to sexual intercourse is associated with physiological aspects. There is a notion in sexology - sexual constitution. There are several factors play a role, of course, one of which is constitutional, but not always, psychological maturity and sexual constitution, rather, because of the need for sexual constitution in holding intercourse can match. That is, some teens may be physiologically ready for sexual intercourse at 12-13 years, but the question arises: Are they psychologically? And probably we can not give a definite answer to this question, because curiosity taboo in society, which in the majority rejects teen sex, pushing them into early sexual relations. Nevertheless, probably still age readiness and psychological and physiological - is 18-19 years if we are talking about teen sex.

  13. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  14. Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The sexual domain is unified only by the phenomenal quality of the occurrence of the desires, activities, and pleasures it includes. There is no conceptual restriction on the range of intentional objects those desires, activities, and pleasures can take. Neither is there good conceptual reason to privilege any class of them as paradigmatic. Since the quality unifying the sexual is not morally significant, the morality of sexuality is no different from morality in general. The view that partic...

  15. Sex differences in drug use among polysubstance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Hoffman, Lauren A; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2014-12-01

    Available evidence indicates women with substance use disorders may experience more rapid progression through usage milestones (telescoping). The few investigations of sex differences in treatment-seeking populations often focus on single substances and typically do not account for significant polysubstance abuse. The current study examined sex differences in a heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking polysubstance users. We examined patterns of drug use, age at drug use milestones (e.g., initial use, regular use), and progression rates between milestones. Nicotine and alcohol use were also evaluated. Participants (n = 543; 288 women) completed personal histories of substance use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, as well as inventories assessing affect, and intellectual ability. Rates of drug use and milestone ages varied by sex and specific drug. Analyses suggested pronounced telescoping effects for pain medication and marijuana, with women progressing more rapidly through usage milestones. Our data were generally supportive of telescoping effects, although considerable variance in progression measures was noted. The contrast between the marked telescoping observed in pain medication use and the absence of telescoping in other opioids was of particular interest. The discrepancy in telescoping effects, despite shared pharmacologies, suggests the need for further work examining underlying psychosocial factors. These results highlight that the specific sample population, substance, and outcome measure should be carefully considered when interpreting sex differences in substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Population and sex differences in Drosophila melanogaster brain gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalán Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in gene regulation are thought to be crucial for the adaptation of organisms to their environment. Transcriptome analyses can be used to identify candidate genes for ecological adaptation, but can be complicated by variation in gene expression between tissues, sexes, or individuals. Here we use high-throughput RNA sequencing of a single Drosophila melanogaster tissue to detect brain-specific differences in gene expression between the sexes and between two populations, one from the ancestral species range in sub-Saharan Africa and one from the recently colonized species range in Europe. Results Relatively few genes (Cyp6g1 and CHKov1. Conclusions Analysis of the brain transcriptome revealed many genes differing in expression between populations that were not detected in previous studies using whole flies. There was little evidence for sex-specific regulatory adaptation in the brain, as most expression differences between populations were observed in both males and females. The enrichment of genes with sexually dimorphic expression on the X chromosome is consistent with dosage compensation mechanisms affecting sex-biased expression in somatic tissues.

  17. Local offspring density and sex ratio affect sex allocation in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; van der Velde, Marco; Radersma, Reinder; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Komdeur, Jan; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The expected fitness gain for offspring of a given sex may depend on local population sex ratio and density. Knowing the influence of such social factors on brood sex ratios may contribute considerably to the understanding of sex allocation in higher vertebrates. For 3 consecutive years, we

  18. A Theoretical Analysis of Sex Differences In Same-Sex Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)

  19. Sex Education and Sex Stereotypes: Theory and Practice. Working Paper No. 198.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This paper presents an explanation of practitioners' reactions to sex equitable sex education. Several constraints can prohibit practitioners from engaging in sex equitable sex education: (1) lack of community support; (2) lack of expertise in human sexuality education; (3) vagueness of school committee views; and (4) lack of answers to logistical…

  20. Sex and the Filipino adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigan, G

    1979-01-01

    Very little is known about Filipino adolescents. Professional opinion varies enormously as to what is to be considered normal and abnormal. 1 aspect of adolescence which is agreed upon is that it is a period of great change. What brings on puberty is a controversial topic. Nutrition and genetic inheritance have been found to affect the age at which menstruation begins. Environment plays a large role in emotional and social growth. Filipino sex education is rather haphazard. A study of over 5000 adolescents in 1972-73 showed that sexual information was gained principally from pornographic literature, movies, television and friends. Boys also watched strip-tease acts and went to houses of prostitution. 2/3 of males and 3/4 of females had had crushes, while over 1/2 of both sexes had "gone steady" by age 16. Boys fell in love more often and less seriously than did girls. Girls generally have more adjustment problems in adolescence than do boys. Among Filipino adolescents, dating is the top ranking sex-related problem. Both sexes are concerned with what is the proper behavior in dating. Dating is an erotic as well as a social experience for Filipino adolescents. Premarital sexual activity is now receiving more tolerance. Urban males are less concerned with the virginity of their brides, but adults are still intolerant. Perhaps the present generation of adolescents is the harbinger of a new sexual morality. Fertility rates for 15-19 year olds have been declining since the 1960s. However, among adolescents with problems, pregnancy ranks high. Homosexuals are more visible in the Philippines now, as they are being more tolerated. Adolescent fertility is the last great challenge in the family planning field. Problems are unwillingness of counselors to participate in studies and a paucity of basic research. 3 studies are now being conducted in the Metro Manila area. Peer counseling and multiservice centers which provide relative anonymity are 2 approaches which shoul d be

  1. The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.; Benbow, Camilla P.; Geary, David C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    influences; training and experience; and cultural practices. We conclude that early experience, biological factors, educational policy, and cultural context affect the number of women and men who pursue advanced study in science and math and that these effects add and interact in complex ways. There are no single or simple answers to the complex questions about sex differences in science and mathematics. PMID:25530726

  2. Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality: the role of risky impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P

    2010-12-23

    Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female) on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34) and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  3. Sex Differences in Same-Sex Direct Aggression and Sociosexuality: The Role of Risky Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine P. Cross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34 and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  4. Governing sex work in the city

    OpenAIRE

    Laing, Mary; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Sex work is often constructed as an urban "problem". As a result, sex workers, clients and the spaces in which people buy or sell sex are frequently the subject of intervention from those governing cities. This paper considers the ways in which problems and solutions are framed in the wider governance of sex work in cities in the global north. It draws on a range of academic literature to show how the urban governance of sex work takes relational and territorial forms. Governance is relationa...

  5. Screening Sex: revelando e dissimulando o sexo Screening Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Williams

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, procura-se contar a história da exibição do sexo em filmes majoritariamente produzidos nos Estados Unidos no período de quase um século. Ao se perguntar quando, porque e como os Estados Unidos se transformaram de uma cultura que não exibia o sexo em uma que o exibe, a autora insiste no duplo significado do verbo screen (tanto como uma revelação quanto uma dissimulação. Exibir é revelar em uma tela. Mas um segundo e igualmente importante significado, como diz o dicionário é "proteger ou esconder atrás de uma tela". Os filmes tanto revelam como escondem. O artigo analisa a forma como mudanças sociais ocorridas nos Estados Unidos, como, por exemplo, a Revolução sexual dos anos 60 e novas visões a respeito da sexualidade, possibilitaram novas maneiras de representação do sexo no cinema, reorganizando a relação entre o público e o privado. O artigo se pergunta também sobre como nossos corpos e sentidos reagem ao encontro com o sexo na tela, introduzindo a ideia de "saber carnal" (carnal knowledge.In this paper, we try to tell the history of the exhibition of sex in movies mainly produced in the United States in almost a century. Asking when, why and how the United States became - from a culture that did not exhibit sex - into a culture that exhibits it, the author insists in the double sense of the verb to screen (as both a revelation and a dissimulation. To exhibit is to reveal in a screen. But another, and important, sense, as says the dictionary, is "to protect or hide behind a screen". Movies show as well as they reveal. The paper analyzes the way social change in the United States, for example the sexual revolution of the sixties and new views on sexuality allowed new ways of representing sex in the movies, creating a new relation between public and private. The paper also asks how our bodies and senses react to sex in the screen, introducing the idea of "carnal knowledge".

  6. Evolution of sex-biased maternal effects in birds: I. Sex-specific resource allocation among simultaneously growing oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R L; Badyaev, A V

    2004-11-01

    Females in species that produce broods of multiple offspring need to partition resources among simultaneously growing ova, embryos or neonates. In birds, the duration of growth of a single egg exceeds the ovulation interval, and when maternal resources are limited, a temporal overlap among several developing follicles in the ovary might result in a trade-off of resources among them. We studied growth of oocytes in relation to their future ovulation order, sex, and overlap with other oocytes in a population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) where strongly sex-biased maternal effects are favoured by natural selection. We found pronounced differences in growth patterns between oocytes that produced males and females. Male oocytes grew up to five times faster and reached their ovulation size earlier than female oocytes. Early onset and early termination of male oocytes' growth in relation to their ovulation resulted in their lesser temporal overlap with other growing ova compared with female oocytes. Consequently, ovulation mass of female but not male oocytes was strongly negatively affected by temporal overlap with other oocytes. In turn, mass of male oocytes was mostly affected by the order of ovulation and by maternal incubation strategy. These results provide a mechanism for sex-biased allocation of maternal resources during egg formation and provide insights into the timing of the sex-determining meiotic division in relation to ovulation in this species.

  7. Sex allocation in fungus-growing ants: worker or queen control without symbiont-induced female bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2008-01-01

    The fungal cultivars of fungus-growing ants are vertically transmitted by queens but not males. Selection would therefore favor cultivars that bias the ants' sex ratio towards gynes, beyond the gyne bias that is optimal for workers and queens. We measured sex allocation in 190 colonies of six...... sympatric fungus-growing ant species. As predicted from relatedness, female bias was greater in four singly mated Sericomyrmex and Trachymyrmex species than in two multiply mated Acromyrmex species. Colonies tended to raise mainly a single sex, which could be partly explained by variation in queen number......, colony fecundity, and fungal garden volume for Acromyrmex and Sericomyrmex, but not for Trachymyrmex. Year of collection, worker number and mating frequency of Acromyrmex queens did not affect the colony sex ratios. We used a novel sensitivity analysis to compare the population sex allocation ratios...

  8. Sex tourism among Chinese men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional observational study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, J; Tang, W; Liu, C; Wong, NS; Tang, S; Wei, C; Tucker, JD

    2018-01-01

    Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic charac...

  9. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  10. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  11. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise, Food and Drug Administration rules excluded women of childbearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more ADRs than men; the classic sex hormone paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and TK including absorption, distribution, metabolisms, and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical, and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging.

  12. [Mobile genetic elements in plant sex evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenkov, G A; Rozhnova, N A

    2010-11-01

    The most significant theories of the appearance and maintenance of sex are presented. However, in the overwhelming majority of existing theories, the problem of sex, which is the central problem of evolutionary biology, is considered primarily through the prism of reproductive features of living organisms, whereas the issue of molecular driving forces of sexual reproduction id restricted to the possible role of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the appearance of sexual reproduction. The structural and functional significance of MGEs in the genomic organization of plants is illustrated. It is shown that MGEs could act as important molecular drivers of sex evolution in plants. The involvement of MGEs in the formation of sex chromosomes and possible participation in seeds-without-sex reproduction (apomixis) is discussed. Thus, the hypothesis on the active MGE participation in sex evolution is in good agreement with the modern views on pathways and directions of sex evolution in plants.

  13. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  14. 'Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth': Sex talk and sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattman, Rob; Chege, Fatuma

    2003-01-01

    problematising them, and without reproducing stereotypes of boys as subjects and girls as objects of sexual desire. We examine the implications of this for single sex and mixed group work and for addressing 'sexual harassment'. Importantly, we found that both girls and boys described people of the opposite sex and heterosexual desire very differently in mixed-sex group interviews and in the diaries they kept. Rather than addressing girls and boys as unitary gendered subjects, we argue for approaches in HIV/AIDS education, which are responsive to the different and contradictory ways boys and girls present themselves and talk about sexual desire and the opposite sex in different contexts.

  15. Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed.

  16. "We Might Get Some Free Beers": Experience and Motivation for Transactional Sex Among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Anna L; Pasomsouk, Nakhornphet; Hughes, Chad; van Gemert, Caroline; Higgs, Peter; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hellard, Margaret; Power, Robert

    2017-05-01

    People engaging in transactional sex are considered a key population for HIV prevention. Prior quantitative surveys demonstrated that behaviorally bisexual men in Vientiane, Laos commonly transact sex. In 2013, we conducted a qualitative study to explore behaviorally bisexual men's experience, motivations, and perceptions related to transactional sex in Vientiane. Behaviorally bisexual men were recruited from bars, nightclubs, and dormitories for five focus group discussions (FGDs) and 11 in-depth interviews (n = 31). Additionally, young women were recruited from a university, garment factory, and nightclub for four FGDs (n = 22). Transcripts were translated and thematically coded. Bisexual male participants most commonly described being paid for sex by male-to-female transgender people and buying sex from women. Both male and female participants reported that older, single women pay younger men for sex. Negotiation and direction of sexual transactions are influenced by age, attraction, and wealth. Common motivations for selling sex included the need for money to support family or fund school fees, material gain, or physical pleasure. Transactional sex was often opportunistic. Some behaviorally bisexual men reported selling sex in order to pay another more desirable sex partner or to buy gifts for their regular sex partner. Participants perceived high risk associated with intercourse with female sex workers but not with other transactional sex partners. Health interventions are needed to improve knowledge, risk perception, and health behaviors, but must recognize the diversity of transactional sex in Vientiane. Both physical and virtual settings may be appropriate for reaching behaviorally bisexual men and their partners.

  17. Genetic sex determination and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Gadau, Jürgen; Page, Robert E

    2006-02-01

    Genetic factors can affect the probability of extinction either by increasing the effect of detrimental variants or by decreasing the potential for future adaptive responses. In a recent paper, Zayed and Packer demonstrate that low variation at a specific locus, the complementary sex determination (csd) locus in Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), can result in a sharply increased probability of extinction. Their findings illustrate situations in which there is a feedback process between decreased genetic variation at the csd locus owing to genetic drift and decreased population growth, resulting in an extreme type of extinction vortex for these ecologically important organisms.

  18. Men who advertise for sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, M E

    1978-01-01

    This content analysis of 1,111 paid ads in the Advocate identifies 17 self-descriptive categories in the "Personals" (PER) and "Models, Masseurs, and Escorts" (MME) sections of the "Trader Dick" supplement. Advertisers place primary emphases on sex and masculinity. Among MME, youthfulness, handsomeness, and sexiness are important, promoting versatility in place of specificity when mentioning sexual acts. PER advertisers, however, indicate concerns about age, race, and finding lovers. They also detail specific sexual interests and reject a variety of unacceptable behaviors.

  19. Sex differences in human epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-09-01

    In the majority of neuropsychiatric conditions, marked gender-based differences have been found in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of disease. Emerging data suggest that gender differences exist also in the epidemiology, and pathophysiology of epilepsy. The present review summarizes the current information regarding gender and epilepsy. These differences are regarded from the perspective of innate sex differences in cerebral morphology, structural and functional connections, and assuming that these differences may render men and women differently vulnerable to epileptogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual behavior of single adult American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.

  1. Sex-Role Portrayals of Selected Female Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, David H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)

  2. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  3. Searching for the Advantages of Virus Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul E.

    2003-02-01

    Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage φ6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in φ6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for φ6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.

  4. A Sex Disparity Among Earthquake Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardagh, Michael; Standring, Sarah; Deely, Joanne M; Johnston, David; Robinson, Viki; Gulliver, Pauline; Richardson, Sandra; Dierckx, Alieke; Than, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Understanding who is most vulnerable during an earthquake will help health care responders prepare for future disasters. We analyzed the demography of casualties from the Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand. The demography of the total deceased, injured, and hospitalized casualties of the Christchurch earthquake was compared with that of the greater Christchurch population, the Christchurch central business district working population, and patients who presented to the single acute emergency department on the same month and day over the prior 10 years. Sex data were compared to scene of injury, context of injury, clinical characteristics of injury, and injury severity scores. Significantly more females than males were injured or killed in the entire population of casualties (P20% were injured at commercial or service localities (444/2032 males [22%]; 1105/4627 females [24%]). Adults aged between 20 and 69 years (1639/2032 males [81%]; 3717/4627 females [80%]) were most frequently injured. Where people were and what they were doing at the time of the earthquake influenced their risk of injury.

  5. Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  6. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  7. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Why sex hormones matter for neuroscience: A very short review on sex, sex hormones, and functional brain asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus

    2017-01-02

    Biological sex and sex hormones are known to affect functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs). Men are generally more lateralized than women. The effect size of this sex difference is small but robust. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature may be explained by sex-related hormonal differences. Most studies focusing on neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones on FCAs have investigated women during the menstrual cycle. Although contradictions exist, these studies have typically shown that levels of estradiol and/or progesterone correlate with the degree of FCAs, suggesting that sex differences in FCAs partially depend on hormonal state and day of testing. The results indicate that FCAs are not fixed but are hormone dependent, and as such they can dynamically change within relatively short periods throughout life. Many issues raised in this Mini-Review refer not only to FCAs but also to other aspects of functional brain organization, such as functional connectivity within and between the cerebral hemispheres. Our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior as well as their clinical relevance will improve significantly if more studies routinely take sex and sex hormones into account. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is Group Sex a Higher-Risk Setting for HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Compared With Dyadic Sex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2016-01-01

    Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex

  10. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716

  11. Sex differences and stress across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan.

  12. A reconfiguration of the sex trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai

    2017-01-01

    a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers......Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social...... and structural changes, such as economic recessions–outside of the bounds of organizational intervention–may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe’s economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000–2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides...

  13. Sex differences in heritability of neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...... conducted to determine whether the sex differences in heritability of NP are due to sex-specific genetic factors. Data on lifetime prevalence of NP from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 33,794 Danish twins were collected and age-stratified univariate biometrical modeling using sex......-limitation models was performed based on 10,605 dizygotic (DZ) twins of opposite sex to estimate the qualitative sex differences. In a full sex-limitation model the genetic component in females were higher than in males, but the genetic and the shared environmental correlations were equal to what is normally...

  14. Patpong, entre sexe et commerce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Roux

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le tourisme dit « sexuel » est aujourd’hui décrié comme une forme de tourisme international immoral, un dysfonctionnement grave de la mondialisation appelant une réaction politique contre « l’exploitation sexuelle » dont seraient victimes des millions de femmes et d’enfants. Pourtant, derrière l’apparente évidence du « tourisme sexuel » comme expression de sens commun, rares sont les enquêtes qui explicitent la réalité concrète des échanges prostitutionnels. En adoptant une démarche ethnographique, l’article décrit le fonctionnement de Patpong, un quartier rouge de Bangkok dédié à une clientèle internationale. Par la description des offres disponibles, des revenus générés, des codes et des pratiques, la complexité de l’espace réapparaît. Il s’agit de donner à voir la réalité des échanges pour interroger l’articulation entre commerce et sexualité. L’analyse ethnographique du tourisme sexuel permet ainsi de souligner la diversité des pratiques et de rappeler que les formes les plus visibles — et les plus commentées — d’échanges prostitutionnels éclipsent trop souvent une pluralité d’expériences qui participe pourtant au succès de ces ruelles mondialement connues. So-called sex tourism is condemned as an immoral form of international tourism, a serious failure of globalization requiring political action against the “sexual exploitation” suffered by millions of women and children. Yet behind the common and seemingly evident understanding of “sexual tourism,” few studies have focused on the actual reality of such relations. Based on an ethnographic study, this article presents the structure of Patpong, a red-light district of Bangkok dedicated to international tourism. First, the article aims to briefly present the historical development of Patpong. This peculiar space is intrinsically linked to sex tourism, as these world-renowned streets expanded since the mid-60s to

  15. Gender in Winterson's Sexing the Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Kintzele, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In his article "Gender in Winterson's Sexing the Cherry" Paul Kintzele examines the ways in which Jeanette Winterson's 1989 novel explores and critiques aspects of gender and sexuality. While acknowledging the importance of the performance theory of gender that derives from the work of Judith Butler, Kintzele contends that such an approach must be complemented with a psychoanalytic approach that insists on a particular distinction between sex and gender. Although some scholars map the sex/gen...

  16. Sex tourism among Chinese men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jessica; Tang, Weiming; Liu, Chuncheng; Wong, Ngai Sze; Tang, Songyuan; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2018-03-02

    Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and sex tourism. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of sex tourism. The mean MSM HIV prevalence of sex tourism journey origins and destinations were compared. Of 1189 MSM who completed the survey, 62 (5%) men identified as sex tourists; among these sex tourists, twenty (32%) traveled primarily to purchase sex and the remainder purchased sex while traveling for another purpose. There was minimal socio-demographic and behavioral difference between the two groups. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for age and income, sex tourism was correlated with high-risk sexual behaviors, higher income (aOR 4.44, 95%CI 1.77-11.18) and living with HIV (aOR 2.79, 95%CI 1.03-7.55). Sex tourism was more often from locations with lower to higher MSM HIV prevalence (mean = 4.47, SD = 2.01 versus mean = 6.86, SD = 5.24). MSM sex tourists were more likely to have risky sexual behaviors and travel to locations with a higher HIV prevalence. MSM sex tourists may be part of core groups that are disproportionately responsible for MSM HIV transmission. Enhanced surveillance and interventions tailored to MSM sex tourists should be considered.

  17. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  18. Interactive Effects of Culture and Sex Hormones on Sex Role Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant’s masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  19. Romance tourism or female sex tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2014-01-01

    Love, sex and the female traveller: romance tourism or female sex tourism? The phenomenon of women travelling in search of relationships with local men in developing countries has been studied for the last 20 years. However, it appears little known in travel medicine. Relevant literature was found through PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest and Google Scholar. The reference lists of selected articles identified further sources. Historical records of women travellers to far-away countries abound. Then, as now, women not only searched for the erotic 'other' but made romance and sex the purpose of their trip. Today, increasing numbers of women travel to destinations in developing countries where sex with local men is the main attraction. This pastime raises concerns not only for the women themselves but for the local men involved as well as their sex partners and the local communities. Although more research is necessary, comparing the criteria that describe men travelling for sex and relationships and women travelling for sex and relationships appears to suggest that there is very little difference between the two, regardless of what the pursuit is called. Women looking for sex with local men are sex tourists, too. Recognition of this fact needs to influence the pre and post travel care of female travellers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Voices of Māori Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Escaravage, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Aotearoa (New Zealand) is the only country in the world to have decriminalized sex work. The Prostitution Reform Act (PRA henceforth) was enacted in 2003 with the aim to safeguard the human rights of sex workers, and create a framework that is conducive to public health. Skeptics of this policy argue that the law reform was targeting indoor workers while the livelihood of street-based sex workers did not see significant improvements (Justice Acts, 2014). It is known that Māori sex workers are...

  1. Update on sexed semen technology in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G E

    2014-05-01

    The technology in current use for sexing sperm represents remarkable feats of engineering. These flow cytometer/cell sorters can make over 30 000 consecutive evaluations of individual sperm each second for each nozzle and sort the sperm into three containers: X-sperm, Y-sperm and unsexable plus dead sperm. Even at these speeds it is not economical to package sperm at standard numbers per inseminate. However, with excellent management, pregnancy rates in cattle with 2 million sexed sperm per insemination dose are about 80% of those with conventional semen at normal sperm doses. This lowered fertility, in part due to damage to sperm during sorting, plus the extra cost of sexed semen limits the applications that are economically feasible. Even so, on the order of 2 million doses of bovine semen are sexed annually in the United States. The main application is for dairy heifers to have heifer calves, either for herd expansion or for sale as replacements, often for eventual export. Breeders of purebred cattle often use sexed semen for specific matings; thawing and then sexing frozen semen and immediately using the few resulting sexed sperm for in vitro fertilization is done with increasing frequency. Beef cattle producers are starting to use sexed semen to produce crossbred female replacements. Proprietary improvements in sperm sexing procedures, implemented in 2013, are claimed to improve fertility between 4 and 6 percentage points, or about 10%.

  2. Unusually dynamic sex roles in a fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond; Borg, Asa A; Bjelvenmark, Jens

    2004-06-03

    Sex roles are typically thought of as being fixed for a given species. In most animals males compete for females, whereas the females are more reluctant to mate. Therefore sexual selection usually acts most strongly on males. This is explained by males having a higher potential reproductive rate than females, leading to more males being sexually active (a male-biased operational sex ratio). However, what determines sex roles and the strength of sexual selection is a controversial and much debated question. In this large-scale field study, we show a striking temporal plasticity in the mating competition of a fish (two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens). Over the short breeding season fierce male-male competition and intensive courtship behaviour in males were replaced by female-female competition and actively courting females. Hence, sex role reversal occurred rapidly. This is the first time that a shift in sex roles has been shown in a vertebrate. The shift might be explained by a large decline in male abundance, strongly skewing the sex ratio towards females. Notably, the sex role reversal did not occur at an equal operational sex ratio, contrary to established sex role theory.

  3. Sex Trading Among Hazardously Drinking Jailed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Johnson, Jennifer; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    For women involved in sex trading, both alcohol problems and passage through the criminal justice system are highly prevalent. This study is the first to conduct a focused examination of factors associated with sex trading among hazardously drinking, pretrial, jailed women. Cocaine use, social support for alcohol abstinence, and more days incarcerated in the 90 days leading up to the index incarceration were significantly associated with sex trading involvement among alcoholic women. Helping incarcerated alcoholic women reduce cocaine use and improve sober support networks during and following an incarceration may minimize sex trading after release.

  4. How Sex Selection Undermines Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2017-06-01

    Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex. Yet gender essentialism, a set of unfounded assumptions about the sexes which pervade society and underpin sexism, prevents parents from realising this freedom. In other words, unfounded assumptions about gender constrain not only a child's autonomy, but also the parent's. To date, reproductive autonomy in relation to sex selection has predominantly been regarded merely as the freedom to choose the sex of one's child. This paper points to at least two interpretations of reproductive autonomy and argues that sex selection, by being premised on gender essentialism and/or the social pressure on parents to ensure their children conform to gender norms, undermines reproductive autonomy on both accounts.

  5. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  8. HIV knowledge and risks among Vietnamese men who have sex with men travelling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Hoang Quan; Colby, Donn Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Rapid economic and social development in Vietnam has resulted in increased opportunities for travel and new potential routes of HIV transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining demographics, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviour amongst 100 Vietnamese men who have sex with men who traveled abroad in the previous 12 months. Men who have sex with men surveyed were mostly university-educated, single, and under 30. Most travel (73%) was within Southeast Asia and was undertaken for tourism (51%) or for work (29%). Casual sex with a foreign partner occurred on 39% of trips. Only four were reported to have involved in unsafe sex with a casual partner. Four reported illicit drug use. Alcohol was widely consumed. Multivariate analysis showed that two variables, travelling alone (OR = 5.26,p sex abroad. More HIV prevention education on the risks of sex while travelling abroad is needed for men who have sex with men in Vietnam. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. The phosphoglucan phosphatase like sex Four2 dephosphorylates starch at the C3-position in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelia, Diana; Kötting, Oliver; Seung, David; Schubert, Mario; Thalmann, Matthias; Bischof, Sylvain; Meekins, David A; Lutz, Andy; Patron, Nicola; Gentry, Matthew S; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2011-11-01

    Starch contains phosphate covalently bound to the C6-position (70 to 80% of total bound phosphate) and the C3-position (20 to 30%) of the glucosyl residues of the amylopectin fraction. In plants, the transient phosphorylation of starch renders the granule surface more accessible to glucan hydrolyzing enzymes and is required for proper starch degradation. Phosphate also confers desired properties to starch-derived pastes for industrial applications. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the removal of phosphate by the glucan phosphatase Starch Excess4 (SEX4) is essential for starch breakdown. We identified a homolog of SEX4, LSF2 (Like Sex Four2), as a novel enzyme involved in starch metabolism in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Unlike SEX4, LSF2 does not have a carbohydrate binding module. Nevertheless, it binds to starch and specifically hydrolyzes phosphate from the C3-position. As a consequence, lsf2 mutant starch has elevated levels of C3-bound phosphate. SEX4 can release phosphate from both the C6- and the C3-positions, resulting in partial functional overlap with LSF2. However, compared with sex4 single mutants, the lsf2 sex4 double mutants have a more severe starch-excess phenotype, impaired growth, and a further change in the proportion of C3- and C6-bound phosphate. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the metabolism of phosphate in starch and provide innovative options for tailoring novel starches with improved functionality for industry.

  10. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N. Arbeitman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation.

  11. Beyond the 'safe sex' propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Maja; Khajehei, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss sexual relationships among teenagers, the related issues, and suggest addressing the issues through effective education programs for both teenagers and their parents. We also discuss the main issues resulting from initiation of sexual relationship during adolescence such as unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality, abortion, sexually transmitted diseases and damaged mental health. In addition, we highlight the lack of adequate sex education in teenagers and emphasize on the negative influence of TV programs and the harmful effects of dysfunctional families. Moreover, this article proposes equipping teenagers with knowledge that will help them understand not only physical but also emotional, social, and mental dynamics of sexual relationships. We believe that this approach would intervene much earlier in their life, help teenagers make healthy decision and minimize negative consequences of their personal choices.

  12. Sex and Intimacy after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Donald D; Van Horn, Elizabeth R

    The sequelae of a stroke can negatively affect sex and intimacy for survivors and their partners. This clinical article offers practical evidence-based recommendations for nurses to use in advising couples who may be experiencing sexual problems due to decreased desire, erectile dysfunction, vaginal dryness, paraparesis, pain, spasticity, fatigue, aphasia, concrete thinking, emotional lability, shame, embarrassment, fear, depression, or neurogenic bladder. Recent research and clinical articles show that intimacy and sexual concerns are often ignored by the rehabilitation team, yet research shows that couples want information to assist them to maintain their sexual relationships. Using the PLISSIT model to address sexual concerns, nurses can facilitate discussions to aid couples toward improved sexual function and quality of life.

  13. Sex Differences in Tibiocalcaneal Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.

  14. Reinventing Sex: The Construction of Realistic Definitions of Sex and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Chanley M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a set of criteria for constructing a fair and realistic understanding of sex. Recognizes the impact that science can have on social policies and values and recommends that the definitions of sex and gender be carefully crafted. (DDR)

  15. Television Sex Roles in the 1980s: Do Viewers' Sex and Sex Role Orientation Change the Picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrot, Faye H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the viewer perceptions of female and male television characters as a result of viewer sex and sex role orientation, based on the responses of 677 young adults to the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Viewer gender had an impact on the rating of female characters. (FMW)

  16. BIOLOGICAL SEX, SEX-ROLE ORIENTATION, MASCULINE SEX-ROLE STRESS, DISSIMULATION AND SELF-REPORTED FEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARRINDELL, WA; KOLK, AM; PICKERSGILL, MJ; HAGEMAN, WJJM

    1993-01-01

    Given meta-analytic findings showing females to be generally more fearful than males on multi-dimensional self-report measures of fear, an empirical attempt was made to examine whether this outcome could be explained by psychological factors such as sex role orientation and masculine sex role

  17. Conclusions: Getting real about sex - embedding an embodied sex education in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Alldred, P; David, ME

    2007-01-01

    GET REAL ABOUT SEX: The Politics and Practice of Sex Education explores how cultural ideas about gender, sexuality and parenthood play out in the sex and relationship education classroom. It presents new material from a detailed study and analyses the struggle to raise the status of sex and relationship education against academic and market-driven priorities. It locates the dynamics of the classroom within those of the school and asks: What do the different parties in teaching and learning -...

  18. Correlates of Forced Sex Among Populations of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wimonsate, Wipas; Varangrat, Anchalee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Jommaroeng, Rapeepun; Mock, Philip A.; Tappero, Jordan W.; van Griensven, Frits

    2009-01-01

    Although forced sex is a correlate of HIV infection, its prevalence and associated risks are not well described among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing-country settings. Between March and October 2005, we assessed the prevalence of forced sex and correlates among populations of MSM (this includes general MSM, male sex workers, and male-to-female transgender persons) in Thailand using a community-based sample. Participants were enrolled from venues around Bangkok, Chiangmai, and Ph...

  19. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  20. Sex Hormones and the QT Interval: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Tara; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Iribarren, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A prolonged QT interval is a marker for an increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Both endogenous and exogenous sex hormones have been shown to affect the QT interval. Endogenous testosterone and progesterone shorten the action potential, and estrogen lengthens the QT interval. During a single menstrual cycle, progesterone levels, but not estrogen levels, have the dominant effect on ventricular repolarization in women. Studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in the form of estrogen-alone therapy (ET) and estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) have suggested a counterbalancing effect of exogenous estrogen and progesterone on the QT. Specifically, ET lengthens the QT, whereas EPT has no effect. To date, there are no studies on oral contraception (OC) and the QT interval, and future research is needed. This review outlines the current literature on sex hormones and QT interval, including the endogenous effects of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone and the exogenous effects of estrogen and progesterone therapy in the forms of MHT and hormone contraception. Further, we review the potential mechanisms and pathophysiology of sex hormones on the QT interval. PMID:22663191