Sample records for single service type

  1. Analysis on preemptive priority retrial queue with two types of customers, balking, optional re-service, single vacation and service interruption (United States)

    Yuvarani, S.; Saravanarajan, M. C.


    This paper concerned with performance analysis of single server preemptive priority retrial queue with a single vacation where two types of customers are considered and they are called priority customers and ordinary customers. The ordinary customers arrive in batch into the system. The priority customers do not form any queue. After the completion of regular service, the customers may demand re-service for the previous service without joining the orbit or may leave the system. As soon as the system is empty, the server goes for vacation and the regular busy server can be subjected to breakdown. By using the supplementary variable technique, we obtain the steady-state probability generating functions for the system/orbit size. Some important system performance measures and the stochastic decomposition are discussed. Finally, numerical examples are presented to visualize the effect of parameters on system performance measures.

  2. Analysis of Single-Server Queue with Phase-Type Service and Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Dudin


    Full Text Available We propose a queueing model suitable, for example, for modelling operation of nodes of sensor networks. The sensor node senses a random field and generates packets to be transmitted to the central node. The sensor node has a battery of a finite capacity and harvests energy during its operation from outside (using solar cells, wind turbines, piezoelectric cells, etc.. We assume that, generally speaking, service (transmission of a packet consists of a random number of phases and implementation of each phase requires a unit of energy. If the battery becomes empty, transmission is failed. To reduce the probability of forced transmission termination, we suggest that the packet can be accepted for transmission only when the number of energy units is greater than or equal to some threshold. Under quite general assumptions about the pattern of the arrival processes of packets and energy, we compute the stationary distributions of the system states and the waiting time of a packet in the system and numerically analyze performance measures of the system as functions of the threshold. Validity of Little’s formula and its counterpart is verified.

  3. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José


    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...... demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  4. Types of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Pras, Aiko

    In the following, the diversity of services which a distributed system can provide is illustrated, and a main classification of services is presented. Services are described in an informal but abstract way, conforming with the current descriptions used by ISO in its OSI/RM related (draft) standards.

  5. Czech Singles in the Market of Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Klepek


    Full Text Available The paper deals with specific characteristics of “Czech singles” with emphasis on services area. First, paper determinates the theoretical concept of services marketing in the first chapter. The major part of paper is devoted to primary marketing research. For purpose of collecting data, the method of questioning (combination of off‑line and on‑line approach was chosen. The questionnaire was given to 390 respondents living in the Czech Republic. The data were analysed by SPSS software. Results showed dissimilarities in leisure time activities based on different level of education and income as well as within the gender and age category and city, where particular single person live. Females spend more leisure time on cultural events, home activities as well as shopping and caring for appearance. They also engage with friends as a form of leisure time activity more than males. Educated singles travel more and attend more cultural events and at the same time, they educate themselves more often and do sports much regularly. We also found no relationship between income and shopping as a leisure time activity. This paper describes only a partial output of the primary marketing research with focus on the leisure time spending for the defined segment.

  6. Plant single-cell and single-cell-type metabolomics. (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue


    In conjunction with genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, plant metabolomics is providing large data sets that are paving the way towards a comprehensive and holistic understanding of plant growth, development, defense, and productivity. However, dilution effects from organ- and tissue-based sampling of metabolomes have limited our understanding of the intricate regulation of metabolic pathways and networks at the cellular level. Recent advances in metabolomics methodologies, along with the post-genomic expansion of bioinformatics knowledge and functional genomics tools, have allowed the gathering of enriched information on individual cells and single cell types. Here we review progress, current status, opportunities, and challenges presented by single cell-based metabolomics research in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the Patron Experience: Sterling Memorial Library's Single Service Point (United States)

    Sider, Laura Galas


    This article describes the planning process and implementation of a single service point at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library. While much recent scholarship on single service points (SSPs) has focused on the virtues or hazards of eliminating reference desks in libraries nationwide, this essay explores the ways in which single service…

  8. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale is...

  9. A Supportive Service to Single Mothers and Their Children (United States)

    Heger, Donna Tubach


    Describes a supportive program for single, young mothers in need of low-cost housing, job-training or schooling, social services and day care. Most enrollees gained a saleable skill and made progress in personal growth and the development of independent living skills. Techniques included a team approach and use of short-term contracts. (BF)

  10. Distinguishing Service Learning from Other Types of Experiential Learning (United States)

    Lim, Sook; Bloomquist, Catherine


    This discussion paper examines the lack of clarity surrounding the term "service learning" in the library and information science (LIS) literature, which frequently conflates service learning with other types of experiential learning. We suggest that the lack of distinction between service learning and other types of experiential…

  11. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend


    existing single-family houses in the Nordic countries are to have competitive power compared to new buildings on the future housing market. Good technical solutions exist but need to be combined based on the full range of (standard) solutions in order to reach the low primary energy level of new...... the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...... the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses –a sustainable renovation concept suitable for different categories of single-family houses with regard to type and age has been proposed in this article. The sustainable renovation concept...

  12. Switching Service Providers: Reasons, Service Types, and Sequences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Keaveney.s (1995) landmark study on the reasons for switching service providers, data were gathered using critical incident technique (CIT); here the original findings are tested using survey method. Keaveney.s typology of reasons for switching is supported across a range of categories but, in this new study, the reasons ...

  13. 9 CFR 362.2 - Types and availability of service. (United States)


    ... this poultry inspection service except for the following provisions: the definitions of “Act,” “animal... establishment. The sanitation of the place or area where service is furnished must comply with provisions of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types and availability of service. 362...

  14. Single bovine sperm sex typing by amelogenin nested PCR. (United States)

    Colley, A; Buhr, M; Golovan, S P


    Sex-sorted bovine semen has become a valuable tool in animal production for sex preselection. Development of novel sperm sexing technologies, or evaluation of the quality of existing methods, often requires a single-sperm, sex-typing method that is reliable and easy to perform. In the present study, we report the development, validation, and application of a simple, reliable, and cost-effective method for single-sperm sex typing using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the amelogenin gene. Several hundred single sperm were isolated using a simple manual technique, or a high-speed flow-sorter, and were successfully sex-typed using the amelogenin nested PCR. Based on the pooled results of individual sperm, there was no significant difference in the semen sex ratio of unsorted (44.6% X-sperm and 55.4% Y-sperm) or X/Y-sorted semen (91.4% X-sperm and 94.0% Y-sperm), as compared to the expected ratio in unsorted semen or the post-sorting reanalysis data, respectively. The amelogenin single-sperm sexing method was an adaptable, accurate, and reliable tool for single-sperm sex typing.

  15. Single-cell LEP-type cavity on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    A single-cell cavity, made of copper, with tapered connectors for impedance measurements. It was used as a model of LEP-type superconducting cavities, to investigate impedance and higher-order modes and operated at around 600 MHz (the LEP acceleration frequency was 352.2 MHz). See 8202500.

  16. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression ... The lines with high productivity showed not only a wide spectrum of phenotypes but also obvious variations in fatty acid profiles of seed oil and glucosinolate ...

  17. Influence of Sex and Bank- Type on Service Quality Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of customer's perception of service quality has received tremendous research attention. What is not yet established are the factors that underlie such perception of service quality. To fill this gap, the present study was designed to examine the influence of sex of bank customers and bank-type on customer's ...

  18. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner


    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  19. Aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI - type zeolite single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Kustov, Arkadii; Christensen, Christina Hviid


    are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and N-2 adsorption measurements. The obtained zeolites combine the high crystallinity and the characteristic micropores of zeolites with an intracrystalline mesopore system....... With this technique, only zeolites with relatively low Al contents were reported (Si/Al ratio about 100). In this work, the preparation of aluminum-rich mesoporous MFI-type zeolite single crystals (Si/Al similar to 16-50) using aluminum isopropoxide as the aluminum Source is reported for the first time. All samples...

  20. Single electron transistor with P-type sidewall spacer gates. (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Li, Dong Hua; Lee, Joung-Eob; Kang, Kwon-Chil; Kim, Kyungwan; Park, Byung-Gook


    A single-electron transistor (SET) is one of the promising solutions to overcome the scaling limit of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). Up to now, various kinds of SETs are being proposed and SETs with a dual gate (DG) structure using an electrical potential barrier have been demonstrated for room temperature operation. To operate DG-SETs, however, extra bias of side gates is necessary. It causes new problems that the electrode for side gates and the extra bias for electrical barrier increase the complexity in circuit design and operation power consumption, respectively. For the reason, a new mechanism using work function (WF) difference is applied to operate a SET at room temperature by three electrodes. Its structure consists of an undoped active region, a control gate, n-doped source/drain electrodes, and metal/silicide or p-type silicon side gates, and a SET with metal/silicide gates or p-type silicon gates forms tunnel barriers induced by work function between an undoped channel and grounded side gates. Via simulation, the effectiveness of the new mechanism is confirmed through various silicide materials that have different WF values. Furthermore, by considering the realistic conditions of the fabrication process, SET with p-type sidewall spacer gates was designed, and its brief fabrication process was introduced. The characteristics of its electrical barrier and the controllability of its control gate were also confirmed via simulation. Finally, a single-hole transistor with n-type sidewall spacer gates was designed.

  1. Which type of forest management provides most ecosystem services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala


    Full Text Available Background: Forest ecosystems are increasingly seen as multi-functional production systems, which should provide, besides timber and economic benefits, also other ecosystem services related to biological diversity, recreational uses and environmental functions of forests. This study analyzed the performance of even-aged rotation forest management (RFM, continuous cover forestry (CCF and any-aged forestry (AAF in the production of ecosystem services. AAF allows both even-aged and uneven-aged management schedules. The ecosystem services included in the analyses were net present value, volume of harvested timber, cowberry and bilberry yields, scenic value of the forest, carbon balance and suitability of the forest to Siberian jay. Methods: Data envelopment analysis was used to derive numerical efficiency ratios for the three management systems. Efficiency ratio is the sum of weighted outputs (ecosystem services divided by the sum of weighted inputs. The linear programing model proposed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes was used to derive the weights for calculating efficiency scores for the silvicultural systems. Results and conclusions: CCF provided more ecosystem services than RFM, and CCF was more efficient than RFM and AAF in the production of ecosystem services. Multi-objective management provided more ecosystem services (except harvested timber than single-objective management that maximized economic profitability. The use of low discount rate (resulting in low cutting level and high growing stock volume led to better supply of most ecosystems services than the use of high discount rate. RFM where NPV was maximized with high discount rate led to particularly poor provision of most ecosystem services. In CCF the provision of ecosystem services was less sensitive to changes in discount rate and management objective than in RFM. Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, Production efficiency, Multi-objective management, Multi-functional forestry

  2. 7 CFR 56.28 - Types of service. (United States)


    ... grader or quality assurance inspector as provided in § 56.39. (c) Temporary grading service. This type of... under the supervision of a grader or quality assurance inspector as provided in § 56.39. (d) Auditing... quality assurance and value added standards for production, processing, and distribution of shell eggs...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.506-1 - Types of service. (United States)


    ...; softline space plans; development of an interior design program (to include finish materials, furniture and... PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.506-1 Types of service. GSA interior planning and design..., partitions, furniture, and equipment. The items specified for procurement will be selected from approved GSA...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Polyuga


    Full Text Available In the article the description of structural bearing types for roadway bridges and their classification is given. Special attention is paid to effective bearings with elastomeric materials – rubber, pot, spherical ones. Characteristic defects of structural bearings and demands of serviceability are noticed.

  5. Interactions between perceived uncertainty types in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie


    This paper investigates the dynamic interactions between uncertainty types in service dyads between servitized manufacturers and their customers. This is an important research area because servitized manufacturers face multi-source uncertainty and need to manage this uncertainty effectively to av...

  6. Three Types of Memory in Emergency Medical Services Communication (United States)

    Angeli, Elizabeth L.


    This article examines memory and distributed cognition involved in the writing practices of emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. Results from a 16-month study indicate that EMS professionals rely on distributed cognition and three kinds of memory: individual, collaborative, and professional. Distributed cognition and the three types of…

  7. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany


    .... To this end, we look at why single-bid orders exist in the current procurement system, how these orders measure up to competitively-bid orders in cost and performance, and how customer satisfaction...

  8. Single-Bid Awards Under the GSA Service Schedules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stott, Bethany


    This study seeks to examine the verity of the common perception that single-bid orders are more costly, lower in performance quality, and shorter in pre-award process time than competitively-bid orders...

  9. ServiceNow (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A cloud based service for creating a single system of record for all types of business services used by OCIO. Service Now applications are built on a single platform...

  10. Twelve firms singled out for their exceptional services to CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The CMS awards, now in their fourth year, are designed to reward those companies which have provided exceptional services over the past twelve months. This year the collaboration has chosen to honour twelve of its top suppliers. Eight of them received their awards on 24 February. The winners are pictured here at the CMS detector's assembly site.

  11. Towards a single seismological service infrastructure in Europe (United States)

    Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Frobert, L.; Van Eck, T.


    In the last five year services and data providers, within the seismological community in Europe, focused their efforts in migrating the way of opening their archives towards a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). This process tries to follow pragmatically the technological trends and available solutions aiming at effectively improving all the data stewardship activities. These advancements are possible thanks to the cooperation and the follow-ups of several EC infrastructural projects that, by looking at general purpose techniques, combine their developments envisioning a multidisciplinary platform for the earth observation as the final common objective (EPOS, Earth Plate Observation System) One of the first results of this effort is the Earthquake Data Portal (, which provides a collection of tools to discover, visualize and access a variety of seismological data sets like seismic waveform, accelerometric data, earthquake catalogs and parameters. The Portal offers a cohesive distributed search environment, linking data search and access across multiple data providers through interactive web-services, map-based tools and diverse command-line clients. Our work continues under other EU FP7 projects. Here we will address initiatives in two of those projects. The NERA, (Network of European Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation) project will implement a Common Services Architecture based on OGC services APIs, in order to provide Resource-Oriented common interfaces across the data access and processing services. This will improve interoperability between tools and across projects, enabling the development of higher-level applications that can uniformly access the data and processing services of all participants. This effort will be conducted jointly with the VERCE project (Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community for Europe). VERCE aims to enable seismologists to exploit the wealth of seismic data

  12. Single service point: it's all in the design. (United States)

    Bradigan, Pamela S; Rodman, Ruey L


    "Design thinking" principles from a leading design firm, IDEO, were key elements in the planning process for a one-desk service model, the ASK Desk, at the John A. Prior Health Sciences Library. The library administration and staff employed the methodology to enhance customer experiences, meet technology challenges, and compete in a changing education environment. The most recent renovations demonstrate how the principles were applied. The concept of "continuous design thinking" is important in the library's daily operations to serve customers most effectively.

  13. The universal service in the future of network-type industries: telecommunications, electricity, postal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, Celine Clelia


    The notion of universal service emerged in the European regulation of the telecommunications sector, and can be applied to all network-type industries. Public monopolies have been put into question again. The introduction of deregulation and competitiveness were expected to improve the service provided to the end consumer, but this deregulation has been also put into question again for matters of universality and equity. Then the issue of financing of these services emerges. The aim of this research thesis is therefore to identify which funding modes can be optimal, and to identify a general methodology for all network-type industries. In the first part of this research thesis, the author studies the cost of universal service obligations. She explains the general methodology of calculation of this cost, and reports this calculation while taking indirect benefits of the operator into account. In a second part, she studies the modalities of financing thus calculated cost by describing the different possible modalities, their benefits and drawbacks, and by presenting a comparison between these methodologies according to three criteria: those set by the European Commission, welfare, and applicability. For these different topics, the author takes all experiments and recent developments into account. These experiments and developments are noticed in different countries: USA, Australia, UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Italy, France

  14. Homeless university students: Experiences with foyer-type service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty Grace


    Full Text Available Some young people who have been homeless during their secondary schooling manage to obtain a university place. These young people, and others who become homeless during their university courses, have the opportunity to build a sustainable exit from homelessness through education and support. Very little is known about how many young Australians are in this situation, or what can be done to assist them to complete their degrees. This article reports on research that aimed to document the experiences of 11 university students who had experienced homelessness. The research focussed on the difficulties that these young people faced, and the types of environments and service responses that can make a difference for them. The students were part of a larger study of a foyer-type service. The research found that these young people took longer than the standard duration to complete their degrees. Their study was facilitated by provision of stable, safe accommodation and support when they were acutely homeless, relief from other pressures such as family conflict, protection while maturing, time for overseas born including refugee young people to develop language, skills, and resources, support to heal from past damaging experiences and improve their health, assistance to gain entry to preferred university courses, and pathways into stable housing for the duration of their study.

  15. Complex Dynamic Scene Perception: Effects of Attentional Set on Perceiving Single and Multiple Event Types (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah


    Three experiments measured the efficiency of monitoring complex scenes composed of changing objects, or events. All events lasted about 4 s, but in a given block of trials, could be of a single type (single task) or of multiple types (multitask, with a total of four event types). Overall accuracy of detecting target events amid distractors was…

  16. 45 CFR 1321.41 - Single State planning and service area. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single State planning and service area. 1321.41 Section 1321.41 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.41 Single...

  17. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults (United States)

    ... Spotlight December 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young ...

  18. Synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes from a lamellar type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    These nanotubes are applicable to store more hydrogen. Keywords. AlPO4-L; single wall carbon nanotubes. 1. Introduction. Carbon nanotubes (Iijima 1991) are nano-scale structures formed by self assembly. They possess excellent chemical and physical properties (Rodney and Donald 1995; Chen et al 1998) that make ...

  19. 41 CFR 101-5.304 - Type of occupational health services. (United States)


    ... FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.304 Type of occupational health services. The type of occupational health services made available to occupying agencies will be as... to limit the cost of an occupational health services program, the provision of inservice examinations...

  20. Full HPV typing by a single restriction enzyme. (United States)

    Santiago, Enrique; Camacho, Lucía; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Vázquez, Fernando


    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods for genotyping genital human papillomavirus (HPV) are considered labor consuming and constrained by the reduced set of restriction enzymes capable of detecting specific mutations. However, we think that these methods have not taken full advantage of the high diversity of the known restriction enzymes. We have set out to find the best restriction enzyme for HPV typing. An extensive search for enzymes was carried out by combining statistical methods and database information. The search maximized the discrimination between high- and low-risk types by examining the sequence of the L1 gene flanked by primers MY09/11. Different electrophoretic resolutions and two variations of the RFLP method were considered. HpyCH4V is the best enzyme for discriminating between risk types. Moreover, HpyCH4V generates different patterns for virtually all the HPV types. The typical pattern consists of two or three fragments, which facilitates typing in mixed infections. The typing of a set of clinical samples confirmed the expectations. This result illustrates the possibilities of statistical methods to exploit the high diversity of restriction enzymes in order to classify samples in a pre-established hierarchy of types for which DNA sequences are known.

  1. Synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes from a lamellar type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    circular disc of fine copper mesh covered with collodion. Images were taken using a JEOL JSM-2000 EX electron microscope operated at an acceleration voltage of 200 kV. 3. Results and discussion. Figure 1 shows the as-synthesized AlPO4-L which was found to be of short range ordered lamellar type molecular ...

  2. SMS for Sexual Health: A Comparison of Service Types and Recommendations for Sexual Health Text Message Service Providers (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Muldrow, Adrienne


    Objectives: Text message-based interventions may provide sexual health information to young people through a number of service types, from sending information on a regularly scheduled timeline, to providing an automated menu, to allowing young people to connect directly with health educators. While such service types exist, it is not clear which…

  3. Development of n- and p-type Doped Perovskite Single Crystals Using Solid-State Single Crystal Growth (SSCG) Technique (United States)


    tried. Among them “n- and p-type doped” BaTiO3 single crystals have been successfully fabricated . And their bi- crystals containing a twin or twist...boundary are also fabricated using diffusion bonding process of two single crystal plates. These results demonstrate that the SSCG (solid-state...or Bridgman method have critical limitations; high production cost and compositional inhomogeneity throughout the crystal. These limitations result

  4. Emotion Elicitation in a Socially Intelligent Service: The Typing Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košir


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on modeling machine emotion elicitation in a socially intelligent service, the typing tutor. The aim of the study is to evaluate the extent to which the machine emotion elicitation can influence the affective state (valence and arousal of the learner during a tutoring session. The tutor provides continuous real-time emotion elicitation via graphically rendered emoticons, as an emotional feedback to learner’s performance. Good performance is rewarded by the positive emoticon, based on the notion of positive reinforcement. Facial emotion recognition software is used to analyze the affective state of the learner for later evaluation. Experimental results show the correlation between the positive emoticon and the learner’s affective state is significant for all 13 (100% test participants on the arousal dimension and for 9 (69% test participants on both affective dimensions. The results also confirm our hypothesis and show that the machine emotion elicitation is significant for 11 (85% of 13 test participants. We conclude that the machine emotion elicitation with simple graphical emoticons has a promising potential for the future development of the tutor.

  5. Single-Server Queueing System with Markov-Modulated Arrivals and Service Times


    Dimitrov, Mitko


    Key words: Markov-modulated queues, waiting time, heavy traffic. Markov-modulated queueing systems are those in which the input process or service mechanism is influenced by an underlying Markov chain. Several models for such systems have been investigated. In this paper we present heavy traffic analysis of single queueing system with Poisson arrival process whose arrival rate is a function of the state of Markov chain and service times depend on the state of the same Markov chain at the e...

  6. 7 CFR 1951.16 - Other servicing actions on real estate type loan accounts. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Other servicing actions on real estate type loan... Account Servicing Policies § 1951.16 Other servicing actions on real estate type loan accounts. (a... smaller, respectively, than the sum of such installments on the note and other charges. (c) Real estate...

  7. Variation in types of service use and expenditures for individuals with developmental disabilities. (United States)

    Kang, Taewoon; Harrington, Charlene


    this study examined the types of services and expenditures for 8 service categories provided by regional centers to 138,336 individuals with developmental disabilities living at home and in the community in California in 2004-2005. logistic regressions of secondary data were used to predict the types of services received, and ordinary least squares regressions were used to predict types of service expenditures. higher client needs generally were associated with higher odds of receiving services and with expenditures, although the types of services varied by client need. Controlling for client needs and other factors, males were more likely to receive out-of-home services. Individuals aged 3-21 years were generally less likely to receive many services but were more likely to receive in-home and out-of-home respite services than were those over age 62. All racial and ethnic minority groups were less likely to receive support and out-of-home services than were whites and had lower expenditures, although these varied by the types of services. The supply of nursing homes, community care facilities, area population characteristics, and regional centers also predicted variations in service use and expenditure patterns. studies of the underlying reasons for the variations are needed to ensure equity in access to all types of services and expenditures.

  8. Single-Commodity Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Martinovic


    Full Text Available We present a novel variation of the vehicle routing problem (VRP. Single commodity cargo with pickup and delivery service is considered. Customers are labeled as either cargo sink or cargo source, depending on their pickup or delivery demand. This problem is called a single commodity vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery service (1-VRPPD. 1-VRPPD deals with multiple vehicles and is the same as the single-commodity traveling salesman problem (1-PDTSP when the number of vehicles is equal to 1. Since 1-VRPPD specializes VRP, it is hard in the strong sense. Iterative modified simulated annealing (IMSA is presented along with greedy random-based initial solution algorithm. IMSA provides a good approximation to the global optimum in a large search space. Experiment is done for the instances with different number of customers and their demands. With respect to average values of IMSA execution times, proposed method is appropriate for practical applications.

  9. Computation of a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queue with homogeneous jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Larsen, Christian


    We present an algorithm for computing a near optimal service policy for a single-server queueing system when the service cost is a convex function of the service time. The policy has state-dependent service times, and it includes the options to remove jobs from the system and to let the server...

  10. Computation of a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queue with homogeneous jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Larsen, Christian


    We present an algorithm for computing a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queueing system when the service cost is a convex function of the service time. The policy has state-dependent service times, and it includes the options to remove jobs from the system and to let the server...

  11. [Impact of single disease payment system on hospital delivery service providers' behavior]. (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Guo, Yan


    To find out whether single disease payment system would have an impact on hospital delivery service providers' behavior. Zhouzhi County in Shaanxi Province where there was a payment change from fee for service (FFS) to single disease payment in 2007 was selected as the treatment group, and Guangling County in Shanxi Province with FFS was selected as the control group. Using a difference-in-difference (DD) design, this study empirically examined the impact of single disease payment on the cost of hospital delivery and length of stay. The data of 1 050 samples were taken from the hospitalization medical records and list of charges in the hospitals between 2005-11-01 and 2010-12-31. When taking the expense as dependent variable, the estimated value of DD variable was -262.73 with parity, length of stay, delivery mode, and payment controlled, which was significant at the 1‰ level. It indicated that the expense had decreased by 262.73 yuan after single disease payment was introduced. When taking the length of stay as dependent variable, the estimated value of DD variable was 0.53, which was not significant at the 5% level,meaning that the length of stay was not different between single disease payment and FFS. The payment change from FFS to single disease payment has an impact on hospital delivery service providers' behavior. It could make hospitals try their best to reduce the expenses under the price ceiling to avoid paying for the exceeding cost, and it also can restrict induced demand, but it could not motivate hospitals to reduce length of stay. This research provides evidence for policy makers that compared with FFS, single disease payment system is an effective payment method for controlling the expense of hospital delivery under the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the policy of subsidy for rural hospital delivery (SRHD) .

  12. Single Microwave-Photon Detector using an Artificial Lambda-type Three-Level System (United States)


    Single microwave -photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system Kunihiro Inomata,1∗†, Zhirong Lin,1†, Kazuki Koshino,2, William D...are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. Single microwave -photon detector using an artificial Λ both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of mi- crowave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical

  13. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim


    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  14. Services of strategic consulting: special features and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klenin Oleh Volodymyrovych


    Full Text Available In the article essence of terms “consulting” and “strategic consulting” was studied. It was proved that strategic consulting must be analyzed as professional activity in the system of enterprise strategic management. Specific features of consultative services and its composition was added from the point of view of strategic management and innovative development were studied. In the process of providing consulting services it was suggested to take into account the strategic orientation of human capital of consulting company that was accepted to determine as professional actions of consultants. It was found out main problems that could prevent stable activity of industrial enterprises. It was proved necessity of researches concerning authentication factors of industrial enterprises innovative development and the role of consulting company in its decision making. It was made review of the most widespread classifications of consulting services. Was shown author`s view concerning forming more demanded services of strategic consulting by subject basis.

  15. A ranking of coastal EU habitat types using Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.R.; Deerenberg, C.M.


    During hydraulic works it is not uncommon that interchanging of habitat types occurs through partial area loss of the habitat type at the location of the activity and development of new habitat or enhancing the quality of the same of another habitat type elsewhere. According to the current

  16. Single, Integrated, Service-Centric Model of Military Health System Governance (United States)

    that keeps pace with the operational agility and organizational flexibility requirements to support globally integrated operations is clear. This...of the research is to establish what the model of governance of the Military Health System should be. That, with other recommendations, should be for the impending transformation. The research found that the model of governance should be a single service model with regional health

  17. Health care demand elasticities by type of service. (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Martins, Bruno; Zhu, Wenjia


    We estimate within-year price elasticities of demand for detailed health care services using an instrumental variable strategy, in which individual monthly cost shares are instrumented by employer-year-plan-month average cost shares. A specification using backward myopic prices gives more plausible and stable results than using forward myopic prices. Using 171 million person-months spanning 73 employers from 2008 to 2014, we estimate that the overall demand elasticity by backward myopic consumers is -0.44, with higher elasticities of demand for pharmaceuticals (-0.44), specialists visits (-0.32), MRIs (-0.29) and mental health/substance abuse (-0.26), and lower elasticities for prevention visits (-0.02) and emergency rooms (-0.04). Demand response is lower for children, in larger firms, among hourly waged employees, and for sicker people. Overall the method appears promising for estimating elasticities for highly disaggregated services although the approach does not work well on services that are very expensive or persistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variation in Older Adult Characteristics by Residence Type and Use of Home- and Community-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi H. Ewen


    Full Text Available Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to “age-in-place.” To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on whether the older adult lives in the community or in a senior housing apartment facility. Methods: This paper reports findings from the Pathways to Life Quality study of residential change and stability among seniors in upstate New York. Data were analyzed from 663 older adults living in one of three housing types: service-rich facilities, service-poor facilities, and community-dwelling in single-family homes. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with residence type. A linear regression model was fitted to examine factors associated with HCBS utilization. Results: When compared to community-dwelling older adults, those residing in service-rich and service-poor facilities were more likely to be older, report more activity limitations, and provide less instrumental assistance to others. Those in service-poor facilities were more likely to have poorer mental health and lower perceived purpose in life. The three leading HCBS utilized were senior centers (20%, homemaker services (19%, and transportation services (18%. More HCBS utilization was associated with participants who resided in service-poor housing, were older, were female, and had more activity limitations. More HCBS utilization was also associated with those who received instrumental support, had higher perceived purpose in life, and poorer mental health. Conclusions: Findings suggest that older adults’ residential environment is associated with their health status and HCBS utilization. Building upon the Person–Environment Fit theories, dedicated efforts are needed to introduce and expand upon existing HCBS available to facility residents to address physical and

  19. The Temperament Types of Nursing Administrators in Hospital Nursing Service. (United States)


    ADMINISTRATORS SURVEYED IN THE STATE OF TEXAS (N = 192) Temperament Type Frequency Percentage ESTJ 66 34.37 ISTJ 20 10.41 ENTJ 15 7.81 ESFJ 12 6.25 INFJ 1 0.52...Stated Administrative Position* Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ESTJ 30 12 12 1 6 2 2 1 ISTJ 6 4 6 1 1 2 ENTJ 6 2 5 1 1 ESFJ 1 5 6 * INFJ I INTJ 1 1 ENFP 4 1 3 1...possibilities. INFJ - People-oriented innovator of ideas; serious, quietly forceful and persevering; concerned with the common good, with helping

  20. Rapid single step subcloning procedure by combined action of type II and type IIs endonucleases with ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingenspor Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subcloning of a DNA fragment from an entry vector into a destination vector is a routinely performed task in molecular biology labs. Results We here present a novel benchtop procedure to achieve rapid recombination into any destination vector of choice with the sole requirement of an endonuclease recognition site. The method relies on a specifically designed entry vector and the combined action of type II and type IIs endonucleases with ligase. The formulation leads to accumulation of a single stable cloning product representing the desired insert carrying destination vector. Conclusion The described method provides a fast single step procedure for routine subcloning from an entry vector into a series of destination vectors with the same restriction enzyme recognition site.

  1. Rapid single step subcloning procedure by combined action of type II and type IIs endonucleases with ligase. (United States)

    Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin


    The subcloning of a DNA fragment from an entry vector into a destination vector is a routinely performed task in molecular biology labs. We here present a novel benchtop procedure to achieve rapid recombination into any destination vector of choice with the sole requirement of an endonuclease recognition site. The method relies on a specifically designed entry vector and the combined action of type II and type IIs endonucleases with ligase. The formulation leads to accumulation of a single stable cloning product representing the desired insert carrying destination vector. The described method provides a fast single step procedure for routine subcloning from an entry vector into a series of destination vectors with the same restriction enzyme recognition site.

  2. The use of a single volar locking plate for AO C3-type distal radius fractures. (United States)

    Earp, Brandon E; Foster, Brian; Blazar, Philip E


    A single volar locking plate (VLP) is now frequently used for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of many types of distal radius fractures. Comminuted intra-articular distal radius fractures (AO C3-type) are typically the most challenging to surgically treat. No studies directly address the adequacy of a VLP alone for maintaining reduction of AO C-type fractures. We hypothesized that a single VLP provides an effective method for maintaining reduction for these fractures. We retrospectively evaluated radiographs of a series of AO C-type fractures. Seventy-seven patients with 77 AO C3-type fractures were identified from billing records and were eligible for the study. All patients were treated by fellowship-trained hand surgeons. Radiographs at the time of union were compared to those from immediately postoperatively. Sixty-nine of 77 (89.6 %) fractures treated with VLP fixation alone for AO C3-type distal radius fractures united without loss of reduction. Eight of 77 (10.4 %) patients treated with VLP for AO C3 fractures lost reduction. The most common fracture fragment to lose reduction was the lunate fossa (5 of 8); loss of reduction of the scaphoid fossa die-punch fragment (2 of 8) and the radial styloid (1 of 8) were also seen. The majority (89.6 %) of AO C3-type fractures treated with a single volar locking plate come to union without loss of reduction. Level IV.

  3. 20 CFR 1002.56 - What types of service in the National Disaster Medical System are considered “service in the... (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of service in the National Disaster Medical System are considered âservice in the uniformed services?â 1002.56 Section 1002.56... the National Disaster Medical System are considered “service in the uniformed services?” Under a...

  4. Multidisciplinary Service Utilization Pattern by Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C. Junn


    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the patterns and associations of adjunctive service visits by head and neck cancer patients receiving primary, concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Methods. Retrospective chart review of patients receiving adjunctive support during a uniform chemoradiation regimen for stages III-IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate models for each outcome were obtained from simple and multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Fifty-two consecutive patients were assessed. Female gender, single marital status, and nonprivate insurance were factors associated with an increased number of social work visits. In a multivariate analysis, female gender and marital status were related to increased social work services. Female gender and stage IV disease were significant for increased nursing visits. In a multivariate analysis for nursing visits, living greater than 20 miles between home and hospital was a negative predictive factor. Conclusion. Treatment of advanced stage head and neck cancer with concurrent chemoradiation warrants a multidisciplinary approach. Female gender, single marital status, and stage IV disease were correlated with increased utilization of social work and nursing services. Distance over 20 miles from the center was a negative factor. This information may help guide the treatment team to allocate resources for the comprehensive care of patients.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B


    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B


    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion

  7. Emergency Aeromedical Services in Ireland – A Single-Centre Study in 2014

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, G.A.


    This retrospective analysis includes patients requiring Emergency Aeromedical Services (EAS) in 2014. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the HEMS service in a single centre and to accurately assess whether certain internationally validated criteria can predict admission rates better than the currently used criteria. Using the American College of Surgeons (ACS) trauma-related dispatch criteria, each case was retrospectively evaluated. Results showed the mean total criteria met were 2.73 (σ=0.88) and 1.45 (σ=0.82) in admitted and discharged patients respectively. The total criteria met had a significant predictive value on admission rates (p<0.05). Increased admission rates were shown in patients with a high Mechanism of Injury (MOI) (p<0.05). False positive rates of HEMS transfer were higher when applying the current criteria compared to the ACS criteria. ACS total criteria can predict admission in HEMS patients with a higher specificity than currently used guidelines.

  8. A hybrid algorithm for stochastic single-source capacitated facility location problem with service level requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Salemi


    Full Text Available Facility location models are observed in many diverse areas such as communication networks, transportation, and distribution systems planning. They play significant role in supply chain and operations management and are one of the main well-known topics in strategic agenda of contemporary manufacturing and service companies accompanied by long-lasting effects. We define a new approach for solving stochastic single source capacitated facility location problem (SSSCFLP. Customers with stochastic demand are assigned to set of capacitated facilities that are selected to serve them. It is demonstrated that problem can be transformed to deterministic Single Source Capacitated Facility Location Problem (SSCFLP for Poisson demand distribution. A hybrid algorithm which combines Lagrangian heuristic with adjusted mixture of Ant colony and Genetic optimization is proposed to find lower and upper bounds for this problem. Computational results of various instances with distinct properties indicate that proposed solving approach is efficient.

  9. Inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E. A.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Bos, R.; Haverkate, F.; Lassen, M. R.; de Maat, M. P.; Rijken, D. C.


    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process that may protect a blood clot from early fibrinolysis. It is not known under what circumstances tcu-PA/T can be generated in vivo. We have studied the occurrence

  10. Identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer: Evaluating laboratory trained algorithms in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuba Gyllensten, I.; Bonomi, A.G.


    Accurate identification of physical activity types has been achieved in laboratory conditions using single-site accelerometers and classification algorithms. This methodology is then applied to free-living subjects to determine activity behaviour. This study aimed at analysing the reproducibility of

  11. Variation in the Effects of Different Types of Racial Incidents on Satisfaction with Military Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, James


    This study examines the effect of different types of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service, using data from the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey, released in November 1999...

  12. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan


    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  13. Esthetic outcome of single implant crowns following type 1 and type 3 implant placement: a systematic review. (United States)

    Shi, Jun-Yu; Wang, Ren; Zhuang, Long-Fei; Gu, Ying-Xin; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Lai, Hong-Chang


    The aim of the current review was to systematically appraise the esthetic outcome of soft tissue around single implant crowns following type 1 and type 3 implants placement in published dental literature. A PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials search up to March 2013 was conducted for articles published in the dental literature and limited to human trials with no language restricted. Furthermore, the reference lists of related articles were systematically screened, and additional manual searches were also performed. The primary outcome was pink esthetics score (PES). The electronic search in the database of PubMed, Embase, and the Cohrane Central Register of Controlled Trials resulted in the identification of 463 titles. These titles were initially screened by the two independent reviewers for possible inclusion. Screening the abstracts and titles led to 28 articles for future full-text consideration. From these articles, 18 studies were excluded. Manual search identified one article. After quality assessment, eight studies were included in this review. This review showed that no significant difference of PES index could be found between type 1 and type 3 implant placement. According to the current evidence, short-term esthetic outcomes of peri-implant soft tissue did not show significant difference following type 1 and type 3 implants placement with well-selected patients. However, caution should be taken for clinicians to extrapolate this result to all types of patients, as more randomized clinical trials are needed for long-term soft-tissue esthetic outcome in patients with high esthetic risk following type 1 implant placement. PES frequency, peri-implant condition and other risk factors for peri-implantitis are recommended to be reported for future studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Scheduling of hybrid types of machines with two-machine flowshop as the first type and a single machine as the second type (United States)

    Hsiao, Ming-Chih; Su, Ling-Huey


    This research addresses the problem of scheduling hybrid machine types, in which one type is a two-machine flowshop and another type is a single machine. A job is either processed on the two-machine flowshop or on the single machine. The objective is to determine a production schedule for all jobs so as to minimize the makespan. The problem is NP-hard since the two parallel machines problem was proved to be NP-hard. Simulated annealing algorithms are developed to solve the problem optimally. A mixed integer programming (MIP) is developed and used to evaluate the performance for two SAs. Computational experiments demonstrate the efficiency of the simulated annealing algorithms, the quality of the simulated annealing algorithms will also be reported.

  15. Cell type discovery and representation in the era of high-content single cell phenotyping. (United States)

    Bakken, Trygve; Cowell, Lindsay; Aevermann, Brian D; Novotny, Mark; Hodge, Rebecca; Miller, Jeremy A; Lee, Alexandra; Chang, Ivan; McCorrison, Jamison; Pulendran, Bali; Qian, Yu; Schork, Nicholas J; Lasken, Roger S; Lein, Ed S; Scheuermann, Richard H


    A fundamental characteristic of multicellular organisms is the specialization of functional cell types through the process of differentiation. These specialized cell types not only characterize the normal functioning of different organs and tissues, they can also be used as cellular biomarkers of a variety of different disease states and therapeutic/vaccine responses. In order to serve as a reference for cell type representation, the Cell Ontology has been developed to provide a standard nomenclature of defined cell types for comparative analysis and biomarker discovery. Historically, these cell types have been defined based on unique cellular shapes and structures, anatomic locations, and marker protein expression. However, we are now experiencing a revolution in cellular characterization resulting from the application of new high-throughput, high-content cytometry and sequencing technologies. The resulting explosion in the number of distinct cell types being identified is challenging the current paradigm for cell type definition in the Cell Ontology. In this paper, we provide examples of state-of-the-art cellular biomarker characterization using high-content cytometry and single cell RNA sequencing, and present strategies for standardized cell type representations based on the data outputs from these cutting-edge technologies, including "context annotations" in the form of standardized experiment metadata about the specimen source analyzed and marker genes that serve as the most useful features in machine learning-based cell type classification models. We also propose a statistical strategy for comparing new experiment data to these standardized cell type representations. The advent of high-throughput/high-content single cell technologies is leading to an explosion in the number of distinct cell types being identified. It will be critical for the bioinformatics community to develop and adopt data standard conventions that will be compatible with these new

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Doorframe Structure of Single Oblique Pole Type in Container Crane (United States)

    Cheng, X. F.; Wu, F. Q.; Tang, G.; Hu, X.


    Compared with the composite type, the single oblique pole type has more advantages, such as simple structure, thrift steel and high safe overhead clearance. The finite element model of the single oblique pole type is established in nodes by ANSYS, and more details are considered when the model is simplified, such as the section of Girder and Boom, torque in Girder and Boom occurred by Machinery house and Trolley, density according to the way of simplification etc. The stress and deformation of ten observation points are compared and analyzed, when the trolley is in nine dangerous positions. Based on the result of analysis, six dangerous points are selected to provide reference for the detection and evaluation of container crane.

  17. Single Muscle Fiber Proteomics Reveals Fiber-Type-Specific Features of Human Muscle Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Murgia


    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a key tissue in human aging, which affects different muscle fiber types unequally. We developed a highly sensitive single muscle fiber proteomics workflow to study human aging and show that the senescence of slow and fast muscle fibers is characterized by diverging metabolic and protein quality control adaptations. Whereas mitochondrial content declines with aging in both fiber types, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism are upregulated in slow but downregulated in fast muscle fibers. Aging mitochondria decrease expression of the redox enzyme monoamine oxidase A. Slow fibers upregulate a subset of actin and myosin chaperones, whereas an opposite change happens in fast fibers. These changes in metabolism and sarcomere quality control may be related to the ability of slow, but not fast, muscle fibers to maintain their mass during aging. We conclude that single muscle fiber analysis by proteomics can elucidate pathophysiology in a sub-type-specific manner.

  18. Multicolor imaging of cancer cells with fluorophore-tagged aptamers for single cell typing. (United States)

    Wang, Song; Kong, Hao; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong


    The discrimination of the type of cancer cells remains challenging due to the subtle differences in their expression of membrane receptors. In this work, we developed a multicolor cell imaging method for distinguishing the type of cancer cells with fluorophore-tagged aptamers. We found that the interaction between aptamers and cancer cells was affected by both of the sequence of aptamers and the labeled dyes. As the co-ownership of biomarkers for different cancer cell lines, the fluorophore-tagged aptamers interacted with different cancer cell lines in different degree, resulting in a distinct color to discriminate the type of cancer cells at single cell level. Taking advantage of the cross-reactive ability of the fluorophore-tagged aptamers, we could not only distinguish the cancerous cells quickly from large quantities of noncancerous cells, but also identify the type of the cancerous cells. This work has potential application for cancer diagnostic and therapy in the future.

  19. Structural modeling of dahlia-type single-walled carbon nanohorn aggregates by molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Hawelek, L; Brodka, A; Dore, John C; Hannon, Alex C; Iijima, S; Yudasaka, M; Ohba, T; Kaneko, K; Burian, A


    The structure of dahlia-type single-walled carbon nanohorn aggregates has been modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations, and the validity of the model has been verified by neutron diffraction. Computer-generated models consisted of an outer part formed from single-walled carbon nanohorns with diameters of 20-50 Å and a length of 400 Å and an inner turbostratic graphite-like core with a diameter of 130 Å. The diffracted intensity and the pair correlation function computed for such a constructed model are in good agreement with the neutron diffraction experimental data. The proposed turbostratic inner core explains the occurrence of the additional (002) and (004) graphitic peaks in the diffraction pattern of the studied sample and provides information about the interior structure of the dahlia-type aggregates.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.; Gies, D. R.; Hillwig, T. C.; McSwain, M. V.; Huang, W.


    We report on new radial velocity measurements of massive stars that are either suspected binaries or lacking prior observations. This is part of a survey to identify and characterize spectroscopic binaries among O-type stars with the goal of comparing the binary fraction of field and runaway stars with those in clusters and associations. We present orbits for HDE 308813, HD 152147, HD 164536, BD–16°4826, and HDE 229232, Galactic O-type stars exhibiting single-lined spectroscopic variation. By fitting model spectra to our observed spectra, we obtain estimates for effective temperature, surface gravity, and rotational velocity. We compute orbital periods and velocity semiamplitudes for each system and note the lack of photometric variation for any system. These binaries probably appear single-lined because the companions are faint and because their orbital Doppler shifts are small compared to the width of the rotationally broadened lines of the primary.

  1. Comprehensive Identification and Spatial Mapping of Habenular Neuronal Types Using Single-Cell RNA-Seq. (United States)

    Pandey, Shristi; Shekhar, Karthik; Regev, Aviv; Schier, Alexander F


    The identification of cell types and marker genes is critical for dissecting neural development and function, but the size and complexity of the brain has hindered the comprehensive discovery of cell types. We combined single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) with anatomical brain registration to create a comprehensive map of the zebrafish habenula, a conserved forebrain hub involved in pain processing and learning. Single-cell transcriptomes of ∼13,000 habenular cells with 4× cellular coverage identified 18 neuronal types and dozens of marker genes. Registration of marker genes onto a reference atlas created a resource for anatomical and functional studies and enabled the mapping of active neurons onto neuronal types following aversive stimuli. Strikingly, despite brain growth and functional maturation, cell types were retained between the larval and adult habenula. This study provides a gene expression atlas to dissect habenular development and function and offers a general framework for the comprehensive characterization of other brain regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Charge collection measurements in single-type column 3D sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaringella, M.; Polyakov, A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Bruzzi, M.; Tosi, C.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.


    We report on charge collection studies on 3D silicon detectors of single-type column n-diffusions in p-substrate, configured either as strip or as pad detectors. The charge is generated by penetrating beta particles from a 90 Sr source which, together with a scintillation counter, serves as an electron telescope. The charge collection as a function of bias voltage is compared with the depletion thickness derived from the measured C-V characteristics

  3. Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Scaringella, M.; Petterson, M.K.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Manna, N.; Creanza, D.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.


    The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1x10 15 cm -2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

  4. Identification of soybean proteins from a single cell type: The root hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechenmacher, Laurent; Nguyen, Tran H.; Hixson, Kim K.; Libault, Marc; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary


    Root hairs are a terminally differentiated single cell type, mainly involved in water and nutrient uptake from the soil. The soybean root hair cell represents an excellent model for the study of single cell systems biology. In this study, we identified 5702 proteins, with at least two peptides, from soybean root hairs using an accurate mass and time tag approach, establishing the most comprehensive proteome reference map of this single cell type. We also showed that trypsin is the most appropriate enzyme for soybean proteomic studies by performing an in silico digestion of the soybean proteome database using different proteases. Although the majority of proteins identified in this study are involved in basal metabolism, the function of others are more related to root hair formation/function and include proteins involved in nutrient uptake (transporters) or vesicular trafficking (cytoskeleton and RAB proteins). Interestingly, some of these proteins appear to be specifically expressed in root hairs and constitute very good candidates for further studies to elucidate unique features of this single cell model.

  5. Extent and types of management consulting services to SMEs in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Dukić


    Full Text Available Growth and development of small and medium enterprises depends on many external and internal factors, as well as the volume, type and quality of support available to them. This paper highlights the importance of management knowledge and skills in small business, and the importance of management consulting in their acquisition and development. We have researched and analyzed the extent to management consulting (MC services, separately in the micro, small and medium enterprises. In addition, we learn which types of MC services are most commonly used by companies of different sizes. In that way, we provided qualitative and quantitative data for each group of enterprises, both in the type and volume of services used. It is observed that micro-enterprises use a small amount  MC services, and those of more general type. With the growth of the enterprises, comes an increase in scope, and sophistication of services used. The results may be useful both for small and medium enterprises, as well as for institutional and private providers of management consulting services.

  6. X Marks the Spot: Creating and Managing a Single Service Point to Improve Customer Service and Maximize Resources (United States)

    Venner, Mary Ann; Keshmiripour, Seti


    This article will describe how merging service points in an academic library is an opportunity to improve customer service and utilize staffing resources more efficiently. Combining service points provides libraries with the ability to create a more positive library experience for patrons by minimizing the ping-pong effect for assistance. The…

  7. Empagliflozin/linagliptin single-pill combination therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is typically progressive, with sequential addition of therapies often needed to address increasing hyperglycemia over the disease course. Using treatments in combination may be preferred to sequential addition, as a means of providing a more rapid clinical response and potentially avoiding clinical inertia. In such cases, a single-pill combination can help to reduce pill burden. Although various single-pill combinations of oral glucose-lowering agents are available, empagliflozin/linagliptin was the first approved combination of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in the United States. Areas covered: Two publications of the clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of single-pill combinations of empagliflozin/linagliptin in treatment-naive or metformin-treated patients with T2DM (NCT01422876) are reviewed, and their potential impact on clinical practice is discussed. Expert opinion: The study discussed provides evidence for the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin/linagliptin single pills. Addition of an empagliflozin/linagliptin single pill may be considered in patients with inadequate glycemic control on metformin, or as an alternative to first-line treatment with empagliflozin or linagliptin when metformin is not suitable, particularly in patients with very poor glycemic control, or those who need to achieve target more quickly.

  8. submitter Search for singly produced vector-like down-type quarks in single-lepton final states with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rehnisch, Laura

    A search for vector-like and excited down-type (Q = 1/3) quarks with the ATLAS detector is presented in this thesis. The existence of these quarks is predicted by various models beyond the Standard Model, motivated by some limitations of that theory. Quarks from two specific models are searched for in single production mode, as this is predicted to yield higher cross-sections than pair production in the investigated mass range. The search focuses on decays of the heavy quarks to a W boson and a top quark, the latter of which subsequently decays almost exclusively into another W boson and a bottom quark. Requiring one of the two W bosons to decay leptonically leads to final states containing exactly one lepton (electron or muon in this case), several jets, one of which can be identified as originating from a bottom quark, and some amount of missing energy in the transverse plane stemming from the neutrino of the leptonic W decay. The reconstructed mass of the heavy quark is used to discriminate between signal ...

  9. Association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in single-embryo transfer cycles. (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Patel, Hency H; Stone, Logan D; Christos, Paul J; Elias, Rony T; Spandorfer, Steven D; Rosenwaks, Zev


    To investigate the association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 single-embryo transfer (SET). Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated center. Normal responders, blood type and live birth, while controlling for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for live birth were estimated. A total of 2,329 patients were included. The mean age of the study cohort was 34.6 ± 4.78 years. The distribution of blood types was as follows: A = 897 (38.5%); B = 397 (17.0%); AB = 120 (5.2%); and, O = 1,915 (39.3%) patients. There was no difference in the baseline demographics, ovarian stimulation, or embryo quality parameters between the blood types. The unadjusted ORs for live birth when comparing blood type A (referent) with blood types B, AB, and O were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.6-1.7), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.4-1.2), and 0.96 (95% CI. 0.6-1.7), respectively. The adjusted ORs for live birth remained not significant when comparing blood type A to blood types B, AB, and O individually. No difference in birth weight or gestational age at delivery was noted among the four blood types. Our findings suggest that ABO blood type is not associated with live-birth rate, birth weight, or gestational age at delivery in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 SET. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An advanced chronic heart failure day care service: a 5 year single-center experience. (United States)

    Freimark, Dov; Arad, Michael; Matetzky, Shlomi; DeNeen, Isabell; Gershovitz, Liron; Morag, Nira Koren; Hochberg, Naomi; Makmal, Yafit; Shechter, Michael


    Chronic heart failure is associated with excessive hospitalizations and poor prognosis. To summarize the 5 year experience of a single-center CHF day care service, detect the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, and evaluate the safety of the treatments provided. We retrospectively studied all patients admitted to the CHF day care service of the Sheba Medical Center between September 2000 and September 2005. Advanced (New York Heart Association class III-IV) CHF patients (n = 190), mean age 65 +/- 12 years and left ventricular ejection fraction 25 +/- 11%, were treated for 6 hourly biweekly visits; 77% had ischemic and 23% had nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Treatment included: intravenous diuretic combinations (91%), intermittent low dose (< or = 5 microg/kg/min) dobutamine (87%), low dose (< or = 3 microg/kg/min) dopamine (38%), intravenous iron preparation and/or blood (47%), and intravenous nitropruside (36%). Follow-up of at least 1 year from initiation of therapy was completed in 158 of 190 patients (83%). Forty-six (29.3%) died: 23% due to CHF exacerbation, 5.7% from infection, 4.4% from sudden cardiac death, 3.8% from malignancy, 2.5% from malignant arrhythmias, 1.9% from renal failure, 1.3% from stroke, and 0.6% from myocardial infarction. There were only 0.68 rehospitalizations/patient/year; the most frequent cause being CHF exacerbation (16.5%). Our study demonstrates the safety and potential benefits of a supportive day care service for advanced CHF patients. Multidrug intravenous treatment, accompanied by monitoring of electrolytes, hemoglobin and cardiac rhythm, along with education and psychological support, appear to reduce morbidity in advanced CHF patients and may have contributed to the lower than expected mortality/ hospitalization rate.

  11. Differences Among Older Adults in the Types of Dental Services Used in the United States (United States)

    Manski, Richard J.; Hyde, Jody Schimmel; Chen, Haiyan; Moeller, John F.


    The purpose of this article is to explore differences in the socioeconomic, demographic characteristics of older adults in the United States with respect to their use of different types of dental care services. The 2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) collected information about patterns of dental care use and oral health from individuals aged 55 years and older in the United States. We analyze these data and explore patterns of service use by key characteristics before modeling the relationship between service use type and those characteristics. The most commonly used service category was fillings, inlays, or bonding, reported by 43.6% of those with any utilization. Just over one third of those with any utilization reported a visit for a crown, implant, or prosthesis, and one quarter reported a gum treatment or tooth extraction. The strongest consistent predictors of use type are denture, dentate, and oral health status along with dental insurance coverage and wealth. Our results provide insights into the need for public policies to address inequalities in access to dental services among an older US population. Our findings show that lower income, less wealthy elderly with poor oral health are more likely to not use any dental services rather than using only preventive dental care, and that cost prevents most non-users who say they need dental care from going to the dentist. These results suggest a serious access problem and one that ultimately produces even worse oral health and expensive major procedures for this population in the future. PMID:27284127

  12. Perceived service quality in healthcare organizations and a research in Ankara by hospital type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim H. Kayral


    Full Text Available The purpose of healthcare services is to protect and improve individuals’ physical, mental and social health and ensure its continuity to increase the level of welfare and happiness in the society. As in all service organizations, service quality has an important place in healthcare organizations. Therefore, measuring the impacts of the efforts made by enterprises for service quality and the clients’ perceptions of the services provided, assessing how their perceptions differ in different dimensions of quality, and taking new measures according to the results are the key to continuous improvement. In this study, with respect to the abovementioned issues, perception of the quality of services provided in the field of health by those who receive them is compared according to different types of hospitals providing such service, and evaluations are made accordingly. Thus, whether patients’ perceptions of service quality differ according to hospital types, in what dimensions of quality these differences occur and perceived quality by different patient profiles like age, sex, incomes etc. are assessed. In the measurement of service quality, a set of 34 questions with six dimensions was used, which was used by Kara, Tarım and Zaim (2003 in several hospitals and then used in several research studies in Turkey on service quality in healthcare enterprises (Çaha, 2007; Kara, 2006. Based on the findings of the research, it can be said that public general branch hospitals are perceived as quality at the same level with private hospitals and even they reach higher levels of patient satisfaction. On the other hand, when the sub-dimensions of quality are examined, it is seen that public hospitals are still behind private hospitals in terms of physical quality.

  13. Application of Transaction Cost Economics to Capabilities-Based Acquisition: Exploring Single Service vs. Joint Service Programs and Single Systems vs. System-of-Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelis, Diana; Dillard, John; Franck, Raymond; Melese, Francois; Brown, Mary M; Flowe, Robert M


    The US Department of Defense (DoD) is in the process of radical transformation -- transformation to a national security strategy predicated on joint Service purchases and complex System-of-Systems (SoS) capabilities...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of p-type boron-doped IIb diamond large single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shang-Sheng; Li Xiao-Lei; Su Tai-Chao; Jia Xiao-Peng; Ma Hong-An; Huang Guo-Feng; Li Yong


    High-quality p-type boron-doped IIb diamond large single crystals are successfully synthesized by the temperature gradient method in a china-type cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus at about 5.5 GPa and 1600 K. The morphologies and surface textures of the synthetic diamond crystals with different boron additive quantities are characterized by using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope respectively. The impurities of nitrogen and boron in diamonds are detected by micro Fourier transform infrared technique. The electrical properties including resistivities, Hall coefficients, Hall mobilities and carrier densities of the synthesized samples are measured by a four-point probe and the Hall effect method. The results show that large p-type boron-doped diamond single crystals with few nitrogen impurities have been synthesized. With the increase of quantity of additive boron, some high-index crystal faces such as {113} gradually disappear, and some stripes and triangle pits occur on the crystal surface. This work is helpful for the further research and application of boron-doped semiconductor diamond. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. 14 CFR 291.44 - BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by... TRANSPORTATION Reporting Rules § 291.44 BTS Schedule P-12(a), Fuel Consumption by Type of Service and Entity. (a) For the purposes of BTS schedule P-12(a), type of service shall be either scheduled service or...

  16. Single-pill combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus: linagliptin plus empagliflozin. (United States)

    Aronson, Ronnie


    Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus invariably requires the use of multiple daily medications which can impact negatively on patient adherence. As a result, there is growing interest in the use of single-pill combinations that can reduce the pill burden. Many such formulations incorporate metformin, although this agent is not suitable for all patients. The single-pill combination of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin with the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin offers a new and attractive option, given their complementary mechanisms of action. Publications with titles containing the keywords 'linagliptin' or 'empagliflozin' were identified from a non-systematic search of PubMed without date restrictions, together with abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2012-2014. was searched for entries containing these two keywords. Additional references known to the author were included. The efficacy and safety of linagliptin and empagliflozin as monotherapy or in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs has been established through extensive clinical trial programs. Studies specifically evaluating the efficacy/safety of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor/sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in combination are limited, but do include two studies of linagliptin/empagliflozin of up to 52 weeks in duration. These studies show that the single-pill combination of linagliptin and empagliflozin produced clinical improvements in glycemic control that were generally superior to the improvements seen with linagliptin and empagliflozin alone, but with a safety profile comparable to that of the individual constituents. The single-pill combination of linagliptin and empagliflozin, with their complementary mechanisms of action, is a promising treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It would reduce the daily

  17. Single-channel L-type Ca2+ currents in chicken embryo semicircular canal type I and type II hair cells. (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Valli, Paolo; Zucca, Giampiero; Masetto, Sergio


    Few data are available concerning single Ca channel properties in inner ear hair cells and particularly none in vestibular type I hair cells. By using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique in combination with the semicircular canal crista slice preparation, we determined the elementary properties of voltage-dependent Ca channels in chicken embryo type I and type II hair cells. The pipette solutions included Bay K 8644. With 70 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, Ca channel activity appeared as very brief openings at -60 mV. Ca channel properties were found to be similar in type I and type II hair cells; therefore data were pooled. The mean inward current amplitude was -1.3 +/- 0.1 (SD) pA at - 30 mV (n = 16). The average slope conductance was 21 pS (n = 20). With 5 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, very brief openings were already detectable at -80 mV. The mean inward current amplitude was -0.7 +/- 0.2 pA at -40 mV (n = 9). The average slope conductance was 11 pS (n = 9). The mean open time and the open probability increased significantly with depolarization. Ca channel activity was still present and unaffected when omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM) and omega-conotoxin GVIA (3.2 microM) were added to the pipette solution. Our results show that types I and II hair cells express L-type Ca channels with similar properties. Moreover, they suggest that in vivo Ca(2+) influx might occur at membrane voltages more negative than -60 mV.

  18. A new type of single-phase five-level inverter (United States)

    Xu, Zhi; Li, Shengnan; Qin, Risheng; Zhao, Yanhang


    At present, Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) multilevel inverter is widely applied in new energy field. However, it has some disadvantages including low utilization rate of direct current (DC) voltage source and the unbalance of neutral potential. Therefore, a new single-phase five level inverter is proposed in this paper. It has two stage structure, the former stage is equivalent to three level DC/DC converter, and the back stage uses H bridge to realize inverter. Compared with the original central clamp type inverter, the new five level inverter can improve the utilization of DC voltage, and realize the neutral point potential balance with hysteresis comparator.

  19. High speed single nucleotide polymorphism typing of a hereditary haemochromatosis mutation with capillary array electrophoresis microplates. (United States)

    Medintz, I; Wong, W W; Sensabaugh, G; Mathies, R A


    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing assay is developed and evaluated on a microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis system. Using fluorescently labeled allele-specific primers, the S65C (193A-->T) substitution associated with hereditary haemochromatosis in the HFE gene is genotyped. The covalently labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products are separated on a microfabricated radial capillary array electrophoresis microplate using nondenaturing gel media in under two minutes. Detection is accomplished with a laser-excited rotary confocal scanner. The Rox-labeled A-allele specific amplicon (211 bp) is differentiated from the R110-labeled T-allele specific amplicon (201 bp) by both size and color. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using allele-specific PCR with covalently labeled primers for high speed fluorescent SNP typing on microfabricated radial capillary array electrophoresis microplates.

  20. Assessment for Community Service Types of Experiential Learning in the Engineering Discipline (United States)

    Chan, Cecilia Ka Yuk


    While experiential learning has been increasingly explored and adopted by higher education institutions, few have researched the appropriate assessment methods that can be aligned with the learning outcomes of experiential learning. A literature review on the diverse forms of assessment currently used for community service types of experiential…

  1. Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Youth Mental Health Services: Do Disparities Vary by Problem Type? (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M.; Hough, Richard L.


    The authors examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use based on problem type (internalizing/externalizing). A diverse sample of youth in contact with public sectors of care and their families provided reports of youth's symptoms and functional impairment during an initial interview. Specialty and school-based mental health…

  2. Factors Influencing the Types of Products and Services Purchased over the Internet. (United States)

    Phau, Ian; Poon, Sui Meng


    Presents the findings of an empirical investigation of Internet shopping in Singapore. Compares Internet buying behavior between potential Internet buyers and non-Internet buyers, and concludes that the classification of different types of products and services will significantly influence consumer choice between a retail store and the Internet.…

  3. Mapping bundles of ecosystem services reveals distinct types of multifunctionality within a Swedish landscape. (United States)

    Queiroz, Cibele; Meacham, Megan; Richter, Kristina; Norström, Albert V; Andersson, Erik; Norberg, Jon; Peterson, Garry


    Ecosystem services (ES) is a valuable concept to be used in the planning and management of social-ecological landscapes. However, the understanding of the determinant factors affecting the interaction between services in the form of synergies or trade-offs is still limited. We assessed the production of 16 ES across 62 municipalities in the Norrström drainage basin in Sweden. We combined GIS data with publically available information for quantifying and mapping the distribution of services. Additionally, we calculated the diversity of ES for each municipality and used correlations and k-means clustering analyses to assess the existence of ES bundles. We found five distinct types of bundles of ES spatially agglomerated in the landscape that could be explained by regional social and ecological gradients. Human-dominated landscapes were highly multifunctional in our study area and urban densely populated areas were hotspots of cultural services.

  4. Correlates of mental health service use and type among Asian Americans. (United States)

    Ihara, Emily S; Chae, David H; Cummings, Janet R; Lee, Sunmin


    This study uses data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to investigate correlates of mental health service use among Asian Americans with mental health needs. Our study contributes to the extant literature by: (1) differentiating between mental health service use types; and (2) examining a broader swatch of Asian Americans with mental health needs, ranging from mild to severe cases. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed heterogeneity in service use patterns by ethnicity, age, marital status, English proficiency, and generation status. Unmet mental health needs continue to be a problem despite treatments that could improve the quality of life of Asian Americans. Our study provides a more nuanced understanding of mental health service utilization patterns in this understudied population.

  5. How professionals perceive types of risk in public service innovation: Reports from Copenhagen municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timeus, Krista; Ricard, Lykke Margot

    The paper addresses two questions; what do professionals working in the public administration understand by ‘risk’ in relation to their work on innovation?; and how do these professionals understand their own role in managing risks of innovation? The paper takes an inductive approach and focuses...... on individuals, namely, professionals in Copenhagen municipality working on public services innovation. Such innovation includes new services or new methods of service delivery. Although all types of innovation include some risk, in public services, risks are exacerbated by the vulnerability of many users...... dependent on the state (such as children, elderly, people with disabilities), and intense media and political attention.Thus, most of the discussion in the paper focuses on innovations that somehow involve users. This is in contrast to, for example, an organizational innovation that mainly affects workers...

  6. Laser microdissection and DNA typing of cells from single hair follicles. (United States)

    Di Martino, D; Giuffrè, G; Staiti, N; Simone, A; Todaro, P; Saravo, L


    Isolation and identification of single cells from tissue samples or smears assume a great relevance in pathological and forensic applications; in this latter field, the possibility to identify a specific genetic profile can be obtained by short tandem repeat (STR) typing, allowing to achieve a scientific proof important in law courts. It is well known that DNA extraction may be performed from several tissue fragments, blood traces, spermatozoa as well as telogen hair. However, in the last case, few follicle cells are coupled to a great amount of keratin reducing the efficiency of DNA amplification. Recently, the introduction of laser microdissection technique has greatly improved the capability to select single cells without any cross-contamination. In the present report, we have performed a laser microdissection using a Leica AS LMD (Leica Microsystems, Germany), utilized on cutting the telogen hair in order to exclusively collect the lower part of the follicle and reduce keratin contamination. In this way we can accurately extract an adequate amount of DNA, successfully typed by STR profile.

  7. A Single RF Emitter-Based Indoor Navigation Method for Autonomous Service Robots (United States)

    Sherwin, Tyrone; Easte, Mikala; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Dai, Wenbin


    Location-aware services are one of the key elements of modern intelligent applications. Numerous real-world applications such as factory automation, indoor delivery, and even search and rescue scenarios require autonomous robots to have the ability to navigate in an unknown environment and reach mobile targets with minimal or no prior infrastructure deployment. This research investigates and proposes a novel approach of dynamic target localisation using a single RF emitter, which will be used as the basis of allowing autonomous robots to navigate towards and reach a target. Through the use of multiple directional antennae, Received Signal Strength (RSS) is compared to determine the most probable direction of the targeted emitter, which is combined with the distance estimates to improve the localisation performance. The accuracy of the position estimate is further improved using a particle filter to mitigate the fluctuating nature of real-time RSS data. Based on the direction information, a motion control algorithm is proposed, using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) and A* path planning to enable navigation through unknown complex environments. A number of navigation scenarios were developed in the context of factory automation applications to demonstrate and evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed system. PMID:29443906

  8. A Single RF Emitter-Based Indoor Navigation Method for Autonomous Service Robots. (United States)

    Sherwin, Tyrone; Easte, Mikala; Chen, Andrew Tzer-Yeu; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Dai, Wenbin


    Location-aware services are one of the key elements of modern intelligent applications. Numerous real-world applications such as factory automation, indoor delivery, and even search and rescue scenarios require autonomous robots to have the ability to navigate in an unknown environment and reach mobile targets with minimal or no prior infrastructure deployment. This research investigates and proposes a novel approach of dynamic target localisation using a single RF emitter, which will be used as the basis of allowing autonomous robots to navigate towards and reach a target. Through the use of multiple directional antennae, Received Signal Strength (RSS) is compared to determine the most probable direction of the targeted emitter, which is combined with the distance estimates to improve the localisation performance. The accuracy of the position estimate is further improved using a particle filter to mitigate the fluctuating nature of real-time RSS data. Based on the direction information, a motion control algorithm is proposed, using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) and A* path planning to enable navigation through unknown complex environments. A number of navigation scenarios were developed in the context of factory automation applications to demonstrate and evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed system.

  9. A Single RF Emitter-Based Indoor Navigation Method for Autonomous Service Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Sherwin


    Full Text Available Location-aware services are one of the key elements of modern intelligent applications. Numerous real-world applications such as factory automation, indoor delivery, and even search and rescue scenarios require autonomous robots to have the ability to navigate in an unknown environment and reach mobile targets with minimal or no prior infrastructure deployment. This research investigates and proposes a novel approach of dynamic target localisation using a single RF emitter, which will be used as the basis of allowing autonomous robots to navigate towards and reach a target. Through the use of multiple directional antennae, Received Signal Strength (RSS is compared to determine the most probable direction of the targeted emitter, which is combined with the distance estimates to improve the localisation performance. The accuracy of the position estimate is further improved using a particle filter to mitigate the fluctuating nature of real-time RSS data. Based on the direction information, a motion control algorithm is proposed, using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM and A* path planning to enable navigation through unknown complex environments. A number of navigation scenarios were developed in the context of factory automation applications to demonstrate and evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed system.

  10. Mental health service use by youths in contact with child welfare: racial disparities by problem type. (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G; Martinez, Jonathan I; Lau, Anna S


    This study examined racial disparities in mental health service use by problem type (internalizing versus externalizing) for youths in contact with the child welfare system. Participants included 1,693 non-Hispanic white, African-American, and Hispanic youths (ages four to 14) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of youths who were the subject of investigations of maltreatment by child welfare agencies. Mental health need, assessed at baseline, was considered present if the youth had internalizing or externalizing scores in the clinical range on either the Child Behavior Checklist or the Youth Self-Report. Out patient mental health service use in the subsequent year was assessed prospectively. Children who were removed from the home and those investigated for abuse (versus neglect) were more likely to receive services in the year after the child welfare investigation. Overall, African-American youths were less likely than non-Hispanic white youths to receive mental health services. However, race-ethnicity moderated the association between externalizing need and service use such that African Americans were more likely to receive services when externalizing need was present (26% versus 4%) compared with non-Hispanic white youths (30% versus 14%). Race and ethnicity did not moderate the association between youth internalizing need and service use, but internalizing need was associated with increased probability of service use only for non-Hispanic white youths. Examinations of overall racial disparities in service use may obscure important problem specific disparities. Additional research is needed to identify factors that lead to disparities and to develop strategies for reducing them.

  11. Distinct circular single-stranded DNA viruses exist in different soil types. (United States)

    Reavy, Brian; Swanson, Maud M; Cock, Peter J A; Dawson, Lorna; Freitag, Thomas E; Singh, Brajesh K; Torrance, Lesley; Mushegian, Arcady R; Taliansky, Michael


    The potential dependence of virus populations on soil types was examined by electron microscopy, and the total abundance of virus particles in four soil types was similar to that previously observed in soil samples. The four soil types examined differed in the relative abundances of four morphological groups of viruses. Machair, a unique type of coastal soil in western Scotland and Ireland, differed from the others tested in having a higher proportion of tailed bacteriophages. The other soils examined contained predominantly spherical and thin filamentous virus particles, but the Machair soil had a more even distribution of the virus types. As the first step in looking at differences in populations in detail, virus sequences from Machair and brown earth (agricultural pasture) soils were examined by metagenomic sequencing after enriching for circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) virus genomes. Sequences from the family Microviridae (icosahedral viruses mainly infecting bacteria) of CRESS-DNA viruses were predominant in both soils. Phylogenetic analysis of Microviridae major coat protein sequences from the Machair viruses showed that they spanned most of the diversity of the subfamily Gokushovirinae, whose members mainly infect obligate intracellular parasites. The brown earth soil had a higher proportion of sequences that matched the morphologically similar family Circoviridae in BLAST searches. However, analysis of putative replicase proteins that were similar to those of viruses in the Circoviridae showed that they are a novel clade of Circoviridae-related CRESS-DNA viruses distinct from known Circoviridae genera. Different soils have substantially different taxonomic biodiversities even within ssDNA viruses, which may be driven by physicochemical factors. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


    Haliloğlu, Belma; Abali, Saygın; Buğrul, Fuat; Çelik, Enes; Baş, Serpil; Atay, Zeynep; Güran, Tülay; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah


    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common cause of diabetes in childhood but type 2 diabetes (T2D) and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are emerging and noteworthy causes of diabetes in youths. The aim of the study is to determine the distribution, trends and clinical features of the different types of diabetes in childhood in a tertiary single-center. Children and adolescents aged 0-18 years who were diagnosed "diabetes/persistent hyperglycemia" between January 1999 and December 2016, were reviewed. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients at the diagnosis and type of diabetes were recorded. The mean age of 835 patients (48.7% females) at diagnosis was 8.8±4.4 years. Eighty-four percent of the patients were diagnosed with T1D, 5.7% with T2D, 5.3% with clinical MODY and 5% with other types of diabetes. The frequency of all DKA and severe DKA in T1D were 48.4% and 11.6%, respectively. Fourteen patients (29.2%) with T2D presented with ketosis and 2 of them (4.2%) had DKA at diagnosis. Antibody positivity was 83.1% in T1D and 14.8% in T2D. A statistically significant increase in the frequency of T2D has clearly been demonstrated in recent years with a frequency of 1.9%, 2.4% and 7.9% in 1999-2004, 2005-2010 and 2011-2016, respectively (pchildhood, a trend towards increase in the frequency of T2D in recent years is notable in our population.

  13. A single server queue with batch arrivals and semi-Markov services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhishek; M.A.A. Boon (Marko); O.J. Boxma (Onno); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo)


    htmlabstractWe investigate the transient and stationary queue-length distributions of a class of service systems with correlated service times. The classical MX/G/1 queue with semi-Markov service times is the most prominent example in this class and serves as a vehicle to display

  14. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Tag Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Diabetic Retinopathy. (United States)

    Siokas, Vasileios; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Sokolakis, Thomas; Kotoula, Maria; Tachmitzi, Sophia V; Chatzoulis, Dimitrios Z; Almpanidou, Pavlina; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Tsironi, Evangelia E


    There is accumulating evidence for genetic susceptibility to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in DR risk remains controversial. The present study was designed to investigate possible influence of PAI-1 gene region polymorphisms on the risk of DR and on the risk of developing DR early vs late in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 138 patients with DR, 107 patients with T2DM without DR, and 315 healthy controls were recruited. To cover the majority of the genetic variability across the extended region of PAI-1 gene, five tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the HapMap using a pairwise approach and an r 2 ≥ 0.8 and a minor allele frequency (MAF) of >0.05 were identified. Using logistic regression analyses, tag SNPs and haplotypes were tested for associations with DR risk and risk of DR development early or late in the course of T2DM. The generalized odds ratio (OR G ) was calculated to estimate the mutational load effect on DR development among all participants. Corrections for multiple comparisons were carried out (p-value < 0.01). A significant effect of rs2070682 on the risk of early DR onset was found in the codominant model of inheritance [odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI): 5.04 (1.47-17.28), p = 0.018]. However, this association marginally did not survive multiple testing corrections. No other significant association between PAI-1 tag-SNPs and haplotypes was revealed. Furthermore, no significant mutational load effect of PAI-1 tag SNPs on the risk of DR development in T2DM course was found. In conclusion, the present study does not provide any strong evidence that PAI-1 gene variants are implicated in the risk of DR or the development of DR during T2DM course.

  15. Customer intentions to invoke service guarantees: Do excellence in service recovery, type of guarantee, and cultural orientation matter?


    Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; De Keyser, Arne; Larivière, Bart


    Purpose – Many service providers feel confident about their service quality and thus offer service guarantees to their customers. Yet service failures are inevitable. As guarantees can only be invoked when customers report service failures, firms are given the opportunity to redress the original failure potentially influencing customer outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first empirical investigation of whether excellence in service recovery affects customers’ intentions to ...

  16. Study of the signal formation in single-type column 3D silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piemonte, Claudio; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Pozza, Alberto; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola


    Because of their superior radiation resistance, three-dimensional (3D) silicon sensors are receiving more and more interest for application in the innermost layers of tracker systems for experiments running in very high luminosity colliders. Their short electrode distance allows for both a low depletion voltage and a high charge collection efficiency even at extremely high radiation fluences. In order to fully understand the properties of a 3D detector, a thorough characterization of the signal formation mechanism is of paramount importance. In this work the shape of the current induced by localized and uniform charge depositions in a single-type column 3D detector is studied. A first row estimation is given applying the Ramo theorem, then a more complete TCAD simulation is used to provide a more realistic pulse shape

  17. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.


    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  18. Stochastic gravitational wave background from the single-degenerate channel of type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falta, David; Fisher, Robert


    We demonstrate that the integrated gravitational wave signal of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the single-degenerate channel out to cosmological distances gives rise to a continuous background to spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, including the Big Bang Observer and Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory planned missions. This gravitational wave background from SNe Ia acts as a noise background in the frequency range 0.1-10 Hz, which heretofore was thought to be relatively free from astrophysical sources apart from neutron-star and white-dwarf binaries, and therefore a key window in which to study primordial gravitational waves generated by inflation. While inflationary energy scales of > or approx. 10 16 GeV yield inflationary gravitational wave backgrounds in excess of our range of predicted backgrounds, for lower energy scales of ∼10 15 GeV, the inflationary gravitational wave background becomes comparable to the noise background from SNe Ia.

  19. The contribution of single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical assessment of Alzheimer type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudousq, V.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.


    Interest of brain single-photon emission computed tomography to support clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia is now established. Numerous studies have reported a decreased perfusion in the association cortex of the parietal lobe and the posterior temporal regions. In patients with mild cognitive complaints, the presence of focal hypoperfusion may increase substantially the probability of the disease. In addition, emission tomography emerges as a helpful tool in situation in which there is diagnostic doubt. In this case, the presence of temporo-parietal perfusion deficit associated with hippocampal atrophy on MRI or X-ray computed tomography contributes to diagnostic accuracy. However, some studies suggest that emission tomography may be useful for preclinical prediction of Alzheimer's disease and to predict cognitive decline. (author)

  20. Simulating the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Ronald; Thöns, Sebastian; Rogge, Andreas


    failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories, and evaluates the associated costs and risk. The expected total service life costs and risk for a strategy are finally determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The optimal strategy minimizes the expected total service life costs...... and risk. We intend to adopt this approach to optimize inspection, monitoring and repair activities for offshore wind park support structures. As a first step, we simulate – in analogy to an offshore wind park – the service life performance of an inspected group of jacket-type frames. The performance...... is quantified in terms of the group’s system failure probability conditional on simulated inspection and repair histories. The underlying system model accounts for the structural redundancy of the frames and the interdependence among their failure events due to similar loading conditions. The model also...

  1. Phonon-limited mobility in n-type single-layer MoS2 from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.


    We study the phonon-limited mobility in intrinsic n-type single-layer MoS2 for temperatures T > 100 K. The materials properties including the electron-phonon interaction are calculated from first principles and the deformation potentials and Frohlich interaction in single-layer MoS2 are establish...

  2. Oscillations of a single Abrikosov vortex in hard type-II superconductors (United States)

    Rusakov, V. F.; Chabanenko, V. V.; Nabiałek, A.; Chumak, O. M.


    During the last decade, detection and manipulation of single vortex lines in bulk superconductors have been achieved experimentally. Electrodynamic response of pinned vortices in the high-frequency range is instrumental in studying specific aspects of their behavior. The present paper reviews the state of the art in studies of the oscillations of a single Abrikosov vortex in type II superconductors. The equations for free and forced oscillations of a single elastic vortex line are analyzed taking into account different forces affecting its motion: pinning, elasticity, viscosity and the Lorenz force. The equations also account for the inertial properties of a vortex due to various mechanisms of massiveness. The nature and magnitude of the vortex effective mass caused by some of the mechanisms are discussed in the paper. The roles of each force and inertia in the free oscillation spectrum are thoroughly analyzed. For the De Gennes and Matricon mode (at about a megahertz) with parabolic dispersion and the pinning force taken into account, there is an activation threshold. Taking into account the effective vortex mass in the equation of motion leads to the occurrence of a high-frequency mode (at about a terahertz) in the oscillation spectrum which is also of the activation nature. Estimations of the characteristic frequencies for these modes are given for two common superconductors, NbTi and anisotropic YBaCuO. The paper also presents the features of the resonant behavior of an elastic massive vortex line arising under an external uniform harmonic driving force that decays into the bulk of the sample, taking into account all the above forces. The frequency and temperature dependences of the energy absorption by a vortex line are analyzed. Maximum absorption in the low-frequency mode corresponds to the threshold frequency, while that in the high-frequency mode corresponds to the vortex cyclotron frequency. Vortex manipulation experiments and vortex dynamics simulation

  3. Association between psychological distress and cancer type in patients referred to a psycho-oncology service

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavelle, C


    Psychological distress is common in patients with cancer and psychological well-being is increasingly seen as an important component of cancer care. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cancer type and subjective distress. The following data were collected from a database of consecutive psycho-oncology referrals to the Liaison Psychiatry service in Cork University Hospital from 2006 to 2015: demographics, cancer diagnosis, Distress Thermometer (DT) score. 2102 out of 2384 referrals were assessed. Of those assessed, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (23%, n=486) followed by haematological (21%, n=445). There were significant difference in DT score between the different cancer types, (χ2(13)=33.685, p=0.001, Kruskal–Wallis test). When adjusted for age, gender and whether or not the cancer was recently diagnosed, there was no significant association between cancer type and psychological distress. In conclusion, cancer type is not associated with level of distress in cancer.

  4. Factors associated to the imposition of types of violence against women informed in sentry services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and the factors associated to the imposition of the different types of violence against women informed in sentry services. METHOD: transversal study accomplished through 939 notification forms of cases of violence against women, referring to the three years from 2006 to 2008 in Fortaleza, Ceará. Univariate and multiple analyses by logistic regression were realized. RESULT: the results showed a positive association between the imposition of types of violence against women with a schooling varying from illiterate to basic education and the aggression which had occurred other times. CONCLUSION: this knowledge contributes to the delineation of specific actions that aim at facing this problem, as well as generates subsidies for adequate attendance proposals and guidance for the victims who call on health services.

  5. Health, drugs and service use among deprived single men: comparing (subgroups) of single male welfare recipients against employed single men in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, T.C.; de Wit, M.A.S.; Cremer, S.; Beekman, A.T.F.


    Objectives: To aid public health policy in preventing severe social exclusion (like homelessness) and promoting social inclusion (like labour market participation), we aimed to quantify (unmet) health needs of an expectedly vulnerable population on which little was known about: single male welfare

  6. Influence of TQM Practices and Service Innovation Types on Performances of the IT Romanian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateescu Mihaela


    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model intended to investigate the influence of TQM andservice innovation types on service companies performance. The company performance is regardedas the model output and is built out of the financial performance and the non-financialperformance. The two performances are generating competitive advantage. The estimated non–financial performances are represented by the quality performance and the innovativeperformance. The data used to build the model were taken from the IT Romanian companies.

  7. Computation of a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queue with homogeneous jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Larsen, Christian


    We present an algorithm for computing a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queueing system when the service cost is a convex function of the service time. The policy has state-dependent service times, and it includes the options to remove jobs from the system and to let the server...... be off. The systems' semi-Markov decision model has infinite action sets for the positive states. We design a new tailor-made policy-iteration algorithm for computing a policy for which the long-run average cost is at most a positive tolerance above the minimum average cost. For any positive tolerance...... our algorithm computes the desired policy in a finite (and small) number of iterations. The number is five for the numerical example used in the paper to illustrate results obtained by the algorithm....

  8. Single-donor islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes: patient selection and special considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatum JA


    Full Text Available Jacob A Tatum,* Max O Meneveau,* Kenneth L Brayman Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, The University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder of the endocrine pancreas that currently affects millions of people in the United States. Although the disease can be managed with exogenous insulin administration, the ultimate cure for the condition lies in restoring a patient’s ability to produce their own insulin. Islet cell allotransplantation provides a means of endogenous insulin production. Though far from perfected, islet transplants are now a proven treatment for type 1 diabetics. However, proper patient selection is critical for achieving optimal outcomes. Given the shortage of transplantable organs, selecting appropriate candidates for whom the procedure will be of greatest benefit is essential. Although many of those who receive islets do not retain insulin independence, grafts do play a significant role in preventing hypoglycemic episodes that can be quite detrimental to quality of life and potentially fatal. Additionally, islet transplant requires lifelong immunosuppression. Antibodies, both preformed and following islet infusion, may play important roles in graft outcomes. Finally, no procedure is without inherent risk and islet transfusions can have serious consequences for recipients’ livers in the form of both vascular and metabolic complications. Therefore, patient-specific factors that should be taken into account before islet transplantation include aims of therapy, sensitization, and potential increased risk for hepatic and portal-venous sequelae. Keywords: islet transplantation, diabetes mellitus type 1, brittle diabetes, single donor, patient

  9. Redefining Roles and Responsibilities: Implementing a Triage Reference Model at a Single Service Point (United States)

    LaMagna, Michael; Hartman-Caverly, Sarah; Marchetti, Lori


    As academic institutions continue to renovate and remodel existing libraries to include colocated services, it is important to understand how this new environment requires the redefining of traditional library roles and responsibilities. This case study examines how Delaware County Community College redefined reference and research service by…

  10. Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Altered Drug Responsiveness in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Costa


    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is one of the most frequent mortality causes in western countries, with rapidly increasing prevalence. Anti-diabetic drugs are the first therapeutic approach, although many patients develop drug resistance. Most drug responsiveness variability can be explained by genetic causes. Inter-individual variability is principally due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, and differential drug responsiveness has been correlated to alteration in genes involved in drug metabolism (CYP2C9 or insulin signaling (IRS1, ABCC8, KCNJ11 and PPARG. However, most genome-wide association studies did not provide clues about the contribution of DNA variations to impaired drug responsiveness. Thus, characterizing T2D drug responsiveness variants is needed to guide clinicians toward tailored therapeutic approaches. Here, we extensively investigated polymorphisms associated with altered drug response in T2D, predicting their effects in silico. Combining different computational approaches, we focused on the expression pattern of genes correlated to drug resistance and inferred evolutionary conservation of polymorphic residues, computationally predicting the biochemical properties of polymorphic proteins. Using RNA-Sequencing followed by targeted validation, we identified and experimentally confirmed that two nucleotide variations in the CAPN10 gene—currently annotated as intronic—fall within two new transcripts in this locus. Additionally, we found that a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP, currently reported as intergenic, maps to the intron of a new transcript, harboring CAPN10 and GPR35 genes, which undergoes non-sense mediated decay. Finally, we analyzed variants that fall into non-coding regulatory regions of yet underestimated functional significance, predicting that some of them can potentially affect gene expression and/or post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs affecting the splicing.

  11. Designing an ICT self-management service: suggestions from persons with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Gardsten, Cecilia; Mörtberg, Christina; Blomqvist, Kerstin


    This paper reports the wishes and needs of people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for a future information and communication technology (ICT) self-management service to help manage their condition and their everyday life. Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting more and more people and placing increasing demands on health care. The self-management of diabetes includes instrumental and, decision-making skills and skills in managing daily activities, which may be supported by an ICT service. In this study we used a participatory design including two sessions of Future Workshop (FW) as part of a larger research project on the self-management of diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes participated in two FW sessions in which their expressed wishes and needs for an ICT service all fell under the broad category of Acceptance of the diagnosis, with three other suggestions; Trust in partnerships, Communication, and Individualized information. The participants' experience of the FW as a democratic process and their appreciation of mutual learning contributed to these results, which are consistent with the aims of person-centred care.

  12. Examining intensity and types of interagency collaboration between child welfare and drug and alcohol service providers. (United States)

    He, Amy S


    The co-occurrence of child maltreatment and caregiver substance use disorders (SUDs) is a pervasive problem, with an estimated two thirds of child welfare (CW) systems cases involving SUDs. Interagency collaboration between CW and drug and alcohol service (DAS) providers shows promise in improving connections to and delivery of SUD services for CW-involved families. However, interagency collaboration between CW and DAS providers continues to be difficult to achieve and little is known about organizational characteristics and contexts that influence collaboration between these two entities. Using data from the second cohort of families from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study examined national trends in interagency collaboration between CW and DAS providers and organizational factors that influence the nature and intensity of interagency collaboration. Results indicated that collaboration intensity was greater for CW agencies that reported increased caseloads and those located in more populated counties. However, collaboration intensity decreased for CW agencies located in counties with higher child poverty. Study findings have implications for policy leaders and directors of CW agencies throughout the United States, especially because collaborating with DAS providers may increase CW agencies' organizational capacity and relieve job stress related to high caseloads. Development of strategies that spur engagement in more intense and multiple types of collaboration between CW agencies and DAS providers has the potential to relieve service burden on CW staffs and expedite service delivery to CW-involved families dealing with SUDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig


    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, M V ∼> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and M V ∼> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  14. Designing Kerr interactions using multiple superconducting qubit types in a single circuit (United States)

    Elliott, Matthew; Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran


    The engineering of Kerr interactions is of great interest for processing quantum information in multipartite quantum systems and for investigating many-body physics in a complex cavity-qubit network. We study how coupling multiple different types of superconducting qubits to the same cavity modes can be used to modify the self- and cross-Kerr effects acting on the cavities and demonstrate that this type of architecture could be of significant benefit for quantum technologies. Using both analytical perturbation theory results and numerical simulations, we first show that coupling two superconducting qubits with opposite anharmonicities to a single cavity enables the effective self-Kerr interaction to be diminished, while retaining the number splitting effect that enables control and measurement of the cavity field. We demonstrate that this reduction of the self-Kerr effect can maintain the fidelity of coherent states and generalised Schrödinger cat states for much longer than typical coherence times in realistic devices. Next, we find that the cross-Kerr interaction between two cavities can be modified by coupling them both to the same pair of qubit devices. When one of the qubits is tunable in frequency, the strength of entangling interactions between the cavities can be varied on demand, forming the basis for logic operations on the two modes. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of producing an array of cavities and qubits where intermediary and on-site qubits can tune the strength of self- and cross-Kerr interactions across the whole system. This architecture could provide a way to engineer interesting many-body Hamiltonians and be a useful platform for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  15. Service learning can make occupation-based practice a reality: a single case study. (United States)

    Vroman, Kerryellen; Simmons, C Douglas; Knight, Jessica


    ABSTRACT Service learning is philosophically congruent with the objectives of progressive occupational therapy curricula. This article presents a case-based research study that examined the attributes and outcomes of a service-learning course that included Level I fieldwork. Analysis of the case study identified three themes: (a) the translation of theory to practice, (b) the value of contextual learning, and (c) the gestalt of occupational awareness. Service learning can be considered a pedagogical [2] model that promotes the synthesis of conceptual models to clinical practice. Furthermore, it enables students to develop a professional and personal philosophy of occupation earlier in their careers.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of single photon emission CT in Alzheimer-type dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruki; Abe, Shinei; Arai, Hisayuki; Asano, Tetsuichi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru; Suzuki, Takanari


    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-IMP in Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD), we studied 46 ATD patients and 23 healthy controls. The patients fulfilled the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for probable or definite ATD and were classified as having mild, moderate, and severe ATD by neuropsychological examinations. To assess regional cerebral blood flow, we performed qualitative SPECT image analysis without any knowledge of the subject's clinical classification. The image was regarded as abnormal if cerebral blood flow was reduced in the unlilateral or bilateral temporoparietal association areas, with or without any reduction of flow in other brain regions. The diagnostic sensitivity (abnormal image/ patient) of 123 I-IMP SPECT in mild, moderate and severe ATD was 67%, 86% and 92%, because an abnormal image was found in only 2/23 healthy controls. Eight ATD patients without reduced temporoparietal perfusion showed normal perfusion or frontal hypoperfusion. These results suggest that 123 I-IMP SPECT may provide an accurate and sensitive diagnostic marker for ATD. The detection of these characteristic abnormalities of cerebral perfusion could well be applied to the clinical diagnosis of ATD. (author)

  17. 29 CFR 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels. (United States)


    ..., trailers, buses and off-road machines. It does not apply to the servicing of rim wheels used on automobiles... components shall not be interchanged except as provided in the charts or in the applicable rim manual. (2...

  18. Redesigning an intensive insulin service for patients with type 1 diabetes: a patient consultation exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan S


    Full Text Available Seyda Ozcan,1–3 Helen Rogers,3 Pratik Choudhary,3 Stephanie A Amiel,3 Alison Cox,3 Angus Forbes2,3 1Department of Medical Nursing, Florence Nightingale Nursing Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Primary and Intermediate Care, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Department of Diabetes, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom Context: Providing effective support for patients in using insulin effectively is essential for good diabetes care. For that support to be effective it must reflect and attend to the needs of patients. Purpose: To explore the perspectives of adult type 1 diabetes patients on their current diabetes care in order to generate ideas for creating a new patient centered intensive insulin clinic. Methods: A multi-method approach was used, comprising: an observational exercise of current clinical care; three focus groups (n = 17; and a survey of service users (n = 419 to test the ideas generated from the observational exercise and focus groups (rating 1 to 5 in terms of importance. The ideas generated by the multi-method approach were organized thematically and mapped onto the Chronic Care Model (CCM. Results: The themes and preferences for service redesign in relation to CCM components were: health care organization, there was an interest in having enhanced systems for sharing clinical information; self-management support, patients would like more flexible and easy to access resources and more help with diabetes technology and psychosocial support; delivery system design and clinical information systems, the need for greater integration of care and better use of clinic time; productive relationships, participants would like more continuity; access to health professionals, patient involvement and care planning. The findings from the patient survey indicate high preferences for most of the areas for service

  19. Redesigning an intensive insulin service for patients with type 1 diabetes: a patient consultation exercise. (United States)

    Ozcan, Seyda; Rogers, Helen; Choudhary, Pratik; Amiel, Stephanie A; Cox, Alison; Forbes, Angus


    Providing effective support for patients in using insulin effectively is essential for good diabetes care. For that support to be effective it must reflect and attend to the needs of patients. To explore the perspectives of adult type 1 diabetes patients on their current diabetes care in order to generate ideas for creating a new patient centered intensive insulin clinic. A multi-method approach was used, comprising: an observational exercise of current clinical care; three focus groups (n = 17); and a survey of service users (n = 419) to test the ideas generated from the observational exercise and focus groups (rating 1 to 5 in terms of importance). The ideas generated by the multi-method approach were organized thematically and mapped onto the Chronic Care Model (CCM). THE THEMES AND PREFERENCES FOR SERVICE REDESIGN IN RELATION TO CCM COMPONENTS WERE: health care organization, there was an interest in having enhanced systems for sharing clinical information; self-management support, patients would like more flexible and easy to access resources and more help with diabetes technology and psychosocial support; delivery system design and clinical information systems, the need for greater integration of care and better use of clinic time; productive relationships, participants would like more continuity; access to health professionals, patient involvement and care planning. The findings from the patient survey indicate high preferences for most of the areas for service enhancement identified in the focus groups and observational exercise. Clinical feedback and professional continuity (median = 5, interquartile range = 1) were the most highly rated. The patient consultation process had generated important ideas on how the clinical team and service can improve the care provided. Key areas for service development were: a stronger emphasis of collaborative care planning; improved patient choice in the use of health technology; more resources for self-management support

  20. Service experience with AISI type 316 steel components in CEGB Midlands Region power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastow, B.; Bagnall, B.I.; Yeldham, D.E.


    The service performance of AISI Type 316 steel components in sections up to 100 mm thick in Power Plant of the Midlands Region of the C.E.G.B. is reviewed. A comparison is drawn between the satisfactory performance of components whose dimensional stability is not critical and the difficulties experienced when rapid rates of change of temperature cause distortion in thick section components. Weldment manufacture and performance are reviewed and both are considered to be satisfactory. In general the material has performed well and the difficulties due to distortion have been overcome by imposing operating regimes which limit rates of temperature change. (author)

  1. Low Temperature Characterization of PMOS-type Gate-all-around Silicon nanowire FETs as single-hole-transistors (United States)

    Hong, B. H.; Hwang, S. W.; Lee, Y. Y.; Son, M. H.; Ahn, D.; Cho, K. H.; Yeo, K. H.; Kim, D.-W.; Jin, G. Y.; Park, D.


    We report the single hole tunneling characteristics observed from a PMOS-type gate-all-around silicon nanowire field-effect-transistor with the radius 5 nm and the length 44 nm. The total capacitance of the quantum dot obtained from the measured Coulomb oscillations and Coulomb diamonds matches with the ideal capacitance of the silicon cylinder. It suggests that the observed single hole tunneling is originated from the fabricated structure.

  2. Characterization of ryanodine receptor type 1 single channel activity using "on-nucleus" patch clamp. (United States)

    Wagner, Larry E; Groom, Linda A; Dirksen, Robert T; Yule, David I


    In this study, we provide the first description of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) expressed in a native membrane using the on-nucleus configuration of the patch clamp technique. A stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR1 was established (HEK-RyR1) using the FLP-in 293 cell system. In contrast to untransfected cells, RyR1 expression was readily demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in HEK-RyR1 cells. In addition, the RyR1 agonists 4-CMC and caffeine activated Ca(2+) release that was inhibited by high concentrations of ryanodine. On nucleus patch clamp was performed in nuclei prepared from HEK-RyR1 cells. Raising the [Ca(2+)] in the patch pipette resulted in the appearance of a large conductance cation channel with well resolved kinetics and the absence of prominent subconductance states. Current versus voltage relationships were ohmic and revealed a chord conductance of ∼750pS or 450pS in symmetrical 250mM KCl or CsCl, respectively. The channel activity was markedly enhanced by caffeine and exposure to ryanodine resulted in the appearance of a subconductance state with a conductance ∼40% of the full channel opening with a Po near unity. In total, these properties are entirely consistent with RyR1 channel activity. Exposure of RyR1 channels to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) or dantrolene did not alter the single channel activity stimulated by Ca(2+), and thus, it is unlikely these molecules directly modulate RyR1 channel activity. In summary, we describe an experimental platform to monitor the single channel properties of RyR channels. We envision that this system will be influential in characterizing disease-associated RyR mutations and the molecular determinants of RyR channel modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating patient safety culture across a health system: multilevel modelling of differences associated with service types and staff demographics. (United States)

    Gallego, Blanca; Westbrook, Mary T; Dunn, Adam G; Braithwaite, Jeffrey


    To use multilevel modelling to compare the patient safety cultures of types of services across a health system and to determine whether differences found can be accounted for by staffs' professions, organizational roles, ages and type of patient care provided. Application of a hierarchical two-level regression model. All services in the South Australian public health system. Approximately half of the health staff (n = 14 054) in the 46 organizations, classified into 18 types of service, which made up the South Australian public health system. Staff completed the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Attitudes regarding Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Job Satisfaction, Stress Recognition, Perception of Management and Working Conditions in participants' workplaces. All SAQ indices showed statistically significant although modest variations according to service type. However, most of these differences were not accounted for by the differences in the demographic composition of services' staff. Most favourable safety attitudes were found in the breast screening, primary/community health services, community nursing and metropolitan non-teaching hospitals. Poorer cultures were reported in the psychiatric hospital, mental health, metropolitan ambulance services and top-level teaching hospitals. Demographic differences in safety attitudes were observed; particularly, clinical, senior managerial, aged care and older staff held more favourable attitudes. Differences in staff attitudes have been demonstrated at a macro-level across the type of health services but for the most part, differences could not be explained by staffing composition.

  4. A new single nucleotide polymorphisms typing method and device by bioluminometric assay coupled with a photodiode array (United States)

    Kamahori, Masao; Harada, Kunio; Kambara, Hideki


    Easy and inexpensive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typing systems are required for the practice of genetic testing as well as genetic medicine. Most of the SNPs typing systems use laser-induced fluorescence detection coupled with fluorophore tagging on DNA, which are expensive. A new simple and inexpensive SNPs typing system is presented. It uses a bioluminometric assay coupled with modified primer extension reactions and an inexpensive photodiode array for the luminometric detection. The reagents consumed in the assay are also inexpensive. Although the system is very small, simple and inexpensive, it gives enough sensitivity for detecting target DNAs as small as 10 fmol, which is good enough for SNPs typing.

  5. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrich, T.; Kuehn, S.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.


    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed

  6. Laser characterisation of a 3D single-type column p-type prototype module read out with ATLAS SCT electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, T. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Kuehn, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail:; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, S.; Jakobs, K.; Maassen, M.; Parzefall, U. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst Trento, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)


    In this paper measurements of a 3D single-type column (3D-stc) microstrip silicon device are shown. The 3D-stc sensor has n-type columns in p-type substrate. It has been connected to an ATLAS SCT ABCD3T chip and is readout with ATLAS SCT electronics at 40 MHz. Spatial measurements were done with a laser setup to investigate the expected low field region in 3D devices. An influence of the p-stops on the collected charge has been observed.

  7. Factors associated with serum B-type natriuretic peptide in infants with single ventricles. (United States)

    Butts, Ryan J; Zak, Victor; Hsu, Daphne; Cnota, James; Colan, Steven D; Hehir, David; Kantor, Paul; Levine, Jami C; Margossian, Renee; Richmond, Marc; Szwast, Anita; Williams, Derek; Williams, Richard; Atz, Andrew M


    Data regarding the value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements in infants with a single-ventricle (SV) physiology are lacking. This analysis aimed to describe the BNP level changes in infants with an SV physiology before and after superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) surgery. Levels of BNP were measured by a core laboratory before SCPC (at 5.0 ± 1.6 months) and at the age of 14 months during a multicenter trial of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition therapy for infants with SV. Multivariable longitudinal analysis was used to model the associations between BNP levels and three sets of grouped variables (echocardiography, catheterization, growth). Multivariable analysis was performed to assess associations with patient characteristics at both visits. Associations between BNP levels and neurodevelopmental variables were investigated at the 14 month visit because neurodevelopmental assessment was performed only at this visit. The BNP level was significantly higher before SCPC (n = 173) than at the age of 14 months (n = 134). The respective median levels were 80.8 pg/ml (interquartile range [IQR], 35-187 pg/ml) and 34.5 pg/ml (IQR, 17-67 pg/ml) (p SCPC and in 21 subjects (16 %) at the age of 14 months. In the 117 patients who had BNP measurements at both visits, the median BNP level decreased 32 pg/ml (IQR, 1-79 pg/ml) (p SCPC surgery (p SCPC surgery (p = 0.04), and a lower Bayley psychomotor developmental index (p = 0.02). The levels of BNP decreases in infants with SV from the pre-SCPC visit to the age of 14 months. A higher BNP level is associated with increased ventricular dilation in systole, increased AV valve regurgitation, impaired growth, and poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. Therefore, BNP level may be a useful seromarker for identifying infants with SV at risk for worse outcomes.

  8. Interaction of iron status with single nucleotide polymorphisms on incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with a risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2D in Korean adults and to investigate the longitudinal association between these SNPs and T2D and the interaction effects of iron intake and average hemoglobin level. Data from the KoGES_Ansan and Ansung Study were used. Gene-iron interaction analysis was conducted using a two-step approach. To select candidate SNPs associated with T2D, a total of 7,935 adults at baseline were included in genome-wide association analysis (step one. After excluding T2D prevalent cases, prospective analyses were conducted with 7,024 adults aged 40-69 (step two. The association of selected SNPs and iron status with T2D and their interaction were determined using a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 3 SNPs [rs9465871 (CDKAL1, rs10761745 (JMJD1C, and rs163177 (KCNQ1] were selected as candidate SNPs related to T2D. Among them, rs10761745 (JMJD1C and rs163177 (KCNQ1 were prospectively associated with T2D. High iron intake was also prospectively associated with the risk of T2D after adjusting for covariates. Average hemoglobin level was positively associated with T2D after adjusting for covariates in women. We also found significant interaction effects between rs10761745 (JMJD1C and average hemoglobin levels on the risk of T2D among women with normal inflammation and without anemia at baseline. In conclusion, KCNQ1 and JMJD1C may prospectively contribute to the risk of T2D incidence among adults over the age of 40 and JMJD1C, but CDKAL1 may not, and iron status may interactively contribute to T2D incidence in women.

  9. Surface properties of alumino-silicate single-walled nanotubes of the imogolite type. (United States)

    Bonelli, Barbara; Armandi, Marco; Garrone, Edoardo


    An IR spectroscopy study is reported on the nature and accessibility of external and internal surfaces of single-walled alumino-silicate nanotubes (NTs) of the imogolite type. NTs form bundles with hexagonal symmetry, in which three kinds of surfaces may be figured out: surface A is the inner surface of NTs; surface B is that between three aligned NTs in the hexagonal packing; and surface C arises from slit mesopores between bundles. Two materials were considered: proper imogolite (IMO, (OH)3Al2O3SiOH) and its methylated analogue, (Me-IMO, (OH)3Al2O3SiCH3). The chemical nature of the outer surface of NTs is the same in both materials, i.e. a curved gibbsite sheet with both Al-OH-Al and Al-O-Al groups and an amphoteric character. The inner surface is very hydrophilic in IMO NTs, lined by closely packed silanols, and hydrophobic in Me-IMO, all silanols being replaced by -SiCH3 groups. The change in chemical composition is accompanied by an increment in pore size, about 1.0 nm in IMO, and ca. 2.0 nm in Me-IMO, which implies a change in the accessibility of the B surface, not available to any molecule in IMO, and accessible in Me-IMO to small molecules like water, due to larger pores between NTs. Aluminol species at the B surface display an acidic nature, in contrast with that of the same species at surface C, because of a confinement effect.

  10. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Jane Barkla


    Full Text Available One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples was used to identify 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR. Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na and Cl ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggest large alterations in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  11. Is the negative evaluation of dental services among the Brazilian elderly population associated with the type of service? (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Jardim, Lorena Amaral; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Quintão; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida


    This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of the negative evaluation of dental services among elderly Brazilians and at investigating whether the prevalence was higher among those using public or philanthropic provider services than among those paying privately or using private health plans. Additionally, factors associated with this negative assessment were identified. Interview and survey data were collected in the residences of participants by trained and calibrated examiners as part of a national epidemiological survey of oral health conditions of the Brazilian population in 2002/2003. The dependent variable was obtained in response to questions regarding whether the participant had ever used dental services, the frequency of use, and the quality of this service. Potential responses to the questions regarding the quality of service were very poor or poor, fair, and good or very good. The main independent variable was the system of health care used with potential responses being health plan or private, public, and philanthropic services. We conducted univariate (linear tendency χ2 test) and multiple descriptive analyses, and the partial proportional Odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Among the elderly, 196 (3.7%) evaluated the provided services negatively (very poor or poor). Participants with the following responses were more likely to evaluate the services negatively: those who had used public or philanthropic services, men, those with higher education, the ones who had not received information about preventing dental problems, those who perceived pain in their teeth and gums in the last six months, and those who self-reported their oral health and speech was poor. In conclusion, elderly Brazilian users of public and philanthropic services were more likely than users of private or insurance-based plans to evaluate their dental services negatively, regardless of the other investigated variables.

  12. E-Government controls in service-oriented auditing perspective : Beyond single window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.


    Whereas e-government used to be focused mainly on digitalizing documents, the attention is currently shifting to the question how the main governmental functions service, care and control can be realized in the best way in an information age. In this respect, e-customs is a case in point. Worldwide

  13. Site-Based Services for Residents of Single-Room Occupancy Hotels. (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie


    Describes an evaluation of an innovative site-based service program, the Growth and Achievement Program (GAP). Results show that GAP clients had significantly higher gain scores than did the comparison group and were less likely to rely on public financial assistance as their primary source of income. (RJM)

  14. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond


    the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses...

  15. The types and management of dental trauma during military service in Finland. (United States)

    Antikainen, Atte; Patinen, Pertti; Päkkilä, Jari; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko


    All Finnish males must attend compulsory military service that lasts from 6 months to 1 year. About 25 000 males (approximately 80% of each age cohort) and 400 volunteer females complete the service annually. The aim of the study was to investigate the types of dental trauma occurring among Finnish conscripts during their military service. The article also focused on how dental traumas are treated in the Finnish Defence Forces. All dental records in the Defence Forces' patient register concerning dental trauma during the years 2011 and 2012 were analysed by tooth number, treatment procedures and number of visits. According to the patient register, 361 conscripts suffered an oral trauma during their military service; thus, the average annual incidence was 7.2 trauma per 1000 conscripts. A total of 483 teeth were traumatized in the 2-year period. The most frequently traumatized teeth were the maxillary central incisors (61%), and the most common findings were enamel or enamel-dentin fractures (63% of all findings). Severe trauma was ere not common, and the most severe ones occurred during off-duty hours. The most common treatment was direct filling (n = 189 patients). Only 53 patients had soft tissue injuries (bruises, wounds). Among patients with dental trauma, the mean number of visits to the Defence Forces' dental clinic was 1.9. Great variation exists in recording findings concerning dental and oral trauma. Minor trauma is common. In all cases, recording trauma and treatments should be performed carefully. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Typing of 49 autosomal SNPs by single base extension and capillary electrophoresis for forensic genetic testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Morling, Niels


    We describe a method for simultaneous amplification of 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by multiplex PCR and detection of the SNP alleles by single base extension (SBE) and capillary electrophoresis. All the SNPs may be amplified from only 100 pg of genomic DNA and the length...

  17. Assessing information and service needs of young adults with cancer at a single institution: the importance of information on cancer diagnosis, fertility preservation, diet, and exercise. (United States)

    Gupta, Abha A; Edelstein, Kim; Albert-Green, Alisha; D'Agostino, Norma


    Young adults (YA) with cancer have unique psychosocial and medical needs. The objective of this study was to identify information and service needs important to YA cancer patients. A supportive care needs survey was administered to ambulatory patients (information or resources on a scale from 1 to 10. The relationship between gender, type of cancer, current treatment status, and marital status on the importance of these factors was explored using ANOVA. Median age of 243 respondents was 28 years (range 17-35); 61% male. The most common diagnoses were: lymphoma (28%), leukemia (19%), testis (16%), CNS (9.5%), and sarcoma (8.6%). Forty percent were currently receiving treatment; the majority were single/never married (67%). Thirty-eight percent of respondents felt it was important or very important to receive care in a dedicated unit with other young people. More than 80% rated the following items at least 8/10 in importance: information on their specific malignancy (treatment, risk of recurrence), effects of treatment on fertility, information on maintaining a healthy diet, and exercise/physical fitness during cancer treatment. Women were more likely to consider information/service needs more important than men. YA's have clear supportive care preferences and needs. Developing programs that incorporate the services identified as important should improve quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, and other outcomes during and after cancer therapy.

  18. The inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in a plasma milieu : effect of thrombomodulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E.A.M.; Los, P.; Rijken, D.C.


    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu- PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process which may contribute to the maintenance of a fresh blood clot. We have examined the inactivation of scu-PA by thrombin in a plasma milieu to get more insight in

  19. Types and Dynamics of Gendered Space: A Case of Emirati Female Learners in a Single-Gender Context (United States)

    Alzeer, Gergana


    This article is concerned with gendered spaces as they emerge from exploring Emirati female learners' spatiality in a single-gender context. By conducting ethnographic research and utilising Lefebvre's triad of perceived, conceived and lived space for the analysis and categorisation of students' spaces, three types of gendered spaces emerged:…

  20. The influence of the type of embryo culture medium on neonatal birthweight after single embryo transfer in IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouw, C.G.; Kostelijk, E.H.; Doejaaren, E.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Schats, R.


    STUDY QUESTION Does the type of medium used to culture fresh and frozenthawed embryos influence neonatal birthweight after single embryo transfer (SET) in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER A comparison of two commercially available culture media showed no significant influence on mean birthweight and mean

  1. Lion (Panthera leo) and caracal (Caracal caracal) type IIx single muscle fibre force and power exceed that of trained humans. (United States)

    Kohn, Tertius A; Noakes, Timothy D


    This study investigated for the first time maximum force production, shortening velocity (Vmax) and power output in permeabilised single muscle fibres at 12°C from lion, Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758), and caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber 1776), and compared the values with those from human cyclists. Additionally, the use and validation of previously frozen tissue for contractile experiments is reported. Only type IIx muscle fibres were identified in the caracal sample, whereas type IIx and only two type I fibres were found in the lion sample. Only pure type I and IIa, and hybrid type IIax fibres were identified in the human samples - there were no pure type IIx fibres. Nevertheless, compared with all the human fibre types, the lion and caracal fibres were smaller (Plion: 3008±151 μm(2), caracal: 2583±221 μm(2)). On average, the felid type IIx fibres produced significantly greater force (191-211 kN m(-2)) and ~3 times more power (29.0-30.3 kN m(-2) fibre lengths s(-1)) than the human IIax fibres (100-150 kN m(-2), 4-11 kN m(-2) fibre lengths s(-1)). Vmax values of the lion type IIx fibres were also higher than those of human type IIax fibres. The findings suggest that the same fibre type may differ substantially between species and potential explanations are discussed.

  2. Nocturnal Glucose Metabolism in Type 1 Diabetes: A Study Comparing Single Versus Dual Tracer Approaches. (United States)

    Mallad, Ashwini; Hinshaw, Ling; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Rita; Lingineni, Ravi; Carter, Rickey E; Kudva, Yogish C; Basu, Ananda


    Understanding the effect size, variability, and underlying physiology of the dawn phenomenon is important for next-generation closed-loop control algorithms for type 1 diabetes (T1D). We used an iterative protocol design to study 16 subjects with T1D on individualized insulin pump therapy for two successive nights. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) rates at 3 a.m. and 7 a.m. were measured with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose as a single tracer, infused from midnight to 7 a.m. in all subjects. To explore possibility of tracer recycling due to prolonged [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose infusion, which was highly probable after preplanned interim data analyses, we infused a second tracer, [6-(3)H]glucose, from 4 a.m. to 7 a.m. in the last seven subjects to measure EGP at 7 a.m. Cortisol concentrations increased during both nights, but changes in glucagon and insulin concentration were inconsistent. Although the plasma glucose concentrations rose from midnight to 7 a.m. during both nights, EGP measured with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose between 3 a.m. and 7 a.m. did not differ during Night 1 but fell in Night 2. However, EGP measured with [6-(3)H]glucose at 7 a.m. was higher than that measured with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose during both nights, thereby suggesting tracer recycling probably underestimating EGP calculated at 7 a.m. with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. Likewise, EGP was higher at 7 a.m. with [6-(3)H]glucose than at 3 a.m. with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose during both nights. The data demonstrate a consistent overnight rise in glucose concentrations through increased EGP, mediated likely by rising cortisol concentrations. The observations with the dual tracer approach imply significant tracer recycling leading to underestimation of EGP measured by longer-duration tracer infusion.

  3. Flagella-generated forces reveal gear-type motor in single cells of the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (United States)

    D'Souza, Jacinta S; Gudipati, Mohanram; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K; Kashyap, Abhishek; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Aiyer, Manaswini; Rao, Usha; Mathur, Deepak; Rao, Basuthkar J


    Optically trapped single cells of the biflagellated, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, rotate. The rotational dynamics of trapped wild-type and mutant cells show that functional flagella play a decisive role: the entire flagellar apparatus (central microtubules, radial spokes, and dynein arms) is involved. Any aberration in this apparatus leads to non-functionality, indicating a gear-type mechanism. The translational and rotational motions of the wild-type and mutant cells do not differ significantly. Optical forces alone do not play a vital role in the rotational dynamics of this cellular motor, making them useful as probes of the internal dynamics without external influence.

  4. A Feasibility Assessment of a Single Contracting Office for Common-User Transportation Services (United States)


    Defense should establish a single unified command to integrate global air, land, and sea transportation, and should have flexibility to structure this...34provide global land, sea, and air transportation to meet national security needs" (66:22). By meeting the research objectives and answering the research... Bussiness Daily RCAS of Proposal (RFP) (TRCR & LGCR) (CBD) Requirenent Carriers Request Carriers Submit IRCAS Evaluates Award Based on Copy of RFP Proposals

  5. Sensitivity of the Single Particle Soot Photometer to different black carbon types (United States)

    Laborde, M.; Mertes, P.; Zieger, P.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Gysel, M.


    Black carbon (BC) is now mainly of anthropogenic origin. It is the dominant light absorbing component of atmospheric aerosols, playing an important role in the earth's radiative balance and therefore relevant to climate change studies. In addition, BC is known to be harmful to human beings making it relevant to policy makers. Nevertheless, the measurement of BC remains biased by the instrument-based definition of BC. The Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), allows the measurement of the refractory BC (rBC) mass of individual particles using laser-induced incandescence. However, the SP2 needs an empirical calibration to retrieve the rBC mass from the incandescence signal and the sensitivity of the SP2 differs between different BC types. Ideally, for atmospheric studies, the SP2 should be calibrated using ambient particles containing a known mass of ambient rBC. However, such "ambient BC" calibration particles cannot easily be obtained and thus commercially available BC particles are commonly used for SP2 calibration instead. In this study we tested the sensitivity of the SP2 to different BC types in order to characterize the potential error introduced by using non-ambient BC for calibration. The sensitivity of the SP2 was determined, using an aerosol particle mass analyzer, for rBC from thermodenuded diesel exhaust, wood burning exhaust and ambient particles as well as for commercially available products: Aquadag® and fullerene soot. Thermodenuded, fresh diesel exhaust has been found to be ideal for SP2 calibration for two reasons. First, the small amount of non-BC matter upon emission reduces the risk of bias due to incomplete removal of non-BC matter and second, it is considered to represent atmospheric rBC in urban locations where diesel exhaust is the main source of BC. The SP2 was found to be up to 16% less sensitive to rBC from thermodenuded ambient particles (≤15 fg) than rBC from diesel exhaust, however, at least part of this difference can be explained

  6. A customer-centric approach towards evaluating single-choice information technology service provision to the parastatal sector of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Cant


    Full Text Available The article presents a case study whereby the service performance of a single-choice information technology service provider in the parastatal industry of South Africa is measured against multi-choice private service providers without any provisional agreements.  The outcome of the case study reveals that single-choice service provision options with provisional agreements have a limited chance of success if they are not supported by strong service user inputs.  In fact, provisional strategies that disallow sound competition among service providers are bound to impact negatively on user preferences as well as information technology skills development opportunities that  are required to improve service provision generally and long-term survival in particular.

  7. Somatosensory neuron types identified by high-coverage single-cell RNA-sequencing and functional heterogeneity (United States)

    Li, Chang-Lin; Li, Kai-Cheng; Wu, Dan; Chen, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhao, Jing-Rong; Wang, Sa-Shuang; Sun, Ming-Ming; Lu, Ying-Jin; Zhong, Yan-Qing; Hu, Xu-Ye; Hou, Rui; Zhou, Bei-Bei; Bao, Lan; Xiao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xu


    Sensory neurons are distinguished by distinct signaling networks and receptive characteristics. Thus, sensory neuron types can be defined by linking transcriptome-based neuron typing with the sensory phenotypes. Here we classify somatosensory neurons of the mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) by high-coverage single-cell RNA-sequencing (10 950 ± 1 218 genes per neuron) and neuron size-based hierarchical clustering. Moreover, single DRG neurons responding to cutaneous stimuli are recorded using an in vivo whole-cell patch clamp technique and classified by neuron-type genetic markers. Small diameter DRG neurons are classified into one type of low-threshold mechanoreceptor and five types of mechanoheat nociceptors (MHNs). Each of the MHN types is further categorized into two subtypes. Large DRG neurons are categorized into four types, including neurexophilin 1-expressing MHNs and mechanical nociceptors (MNs) expressing BAI1-associated protein 2-like 1 (Baiap2l1). Mechanoreceptors expressing trafficking protein particle complex 3-like and Baiap2l1-marked MNs are subdivided into two subtypes each. These results provide a new system for cataloging somatosensory neurons and their transcriptome databases. PMID:26691752

  8. Targeting the Immunogenetic Diseases with the Appropriate HLA Molecular Typing: Critical Appraisal on 2666 Patients Typed in One Single Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guarene


    Full Text Available We compared the immunogenetic data from 2666 patients affected by HLA-related autoimmune diseases with those from 4389 ethnically matched controls (3157 cord blood donors CBD, 1232 adult bone marrow donors BMD, to verify the appropriateness of HLA typing requests received in the past decade. The frequency of HLA-B*27 phenotype was 10.50% in 724 ankylosing spondylitis, 16.80% in 125 uveitis (3.41% BMD, 4.24% CBD, P<0.0001; HLA-B*51 allele was 15.57% in 212 Behçet’s disease (12.91% BMD, 9.88% CBD, P<0.0001; the HLA-DRB1-rheumatoid arthritis (RA shared epitope was 13.72% in 554 RA (10.85% BMD, 13.48% CBD, P=0.016; the carriers of almost one of HLA-DQB1 susceptibility alleles were 84.91% in 795 celiac disease (CD and 59.37% in 256 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM (46.06% in 875 CBD, 42.75% in 662 BMD P<0.0001. Overall, our results show that the HLA marker frequencies were higher in patients than controls, but lower than expected from the literature data (excluding CD and IDDM and demonstrate that, in complex immunogenetic conditions, a substantial number of genetic analyses are redundant and inappropriate, burdening to the public health costs. For this reason, we suggest the Italian Scientific Society of Immunogenetics to establish guidelines to improve the appropriateness of typing requests.

  9. LA PLANTA ÚNICA COMO TIPO RESISTENTE A LA ESCALA / the single plan as a type resistant to scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colmenares Vilata


    Full Text Available RESUMEN El sistema capitalista ha generado dos de los modelos espaciales de indiferencia funcional más extremos: por un lado, el espacio tecnificado y repetido del edificio de oficinas en altura, encarnado por la ‘planta tipo’ y, por otro, el espacio diáfano y extenso del gran contendor, que responde a la lógica de lo que llamaremos ‘planta única’. En los edificios construidos para la industria automovilística y bélica americana se encuentra el germen de un tipo que servirá de modelo para los nuevos espacios de consumo de bienes y servicios de la ciudad post-industrial. En ella, la identificación del rascacielos con el centro y del contenedor con la periferia sigue vigente, porque la densidad necesaria del primero y la ocupación extensiva del segundo hacen que resulte imposible invertir los términos. Sin embargo, ambos representan el desarrollo estrictamente pragmático de los principios de la ‘planta libre’ como sistema operativo genérico, dando lugar a construcciones de gran tamaño que ponen a prueba la resistencia a la escala del propio tipo. Tomando como referencia la neutralidad característica de la ‘planta única’ el texto analiza el comportamiento frente al cambio de tamaño de sus dos configuraciones complementarias: la gran sala hipóstila y la gran sala diáfana. SUMMARY The capitalist system has generated two of the most extreme spatial models of functional indifference: on the one hand, the technified and repeated space of the high-rise office building, incarnated by the “typical plan” and, on the other, the diaphanous and extensive space of the large container, which responds to the logic of what we will call “single plan”. In the buildings constructed for the American automobile and military industries is the germ of a type that would serve as a model for the new spaces for consumption of goods and services of the post-industrial city. In that city, the identification of the skyscraper with the

  10. Impact of a dedicated palliative radiation oncology service on the use of single fraction and hypofractionated radiation therapy among patients with bone metastases. (United States)

    Skamene, Sonia; Agarwal, Isha; Makar, Maggie; Krishnan, Monica; Spektor, Alex; Hertan, Lauren; Mouw, Kent W; Taylor, Allison; Noveroske Philbrick, Sarah; Balboni, Tracy


    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used to palliate symptomatic bone metastases. While high quality literature has shown that for uncomplicated bone metastases, shorter radiotherapy courses are just as effective as longer courses for the treatment of pain, shorter courses remain under-utilized. We aimed to assess the impact of a dedicated palliative radiation oncology service on the frequency of single fraction RT (SF-RT) and hypofractionated radiation (hypo-RT) (≤5 fractions) among patients with bone metastases. We identified 2,086 instances of palliative radiation (RT) for complicated and uncomplicated bone metastases between April 10, 2008 and September 17, 2014. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis (MVA) to estimate the association of the Supportive and Palliative Radiation Oncology (SPRO) service with the likelihood of receiving SF-RT or hypo-RT after controlling for age, sex, tumor type, and treatment site. Prior to SPRO's implementation on July 1, 2011, the proportion of SF-RT and hypo-RT for bone metastases was 6.4% and 27.6% respectively. After SPRO's implementation, the proportion of SF-RT and hypo-RT increased to 22.3% (Pdedicated palliative service, patients receiving care at the SPRO affiliated department were more likely to receive SF-RT (OR =1.9, 95% CI =1.1-3.2, P=0.02) and hypo-RT (OR =1.5, 95% CI =1.1-2.0, P=0.004) for bone metastases. After SPRO's implementation, the average number of RT courses delivered for bone metastases increased from 17.4 to 25.6 per month, (+8.3, 95% CI =4.99-11.55, Pdedicated palliative radiation oncology service was associated with increased use of SF and hypo-RT and with greater courses of RT delivered for bone metastases.

  11. Common-Ground-Type Tansformerless Inverters for Single-Phase Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter at the o......This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter...

  12. Type-II second-harmonic-generation properties of YCOB and GdCOB single crystals. (United States)

    Liu, Yanqing; Qi, Hongwei; Lu, Qingming; Yu, Fapeng; Wang, Zhengping; Xu, Xinguang; Zhao, Xian


    As excellent nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals, YCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (YCOB) and GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (GdCOB) have been paid much attention since their first appearance in 1990's. From that time to now, almost all of related researches and applications have focused on their type-I phase-matching (PM) configurations which possess large effective NLO coefficient (d(eff)). In this paper, type-II second-harmonic-generation (SHG) properties of these two crystals are reported, including PM curve, d(eff), angular acceptance and walk-off angle. Both of the type-II SHG experiments for 1064 and 1320 nm have indicated that the optimum directions which have maximum d(eff) locate in the second octant, i.e. (90° crystal, the largest type-II SHG conversion efficiency of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG pico-second laser is 55%, which reaches the same level of the optimum type-I sample. To our knowledge this is the first time that type-II SHG performance of YCOB and GdCOB crystals is investigated intensively. Our research has shown that the smaller d(eff) of type-II PM can be compensated by its larger angular acceptance and less beam walk-off. The same level SHG conversion efficiency implies for such type crystals the type-II components have the potential to replace type-I ones and obtain important NLO applications in the future.

  13. Single microwave-photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system (United States)

    Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Koshino, Kazuki; Oliver, William D.; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu


    Single-photon detection is a requisite technique in quantum-optics experiments in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of microwave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical counterpart, making the efficient detection of single microwave photons extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the detection of a single microwave photon propagating through a waveguide. The detector is implemented with an impedance-matched artificial Λ system comprising the dressed states of a driven superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Each signal photon deterministically induces a Raman transition in the Λ system and excites the qubit. The subsequent dispersive readout of the qubit produces a discrete `click'. We attain a high single-photon-detection efficiency of 0.66+/-0.06 with a low dark-count probability of 0.014+/-0.001 and a reset time of ~400 ns. This detector can be exploited for various applications in quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum information processing.

  14. Alternative types of molecule-decorated atomic chains in Au–CO–Au single-molecule junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Balogh


    Full Text Available We investigate the formation and evolution of Au–CO single-molecule break junctions. The conductance histogram exhibits two distinct molecular configurations, which are further investigated by a combined statistical analysis. According to conditional histogram and correlation analysis these molecular configurations show strong anticorrelations with each other and with pure Au monoatomic junctions and atomic chains. We identify molecular precursor configurations with somewhat higher conductance, which are formed prior to single-molecule junctions. According to detailed length analysis two distinct types of molecule-affected chain-formation processes are observed, and we compare these results to former theoretical calculations considering bridge- and atop-type molecular configurations where the latter has reduced conductance due to destructive Fano interference.

  15. Moisture supply in Danish single-family houses – the influence of occupant behaviour and type of room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place


    . The study focuses on the dependency of number and age of occupants, occupants’ time spent in the house, square meters living space, ventilation habits and type of room. Moisture supply depends on the type of room; bathroom, basement and living room have the highest values. None of the other parameters seems......According to ISO 13788, the internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in indoor air in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if this corresponds with reality...

  16. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses


    Parida Manmohan; Shrivastava Ambuj; Santhosh SR; Dash Paban; Saxena Parag; Rao PV


    Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Jap...

  17. Effect of ligand substitution on the exchange interactions in {Mn12}-type single-molecule magnets


    Boukhvalov, D. W.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Kögerler, P.; Al-Saqer, M.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Harmon, B. N.


    We investigate how the ligand substitution affects the intra-molecular spin exchange interactions, studying a prototypal family of single-molecule magnets comprising dodecanuclear cluster molecules [Mn12O12(COOR)16]. We identify a simple scheme based on accumulated Pauling electronegativity numbers (a.e.n.) of the carboxylate ligand groups (R). The redistribution of the electron density, controlled by a.e.n. of a ligand, changes the degree of hybridization between 3d electrons of manganese an...

  18. Short communication: Field fertility in Holstein bulls: Can type of breeding strategy (artificial insemination following estrus versus timed artificial insemination) alter service sire fertility? (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Carvalho, P D; Rivera, H; Cabrera, V; Wiltbank, M C; Baruselli, P S; Souza, A H


    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) from service sires used on artificial insemination after estrus detection (EAI) or timed artificial insemination (TAI) breedings. Confirmed artificial insemination outcome records from 3 national data centers were merged and used as a data source. Criteria edits were herd's overall P/AI within 20 and 60%, a minimum of 30 breedings reported per herd-year, service sires that were used in at least 10 different herds with no more than 40% of the breedings performed in a single herd, breeding records from lactating Holstein cows receiving their first to fifth postpartum breedings occurring within 45 to 375 d in milk, and cows with 1 to 5 lactations producing a minimum of 6,804 kg. Initially 1,142,859 breeding records were available for analysis. After editing, a subset of the data (n=857,539) was used to classify breeding codes into either EAI or TAI based on weekly insemination profile in each individual herd. The procedure HPMIXED of SAS was used and took into account effects of state, farm, cow identification, breeding month, year, parity, days in milk at breeding, and service sire. This model was used independently for the 2 types osires f breeding codes (EAI vs. TAI), and service sire P/AI rankings within each breeding code were performed for sires with >700 breedings (94 sires) and for with >1,000 breedings (n=56 sires) following both EAI and TAI. Correlation for service sire fertility rankings following EAI and TAI was performed with the PROC CORR of SAS. Service sire P/AI rankings produced with EAI and TAI were 0.81 (for sires with >700 breedings) and 0.84 (for sires with >1,000 breedings). In addition, important changes occurred in service sire P/AI ranking to EAI and TAI for sires with less than 10,000 recorded artificial inseminations. In conclusion, the type of breeding strategy (EAI or TAI) was associated with some changes in service sire P/AI ranking, but ranking changes

  19. Possible financing schemes for one-stop-shop service for sustainable renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    There are significant potentials to improve energy efficiency of single-family houses in the Nordic countries. Technical solutions exist, but there are market and financial barriers to implementation of such measures. The aim of this report is to identify financial barriers to implement energy...... energy use behaviour of the occupants and the difficulty to predict future energy prices. The options to finance energy efficiency renovations include homeowners’ own resources, mortgage refinancing, flex loan, personal loan, financing by service providers, preferential loan, subsidies/grants, credit...... of energy savings due to a lack of standardised measurements and verifications protocol may not encourage, both the customers and financiers, to go for energy efficiency investments. Financiers perceive energy efficiency projects as risky investments maybe because of their small size, difficulty to control...

  20. A single mutation in Taiwanese H6N1 influenza hemagglutinin switches binding to human-type receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, Robert P.; Tzarum, Netanel; Peng, Wenjie; Thompson, Andrew J.; Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de la Pena, Alba T. Torrents; van Breemen, Marielle J.; Bouwman, Kim M.; Zhu, Xueyong; McBride, Ryan; Yu, Wenli; Sanders, Rogier W.; Verheije, Monique H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Paulson, James C.


    In June 2013, the first case of human infection with an avian H6N1 virus was reported in a Taiwanese woman. Although this was a single non-fatal case, the virus continues to circulate in Taiwanese poultry. As with any emerging avian virus that infects humans, there is concern that acquisition of human-type receptor specificity could enable transmission in the human population. Despite mutations in the receptor-binding pocket of the human H6N1 isolate, it has retained avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal) receptor specificity. However, we show here that a single nucleotide substitution, resulting in a change from Gly to Asp at position 225 (G225D), completely switches specificity to human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) receptors. Significantly, G225D H6 loses binding to chicken trachea epithelium and is now able to bind to human tracheal tissue. Structural analysis reveals that Asp225 directly interacts with the penultimate Gal of the human-type receptor, stabilizing human receptor binding.

  1. Size-controllable DNA nanoribbons assembled from three types of reusable brick single-strand DNA tiles. (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolong; Chen, Congzhou; Li, Xin; Song, Tao; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yanfeng


    Precise control of nanostructure is a significant goal shared by supramolecular chemistry, nanotechnology and materials science. In DNA nanotechnology, methods of constructing desired DNA nanostructures using programmable DNA strands have been studied extensively and have become a promising branch of research, but developing universal and low-cost (in the sense of using fewer types of DNA strands) methods remains a challenge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to assemble size-controllable DNA nanoribbons with three types of reusable brick SSTs (single-stranded DNA tiles), where the control of ribbon size is achieved by regulating the concentration ratio between manipulative strands and packed single-stranded DNA tiles. In our method, three types of brick SSTs are sufficient in assembling DNA nanoribbons of different sizes, which is much less than the number of types of unique tile-programmable assembling strategy, thus achieving a universal and low-cost method. The assembled DNA nanoribbons are observed and analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experimental observations strongly suggest the feasibility and reliability of our method.

  2. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer (United States)

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  3. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Omani Children - Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Al-Yaarubi


    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical presentation of Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children with type 1 diabetes mellitus attending the Pediatric Endocrine Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman from June 2006 to May 2013. Results: One hundred and forty-four patients were included in the study. The mean±SD of age at diagnosis was 6.7 ± 3.7 years. The median duration of symptoms was 10 days (IQR; 5-14. The most commonly reported presenting symptoms were polyuria (94%, polydipsia (82%, and weight loss (59%. Diabetic ketoacidosis at initial presentation was diagnosed in 31% of the patients. Different insulin regimens were prescribed: multiple daily injections in 109 (76% patients, twice daily insulin regimen in 23 (16% patients, and insulin pump therapy in 12 (8% patients. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus was present in 31 (22% patients. There were no significant differences in presenting complaints (polyuria, p=0.182; polydipsia, p=0.848, duration of symptoms (p=0.331, reported weight loss (p=0.753, or diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation (p=0.608 between patients with and without family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss are the most common presenting symptoms. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the studied patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was found to be less common in Oman compared to other diabetes centers in the Middle East.

  4. Improving assessment of daily energy expenditure by identifying types of physical activity with a single accelerometer. (United States)

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R


    Accelerometers are often used to quantify the acceleration of the body in arbitrary units (counts) to measure physical activity (PA) and to estimate energy expenditure. The present study investigated whether the identification of types of PA with one accelerometer could improve the estimation of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Total energy expenditure (TEE) of 15 subjects was measured with the use of double-labeled water. The physical activity level (PAL) was derived by dividing TEE by sleeping metabolic rate. Simultaneously, PA was measured with one accelerometer. Accelerometer output was processed to calculate activity counts per day (AC(D)) and to determine the daily duration of six types of common activities identified with a classification tree model. A daily metabolic value (MET(D)) was calculated as mean of the MET compendium value of each activity type weighed by the daily duration. TEE was predicted by AC(D) and body weight and by AC(D) and fat-free mass, with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 1.47 MJ/day, and 1.2 MJ/day, respectively. The replacement in these models of AC(D) with MET(D) increased the explained variation in TEE by 9%, decreasing SEE by 0.14 MJ/day and 0.18 MJ/day, respectively. The correlation between PAL and MET(D) (R(2) = 51%) was higher than that between PAL and AC(D) (R(2) = 46%). We conclude that identification of activity types combined with MET intensity values improves the assessment of energy expenditure compared with activity counts. Future studies could develop models to objectively assess activity type and intensity to further increase accuracy of the energy expenditure estimation.

  5. Optimal strategy for a single-qubit gate and the trade-off between opposite types of decoherence (United States)

    Alicki, Robert; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Horodecki, Ryszard; Jacak, Lucjan; Machnikowski, Paweł


    We study reliable quantum-information processing (QIP) under two different types of environment. The first type is Markovian exponential decay, and the appropriate elementary strategy of protection of qubit is to apply fast gates. The second one is strongly non-Markovian and occurs solely during operations on the qubit. The best strategy is then to work with slow gates. If the two types are both present, one has to optimize the speed of gate. We show that such a trade-off is present for a single-qubit operation in a semiconductor quantum dot implementation of QIP, where recombination of exciton (qubit) is Markovian, while phonon dressing gives rise to the non-Markovian contribution.

  6. Optimal strategy for a single-qubit gate and the trade-off between opposite types of decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study reliable quantum-information processing (QIP) under two different types of environment. The first type is Markovian exponential decay, and the appropriate elementary strategy of protection of qubit is to apply fast gates. The second one is strongly non-Markovian and occurs solely during operations on the qubit. The best strategy is then to work with slow gates. If the two types are both present, one has to optimize the speed of gate. We show that such a trade-off is present for a single-qubit operation in a semiconductor quantum dot implementation of QIP, where recombination of exciton (qubit) is Markovian, while phonon dressing gives rise to the non-Markovian contribution

  7. Single-Particle Tracking of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Productive Entry into Human Primary Macrophages. (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Wei; Yin, Wen; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Zeng, Dejun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wu, Yuntao; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zongqiang


    Macrophages are one of the major targets of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), but the viral entry pathway remains poorly understood in these cells. Noninvasive virus labeling and single-virus tracking are effective tools for studying virus entry. Here, we constructed a quantum dot (QD)-encapsulated infectious HIV-1 particle to track viral entry at a single-particle level in live human primary macrophages. QDs were encapsulated in HIV-1 virions by incorporating viral accessory protein Vpr-conjugated QDs during virus assembly. With the HIV-1 particles encapsulating QDs, we monitored the early phase of viral infection in real time and observed that, during infection, HIV-1 was endocytosed in a clathrin-mediated manner; the particles were translocated into Rab5A-positive endosomes, and the core was released into the cytoplasm by viral envelope-mediated endosomal fusion. Drug inhibition assays verified that endosome fusion contributes to HIV-1 productive infection in primary macrophages. Additionally, we observed that a dynamic actin cytoskeleton is critical for HIV-1 entry and intracellular migration in primary macrophages. HIV-1 dynamics and infection could be blocked by multiple different actin inhibitors. Our study revealed a productive entry pathway in macrophages that requires both endosomal function and actin dynamics, which may assist in the development of inhibitors to block the HIV entry in macrophages.

  8. Insertion sequence element single nucleotide polymorphism typing provides insights into the population structure and evolution of Mycobacterium ulcerans across Africa. (United States)

    Vandelannoote, Koen; Jordaens, Kurt; Bomans, Pieter; Leirs, Herwig; Durnez, Lies; Affolabi, Dissou; Sopoh, Ghislain; Aguiar, Julia; Phanzu, Delphin Mavinga; Kibadi, Kapay; Eyangoh, Sara; Manou, Louis Bayonne; Phillips, Richard Odame; Adjei, Ohene; Ablordey, Anthony; Rigouts, Leen; Portaels, Françoise; Eddyani, Miriam; de Jong, Bouke C


    Buruli ulcer is an indolent, slowly progressing necrotizing disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. In the present study, we applied a redesigned technique to a vast panel of M. ulcerans disease isolates and clinical samples originating from multiple African disease foci in order to (i) gain fundamental insights into the population structure and evolutionary history of the pathogen and (ii) disentangle the phylogeographic relationships within the genetically conserved cluster of African M. ulcerans. Our analyses identified 23 different African insertion sequence element single nucleotide polymorphism (ISE-SNP) types that dominate in different areas where Buruli ulcer is endemic. These ISE-SNP types appear to be the initial stages of clonal diversification from a common, possibly ancestral ISE-SNP type. ISE-SNP types were found unevenly distributed over the greater West African hydrological drainage basins. Our findings suggest that geographical barriers bordering the basins to some extent prevented bacterial gene flow between basins and that this resulted in independent focal transmission clusters associated with the hydrological drainage areas. Different phylogenetic methods yielded two well-supported sister clades within the African ISE-SNP types. The ISE-SNP types from the "pan-African clade" were found to be widespread throughout Africa, while the ISE-SNP types of the "Gabonese/Cameroonian clade" were much rarer and found in a more restricted area, which suggested that the latter clade evolved more recently. Additionally, the Gabonese/Cameroonian clade was found to form a strongly supported monophyletic group with Papua New Guinean ISE-SNP type 8, which is unrelated to other Southeast Asian ISE-SNP types.

  9. Nondiabetic kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients: A single center experience (United States)

    Das, U.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.; Prayaga, A.; Uppin, M. S.


    Nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) is seen as a cause of proteinuria and renal failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The clinical differences between NDRD and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (DGS) are not clear. This study was done to find the spectrum of NDRD in type 2 DM patients and differences in clinical profile between NDRD and DGS patients. Data of patients with type 2 DM who underwent renal biopsy in this institute from 1990 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were categorized as isolated NDRD, NDRD with DGS, and isolated DGS. A total of 75 patients were included. Mean age was 45 ± 10.2 years, male to female ratio was 3.1 : 1, median duration of DM was 12 months (range, 1 year-15 years), proteinuria was 4.2 ± 3.4 g/day, and serum creatinine was 4.3 ± 3.9 mg/dl. Hypertension was observed in 63 (84%) cases and microscopic hematuria in 24 (32%) cases. Nephrotic syndrome (38.7%) was the commonest clinical presentation. Forty-eight (64%) cases had NDRD and 27 (36%) had DGS. The commonest NDRD was minimal change disease (12.5%). Three (6.3%) patients had lupus nephritis. Tubulointerstitial nephritis has been observed in 10.4% patients. No significant differences between NDRD and DGS patients were found except hypertension which was significantly high in the DGS group. Acute kidney injury and nephritic syndrome were not observed in the DGS group. In conclusion, the incidence of biopsy-proven NDRD in type 2 DM in this study was high. Kidney biopsy aided in the detection of NDRD in clinically suspected patients. PMID:23326046

  10. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders. (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R; Ferron, John


    Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.

  11. Transcriptomes of major renal collecting duct cell types in mouse identified by single-cell RNA-seq. (United States)

    Chen, Lihe; Lee, Jae Wook; Chou, Chung-Lin; Nair, Anil V; Battistone, Maria A; Păunescu, Teodor G; Merkulova, Maria; Breton, Sylvie; Verlander, Jill W; Wall, Susan M; Brown, Dennis; Burg, Maurice B; Knepper, Mark A


    Prior RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) studies have identified complete transcriptomes for most renal epithelial cell types. The exceptions are the cell types that make up the renal collecting duct, namely intercalated cells (ICs) and principal cells (PCs), which account for only a small fraction of the kidney mass, but play critical physiological roles in the regulation of blood pressure, extracellular fluid volume, and extracellular fluid composition. To enrich these cell types, we used FACS that employed well-established lectin cell surface markers for PCs and type B ICs, as well as a newly identified cell surface marker for type A ICs, c-Kit. Single-cell RNA-seq using the IC- and PC-enriched populations as input enabled identification of complete transcriptomes of A-ICs, B-ICs, and PCs. The data were used to create a freely accessible online gene-expression database for collecting duct cells. This database allowed identification of genes that are selectively expressed in each cell type, including cell-surface receptors, transcription factors, transporters, and secreted proteins. The analysis also identified a small fraction of hybrid cells expressing aquaporin-2 and anion exchanger 1 or pendrin transcripts. In many cases, mRNAs for receptors and their ligands were identified in different cells (e.g., Notch2 chiefly in PCs vs. Jag1 chiefly in ICs), suggesting signaling cross-talk among the three cell types. The identified patterns of gene expression among the three types of collecting duct cells provide a foundation for understanding physiological regulation and pathophysiology in the renal collecting duct.

  12. Diabetes complications in 1952 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients managed in a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Jamal S.; Suliman, R.; Tarif, N.; Al-Suwaida, A.; Hammad, D.; Al-Asaad, H.; Al-Harbi, A.; Al-Mohaya, S.; Alam, A.


    Because there is no recent update on the state of diabetes and its concomitant applications in Saudi Arabia, we undertook a study of the prevalence of health complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to our institution. We conducted a retrospective review of medical results of adult Saudi patients with type 2 diabetes who were seen in clinics or admitted to the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1989 and January 2004. Of 1952, 943 (48.3%) were males. For the whole study population the mean age at enrollment was 58.4+-14.2 years, the mean age at the onset of diabetes was 48.1+-12.8 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 10.4+-7.5 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 7.9+-4.6 years. Nephropathy was the most prevalent complication, occurring in 626 patients (32.1%). Acute coronary syndrome occurred in 451 (23.1%), cataracts in 447 (22.9$), retinopathy in 326 (16.7%), and myocardial infarction in 279 (14.3%), Doubling of serum ceartinine was seen in 250 (12.8%) and 79 (4.0%) went into dialysis. Hypertension was present in 1524 (78.1%) dyslipidemia in 764 (39.1%). Overall mortality was 8.2%. Multiple complications were frequent. Males had higher prevalence of complications than females (P<.05). Mortality was significantly higher in males 92 (9.8%) than females 69 (6.8%) (P=.024). The prevalence of complications significantly increased with duration of diabetes and age (P<.05). Among Saudis, the prevalence of concomitant diabetic complications is high, with cardiovascular and renal complications the most frequent. Many patients had multiple complications. Early and frequent screening in patients with type 2 diabetes is desirable to identify patients at high risk for concomitant complications and to prevent disabilities. (author)

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of a Single Hole Transistor in p-type GaAs/AlGaAs Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Lisa A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reno, John L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hargett, Terry W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Most spin qubit research to date has focused on manipulating single electron spins in quantum dots. However, hole spins are predicted to have some advantages over electron spins, such as reduced coupling to host semiconductor nuclear spins and the ability to control hole spins electrically using the large spin-orbit interaction. Building on recent advances in fabricating high-mobility 2D hole systems in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures at Sandia, we fabricate and characterize single hole transistors in GaAs. We demonstrate p-type double quantum dot devices with few-hole occupation, which could be used to study the physics of individual hole spins and control over coupling between hole spins, looking towards eventual applications in quantum computing. Intentionally left blank

  14. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)


    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  15. Single and multi-subject clustering of flow cytometry data for cell-type identification and anomaly detection. (United States)

    Pouyan, Maziyar Baran; Jindal, Vasu; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad


    Measurement of various markers of single cells using flow cytometry has several biological applications. These applications include improving our understanding of behavior of cellular systems, identifying rare cell populations and personalized medication. A common critical issue in the existing methods is identification of the number of cellular populations which heavily affects the accuracy of results. Furthermore, anomaly detection is crucial in flow cytometry experiments. In this work, we propose a two-stage clustering technique for cell type identification in single subject flow cytometry data and extend it for anomaly detection among multiple subjects. Our experimentation on 42 flow cytometry datasets indicates high performance and accurate clustering (F-measure > 91 %) in identifying main cellular populations. Furthermore, our anomaly detection technique evaluated on Acute Myeloid Leukemia dataset results in only <2 % false positives.

  16. Service Providers' Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence as a Function of Victim Sexual Orientation and Type of Abuse (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle


    In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…

  17. 41 CFR 102-79.45 - What type of services may Federal agencies provide without charge to Federal credit unions? (United States)


    ... may Federal agencies provide without charge to Federal credit unions? 102-79.45 Section 102-79.45... Utilization of Space Federal Credit Unions § 102-79.45 What type of services may Federal agencies provide without charge to Federal credit unions? Federal agencies may provide without charge to Federal credit...

  18. The Impact of Service-Learning-Type Experiences on Preservice Teachers' Integration of Principles of Educational Psychology (United States)

    Faircloth, Beverly; He, Ye; Higgins, Heather


    In this study, members (n = 48) of 2 sections of a required educational psychology course conducted 3 service-learning-type field experiences and wrote reflections on the experiences in relationship to the theories and principles addressed in the course. Participants also described their vision for teaching at the beginning and the end of the…

  19. Patient satisfaction, preventive services, and emergency room use among African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Maiese, Eric M; Batts-Turner, Marian; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Fredrick L


    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between patient satisfaction and diabetes- related preventive health care and emergency room (ER) use. We studied 542 urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes aged > or =25 years who were enrolled in a primary carebased intervention trial to improve diabetes control and reduce adverse health events; 73% female, mean age 58 years, 35% had yearly household incomes of Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS) and use of diabetes-related preventive health care and ER were assessed by self-report. We then followed participants for 12 months to determine ER use prospectively. In general, participants gave favorable ratings of their care; over 70% reported that they had no problem getting care, over 60% reported the highest ratings on the communication and courtesy domains, and mean ratings (0-10 scale) for personal doctor and overall health care were high (8.8 and 8.4, respectively). Using poisson regression models adjusted for age, education, and self-reported rating of health, several aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with subsequent ER use. Participants who reported that medical staff were usually helpful or that doctors and nurses usually spent enough time were 0.49 and 0.37 times, respectively, less likely to use the ER (all p < 0.05). However, few aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with better preventive services. These data suggest that greater patient satisfaction was associated with lower ER use in urban African-Americans. Whether measures to improve patient satisfaction would reduce ER use requires further prospective study.

  20. Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are operated with solutions containing various chemical species required for the growth of electrochemically active microorganisms including nutrients and vitamins, substrates, and chemical buffers. Many different buffers are used in laboratory media, but the effects of these buffers and their inherent electrolyte conductivities have not been examined relative to current generation in MFCs. We investigated the effect of several common buffers (phosphate, MES, HEPES, and PIPES) on power production in single chambered MFCs compared to a non-buffered control. At the same concentrations the buffers produced different solution conductivities which resulted in different ohmic resistances and power densities. Increasing the solution conductivities to the same values using NaCl produced comparable power densities for all buffers. Very large increases in conductivity resulted in a rapid voltage drop at high current densities. Our results suggest that solution conductivity at a specific pH for each buffer is more important in MFC studies than the buffer itself given relatively constant pH conditions. Based on our analysis of internal resistance and a set neutral pH, phosphate and PIPES are the most useful buffers of those examined here because pH was maintained close to the pKa of the buffer, maximizing the ability of the buffer to contribute to increase current generation at high power densities. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Kyeong-Ho; Shin, Hang-Sik; Logan, Bruce E


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are operated with solutions containing various chemical species required for the growth of electrochemically active microorganisms including nutrients and vitamins, substrates, and chemical buffers. Many different buffers are used in laboratory media, but the effects of these buffers and their inherent electrolyte conductivities have not been examined relative to current generation in MFCs. We investigated the effect of several common buffers (phosphate, MES, HEPES, and PIPES) on power production in single chambered MFCs compared to a non-buffered control. At the same concentrations the buffers produced different solution conductivities which resulted in different ohmic resistances and power densities. Increasing the solution conductivities to the same values using NaCl produced comparable power densities for all buffers. Very large increases in conductivity resulted in a rapid voltage drop at high current densities. Our results suggest that solution conductivity at a specific pH for each buffer is more important in MFC studies than the buffer itself given relatively constant pH conditions. Based on our analysis of internal resistance and a set neutral pH, phosphate and PIPES are the most useful buffers of those examined here because pH was maintained close to the pK(a) of the buffer, maximizing the ability of the buffer to contribute to increase current generation at high power densities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Large-scale separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by electronic type using click chemistry (United States)

    Um, Jo-Eun; Song, Sun Gu; Yoo, Pil J.; Song, Changsik; Kim, Woo-Jae


    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be either metallic or semiconducting, making their separation critical for applications in nanoelectronics, biomedical materials, and solar cells. Herein, we investigate a novel solution-phase separation method based on click chemistry (azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition) and determine its efficiency and scalability. In this method, metallic SWCNTs in metallic/semiconducting SWCNT mixtures are selectively functionalized with alkyne groups by being reacted with 4-propargyloxybenezenediazonium tetrafluoroborate. Subsequently, silica nanoparticles are functionalized with azide groups and reacted with alkyne-bearing metallic SWCNTs in the SWCNT mixture in the presence of a Cu catalyst. As a result, metallic SWCNTs are anchored on silica powder, whereas non-functionalized semiconducting SWCNTs remain in solution. Low-speed centrifugation effectively removes the silica powder with attached metallic SWCNTs, furnishing a solution of highly pure semiconducting SWCNTs, as confirmed by Raman and UV-vis/near-infrared absorption measurements. This novel separation scheme exhibits the advantage of simultaneously separating both metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs from their mixtures, being cost-effective and therefore applicable at an industrial scale.

  3. Analysis of Horse Myostatin Gene and Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Breeds of Different Morphological Types


    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fontanesi, Luca; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Tassinari, Marco; Minieri, Laura; Falaschini, Adalberto


    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T > C and GQ183900:g.156T > C, the latter loc...

  4. Plutonium (TRU) transmutation and {sup 233}U production by single-fluid type accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukaw, Kazuo [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Kato, Yoshio [Japan Atom. Ene. Res. Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Chigrinov, Sergey E. [Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus)


    For practical/industrial disposition of Pu(TRU) by accelerator facility, not only physical soundness and safety but also the following technological rationality should be required: (1) few R&D items including radiation damage, heat removal and material compatibility; (2) few operation/maintenance/processing works: (3) few reproduction of radioactivity; (4) effective energy production in parallel. This will be achieved by the new modification of Th-fertilizing Single-Fluid type Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB), by which a global nuclear energy strategy for next century might be prepared.

  5. Development of a single multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Taylorella equigenitalis and Taylorella asinigenitalis. (United States)

    Duquesne, Fabien; Hébert, Laurent; Breuil, Marie-France; Matsuda, Motoo; Laugier, Claire; Petry, Sandrine


    We describe here the development of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a nonpathogenic bacterium. MLST was performed on a set of 163 strains collected in several countries over 35 years (1977-2012). The MLST data were analyzed using START2, MEGA 5.05 and eBURST, and can be accessed at Our results revealed a clonal population with 39 sequence types (ST) and no common ST between the two Taylorella species. The eBURST analysis grouped the 27 T. equigenitalis STs into four clonal complexes (CC1-4) and five unlinked STs. The 12 T. asinigenitalis STs were grouped into three clonal complexes (CC5-7) and five unlinked STs, among which CC1 (68.1% of the 113 T. equigenitalis) and CC5 (58.0% of the 50 T. asinigenitalis) were dominants. The CC1, still in circulation in France, contains isolates from the first CEM outbreaks that simultaneously emerged in several countries in the late 1970s. The emergence in different countries (e.g. France, Japan, and United Arab Emirates) of STs without any genetic relationship to CC1 suggests the existence of a natural worldwide reservoir that remains to be identified. T. asinigenitalis appears to behave same way since the American, Swedish and French isolates have unrelated STs. This first Taylorella sp. MLST is a powerful tool for further epidemiological investigations and population biology studies of the Taylorella genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wegner estimate and localization for alloy-type models with sign-changing exponentially decaying single-site potentials (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karsten; Peyerimhoff, Norbert; Tautenhahn, Martin; Veselić, Ivan


    We study Schrödinger operators on L2(ℝd) and ℓ2(ℤd) with a random potential of alloy-type. The single-site potential is assumed to be exponentially decaying but not necessarily of fixed sign. In the continuum setting, we require a generalized step-function shape. Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. In the described situation, a Wegner estimate, which is polynomial in the volume of the box and linear in the size of the energy interval, holds. We apply the established Wegner estimate as an ingredient for a localization proof via multiscale analysis.

  7. Proton Pumping and Slippage Dynamics of a Eukaryotic P-Type ATPase Studied at the Single-Molecule Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veshaguri, Salome

    In all eukaryotes the plasma membrane potential and secondary transport systems are energized by P-type ATPases whose regulation however remains poorly understood. Here we monitored at the single-molecule level the activity of the prototypic proton pumping P-type ATPase Arabidopsis thaliana isoform...... pumping rates remained constant. Titration of ATP down to ~1% of apparent Km for ATPase activity exclusively affected the distributions of the durations the pump spends in active and inactive states. The dramatic consequence of our findings is that ATP reduction decreased ATP/H+ stoichiometry of the pump....... We propose that variable ATP/H+ stoichiometry emerges as a novel mechanism for adaptation when challenged with depletion of ATP that is likely relevant for other ATPases. Such measurements will provide indispensable insights into the mechanisms of function and regulation of many other ion...

  8. Single assay for simultaneous detection and differential identification of human and avian influenza virus types, subtypes, and emergent variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available For more than four decades the cause of most type A influenza virus infections of humans has been attributed to only two viral subtypes, A/H1N1 or A/H3N2. In contrast, avian and other vertebrate species are a reservoir of type A influenza virus genome diversity, hosting strains representing at least 120 of 144 combinations of 16 viral hemagglutinin and 9 viral neuraminidase subtypes. Viral genome segment reassortments and mutations emerging within this reservoir may spawn new influenza virus strains as imminent epidemic or pandemic threats to human health and poultry production. Traditional methods to detect and differentiate influenza virus subtypes are either time-consuming and labor-intensive (culture-based or remarkably insensitive (antibody-based. Molecular diagnostic assays based upon reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR have short assay cycle time, and high analytical sensitivity and specificity. However, none of these diagnostic tests determine viral gene nucleotide sequences to distinguish strains and variants of a detected pathogen from one specimen to the next. Decision-quality, strain- and variant-specific pathogen gene sequence information may be critical for public health, infection control, surveillance, epidemiology, or medical/veterinary treatment planning. The Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM-Flu is a robust, highly multiplexed and target gene sequencing-based alternative to both traditional culture- or biomarker-based diagnostic tests. RPM-Flu is a single, simultaneous differential diagnostic assay for all subtype combinations of type A influenza viruses and for 30 other viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause influenza-like illness. These other pathogen targets of RPM-Flu may co-infect and compound the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with influenza. The informative specificity of a single RPM-Flu test represents specimen-specific viral gene sequences as determinants of virus type, A

  9. Elevated serum triglycerides is the strongest single indicator for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimou Eleni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with diabetes already fulfill one diagnostic criterion for MS according to the existing classifications. Our aim was to identify one single clinical parameter, which could effectively predict the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied all patients with type 2 diabetes who attended our Diabetes Outpatient Clinic during a three-month period. Waist circumference, blood pressure and serum lipids were measured. Establishment of MS diagnosis was based a on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria and b on International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied in order to identify the clinical parameter with the highest predictive capability for MS. Among the 500 participating patients (231 males, 269 females, MS was diagnosed in 364 patients (72.8% according to the NCEP ATP III criteria and in 408 patients (81.6% according to the IDF criteria. Results For the NCEP ATP III classification, serum triglycerides (in the overall population, waist and HDL (in female population demonstrated the highest predictive capability for MS (AUCs:0.786, 0.805 and 0.801, respectively. For the IDF classification, no single parameter reached an AUC > 0.800 in the overall population. In females, HDL displayed a satisfactory predictive capability for MS with an AUC which was significantly higher than the one in males (0.785 vs. 0.676, respectively, p Conclusion Elevated serum triglycerides strongly indicate the presence of MS in patients with type 2 diabetes. In female patients with type 2 diabetes, central obesity was the second stronger predictor of MS besides hypertriglyceridemia.

  10. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C


    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saeed Akhter


    Full Text Available As common as the normal distribution is the Rayleigh distribution which occurs in works on radar, properties of sine wave plus-noise, etc. Rayleigh (1880 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many important sources. The Rayleigh distribution is widely used in communication engineering, reliability analysis and applied statistics. Since the Rayleigh distribution has linearly increasing rate, it is appropriate for components which might not have manufacturing defects but age rapidly with time. Several types of electro-vacum devices have this feature. It is connected with one dimension and two dimensions random walk and is some times referred to as a random walk frequency distribution. It is a special case of Weibull distribution (1951 of wide applicability. It can be easily derived from the bivariate normal distribution with and p = 0. For further application of Rayleigh distribution, we refer to Johnson and Kotz (1994. Adatia (1995 has obtained the best linear unbiased estimator of the Rayleigh scale parameter based on fairly large censored samples. Dyer and Whisend (1973 obtained the BLUE of scale parameter based on type II censored samples for small N = 2(15. With the advance of computer technology it is now possible to obtain BLUE for large samples. Hirai (1978 obtained the estimate of the scale parameter from the Rayleigh distribution singly type II censored from the left side and right side and variances of the scale parameter. In this paper, we estimate the scale parameter of type II singly and doubly censored data from the Rayleigh distribution using Blom’s (1958 unbiased nearly best estimates and compare the efficiency of this estimate with BLUE and MLE.

  12. Induction of specific neuron types by overexpression of single transcription factors. (United States)

    Teratani-Ota, Yusuke; Yamamizu, Kohei; Piao, Yulan; Sharova, Lioudmila; Amano, Misa; Yu, Hong; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S H; Sharov, Alexei A


    Specific neuronal types derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can facilitate mechanistic studies and potentially aid in regenerative medicine. Existing induction methods, however, mostly rely on the effects of the combined action of multiple added growth factors, which generally tend to result in mixed populations of neurons. Here, we report that overexpression of specific transcription factors (TFs) in ESCs can rather guide the differentiation of ESCs towards specific neuron lineages. Analysis of data on gene expression changes 2 d after induction of each of 185 TFs implicated candidate TFs for further ESC differentiation studies. Induction of 23 TFs (out of 49 TFs tested) for 6 d facilitated neural differentiation of ESCs as inferred from increased proportion of cells with neural progenitor marker PSA-NCAM. We identified early activation of the Notch signaling pathway as a common feature of most potent inducers of neural differentiation. The majority of neuron-like cells generated by induction of Ascl1, Smad7, Nr2f1, Dlx2, Dlx4, Nr2f2, Barhl2, and Lhx1 were GABA-positive and expressed other markers of GABAergic neurons. In the same way, we identified Lmx1a and Nr4a2 as inducers for neurons bearing dopaminergic markers and Isl1, Fezf2, and St18 for cholinergic motor neurons. A time-course experiment with induction of Ascl1 showed early upregulation of most neural-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Sets of Ascl1-induced mRNAs and miRNAs were enriched in Ascl1 targets. In further studies, enrichment of cells obtained with the induction of Ascl1, Smad7, and Nr2f1 using microbeads resulted in essentially pure population of neuron-like cells with expression profiles similar to neural tissues and expressed markers of GABAergic neurons. In summary, this study indicates that induction of transcription factors is a promising approach to generate cultures that show the transcription profiles characteristic of specific neural cell types.

  13. Modal analysis and dispersion curves of an elliptical W-type single mode fiber (United States)

    Prajapati, Y.; Maurya, Jitendra Bahadur; Singh, Vivek; Saini, J. P.


    In this paper, the propagation of electromagnetic waves in W-type elliptical dielectric optical fiber having various cladding layers is presented. The presented fiber has concentric core and cladding which have elliptical cross section and the refractive index of one of the inner cladding (the cladding between first clad and last clad) maximum. Using elliptic cylindrical coordinates, boundary conditions are derived and longitudinal field components for the even and odd modes are obtained. The characteristic equation for the fiber to be studied is determined by solving the Mathieu ( q > 0) and the modified Mathieu functions ( q < 0). In order to study the fundamental mode, the modal index m is put as m = 1. Finally, the cutoff frequencies for several lower order modes have been calculated and their dispersion characteristics are plotted. The effects of elliptical eccentricity e on the mode cutoff frequencies and mode transmissions are also addressed. The analysis shows that one can control the propagation property of optical fiber by increasing the number of inner claddings. These claddings provide additional degree of freedom to control the modes.

  14. Pregnancy outcomes and nutritional indices after 3 types of bariatric surgery performed at a single institution. (United States)

    Mead, Nancy C; Sakkatos, Panagiotis; Sakellaropoulos, George C; Adonakis, George L; Alexandrides, Theodore K; Kalfarentzos, Fotis


    Nutritional status during pregnancy and the effects of nutritional deficiencies on pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery is an important issue that warrants further study. The objective of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes and nutritional indices after restrictive and malabsorptive procedures. We investigated pregnancy outcomes of 113 women who gave birth to 150 children after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) between June 1994 and December 2011. Biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes were compared among the different types of surgery and to overall 20-year hospital data, as well as to 56 presurgery pregnancies in 36 women of the same group. Anemia was observed in 24.2% and 15.6% of pregnancies after BPD and RYGB, respectively. Vitamin B12 levels decreased postoperatively in all groups, with no further decrease during pregnancy; however, low levels were observed not only after BPD (11.7%) and RYGB (15.6%), but also after SG (13.3%). Folic acid levels increased. Serum albumin levels decreased in all groups during pregnancy, but hypoproteinemia was seen only after BPD. Neonates after BPD had significantly lower average birth weight without a higher frequency of low birth weight defined asnutritional supplement guidelines are followed. Closer monitoring is required in pregnancies after malabsorptive procedures especially regarding protein nutrition. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellulose synthesis in two secondary cell wall processes in a single cell type. (United States)

    Mendu, Venugopal; Stork, Jozsef; Harris, Darby; DeBolt, Seth


    Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that constrains internal turgor pressure yet extends in a regulated and organized manner to allow the cell to acquire shape. The primary load-bearing macromolecule of a plant cell wall is cellulose, which forms crystalline microfibrils that are organized with respect to a cell's function and shape requirements. A primary cell wall is deposited during expansion whereas secondary cell wall is synthesized post expansion during differentiation. A complex form of asymmetrical cellular differentiation occurs in Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells, where we have recently shown that two secondary cell wall processes occur that utilize different cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins. One process is to produce pectinaceous mucilage that expands upon hydration and the other is a radial wall thickening that reinforced the epidermal cell structure. Our data illustrate polarized specialization of CESA5 in facilitating mucilage attachment to the parent seed and CESA2, CESA5 and CESA9 in radial cell wall thickening and formation of the columella. Herein, we present a model for the complexity of cellulose biosynthesis in this highly differentiated cell type with further evidence supporting each cellulosic secondary cell wall process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparchez Nicoleta


    Full Text Available Lately, a sustainable development has been more and more discussed and, implicitly, the service sustainability in the context of globalization. This is why, with this approach, the role of the human and, naturally, of the society was observed in carrying out educational, religious and cultural activities. By analogy with a new product’s development steps, the phases necessary for the development of a new service concept were advanced. By means of qualitative and quantitative researches, the ideas necessary for the development of a new service were generated. From the great number of propositions, the most important ones were selected through qualitative researches. These were used in creating the new service. The cultural-religious educational service is the result of these activities, being a concept of the lateral marketing, but also a concern for a sustainable development. This service merged three distinct concepts (education, culture and religion, taking into account that information and knowledge are central for the progress and sustainability of a society's development. This service is a new concept by means of which one shall target how we may achieve the prevention of certain tendencies of school drop-out, new didactical methods and forms being tested this way, having as main purpose a better teacher-child, child-teacher, child-child, teacher-teacher communication.

  17. Clinical and molecular characterization of 112 single-center patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1. (United States)

    Corsello, Giovanni; Antona, Vincenzo; Serra, Gregorio; Zara, Federico; Giambrone, Clara; Lagalla, Luca; Piccione, Maria; Piro, Ettore


    The aim of this retrospective study was to define clinical and molecular characteristics of a large sample of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients, as well as to evaluate mutational spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation. NF1 is a relatively common neurogenetic disorder (1:2500-1:3000 individuals). It is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene on chromosome 17ql1.2, with autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and wide phenotypical variability. Café-au-lait spots (CALs), cutaneous and/or subcutaneous neurofibromas (CNFs/SCNFs), skinfold freckling, skeletal abnormalities, Lisch nodules of the iris and increased risk of learning and intellectual disabilities, as well as tumors of the nervous system and other organs are its main clinical features. The preliminary group collected 168 subjects with clinical suspicion of NF1. They were evaluated following the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria for NF1, revised by Gutmann et al. 1997, integrated for 67 of them by molecular testing. According to these references, 112 of 168 patients were diagnosed as NF1. The sample was characterized by an equal sex ratio (57 males, 55 females) and age distribution ranging from 10 days to 60 years of age (mean age, 13 years). A wide spectrum of clinical features has been observed in our patients. Mutational analysis resulted positive in 51 cases (76%). Twenty-four mutations detected in our cohort have not been reported to date. This study may contribute to a better definition of genotypic and phenotypic features of NF1 patients, with respect to further insights into the clinical characterization of the disease. In addition, an amplification of the spectrum of mutations in the NF1 gene has been documented.

  18. Glycogen storage disease type III in Egyptian children: a single centre clinico-laboratory study. (United States)

    El-Karaksy, Hanaa; Anwar, Ghada; El-Raziky, Mona; Mogahed, Engy; Fateen, Ekram; Gouda, Amr; El-Mougy, Fatma; El-Hennawy, Ahmed


    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of glycogen debrancher enzyme and is characterised by clinical variability. We herein describe the clinical and laboratory findings in 31 Egyptian patients with GSD III presenting to the Paediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University, Egypt. Eighteen patients (58%) were males. Their ages ranged between 6 months to 12 years. The main presenting complaint was progressive abdominal distention in 55%. Twelve patients (38.7%) had a history of recurrent attacks of convulsions; four had an erroneous diagnosis of hypocalcaemia and epilepsy. Doll-like facies was noted in 90%. Abdominal examination of all cases revealed abdominal distention and soft hepatomegaly which had bright echogenicity by ultrasound. Hypertriglyceridaemia was present in 93.6%, hyperlactacidaemia in 51.6% and hyperuricaemia in 19.4%. Liver biopsy showed markedly distended hepatocytes with well distinct cytoplasmic boundaries and 32% had macrovesicular fatty changes. Serum creatine kinase was elevated in 64.6% of patients and correlated positively and significantly with age (r=0.7 and P=<0.001), while serum triglycerides correlated negatively with age (r=-0.4 and P=0.05). Blood glucose assessment and search for hepatomegaly in an infant with recurrent seizures may prevent delay in the diagnosis. A huge soft liver reaching the left midclavicular line that appears echogenic on ultrasonography is characteristic of GSD III. A distended hepatocyte with rarified cytoplasm is pathognomonic but not diagnostic. Hypertriglyceridaemia correlates negatively with age, in contrary to CK level. Copyright © 2014 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensing interrogation technique for fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors based on a single-passband RF filter. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei; Fu, Hongyan; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Nan


    In this paper, a sensing interrogation system for fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors by using a single-passband radio-frequency (RF) filter has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fiber-optic interferometer based sensors can give continuous optical sampling, and along with dispersive medium a single-passband RF frequency response can be achieved. The sensing parameter variation on the fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors will affect their free spectrum range, and thus the peak frequency of the RF filter. By tracking the central frequency of the passband the sensing parameter can be demodulated. As a demonstration, in our experiment a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) based temperature sensor has been interrogated. By tracking the peak frequency of the passband the temperature variation can be monitored. In our experiment, the sensing responsivity of 10.5 MHz/°C, 20.0 MHz/°C and 41.2 MHz/°C, when the lengths of sensing fiber are 1 m, 2 m and 4 m have been achieved.

  20. Analytical and semi-analytical inverse kinematics of SSRMS-type manipulators with single joint locked failure (United States)

    Xu, Wenfu; She, Yu; Xu, Yangsheng


    Redundant space manipulators, including Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) and European Robotic Arm (ERA), have been playing important roles in the construction and maintenance of International Space Station (ISS). They all have 7 revolute joints arranged in similar configurations, and are referred to as SSRMS-type manipulators. When a joint is locked in an arbitrary position due to some failures, a 7R manipulator degrades to a 6R manipulator. Without a spherical wrist or three consecutive parallel joints, the inverse kinematics of the 6R manipulator is very complex. In this paper, we propose effective methods to resolve the inverse kinematics for different cases of any joint locked in an arbitrary position. Firstly, configuration characteristics of the SSRMS-type redundant manipulators are analyzed. Then, an existing of closed-form inverse kinematics is discussed for locking different joints. Secondly, D-H frames and corresponding D-H parameters of the new 6-DOF manipulator formed by locking a joint in an arbitrary position are re-constructed. A unified table is then created to describe the kinematics for all possible cases of single joint locking failure. Thirdly, completely analytical and semi-analytical methods are presented to solve the inverse kinematics equations, and the former is used for locking joint 1, 2, 6 or 7 while the latter for locking joint 3, 4 or 5. Finally, typical cases for single joint locking are studied. The results verify the proposed methods.

  1. Simultaneous isolation of emm89-type Streptococcus pyogenes strains with a wild-type or mutated covS gene from a single streptococcal toxic shock syndrome patient. (United States)

    Masuno, Katsuaki; Okada, Ryo; Zhang, Yan; Isaka, Masanori; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shibata, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tadao


    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a re-emerging infectious disease in many developed countries. Recent studies have suggested that mutations in CovRS, a two-component regulatory system in Streptococcus pyogenes, play important roles in the pathogenesis of STSS. However, in vivo evidence of the significance of CovRS in human infections has not been fully demonstrated. We investigated five S. pyogenes strains isolated simultaneously from the pharynx, sputum, knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood of a single STSS patient. All were emm89-type strains, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed that the strains of pharynx and blood were isogenic. The growth rates of the strains from pharynx and sputum were faster than those of the other strains. Protein profiles of the culture supernatants of strains from the pharynx and sputum were also different from those of the other strains. Sequence analyses revealed that strains from the knee joint, cerebrospinal fluid and blood contained a single nucleotide difference in the covS coding region, resulting in one amino acid change, compared with the other strains. Introduction of a plasmid containing the covS gene from the pharynx strain to the blood strain increased the production of SpeB protein. This suggests that the one amino acid alteration in CovS was relevant to pathogenesis. This report supports the idea that mutated CovS plays important roles in vivo in the dissemination of S. pyogenes from the upper respiratory tract of human to aseptic tissues such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

  2. Japanese Consumption Tax with Regard to Cross-Border Service Trading : A Comparison with EU-Type Value Added Taxes


    細木, 宏和; ホソキ, ヒロカズ; Hirokazu, HOSOKI


    This paper examines a tax jurisdiction issue of the consumption tax system with regard to Japanese service trading. The Destination principle for service trading has not been established in Japanese consumption tax, but taxation at the place of consumption is gradually being adopted for value-added taxes in the EU. Under these circumstances, it is necessary for us to revise the Japanese consumption tax system in favor of taxation at the place of consumption, using EU-type value-added tax syst...

  3. Appendix 1—California plant community types represented in Forest Service research natural areas (United States)

    Sheauchi Cheng


    Community types and codes (Holland 1986) are in boldface; research natural area names (with ecological survey names in parentheses, if different from the research natural area names) are in plain type.

  4. Clinicopathological study of nondiabetic renal disease in type 2 diabetic patients: A single center experience from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal V Kanodia


    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM, leading to chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease. Wide spectrum of nondiabetic renal diseases (NDRD is reported in type-2 diabetes (type-2 DM. We carried out this single-center study to find clinical, laboratory, and histological features of NDRD in type-2 DM patients and to assess the prevalence of NDRD in India. A single-center retrospective study which included analysis of renal biopsies from patients with type-2 DM, performed between January 2008 and September 2016. Biopsy findings were categorized into three groups, Group-I (isolated NDRD; Group-II (NDRD superimposed on underlying DN; and Group-III (isolated DN. Out of 152 diabetic patients (111 males and 41 females, 35 (23.03% patients were of Group-I (isolated NDRD, 35 (23.03% of Group-II (NDRD superimposed on underlying DN, and 82 (53.95% of Group-III (isolated DN. The mean age (in years was 55.08 ± 10.71, 55.65 ± 8.71, and 54.45 ± 9.01 respectively in Group-I, II, and III. Nephrotic syndrome (NS was the most common clinical presentation in all groups. Duration of DM was significantly shorter in Group-I than in Group-II. Diabetic retinopathy was absent in Group-I. Proteinuria was more in Group-III than Group-I. Low serum C3 and/or C4 levels was observed in five (14.29% cases of Group-I and Group-II each and two (2.43% cases of Group-III. Nearly, 70 (46.05% patients were found to have NDRD either in isolated form or as combined lesions. The most common histological types of NDRD were acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (38.57% followed by benign nephrosclerosis (15.72%, membranous nephropathy (10%, IgA nephropathy (7.14%, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (7.14%. The incidence of NDRD (with/without DN in type-2 DM is very high. Shorter duration of diabetes, hematuria, absence of retinopathy, low serum complement levels, and nephrotic range proteinuria are predictors of NDRD.

  5. 29 CFR 4.130 - Types of covered service contracts illustrated. (United States)


    ... repair and rehabilitation. (21) Geological field surveys and testing. (22) Grounds maintenance. (23..., clearing timber or brush, etc. (See also §§ 4.116(b) and 4.131(f).). (53) Vending machine services. (54...

  6. The iMars WebGIS - Spatio-Temporal Data Queries and Single Image Map Web Services (United States)

    Walter, Sebastian; Steikert, Ralf; Schreiner, Bjoern; Muller, Jan-Peter; van Gasselt, Stephan; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Lanz-Kroechert, Julia


    Introduction: Web-based planetary image dissemination platforms usually show outline coverages of the data and offer querying for metadata as well as preview and download, e.g. the HRSC Mapserver (Walter & van Gasselt, 2014). Here we introduce a new approach for a system dedicated to change detection by simultanous visualisation of single-image time series in a multi-temporal context. While the usual form of presenting multi-orbit datasets is the merge of the data into a larger mosaic, we want to stay with the single image as an important snapshot of the planetary surface at a specific time. In the context of the EU FP-7 iMars project we process and ingest vast amounts of automatically co-registered (ACRO) images. The base of the co-registration are the high precision HRSC multi-orbit quadrangle image mosaics, which are based on bundle-block-adjusted multi-orbit HRSC DTMs. Additionally we make use of the existing bundle-adjusted HRSC single images available at the PDS archives. A prototype demonstrating the presented features is available at Multi-temporal database: In order to locate multiple coverage of images and select images based on spatio-temporal queries, we converge available coverage catalogs for various NASA imaging missions into a relational database management system with geometry support. We harvest available metadata entries during our processing pipeline using the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) software. Currently, this database contains image outlines from the MGS/MOC, MRO/CTX and the MO/THEMIS instruments with imaging dates ranging from 1996 to the present. For the MEx/HRSC data, we already maintain a database which we automatically update with custom software based on the VICAR environment. Web Map Service with time support: The MapServer software is connected to the database and provides Web Map Services (WMS) with time support based on the START_TIME image attribute. It allows temporal

  7. The Type and Impact of Evidence Review Group Exploratory Analyses in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process. (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys


    As part of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, independent evidence review groups (ERGs) critically appraise a company's submission relating to a specific technology and indication. To explore the type of additional exploratory analyses conducted by ERGs and their impact on the recommendations made by NICE. The 100 most recently completed single technology appraisals with published guidance were selected for inclusion. A content analysis of relevant documents was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was used to rationalize and present these data. The types of exploratory analysis conducted in relation to companies' models were fixing errors, addressing violations, addressing matters of judgment, and the provision of a new, ERG-preferred base case. Ninety-three of the 100 ERG reports contained at least one of these analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category "Matters of judgment," which was reported in 83 reports (89%). At least one of the exploratory analyses conducted and reported by an ERG is mentioned in 97% of NICE appraisal consultation documents and 94% of NICE final appraisal determinations, and had a clear influence on recommendations in 72% of appraisal consultation documents and 47% of final appraisal determinations. These results suggest that the additional analyses undertaken by ERGs in the appraisal of company submissions are highly influential in the policy-making and decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear data libraries and online services. An introduction to the data types and services available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Schwerer, O.


    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section provides convenient, cost-free access to the world's most comprehensive collection of numerical nuclear physics data. These nuclear data libraries result from a worldwide cooperation of nuclear data centres coordinated by the IAEA. An introduction is given to the various nuclear data types and libraries with particular emphasis to online services via the Internet. This paper summarizes a presentation for the IAEA Workshop on ''Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors: Physics, Design and Safety'' held at ICTP Trieste, Italy, 23 February - 17 March 1998. (author)

  9. Exploring single nucleotide polymorphisms previously related to obesity and metabolic traits in pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Miranda-Lora, América Liliana; Cruz, Miguel; Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel


    To evaluate the association of 64 obesity-related polymorphisms with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes and other glucose- and insulin-related traits in Mexican children. Case-control and case-sibling designs were followed. We studied 99 patients with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes, their siblings (n = 101) without diabetes, 83 unrelated pediatric controls and 137 adult controls. Genotypes were determined for 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a possible association was examined between those genotypes and type 2 diabetes and other quantitative traits, after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. In the case-pediatric control and case-adult control analyses, five polymorphisms were associated with increased likelihood of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes; only one of these polymorphisms (CADM2/rs1307880) also showed a consistent effect in the case-sibling analysis. The associations in the combined analysis were as follows: ADORA1/rs903361 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2; 3.0); CADM2/rs13078807 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2; 4.0); GNPDA2/rs10938397 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4; 3.7); VEGFA/rs6905288 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.1) and FTO/rs9939609 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0; 3.2). We also identified 16 polymorphisms nominally associated with quantitative traits in participants without diabetes. ADORA/rs903361, CADM2/rs13078807, GNPDA2/rs10938397, VEGFA/rs6905288 and FTO/rs9939609 are associated with an increased risk of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes in the Mexican population.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism typing of Mycobacterium ulcerans reveals focal transmission of buruli ulcer in a highly endemic region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Röltgen

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is an emerging necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. While proximity to stagnant or slow flowing water bodies is a risk factor for acquiring BU, the epidemiology and mode of M. ulcerans transmission is poorly understood. Here we have used high-throughput DNA sequencing and comparisons of the genomes of seven M. ulcerans isolates that appeared monomorphic by existing typing methods. We identified a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and developed a real-time PCR SNP typing method based on these differences. We then investigated clinical isolates of M. ulcerans on which we had detailed information concerning patient location and time of diagnosis. Within the Densu river basin of Ghana we observed dominance of one clonal complex and local clustering of some of the variants belonging to this complex. These results reveal focal transmission and demonstrate, that micro-epidemiological analyses by SNP typing has great potential to help us understand how M. ulcerans is transmitted.

  11. Analysis of horse myostatin gene and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in breeds of different morphological types. (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fontanesi, Luca; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Tassinari, Marco; Minieri, Laura; Falaschini, Adalberto


    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif) were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed). The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.

  12. A novel high-resolution single locus sequence typing scheme for mixed populations of Propionibacterium acnes in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F P Scholz

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes is a prevalent member of the normal skin microbiota of human adults. In addition to its suspected role in acne vulgaris it is involved in a variety of opportunistic infections. Multi-locus sequence-typing (MLST schemes identified distinct phylotypes associated with health and disease. Being based on 8 to 9 house-keeping genes these MLST schemes have a high discriminatory power, but their application is time- and cost-intensive. Here we describe a single-locus sequence typing (SLST scheme for P. acnes. The target locus was identified with a genome mining approach that took advantage of the availability of representative genome sequences of all known phylotypes of P. acnes. We applied this SLST on a collection of 188 P. acnes strains and demonstrated a resolution comparable to that of existing MLST schemes. Phylogenetic analysis applied to the SLST locus resulted in clustering patterns identical to a reference tree based on core genome sequences. We further demonstrate that SLST can be applied to detect multiple phylotypes in complex microbial communities by a metagenomic pyrosequencing approach. The described SLST strategy may be applied to any bacterial species with a basically clonal population structure to achieve easy typing and mapping of multiple phylotypes in complex microbiotas. The P. acnes SLST database can be found at

  13. Analysis of Horse Myostatin Gene and Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Breeds of Different Morphological Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Dall'Olio


    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed. The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.

  14. Properties and local environment of p-type and photoluminescent rare earths implanted into ZnO single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Rita, EMC; Wahl, U; Soares, JC

    This thesis presents an experimental study of the local environment of p-type and Rare- Earth dopants implanted in ZnO single-crystals (SCs). Various nuclear and bulk property techniques were combined in the following evaluations: Implantation damage annealing was evaluated in ZnO SCs implanted with Fe, Sr and Ca. P-type dopants Cu and Ag implanted ZnO SCs were studied revealing that the solubility of Cu in substituting Zn is considerably higher than that of Ag. These results are discussed within the scope of the ZnO p-type doping problematic with these elements. Experimental proofs of the As “anti-site” behavior in ZnO were for the first time attained, i.e., the majority of As atoms are substitutional at the Zn site (SZn), possibly surrounded by two Zn vacancies (VZn). This reinforces the theoretical prediction that As acts as an acceptor in ZnO via the AsZn-2VZn complex formation. The co-doping of ZnO SC with In (donor) and As (acceptor) was addressed. The most striking result is the possible In-As “p...

  15. Effect of separator and inoculum type on electricity generation and microbial community in single-chamber microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Yu, Jaecheul; Park, Younghyun; Lee, Taeho


    Single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SMFC)-I consisted of 4 separator-electrode assemblies (SEAs) with two types of cation exchange membrane (CEM: Nafion and CMI 7000) and an anion exchange membrane (AEM: AMI 7001). SMFC-II consisted of 4 SEAs with Nafion and three types of nonwoven fabric. SMFC-I and -II were inoculated with anaerobic digested and activated sludge, respectively, and operated under fed-batch mode. In SMFC I, AEM-SEA showed a maximum power density (PDmax). Nafion-SEA showed a PDmax in SMFC II, which was similar to that of Nafion-SEA of SMFC I. Although different bacteria were developed in SMFC-I (Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes) and SMFC-II (Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), the inoculum type little affects electricity generation. Variations of pH and oxygen in biofilm have influenced microbial community structure and electricity generation according to the electrode and separator material. Although the electricity generation of non-woven fabric-SEA was less than that of Nafion-SEA, the use of non-woven fabrics is expected to reduce the construction and operating costs of MFCs.

  16. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Manmohan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and alphavirus (Chikungunya. The feasibility of M-RT-PCR assay for clinical diagnosis was validated with 620 acute phase dengue patient sera samples of recent epidemics in India. The comparative evaluation vis a vis conventional virus isolation revealed higher sensitivity. None of the forty healthy serum samples screened in the present study revealed any amplification, thereby establishing specificity of the reported assay for dengue virus only. Conclusion These findings clearly suggested that M-RT-PCR assay reported in the present study is the rapid and cost-effective method for simultaneous detection as well as typing of the dengue virus in acute phase patient serum samples. Thus, the M-RT-PCR assay developed in this study will serve as a very useful tool for rapid diagnosis and typing of dengue infections in endemic areas.

  17. Assessing how green space types affect ecosystem services delivery in Porto, Portugal (United States)

    Marisa Graça; Paulo Alves; João Gonçalves; David J. Nowak; Robert Hoehn; Paulo Farinha-Marques; Mario Cunha


    Significant advances have been made in identifying, quantifying and valuing multiple urban ecosystem services (UES), yet this knowledge remains poorly implemented in urban planning and management. One of the reasons for this low implementation is the insufficient thematic and spatial detail in UES research to provide guidance for urban planners and managers....

  18. 34 CFR 206.10 - What types of services may be provided? (United States)


    ... ENGAGED IN MIGRANT AND OTHER SEASONAL FARMWORK-HIGH SCHOOL EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM AND COLLEGE ASSISTANCE... in a university, college, or junior college program, or in military services or career positions; and...) Tuition and fees. (G) Room and board. (H) Other assistance necessary to assist students in completing...

  19. Use of Point-of-Service Systems in School Nutrition Programs: Types, Challenges, and Employee Training (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Park, Eunhye; Wang, Yujia; Rushing, Keith


    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the use of electronic and paper-based point-of-service (POS) systems in school nutrition programs (SNPs), including associated challenges and the desired skills and existing training practices for personnel handling such systems. Methods: A questionnaire was developed based on interviews with 25 SNP…

  20. Inventory Preparation Guide for Commercial or Industrial-Type Activities and Contract Support Services, (United States)


    For example, suppose the Air Force awarded a con- tract to the ABC Company to provide base maintenance services at several bases, as follows: 1. Base...RTPTNME 7. AUTOR) A.I/RI AW MDAERs) )’ Joseph R ’Wilkj𔃻. MA67--3 g. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAMa ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK

  1. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong


    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  2. Single locus typing of MHC class I and class II B loci in a population of red jungle fowl. (United States)

    Worley, K; Gillingham, M; Jensen, P; Kennedy, L J; Pizzari, T; Kaufman, J; Richardson, D S


    In species with duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, estimates of genetic variation often rely on multilocus measures of diversity. It is possible that such measures might not always detect more detailed patterns of selection at individual loci. Here, we describe a method that allows us to investigate classical MHC diversity in red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), the wild ancestor of the domestic chicken, using a single locus approach. This is possible due to the well-characterised gene organisation of the 'minimal essential' MHC (BF/BL region) of the domestic chicken, which comprises two differentially expressed duplicated class I (BF) and two class II B (BLB) genes. Using a combination of reference strand-mediated conformation analysis, cloning and sequencing, we identify nine BF and ten BLB alleles in a captive population of jungle fowl. We show that six BF and five BLB alleles are from the more highly expressed locus of each gene, BF2 and BLB2, respectively. An excess of non-synonymous substitutions across the jungle fowl BF/BL region suggests that diversifying selection has acted on this population. Importantly, single locus screening reveals that the strength of selection is greatest on the highly expressed BF2 locus. This is the first time that a population of red jungle fowl has been typed at the MHC region, laying the basis for further research into the underlying processes acting to maintain MHC diversity in this and other species.

  3. The influence of the type of embryo culture medium on neonatal birthweight after single embryo transfer in IVF. (United States)

    Vergouw, Carlijn G; Kostelijk, E Hanna; Doejaaren, Els; Hompes, Peter G A; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Schats, Roel


    Does the type of medium used to culture fresh and frozen-thawed embryos influence neonatal birthweight after single embryo transfer (SET) in IVF? A comparison of two commercially available culture media showed no significant influence on mean birthweight and mean birthweight adjusted for gestational age, gender and parity (z-scores) of singletons born after a fresh or frozen-thawed SET. Furthermore, we show that embryo freezing and thawing cycles may lead to a significantly higher mean birthweight. Animal studies have shown that culture media constituents are responsible for changes in birthweight of offspring. In human IVF, there is still little knowledge of the effect of medium type on birthweight. Until now, only a small number of commercially available culture media have been investigated (Vitrolife, Cook(®) Medical and IVF online medium). Our study adds new information: it has a larger population of singleton births compared with the previously published studies, it includes outcomes of other media types (HTF and Sage(®)), not previously analysed, and it includes data on frozen-thawed SETs. This study was a retrospective analysis of birthweights of singleton newborns after fresh (Day 3) or frozen-thawed (Day 5) SET cycles, using embryos cultured in either of two different types of commercially available culture media, between 2008 and 2011. Before January 2009, a single-step culture medium was used: human tubal fluid (HTF) with 4 mg/ml human serum albumin. From January 2009 onwards, a commercially available sequential medium was introduced: Sage(®), Quinn's advantage protein plus medium. Singletons born after a fresh SET (99 embryos cultured in HTF and 259 in Sage(®)) and singletons born after a frozen-thawed SET (32 embryos cultured in HTF only, 41 in HTF and Sage(®) and 86 in Sage(®) only) were analysed. Only patients using autologous gametes without the use of a gestational carrier were considered. Also excluded were (vanishing) twins, triplets

  4. The [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] star-type single-molecule magnet. (United States)

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas; Bernt, Ingo; Heinemann, Frank W; Postnikov, Andrei V; Schünemann, Volker; Trautwein, Alfred X; Alam, Mohammad S; Rupp, Holger; Müller, Paul


    Star-shaped complex [Fe(III)[Fe(III)(L1)2]3] (3) was synthesized starting from N-methyldiethanolamine H2L1 (1) and ferric chloride in the presence of sodium hydride. For 3, two different high-spin iron(III) ion sites were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K. Single-crystal X-ray structure determination revealed that 3 crystallizes with four molecules of chloroform, but, with only three molecules of dichloromethane. The unit cell of 3.4CHCl3 contains the enantiomers (delta)-[(S,S)(R,R)(R,R)] and (lambda)-[(R,R)(S,S)(S,S)], whereas in case of 3.3CH2Cl2 four independent molecules, forming pairs of the enantiomers [lambda-(R,R)(R,R)(R,R)]-3 and [lambda-(S,S)(S,S)(S,S)]-3, were observed in the unit cell. According to SQUID measurements, the antiferromagnetic intramolecular coupling of the iron(III) ions in 3 results in a S = 10/2 ground state multiplet. The anisotropy is of the easy-axis type. EPR measurements enabled an accurate determination of the ligand-field splitting parameters. The ferric star 3 is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) and shows hysteretic magnetization characteristics below a blocking temperature of about 1.2 K. However, weak intermolecular couplings, mediated in a chainlike fashion via solvent molecules, have a strong influence on the magnetic properties. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) were used to determine the structural and electronic properties of star-type tetranuclear iron(III) complex 3. The molecules were deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Small, regular molecule clusters, two-dimensional monolayers as well as separated single molecules were observed. In our STS measurements we found a rather large contrast at the expected locations of the metal centers of the molecules. This direct addressing of the metal centers was confirmed by DFT calculations.

  5. 229 nm UV LEDs on aluminum nitride single crystal substrates using p-type silicon for increased hole injection (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Cho, Sang June; Park, Jeongpil; Seo, Jung-Hun; Dalmau, Rafael; Zhao, Deyin; Kim, Kwangeun; Gong, Jiarui; Kim, Munho; Lee, In-Kyu; Albrecht, John D.; Zhou, Weidong; Moody, Baxter; Ma, Zhenqiang


    AlGaN based 229 nm light emitting diodes (LEDs), employing p-type Si to significantly increase hole injection, were fabricated on single crystal bulk aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates. Nitride heterostructures were epitaxially deposited by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and inherit the low dislocation density of the native substrate. Following epitaxy, a p-Si layer is bonded to the heterostructure. LEDs were characterized both electrically and optically. Owing to the low defect density films, large concentration of holes from p-Si, and efficient hole injection, no efficiency droop was observed up to a current density of 76 A/cm2 under continuous wave operation and without external thermal management. An optical output power of 160 μW was obtained with the corresponding external quantum efficiency of 0.03%. This study demonstrates that by adopting p-type Si nanomembrane contacts as a hole injector, practical levels of hole injection can be realized in UV light-emitting diodes with very high Al composition AlGaN quantum wells, enabling emission wavelengths and power levels that were previously inaccessible using traditional p-i-n structures with poor hole injection efficiency.

  6. Strain typing of Zygosaccharomyces yeast species using a single molecular method based on polymorphism of the intergenic spacer region (IGS). (United States)

    Wrent, Petra; Rivas, Eva-María; Peinado, José M; de Silóniz, María-Isabel


    Unlike previously reported methods that need a combination of several typing techniques, we have developed a single method for strain typing of the Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Z. mellis and Z. rouxii spoilage species. Strains belonging to other species have also been included for comparison. We have demonstrated that the IGS-PCR RFLP method has a high discriminative power. Considering the three endonucleases used in this work, we have obtained a variability of 100% for Z. mellis and Z. rouxii strains and up to 70% for Z. bailii. We have also detected two misidentified Z. mellis strains (CBS 711 and CBS 7412) which have RFLP patterns with a set of bands characteristic of Z. rouxii strains. Sequencing of 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and the 5.8-ITS rDNA region confirmed these strains as Z. rouxii. The method also groups three certified hybrid strains of Zygosaccharomyces in a separate cluster. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single-nucleotide polymorphism, forage type and body condition on production traits in cattle. (United States)

    Sales, M A; Larson, M J; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Coffey, K P; Rosenkrans, C F


    Relating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to (i) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and (ii) determine the associations between SNP genotype, forage and cow body condition (BC). Genotype (CC, CG or GG) and forage [Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte-infected tall fescue (KY+) vs. bermudagrass] effects on milk volume and quality were determined in Herd 1 cows (123 cows); in Herd 2 (99 cows), genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on ovarian follicle size, calving date and calving per cent were determined; and in Herd 3 (114 cows), effects of genotype and fescue cultivar [KY+ vs. non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (HiMag4)] were related to calving per cent, calving date and weaning weights of both cow and her calf. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transversion at base 994 (C994G) in CYP3A28 was identified. There was a genotype × forage type interaction (p productivity in cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. A Single Bout of High-Intensity Interval Training Reduces Awareness of Subsequent Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M; Wiegers, Evita C; van der Graaf, Marinette; Thijssen, Dick H; Kessels, Roy P C; Tack, Cees J; de Galan, Bastiaan E


    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has gained increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since the administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation while preserving cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that, in the short term, HIIT reduces awareness of hypoglycemia and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. In a randomized crossover trial, patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia (NAH), patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), and healthy participants ( n = 10 per group) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic (2.6 mmol/L) clamp, either after a HIIT session or after seated rest. Compared with rest, HIIT reduced symptoms of hypoglycemia in patients with NAH but not in healthy participants or patients with IAH. HIIT attenuated hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction, which was mainly driven by changes in the NAH subgroup. HIIT suppressed cortisol and growth hormone responses, but not catecholamine responses to hypoglycemia. The present findings demonstrate that a single HIIT session rapidly reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and NAH, but does not in patients with IAH, and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. The role of exercise-induced lactate in mediating these effects, potentially serving as an alternative fuel for the brain, should be further explored. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. A new type of FCT martensite phase in single-crystalline Fe{sub 3}Pt Invar alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masataka; Sekida, Sayaka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukuda, Takashi, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kakeshita, Tomoyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takahashi, Kohki; Koyama, Keiichi; Nojiri, Hiroyuki [High-Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Sendai Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)


    Highlights: {center_dot} TEM observations at room temperature reveal that the specimen is a single phase of L1{sub 2}-type structure. {center_dot} The spontaneous magnetization and magnetic susceptibility curves of Fe{sub 3}Pt with S = 0.88 have bend points at 60 K. {center_dot} XRD measurements reveal that this alloy exhibits a martensitic transformation to FCT and the transformation temperature is 60 K. {center_dot} The tetragonality c/a is larger than unity in the FCT martensite. {center_dot} This tetragonality is in contrast to the tetragonality c/a < 1generally observed in the FCT martensite with S < 0.8. - Abstract: Martensitic transformation in a highly ordered Fe{sub 3}Pt has been investigated by magnetization and X-ray diffraction measurements. We confirmed that a new type of face-centered tetragonal (FCT) martensite phase appears below 60 K in Fe{sub 3}Pt with a degree of order S = 0.88. The tetragonality c/a gradually increases with decreasing temperature, and is approximately 1.005 at 10 K. This is in contrast to the tetragonality c/a < 1 generally observed in the FCT martensite with a degree of order less than 0.8. The spontaneous magnetization increases in association with the transformation.

  10. The approaches to measuring the potential spatial access to urban health services revisited: distance types and aggregation-error issues. (United States)

    Apparicio, Philippe; Gelb, Jérémy; Dubé, Anne-Sophie; Kingham, Simon; Gauvin, Lise; Robitaille, Éric


    The potential spatial access to urban health services is an important issue in health geography, spatial epidemiology and public health. Computing geographical accessibility measures for residential areas (e.g. census tracts) depends on a type of distance, a method of aggregation, and a measure of accessibility. The aim of this paper is to compare discrepancies in results for the geographical accessibility of health services computed using six distance types (Euclidean and Manhattan distances; shortest network time on foot, by bicycle, by public transit, and by car), four aggregation methods, and fourteen accessibility measures. To explore variations in results according to the six types of distance and the aggregation methods, correlation analyses are performed. To measure how the assessment of potential spatial access varies according to three parameters (type of distance, aggregation method, and accessibility measure), sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) are conducted. First, independently of the type of distance used except for shortest network time by public transit, the results are globally similar (correlation >0.90). However, important local variations in correlation between Cartesian and the four shortest network time distances are observed, notably in suburban areas where Cartesian distances are less precise. Second, the choice of the aggregation method is also important: compared with the most accurate aggregation method, accessibility measures computed from census tract centroids, though not inaccurate, yield important measurement errors for 10% of census tracts. Third, the SA results show that the evaluation of potential geographic access may vary a great deal depending on the accessibility measure and, to a lesser degree, the type of distance and aggregation method. Fourth, the UA results clearly indicate areas of strong uncertainty in suburban areas, whereas central neighbourhoods show lower levels of uncertainty. In order to

  11. EDF's (Electricite de France) in service control for GCR type reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douillet, M.G.


    This paper presents the performance of the data acquisition and processing systems developed by the French EDF for controlling and testing the mechanical properties (thermal stress, deformations, cracks,...) of prestressed concrete vessels for GCR type reactors

  12. 75 FR 41093 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Rewrite of GSAR Part 516, Types of Contracts (United States)


    ... on a firm fixed-price basis, the solicitation must be based on reasonably definite functional or... contract types. Thus, this is not appropriate for this GSAR part. The use of time-and-management (T&M...

  13. Application of AERONET Single Scattering Albedo and Absorption Angstrom Exponent to Classify Dominant Aerosol Types during DRAGON Campaigns (United States)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.


    Aerosols can have major implications on human health by inducing respiratory diseases due to inhalation of fine particles from biomass burning smoke or industrial pollution and on radiative forcing whereby the presence of absorbing aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) increases atmospheric heating. Aerosol classification techniques have utilized aerosol loading and aerosol properties derived from multi-spectral and multi-angle observations by ground-based (e.g., AERONET) and satellite instrumentation (e.g., MISR). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data have been utilized to determine aerosol types by implementing various combinations of measured aerosol optical depth or retrieved size and absorption aerosol properties (e.g., Gobbi et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010). Giles et al. [2012] showed single scattering albedo (SSA) relationship with extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) can provide an estimate of the general classification of dominant aerosol types (i.e., desert dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, and mixtures) based on data from ~20 AERONET sites located in known aerosol source regions. In addition, the absorption Angstrom exponent relationship with EAE can provide an indication of the dominant absorbing aerosol type such as dust, black carbon, brown carbon, or mixtures of them. These classification techniques are applied to the AERONET Level 2.0 quality assured data sets collected during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network (DRAGON) campaigns in Maryland (USA), Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Penang (Malaysia), and California (USA). An analysis of aerosol type classification for DRAGON sites is performed as well as an assessment of the spatial variability of the aerosol types for selected DRAGON campaigns. Giles, D. M., B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Sinyuk, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, R. R. Dickerson, A. M. Thompson, and J. S. Schafer (2012), An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications

  14. Disparities in health care access and receipt of preventive services by disability type: analysis of the medical expenditure panel survey. (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M


    To examine differences in access to health care and receipt of clinical preventive services by type of disability among working-age adults with disabilities. Secondary analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 2002 to 2008. We conducted cross-sectional logistic regression analyses comparing people with different types of disabilities on health insurance status and type; presence of a usual source of health care; delayed or forgone care; and receipt of dental checkups and cancer screening. We pooled annualized MEPS data files across years. Our analytic sample consisted of adults (18-64 years) with physical, sensory, or cognitive disabilities and nonmissing data for all variables of interest. Individuals with hearing impairment had better health care access and receipt than people with other disability types. People with multiple types of limitations were especially likely to have health care access problems and unmet health care needs. There are differences in health care access and receipt of preventive care depending on what type of disability people have. More in-depth research is needed to identify specific causes of these disparities and assess interventions to address health care barriers for particular disability groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Isolated single coronary artery (RII-B type presenting as an inferior wall myocardial infarction: A rare clinical entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur C. Thummar


    Full Text Available Isolated single coronary artery without other congenital cardiac anomalies is very rare among the different variations of anomalous coronary patterns. The prognosis in patients with single coronary varies according to the anatomic distribution and associated coronary atherosclerosis. If the left main coronary artery travels between the aorta and pulmonary arteries, it may be a cause of sudden cardiac death. We present multimodality images of a single coronary artery, in which the whole coronary system originated by a single trunk from the right sinus of Valsalva with inter-arterial course of left main coronary artery. This rare type of single coronary artery was classified as RII-B type according to Lipton's scheme of classification. A significant flow-limiting lesions were found in the right coronary artery that was successfully treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of saruplase, an unglycosylated single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, R. W.; Cohen, A. F.; Hopkins, G. R.; Beier, H.; Günzler, W. A.; van der Wouw, P. A.


    We examined in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) the pharmacokinetics of saruplase, an unglycosylated, single chain, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (rscu-PA) by measuring urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) antigen and total u-PA activity, its conversion to active

  17. "Barriers-to-change" in a governmental service delivery type organisation



    D.Phil. One of the principal reasons people form organisations is to focus attention and energy on a selected goal - this goal being the provisioning of products and/or services to clients. Due to forces demanding change, organisations are required to change to be able to continue their existence, making change unavoidable and part of the organisation's life cycle. The premise is that if change is unavoidable, it needs to be managed to serve the best interests of the organisation, thus the...

  18. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study


    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman


    Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. Participants All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the en...

  19. "Barriers-to-change" in a governmental service delivery type organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJH Coetzee


    Full Text Available Very little empirical research has been conducted within the South African context and internationally in assessing barriers-to-change specifically. The intended outcome of this research was to develop a framework for proactive change management. A sample of convenience was utilised with 332 respondents. The Barriers-to-Change Questionnaire, developed for and utilised during this study, exists out of 92 items, posted in question format anchored at the extreme sides. The results yielded a single scale with a Cronbach Alpha of 0.983. It is concluded that the domain of “Barriers-to-Change�? was successful measured. The findings and their implications are also discussed.

  20. "Barriers-to-change" in a governmental service delivery type organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJH Coetzee


    Full Text Available Very little empirical research has been conducted within the South African context and internationally in assessing barriers-to-change specifically. The intended outcome of this research was to develop a framework for proactive change management. A sample of convenience was utilised with 332 respondents. The Barriers-to-Change Questionnaire, developed for and utilised during this study, exists out of 92 items, posted in question format anchored at the extreme sides. The results yielded a single scale with a Cronbach Alpha of 0.983. It is concluded that the domain of “Barriers-to-Change�? was successful measured. The findings and their implications are also discussed.

  1. Oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: is it affected by a single bout of prolonged exercise? (United States)

    Francescato, Maria Pia; Stel, Giuliana; Geat, Mario; Cauci, Sabina


    Presently, no clear-cut guidelines are available to suggest the more appropriate physical activity for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus due to paucity of experimental data obtained under patients' usual life conditions. Accordingly, we explored the oxidative stress levels associated with a prolonged moderate intensity, but fatiguing, exercise performed under usual therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and matched healthy controls. Eight patients (4 men, 4 women; 49±11 years; Body Mass Index 25.0±3.2 kg·m(-2); HbA1c 57±10 mmol·mol(-1)) and 14 controls (8 men, 6 women; 47±11 years; Body Mass Index 24.3±3.3 kg·m(-2)) performed a 3-h walk at 30% of their heart rate reserve. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the exercise for clinical chemistry analysis and antioxidant capacity. Capillary blood samples were taken at the start and thereafter every 30 min to determine lipid peroxidation. Patients showed higher oxidative stress values as compared to controls (95.9±9.7 vs. 74.1±12.2 mg·L(-1) H2O2; pexercise (p = NS), while oxidative defence increased significantly at the end of exercise (pdiabetes exercising under their usual life conditions (i.e. usual therapy and diet). Specifically, we found that the oxidative stress was not exacerbated due to a single bout of prolonged moderate intensity aerobic exercise, a condition simulating several outdoor leisure time physical activities. Oxidative defence increased in both patients and controls, suggesting beneficial effects of prolonged aerobic fatiguing exercise.

  2. Conduction band mass determinations for n-type InGaAs/InAlAs single quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Reno, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kotera, Nobuo [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan); Wang, Y. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab.


    The authors report the measurement of the conduction band mass in n-type single 27-ML-wide InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well lattice matched to InP using two methods: (1) Magnetoluminescence spectroscopy and (2) far-infrared cyclotron resonance. The magnetoluminescence method utilizes Landau level transitions between 0 and 14 T at 1.4 K. The far infrared cyclotron resonance measurements were made at 4.2 K and to fields as large up to 18 T. The 2D-carrier density N{sub 2D} = 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2} at low temperatures. The magnetoluminescence technique yielded an effective conduction-band mass of m{sub c} = 0.062m{sub 0} while the far infrared cyclotron resonance measurements gave m{sub c} = 0.056m{sub 0}, where m{sub 0} is the free electron mass. Both measurements show no evidence for any significant conduction-band nonparabolicity.

  3. A Modified Model Reference Adaptive Control for a Single Motor of Latch Type Control Element Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Bae Jeong


    A modified Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) for a single motor of latch type Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) is described herein. The CEDM has complicated dynamic characteristics including electrical, mechanical, and magnetic effects. The previous control system has utilized a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, and the control performance is limited according to nonlinear dynamic characteristics and environmental conditions. The modified MRAC using system identification (ID) technique improves the control performance in the operating condition such as model parameter variation and environmental condition change. The modified MRAC using the identified reference model with feed-forward gain and 180Hz noise reduction filter presents better performance under normal and/or abnormal condition. The simplified reference model can make H/W implementation more practical on the viewpoint of less computation and good performance. Actually, the CEDM controller shall be capable of controlling 101 control element assemblies (CEAs) individually in the nuclear power plant. Because the load conditions and the environmental condition around the 101 CEAs are all different minutely, the proposed modified MRAC can be a good practice. The modified MRAC controller will be applied in the real nuclear power plant later and this will overcome some weak point of PI controller

  4. Factors affecting the performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell-type biological oxygen demand sensor. (United States)

    Yang, Gai-Xiu; Sun, Yong-Ming; Kong, Xiao-Ying; Zhen, Feng; Li, Ying; Li, Lian-Hua; Lei, Ting-Zhou; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Guan-Yi


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matter or sludge present in wastewater (WW), and thereby generate electricity. We developed a simple, low-cost single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC)-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor using carbon felt (anode) and activated sludge, and demonstrated its feasibility in the construction of a real-time BOD measurement system. Further, the effects of anodic pH and organic concentration on SCMFC performance were examined, and the correlation between BOD concentration and its response time was analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the SCMFC exhibited a stable voltage after 132 min following the addition of synthetic WW (BOD concentration: 200 mg/L). Notably, the response signal increased with an increase in BOD concentration (range: 5-200 mg/L) and was found to be directly proportional to the substrate concentration. However, at higher BOD concentrations (>120 mg/L) the response signal remained unaltered. Furthermore, we optimized the SCMFC using synthetic WW, and tested it with real WW. Upon feeding real WW, the BOD values exhibited a standard deviation from 2.08 to 8.3% when compared to the standard BOD5 method, thus demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed system to real treatment effluents.

  5. Oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: is it affected by a single bout of prolonged exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Francescato

    Full Text Available Presently, no clear-cut guidelines are available to suggest the more appropriate physical activity for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus due to paucity of experimental data obtained under patients' usual life conditions. Accordingly, we explored the oxidative stress levels associated with a prolonged moderate intensity, but fatiguing, exercise performed under usual therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and matched healthy controls. Eight patients (4 men, 4 women; 49±11 years; Body Mass Index 25.0±3.2 kg·m(-2; HbA1c 57±10 mmol·mol(-1 and 14 controls (8 men, 6 women; 47±11 years; Body Mass Index 24.3±3.3 kg·m(-2 performed a 3-h walk at 30% of their heart rate reserve. Venous blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the exercise for clinical chemistry analysis and antioxidant capacity. Capillary blood samples were taken at the start and thereafter every 30 min to determine lipid peroxidation. Patients showed higher oxidative stress values as compared to controls (95.9±9.7 vs. 74.1±12.2 mg·L(-1 H2O2; p<0.001. In both groups, oxidative stress remained constant throughout the exercise (p = NS, while oxidative defence increased significantly at the end of exercise (p<0.02 from 1.16±0.13 to 1.19±0.10 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in patients and from 1.09±0.21 to 1.22±0.14 mmol·L(-1 Trolox in controls, without any significant difference between the two groups. Oxidative stress was positively correlated to HbA1c (p<0.005 and negatively related with uric acid (p<0.005. In conclusion, we were the first to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes exercising under their usual life conditions (i.e. usual therapy and diet. Specifically, we found that the oxidative stress was not exacerbated due to a single bout of prolonged moderate intensity aerobic exercise, a condition simulating several outdoor leisure time physical activities. Oxidative defence increased in both patients and controls, suggesting

  6. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Shiro; Kobayashi, Masa-aki; Araki, Shin-ichi


    It has been suggested that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. A large-scale genotyping analysis of gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A ca......It has been suggested that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. A large-scale genotyping analysis of gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl...... among patients with type 2 diabetes and proteinuria. A meta-analysis revealed that rs2268388 was significantly associated with proteinuria in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (p = 5.35 x 10(-8), odds ratio = 1.61, 95% Cl: 1.35-1.91). Rs2268388 was also associated with type 2 diabetes...

  7. Comparing three-year extension of early intervention service to regular care following two years of early intervention service in first-episode psychosis: a randomized single blind clinical trial. (United States)

    Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha; Iyer, Srividya; Norman, Ross; Schmitz, Norbert; Brown, Thomas; Lutgens, Danyael; Jarvis, Eric; Margolese, Howard C; Casacalenda, Nicola; Abdel-Baki, Amal; Latimer, Eric; Mustafa, Sally; Abadi, Sherezad


    This study aimed to determine if, following two years of early intervention service for first-episode psychosis, three-year extension of that service was superior to three years of regular care. We conducted a randomized single blind clinical trial using an urn randomization balanced for gender and substance abuse. Participants were recruited from early intervention service clinics in Montreal. Patients (N=220), 18-35 years old, were randomized to an extension of early intervention service (EEIS; N=110) or to regular care (N=110). EEIS included case management, family intervention, cognitive behaviour therapy and crisis intervention, while regular care involved transfer to primary (community health and social services and family physicians) or secondary care (psychiatric outpatient clinics). Cumulative length of positive and negative symptom remission was the primary outcome measure. EEIS patients had a significantly longer mean length of remission of positive symptoms (92.5 vs. 63.6 weeks, t=4.47, pyears has a positive impact on length of remission of positive and negative symptoms compared to regular care. This may have policy implications for extending early intervention services beyond the current two years. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  8. From hesitation to appreciation: the transformation of a single, local donation-nurse project into an established organ-donation service. (United States)

    Gyllström Krekula, Linda; Malenicka, Silvia; Nydahl, Anders; Tibell, Annika


    This study evaluates the transition from a local project to promote organ donation to a permanent county-based donation service inspired by the Spanish model. To address the problem of declining donation rates, a project with one donation-specialized nurse (DOSS) was initiated at a single neuro-intensive care unit. This project was later expanded into a permanent on-call service consisting of seven DOSSes, covering a large urban county. During the different periods (before, during project and during permanent service), the DOSS function's effect on donation rates was significant, and the number of eligible donors that became actual donors increased from 37% to 73% and 74%, respectively. The effect on family vetoes was as prominent with a decrease from 34% to 8% and 14%. The staff appreciation of the DOSS function was also evident during the periods; all areas included in the questionnaire (family care, donor care and staff support) have improved greatly owing to the DOSS. The transition from a single, local donation-nurse project, to an on-call service with several DOSSes covering a large urban county was a success considering the donation rates as well as the staff's appreciation. Hence, organizational models from abroad can be adjusted and successfully adopted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hospital Organization and Importance of an Interventional Radiology Inpatient Admitting Service: Italian Single-Center 3-Year Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Bollero, Enrico; Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel; Bartolucci, Alberto; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Mammucari, Matteo; Chiocchi, Marcello; D'Alba, Fabrizio; Masala, Salvatore


    In June 2005 a Complex Operating Unit of Interventional Radiology (COUIR), consisting of an outpatient visit service, an inpatient admitting service with four beds, and a day-hospital service with four beds was installed at our department. Between June 2005 and May 2008, 1772 and 861 well-screened elective patients were admitted to the inpatient ward of the COUIR and to the Internal Medicine Unit (IMU) or Surgery Unit (SU) of our hospital, respectively, and treated with IR procedures. For elective patients admitted to the COUIR's inpatient ward, hospital stays were significantly shorter and differences between reimbursements and costs were significantly higher for almost all IR procedures compared to those for patients admitted to the IMU and SU (Student's t-test for unpaired data, p < 0.05). The results of the 3-year activity show that the activation of a COUIR with an inpatient admitting service, and the better organization of the patient pathway that came with it, evidenced more efficient use of resources, with the possibility for the hospital to save money and obtain positive margins (differences between reimbursements and costs). During 3 years of activity, the inpatient admitting service of our COUIR yielded a positive difference between reimbursements and effective costs of Euro 1,009,095.35. The creation of an inpatient IR service and the admission of well-screened elective patients allowed short hospitalization times, reduction of waiting lists, and a positive economic outcome.

  10. Contact stresses modeling at the Panda-type fiber single-layer winding and evaluation of their impact on the fiber optic properties (United States)

    Lesnikova, Yu I.; Smetannikov, O. Yu; Trufanov, A. N.; Trufanov, N. A.


    The impact of contact transverse forces on the birefringence of the single-mode polarization-maintaining Panda-type fiber is numerically modeled. It has been established that with a single-row power winding on a cylindrical mandrel, the fiber tension at winding is the principal factor that influences birefringence. When coiling the fiber based on the local defect microbending, the birefringence at the microbending point differs from that of the free fiber by 1.3%.

  11. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in TCF2 with type 2 diabetes susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelong Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β, a transcription factor encoded by the transcription factor 2 gene (TCF2, plays a critical role in pancreatic cell formation and glucose homeostasis. It has been suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF2 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, published results are inconsistent and inclusive. To further investigate the role of these common variants, we examined the association of TCF2 polymorphisms with the risk of T2D in a Han population in northeastern China. We genotyped five SNPs in 624 T2D patients and 630 healthy controls by using a SNaPshot method, and evaluated the T2D risk conferred by individual SNPs and haplotypes. In the single-locus analysis, we found that rs752010, rs4430796 and rs7501939 showed allelic differences between T2D patients and healthy controls, with an OR of 1.26 (95% CI 1.08-1.51, P = 0.003, an OR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.06-1.55, P = 0.001 and an OR of 1.28 (95% CI 1.10-1.61, P = 0.001, respectively. Genotype association analysis of each locus also revealed that the homozygous carriers of the at-risk allele had a significant increased T2D risk compared to homozygous carriers of the other allele (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.20-2.64 for rs752010; OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.67 for rs4430796; OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.31-2.90 for rs7501939, even after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Besides, the haplotype-based analysis demonstrated that AGT in block rs752010-rs4430796-rs7501939 was associated with about 30% increase in T2D risk (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.57, P = 0.01. Our findings suggested that TCF2 variants may be involved in T2D risk in a Han population of northeastern China. Larger studies with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to confirm the results reported in this investigation.

  12. Burst-Switched Optical Networks Supporting Legacy and Future Service Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Franzl


    Full Text Available Focusing on the principles and the paradigm of OBS an overview addressing expectable performance and application issues is presented. Proposals on OBS were published over a decade and the presented techniques spread into many directions. The paper comprises discussions of several challenges that OBS meets, in order to compile the big picture. The OBS principle is presented unrestricted to individual proposals and trends. Merits are openly discussed, considering basic teletraffic theory and common traffic characterisation. A more generic OBS paradigm than usual is impartially discussed and found capable to overcome shortcomings of recent proposals. In conclusion, an OBS that offers different connection types may support most client demands within a sole optical network layer.

  13. The Relationship between "MECP2" Mutation Type and Health Status and Service Use Trajectories over Time in a Rett Syndrome Population (United States)

    Young, Deidra; Bebbington, Ami; de Klerk, Nick; Bower, Carol; Nagarajan, Lakshmi; Leonard, Helen


    This study aimed to investigate the trajectories over time of health status and health service use in Rett syndrome by mutation type. Data were obtained from questionnaires administered over 6 years to 256 participants from the Australian Rett Syndrome Database. Health status (episodes of illness and medication load) and health service use…

  14. Single-crystalline M-type Sr Hexaferrites studied by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Nobumoto, E-mail:; Ikeda, Shugo [University of Hyogo, Graduate School of Material Science and Center for Novel Material Science under Multi-extreme Conditions (Japan); Shimoda, Aiko; Waki, Takeshi; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki [Kyoto University, Department of Material Science and Engineering (Japan); Kobayashi, Hisao [University of Hyogo, Graduate School of Material Science and Center for Novel Material Science under Multi-extreme Conditions (Japan)


    The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of the single crystalline and the finely ground Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 19} (x = 0 : y = 0, x = 0.192 : y = 0.152 and x = 0.456 : y = 0.225) samples have been measured to investigate the La-Co substitution effects. All observed spectra at 150 K were well fitted using the five subspectra which correspond to the five crystallographical nonequivalent Fe sites in the M-type hexaferrite, indicating that the valence changes to Fe{sup 2+} ions in the Fe{sup 3+} ions were not observed in our Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 19} samples. In SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}, the relative absorption intensities in the five subspectra show the large anisotropies in the recoilless fractions at the five Fe sites whereas these anisotropies were not observed in Sr{sub 0.544}La{sub 0.456}Fe{sub 11.775}Co{sub 0.225}O{sub 19}. These results indicate the chemical compositional dependence on the anisotropies of the recoilless fractions at the five Fe sites. The substitution of a Co{sup 2+} ion for the Fe{sup 3+} ion changes the center shifts of the Fe{sup 3+} ions near the Co{sup 2+} ion by the perturbation of the Fe-O-Co hybridizations. Therefore, the Co{sup 2+} ions occupy the 4f{sub 1} and the 4f{sub 2} sites due to the chemical compositional dependences of the refined magnetic hyperfine field and center shifts of the Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  15. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera). (United States)

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S


    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  16. Improving health services in developing countries with new types of public and allied health personnel. (United States)

    Blayney, K D; Trulove, J W


    Allied health manpower in developing countries should be able to serve the specific needs of these countries in solving malnutrition, diarrheal disease, and other health problems. Disease patterns tend to evolve in stages with each stage requiring a special type of health manpower: 1) the 1st stage where infectious diseases are linked to poverty, malnutrition, and poor personal hygiene for which personnel trained to improve health through providing safe water supplies, improving sanitation, and immunizing the population are needed; 2) in the 2nd stages, diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiac diseases exist, requiring extensive technology such as is available in the US; and 3) the 3rd stage relates to an awareness of health hazards (caused by the environment, by the lifestyle dysfunctions of the society, and an emphasis on health promotion) and implies a responsibility for one's own health by the individual; this is a difficult stage to apply to developing countries since the ability to bring about change assumes literacy on the part of the population which is not always the case. Since most developing countries need to cause change in the 1st stage, more public health personnel such as sanitarians and generalist workers are needed. Training of these personnel should include on-the-job education; traditionally trained US allied health professionals are not always equipped to deal with health problems in developing countries. Health educators should look to the lessons learned by the US in the allied health movement: 1) the system of control that national membership organizations have over schooling and the job environment has contributed to an increased cost of health care delivery, unnecessary prolonged curricula, overspecialization, extreme protectionism for membership, and inappropriate fractionalization of health care delivery; 2) the emphasis on prolonged curricula sometimes causes the student to lose sight of the supposed direct relationship between

  17. Health care service utilization among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a single payer healthcare system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the differences in the utilization of healthcare services between patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC and patients without using a population-based database in Taiwan. METHODS: This study comprised of 350 patients with BPS/IC and 1,750 age-matched controls. Healthcare resource utilization was evaluated in the one-year follow-up period as follows: number of outpatient visits and inpatient days, and the mean costs of outpatient and inpatient treatment. A multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between BPS/IC and total costs of health care services. RESULTS: For urological services, patients with BPS/IC had a significantly higher number of outpatient visits (2.5 vs. 0.2, p<0.001 as well as significantly higher outpatient costs ($US166 vs. $US6.8, p<0.001 than the controls. For non-urologic services, patients with BPS/IC had a significantly high number of outpatient visits (35.0 vs. 21.3, p<0.001 as well as significantly higher outpatient cots ($US912 vs. $US675, p<0.001 as compared to the controls. Overall, patients with BPS/IC had 174% more outpatient visits and 150% higher total costs than the controls. Multiple-regression-analyses also showed that the patients with BPS/IC had significantly higher total costs for all healthcare services than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with BPS/IC have a significantly higher number of healthcare related visits, and have significantly higher healthcare related costs than age-matched controls. The high level of healthcare services utilization accrued with BPS/IC was not necessarily exclusive for BPS/IC, but may have also been associated with medical co-morbidities.

  18. Outcome of zirconia single crowns made by predoctoral dental students: a clinical retrospective study after 2 to 6 years of clinical service. (United States)

    Näpänkangas, Ritva; Pihlaja, Juha; Raustia, Aune


    Zirconia has established its role as a reliable ceramic material for fixed prostheses. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcome of zirconia single crowns made by predoctoral students after 2 to 6 years of clinical service. A cohort of 88 patients treated with zirconia single crowns (mean 3 crowns per patient, range 1 to 12 crowns) from 2007 to 2010 by predoctoral dental students was identified. The patients were invited to attend a clinical examination. Sixty-six participants (75%) took part in the clinical follow-up (30 women and 36 men; mean age 60.4 years, range 19 to 81 years). Altogether, 190 teeth with single crowns were examined, and the mean follow-up time was 3.88 years (1.85 to 6.04 years). The most common complications were chipping of veneering porcelain (4%) and loss of cementation (4%). The success rate of the zirconia single crowns after 2 to 6 years was 80% and the survival rate 89%. Zirconia crowns can be successfully used in predoctoral dental education. The success rate of zirconia single crowns after 2 to 6 years was 80% and the survival rate was 89%, in accordance with previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Limited evidence to assess the impact of primary health care system or service level attributes on health outcomes of Indigenous people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. (United States)

    Gibson, Odette R; Segal, Leonie


    To describe reported studies of the impact on HbA1C levels, diabetes-related hospitalisations, and other primary care health endpoints of initiatives aimed at improving the management of diabetes in Indigenous adult populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. Systematic literature review using data sources of MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINHAL and PsycInfo from January 1985 to March 2012. Inclusion criteria were a clearly described primary care intervention, model of care or service, delivered to Indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes reporting a program impact on at least one quantitative diabetes-related health outcome, and where results were reported separately for Indigenous persons. Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools were used to assess the study quality. PRISMA guidelines were used for reporting. The search strategy retrieved 2714 articles. Of these, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria. Three levels of primary care initiatives were identified: 1) addition of a single service component to the existing service, 2) system-level improvement processes to enhance the quality of diabetes care, 3) change in primary health funding to support better access to care. Initiatives included in the review were diverse and included comprehensive multi-disciplinary diabetes care, specific workforce development, systematic foot care and intensive individual hypertension management. Twelve studies reported HbA1C, of those one also reported hospitalisations and one reported the incidence of lower limb amputation. The methodological quality of the four comparable cohort and seven observational studies was good, and moderate for the two randomised control trials. The current literature provides an inadequate evidence base for making important policy and practice decisions in relation to primary care initiatives for Indigenous persons with type 2 diabetes. This reflects a very small number of published studies, the general

  20. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Ferron, John


    Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of…

  1. Effects of Calorie Restriction and Fiber Type on Glucose Uptake and Abundance of Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation Proteins in Single Fibers from Old Rats. (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B; Yu, Carmen S; Verkerke, Anthony R P; Cartee, Gregory D


    Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types in 23-26-month-old rats. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ± insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles. We also determined CR-effects on abundance of several key metabolic proteins in single fibers. CR resulted in: (a) significantly (p glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated type I, IIA, IIB, IIBX, and IIX fibers; (b) significantly (p glucose uptake in each fiber type of rat skeletal muscle in the absence of upregulation of the abundance of hexokinase II or key mitochondrial ETC and OxPhos proteins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. 47 CFR 73.757 - System specifications for single-sideband (SSB) modulated emissions in the HF broadcasting service. (United States)


    ... broadcasting service. (a) System parameters—(1) Channel spacing. In a mixed DSB, SSB and digital environment... emission is one giving the same audio-frequency signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver output as the... is equally valid for both DSB and SSB emissions. (3) Audio-frequency band. The upper limit of the...

  3. Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI testing and results service: A randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Wilson


    Full Text Available Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection testing (e-STI testing is increasingly available as an alternative to testing in clinics. Typically this testing modality enables users to order a test kit from a virtual service (via a website or app, collect their own samples, return test samples to a laboratory, and be notified of their results by short message service (SMS or telephone. e-STI testing is assumed to increase access to testing in comparison with face-to-face services, but the evidence is unclear. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an e-STI testing and results service (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV, and syphilis on STI testing uptake and STI cases diagnosed.The study took place in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. Between 24 November 2014 and 31 August 2015, we recruited 2,072 participants, aged 16-30 years, who were resident in these boroughs, had at least 1 sexual partner in the last 12 months, stated willingness to take an STI test, and had access to the internet. Those unable to provide consent and unable to read English were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1 text message with the web link of an e-STI testing and results service (intervention group or to receive 1 text message with the web link of a bespoke website listing the locations, contact details, and websites of 7 local sexual health clinics (control group. Participants were free to use any other services or interventions during the study period. The primary outcomes were self-reported STI testing at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks, and self-reported STI diagnosis at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants prescribed treatment for an STI, time from randomisation to completion of an STI test, and time from randomisation to treatment of an STI. Participants were sent a £10 cash incentive on submission of self-reported data. We

  4. Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection (e-STI) testing and results service: A randomised, single-blind, controlled trial. (United States)

    Wilson, Emma; Free, Caroline; Morris, Tim P; Syred, Jonathan; Ahamed, Irrfan; Menon-Johansson, Anatole S; Palmer, Melissa J; Barnard, Sharmani; Rezel, Emma; Baraitser, Paula


    Internet-accessed sexually transmitted infection testing (e-STI testing) is increasingly available as an alternative to testing in clinics. Typically this testing modality enables users to order a test kit from a virtual service (via a website or app), collect their own samples, return test samples to a laboratory, and be notified of their results by short message service (SMS) or telephone. e-STI testing is assumed to increase access to testing in comparison with face-to-face services, but the evidence is unclear. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an e-STI testing and results service (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV, and syphilis) on STI testing uptake and STI cases diagnosed. The study took place in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. Between 24 November 2014 and 31 August 2015, we recruited 2,072 participants, aged 16-30 years, who were resident in these boroughs, had at least 1 sexual partner in the last 12 months, stated willingness to take an STI test, and had access to the internet. Those unable to provide consent and unable to read English were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1 text message with the web link of an e-STI testing and results service (intervention group) or to receive 1 text message with the web link of a bespoke website listing the locations, contact details, and websites of 7 local sexual health clinics (control group). Participants were free to use any other services or interventions during the study period. The primary outcomes were self-reported STI testing at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks, and self-reported STI diagnosis at 6 weeks, verified by patient record checks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of participants prescribed treatment for an STI, time from randomisation to completion of an STI test, and time from randomisation to treatment of an STI. Participants were sent a £10 cash incentive on submission of self-reported data. We completed all

  5. People diagnosed with dementia in Sweden: What type of home care services and housing are they granted? A cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Odzakovic, Elzana; Hydén, Lars-Christer; Festin, Karin; Kullberg, Agneta


    This study aims to examine what types of home care services and housing are granted to people with a dementia diagnosis and how these types are associated with socio-demographic factors (sex, age, marital status, native or foreign born, and regional area). A cross-sectional study of all people diagnosed with dementia in three Swedish counties was conducted from the medical records in 2012. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to investigate associations between home care services and housing and socio-demographic variables. In total, 17,405 people had a dementia diagnosis, and the majority were women, aged 80+ years, and unmarried. Some 72% were living in ordinary housing and 28% lived in special housing. Of those who lived in ordinary housing, 50% did not receive any home care service. Not receiving any type of home care services was less common for older people and was also associated with being married and living in rural municipalities. The most common home care services granted were home help and personal care. Special housing was more common for older people, unmarried persons, and those living in rural municipalities. Most people with a dementia diagnosis were living in ordinary housing, and, surprisingly, half of those did not receive any type of home care service. This knowledge is essential for making the living conditions and needs of people living with dementia more visible and to provide good home care services for people with dementia and their families.

  6. Harnessing light energy with a planar transparent hybrid of graphene/single wall carbon nanotube/n-type silicon heterojunction solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Yu, Hua; Zhong, Jiasong


    The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a solar cell fabricated by a simple electrophoretic method with a planar transparent hybrid of graphenes (GPs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SCNTs)/n-type silicon heterojunction was significantly increased compared to GPs/n-Si and SCNTs/n-Si solar cells...

  7. Erratum : Critical Properties of Spin-1 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains with Bond Alternation and Uniaxial Single-Ion-Type Anisotropy (vol 69, pg 237, 2000)


    Chen, Wei; 飛田, 和男; Sanctuary, Bryan C.


    Original Paper :Critical Properties of Spin-1 Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chains with Bond Alternation and Uniaxial Single-Ion-Type AnisotropyWei Chen, Kazuo Hida and Bryan Clifford Sanctuary Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 69 (2000) pp.237-241

  8. MASH test 3-11 of the TxDOT single slope bridge rail (type SSTR) on pan-formed bridge deck (United States)


    The objective of this crash test was to determine whether the TxDOT Single Slope Traffic Rail (Type : SSTR) would perform acceptably on a pan-formed deck when tested according to the guidelines set forth in : Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MAS...

  9. Crack initiation behavior of notched specimens on heat resistant steel under service type loading at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui


    Full Text Available Cracks at notches deserve special consideration in the design of steam turbine components. This work is addressed to investigate the crack initiation behavior a 10%Cr rotor steel with the help of notched specimens under service-type loading. A significant drifting down of the peak-values of axial deformation under constant amplitude load was observed. Crack initiation was evaluated with the help of the relationship between irreversible deformation energy and cycle number. Further, metallographic examinations were employed to characterize the superposition of creep and fatigue damage mechanisms. Both Neuber-hypothesis and von Mises equivalent strain at notch root were applied for lifetime prediction. Finally, the effectiveness of both methods is validated by comparing with experimental results

  10. Molecular and functional identification of cyclic AMP-sensitive BKCa potassium channels (ZERO variant) and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in single rat juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulla G; Jørgensen, Finn; Andreasen, Ditte


    This study aimed at identifying the type and functional significance of potassium channels and voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca(v)) in single rat JG cells using whole-cell patch clamp. Single JG cells displayed outward rectification at positive membrane potentials and limited net currents......, respectively. Double immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of BKCa and renin in the same cell. cAMP increased the outward current by 1.6-fold, and this was inhibited by 74% with iberiotoxin. Expression of the cAMP-sensitive splice variant (ZERO) of BKCa was confirmed in single-sampled JG cells by RT...... no effect. We conclude that JG cells express functional cAMP-sensitive BKCa channels (the ZERO splice variant) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels....

  11. Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean. 2. Determination of single scattering albedo at two wavelengths for different aerosol types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Meloni


    Full Text Available Aerosol optical properties were retrieved from direct and diffuse spectral irradiance measurements made by a multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR at the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, in the Central Mediterranean, in the period July 2001–September 2003. In a companion paper (Pace et al., 2006 the aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent were used together with airmass backward trajectories to identify and classify different aerosol types. The MFRSR diffuse-to-direct ratio (DDR at 415.6 nm and 868.7 nm for aerosol classified as 'biomass burning-urban/industrial', originating primarily from the European continent, and desert dust, originating from the Sahara, is used in this study to estimate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA. A detailed radiative transfer model is initialised with the measured aerosol optical depth; calculations are performed at the two wavelengths varying the SSA values until the modelled DDR matches the MFRSR observations. Sensitivity studies are performed to estimate how uncertainties on AOD, DDR, asymmetry factor (g, and surface albedo influence the retrieved SSA values. The results show that a 3% variation of AOD or DDR produce a change of about 0.02 in the retrieved SSA value at 415.6 and 868.7 nm; a ±0.06 variation of the asymmetry factor g produces a change of the estimated SSA of <0.04 at 415.6 nm, and <0.06 at 868.7 nm; finally, an increase of the assumed surface albedo of 0.05 causes very small changes (0.01–0.02 in the retrieved SSA. The calculations show that the SSA of desert dust (DD increases with wavelength, from 0.81±0.05 at 415.6 nm to 0.94±0.05 at 868.7 nm; on the contrary, the SSA of urban/industrial (UN aerosols decreases from 0.96±0.02 at 415.6 nm to 0.87±0.07 at 868.7 nm; the SSA of biomass burning (BB particles is 0.82±0.04 at 415.6 nm and 0.80±0.05 at 868.7 nm. Episodes of UN aerosols occur usually in June and July; long lasting BB aerosol episodes

  12. PGAdb-builder: A web service tool for creating pan-genome allele database for molecular fine typing. (United States)

    Liu, Yen-Yi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chen, Chih-Chieh


    With the advance of next generation sequencing techniques, whole genome sequencing (WGS) is expected to become the optimal method for molecular subtyping of bacterial isolates. To use WGS as a general subtyping method for disease outbreak investigation and surveillance, the layout of WGS-based typing must be comparable among laboratories. Whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) is an approach that achieves this requirement. To apply wgMLST as a standard subtyping approach, a pan-genome allele database (PGAdb) for the population of a bacterial organism must first be established. We present a free web service tool, PGAdb-builder (, for the construction of bacterial PGAdb. The effectiveness of PGAdb-builder was tested by constructing a pan-genome allele database for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, with the database being applied to create a wgMLST tree for a panel of epidemiologically well-characterized S. Typhimurium isolates. The performance of the wgMLST-based approach was as high as that of the SNP-based approach in Leekitcharoenphon's study used for discerning among epidemiologically related and non-related isolates.

  13. Single-mode amplification in Yb-doped rod-type photonic crystal fibers for high brilliance lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poli, F.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Passaro, D.


    to identify a proper ring characteristic that is width, position and refractive index. Then rod-type PCF designs have been optimized with a full-vector modal solver based on the finite-element method. Then, the amplification properties of the Yb-doped rod-type PCFs have been investigated by assuming a forward...

  14. Patterns of informal patient payments in Bulgaria, Hungary and Ukraine: a comparison across countries, years and type of services. (United States)

    Stepurko, Tetiana; Pavlova, Milena; Gryga, Irena; Gaál, Péter; Groot, Wim


    Informal payments for health care are a well-known phenomenon in many health care systems around the world. While informal payments could be an important source of health care financing, they have an adverse impact on efficiency and access to care, and are a major impediment to ongoing health care reforms. This paper aims to study the scale and patterns of informal patient payments for out-patient and in-patient services in three former-socialist countries: Bulgaria, Hungary and Ukraine. The data are collected in 2010 and 2011 based on national representative samples and are analysed in pooled models to explain variations in payments. The results of the cross-country comparison suggest a relatively higher prevalence of informal patient payments in Ukraine and Hungary than in Bulgaria, where patients also have to pay formal user charges in the public sector. Nevertheless, informal payments for hospitalization in Bulgaria are quite extensive. We observe some differences in informal payments across the years. Variations in payment size are mainly explained by the nature, type and need for services, fee awareness and, on some occasions, by household income. Interpreted within the context of structural differences (e.g. reform paths, regulations, funding, user fees, anti-corruption policies), the findings of our study have implications on how to address informal payments for health care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  15. Influence of Soap Characteristics and Food Service Facility Type on the Degree of Bacterial Contamination of Open, Refillable Bulk Soaps. (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Jensen, Dane; Gerba, Charles P; Shumaker, David; Arbogast, James W


    Concern has been raised regarding the public health risks from refillable bulk-soap dispensers because they provide an environment for potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow. This study surveyed the microbial quality of open refillable bulk soap in four different food establishment types in three states. Two hundred ninety-six samples of bulk soap were collected from food service establishments in Arizona, New Jersey, and Ohio. Samples were tested for total heterotrophic viable bacteria, Pseudomonas, coliforms and Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Bacteria were screened for antibiotic resistance. The pH, solids content, and water activity of all soap samples were measured. Samples were assayed for the presence of the common antibacterial agents triclosan and parachlorometaxylenol. More than 85% of the soap samples tested contained no detectable microorganisms, but when a sample contained any detectable microorganisms, it was most likely contaminated at a very high level (∼7 log CFU/mL). Microorganisms detected in contaminated soap included Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia liquefaciens, Shigella sonnei, Enterobacter gergoviae, Serratia odorifera, and Enterobacter cloacae. Twenty-three samples contained antibiotic-resistant organisms, some of which were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Every sample containing less than 4% solids had some detectable level of bacteria, whereas no samples with greater than 14% solids had detectable bacteria. This finding suggests the use of dilution and/or low-cost formulations as a cause of bacterial growth. There was a statistically significant difference ( P = 0.0035) between the fraction of bacteria-positive samples with no detected antimicrobial agent (17%) and those containing an antimicrobial agent (7%). Fast food operations and grocery stores were more likely to have detectable bacteria in bulk-soap samples compared with convenience stores ( P soap dispensers in food service establishments.

  16. The financial impact of the loss of county indigent patient funding on a single orthopedic trauma surgery service. (United States)

    Forsh, David A; Amanatullah, Derek F; Amanantullah, Derek F; Coleman, Sheldon; Wolinsky, Philip R


    We examined the financial ramifications on the orthopedic trauma service after loss of payment to our institution for care of indigent patients. Our institution is the only Level I trauma center located within the county. Before mid-2009, county insurance-eligible patients treated at our institution had their health care paid for by the county. After mid-2009, the county no longer reimbursed our institution for care provided. A retrospective review was performed on 653 county patients treated by the four orthopedic trauma surgeons during a 4-year period including the 2 years before the loss of county payments as well as the 2-year period following the loss of payment. Data collected included demographics, admitting service, injuries treated, length of stay, surgeon billing, and reimbursement. We also classified the urgency of care that was rendered into one of three categories as follows: emergent, urgent, or elective. There was a higher frequency of emergent and urgent procedures and a lower frequency of elective cases performed in the noncontracted period versus the contracted period. During the contracted period, we billed and collected $1,161,036. After the loss of reimbursement from the county, we billed $870,590 and were paid $0. County reimbursements made up 33.5% of the total professional fees billed. There was a 20% net drop in total billing during the noncontracted period, of which the money not reimbursed by the county accounted for 31%. Despite the lack of county payment, our institution continues to provide care to the indigent population. This lack of payment may have significant long-term economic ramifications for the orthopedic trauma surgeons and for our institution. The financial burden preferentially falls on the "safety net" Level I trauma centers and the physicians who take care of patients with urgent and emergent injuries. This burden may be unsustainable in the future. Economic and value-based evaluation, level V.

  17. Linear viral load increase of a single HPV-type in women with multiple HPV infections predicts progression to cervical cancer. (United States)

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Thys, Sofie; Beert, Johan; Jonckheere, Jef; Salembier, Geert; Bogers, Johannes J


    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer (CIN3+). In single type infections, serial type-specific viral-load measurements predict the natural history of the infection. In infections with multiple HPV-types, the individual type-specific viral-load profile could distinguish progressing HPV-infections from regressing infections. A case-cohort natural history study was established using samples from untreated women with multiple HPV-infections who developed CIN3+ (n = 57) or cleared infections (n = 88). Enriched cell pellet from liquid based cytology samples were subjected to a clinically validated real-time qPCR-assay (18 HPV-types). Using serial type-specific viral-load measurements (≥3) we calculated HPV-specific slopes and coefficient of determination (R(2) ) by linear regression. For each woman slopes and R(2) were used to calculate which HPV-induced processes were ongoing (progression, regression, serial transient, transient). In transient infections with multiple HPV-types, each single HPV-type generated similar increasing (0.27copies/cell/day) and decreasing (-0.27copies/cell/day) viral-load slopes. In CIN3+, at least one of the HPV-types had a clonal progressive course (R(2)  ≥ 0.85; 0.0025copies/cell/day). In selected CIN3+ cases (n = 6), immunostaining detecting type-specific HPV 16, 31, 33, 58 and 67 RNA showed an even staining in clonal populations (CIN3+), whereas in transient virion-producing infections the RNA-staining was less in the basal layer compared to the upper layer where cells were ready to desquamate and release newly-formed virions. RNA-hybridization patterns matched the calculated ongoing processes measured by R(2) and slope in serial type-specific viral-load measurements preceding the biopsy. In women with multiple HPV-types, serial type-specific viral-load measurements predict the natural history of the

  18. Synthesis of a wild-type and three mutant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-encoding genes by a single-strand approach. (United States)

    Botes, D P; Qobose, M D; Corfield, V A


    A single-strand approach to gene assembly, based on a modification of an in vitro complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotide template-directed ligation of the desired sequence to a linearized vector [Chen et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (1990) 871-878], is described. The gene coding for the wild-type Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor of 29 amino acid residues [Bode et al., FEBS Lett. 242 (1989) 285-292], as well as three mutant forms of the gene, in which two of the three disulfide bonds have been replaced singly or as a pair, have been synthesized in a single synthesis run with minimal manual intervention. Subsequent to ligation to pUC9 and in vivo gapped duplex repair by Escherichia coli, their sequences have been verified.

  19. Comparison of the effect of multiple short-duration with single long-duration exercise sessions on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Dahl-Petersen, I; Haugaard, Steen B


    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated and compared the effects on glycaemic control of two different exercise protocols in elderly men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus carried out home-based bicycle training for 5 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned...... glucose OGTT (p = 0.04) and plasma glucose concentration areas under the curve at 120 min (p exercise groups...... increased similarly in both exercise groups. A possible explanation is that the energy expenditure associated with multiple short daily sessions may be greater than that in a single daily session. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  20. 37 CFR 385.13 - Minimum royalty rates and subscriber-based royalty floors for specific types of services. (United States)


    ... expensed by the service in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which for the... the service in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which for the avoidance... the total amount expensed by the service in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting...

  1. Types of work-related behavior and experiences and stress coping strategies among single mothers and mothers in relationships differentiating role of work satisfaction. (United States)

    Napora, Elżbieta; Andruszkiewicz, Anna; Basińska, Małgorzata Anna


    The purpose of the study has been to describe functioning of single and mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) at work and verify if the declared degree of work satisfaction differentiates types of behavior at work and stress coping strategies in both groups of mothers. The study was conducted on equal samples of single mothers (N = 186) and mothers from 2-parent families (N = 186) using Latack Coping Scale that measures work-related stress coping strategies, the AVEM (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster - Work-Related Behavior and Experience Pattern) questionnaire, and a survey. It showed similarity between the studied groups in terms of the measured variables. There were considerable differences between single and married mothers in terms of support seeking strategies. The interaction of work satisfaction and the type of motherhood significantly differentiates (p = 0.03) the avoidance strategy of resignation. That strategy of resignation was more frequently used by single mothers with lower work satisfaction, who were distinctly different from those whose work satisfaction was higher, and from the mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) (regardless of the level of their work satisfaction). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):55-69. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Working with young adults with Type 1 diabetes: views of a multidisciplinary care team and implications for service delivery. (United States)

    Brierley, S; Eiser, C; Johnson, B; Young, V; Heller, S


    Young adults with Type 1 diabetes experience difficulties achieving glucose targets. Clinic attendance can be poor, although health and self-care tend to be better among those who attend regularly. Our aims were to describe staff views about challenges working with this age-group (16-21 years). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 staff from Sheffield Teaching Hospitals diabetes care team. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Three main themes emerged. Unique challenges working with young adults included staff emotional burden, the low priority given to self-care by young adults and the complexity of the diabetes regimen. Working in a multidisciplinary team was complicated by differences in consultation styles, poor team cohesion and communication. An ideal service should include psychological support for the professional team, identification of key workers, and development of individualized care plans. Staff differed in their views about how to achieve optimal management for young adults, but emphasized the need for greater patient-centred care and a range of interventions appropriate for individual levels of need. They also wanted to increase their own skills and confidence working with this age-group. While these results reflect the views of staff working in only one diabetes centre, they are likely to reflect the views of professionals delivering care to individuals of this age; replication is needed to determine their generalizability. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  3. P-type single-crystalline ZnO films obtained by (Na,N) dual implantation through dynamic annealing process (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Jingyun; Chen, Shanshan; Pan, Xinhua; Chen, Lingxiang; Ye, Zhizhen


    Single-crystalline ZnO films were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy technique on c-plane sapphire substrates. The films have been implanted with fixed fluence of 130 keV Na and 90 keV N ions at 460 °C. It is observed that dually-implanted single crystalline ZnO films exhibit p-type characteristics with hole concentration in the range of 1.24 × 1016-1.34 × 1017 cm-3, hole mobilities between 0.65 and 8.37 cm2 V-1 s-1, and resistivities in the range of 53.3-80.7 Ω cm by Hall-effect measurements. There are no other secondary phase appearing, with (0 0 2) (c-plane) orientation after ion implantation as identified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. It is obtained that Na and N ions were successfully implanted and activated as acceptors measured by XPS and SIMS results. Also compared to other similar studies, lower amount of Na and N ions make p-type characteristics excellent as others deposited by traditional techniques. It is concluded that Na and N ion implantation and dynamic annealing are essential in forming p-type single-crystalline ZnO films.

  4. Comparing the capitalisation benefits of light-rail transit and overlay zoning for single-family houses and condos by neighbourhood type in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. (United States)

    Atkinson-Palombo, Carol


    Light rail transit (LRT) is increasingly accompanied by overlay zoning which specifies the density and type of future development to encourage landscapes conducive to transit use. Neighbourhood type (based on land use mix) is used to partition data and investigate how pre-existing land use, treatment with a park-and-ride (PAR) versus walk-and-ride (WAR) station and overlay zoning interrelate. Hedonic models estimate capitalisation effects of LRT-related accessibility and overlay zoning on single-family houses and condos in different neighbourhoods for the system in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Impacts differ by housing and neighbourhood type. Amenity-dominated mixed-use neighbourhoods-predominantly WAR communities-experience premiums of 6 per cent for single-family houses and over 20 per cent for condos, the latter boosted an additional 37 per cent by overlay zoning. Residential neighbourhoods-predominantly PAR communities-experience no capitalisation benefits for single-family houses and a discount for condos. The results suggest that land use mix is an important variable to select comparable neighbourhoods.

  5. Diagnosis of Single- or Multiple-Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo according to the Type of Nystagmus (United States)

    Balatsouras, Dimitris G.; Koukoutsis, George; Ganelis, Panayotis; Korres, George S.; Kaberos, Antonis


    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common peripheral vestibular disorder encountered in primary care and specialist otolaryngology and neurology clinics. It is associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus, which can be elicited with specific diagnostic positional maneuvers, such as the Dix-Hallpike test and the supine roll test. Current clinical research focused on diagnosing and treating various types of BPPV, according to the semicircular canal involved and according to the implicated pathogenetic mechanism. Cases of multiple-canal BPPV have been specifically investigated because until recently these were resistant to treatment with standard canalith repositioning procedures. Probably, the most significant factor in diagnosis of the type of BPPV is observation of the provoked nystagmus, during the diagnostic positional maneuvers. We describe in detail the various types of nystagmus, according to the canals involved, which are the keypoint to accurate diagnosis. PMID:21792356

  6. A common single nucleotide polymorphism can exacerbate long-QT type 2 syndrome leading to sudden infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nof, Eyal; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Pérez, Guillermo J


    and mutation expressed singly and in combination in Chinese ovary (CHO-K1) and COS-1 cells. An asymptomatic woman presenting after the death of her 2-day-old infant and spontaneous abortion of a second baby in the first trimester was referred for genetic analysis. The newborn infant had nearly incessant...... suggest that a common polymorphism (K897T) can markedly accentuate the loss of function of mildly defective HERG channels, leading to long-QT syndrome-mediated arrhythmias and sudden infant death....

  7. Clinical characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Chen


    Conclusion: Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells is an important cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese children aged younger than 6 years. These patients usually have a low insulin reserve and severe ketoacidosis upon diagnosis. A high index of suspicion in the presence of classic symptoms of diabetes in young children is important to prevent complications.

  8. From the Cover: Vulnerability of C6 Astrocytoma Cells After Single-Compound and Joint Exposure to Type I and Type II Pyrethroid Insecticides. (United States)

    Romero, Delfina M; Berardino, Bruno G; Wolansky, Marcelo J; Kotler, Mónica L


    A primary mode-of-action of all pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) is the disruption of the voltage-gated sodium channel electrophysiology in neurons of target pests and nontarget species. The neurological actions of PYRs on non-neuronal cells of the nervous system remain poorly investigated. In the present work, we used C6 astrocytoma cells to study PYR actions (0.1-50 μM) under the hypothesis that glial cells may be targeted by and vulnerable to PYRs. To this end, we characterized the effects of bifenthrin (BF), tefluthrin (TF), α-cypermethrin (α-CYP), and deltamethrin (DM) on the integrity of nuclear, mitochondrial, and lysosomal compartments. In general, 24- to 48-h exposures produced concentration-related impairment of cell viability. In single-compound, 24-h exposure experiments, effective concentration (EC) 15 s 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay) were computed as follows (in μM): BF, 16.1; TF, 37.3; α-CYP, 7.8; DM, 5.0. We found concentration-related damage in several C6-cell subcellular compartments (mitochondria, nuclei, and lysosomes) at ≥ 10 -1 μM levels. Last, we examined a mixture of all PYRs (ie, Σ individual EC 15 ) using MTT assays and subcellular analyses. Our findings indicate that C6 cells are responsive to nM levels of PYRs, suggesting that astroglial susceptibility may contribute to the low-dose neurological effects caused by these insecticides. This research further suggests that C6 cells may provide relevant information as a screening platform for pesticide mixtures targeting nervous system cells by expected and unexpected toxicogenic pathways potentially contributing to clinical neurotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Self-Assembly of "Chalcone" Type Push-Pull Dye Molecules into Organic Single Crystalline Microribbons and Rigid Microrods for Vis/NIR Range Photonic Cavity Applications. (United States)

    Vattikunta, Radhika; Venkatakrishnarao, Dasari; Mohiddon, Mahamad Ahamad; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai


    A novel supramolecular fluorescent donor-acceptor type dye molecule, (2E,4E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(pyren-1-yl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (HPPD) self-assembles in a mixture of ethanol/chloroform through intermolecular π-π stacking (distance ca. 3.384 Å) to form J-aggregated single-crystalline microribbons displaying Fabry-Pèrot (F-P) type visible-range optical resonance. The corresponding borondifluoride dye (HPPD-BF), with a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap, self-assembles into crystalline microrods acting as an F-P type resonator in the near-infrared (NIR) range. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Component Analysis of Unsteady Hydrodynamic Force of Closed-Type Centrifugal Pump with Single Blades of Different Blade Outlet Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi


    Full Text Available Single-blade centrifugal impellers for sewage systems undergo both unsteady radial and axial thrusts. Therefore, it is extremely important for the improvement of pump reliability to quantitatively grasp these fluctuating hydrodynamic forces and determine the generation mechanism behind them. In this study, we conducted component analyses of radial and axial thrusts of closed, single-blade centrifugal pumps with different blade outlet angles by numerical analysis while considering leakage flow. The results revealed the effect of the blade outlet angle on the components of radial and axial thrusts. For increased flow rates, the time-averaged values of the pressure component were similar for all impellers, although its fluctuating components were higher for impellers with larger blade outlet angles. Moreover, the fluctuating inertia component of the impeller with a blade outlet angle of 8° decreased as the flow rate increased, whereas those with 16° and 24° angles increased. Therefore, the radial thrust on the hydraulic part was significantly higher for impellers with high blade outlet angles.

  11. Primary health care service delivery networks for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: using social network methods to describe interorganisational collaboration in a rural setting. (United States)

    McDonald, Julie; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Harris, Mark Fort


    Adults with type 2 diabetes or with behavioural risk factors require comprehensive and well coordinated responses from a range of health care providers who often work in different organisational settings. This study examines three types of collaborative links between organisations involved in a rural setting. Social network methods were employed using survey data on three types of links, and data was collected from a purposive sample of 17 organisations representing the major provider types. The analysis included a mix of unconfirmed and confirmed links, and network measures. General practices were the most influential provider group in initiating referrals, and they referred to the broadest range of organisations in the network. Team care arrangements formed a small part of the general practice referral network. They were used more for access to private sector allied health care providers and less for sharing care with public sector health services. Involvement in joint programs/activities was limited to public and non-government sector services, with no participation from the private sector. The patterns of interactions suggest that informal referral networks provide access to services and coordination of care for individual patients with diabetes. Two population subgroups would benefit from more proactive approaches to ensure equitable access to services and coordination of care across organisational boundaries: people with more complex health care needs and people at risk of developing diabetes.

  12. New vibrational mode of the acoustic type in Nd(Pr)2 Cu O4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil', D.V.; Kolobov, I.G.; Fil', V.D.; Barilo, S.N.; Zhigunov, D.I.


    Sound velocities along main symmetry directions as well as their angle dependences in (100),(110)-type planes are measured in Nd(Pr) 2 Cu O 4 . Anomalies in the angle dependences are found, which are interpreted as a result of the interaction of elastic vibrations with an additional plane mode of the acoustic type. According to the proposed interpretation, the bare spectrum of the additional mode is two-dimensional, and the origin of the mode is connected with the electron degrees of freedom in the Cu O 2 -planes. A phenomenological model for description of acoustic mode spectra in the investigated systems is proposed. On the basis of the anion model of HTSC, a possible microscopic scenario of the appearance of the additional mode is analyzed. In the framework of the phenomenological model, the Debye temperatures are computed, which are in agreement with the specific heat data. The values of the components of the elastic moduli tensor are given

  13. Comparison of the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling type SFCL with single and three-phase transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Byung Ik; Cho, Yong Sun; Park, Hyoung Min; Chung, Dong Chul; Choi, Hyo Sang


    Highlight: ► Comparison of quench and fault-current-limiting behavior of SFCLs by Tr type. -- Abstract: The South Korean power grid has a network structure for the flexible operation of the system. The continuously increasing power demand necessitated the increase of power facilities, which decreased the impedance in the power system. As a result, the size of the fault current in the event of a system fault increased. As this increased fault current size is threatening the breaking capacity of the circuit breaker, the main protective device, a solution to this problem is needed. The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) has been designed to address this problem. SFCL supports the stable operation of the circuit breaker through its excellent fault-current-limiting operation [1–5]. In this paper, the quench and fault current limiting characteristics of the flux-coupling-type SFCL with one three-phase transformer were compared with those of the same SFCL type but with three single-phase transformers. In the case of the three-phase transformers, both the superconducting elements of the fault and sound phases were quenched, whereas in the case of the single-phase transformer, only that of the fault phase was quenched. For the fault current limiting rate, both cases showed similar rates for the single line-to-ground fault, but for the three-wire earth fault, the fault current limiting rate of the single-phase transformer was over 90% whereas that of the three-phase transformer was about 60%. It appears that when the three-phase transformer was used, the limiting rate decreased because the fluxes by the fault current of each phase were linked in one core. When the power loads of the superconducting elements were compared by fault type, the initial (half-cycle) load was great when the single-phase transformer was applied, whereas for the three-phase transformer, its power load was slightly lower at the initial stage but became greater after the half fault cycle

  14. Structure of the mycobacterial ESX-5 type VII secretion system membrane complex by single-particle analysis. (United States)

    Beckham, Katherine S H; Ciccarelli, Luciano; Bunduc, Catalin M; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Ummels, Roy; Lugmayr, Wolfgang; Mayr, Julia; Rettel, Mandy; Savitski, Mikhail M; Svergun, Dmitri I; Bitter, Wilbert; Wilmanns, Matthias; Marlovits, Thomas C; Parret, Annabel H A; Houben, Edith N G


    Mycobacteria are characterized by their impermeable outer membrane, which is rich in mycolic acids 1 . To transport substrates across this complex cell envelope, mycobacteria rely on type VII (also known as ESX) secretion systems 2 . In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these ESX systems are essential for growth and full virulence and therefore represent an attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs 3 . However, the molecular details underlying type VII secretion are largely unknown, due to a lack of structural information. Here, we report the molecular architecture of the ESX-5 membrane complex from Mycobacterium xenopi determined at 13 Å resolution by electron microscopy. The four core proteins of the ESX-5 complex (EccB 5 , EccC 5 , EccD 5 and EccE 5 ) assemble with equimolar stoichiometry into an oligomeric assembly that displays six-fold symmetry. This membrane-associated complex seems to be embedded exclusively in the inner membrane, which indicates that additional components are required to translocate substrates across the mycobacterial outer membrane. Furthermore, the extended cytosolic domains of the EccC ATPase, which interact with secretion effectors, are highly flexible, suggesting an as yet unseen mode of substrate interaction. Comparison of our results with known structures of other bacterial secretion systems demonstrates that the architecture of type VII secretion system is fundamentally different, suggesting an alternative secretion mechanism.

  15. Molecular Screening and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing of Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) from Genital Specimens, between 2012 and 2015 (United States)

    Taghinezhad-S, Sedigheh; Mohseni, Amir Hossein; Keyvani, Hossein; Ghobadi, Narges


    The present study is the first comprehensive report of the Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in Iran based on the molecular technique for differentiation and typing of the MCV1 and MCV2. Patients were diagnosed as having tumor-like genital warts less than 5 mm in diameter, and HIV seronegative samples were chosen for this cross-sectional study. TaqMan real-time PCR was used to identify MCV following clinical examination. Typing of the MCV-positive specimens was performed in the SNP A27451G region of MC021L gene. Of 1470 samples, 114 (7.75%) samples were positive for the MCV. From MCV-positive samples, 71.05% sequences were found to be related to the MCV1 and 28.95% to the MCV2. This assay constitutes a reliable method for identification and typing of the MCV genomic variants that could be valuable for reviewing the pathogenesis, molecular epidemiology, and the natural history of MCV-related situations.

  16. Neuropsychological Performance and Subjective Symptom Reporting in Military Service Members With a History of Multiple Concussions: Comparison With a Single Concussion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Orthopedic Trauma. (United States)

    Cooper, Douglas B; Curtiss, Glenn; Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Belanger, Heather G; Tate, David F; Reid, Matthew; Bowles, Amy O; Velez, Carmen S; Kennedy, Jan E; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    To examine differences in objective neurocognitive performance and subjective cognitive symptoms in individuals with a history of a single concussion, multiple concussions, orthopedic injuries, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 116 military service members who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during combat deployment. Subjects were subdivided into groups based on concussion frequency: a single concussion (n = 42), 2 concussions (n = 21), and 3 or more concussions (n = 53). Eighty-one subjects sustained an orthopedic injury (n = 60) during deployment or were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 21), but had no history of mTBI. Subjects completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and self-report measures of postconcussive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and psychopathology. No differences were found among the concussion groups on a composite neuropsychological measure. The PTSD group had the highest number of symptom complaints, with the 2-concussion and 3-plus-concussion groups being most similar to the PTSD group. The concussion groups showed a nonsignificant pattern of increasing distress with increasing number of concussions. The current findings are consistent with meta-analytic results showing no differential effect on neuropsychological functioning due to multiple concussions. Results also support the burden of adversity hypothesis suggesting increasing symptom levels with increasing psychological or physically traumatic exposures.

  17. Proposing a framework for airline service quality evaluation using Type-2 Fuzzy TOPSIS and non-parametric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Haghighat


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on evaluating airline service quality from the perspective of passengers' view. Until now a lot of researches has been performed in airline service quality evaluation in the world but a little research has been conducted in Iran, yet. In this study, a framework for measuring airline service quality in Iran is proposed. After reviewing airline service quality criteria, SSQAI model was selected because of its comprehensiveness in covering airline service quality dimensions. SSQAI questionnaire items were redesigned to adopt with Iranian airlines requirements and environmental circumstances in the Iran's economic and cultural context. This study includes fuzzy decision-making theory, considering the possible fuzzy subjective judgment of the evaluators during airline service quality evaluation. Fuzzy TOPSIS have been applied for ranking airlines service quality performances. Three major Iranian airlines which have the most passenger transfer volumes in domestic and foreign flights were chosen for evaluation in this research. Results demonstrated Mahan airline has got the best service quality performance rank in gaining passengers' satisfaction with delivery of high-quality services to its passengers, among the three major Iranian airlines. IranAir and Aseman airlines placed in the second and third rank, respectively, according to passenger's evaluation. Statistical analysis has been used in analyzing passenger responses. Due to the abnormality of data, Non-parametric tests were applied. To demonstrate airline ranks in every criterion separately, Friedman test was performed. Variance analysis and Tukey test were applied to study the influence of increasing in age and educational level of passengers on degree of their satisfaction from airline's service quality. Results showed that age has no significant relation to passenger satisfaction of airlines, however, increasing in educational level demonstrated a negative impact on

  18. An investigation into heterogeneity in a single vein-type uranium ore deposit: Implications for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keatley, A.C.; Scott, T.B.; Davis, S.; Jones, C.P.; Turner, P.


    Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations in nuclear materials are important as they are used within the field of nuclear forensics as an indicator of sample origin. However recent studies into uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) have shown significant elemental and isotopic heterogeneity from a single mine site such that some sites have shown higher variation within the mine site than that seen between multiple sites. The elemental composition of both uranium and gangue minerals within ore samples taken along a single mineral vein in South West England have been measured and reported here. The analysis of the samples was undertaken to determine the extent of the localised variation in key elements. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to analyse the gangue mineralogy and measure major element composition. Minor element composition and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA). The results confirm that a number of key elements, REE concentrations and patterns used for origin location do show significant variation within mine. Furthermore significant variation is also visible on a meter scale. In addition three separate uranium phases were identified within the vein which indicates multiple uranium mineralisation events. In light of these localised elemental variations it is recommended that representative sampling for an area is undertaken prior to establishing the REE pattern that may be used to identify the originating mine for an unknown ore sample and prior to investigating impact of ore processing on any arising REE patterns. - Highlights: • Demonstrating significant variation at meter scale distances. • Importance of understanding heterogeneity in aid of nuclear forensics interpretation. • Understanding local features prior to determining feed through of elements to UOCs. • Key elements, REE concentrations and patterns show significant variation

  19. Changing Utilization of Noninvasive Diagnostic Imaging Over 2 Decades: An Examination Family-Focused Analysis of Medicare Claims Using the Neiman Imaging Types of Service Categorization System. (United States)

    Rosman, David A; Duszak, Richard; Wang, Wenyi; Hughes, Danny R; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B


    The objective of our study was to use a new modality and body region categorization system to assess changing utilization of noninvasive diagnostic imaging in the Medicare fee-for-service population over a recent 20-year period (1994-2013). All Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule services billed between 1994 and 2013 were identified using Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary master files. Billed codes for diagnostic imaging were classified using the Neiman Imaging Types of Service (NITOS) coding system by both modality and body region. Utilization rates per 1000 beneficiaries were calculated for families of services. Among all diagnostic imaging modalities, growth was greatest for MRI (+312%) and CT (+151%) and was lower for ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and radiography and fluoroscopy (range, +1% to +31%). Among body regions, service growth was greatest for brain (+126%) and spine (+74%) imaging; showed milder growth (range, +18% to +67%) for imaging of the head and neck, breast, abdomen and pelvis, and extremity; and showed slight declines (range, -2% to -7%) for cardiac and chest imaging overall. The following specific imaging service families showed massive (> +100%) growth: cardiac CT, cardiac MRI, and breast MRI. NITOS categorization permits identification of temporal shifts in noninvasive diagnostic imaging by specific modality- and region-focused families, providing a granular understanding and reproducible analysis of global changes in imaging overall. Service family-level perspectives may help inform ongoing policy efforts to optimize imaging utilization and appropriateness.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of a single dangling bond on a bare Si(100)- c ( 4 × 2 ) surface for n - and p -type doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mantega, M.


    We investigate the charging state of an isolated single dangling bond formed on an unpassivated Si(100) surface with c(4×2) reconstruction, by comparing scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy analysis with density functional theory calculations. The dangling bond is created by placing a single hydrogen atom on the bare surface with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. The H atom passivates one of the dimer dangling bonds responsible for the surface one-dimensional electronic structure. This leaves a second dangling at the reacted surface dimer which breaks the surface periodicity. We consider two possible H adsorption configurations for both the neutral and the doped situation (n- and p-type). In the case of n-doping we find that the single dangling bond state is doubly occupied and the most stable configuration is that with H bonded to the bottom Si atom of the surface dimer. In the case of p-doping the dangling bond is instead empty and the configuration with the H attached to the top atom of the dimer is the most stable. Importantly the two configurations have different scattering properties and phase shift fingerprints. This might open up interesting perspectives for fabricating a switching device by tuning the doping level or by locally charging the single dangling bond state. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  1. 78 FR 52872 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft... (United States)


    ... requires installing warning placards on the inside of the passenger door and service doors and modifying... Support Services GmbH, Global Support Center, P.O. Box 1252, D-82231 Wessling, Federal Republic of Germany..., allowing a safe descent and landing. EASA issued AD 2007-0199 to require the installation of warning...

  2. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta gene is associated with proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Maeda


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. A large-scale genotyping analysis of gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes identified the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB as a candidate for a susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy; the landmark SNP was found in the intron 18 of ACACB (rs2268388: intron 18 +4139 C > T, p = 1.4x10(-6, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.96. The association of this SNP with diabetic nephropathy was examined in 9 independent studies (4 from Japan including the original study, one Singaporean, one Korean, and two European with type 2 diabetes. One case-control study involving European patients with type 1 diabetes was included. The frequency of the T allele for SNP rs2268388 was consistently higher among patients with type 2 diabetes and proteinuria. A meta-analysis revealed that rs2268388 was significantly associated with proteinuria in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (p = 5.35 x 10(-8, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% Cl: 1.35-1.91. Rs2268388 was also associated with type 2 diabetes-associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD in European Americans (p = 6 x 10(-4, odds ratio = 1.61, 95% Cl: 1.22-2.13. Significant association was not detected between this SNP and nephropathy in those with type 1 diabetes. A subsequent in vitro functional analysis revealed that a 29-bp DNA fragment, including rs2268388, had significant enhancer activity in cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Fragments corresponding to the disease susceptibility allele (T had higher enhancer activity than those of the major allele. These results suggest that ACACB is a strong candidate for conferring susceptibility for proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Effect of Exposure Type and Timing of Injuries in Division I College Football: A 4-year Single Program Analysis. (United States)

    Krill, Michael K; Borchers, James R; Hoffman, Joshua T; Tatarski, Rachel L; Hewett, Timothy E


    Football players compete with a high risk of injury due to the sport. With the recent efforts to improve safety, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) established new terminology to clearly define exposure types and reduce the number of high contact exposures. To compare football injury rates (IR) with a focus on game versus practice, time in season of injury, mechanism of injury and utilizing recent exposure types defined by the NCAA (live contact, full-pads and non-contact). Licensed medical professionals monitored a college football program regular season from 2012-2015. Each injury was classified by timing of the injury, mechanism of injury, and whether it occurred in game or practice. Player attendance and type of exposure (non-contact, full-pad or live contact, which involves live tackling to the ground and/or full-speed blocking and can occur in full-pad or half-pad ('shell') equipment) was documented. IR were calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AE). Mid-exact P tests compared rates between variables. The game IR was over three times as high as the practice IR (p injuries observed occurred from a contact mechanism (IR: 2.508/1000 AE). The highest IR during the fall football season occurred in the pre-season at 5.769/1000 AE. Overall IR observed in this cohort were lower than prior studies published before recent NCAA rule changes and guideline implementation to improve athlete safety. Athletes in this cohort were at significantly increased risk of injury from live contact exposures.

  4. Study of single pulsed-field magnetization of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductor with a split type of armature coil for rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, E; Matsuzaki, H; Kimura, Y; Ohtani, I; Ogata, H; Izumi, M; Nonaka, Y; Murakami, M; Ida, T; Sugimoto, H; Miki, M; Kitano, M


    We employed a Gd-bulk HTS as rotating field magnet poles aiming for a smaller and lighter axial-gap-type motor. The bulk was inserted in the split-type armature pulsed copper coils and cooled down to 77 K under zero field. Employing the bulk magnet to HTS rotating machinery, the number of pulsed field magnetizations should be reduced for practical use. Thereby, a single pulsed current was applied to the pulsed copper coils to magnetize the bulk. The trapped field distribution and transient flux behaviour strongly depend on the radial dimension of the armature coil with a vortex-type winding. On decreasing the diameter of the pulsed copper armature coil, the distribution of the trapped flux density on the surface of the bulk becomes close to a conical shape. In contrast to the use of a solenoid, the application of vortex-type armature coils to magnetization of Gd-bulk HTS shows a quick intervention of the external magnetic flux into the centre of the bulk. The magnetization to the bulk HTS of the vortex-type copper coils with an optimum radius is useful and may be an effective technique for applied bulk HTS for rotating machines such as motors and/or generators

  5. Oil type and cross-linking influence growth of Aureobasidium melanogenum on vegetable oils as a single carbon source. (United States)

    Peeters, Loes H M; Huinink, Hendrik P; Voogt, Benjamin; Adan, Olaf C G


    Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were equal on linseed oil and olive oil. The fungus was not able to grow on severe cross-linked linseed oil, meaning that the degree of cross-linking of the oil is important for growth of A. melanogenum. Dark coloring of the colony was seen on linseed oil, which might be a stress response on the presence of autoxidation products in linseed oil. The colony on olive oil showed delayed melanin production indicating an inhibitory effect of olive oil on melanin production. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Visualization and Comparison of Single and Combined Parametric and Nonparametric Discriminant Methods for Leukemia Type Recognition Based on Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćwiklińska-Jurkowska Małgorzata M.


    Full Text Available A gene expression data set, containing 3051 genes and 38 tumor mRNA training samples, from a leukemia microarray study, was used for differentiation between ALL and AML groups of leukemia. In this paper, single and combined discriminant methods were applied on the basis of the selected few most discriminative variables according to Wilks’ lambda or the leave-one-out error of first nearest neighbor classifier. For the linear, quadratic, regularized, uncorrelated discrimination, kernel, nearest neighbor and naive Bayesian classifiers, two-dimensional graphs of the boundaries and discriminant functions for diagnostics are presented. Cross-validation and leave-one-out errors were used as measures of classifier performance to support diagnosis coming from this genomic data set. A small number of best discriminating genes, from two to ten, was sufficient to build discriminant methods of good performance. Especially useful were nearest neighbor methods. The results presented herein were comparable with outcomes obtained by other authors for larger numbers of applied genes. The linear, quadratic, uncorrelated Bayesian and regularized discrimination methods were subjected to bagging or boosting in order to assess the accuracy of the fusion. A conclusion drawn from the analysis was that resampling ensembles were not beneficial for two-dimensional discrimination.

  7. Comparison of three types of XPAD3.2/CdTe single chip hybrids for hard X-ray applications in material science and biomedical imaging (United States)

    Buton, C.; Dawiec, A.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Arnaud, K.; Bérar, J. F.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N.; Clémens, J. C.; Debarbieux, F.; Delpierre, P.; Dinkespiler, B.; Gastaldi, T.; Hustache, S.; Morel, C.; Pangaud, P.; Perez-Ponce, H.; Vigeolas, E.


    The CHIPSPECT consortium aims at building a large multi-modules CdTe based photon counting detector for hard X-ray applications. For this purpose, we tested nine XPAD3.2 single chip hybrids in various configurations (i.e. Ohmic vs. Schottky contacts or electrons vs. holes collection mode) in order to select the most performing and best suited configuration for our experimental requirements. Measurements have been done using both X-ray synchrotron beams and 241Am source. Preliminary results on the image quality, calibration, stability, homogeneity and linearity of the different types of detectors are presented.

  8. Single-Dose Metformin Enhances Bile Acid-Induced Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønden, Andreas; Albér, Anders; Rohde, Ulrich


    -controlled, and double-blinded crossover study. Setting: This study was conducted at Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark. Patients: Fifteen metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes; all participants completed the study. Interventions: Four experimental study days in randomized order...... with administration of either 1500 mg metformin or placebo in combination with intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin (0.4 pmol × kg-1 × min-1) or saline. Main Outcome Measure: Plasma GLP-1 excursions as measured by baseline-subtracted area under the curve. Results: Single-dose metformin further enhanced bile acid...

  9. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas


    been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic...... with dyslipidemia (P = 0.003 and P(corr) = 0.009). Thr248Met (rs4917) tended to associate with lower fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release (P = 0.02, P(corr) = 0.1 for fasting and P = 0.04, P(corr) = 0.2 for area under the insulin curve) and improved insulin sensitivity estimated...

  10. Both modular and single-domain Type I polyketide synthases are expressed in the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae). (United States)

    Van Dolah, Frances M; Kohli, Gurjeet S; Morey, Jeanine S; Murray, Shauna A


    Dinoflagellates are prolific producers of polyketide compounds, many of which are potent toxins with adverse impacts on human and marine animal health. To identify polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in the brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, we assembled a transcriptome from 595 million Illumina reads, sampled under different growth conditions. The assembly included 125,687 transcripts greater than 300 nt in length, with over half having >100× coverage. We found 121 transcripts encoding Type I ketosynthase (KS) domains, of which 99 encoded single KS domains, while 22 contained multiple KS domains arranged in 1-3 protein modules. Phylogenetic analysis placed all single domain and a majority of multidomain KSs within a monophyletic clade of protist PKSs. In contrast with the highly amplified single-domain KSs, only eight single-domain ketoreductase transcripts were found in the assembly, suggesting that they are more evolutionarily conserved. The multidomain PKSs were dominated by trans-acyltransferase architectures, which were recently shown to be prevalent in other algal protists. Karenia brevis also expressed several hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)/PKS sequences, including a burA-like sequence previously reported in a wide variety of dinoflagellates. This contrasts with a similarly deep transcriptome of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, which lacked NRPS/PKS other than the burA-like transcript, and may reflect the presence of amide-containing polyketides in K. brevis and their absence from G. polynesiensis. In concert with other recent transcriptome analyses, this study provides evidence for both single domain and multidomain PKSs in the synthesis of polyketide compounds in dinoflagellates. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Phycology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Phycological Society of America.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J.; Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-038, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    Here we present three-dimensional high-resolution simulations of Type Ia supernova in the presence of a non-degenerate companion. We find that the presence of a nearby companion leaves a long-lived hole in the supernova ejecta. In particular, we aim to study the long-term evolution of this hole as the supernova ejecta interacts with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Using estimates for the X-ray emission, we find that the hole generated by the companion remains for many centuries after the interaction between the ejecta and the ISM. We also show that the hole is discernible over a wide range of viewing angles and companion masses.

  12. Effects of single- and multi-substituted Zn ions in doped 122-type iron-based superconductors (United States)

    Zhao, YuanYuan; Li, Bo; Li, Wei; Chen, Hong-Yi; Bassler, Kevin E.; Ting, C. S.


    Recent experiments on Zn-substituted 122-type iron-based superconductors (FeSCs) at electron- and hole-doped regions provide us with a testing ground for understanding the effect of Zn impurities in these systems. Our first-principles calculations of the electronic structure reveal that the Zn 3 d orbitals are far below the Fermi level and are chemically inactive, while the Zn 4 s orbital is partially occupied and its wave function overlaps with the 3 d orbitals of neighboring Fe ions. This suggests that the impurity effect originates in the Zn 4 s orbital, not its 3 d orbitals. Employing a phenomenological two-orbital lattice model for 122-FeSCs and the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we study how the Zn impurities suppress the superconductivity in electron- and hole-doped compounds. Our obtained results qualitatively agree with the experimental measurements.

  13. Mechanical performance of a screw-type veterinary suture anchor subjected to single load to failure and cyclic loads. (United States)

    Balara, Jason M; McCarthy, Robert J; Boudrieau, Randy J; Kraus, Karl H


    To characterize the mechanical performance of a veterinary bone anchor under static and cyclic loads. Mechanical testing study. Cadaveric canine humeri. Humeri (6 pairs) were collected from skeletally mature dogs (mean [+/-SD] age, 17.2+/-2.1 months; weight, 20.8+/-1.5 kg). Bone anchors were inserted in the proximal metaphysis using nylon, and were longitudinally extracted. For the opposite humerus, anchors were subjected to longitudinal cyclic load (50% of the load at failure of their pair) for 1200 cycles then longitudinally loaded to failure. Anchors were then installed in a similar and adjacent area of these 2(nd) humeri with nylon and cyclically tested perpendicular to the axis of anchor insertion (100% of the longitudinal holding power of their pair) for 1200 cycles, then perpendicularly loaded to failure. Paired t-tests were used to compare holding power before and after longitudinal cyclic testing. Longitudinal holding power of the screw-type anchor in the proximal humerus was 385+/-30 N. Anchor pullout was the only mode of failure. Anchors in the paired humeri did not fail after 1200 cycles of 50% longitudinal loading, and post-cycle holding strength was not different (335+/-87 N; P=.32). Perpendicularly loaded anchors did not fail after 1200 cycles of 100% of opposite longitudinal holding strength, and had post-cycle perpendicular holding strengths of 514+/-72 N. Suture breakage was the mode of failure. Bone anchor holding strength is dependent on orientation of suture load. Screw-type bone anchor holding strength was not affected by longitudinal cyclic loading, and holding strengths of approximately 385 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of large-breed mature dogs. Perpendicularly loaded anchors have higher failure loads, and holding strength of approximately 514 N can be expected in metaphyseal bone of the proximal humerus.

  14. Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Brucella Typing Reveals Multiple Lineages in Brucella melitensis Currently Endemic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Sun


    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. In China, brucellosis is recognized as a reemerging disease mainly caused by Brucella melitensis specie. To better understand the currently endemic B. melitensis strains in China, three Brucella genotyping methods were applied to 110 B. melitensis strains obtained in past several years. By MLVA genotyping, five MLVA-8 genotypes were identified, among which genotypes 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2 was recognized as the predominant genotype, while genotype 63 (1-5-3-13-2-3-3-2 and a novel genotype of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 were second frequently observed. MLVA-16 discerned a total of 57 MLVA-16 genotypes among these Brucella strains, with 41 genotypes being firstly detected and the other 16 genotypes being previously reported. By BruMLSA21 typing, six sequence types (STs were identified, among them ST8 is the most frequently seen in China while the other five STs were firstly detected and designated as ST137, ST138, ST139, ST140, and ST141 by international multilocus sequence typing database. Whole-genome sequence (WGS-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based typing and phylogenetic analysis resolved Chinese B. melitensis strains into five clusters, reflecting the existence of multiple lineages among these Chinese B. melitensis strains. In phylogeny, Chinese lineages are more closely related to strains collected from East Mediterranean and Middle East countries, such as Turkey, Kuwait, and Iraq. In the next few years, MLVA typing will certainly remain an important epidemiological tool for Brucella infection analysis, as it displays a high discriminatory ability and achieves result largely in agreement with WGS-SNP-based typing. However, WGS-SNP-based typing is found to be the most powerful and reliable method in discerning Brucella strains and will be popular used in the future.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in a single large Minnesota medical center in 2015 as assessed using MLST, core genome MLST and spa typing. (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hwa; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Uhl, James R; Cunningham, Scott A; Chia, Nicholas; Jeraldo, Patricio R; Sampathkumar, Priya; Nelson, Heidi; Patel, Robin


    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia in hospitalized patients. Whether or not S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with clonality, implicating potential nosocomial transmission, has not, however, been investigated. Herein, we examined the epidemiology of SAB using whole genome sequencing (WGS). 152 SAB isolates collected over the course of 2015 at a single large Minnesota medical center were studied. Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing was performed by PCR/Sanger sequencing; multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core genome MLST (cgMLST) were determined by WGS. Forty-eight isolates (32%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The isolates encompassed 66 spa types, clustered into 11 spa clonal complexes (CCs) and 10 singleton types. 88% of 48 MRSA isolates belonged to spa CC-002 or -008. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were more genotypically diverse, with 61% distributed across four spa CCs (CC-002, CC-012, CC-008 and CC-084). By MLST, there was 31 sequence types (STs), including 18 divided into 6 CCs and 13 singleton STs. Amongst MSSA isolates, the common MLST clones were CC5 (23%), CC30 (19%), CC8 (15%) and CC15 (11%). Common MRSA clones were CC5 (67%) and CC8 (25%); there were no MRSA isolates in CC45 or CC30. By cgMLST analysis, there were 9 allelic differences between two isolates, with the remaining 150 isolates differing from each other by over 40 alleles. The two isolates were retroactively epidemiologically linked by medical record review. Overall, cgMLST analysis resulted in higher resolution epidemiological typing than did multilocus sequence or spa typing.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based molecular typing of M. leprae from multicase families of leprosy patients and their surroundings to understand the transmission of leprosy. (United States)

    Turankar, R P; Lavania, M; Chaitanya, V S; Sengupta, U; Darlong, J; Darlong, F; Siva Sai, K S R; Jadhav, R S


    The exact mode of transmission of leprosy is not clearly understood; however, many studies have demonstrated active transmission of leprosy around a source case. Families of five active leprosy cases and their household contacts were chosen from a high endemic area in Purulia. Fifty-two soil samples were also collected from different areas of their houses. DNA was extracted from slit-skin smears (SSS) and soil samples and the Mycobacterium leprae-specific RLEP (129 bp) region was amplified using PCR. Molecular typing of M. leprae was performed for all RLEP PCR-positive samples by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and confirmation by DNA sequencing. SSS of these five patients and six out of the total 28 contacts were PCR positive for RLEP whereas 17 soil samples out of 52 showed the presence of M. leprae DNA. SNP typing of M. leprae from all RLEP PCR-positive subjects (patients and smear-positive contacts) and 10 soil samples showed the SNP type 1 genotype. M. leprae DNA from the five leprosy patients and the six contacts was further subtyped and the D subtype was noted in all patients and contacts, except for one contact where the C subtype was identified. Typing followed by subtyping of M. leprae clearly revealed that either the contacts were infected by the patients or both patients and contacts had the same source of infection. It also revealed that the type of M. leprae in the soil in the inhabited areas where patients resided was also of the same type as that found in patients. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in a single large Minnesota medical center in 2015 as assessed using MLST, core genome MLST and spa typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Park

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia in hospitalized patients. Whether or not S. aureus bacteremia (SAB is associated with clonality, implicating potential nosocomial transmission, has not, however, been investigated. Herein, we examined the epidemiology of SAB using whole genome sequencing (WGS. 152 SAB isolates collected over the course of 2015 at a single large Minnesota medical center were studied. Staphylococcus protein A (spa typing was performed by PCR/Sanger sequencing; multilocus sequence typing (MLST and core genome MLST (cgMLST were determined by WGS. Forty-eight isolates (32% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. The isolates encompassed 66 spa types, clustered into 11 spa clonal complexes (CCs and 10 singleton types. 88% of 48 MRSA isolates belonged to spa CC-002 or -008. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA isolates were more genotypically diverse, with 61% distributed across four spa CCs (CC-002, CC-012, CC-008 and CC-084. By MLST, there was 31 sequence types (STs, including 18 divided into 6 CCs and 13 singleton STs. Amongst MSSA isolates, the common MLST clones were CC5 (23%, CC30 (19%, CC8 (15% and CC15 (11%. Common MRSA clones were CC5 (67% and CC8 (25%; there were no MRSA isolates in CC45 or CC30. By cgMLST analysis, there were 9 allelic differences between two isolates, with the remaining 150 isolates differing from each other by over 40 alleles. The two isolates were retroactively epidemiologically linked by medical record review. Overall, cgMLST analysis resulted in higher resolution epidemiological typing than did multilocus sequence or spa typing.

  18. Spiral-type heteropolyhedral coordination network based on single-crystal LiSrPO4: implications for luminescent materials. (United States)

    Lin, Chun Che; Shen, Chin-Chang; Liu, Ru-Shi


    Novel structures of luminescent materials, which are used as light sources for next-generation illumination, are continuously being improved for use in white-light-emitting diodes. Activator-doped known structures are reported as habitual down-conversion phosphors in solid-state lightings and displays. Consequently, the intrinsic qualities of the existent compounds produce deficiencies that limit their applications. Herein we report a spiral-network single-crystal orthophosphate (LiSrPO4) prepared in a platinum crucible with LiCl flux through crystal-growth reactions of SrCl2 and Li3PO4 in air. It crystallizes in a hexagonal system with a=5.0040(2) and c=24.6320(16) Å, V=534.15(5) Å(3), and Z=6 in the space group P6(5). The unit cell is comprised of LiO4 and PO4 tetrahedrons that form a three-dimensional LiPO4(2-) anionic framework with a helical channel structure along the c axis in which the Sr(2+) cation is accommodated. The optical band gap of this composition is about 3.65 eV, as determined by using UV/Vis absorption and diffuse reflection spectra. We used the crystal-growth method to synthesize blue- and red-emitting crystals that exhibited pure color, low reabsorption, a large Stokes shift, and efficient conversion of ultraviolet excitation light into visible light. Emphasis was placed on the development of gratifying structure-related properties of rare-earth luminescent materials and their applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Technical aspects of typing for HLA-DP alleles using allele-specific DNA in vitro amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Detection of single base mismatches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P


    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an effective method for in vitro DNA amplification which combined with probing with synthetic oligonucleotides can be used for, e.g., HLA-typing. We have studied the technical aspects of HLA-DP typing with the technique. DNA from mononuclear nucleated cells...... was extracted with either a simple salting out method or phenol/chloroform. Both DNAs could be readily used for PCR. The MgC2 concentration of the PCR buffer and the annealing temperature of the thermal cycle of the PCR were the two most important variables. The MgCl2 concentration and the temperature must...... be carefully titrated for each primer pair in the PCR. The influence of mismatches between the primer and the DNA template were studied and we found that, by using primers differing only from each other at the 3' end, cross-amplification of closely homologous alleles could be avoided. Thus, single base...

  20. Comparison of semi-automated commercial rep-PCR fingerprinting, spoligotyping, 12-locus MIRU-VNTR typing and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the embB gene as molecular typing tools for Mycobacterium bovis. (United States)

    Armas, Federica; Camperio, Cristina; Coltella, Luana; Selvaggini, Serena; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Marianelli, Cinzia


    Highly discriminatory genotyping strategies are essential in molecular epidemiological studies of tuberculosis. In this study we evaluated, for the first time, the efficacy of the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DiversiLab Mycobacterium typing kit over spoligotyping, 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and embB single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis for Mycobacterium bovis typing. A total of 49 M. bovis animal isolates were used. DNA was extracted and genomic DNA was amplified using the DiversiLab Mycobacterium typing kit. The amplified fragments were separated and detected using a microfluidics chip with Agilent 2100. The resulting rep-PCR-based DNA fingerprints were uploaded to and analysed using web-based DiversiLab software through Pearson's correlation coefficient. Rep-PCR DiversiLab grouped M. bovis isolates into ten different clusters. Most isolates sharing identical spoligotype, MIRU-VNTR profile or embB gene polymorphism were grouped into different rep-PCR clusters. Rep-PCR DiversiLab displayed greater discriminatory power than spoligotyping and embB SNP analysis but a lower resolution power than the 12-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis. MIRU-VNTR confirmed that it is superior to the other PCR-based methods tested here. In combination with spoligotyping and 12-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis, rep-PCR improved the discriminatory power for M. bovis typing.

  1. A single exposure to alcohol during brain development induces microencephaly and neuronal losses in genetically susceptible mice, but not in wild type mice. (United States)

    de Licona, Hannah Klein; Karacay, Bahri; Mahoney, Jo; McDonald, Elizabeth; Luang, Thirath; Bonthius, Daniel J


    Maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy can damage the fetal brain and lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Despite public warnings discouraging alcohol use during pregnancy, many pregnant women continue to drink intermittently because they do not believe that occasional exposures to alcohol can be harmful to a fetus. However, because of genetic differences, some fetuses are much more susceptible than others to alcohol-induced brain injury. Thus, a relatively low quantity of alcohol that may be innocuous to most fetuses could damage a genetically susceptible fetus. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) can protect developing mouse neurons against alcohol toxicity by synthesizing neuroprotective nitric oxide. This study examined whether a single exposure to alcohol, which causes no evident injury in wild type mice, can damage the brains of mice genetically deficient for nNOS (nNOS-/- mice). Wild type and nNOS-/- mice received intraperitoneal injections of alcohol (0.0, 2.2, or 4.4mg/g body weight) either as a single dose on postnatal day (PD) 4 or as repeated daily doses over PD4-9. Brain volumes and neuronal numbers within the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were determined on PD10. Alcohol exposure on PD4-9 restricted brain growth and caused neuronal death in both strains of mice, but the severity of microencephaly and neuronal loss were more severe in the nNOS-/- mice than in wild type. The 4.4 mg/g alcohol dose administered on PD4 alone caused significant neuronal loss and microencephaly in the nNOS-/- mice, while this same dose caused no evident injury in the wild type mice. Thus, during development, a single exposure to alcohol can injure a genetically vulnerable brain, while it leaves a wild type brain unaffected. Since the genes that confer alcohol resistance and vulnerability in developing humans are unknown, any particular human fetus is potentially vulnerable. Thus, women should be counseled to consume no alcohol during pregnancy.

  2. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping ofSalmonellaTennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States. (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Boxrud, David; Rankin, Shelly; Downe, Francis; Lovchik, Judith; Gibson, Jim; Erdman, Matt; Saeed, A Mahdi


    In 2007, a nationwide Salmonella Tennessee outbreak occurred via contaminated peanut butter. Here, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing method for S . Tennessee to determine the clonal subtypes of S . Tennessee that were associated with the peanut butter outbreak. One seventy-six S . Tennessee isolates from various sources, including humans, animals, food, and the environment, were analyzed by using the SNP technique. Eighty-four representative SNP markers were selected by comparing the sequences of three representative S . Tennessee strains with different multi-locus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeats from our collection. The set of eighty-four SNP markers showed 100% typeability for the 176 strains, with the nucleotide diversity ranging from 0.011 to 0.107 (mean = 0.049 ± 0.018, median = 0.044) for each marker. Among the four clades and nine subtypes generated by the SNP typing, subtype 1, which comprised 142 S . Tennessee strains, was the most predominant. The dominance of single-strain clones in subtype 1 revealed that S . Tennessee is highly clonal regardless of outbreak-association, source, or period of isolation, suggesting the presence of an S . Tennessee strain prototype. Notably, a minimum 18 SNP set was able to determine clonal S . Tennessee strains with similar discrimination power, potentially allowing more rapid and economic strain genotyping for both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The SNP-typing method described here might aid the investigation of the epidemiology and microevolution of pathogenic bacteria by discriminating between outbreak-related and sporadic clinical cases. In addition, this approach enables us to understand the population structure of the bacterial subtypes involved in the outbreak.

  3. Trajectory of chemotherapy for patients with EGFR wild-type advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a single-institution retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami S


    Full Text Available Seigo Minami, Yoshitaka Ogata, Shouichi Ihara, Suguru Yamamoto, Kiyoshi Komuta Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka Police Hospital, Osaka, Japan Background: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma, recently benefited by new cytotoxic and molecularly targeted drugs, has been classified by driver mutations, such as EGFR mutations. The aim of this study was to research the proportions of patients treated with first- to third-line chemotherapy and to find influential factors for the introduction of chemotherapy and survival benefit from chemotherapy.Materials and methods: Data were collected retrospectively on patients who met the following criteria: adenocarcinoma, diagnosed between June 2007 and March 2015 at our hospital, stage IIIB or IV, and EGFR wild type. A nonchemotherapy group of patients who did not receive chemotherapy was compared with a chemotherapy group of patients who received it. The patients who had received first- to third-line chemotherapy between June 2007 and November 2015 at our hospital were also analyzed.Results: During the study period, 46 patients did not receive chemotherapy, while 148, 89, and 48 received first-, second- and third-line chemotherapy, respectively. As predictive factors for unlikely chemotherapy, multivariate logistic analysis detected Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status (PS ≥2, hemoglobin <13.2 g/dL, creatinine clearance (Ccr <50.4 mL/min, and CRP ≥0.53 mg/dL. As factors predicting shorter survival after chemotherapy, multivariate Cox proportional-hazard analyses detected age ≥75 years, ECOG PS ≥2, lower lymphocyte counts, and higher CRP for the first line; female, higher neutrophil counts, lower lymphocyte counts, reduced Ccr, hyponatremia, and shorter interval between first- and second-line chemotherapy for the second line; and age ≥75 years, body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, higher neutrophil counts, lower lymphocyte counts, hyponatremia, higher lactate dehydrogenase, and higher

  4. Analyses of herpes simplex virus type 1 latency and reactivation at the single cell level using fluorescent reporter mice (United States)

    Nelson, D.; Nicoll, M. P.; Connor, V.


    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a latent infection in sensory neurons from which the virus can periodically reactivate. Whilst latency establishment is thought to result from a failure to express immediate-early genes, we have previously shown that subpopulations of the latent neuronal reservoir have undergone lytic promoter activation prior to latency establishment. In the present study, we have investigated the biological properties of such latently infected neuronal subpopulations using Ai6 fluorescent reporter mice. Using this system we have determined that prior ICP0 or TK promoter activation does not correlate with increased latent virus DNA loads within individual cells and that neurons with evidence of historical lytic cycle promoter activity exhibit a comparable frequency of reactivation to that of the general latent cell population. Comparison of viral DNA content within cells harbouring latent HSV-1 genomes and those undergoing the earliest stages of reactivation has revealed that reactivation can initiate from cells harbouring a wide range of HSV-1 genome copies, but that exiting latency is biased towards cells bearing higher latent virus DNA loads. PMID:26694770

  5. Variability within a single type of polyacrylonitrile-based graphite felt after thermal treatment. Part II: chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbow, Thomas J.; Trampert, Markus; Pokorny, Peter; Binder, Paul; Whitehead, Adam H.


    Graphite felts are often activated thermally before use in electrochemical reactors. This has the effect of improving wetting and decreasing charge-transfer resistance. In part I of this study, considerable variations were observed between two polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based felts from different production charges after thermal activation, despite both charges being of the same type of felt from one supplier. A difference due to bulk crystallinity or due to pronounced core-rim structures of the fibres has been excluded. In this second part a limitation from tarry coatings, which are a possible side products of graphitization, could not be corroborated. However, differences were ascribed to variations in the surface chemistry, which was characterised by Boehm method titration and cyclic voltammetry. The composition of the oxides is discussed together with the possible role they play in the activation and wetting of the felts. The rather high amount of oxides suggests that the Boehm method measures subsurface groups in addition to surface groups. The wetting quality of activated felts can be correlated well with the concentration of neutral quinone groups, characterised by cyclic voltammetry

  6. Analysis of MUSIC-type imaging functional for single, thin electromagnetic inhomogeneity in limited-view inverse scattering problem (United States)

    Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang


    This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.

  7. Body image mediates negative family climate and deteriorating glycemic control for single adolescents with type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Hartl, Amy C; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Laursen, Brett


    Glycemic control declines during adolescence, as youth with diabetes struggle with pubertal changes and a changing social world. The present study tests whether body image mediates longitudinal links between family climate and changes in adolescent glycemic control. Mediation was hypothesized for nondating adolescents but not for dating adolescents, because the former are thought to remain more family oriented than the latter. Participants were German adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (51 girls, 58 boys; M = 15.84 years, SD = 1.44). Participants reported body image and family climate. Physicians assayed blood HbA1c levels (M = 8.22%, SD = 1.80%) to measure glycemic control. For nondating adolescents, body image mediated associations between family climate and longitudinal changes in glycemic control. Poorer family climate was associated with poorer body image, which predicted deteriorating glycemic control. For dating adolescents, family climate was unassociated with changes in glycemic control. Nondating adolescents may look to parents for feedback on body image, which affects how they manage the challenges of diabetes. Parents and practitioners alike should be alert to the fact that family climate continues to be an important determinant of adolescent adjustment, particularly for those who have not moved into romantic relationships. We know that body image matters to adolescents, but for some youth, body image may be the difference between health and serious physical problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Spatial filtering nearly eliminates the side-lobes in single- and multi-photon 4pi-type-C super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Kavya, M.; Regmi, Raju; Mondal, Partha P.


    Super-resolution microscopy has tremendously progressed our understanding of cellular biophysics and biochemistry. Specifically, 4pi fluorescence microscopy technique stands out because of its axial super-resolution capability. All types of 4pi-microscopy techniques work well in conjugation with deconvolution techniques to get rid of artifacts due to side-lobes. In this regard, we propose a technique based on spatial filter in a 4pi-type-C confocal setup to get rid of these artifacts. Using a special spatial filter, we have reduced the depth-of-focus. Interference of two similar depth-of-focus beams in a 4π geometry result in substantial reduction of side-lobes. Studies show a reduction of side-lobes by 46% and 76% for single and two photon variant compared to 4pi - type - C confocal system. This is incredible considering the resolving capability of the existing 4pi - type - C confocal microscopy. Moreover, the main lobe is found to be 150 nm for the proposed spatial filtering technique as compared to 690 nm of the state-of-art confocal system. Reconstruction of experimentally obtained 2PE - 4pi data of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged mitocondrial network shows near elimination of artifacts arising out of side-lobes. Proposed technique may find interesting application in fluorescence microscopy, nano-lithography, and cell biology.

  9. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of single platelet-rich plasma injection on different types and grades of facial wrinkles. (United States)

    Elnehrawy, Naema Y; Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltoukhy, Azza M; Nagy, Hala M


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is considered as a growing modality for tissue regeneration and a developing research area for clinicians and researchers. PRP injection treatment provides supraphysiological concentrations of growth factors that may help in accelerated tissue remodeling and regeneration. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single autologous PRP intradermal injection for treatment of facial wrinkles and for facial rejuvenation. A total of 20 subjects with different types of facial wrinkles were included in this study. All subjects received single PRP intradermal injection and were clinically assessed before and after treatment for a period of 8 weeks using Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS), Skin Homogeneity and Texture (SHnT) Scale, Physician Assessment Scale, and Subject Satisfaction Scale. The mean value of WSRS reduced from 2.90 ± 0.91 before treatment to 2.10 ± 0.79 after 8 weeks of treatment. The most significant results were with younger subjects that have mild and moderate wrinkles of the nasolabial folds (NLFs). Fourteen of seventeen subjects with NLFs showed more than 25% improvement in their appearance. Side effects of PRP treatment were minimal to mild and with excellent tolerability. Single PRP intradermal injection is well tolerated and capable of rejuvenating the face and producing a significant correction of wrinkles especially the NLFs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Types and microbiological spectrum of infections in patients with cirrhosis: A single-centre experience in Upper Egypt. (United States)

    El-Amin, Hussein; Sabry, Abeer M M; Ahmed, Rabab E; Makhlouf, Nahed A


    Egypt has a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and high morbidity and mortality related to cirrhosis complications. Patients with cirrhosis have an increased risk of bacterial infections. Approximately 25-35% of cirrhotics had infections at admission or during hospitalisation. Data on infection among cirrhotics in Egypt are limited. This study aimed to determine the frequency and microbiological spectrum of infections in cirrhotics and possible risk factors. This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital. The frequency and microbiological spectrum of infections in cirrhotics were determined. The risk factors for infection were evaluated. Of the 100 patients with liver cirrhosis, 61% had infection. Ascitic fluid infection (AFI) was the most common infection (44.3%), followed by urinary tract infection (UTI) (21.3%), respiratory tract infection (RTI) (19.7%), gastroenteritis (6.6%) and skin infection (4.9%). The only risk factor for infection among cirrhotics was diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0.047). The mean value of mid-arm muscle circumference was significantly lower in the infected group (p=0.047). Among all the cirrhotics, 32.0% had mild to moderate malnutrition and 52.0% had severe malnutrition. The frequency of infection was higher in severe malnutrition (71.2%). The frequency of infections among cirrhotics was 61%. Many types of infections including AFI, RTI, UTI and skin infections were present in patients with liver cirrhosis, but AFI was the most common. DM was the only risk factor for infection, and independent predictors for infection were elevated WBC count and C-reactive protein levels. The frequency of infection was related to the degree of malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Context-dependent Service Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Ibrahim


    Full Text Available In service-oriented systems a service invariably is bound to a contract. This contract includes the functionalities and quality of services guarantees that the provider can make. But such guarantees are not absolute. A service cannot guarantee its contract in all situations. It can only guarantee its contract in a predefined set of conditions. These conditions are usually related to the context of the service provider and requester. Yet, most of service-oriented applications use only service functionality as the basis of providing services and building system compositions. To remedy this situation, in this article both functionality and contract of a service are integrated into a single concept, called ConfiguredService, and formalized as a higher-order data type. The service part that includes the functionality, nonfunctional properties, service parameters, and data of the service requester, is loosely coupled to the contract part that includes trustworthiness claims, legal and business rules governing the service provision, and the context information pertaining to the provider and receiver. This loose coupling allows the creation of many ConfiguredServices, which share the same functionality but possess different contract parts. To facilitate dynamic service adaptation, we introduce a syntax and semantics for extending or modifying a ConfiguredService.

  12. Single-cell-type quantitative proteomic and ionomic analysis of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte model plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to identify salt-responsive proteins. (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Raymond, Carolyn


    Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) are large single-celled, specialized, and modified trichomes found on the aerial parts of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Recent development of a simple but high throughput technique to extract the contents from these cells has provided an opportunity to conduct detailed single-cell-type analyses of their molecular characteristics at high resolution to gain insight into the role of these cells in the salt tolerance of the plant. In this study, we carry out large-scale complementary quantitative proteomic studies using both a label (DIGE) and label-free (GeLC-MS) approach to identify salt-responsive proteins in the EBC extract. Additionally we perform an ionomics analysis (ICP-MS) to follow changes in the amounts of 27 different elements. Using these methods, we were able to identify 54 proteins and nine elements that showed statistically significant changes in the EBC from salt-treated plants. GO enrichment analysis identified a large number of transport proteins but also proteins involved in photosynthesis, primary metabolism and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Validation of results by western blot, confocal microscopy and enzyme analysis helped to strengthen findings and further our understanding into the role of these specialized cells. As expected EBC accumulated large quantities of sodium, however, the most abundant element was chloride suggesting the sequestration of this ion into the EBC vacuole is just as important for salt tolerance. This single-cell type omics approach shows that epidermal bladder cells of M. crystallinum are metabolically active modified trichomes, with primary metabolism supporting cell growth, ion accumulation, compatible solute synthesis and CAM. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004045.

  13. Computational approach to predict species-specific type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors using single and multiple genomes. (United States)

    Hobbs, Christopher K; Porter, Vanessa L; Stow, Maxwell L S; Siame, Bupe A; Tsang, Herbert H; Leung, Ka Yin


    Many gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effector proteins into host cells. T3SS effectors can give some bacteria a competitive edge over others within the same environment and can help bacteria to invade the host cells and allow them to multiply rapidly within the host. Therefore, developing efficient methods to identify effectors scattered in bacterial genomes can lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and ultimately to important medical and biotechnological applications. We used 21 genomic and proteomic attributes to create a precise and reliable T3SS effector prediction method called Genome Search for Effectors Tool (GenSET). Five machine learning algorithms were trained on effectors selected from different organisms and a trained (voting) algorithm was then applied to identify other effectors present in the genome testing sets from the same (GenSET Phase 1) or different (GenSET Phase 2) organism. Although a select group of attributes that included the codon adaptation index, probability of expression in inclusion bodies, N-terminal disorder, and G + C content (filtered) were better at discriminating between positive and negative sets, algorithm performance was better when all 21 attributes (unfiltered) were used. Performance scores (sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve) from GenSET Phase 1 were better than those reported for six published methods. More importantly, GenSET Phase 1 ranked more known effectors (70.3%) in the top 40 ranked proteins and predicted 10-80% more effectors than three available programs in three of the four organisms tested. GenSET Phase 2 predicted 43.8% effectors in the top 40 ranked proteins when tested on four related or unrelated organisms. The lower prediction rates from GenSET Phase 2 may be due to the presence of different translocation signals in effectors from different T3SS families. The species-specific GenSET Phase 1 method offers an alternative

  14. The utility of an electronic adherence assessment device in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study of single medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Kheir


    attitudes and practices of the patients, as demonstrated by our KAP analysis and correlations.Keywords: Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS, type 2 diabetes mellitus, drug therapy, medication adherence

  15. Setting Single or Multiple Goals for Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors Improves Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pragmatic Pilot Randomized Trial. (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine M; Miller, Carla K; Wills, Celia E


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 4-month telephone-based goal-setting and decision support intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A randomized pretest-posttest control group design was employed. Overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 75 years with T2DM and ≥1 additional CVD risk factor were provided with individualized CVD risk information. At baseline and each biweekly telephone call, the multiple-goal group self-selected both diet- and physical activity-related goals, the single goal group set a single goal, and the control group received information about community health resources. Dietary intake was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire, physical activity via questionnaire, and A1C and blood lipids via fasting fingerstick sample. Between-group differences for clinical (ie, A1C, blood pressure, and blood lipids), physical activity, and dietary variables were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, analysis of variance, and t tests. From pre- to postintervention, the single-goal group demonstrated significant improvement in systolic blood pressure and intake of servings of fruits, vegetables, and refined grains (all P < .05). The multiple-goal group reported significant reduction in percent energy from total, saturated, monounsaturated, and trans fat intake and significant increase in leisure time walking (all P < .05). A multiple-goal approach over 4 months can improve dietary and physical activity outcomes, while a single-goal approach may facilitate improvement in one behavioral domain. Additional research is needed to evaluate maintenance of the achieved changes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Mental health service use types among Asian Americans with a psychiatric disorder: considerations of culture and need. (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; Bornheimer, Lindsay A


    Despite levels of need that are comparable with other groups, relatively few Asian Americans receive mental health care. While studies have described the tendency for Asian Americans to delay care until mental health symptoms are severe, relatively little research has examined how the severity of symptoms impact mental health service use. This study uses publicly available data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and focuses solely on Asian American respondents with a psychiatric disorder (n = 230). Unexpectedly, few Asian Americans with a psychiatric disorder received care in a medical setting. The perception of mental health needs increased the likelihood of using mental health specialist care. Social and systemic barriers together hinder mental health service use. Implications for addressing Asian American mental health service use within a changing health care environment are discussed.

  17. Influence of type-I fimbriae and fluid shear stress on bacterial behavior and multicellular architecture of earlyEscherichia colibiofilms at single-cell resolution. (United States)

    Wang, Liyun; Keatch, Robert; Zhao, Qi; Wright, John A; Bryant, Clare E; Redmann, Anna L; Terentjev, Eugene M


    Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in food and medical industry can cause severe contamination and infection, yet how biological and physical factors determine cellular architecture of early biofilms and bacterial behavior of the constituent cells remains largely unknown. In this study we examine the specific role of type-I fimbriae in nascent stages of biofilm formation and the response of micro-colonies to environmental flow shear at single-cell resolution. The results show that type-I fimbriae are not required for reversible adhesion from plankton, but critical for irreversible adhesion of Escherichia coli ( E.coli ) MG1655 forming biofilms on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. Besides establishing a firm cell-surface contact, the irreversible adhesion seems necessary to initiate the proliferation of E.coli on the surface. After application of shear stress, bacterial retention is dominated by the 3D architecture of colonies independent of the population and the multi-layered structure could protect the embedded cells from being insulted by fluid shear, while cell membrane permeability mainly depends on the biofilm population and the duration time of the shear stress. Importance Bacterial biofilms could lead to severe contamination problems in medical devices and food processing equipment. However, biofilms are usually studied at a rough macroscopic level, thus little is known about how individual bacterial behavior within biofilms and multicellular architecture are influenced by bacterial appendages (e.g. pili/fimbriae) and environmental factors during early biofilm formation. We apply Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) to visualize E.coli micro-colonies at single-cell resolution. Our findings suggest that type-I fimbriae are vital to the initiation of bacterial proliferation on surfaces and that the responses of biofilm architecture and cell membrane permeability of constituent bacteria to fluid shear stress are different, which are

  18. Enrichment of HLA Types and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated With Non-progression in a Strictly Defined Cohort of HIV-1 Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Westrop


    Full Text Available HIV-1 controllers (HIC are extremely rare patients with the ability to control viral replication, maintain unchanging CD4 T-cell count, and evade disease progression for extensive periods of time, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. In order to establish the representation of key genetic correlates of atypical disease progression within a cohort of HIV-1+ individuals who control viral replication, we examine four-digit resolution HLA type and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP previously identified to be correlated to non-progressive infection, in strictly defined HIC. Clinical histories were examined to identify patients exhibiting HIC status. Genomic DNA was extracted, and high definition HLA typing and genome-wide SNP analysis was performed. Data were compared with frequencies of SNP in European long-term non-progressors (LTNP and primary infection cohorts. HLA-B alleles associated with atypical disease progression were at very high frequencies in the group of five HIC studied. All four HIC of European ancestry were HLA-B*57+ and half were also HLA-B*27+. All HIC, including one of self-reported African ethnicity, had the HLA-Cw*0602 allele, and the HLA-DQ9 allele was present only in HIC of European ancestry. A median 95% of the top 19 SNP known to be associated with LTNP status was observed in European HIC (range 78–100%; 17/19 of the SNP considered mapped to chromosome 6 in the HLA region, whereas 2/19 mapped to chromosome 8. The HIC investigated here demonstrated high enrichment of HLA types and SNP previously associated with long-term non-progression. These findings suggest that the extreme non-progressive phenotype considered here is associated with a genetic signature characterized by a single-genetic unit centered around the HLA-B*57 haplotype and the possible additive effect of HLA-B*27.

  19. Microscopic mechanisms for long QT syndrome type 1 revealed by single-channel analysis of I(Ks) with S3 domain mutations in KCNQ1. (United States)

    Eldstrom, Jodene; Wang, Zhuren; Werry, Daniel; Wong, Nathan; Fedida, David


    The slowly activating delayed rectifier current IKs participates in cardiac repolarization, particularly at high heart rates, and mutations in this K(+) channel complex underlie long QT syndrome (LQTS) types 1 and 5. The purpose of this study was to determine biophysical mechanisms of LQT1 through single-channel kinetic analysis of IKs carrying LQT1 mutations in the S3 transmembrane region of the pore-forming subunit KCNQ1. We analyzed cell-attached recordings from mammalian cells in which a single active KCNQ1 (wild type or mutant) and KCNE1 complex could be detected. The S3 mutants of KCNQ1 studied (D202H, I204F, V205M, and S209F), with the exception of S209F, all led to a reduction in channel activity through distinct kinetic mechanisms. D202H, I204F, and V205M showed decreased open probability (Po) compared with wild type (0.07, 0.04, and 0.12 vs 0.2); increased first latency from 1.66 to >2 seconds at +60 mV (I204F, V205M); variable-to-severe reductions in open dwell times (≥50% in V205M); stabilization of closed states (D202H); and an inability of channels to reach full conductance levels (V205M, I204F). S209F is a kinetic gain-of-function mutation with a high Po (0.40) and long open-state dwell times. S3 mutations in KCNQ1 cause diverse kinetic defects in I(Ks), affecting opening and closing properties, and can account for LQT1 phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of a multiple-encounter in situ simulation for orientation of staff to a new paediatric emergency service: a single-group pretest/post-test study. (United States)

    Davison, Michelle; Kinnear, Frances B; Fulbrook, Paul


    To assess the utility of a multiple-encounter in-situ (MEIS) simulation as an orientation tool for multidisciplinary staff prior to opening a new paediatric emergency service. A single-group pretest/post-test study was conducted. During the MEIS simulation, multidisciplinary staff with participant or observer roles managed eight children (mannequins) who attended triage with their parent/guardians (clinical facilitators) for a range of emergency presentations (structured scenarios designed to represent the expected range of presentations plus test various clinical pathways/systems). Participants were debriefed to explore clinical, systems and crisis-resource management issues. Participants also completed a pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaire comprising statements about role confidence and orientation adequacy. Pre-test and post-test results were analysed using t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Eighty-nine staff participated in the MEIS simulation, with the majority completing the pre-simulation and post-simulation questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in post-intervention versus pre-intervention Likert scores for role confidence and orientation adequacy (p=0.001 and simulation was of utility in orientation of staff, at least with respect to self-reported role confidence and orientation adequacy. Its effectiveness in practice or compared with other orientation techniques was not assessed, but it did identify several flaws in planned systems allowing remediation prior to opening.

  1. Vancomycin-resistant vanB-type Enterococcus faecium isolates expressing varying levels of vancomycin resistance and being highly prevalent among neonatal patients in a single ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Guido


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vancomycin-resistant isolates of E. faecalis and E. faecium are of special concern and patients at risk of acquiring a VRE colonization/infection include also intensively-cared neonates. We describe here an ongoing high prevalence of VanB type E. faecium in a neonatal ICU hardly to identify by routine diagnostics. Methods During a 10 months’ key period 71 E. faecium isolates including 67 vanB-type isolates from 61 patients were collected non-selectively. Vancomycin resistance was determined by different MIC methods (broth microdilution, Vitek® 2 including two Etest® protocols (McFarland 0.5/2.0. on Mueller-Hinton/Brain Heart Infusion agars. Performance of three chromogenic VRE agars to identify the vanB type outbreak VRE was evaluated (BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar, CHROMagarTM VRE. Isolates were genotyped by SmaI- and CeuI-macrorestriction analysis in PFGE, plasmid profiling, vanB Southern hybridisations as well as MLST typing. Results Majority of vanB isolates (n = 56, 79% belonged to a single ST192 outbreak strain type showing an identical PFGE pattern and analyzed representative isolates revealed a chromosomal localization of a vanB2-Tn5382 cluster type. Vancomycin MICs in cation-adjusted MH broth revealed a susceptible value of ≤4 mg/L for 31 (55% of the 56 outbreak VRE isolates. Etest® vancomycin on MH and BHI agars revealed only two vanB VRE isolates with a susceptible result; in general Etest® MIC results were about 1 to 2 doubling dilutions higher than MICs assessed in broth and values after the 48 h readout were 0.5 to 1 doubling dilutions higher for vanB VRE. Of all vanB type VRE only three, three and two isolates did not grow on BrillianceTM VRE agar, chromIDTM VRE agar and CHROMagarTM VRE, respectively. Permanent cross contamination via the patients’ surrounding appeared as a possible risk factor for permanent VRE colonization/infection. Conclusions Low level expression of van

  2. A heavy-traffic theorem for the GI/G/1 queue with a Pareto-type service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Cohen


    textabstractFor the $GI/G/1$-queueing model with traffic load $a<1$, service time distribution $B(t)$ and interarrival time distribution $A(t)$ holds, whenever for $t rightarrow infty$: $$ quad 1-B(t) sim frac{c{(t/ beta)^nu + {rm O ( {rm e^{-delta t ), quad c>0, quad 1< nu < 2, quad delta >

  3. 76 FR 54145 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft... (United States)


    ... Services GmbH, Global Support Center, P.O. Box 1252, D-82231 Wessling, Federal Republic of Germany... of this AD introduce pre-flight operational tests of the warning system modification, along with abnormal procedures that provide guidance to the flightcrew in the event of various potential warning...

  4. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study. (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman


    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013. The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records. Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression. Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes.

  5. Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazo, Ramon; Rice, Anthony; Tweedie, James; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mita, Seiji; Xie, Jinqiao; Dalmau, Rafael [HexaTech, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)


    As the building blocks of deep UV light emitting diode (LED) technology and high-power electronic devices, AlGaN alloys have attracted considerable attention. In this study, AlGaN films with varying compositions doped with Si were deposited on homoepitaxial AlN layers grown on AlN single crystal substrates. The room temperature resistivity of AlGaN alloys of different compositions grown on AlN and sapphire substrates with a constant Si doping level of 6x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} was compared. AlGaN films grown on AlN substrates consistently exhibited a lower n-type resistivity than those grown on sapphire. An n-type resistivity of 0.1 {omega} cm was obtained for an AlGaN film with 80% Al content and a sheet resistance of 235 {omega}/sq. for an AlGaN film with 70% Al content. The carrier activation energy as a function of Al content in AlGaN for these n-type films was measured. For compositions below 80% Al, the activation energy was around 15 meV due to impurity potential screening. For higher Al compositions, the carrier concentration was limited by a high compensation ratio, except for AlN, which has activation energy of 250 meV. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. A Simplified Semiquantitative Meal Bolus Strategy Combined with Single- and Dual-Hormone Closed-Loop Delivery in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Gingras, Véronique; Haidar, Ahmad; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi


    Single- and dual-hormone closed-loop systems can improve glycemic control and have the potential to reduce carbohydrate-counting burden for patients with type 1 diabetes; however, simplification of meal insulin calculation should not compromise glycemic control. We compared in a randomized outpatient pilot trial: (1) a single-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy, and (2) a dual-hormone closed-loop system accompanied with carbohydrate-content matched boluses versus accompanied with a simplified meal bolus strategy. Carbohydrate-matched boluses were based on the participant's carbohydrate meal content estimation whereas the simplified strategy involved the selection, by participants, of a semi-quantitative meal carbohydrate-content size: snack, regular, large, or very large meal. Each participant also underwent sensor-augmented pump therapy. Basal insulin delivery was more aggressive with the simplified bolus. The primary outcome was mean sensor glucose level over a 15-h daytime period. Twelve participants were recruited (48.2 ± 16.0 years old; HbA1c 7.4% ± 0.9%) to compare the two bolus strategies during single- and dual-hormone closed-loop delivery. A similar mean sensor glucose level (15 h) was achieved with the carbohydrate-matched boluses and simplified strategy using single-hormone (median [interquartile]: 7.6 [7.2-8.1] vs. 8.0 [7.0-8.6] mmol/L; P = 0.90) and dual-hormone closed-loop systems (7.6 [6.7-9.1] vs. 7.0 [6.4-8.2] mmol/L; P = 0.08). Exploratory analyses showed that, as compared with sensor-augmented pump therapy, there was an increased time spent in hypoglycemia with the simplified strategy but not with the carbohydrate-matched boluses. Though the algorithm employed in this pilot study may lead to an increased risk for hypoglycemia, this strategy has the potential to reduce the carbohydrate-counting burden in patients with type

  7. The progeny of a single virgin B cell predominates the human recall B cell response to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Hougs, L; Juul, L


    of Haemophilus influenzae type b coupled to tetanus toxoid. We combined affinity purification of circulating vaccine-induced Ab-secreting cells with PCR amplification of cDNA followed by cloning and sequencing. Forty-eight and 42 kappa VJ gene transcripts were analyzed from two adults, respectively. Both......Restricted V region diversity is a key feature of Abs to many haptens and simple polysaccharides. Two possible mechanisms exist: 1) selection of many clonally unrelated B cells using very similar or identical VDJ and VJ rearrangements; and 2) selection of a heavily expanded progeny of few virgin B...... cells. How many virgin B cells eventually give rise to the total Ab response to a simple Ag is a fundamental immunologic question. In this report, we address this question in human adults by analyzing the rearranged VkappaJkappa genes of B cells responding to a single dose of the capsular polysaccharide...

  8. Validation of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing assay with 49 SNPs for forensic genetic testing in a laboratory accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Morling, Niels


    cases and 33 twin cases were typed at least twice for the 49 SNPs. All electropherograms were analysed independently by two expert analysts prior to approval. Based on these results, detailed guidelines for analysis of the SBE products were developed. With these guidelines, the peak height ratio...... of a heterozygous allele call or the signal to noise ratio of a homozygous allele call is compared with previously obtained ratios. A laboratory protocol for analysis of SBE products was developed where allele calls with unusual ratios were highlighted to facilitate the analysis of difficult allele calls......A multiplex assay with 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for human identification was validated for forensic genetic casework and accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard. The multiplex assay was based on the SNPforID 52plex SNP assay [J.J. Sanchez, C. Phillips, C...

  9. Moderation of effects of AAC based on setting and types of aided AAC on outcome variables: an aggregate study of single-case research with individuals with ASD. (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Rispoli, Mandy J; Mason, Rose Ann; Hong, Ee Rea


    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the potential moderating effects of intervention setting and type of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on outcome variables for students with autism spectrum disorders. Improvement rate difference, an effect size measure, was used to calculate aggregate effects across 35 single-case research studies. Results indicated that the largest effects for aided AAC were observed in general education settings. With respect to communication outcomes, both speech generating devices (SGDs) and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) were associated with larger effects than other picture-based systems. With respect to challenging behaviour outcomes, SGDs produced larger effects than PECS. This aggregate study highlights the importance of considering intervention setting, choice of AAC system and target outcomes when designing and planning an aided AAC intervention.

  10. Online single particle analysis of ice particle residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds using laboratory derived particle type assignment (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Klimach, Thomas; Mertes, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig Paul; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Curtius, Joachim; Borrmann, Stephan


    In situ single particle analysis of ice particle residuals (IPRs) and out-of-cloud aerosol particles was conducted by means of laser ablation mass spectrometry during the intensive INUIT-JFJ/CLACE campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.) in January-February 2013. During the 4-week campaign more than 70 000 out-of-cloud aerosol particles and 595 IPRs were analyzed covering a particle size diameter range from 100 nm to 3 µm. The IPRs were sampled during 273 h while the station was covered by mixed-phase clouds at ambient temperatures between -27 and -6 °C. The identification of particle types is based on laboratory studies of different types of biological, mineral and anthropogenic aerosol particles. The outcome of these laboratory studies was characteristic marker peaks for each investigated particle type. These marker peaks were applied to the field data. In the sampled IPRs we identified a larger number fraction of primary aerosol particles, like soil dust (13 ± 5 %) and minerals (11 ± 5 %), in comparison to out-of-cloud aerosol particles (2.4 ± 0.4 and 0.4 ± 0.1 %, respectively). Additionally, anthropogenic aerosol particles, such as particles from industrial emissions and lead-containing particles, were found to be more abundant in the IPRs than in the out-of-cloud aerosol. In the out-of-cloud aerosol we identified a large fraction of aged particles (31 ± 5 %), including organic material and secondary inorganics, whereas this particle type was much less abundant (2.7 ± 1.3 %) in the IPRs. In a selected subset of the data where a direct comparison between out-of-cloud aerosol particles and IPRs in air masses with similar origin was possible, a pronounced enhancement of biological particles was found in the IPRs.

  11. Screening of 134 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with type 2 diabetes replicates association with 12 SNPs in nine genes. (United States)

    Willer, Cristen J; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Conneely, Karen N; Duren, William L; Jackson, Anne U; Scott, Laura J; Narisu, Narisu; Chines, Peter S; Skol, Andrew; Stringham, Heather M; Petrie, John; Erdos, Michael R; Swift, Amy J; Enloe, Sareena T; Sprau, Andrew G; Smith, Eboni; Tong, Maurine; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Watanabe, Richard M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Valle, Timo T; Bergman, Richard N; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Mohlke, Karen L; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael


    More than 120 published reports have described associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes. However, multiple studies of the same variant have often been discordant. From a literature search, we identified previously reported type 2 diabetes-associated SNPs. We initially genotyped 134 SNPs on 786 index case subjects from type 2 diabetes families and 617 control subjects with normal glucose tolerance from Finland and excluded from analysis 20 SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) > 0.8) with another typed SNP. Of the 114 SNPs examined, we followed up the 20 most significant SNPs (P < 0.10) on an additional 384 case subjects and 366 control subjects from a population-based study in Finland. In the combined data, we replicated association (P < 0.05) for 12 SNPs: PPARG Pro12Ala and His447, KCNJ11 Glu23Lys and rs5210, TNF -857, SLC2A2 Ile110Thr, HNF1A/TCF1 rs2701175 and GE117881_360, PCK1 -232, NEUROD1 Thr45Ala, IL6 -598, and ENPP1 Lys121Gln. The replication of 12 SNPs of 114 tested was significantly greater than expected by chance under the null hypothesis of no association (P = 0.012). We observed that SNPs from genes that had three or more previous reports of association were significantly more likely to be replicated in our sample (P = 0.03), although we also replicated 4 of 58 SNPs from genes that had only one previous report of association.

  12. Single-Tube Dodecaplex PCR Panel of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Closely Linked to theDMPKCTG Repeat for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. (United States)

    Lian, Mulias; Zhao, Mingjue; Lee, Caroline G; Chong, Samuel S


    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) currently uses conventional PCR to detect nonexpanded dystrophia myotonica protein kinase ( DMPK ) alleles or triplet-primed PCR to detect the CTG-expanded alleles, coupled with analysis of linked microsatellite markers to increase diagnostic accuracy. We aimed to simplify the process of identification and selection of informative linked markers for application to DM1 PGD. An in silico search was performed to identify all markers within 1-1.5 Mb flanking the DMPK gene. Five previously known (D19S559, APOC2, D19S543, D19S112, and BV209569) and 7 novel (DM45050, DM45178, DM45209, DM45958, DM46513, DM46892, and DM47004.1) markers with potentially high heterozygosity values and polymorphism information content were selected and optimized in a single-tube multiplex PCR panel. Analysis of 184 DNA samples of Chinese and Caucasian individuals (91 from unrelated, anonymized cord blood of Chinese babies born at the National University Hospital, Singapore, and 93 Caucasian DNA samples from the Human Variation Panel HD100CAU) confirmed the high polymorphism indices of all markers (polymorphism information content >0.5), with observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62-0.93. All individuals were heterozygous for at least 6 markers, with 99.5% of individuals heterozygous for at least 2 markers on either side of the DMPK CTG repeat. The dodecaplex marker assay was successfully validated on 42 single cells and 12 whole genome amplified single cells. The DM1 multiplex PCR panel is suitable for use in DM1 PGD either as a standalone linkage-based assay or as a complement to DMPK CTG repeat expansion-mutation detection. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. The analysis of effect of gaseous fission products on service-ability of various types of fuel elements used in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.A.; Kulakov, G.V.; Kosaurov, A.A.; Dobrikova, I.V.; Morozov, A.A.


    The analysis of the work to license U-Mo dispersion fuel that has been carried out by program RERTR shows that at high burnups the U-Mo particles interacts with an Al matrix to form porosity in the central areas of the fuel meat. This results leads to change the loading of cladding due to the formation of long-length defects in the fuel meat. As a result, the pressure of gases leads to a larger shape change (pillowing) of fuels and in some instances to their failure. The paper presents the results of modeling pillowing process proceeding in Russia's research reactor fuels of different types (tubular and rod fuels) that is effected by the accumulation and pressure of fission gas in meat porosity. The problem has been resolved in the viscous-plasticity statement using the program MARC for finite element analysis. The behavior of fission gas (FG) in open porosity has been analyzed to reveal the influence of the fuel design on their resistance to the pressure of FG. (author)

  14. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1β mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. (United States)

    Tamasawa, Atsuko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Saito, Miyoko; Ishida, Hidenori; Doguchi, Satako; Yanagiya, Syoko; Osonoi, Takeshi


    Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, leads to the production of hydrogen gas, which reduces oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effects of a single dose of acarbose immediately before a test meal on postprandial hydrogen gas in breath and peripheral blood interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen Japanese patients (14 men, 2 women) participated in this study. The mean±standard deviation age, hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were 52.1±15.4 years, 10.2±2.0%, and 27.7±8.0kg/m(2), respectively. The patients were admitted into our hospital for 2 days and underwent test meals at breakfast without (day 1) or with acarbose (day 2). We performed continuous glucose monitoring and measured hydrogen gas levels in breath, and peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels before (0min) and after the test meal (hydrogen gas: 60, 120, 180, and 300min; IL-1β: 180min). The induction of hydrogen gas production and the reduction in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA after the test meal were not significant between days 1 (without acarbose) and 2 (with acarbose). However, the changes in total hydrogen gas production from day 1 to day 2 were closely and inversely associated with the changes in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels. Our results suggest that an increase in hydrogen gas production is inversely associated with a reduction of the peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA level after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ichthyophonus parasite phylogeny based on ITS rDNA structure prediction and alignment identifies six clades, with a single dominant marine type (United States)

    Gregg, Jacob; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul


    Despite their widespread, global impact in both wild and cultured fishes, little is known of the diversity, transmission patterns, and phylogeography of parasites generally identified as Ichthyophonus. This study constructed a phylogeny based on the structural alignment of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences to compare Ichthyophonus isolates from fish hosts in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and several rivers and aquaculture sites in North America, Europe, and Japan. Structure of the Ichthyophonus ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 transcript exhibited several homologies with other eukaryotes, and 6 distinct clades were identified within Ichthyophonus. A single clade contained a majority (71 of 98) of parasite isolations. This ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurred in 13 marine and anadromous hosts and was associated with epizootics in Atlantic herring, Chinook salmon, and American shad. A second clade contained all isolates from aquaculture, despite great geographic separation of the freshwater hosts. Each of the 4 remaining clades contained isolates from single host species. This study is the first to evaluate the genetic relationships among Ichthyophonus species across a significant portion of their host and geographic range. Additionally, parasite infection prevalence is reported in 16 fish species.

  16. A-11: cell type-specific and single-active-X transcription controls of newly found gene in cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadon, N.; Korn, N.; DeMars, R.


    We describe the isolation and characterization of a human X-chromosomal gene that is subject to both single-active-X control and tissue-specific control. The A-11 gene was identified by a cDNA that hydridizes to a 3.2-kb EcoR1 fragment of genomic DNA on the long arm of the human X chromosome. A-11 transcripts are normally present in fibroblasts but not in B- or T-lymphoblasts. However, A-11 transcription was activated in four of 11 independent, gamma ray-induced B-lymphoblastoid HLA antigen-loss mutants. Cell hybrids with a human fibroblast-derived active X contained A-11 transcripts but hybrids carrying the human inactive X did not. Azacytidine, a potent inhibitor of DNA methylation, readily reactivated the A-11 locus on the inactive X in hybrid cells, indicating that differential methylation is likely to be involved in the single-active-X control of A-11 transcription in fibroblasts. Failure of cells to remethylate DNA synthesized to repair gamma ray-induced damage may also have resulted in the activation of A-11 transcription among the lymphoblastoid mutants. The A-11 locus provides an opportunity to study the relationship between two types of transcriptional regulation of a gene

  17. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian


    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  18. Constraining the Single-degenerate Channel of Type Ia Supernovae with Stable Iron-group Elements in SNR 3C 397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, Pranav; Kashyap, Rahul; Fisher, Robert [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02740 (United States); Timmes, Frank [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Townsley, Dean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 870324, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Byrohl, Chris [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg August Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)


    Recent Suzaku X-ray spectra of supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 indicate enhanced stable iron group element abundances of Ni, Mn, Cr, and Fe. Seeking to address key questions about the progenitor and explosion mechanism of 3C 397, we compute nucleosynthetic yields from a suite of multidimensional hydrodynamics models in the near-Chandrasekhar-mass, single-degenerate paradigm for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Varying the progenitor white dwarf (WD) internal structure, composition, ignition, and explosion mechanism, we find that the best match to the observed iron peak elements of 3C 397 are dense (central density ≥6 × 10{sup 9} g cm{sup −3}), low-carbon WDs that undergo a weak, centrally ignited deflagration, followed by a subsequent detonation. The amount of {sup 56}Ni produced is consistent with a normal or bright normal SNe Ia. A pure deflagration of a centrally ignited, low central density (≃2 × 10{sup 9} g cm{sup −3}) progenitor WD, frequently considered in the literature, is also found to produce good agreement with 3C 397 nucleosynthetic yields, but leads to a subluminous SN Ia event, in conflict with X-ray line width data. Additionally, in contrast to prior work that suggested a large supersolar metallicity for the WD progenitor for SNR 3C 397, we find satisfactory agreement for solar- and subsolar-metallicity progenitors. We discuss a range of implications our results have for the single-degenerate channel.

  19. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions. (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer


    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.

  20. Effect of type and severity of intimate partner violence on women's health and service use: findings from a primary care trial of women afraid of their partners. (United States)

    Hegarty, Kelsey L; O'Doherty, Lorna J; Chondros, Patty; Valpied, Jodie; Taft, Angela J; Astbury, Jill; Brown, Stephanie J; Gold, Lisa; Taket, Ann; Feder, Gene S; Gunn, Jane M


    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has major affects on women's wellbeing. There has been limited investigation of the association between type and severity of IPV and health outcomes. This article describes socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of abuse, health, safety, and use of services in women enrolled in the Women's Evaluation of Abuse and Violence Care (WEAVE) project. We explored associations between type and severity of abuse and women's health, quality of life, and help seeking. Women (aged 16-50 years) attending 52 Australian general practices, reporting fear of partners in last 12 months were mailed a survey between June 2008 and May 2010. Response rate was 70.5% (272/386). In the last 12 months, one third (33.0%) experienced Severe Combined Abuse, 26.2% Physical and Emotional Abuse, 26.6% Emotional Abuse and/or Harassment only, 2.7% Physical Abuse only and 12.4% scored negative on the Composite Abuse Scale. A total of 31.6% of participants reported poor or fair health and 67.9% poor social support. In the last year, one third had seen a psychologist (36.6%) or had 5 or more general practitioner visits (34.3%); 14.7% contacted IPV services; and 24.4% had made a safety plan. Compared to other abuse groups, women with Severe Combined Abuse had poor quality of life and mental health, despite using more medications, counseling, and IPV services and were more likely to have days out of role because of emotional issues. In summary, women who were fearful of partners in the last year, have poor mental health and quality of life, attend health care services frequently, and domestic violence services infrequently. Those women experiencing severe combined physical, emotional, and sexual abuse have poorer quality of life and mental health than women experiencing other abuse types. Health practitioners should take a history of type and severity of abuse for women with mental health issues to assist access to appropriate specialist support.

  1. Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-peaked [O III] Lines. II. Single AGNs with Complex Narrow-line Region Kinematics are More Common than Binary AGNs (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.


    Approximately 1% of low-redshift (z interpreted as either due to kinematics, such as biconical outflows and/or disk rotation of the narrow line region (NLR) around single black holes, or due to the relative motion of two distinct NLRs in a merging pair of AGNs. Here, we report follow-up near-infrared (NIR) imaging and optical slit spectroscopy of 31 double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) parent sample presented in Liu et al. The NIR imaging traces the old stellar population in each galaxy, while the optical slit spectroscopy traces the NLR gas. These data reveal a mixture of origins for the double-peaked feature. Roughly 10% of our objects are best explained by binary AGNs at (projected) kpc-scale separations, where two stellar components with spatially coincident NLRs are seen. ~50% of our objects have [O III] emission offset by a few kpc, corresponding to the two velocity components seen in the SDSS spectra, but there are no spatially coincident double stellar components seen in the NIR imaging. For those objects with sufficiently high-quality slit spectra, we see velocity and/or velocity dispersion gradients in [O III] emission, suggestive of the kinematic signatures of a single NLR. The remaining ~40% of our objects are ambiguous and will need higher spatial resolution observations to distinguish between the two scenarios. Our observations therefore favor the kinematics scenario with a single AGN for the majority of these double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs. We emphasize the importance of combining imaging and slit spectroscopy in identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, i.e., in no cases does one of these alone allow an unambiguous identification. We estimate that ~0.5%-2.5% of the z ~ 150 km s-1. Based in part on observations obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray studies on three new mononuclear Ni(II) pincer type complexes: DFT calculations and their antimicrobial activities (United States)

    Layek, Samaresh; Agrahari, Bhumika; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Kumari, Chanda; Anuradha; Ganguly, Rakesh; Pathak, Devendra D.


    Three new mononuclear square planar Ni(II) complexes, containing pincer type tridentate Schiff base ligands, having general formula [(NiL1(4-MePy)] (1), [(NiL1(2-AzNp)] (2), and [(NiL2(4-MePy)] (3) [where L1 = anion of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) benzoylhydrazide (HL1), L2 = anion of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) thiosemicarbazide (HL2), 4-MePy = 4-Methylpyridine and 2-AzNp = 2-Azanapthalene] have been synthesized and fully characterized by FT-IR, UV-visible, NMR, single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and elemental analysis. All the three complexes show square planar geometry around the nickel atom. The pincer type ligand occupies three coordination sites, while the fourth site is occupied by the monodentate nitrogen containing ligand. The Quantum chemical DFT calculations have also been carried out using DFT/B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The synthesized nickel complexes were screened for antimicrobial activities by agar well diffusion method against E. coli bacteria. Out of three complexes, [(NiL2(4-MePy)] (3) only showed the antimicrobial activity against E. coli bacteria.

  3. Multidimensional Models of Type Ia Supernova Nebular Spectra: Strong Emission Lines from Stripped Companion Gas Rule Out Classic Single-degenerate Systems (United States)

    Botyánszki, János; Kasen, Daniel; Plewa, Tomasz


    The classic single-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) predicts that the supernova ejecta should be enriched with solar-like abundance material stripped from the companion star. Spectroscopic observations of normal SNe Ia at late times, however, have not resulted in definite detection of hydrogen. In this Letter, we study line formation in SNe Ia at nebular times using non-LTE spectral modeling. We present, for the first time, multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of SNe Ia with stripped material mixed in the ejecta core, based on hydrodynamical simulations of ejecta–companion interaction. We find that interaction models with main-sequence companions produce significant Hα emission at late times, ruling out these types of binaries being viable progenitors of SNe Ia. We also predict significant He I line emission at optical and near-infrared wavelengths for both hydrogen-rich or helium-rich material, providing an additional observational probe of stripped ejecta. We produce models with reduced stripped masses and find a more stringent mass limit of M st ≲ 1 × 10‑4 M ⊙ of stripped companion material for SN 2011fe.

  4. Comparative study of thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and electrocardiography in Duchenne and other types of muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Matsushima, H.; Suzuki, A.; Sotobata, I.; Indo, T.; Matsuoka, Y.


    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using thallium-201 was compared with 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) in patients with Duchenne (29), facioscapulohumeral (7), limb-girdle (6) and myotonic (5) dystrophies, by dividing the left ventricular (LV) wall into 5 segments. SPECT showed thallium defects (37 patients, mostly in the posteroapical wall), malrotation (23), apical aneurysm (5) and dilatation (7). ECG showed abnormal QRS (36 patients), particularly as a posterolateral pattern (13). Both methods of assessment were normal in only 7 patients. The Duchenne type frequently showed both a thallium defect (particularly in the posteroapical wall) and an abnormal QRS (predominantly in the posterolateral wall); the 3 other types showed abnormalities over the 5 LV wall segments in both tests. The percent of agreement between the 2 tests was 64, 66, 70, 72 and 72 for the lateral, apical, anteroseptal, posterior and inferior walls, respectively. The 2 tests were discordant in 31% of the LV wall, with SPECT (+) but ECG (-) in 21% (mostly in the apicoinferior wall) and SPECT (-) but ECG (+) in 10% (mostly in the lateral wall). Some patients showed large SPECT hypoperfusion despite minimal electrocardiographic changes. ECG thus appeared to underestimate LV fibrosis and to reflect posteroapical rather than posterolateral dystrophy in its posterolateral QRS pattern. In this disease, extensive SPECT hypoperfusion was also shown, irrespective of clinical subtype and skeletal involvement

  5. Development of Ultrasonic Testing System for In-Service Inspection of the Shrunk-on Type LP Turbine Roter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Soo; Seong Un Hark; Ryu, Seong Woo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Turbine, which is one of major components in nuclear power plants, requires reliable nondestructive inspections. But, accessibility of transducers is limited and interpretation of acquired signals is not easy at all due to the complication. So, in this study, we have fabricated mock-up specimens of real size and shape. We applied pulse-echo method and time-of-flight diffraction(TOFD) method for precise inspection of turbine key and wheel bore. And phased array ultrasonic testing method was adopted for wheel dovetail of turbines by using mock-up. Furthermore, an automatic scanner system was developed for in-service inspection of the developed methods

  6. Risk Factors for Ineffectiveness of Posterior Decompression and Dekyphotic Corrective Fusion with Instrumentation for Beak-Type Thoracic Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A Single Institute Study. (United States)

    Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Wakao, Norimitsu; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki


    Thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL) is treated surgically with instrumented posterior decompression and fusion. However, the factors determining the outcome of this approach and the efficacy of additional resection of T-OPLL are unknown. To identify these factors in a prospective study at a single institution. The subjects were 70 consecutive patients with beak-type T-OPLL who underwent posterior decompression and dekyphotic fusion and had an average of 4.8 years of follow-up (minimum of 2 years). Of these patients, 4 (6%; group R) had no improvement or aggravation, were not ambulatory for 3 weeks postoperatively, and required additional T-OPLL resection; while 66 (group N) required no further T-OPLL resection. Clinical records, gait status, intraoperative ultrasonography, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM), plain radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were compared between the groups. Preoperatively, patients in group R had significantly higher rates of severe motor paralysis, nonambulatory status, positive prone and supine position test, no spinal cord floating in intraoperative ultrasonography, and deterioration of IONM at the end of surgery ( P < .05). In preoperative radiography, the OPLL spinal cord kyphotic angle difference in fused area, OPLL length, and OPLL canal stenosis were significantly higher in group R ( P < .05). At final follow-up, JOA scores improved similarly in both groups. Preoperative severe motor paralysis, nonambulatory status, positive prone and supine position test, radiographic spinal cord compression due to beak-type T-OPLL, and intraoperative residual spinal cord compression and deterioration of IONM were associated with ineffectiveness of posterior decompression and fusion with instrumentation. Our 2-stage strategy may be appropriate for beak-type T-OPLL surgery. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of

  7. Does a single bout of resistance or aerobic exercise after insulin dose reduction modulate glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes? A randomised cross-over trial. (United States)

    Gordon, Brett A; Bird, Stephen R; MacIsaac, Richard J; Benson, Amanda C


    Regular exercise is advocated for individuals with type 2 diabetes, without fully understanding the acute (0-72h post-exercise) glycaemic response. This study assessed post-exercise glycaemic profiles of non-exercising individuals with insulin treated type 2 diabetes, following resistance and aerobic exercise. Randomised cross-over trial. Fourteen individuals with insulin treated type 2 diabetes (9 males, 5 females) aged 58.1±7.1 years (HbA1c: 8.0±0.6%) were allocated to single sessions of resistance (six whole-body exercises, three sets, 8-10 repetitions, 70% 1RM) and aerobic (30min cycling, 60% VO2peak) exercise, 7-days apart, with the day prior to the first exercise day of each intervention being the control condition. Immediately prior to exercise, insulin dosage was halved and breakfast consumed. Continuous glucose monitoring was undertaken to determine area under the curve and glucose excursions. Blood glucose initially increased (0-2h) following both resistance and aerobic exercise (paerobic (211±40 mmolL(-1)24h(-1)) exercise (p=0.56). Incidence of hyperglycaemia did not differ between exercise modes (p=0.68). Hypoglycaemic events were identified in three and four participants following resistance and aerobic exercise respectively: these did not require treatment. Glycaemic response is not different between exercise modes, although 50% insulin dose reduction prior to exercise impairs the expected improvement. A common clinical recommendation of 50% insulin dose reduction does not appear to cause adverse glycaemic events. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of life and metabolic status in mildly depressed women with type 2 diabetes treated with paroxetine: A single-blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlbeck Kristian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is prevalent in people with type 2 diabetes and affects both glycemic control and overall quality of life. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the antidepressant paroxetine on metabolic control, quality of life and mental well-being in mildly depressed women with type 2 diabetes. Methods We randomised 15 mildly depressed women with non-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes to a 10-week single-blind treatment with either paroxetine 20 mg per day or placebo. Primary efficacy measurements were glycemic control and quality of life. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (GHbA1c was used as a measure of glycemic control. Quality of life was evaluated using RAND-36. Mental state was assessed using two clinician-rated scoring instruments, Hamilton's Anxiety Scale (HAM-A and Montgomery-Åsberg's Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, and a patient-rated scoring instrument, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Results At the end of the study no significant difference between groups in improvement of quality of life was found. A trend towards a superior improvement in glycemic control was found in the paroxetine group (p = 0.08. A superior increase in sex-hormone-binding-globuline (SHBG levels was evidenced in the paroxetine group (p = 0.01 as a sign of improved insulin sensitivity. There was also a trend for superior efficacy of paroxetine in investigator-rated anxiety and depression. This notion was supported by a trend for superior decrease of serum cortisol levels in the paroxetine group (p = 0.06. Conclusion Paroxetine has a beneficial effect on measures of insulin sensitivity and may improve glycemic control. Larger studies of longer duration are needed to verify the benefits of paroxetine in type 2 diabetes. While waiting for more conclusive evidence it seems sensible to augment standard care of type 2 diabetes with paroxetine even in patients who do not fulfil routine psychiatric criteria for initiation of antidepressant

  9. Ecosystem function and the net benefit of services provided by three land-use types under variable management in northwestern Virginia (United States)

    Huelsman, K. S.; Epstein, H. E.


    The concept of Ecosystem Services (ES) has become more interdisciplinary and influential in policy decision-making, but there are two major shortcomings in recent ES conversations: the resource inputs required by highly managed systems in order to provide material goods are not widely considered, and the distinction between ecosystem function and service is not always made. Supporting and regulating ES were examined for three land-use types with variable human management within the same mesoclimate: farmland, native prairie, and non-native early successional field. In situ soil moisture readings and soil nitrogen (N) transformation incubations, biodiversity surveys, vegetation harvesting, and soil sampling in each land-use type were used to determine the following ES: habitat, productivity, soil fertility, nutrient cycling, and water retention. If the provision of a particular ES required human inputs or interference, its overall value was reduced by the environmental cost of management. Non-native early successional field is not valued for the provision of any particular ES, as native prairie and farmland are, but it provides supporting and regulating ES without the requirement of human intervention, making it valuable in different ways. Likewise, any ecosystem functions with negative ecological side effects were considered ecosystem disservices and reduced the overall value of ES provided by the system. For example, the function of net nitrogen mineralization, generally defined as a service, is a disservice under N-saturated conditions, as additional N could be lost via leaching or gaseous forms. This research is valuable in the context of the current trend of increasing farmland abandonment and land use conversions. By considering the cost of human management for the provision of certain ES, as well as potential disservices associated with function, the overall net benefits of these three land-use types can be compared to improve land-use decision-making.

  10. Half-life of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) and two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (tcu-PA) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Köhler, M; Sen, S; Miyashita, C; Hermes, R; Pindur, G; Heiden, M; Berg, G; Mörsdorf, S; Leipnitz, G; Zeppezauer, M


    The pharmacokinetics of urokinase (two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator, tcu-PA) and single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) were studied in 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ten consecutive patients received 2.5 million units tcu-PA by bolus injection within 5 min during the first 6 h after AMI (group I). Ten further consecutive patients received 250,000 U tcu-PA within 5 min, followed by 4.5 million U scu-PA by intravenous infusion over 40 min (group II). An enzyme immunoassay was developed for urokinase antigen determinations, and a fibrin plate assay for determinations of fibrinolytic activity was applied. Using a 3-compartment model, in group I 98% of urokinase antigen were cleared with a half-life of 60.8 min. After scu-PA, urokinase antigen was cleared with half-lives (area under the curve in parentheses) of 6.9 min (74.8%), 26.5 min (23.6%), and 329.7 min (2.2%). The half-disappearance times of fibrinolytic activity were 18 and 8 min in group I and II, respectively. A more pronounced decrease of plasminogen was observed after tcu-PA.

  11. Effects of retail style or food service style packaging type and storage time on sensory characteristics of bacon manufactured from commercially sourced pork bellies. (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Bohrer, B M; Holmer, S F; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C


    Objectives were to characterize differences in pork bellies that were stored frozen for different durations prior to processing and characterize sensory properties of the bacon derived from those bellies when stored in either retail or food service style packaging. Bellies (n = 102) were collected from 4 different time periods, fresh bellies (never frozen) and bellies frozen for 2, 5, or 7 mo, and manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Food service bacon was packaged in oxygen-permeable polyvinyl lined boxes layered on wax-covered lined paper and blast frozen (-33 °C) for 45 or 90 d after slicing. Retail bacon was vacuum-packaged in retail packages and refrigerated (2 °C) in the dark for 60 or 120 d after slicing. At the end of respective storage times after slicing, bacon was analyzed for sensory attributes and lipid oxidation. Off-flavor and oxidized odor of bacon increased (P bacon from frozen bellies, but was unchanged (P ≥ 0.07) with time in food service packaged bacon from fresh bellies. Lipid oxidation was also unchanged (P ≥ 0.21) over time in retail packaged bacon, with the exception of bellies frozen for 5 mo, which was increased from day 0 to day 90. Overall, off-flavor, oxidized odor, and lipid oxidation increased as storage time after processing increased. Freezing bellies before processing may exacerbate lipid oxidation as storage time after processing was extended. Bacon can be packaged and managed several different ways before it reaches the consumer. This research simulated food service (frozen) and retail packaged (refrigerated) bacon over a range of storage times after slicing. Off-flavor and oxidized odor increased as storage time after processing increased in both packaging types. Lipid oxidation increased as storage time after slicing increased to a greater extent in food service packaging. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Impact of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Use and Cost of Medical Services Among Overweight and Obese Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The Action for Health in Diabetes


    Espeland, Mark A.; Glick, Henry A.; Bertoni, Alain; Brancati, Frederick L.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Curtis, Jeffrey M.; Egan, Caitlin; Evans, Mary; Foreyt, John P.; Ghazarian, Siran; Gregg, Edward W.; Hazuda, Helen P.; Hill, James O.; Hire, Don


    OBJECTIVE To assess the relative impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on use and costs of health care within the Look AHEAD trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 5,121 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an ILI that promoted weight loss or to a comparison condition of diabetes support and education (DSE). Use and costs of health-care services were recorded across an average of 10 years. RESULTS ILI led to reductions in annual hospit...

  13. Albiglutide, a weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist, improves glycemic parameters in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes over 1 year when added to single oral antidiabetic drugs. (United States)

    Okuda, Inaha; Wilson, Timothy H; Yue, Lin; Nakajima, Hiromu; Carr, Molly C; Tsuboi, Maho; Nino, Antonio; Seino, Yutaka


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once weekly albiglutide added to a single oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) in Japanese patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this phase 3, 1 year study (NCT01777282), patients (N = 374) received albiglutide 30 mg plus a single OAD (sulfonylurea [n = 120], biguanide [n = 67)], glinide [n = 65], thiazolidinedione [n = 61], or α-glucosidase inhibitor [n = 61]). Albiglutide could be increased to 50 mg after Week 4, based on glycemic criteria. Primary endpoints were the incidence of adverse events (AEs) and hypoglycemia; secondary endpoints were changes from baseline at Week 52 in HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), proportion of patients achieving HbA 1c ≤7.0%, and withdrawals due to hyperglycemia. On-therapy AEs occurred in 78.6% of patients and serious AEs in 2.1%. Common AEs were nasopharyngitis (32.6%), constipation (7.2%), and diabetic retinopathy (5.3%). No serious AEs occurred more than once or were reported in >1 patient. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4% of patients, mostly in the albiglutide + sulfonylurea (14.2%) and the albiglutide + glinide (6.2%) groups. Albiglutide was uptitrated in 53.2% of patients. Mean baseline HbA 1c was 8.1%. Mean decreases from baseline in HbA 1c were observed with the addition of albiglutide to thiazolidinediones (-1.42%), α-glucosidase inhibitors (-1.39%), sulfonylureas (-1.04%), glinides (-0.95%), and biguanides (-0.94%). HbA 1c of 50% of patients and mean reductions in FPG were achieved in all groups. Mean changes from baseline in body weight ranged from +0.52 kg (albiglutide + thiazolidinedione) to -0.33 kg (albiglutide + biguanide). Limitations of the study included open label treatment that was not randomized. When combined with a single OAD in Japanese patients with inadequately controlled T2DM, albiglutide led to favorable changes in all glycemic parameters, with minor changes in body weight

  14. Pressure drop-flow rate curves for single-phase steam in Combustion Engineering type steam generator U-tubes during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fynan, Douglas A.; Ahn, Kwang-Il, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Pressure drop-flow rate curves for superheated steam in U-tubes were generated. • Forward flow of hot steam is favored in the longer and taller U-tubes. • Reverse flow of cold steam is favored in short U-tubes. • Steam generator U-tube bundle geometry and tube diameter are important. • Need for correlation development for natural convention heat transfer coefficient. - Abstract: Characteristic pressure drop-flow rate curves are generated for all row numbers of the OPR1000 steam generators (SGs), representative of Combustion Engineering (CE) type SGs featuring square bend U-tubes. The pressure drop-flow rate curves are applicable to severe accident natural circulations of single-phase superheated steam during high pressure station blackout sequences with failed auxiliary feedwater and dry secondary side which are closely related to the thermally induced steam generator tube rupture event. The pressure drop-flow rate curves which determine the recirculation rate through the SG tubes are dependent on the tube bundle geometry and hydraulic diameter of the tubes. The larger CE type SGs have greater variation of tube length and height as a function of row number with forward flow of steam favored in the longer and taller high row number tubes and reverse flow favored in the short low row number tubes. Friction loss, natural convection heat transfer coefficients, and temperature differentials from the primary to secondary side are dominant parameters affecting the recirculation rate. The need for correlation development for natural convection heat transfer coefficients for external flow over tube bundles currently not modeled in system codes is discussed.

  15. Five types of home-visit nursing agencies in Japan based on characteristics of service delivery: cluster analysis of three nationwide surveys. (United States)

    Fukui, Sakiko; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Fujita, Junko


    The number of home-visit nursing agencies in Japan has greatly increased over the past 20 years since the Japanese government first introduced it in 1992 to meet the increased needs of home-bound elderly. Since then, home-visit nursing has come to serve for a variety of populations such as those with terminal-stage cancer, neurological diseases, psychiatric conditions, or children with chronic conditions; currently the number of agencies has reached 6,801 (as of April 2013). Yet little has been known about the details of their characteristics in terms of patient types or differences/similarities across regions. In this study, we developed a method to categorize home-visit nursing agencies throughout Japan based on their actual service delivery, in order to help improve healthcare policies allowing better services by those agencies. We performed a cluster analysis on data from two national databases (Survey of Institutions and Establishments for Long-term Care which is annually administered by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare [dataset 1; n = 5,161] and Information Publication System for Long-term Care which is annually reported by home-visit nursing agencies to their respective prefectural governments [dataset 2; n = 4,400, matching rate to data set 1: 84.4%]), in addition to the results from our original nationwide Fax survey of the service delivery system of home-visit nursing agencies (dataset 3; n = 2,049 matching rate to data set 1: 39.3%). The cluster analysis suggested five categories for home-visit nursing agencies based on the type of service delivery system. For deciding of these categories, we held 13 panel discussions with specialists to confirm that the categorization of the home-visit nursing agencies appropriately reflected their actual delivery systems. The five categories were: nurse-centered (560, 10.9%), rehabilitation-centered (211, 4.1%), psychiatric-centered (360, 7.0%), urban-centered (1,784, 34.5%), and rural

  16. Quantitative comparisons of urgent care service providers. (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Prybutok, Gayle L; Prybutok, Victor R; Wang, Bin


    The purpose of this paper is to develop, validate, and use a survey instrument to measure and compare the perceived quality of three types of US urgent care (UC) service providers: hospital emergency rooms, urgent care centres (UCC), and primary care physician offices. This study develops, validates, and uses a survey instrument to measure/compare differences in perceived service quality among three types of UC service providers. Six dimensions measured the components of service quality: tangibles, professionalism, interaction, accessibility, efficiency, and technical quality. Primary care physicians' offices scored higher for service quality and perceived value, followed by UCC. Hospital emergency rooms scored lower in both quality and perceived value. No significant difference was identified between UCC and primary care physicians across all the perspectives, except for interactions. The homogenous nature of the sample population (college students), and the fact that the respondents were recruited from a single university limits the generalizability of the findings. The patient's choice of a health care provider influences not only the continuity of the care that he or she receives, but compliance with a medical regime, and the evolution of the health care landscape. This work contributes to the understanding of how to provide cost effective and efficient UC services. This study developed and validated a survey instrument to measure/compare six dimensions of service quality for three types of UC service providers. The authors provide valuable data for UC service providers seeking to improve patient perceptions of service quality.

  17. N-Type 2D Organic Single Crystals for High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Near-Infrared Phototransistors. (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Ren, Xiaochen; Xu, Chunhui; Fu, Beibei; Wang, Ruihao; Zhang, Xiaotao; Li, Rongjin; Li, Hongxiang; Dong, Huanli; Zhen, Yonggang; Lei, Shengbin; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping


    Organic field-effect transistors and near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistors (OPTs) have attracted world's attention in many fields in the past decades. In general, the sensitivity, distinguishing the signal from noise, is the key parameter to evaluate the performance of NIR OPTs, which is decided by responsivity and dark current. 2D single crystal films of organic semiconductors (2DCOS) are promising functional materials due to their long-range order in spite of only few molecular layers. Herein, for the first time, air-stable 2DCOS of n-type organic semiconductors (a furan-thiophene quinoidal compound, TFT-CN) with strong absorbance around 830 nm, by the facile drop-casting method on the surface of water are successfully prepared. Almost millimeter-sized TFT-CN 2DCOS are obtained and their thickness is below 5 nm. A competitive field-effect electron mobility (1.36 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) and high on/off ratio (up to 10 8 ) are obtained in air. Impressively, the ultrasensitive NIR phototransistors operating at the off-state exhibit a very low dark current of ≈0.3 pA and an ultrahigh detectivity (D*) exceeding 6 × 10 14 Jones because the devices can operate in full depletion at the off-state, superior to the majority of the reported organic-based NIR phototransistors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of second-generation open-type PET ''single-ring OpenPET'' implemented with DOI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouch, Shoko; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Eiichi


    At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, we are developing OpenPET, an open-type positron emission tomography (PET) geometry with a physically open space, which allows easy access to the patient during PET studies. Our first-generation OpenPET system, dual-ring OpenPET, which consisted of two detector rings, could provide an extended axial field of view (FOV) including the open space. However, for applications such as in-beam PET to monitor the dose distribution in situ during particle therapy, higher sensitivity concentrated on the irradiation field is required rather than a wide FOV. In this report, we propose a second-generation OpenPET geometry, single-ring OpenPET, which can efficiently improve sensitivity while providing the required open space. When the proposed geometry was realized with block detectors, position-dependent degradation of the spatial resolution was expected because it was necessary to arrange the detector blocks in ellipsoidal rings stacked and shifted relative to one another. However, we found by Monte Carlo simulation that the use of depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors made it feasible to achieve uniform spatial resolution in the FOV. (author)

  19. The Effect of Different Types of Physical Exercise on the Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Standardbred Horses Housed in Single Stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Padalino


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5 m/s in a small track; maximal exercise (ME consisted of 1600 m run at maximal velocity; race (R was a real race of 1600 m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I, soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II, one hour (Time III, and two hours (Time IV after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare.

  20. A new single-dose bivalent vaccine of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae elicits protective immunity and improves growth performance under field conditions. (United States)

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee


    The efficacy of the new single-dose bivalent vaccine of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was evaluated under field conditions for registration as recommended by the Republic of Korea's Animal, Plant & Fisheries Quarantine & Inspection Agency. Three farms were selected based on their history of co-infection with PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae. On each farm, a total of 80 3-week-old pigs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups: (i) vaccinated (n=40) and (ii) unvaccinated (n=40) animals at 3 weeks of age. Protection by the bivalent vaccine helped increase the market weight by 6.2 kg/pig (106.2 kg in vaccinated group vs. 100 kg in unvaccinated group; Phyopneumoniae-specific IFN-γ-SC. Vaccinated animals displayed a reduced PCV2 load in the blood and M. hyopneumoniae load in nasal swabs compared to unvaccinated animals. Vaccination of pigs against PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae effectively reduced the lung and lymphoid lesion scores compared to unvaccinated animals in all 3 farms. The new bivalent vaccine is very efficacious in controlling PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae infection based on clinical, immunological, virological, and pathological evaluations under field conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of an entomopathogenic fungi target integument protein, Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Han, F; Lu, A; Yuan, Y; Huang, W; Beerntsen, B T; Huang, J; Ling, E


    The insect cuticle works as the first line of defence to protect insects from pathogenic infections and water evaporation. However, the old cuticle must be shed in order to enter the next developmental stage. During each ecdysis, moulting fluids are produced and secreted into the area among the old and new cuticles. In a previous study, the protein Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C (BmSVWC; BGIBMGA011399) was identified in the moulting fluids of Bo. mori and demonstrated to regulate ecdysis. In this study we show that in Bo. mori larvae, BmSVWC primarily locates to the integument (epidermal cells and cuticle), wing discs and head. During the moulting stage, BmSVWC is released into the moulting fluids, and is then produced again by epidermal cells after ecdysis. Fungal infection was shown to decrease the amount of BmSVWC in the cuticle, which indicates that BmSVWC is a target protein of entomopathogenic fungi. Thus, BmSVWC is mainly involved in maintaining the integrity of the integument structure, which serves to protect insects from physical damage and pathogenic infection. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared (United States)

    Roeck, Benjamin


    The detailed study of the different stellar populations which can be observed in galaxies is one of the most promising methods to shed light on the evolutionary histories of galaxies. So far, stellar population analysis has been carried out mainly in the optical wavelength range. The infrared spectral range, on the other hand, has been poorly studied so far, although it provides very important insights, particularly into the cooler stellar populations which are present in galaxies. However, in the last years, space telescopes like the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and instruments like the spectrograph X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope have collected more and more photometric and spectroscopic data in this wavelength range. In order to analyze these observations, it is necessary to dispose of reliable and accurate stellar population models in the infrared. Only a small number of stellar population models in the infrared exist in the literature. They are mostly based on theoretical stellar libraries and very often cover only the near-infrared wavelength range at a rather low resolution. Hence, we developed new single-burst stellar population models between 8150 and 50000Å which are exclusively based on 180 spectra from the empirical Infrared Telescope Facility stellar library. We computed our single stellar population models for two different sets of isochrones and various types of initial mass functions of different slopes. Since the stars of the Infrared Telescope Facility library present only a limited coverage of the stellar atmospheric parameter space, our models are of sufficient quality only for ages larger than 1 Gyr and metallicities between [Fe/H] = 0.40 and 0.26. By combining our single stellar population models in the infrared with the extended medium-resolution Isaac Newton Telescope library of empirical spectra in the optical spectral range, we created the first single stellar population models covering the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalie Bârcă


    Full Text Available This study, without aiming at exhaustiveness, attempts, based on returned foot exterior chord brooches made of a single metal pieces (type Almgren 158 discovered in 2010 following the rescue archaeological excavations performed as a result of the construction of the Arad-Timişoara Highway, respectively section Arad-Seceani, in a series of Sarmatian graves of the cemetery investigated at Hunedoara Timișană, Șagu commune, Arad county, to analyse the brooches in this type discovered in the western territories of Romania.The author examines the four specimens at Hunedoara Timișană within a broader context and concludes that similar brooches in both the Barbarian and Roman environments, where they are imports, date mainly to the chronological interval comprised between the last two decades of the 2nd c. – early 4th c. AD (stages C1a-C2.The analysis of the graves in the cemetery showed that the graves where returned foot exterior chord brooches were found date sometime in the chronological interval comprised between the end of the 2nd c. AD and the third quarter of the 3rd c. AD. Moreover, the author notes that the distribution area of this brooch type is mainly the Barbarian world of German origin (the Przeworsk culture environment or that in constant contact with the latter. Based on the analysis of the distribution area of the Almgren 158 type brooches it was concluded they originate in the Przeworsk culture environment from where they disseminated in the neighbouring south and south-east cultural environments. Last but not least, the author reaches the conclusion that brooches of the type were assumed by the Sarmatians in the Pannonian Plain from the German populations (most likely the Vandals living in the northern vicinity of the area they inhabited. Another conclusion is that such returned foot exterior chord brooches are lacking from the north and north-west Pontic areas, including the Chernyakhov area. Finally, the author argues that

  4. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study. (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas


    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  5. Incidence of diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales: retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Thomas, R L; Dunstan, F; Luzio, S D; Roy Chowdury, S; Hale, S L; North, R V; Gibbins, R L; Owens, D R


    To determine the incidence of any and referable diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending an annual screening service for retinopathy and whose first screening episode indicated no evidence of retinopathy. Retrospective four year analysis. Screenings at the community based Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Service for Wales, United Kingdom. 57,199 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were diagnosed at age 30 years or older and who had no evidence of diabetic retinopathy at their first screening event between 2005 and 2009. 49,763 (87%) had at least one further screening event within the study period and were included in the analysis. Annual incidence and cumulative incidence after four years of any and referable diabetic retinopathy. Relations between available putative risk factors and the onset and progression of retinopathy. Cumulative incidence of any and referable retinopathy at four years was 360.27 and 11.64 per 1000 people, respectively. From the first to fourth year, the annual incidence of any retinopathy fell from 124.94 to 66.59 per 1000 people, compared with referable retinopathy, which increased slightly from 2.02 to 3.54 per 1000 people. Incidence of referable retinopathy was independently associated with known duration of diabetes, age at diagnosis, and use of insulin treatment. For participants needing insulin treatment with a duration of diabetes of 10 years or more, cumulative incidence of referable retinopathy at one and four years was 9.61 and 30.99 per 1000 people, respectively. Our analysis supports the extension of the screening interval for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus beyond the currently recommended 12 months, with the possible exception of those with diabetes duration of 10 years or more and on insulin treatment.

  6. The Model Of One-Type Aircraft Fleet Behaviour While Service And Advantages SHM V. NDT Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewitowicz Jerzy


    Full Text Available The paper defines the essence of durability characteristics of the designing structure of an airframe in terms of flight safety. Particular attention is drawn to one of the main factors influencing the durability characteristics of the airframe – diagnostics system for the health assessment of the airframe during the process of operation. The effectiveness of the use of integrated solutions to the structure of the airframe providing a continuous assessment of the technical condition is presented. Continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is classified as an intelligent solution. This paper presents a model of the behavior of one-type aircraft operating in the air operator’s fleet in terms of susceptibility to failure. Justified assumption in the description of this behavior, in the form of a “bathtub curve”. The analysis is supported by real data of failures. The benefits of using a continuous diagnostics system integrated with the airframe, SHM, is interpreted in relation to the classical approach with the use of non-destructive testing, NDT, for the three phases of the bathtub curve.

  7. Social recovery therapy in combination with early intervention services for enhancement of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis (SUPEREDEN3): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Marshall, Max; Freemantle, Nick; McCrone, Paul; Everard, Linda; Lavis, Anna; Jones, Peter B; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max


    Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery. We did this single-blind, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (SUPEREDEN3) at four specialist early intervention services in the UK. We included participants who were aged 16-35 years, had non-affective psychosis, had been clients of early intervention services for 12-30 months, and had persistent and severe social disability, defined as engagement in less than 30 h per week of structured activity. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (sizes of four to six), to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services or early intervention services alone. Randomisation was stratified by sex and recruitment centre (Norfolk, Birmingham, Lancashire, and Sussex). By necessity, participants were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity at 9 months, as measured by the Time Use Survey. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN61621571. Between Oct 1, 2012, and June 20, 2014, we randomly assigned 155 participants to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services (n=76) or early intervention services alone (n=79); the intention-to-treat population comprised 154 patients. At 9 months, 143 (93%) participants had data for the primary outcome. Social recovery therapy plus early intervention services was associated with an increase in structured

  8. Real-World Vision in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients Treated with Single Anti-VEGF Drug Type for 1 Year in the IRIS Registry. (United States)

    Rao, Prethy; Lum, Flora; Wood, Kevin; Salman, Craig; Burugapalli, Bhavya; Hall, Rebecca; Singh, Sukhminder; Parke, David W; Williams, George A


    The purpose of this study is to compare real-world visual acuity (VA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with a single anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug monotherapy for 1 year from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS) Registry. Retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative study. IRIS Registry patients with nAMD who received bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or aflibercept only for 1 year between 2013-2016. Participants were divided into 3 groups based on monotherapy type. Multivariate analysis of covariance models (ANCOVA) was constructed in a stepwise fashion. The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at 1 year and mean change in logMAR VA between baseline and 1 year were compared between drug types. Of 13 859 patients, 6723 received bevacizumab, 2749 received ranibizumab, and 4387 received aflibercept only for 1 year. A total of 84 828 injections were performed. The mean number of injections (standard deviation) at 1 year was higher in the ranibizumab (6.4 [±2.4]) and aflibercept groups (6.2 [±2.4]) compared to bevacizumab group (5.9 [±2.4]; P < 0.0001). In the age-adjusted model, both ranibizumab and aflibercept achieved better logMAR VA at 1 year compared with bevacizumab (0.50 [±0.49], 0.49 [±0.44], 0.55 [±0.57]; P < 0.0001). However, this difference was not significant after multivariate adjustment (age, baseline VA, diabetes, posterior vitreous detachment, number of injections, race, insurance). There was no statistical difference in the age-adjusted or multivariate-adjusted mean logMAR VA change (standard deviation) at 1 year among treatment groups (-0.048 [0.44] bevacizumab, -0.053 [0.46] ranibizumab, -0.040 [0.39] aflibercept; P = 0.46). A higher percentage of patients achieved a ≥3-line VA improvement at 1 year in the bevacizumab group (22.7%) compared with ranibizumab (20.1%; P = 0.0093) and aflibercept (17.8%; P < 0

  9. A self-organizing state-space-model approach for parameter estimation in hodgkin-huxley-type models of single neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios V Vavoulis

    Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the problem of parameter estimation in biophysical models of neurons and neural networks usually adopt a global search algorithm (for example, an evolutionary algorithm, often in combination with a local search method (such as gradient descent in order to minimize the value of a cost function, which measures the discrepancy between various features of the available experimental data and model output. In this study, we approach the problem of parameter estimation in conductance-based models of single neurons from a different perspective. By adopting a hidden-dynamical-systems formalism, we expressed parameter estimation as an inference problem in these systems, which can then be tackled using a range of well-established statistical inference methods. The particular method we used was Kitagawa's self-organizing state-space model, which was applied on a number of Hodgkin-Huxley-type models using simulated or actual electrophysiological data. We showed that the algorithm can be used to estimate a large number of parameters, including maximal conductances, reversal potentials, kinetics of ionic currents, measurement and intrinsic noise, based on low-dimensional experimental data and sufficiently informative priors in the form of pre-defined constraints imposed on model parameters. The algorithm remained operational even when very noisy experimental data were used. Importantly, by combining the self-organizing state-space model with an adaptive sampling algorithm akin to the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy, we achieved a significant reduction in the variance of parameter estimates. The algorithm did not require the explicit formulation of a cost function and it was straightforward to apply on compartmental models and multiple data sets. Overall, the proposed methodology is particularly suitable for resolving high-dimensional inference problems based on noisy electrophysiological data and, therefore, a

  10. A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism in the Salmonella SPI-2 type III effector srfH/sseI controls early extraintestinal dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Thornbrough

    Full Text Available CD18 expressing phagocytes associated with the gastro-intestinal (GI epithelium can shuttle Salmonella directly into the bloodstream within a few minutes following microbial ingestion. We have previously demonstrated that Salmonella controls the CD18 pathway to deeper tissue, manipulating the migratory properties of infected cells as an unappreciated component of its pathogenesis. We have observed that one type III effector, SrfH (also called SseI that Salmonella secretes into infected phagocytes manipulates the host protein TRIP6 to stimulate their migration. Paradoxically, SrfH was shown in another study to subvert a different host protein, IQGAP1, in a manner that inhibits the productive motility of such cells, perhaps to avoid interactions with T cells. Here, we resolve the discrepancy. We report that one naturally occurring allele of srfH promotes the migration of infected phagocytes into the bloodstream, while another naturally occurring allele that differs by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP does not. This SNP determines if the protein contains an aspartic acid or a glycine residue at position 103 and may determine if SrfH binds TRIP6. SrfH Gly103 is a rare allele, but is present in the highly invasive strain Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK-1 (stands for universal killer. It is also present in the genome of the only sequenced strain belonging to the emerging pandemic Salmonella enterica serovar 4, [5],12,i:-, which is frequently associated with septicemia. Finally, we present evidence that suggests that Gifsy-2, the bacteriophage upon which srfH resides, is present in a clinical isolate of the human-specific pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. These observations may have interesting implications for our understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis.

  11. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Todd


    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D. Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2, which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs.To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D, a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39 found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = -0.052, 0.254 and 0.497

  12. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design. (United States)

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina


    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  13. High Temperature Performance Evaluation of As-serviced 25Cr35Ni Type Heat-resistant Steel Based on Stress Relaxation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Jun


    Full Text Available Based on an as-serviced 25Cr35Ni type steel, the high temperature property evaluation using stress relaxation test(SRT method and residual life prediction were studied. The results show that creep rupture property decreases because of the formation of network carbides along grain boundaries and coarsening of secondary carbides in the austenitic matrix. Based on the relationship of stress relaxation strain rate curves obtained at different temperatures, and the extrapolation equation of stress relaxation rate-rupture time, it is capable to perform residual life evaluation by combining SRT data and a small amount of creep rupture test(CRT. Good agreement is observed for predicting results performed by current method and traditional method.

  14. Geography does not limit optimal diabetes care: use of a tertiary centre model of care in an outreach service for type 1 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Simm, Peter J; Wong, Nicole; Fraser, Lynne; Kearney, John; Fenton, Judy; Jachno, Kim; Cameron, Fergus J


    Young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus living in rural and regional Australia have previously been shown to have limited access to specialised diabetes services. The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne has been running diabetes outreach clinics to Western Victoria, Australia, for over 13 years. We aim to evaluate this service by comparing the outcomes of three outreach clinics with our urban diabetes clinic at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. We examine our tertiary, multidisciplinary team-based model of care, where visiting specialist medical staff work alongside local allied health teams. The local teams provide interim care between clinics utilising the same protocols and treatment practices as the tertiary centre. Longitudinal data encapsulating the years 2005-2010, as a cohort study with a control group, are reviewed. A total of 69 rural patients were compared with 1387 metropolitan patients. Metabolic control was comparable, with no difference in mean HbA1c (8.3%/67 mmol/mol for both groups). Treatment options varied slightly at diagnosis, while insulin pump usage was comparable between treatment settings (20.3% rural compared with 27.6% urban, P = 0.19). Of note was that the number of visits per year was higher in the rural group (3.3 per year rural compared with 2.7 urban, P < 0.001). We conclude that the outreach service is able to provide a comparable level of care when the urban model is translated to a rural setting. This model may be further able to be extrapolated to other geographic areas and also other chronic health conditions of childhood. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study. (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja


    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  16. Interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADRB2, ADRB3, TNF, IL6, IGF1R, LIPC, LEPR, and GHRL with physical activity on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and changes in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Lakka, Timo A; Laaksonen, David E


    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADRB2, ADRB3, TNF, IL6, IGF1R, LIPC, LEPR, and GHRL genes were associated with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). In this study, we determined whether...

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of Accuracy of the Dies Affected by Tray Type, Material Viscosity, and Pouring Sequence of Dual and Single Arch Impressions- An In vitro Study. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Poonam R; Kulkarni, Rahul S; Shah, Rupal J; Chhajlani, Rahul; Saklecha, Bhuwan; Maru, Kavita


    The clinician's skill, impression techniques, and materials play a very important role in recording fine details in an impression for accuracy of fixed partial denture prosthesis. Impression of prepared teeth and of the opposing arch can be recorded simultaneously by dual-arch trays, while the full arch metal trays are used for impressions of prepared teeth in one arch. To measure and compare the accuracy of working dies made from impressions with metal and plastic dual arch trays and metal full arch trays, for two viscosities of impression material and by changing the sequence of pour of working and non-working sides. A balanced design with independent samples was used to study the three variables (tray type, impression material viscosity, and pouring sequence). An impression made by dual arch trays and single arch trays were divided in to three groups (Group A-plastic dual arch tray, Group B-metal dual arch tray, Group C-full arch metal stock tray). Out of these three groups, two groups (Group A and B) were subdivided in to four subgroups each and one group (Group C) was subdivided in to two subgroups. A sample size of 30 was used in each subgroup yielding a total 300 impressions in three groups or ten subgroups. Impressions were made of a machined circular stainless steel die. All three dimensions (Occlusogingival, Mesiodistal, and Buccolingual) of the working dies as well as stainless steel standard die were measured three times, and the mean was used for the three standard sample values to which all working dies means were compared. Statistical analysis used for this study was a 3-factor analysis of variance with hypothesis testing at α =0.05. With respect to the selection of impression material viscosity statistically significant differences were found in the dies for the buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. Metal dual arch trays were slightly more accurate in the mesiodistal dimension in comparison to the plastic trays in reference of tray selection and

  18. Toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 wild-type and its nine isogenic single-gene deletion mutants. (United States)

    Kasemets, Kaja; Suppi, Sandra; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne


    A suite of eight tentatively oxidative stress response-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 single-gene mutants (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, yap1Δ, cta1Δ, ctt1Δ, gsh1Δ, glr1Δ, and ccs1Δ) and one copper-vulnerable mutant (cup2Δ) was used to elucidate weather the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to S. cerevisiae is mediated by oxidative stress (OS). Specifically, sensitivity profiles of mutants' phenotypes and wild-type (wt) upon exposure to nano-CuO were compared. As controls, CuSO4 (solubility), bulk-CuO (size), H2O2, and menadione (OS) were used. Growth inhibition of wt and mutant strains was studied in rich YPD medium and cell viability in deionized water (DI). Dissolved Cu-ions were quantified by recombinant metal-sensing bacteria and chemical analysis. To wt strain nano-CuO was 32-fold more toxic than bulk-CuO: 24-h IC50 4.8 and 155 mg/L in DI and 643 and >20000 mg/L in YPD, respectively. In toxicant-free YPD medium, all mutants had practically similar growth patterns as wt. However, the mutant strains sod1Δ, sod2Δ, ccs1Δ, and yap1Δ showed up to 12-fold elevated sensitivity toward OS standard chemicals menadione and H2O2 but not to nano-CuO, indicating that CuO nanoparticles exerted toxicity to yeast cells via different mechanisms. The most vulnerable strain to all studied Cu compounds was the copper stress response-deficient strain cup2Δ (∼16-fold difference with wt), indicating that the toxic effect of CuO (nano)particles proceeds via dissolved Cu-ions. The dissolved copper solely explained the toxicity of nano-CuO in DI but not in YPD. Assumingly, in YPD nano-CuO acquired a coating of peptides/proteins and sorbed onto the yeast's outer surface, resulting in their increased solubility in the close vicinity of yeast cells and increased uptake of Cu-ions that was not registered by the assays used for the analysis of dissolved Cu-ions in the test medium. Lastly, as yeast retained its viability in DI even by 24th hour of incubation, the profiling of the acute

  19. Whole Genome and Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Associated with an Outbreak Linked to Cheese, United States, 2013 (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Carleton, Heather; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Muruvanda, Tim; Wang, Charles; Kastanis, George; Katz, Lee S.; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Moore, Terence; Stones, Robert; Blankenship, Joseph; Salter, Monique; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S.; Evans, Peter S.; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol A.; Brown, Eric W.


    ABSTRACT Epidemiological findings of a listeriosis outbreak in 2013 implicated Hispanic-style cheese produced by company A, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed on clinical isolates and representative isolates collected from company A cheese and environmental samples during the investigation. The results strengthened the evidence for cheese as the vehicle. Surveillance sampling and WGS 3 months later revealed that the equipment purchased by company B from company A yielded an environmental isolate highly similar to all outbreak isolates. The whole genome and core genome multilocus sequence typing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses results were compared to demonstrate the maximum discriminatory power obtained by using multiple analyses, which were needed to differentiate outbreak-associated isolates from a PFGE-indistinguishable isolate collected in a nonimplicated food source in 2012. This unrelated isolate differed from the outbreak isolates by only 7 to 14 SNPs, and as a result, the minimum spanning tree from the whole genome analyses and certain variant calling approach and phylogenetic algorithm for core genome-based analyses could not provide differentiation between unrelated isolates. Our data also suggest that SNP/allele counts should always be combined with WGS clustering analysis generated by phylogenetically meaningful algorithms on a sufficient number of isolates, and the SNP/allele threshold alone does not provide sufficient evidence to delineate an outbreak. The putative prophages were conserved across all the outbreak isolates. All outbreak isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 and serotype 1/2b and had an identical inlA sequence which did not have premature stop codons. IMPORTANCE In this outbreak, multiple analytical approaches were used for maximum discriminatory power. A PFGE-matched, epidemiologically unrelated isolate had high genetic similarity to the outbreak

  20. Dissecting Cell-Type Composition and Activity-Dependent Transcriptional State in Mammalian Brains by Massively Parallel Single-Nucleus RNA-Seq. (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Fabyanic, Emily; Kwon, Deborah Y; Tang, Sheng; Zhou, Zhaolan; Wu, Hao


    Massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing can precisely resolve cellular diversity in a high-throughput manner at low cost, but unbiased isolation of intact single cells from complex tissues such as adult mammalian brains is challenging. Here, we integrate sucrose-gradient-assisted purification of nuclei with droplet microfluidics to develop a highly scalable single-nucleus RNA-seq approach (sNucDrop-seq), which is free of enzymatic dissociation and nucleus sorting. By profiling ∼18,000 nuclei isolated from cortical tissues of adult mice, we demonstrate that sNucDrop-seq not only accurately reveals neuronal and non-neuronal subtype composition with high sensitivity but also enables in-depth analysis of transient transcriptional states driven by neuronal activity, at single-cell resolution, in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effectiveness of ultrasound guided hydrodistension and physiotherapy in the treatment of frozen shoulder/adhesive capsulitis in primary care: a single centre service evaluation. (United States)

    Bryant, Michael; Gough, Andrew; Selfe, James; Richards, Jim; Burgess, Elizabeth


    Evidence for optimal non-operative treatment of frozen shoulder is lacking. The present study aimed to evaluate a treatment strategy for stage II to III frozen shoulder provided by the current primary care musculoskeletal service. General practioner referrals of shoulder pain to the musculoskeletal service diagnosed with stage II to III frozen shoulder and who opted for a treatment strategy of hydrodistension and guided physiotherapy exercise programme over a 12-month period were evaluated for 6 months. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed with stage II to III frozen shoulder by specialist physiotherapists and opted for the treatment strategy. Outcome measures included Shoulder Pain Disability Index (SPADI) and Shortened Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), pain score and range of movement. Data were collected at baseline, as well as at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months. All patients significantly improved in shoulder symptoms on the SPADI and QuickDASH scores ( p  < 0.001). Pain scores and range of shoulder movement flexion, abduction, external rotation showed significant improvement at all time points ( p  < 0.001). This service evaluation demonstrates that management of frozen shoulder stage II to III, as conducted by physiotherapists in a primary care setting utilizing hydrodistension and a guided exercise programme, represents an effective non-operative treatment strategy.

  2. Five-year Antibody Persistence and Safety After a Single Dose of Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type B Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine in Haemophilus influenzae Type B-primed Toddlers. (United States)

    Booy, Robert; Nolan, Terry; Reynolds, Graham; Richmond, Peter; Nissen, Michael; Marshall, Helen; Stoney, Tanya; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Kolhe, Devayani; Miller, Jacqueline M


    Antibody persistence is evaluated in healthy Australian children 4 and 5 years postvaccination with a single dose of combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenC-TT) compared with separately administered Hib-TT and MenC-CRM197 vaccines (Hib + MCC). This is another follow-up of a phase III, open, randomized, controlled study (NCT00326118), in which 433 Hib-primed but MenC naïve toddlers aged 12-18 months were randomized 3:1 to receive Hib-MenC-TT or Hib + MCC vaccines. Protection against (1) MenC was measured by serum bactericidal antibody assay using rabbit complement (rSBA) and (2) Hib was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to polyribosylribitol phosphate (anti-PRP). Study children were assessed for any potentially vaccine-related serious adverse events at each persistence study visit. The according-to-protocol cohorts for persistence at years 4 and 5 included 282 and 263 children, respectively. The percentages of children with rSBA-MenC titers ≥1:8 at years 4 and 5 were 12.5% and 19.0%, respectively, in the Hib-MenC group; and 12.3% and 25.0% in the Hib + MCC group. All children in each group had anti-PRP concentrations ≥0.15 μg/mL at year 5. Exploratory analyses suggested no potential differences between groups in rSBA-MenC or anti-PRP antibody persistence. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. Antibody persistence was similar for years 4 and 5 after Hib-MenC-TT or Hib + MCC vaccination, with the majority of children retaining anti-PRP antibody concentrations ≥0.15 μg/mL at both timepoints. The percentage of children retaining rSBA-MenC titers ≥1:8 was low (≤25%), suggesting that a MenC booster dose may be warranted before adolescence.

  3. Overnight Glucose Control with Dual- and Single-Hormone Artificial Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes with Hypoglycemia Unawareness: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Abitbol, Alexander; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Smaoui, Mohamad; Cohen, Nathan; Haidar, Ahmad


    The dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas may be justifiable in some, but not all, patients. We sought to compare dual- and single-hormone artificial pancreas systems in patients with hypoglycemia unawareness and documented nocturnal hypoglycemia. We conducted a randomized crossover trial comparing the efficacy of dual- and single-hormone artificial pancreas systems in controlling plasma glucose levels over the course of one night's sleep. We recruited 18 adult participants with hypoglycemia unawareness and 17 participants with hypoglycemia awareness, all of whom had documented nocturnal hypoglycemia during 2 weeks of screening. Outcomes were calculated using plasma glucose. In participants with hypoglycemia unawareness, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) percentage of time that plasma glucose was below 4.0 mmol/L was 0% (0-0) on dual-hormone artificial pancreas nights and 0% (0-10) on single-hormone artificial pancreas nights (P = 0.20). Additionally, participants with hypoglycemia unawareness experienced two hypoglycemic events (dual-hormone artificial pancreas nights and three hypoglycemic events on single-hormone artificial pancreas nights. In participants with hypoglycemia awareness, the median (IQR) percentage of time that plasma glucose was below 4.0 mmol/L was 0% (0-0) on both dual- and single-hormone artificial pancreas nights. Hypoglycemia awareness participants experienced zero hypoglycemic events on dual-hormone artificial pancreas nights and one event on single-hormone artificial pancreas nights. In this study, dual-hormone and single-hormone systems performed equally well in preventing nocturnal hypoglycemia in participants with hypoglycemia unawareness. Longer studies over the course of multiple days and nights may be needed to explore possible specific benefits in this population. No. NCT02282254.

  4. Development and use of a new burner rig facility to mimic service loading conditions of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauget Florent


    Full Text Available Performing representative experiments of in-service operating conditions of Ni-based superalloys used as high pressure turbine blades in aeroengines is a challenging issue due to the complex environmental, mechanical and thermal solicitations encountered by those components. A new burner rig test facility called MAATRE (French acronym for Mechanics and Aerothermics of Cooled Turbine Blades has been developed at ENSMA – Pprime Institute to mimic as close as possible those operating conditions. This new test bench has been used to perform complex non-isothermal creep tests representative of thermomechanical solicitations seen by some sections of HP turbine blades during engine certification procedure.

  5. Diabetes Medication Assistance Service: the pharmacist's role in supporting patient self-management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Australia. (United States)

    Mitchell, Bernadette; Armour, Carol; Lee, Mary; Song, Yun Ju; Stewart, Kay; Peterson, Greg; Hughes, Jeff; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines


    To evaluate the capacity and effectiveness of trained community pharmacists in delivering the Diabetes Medication Assistance Service (DMAS) via (1) number and types of self-management support interventions (SMSIs); (2) number of goals set and attained by patients and (3) patient outcomes (glycaemic control, medication adherence and satisfaction). Pharmacists (n=109) from 90 community pharmacies in Australia were trained and credentialed to deliver the DMAS. The training focused on developing pharmacists' knowledge and skills in supporting patients' diabetes self-management. A total of 387 patients completed the trial. The mean number of SMSIs per patient was 35 (SD ±31) and the majority (87%) had at least one documented goal that was fully or partially attained. There were significant health benefits for patients including improved glycaemic control and a reduced risk of non-adherence to medications. Over 90% of DMAS patients reported improvements in their knowledge about diabetes self-management. The DMAS provides self management support in the community pharmacy for people with T2DM which may result in improved clinical outcomes. Given appropriate training in diabetes care and behavior change strategies, community pharmacists can offer programs which provide self-management support to their patients with T2DM and improve their health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Use and Cost of Medical Services Among Overweight and Obese Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The Action for Health in Diabetes (United States)

    Glick, Henry A.; Bertoni, Alain; Brancati, Frederick L.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Curtis, Jeffrey M.; Egan, Caitlin; Evans, Mary; Foreyt, John P.; Ghazarian, Siran; Gregg, Edward W.; Hazuda, Helen P.; Hill, James O.; Hire, Don; Horton, Edward S.; Hubbard, Van S.; Jakicic, John M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Killean, Tina; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Knowler, William C.; Kriska, Andrea; Lewis, Cora E.; Miller, Marsha; Montez, Maria G.; Murillo, Anne; Nathan, David M.; Nyenwe, Ebenezer; Patricio, Jennifer; Peters, Anne L.; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Pownall, Henry; Redmon, J. Bruce; Rushing, Julia; Ryan, Donna H.; Safford, Monika; Tsai, Adam G.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wing, Rena R.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Zhang, Ping


    OBJECTIVE To assess the relative impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on use and costs of health care within the Look AHEAD trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 5,121 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an ILI that promoted weight loss or to a comparison condition of diabetes support and education (DSE). Use and costs of health-care services were recorded across an average of 10 years. RESULTS ILI led to reductions in annual hospitalizations (11%, P = 0.004), hospital days (15%, P = 0.01), and number of medications (6%, P < 0.001), resulting in cost savings for hospitalization (10%, P = 0.04) and medication (7%, P < 0.001). ILI produced a mean relative per-person 10-year cost savings of $5,280 (95% CI 3,385–7,175); however, these were not evident among individuals with a history of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS Compared with DSE over 10 years, ILI participants had fewer hospitalizations, fewer medications, and lower health-care costs. PMID:25147253

  7. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing


    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  8. Phylogenetic and Physicochemical Analyses Enhance the Classification of Rare Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Variants in Type 1 and 2 Long-QT Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudicessi, John R.; Kapplinger, Jamie D.; Tester, David J.; Alders, Marielle; Salisbury, Benjamin A.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Ackerman, Michael J.


    Background-Hundreds of nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) have been identified in the 2 most common long-QT syndrome-susceptibility genes (KCNQ1 and KCNH2). Unfortunately, an approximate to 3% background rate of rare KCNQ1 and KCNH2 nsSNVs amongst healthy individuals complicates the

  9. Mixed gated/exhaustive service in a polling model with priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, M.A.A.; Adan, I.J.B.F.


    In this paper we consider a single-server polling system with switch-over times. We introduce a new service discipline, mixed gated/exhaustive service, that can be used for queues with two types of customers: high and low priority customers. At the beginning of a visit of the server to such a queue,

  10. Transitioning from a single-site pilot project to a state-wide regional telehealth service: The experience from the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine programme. (United States)

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kim, Joosup; Vu, Michelle; Savage, Mark; Bolitho, Les; Howlett, Glenn; Rabl, Justin; Dewey, Helen M; Hand, Peter J; Denisenko, Sonia; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Bladin, Christopher F


    Scaling of projects from inception to establishment within the healthcare system is rarely formally reported. The Victorian Stroke Telemedicine (VST) programme provided a very useful opportunity to describe how rural hospitals in Victoria were able to access a network of Melbourne-based neurologists via telemedicine. The VST programme was initially piloted at one site in 2010 and has gradually expanded as a state-wide regional service operating with 16 hospitals in 2017. The aim of this paper is to summarise the factors that facilitated the state-wide transition of the VST programme. A naturalistic case-study was used and data were obtained from programme documents, e.g. minutes of governance committees, including the steering committee, the management committee and six working groups; operational and evaluation documentation, interviews and research field-notes taken by project staff. Thematic analysis was undertaken, with results presented in narrative form to provide a summary of the lived experience of developing and scaling the VST programme. The main success factors were attaining funding from various sources, identifying a clinical need and evidence-based solution, engaging stakeholders and facilitating co-design, including embedding the programme within policy, iterative evaluation including performing financial sustainability modelling, and conducting dissemination activities of the interim results, including promotion of early successes.

  11. Single-stage total endoscopic resection of a plexiform neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus in a child with type 1 neurofibromatosis. (United States)

    Hachem, Ralph N Abi; Bared, Anthony; Zeitouni, Joseph; Younis, Ramzi T


    Plexiform neurofibromas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. The maxillary sinus is an extremely rare location of the plexiform neurofibroma and only two adult cases have been previously reported. We report the first case of plexiform neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus occurring in a child with neurofibromatosis type 1. This unusual location presents a management challenge considering the infiltrative nature and the potential malignant degeneration of this type of tumor. MRI is highly valuable to diagnose and plan the surgical approach of the plexiform neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus. Due to the location of the tumor and the patient's age, conservative surgery is highly recommended. We performed an endoscopic total en-bloc resection of the tumor with no recurrence after nine months of follow-up.

  12. Comparison of high-order-harmonic generation on single-layer graphene flakes with armchair and zigzag types in an intense laser field (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhong, Huiying; Yan, Bing; Chen, Yi; Jiang, Yuanfei; Wang, Ting-feng; Shao, Jun-feng; Zheng, Chang-bin; Liu, Xue-Shen


    The high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) of graphene in an intense laser field is investigated using the strong-field approximation method. The initial wave function is presented by gaussian and gamess software. The molecular structure along the x and y axes represents different types of graphene: armchair and zigzag, respectively. The results show that the HHG intensity of the armchair type of graphene is two magnitudes higher than that of the zigzag type in the plateau area. The ionization yield and electron density distribution are also presented to further explain this difference. Finally, by superposing a properly selected range of harmonics, a main pulse with the duration of 91 and 99 attoseconds accompanied by weak satellite pulses will be generated for the case of armchair and zigzag graphene, respectively, and the corresponding intensity from armchair graphene is much higher than that from zigzag graphene.

  13. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin suppresses endogenous glucose production and enhances islet function after single-dose administration in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balas, Bogdan; Baig, Muhammad R; Watson, Catherine


    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Vildagliptin is a selective dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor that augments meal-stimulated levels of biologically active glucagon-like peptide-1. Chronic vildagliptin treatment decreases postprandial glucose levels and reduces hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetic patients. However...

  14. The progeny of a single virgin B cell predominates the human recall B cell response to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Hougs, L; Juul, L


    of Haemophilus influenzae type b coupled to tetanus toxoid. We combined affinity purification of circulating vaccine-induced Ab-secreting cells with PCR amplification of cDNA followed by cloning and sequencing. Forty-eight and 42 kappa VJ gene transcripts were analyzed from two adults, respectively. Both...

  15. Eye Drop Dispenser Type and Medication Possession Ratio in Patients with Glaucoma: Single-use Containers versus Multiple-use Bottles. (United States)

    Na, Kun-Hoo; Yoo, Chungkwon; Park, Ji-Hye; Kim, Yong Yeon


    To determine whether the consumption of topical glaucoma medication is influenced by the type of eye drop dispenser DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: We examined 366 patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were bilaterally treated with 0.0015% tafluprost or 2% dorzolamide/0.5% timolol fixed combination (DTFC). The patients were grouped by the type of dispenser and content of eye drops used: 1) tafluprost in bottles (T-Bottle group); 2) tafluprost in unit-dose pipettes (T-Unit group); 3) DTFC in bottles (C-Bottle group); and 4) DTFC in unit-dose pipettes (C-Unit group). We evaluated the medication possession ratio (MPR) among groups, and factors associated with over-consumption (MPR > 1.2) or under-consumption (MPR dispenser (odds ratio [OR] 64.02), tafluprost medication (OR 2.84), and older age (OR 1.03) were associated with over-consumption, whereas no factor was correlated with under-consumption. The type of eye drop dispenser affects the consumption of glaucoma medication. Physicians should consider the type of eye drop dispenser when assessing glaucoma medication adherence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Multilocus sequence typing and CTX-M characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli: a prospective single-centre study in Lower Saxony, Germany. (United States)

    Gerhold, G; Schulze, M H; Gross, U; Bohne, W


    The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria is a serious threat for current healthcare settings. In this study we investigated the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing E. coli at the University Medical Center Göttingen in Lower Saxony, Germany. All E. coli isolates with an ESBL phenotype were collected during a 6-month period in 2014. Multilocus sequence typing and CTX-M characterization were performed on 160 isolates. Of the ESBL-producing isolates 95·6% were CTX-M positive. Compared to recent Germany-wide studies, we found CTX-M-1 to occur in higher frequency than CTX-M-15 (44·4% vs. 34·4%). CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-27 were detected at 9·4% and 5·0%, respectively. The globally dominant sequence type (ST) 131, which is often associated with CTX-M-15, occurred at a relatively low rate of 24%. Major non-ST131 sequence types were ST101 (5%), ST58 (5%), ST10 (4·4%), ST38 (4·4%), ST410 (3·8%) and ST453 (3·1%). Several of these major sequence types were previously shown to be associated with livestock farming. Together, our study indicates that E. coli lineage distribution in individual healthcare settings can significantly differ from average numbers obtained in nationwide studies.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum encodes a single cytosolic type I Hsp40 that functionally interacts with Hsp70 and is upregulated by heat shock

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, M


    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) function as molecular chaperones during the folding and trafficking of proteins within most cell types. However, the Hsp70–Hsp40 chaperone partnerships within the malaria parasite...

  18. Individual risk assessment in the diagnosis of immediate type drug hypersensitivity reactions to betalactam and non-betalactam antibiotics using basophil activation test: a single center experience. (United States)

    Thinnes, A; Merk, H F; Wurpts, G; Röseler, S; Lehmann, S; Tenbrock, K; Baron, J M; Balakirski, G


    Drug hypersensitivity reactions of immediate type pose a challenging problem, especially, if standard diagnostic procedures do not lead to conclusive results. The aim of this investigation is to identify, whether basophil activation test (BAT) is able to provide additional benefit in the diagnostic evaluation of immediate type drug hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics in comparison to the routine allergological diagnostic methods. We investigated patients, which presented to the Department of Dermatology and Allergology of the University Hospital of RWTH Aachen in Germany for diagnostic workup of type I allergic reactions to antibiotics during the period from 2009 to 2012. The analysis was performed retrospectively based on patient records. The inclusion criteria were performed standard allergological in vivo diagnostic and a basophil activation test (BAT) as a part of diagnostic workup. 82 diagnostic investigations were performed in 52 patients. BAT was positive in 9 of 12 cases with a positive clinical history but negative skin test results. Furthermore, all patients who reported severe drug hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylactic reaction grade 2 and above) showed positive BAT (5/5), while only 3 of these 5 cases demonstrated a positive skin testing that led to the conclusion of possible immediate type drug hypersensitivity. Although skin tests remain the most important part of the primary diagnostic investigation, BAT is an additional valuable and sensitive in vitro test in the diagnostic procedure of immediate type allergic reactions to antibiotics. However, further standardized investigations are needed in order to calculate exact sensitivity and specificity of this diagnostic tool in both, adult and pediatric populations.

  19. Service mining framework and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Wei-Lun


    The shifting focus of service from the 1980s to 2000s has proved that IT not only lowers the cost of service but creates avenues to enhance and increase revenue through service. The new type of service, e-service, is mobile, flexible, interactive, and interchangeable. While service science provides an avenue for future service researches, the specific research areas from the IT perspective still need to be elaborated. This book introduces a novel concept-service mining-to address several research areas from technology, model, management, and application perspectives. Service mining is defined as "a systematical process including service discovery, service experience, service recovery, and service retention to discover unique patterns and exceptional values within the existing services." The goal of service mining is similar to data mining, text mining, or web mining, and aims to "detect something new" from the service pool. The major difference is the feature of service is quite distinct from the mining targe...

  20. The Impact of Patient Education on Anthropometric, Lipidemic, and Glycemic Parameters Among Patients With Poorly Controlled Type II Diabetes Mellitus: A 3-Month Prospective Single-Center Turkish Study. (United States)

    Cander, Soner; Gul, Ozen Oz; Gul, Cuma B; Keles, Saadet B; Yavas, Sibel; Ersoy, Canan


    This study evaluated the impact of patient education on adherence to a diabetes care plan (e.g., anthropometric, lipidemic, and glycemic parameters) among adults with type II diabetes mellitus without adequate glycemic control. A total of 61 ambulatory adults with type II diabetes mellitus (mean age: 53.6 ± 8.2 years, 70.5% female) were evaluated for anthropometrics, duration of diabetes mellitus, type of anti-diabetic treatment, blood biochemistry, and glycemic parameters in this 3-month prospective observational single-center study. During the course of the study, participants demonstrated a significant decrease in body weight and fat percentage and HbA1c (p diabetes mellitus who received education on adherence to routine self-monitoring of blood glucose, standard diabetic diet, and an exercise program delivered by certified diabetes educators had better glycemic control and significant decrease in body weight and fat percentage over a 3-month monitoring period. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Effects of grafts of single anterior pituitary glands on the incidence and type of mammary neoplasm in neutron- or γ-irradiated Fischer female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Douple, E.B.; Sridharan, B.N.


    Three batches comprised of 48 young adult Fischer female rats each were subjected to total-body irradiation with 50 rads modified fission neutrons, or were given 600 rads 137 Cs γ-rays, or served as unirradiated controls. On the day following exposure, one-half of each batch was grafted with a single anterior pituitary gland beneath the left kidney capsule. The animals were observed for mammary neoplasia and all those that died during the experiment were autopsied. The experiment was terminated 538 +- 13 days after irradiation when all neutron-irradiated, pituitary-grafted animals had one or more mammary tumors. Only 2 of the 23 untreated rats that survived until termination of the experiment developed mammary fibroadenomas, and none had mammary carcinomas. The incidence of fibroadenomas was increased, and a single carcinoma was found in unirradiated rats with pituitary grafts. Irradiation alone caused an increase in the incidence of mammary fibroadenomas and the appearance of carcinomas. Fibroadenomas were markedly increased by the addition of pituitary grafts to irradiation. Carcinoma incidence was less markedly affected. The neutron dose of 50 rads was slightly more effective in inducing mammary neoplasms than the 600-rad dose of γ-rays

  2. Provider of Services File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file contains data on characteristics of hospitals and other types of healthcare facilities, including the name and address of the facility and the type of...

  3. Structural basis for cyclization specificity of two Azotobacter type III polyketide synthases: a single amino acid substitution reverses their cyclization specificity. (United States)

    Satou, Ryutaro; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Ozawa, Hiroki; Funa, Nobutaka; Katsuyama, Yohei; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu


    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) show diverse cyclization specificity. We previously characterized two Azotobacter type III PKSs (ArsB and ArsC) with different cyclization specificity. ArsB and ArsC, which share a high sequence identity (71%), produce alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones through aldol condensation and lactonization of the same polyketomethylene intermediate, respectively. Here we identified a key amino acid residue for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis. Trp-281 of ArsB corresponded to Gly-284 of ArsC in the amino acid sequence alignment. The ArsB W281G mutant synthesized alkylpyrone but not alkylresorcinol. In contrast, the ArsC G284W mutant synthesized alkylresorcinol with a small amount of alkylpyrone. These results indicate that this amino acid residue (Trp-281 of ArsB or Gly-284 of ArsC) should occupy a critical position for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme. We then determined crystal structures of the wild-type and G284W ArsC proteins at resolutions of 1.76 and 1.99 Å, respectively. Comparison of these two ArsC structures indicates that the G284W substitution brings a steric wall to the active site cavity, resulting in a significant reduction of the cavity volume. We postulate that the polyketomethylene intermediate can be folded to a suitable form for aldol condensation only in such a relatively narrow cavity of ArsC G284W (and presumably ArsB). This is the first report on the alteration of cyclization specificity from lactonization to aldol condensation for a type III PKS. The ArsC G284W structure is significant as it is the first reported structure of a microbial resorcinol synthase.

  4. An Investigation of Single- and Dual-Rotation Propellers at Positive and Negative Thrust, and in Combination with an NACA 1-series D-Type Cowling at Mach Numbers up to 0.84 (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert M; Samonds, Robert I; Walker, John H


    An investigation has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 4-(5)(05)-041 four-blade, single-relation propeller and the NACA 4-(5)(05)-037 six- and eight-blade, dual-rotation propellers in combination with various spinners and NACA d-type spinner-cowling combinations at Mach numbers up to 0.84. Propeller force characteristics, local velocity distributions in the propeller planes, inlet pressure recoveries, and static-pressure distributions on the cowling surfaces were measured for a wide range of blade angles, advance ratios, and inlet-velocity ratios. Included are data showing: (a) the effect of extended cylindrical spinners on the characteristics of the single-rotation propeller, (b) the effect of variation of the difference in blade angle setting between the front and rear components of the dual-rotation propellers, (c) the negative- and static-thrust characteristics of the propellers with 1 series spinners, and (d) the effects of ideal- and platform-type propeller-spinner junctures on the pressure-recovery characteristics of the single-rotation propeller-spinner-cowling combination.

  5. Multicolored Cd1-xZnxSe quantum dots with type-I core/shell structure: single-step synthesis and their use as light emitting diodes (United States)

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Hsu, Yung-Jung


    We developed a single-step hot-injection process to synthesize Cd1-xZnxSe quantum dots (QDs) with tunable emission wavelengths. The multiple emission colors of the Cd1-xZnxSe QDs resulted from the variation in their compositions (x value) with the reaction time. Because of the higher reactivity of the Cd precursor, QDs whose composition was rich in CdSe were generated at the beginning of the reaction. As the reaction proceeded, the later-formed ZnSe shell was simultaneously alloyed with the core, giving rise to a progressive alloying treatment for the grown QDs. During the reaction period, the emission color of the Cd1-xZnxSe QDs shifted from red to orange, to yellow, to green and finally to blue. A light emitting diode (LED) composed of multilayers of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) blended with Cd1-xZnxSe QDs/Al was fabricated to test the electroluminescence (EL) properties of the QDs. The EL results show high color purity for the emission from LED devices containing Cd1-xZnxSe QDs, revealing that the as-synthesized QDs can be easily processed and integrated into a light-emitting device without using a complicated procedure. The findings from the present work also demonstrate the advantage of using the current single-step synthetic approach to obtain a batch of Cd1-xZnxSe QDs that may emit different colors in prototype LEDs.We developed a single-step hot-injection process to synthesize Cd1-xZnxSe quantum dots (QDs) with tunable emission wavelengths. The multiple emission colors of the Cd1-xZnxSe QDs resulted from the variation in their compositions (x value) with the reaction time. Because of the higher reactivity of the Cd precursor, QDs whose composition was rich in CdSe were generated at the beginning of the reaction. As the reaction proceeded, the later-formed ZnSe shell was simultaneously alloyed with the core, giving rise to a progressive alloying treatment for the grown QDs. During the reaction period

  6. An esthetic solution for single-implant restorations - type III porcelain veneer bonded to a screw-retained custom abutment: a clinical report. (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Magne, Michel; Jovanovic, Sascha A


    A new esthetic solution to restore dental implants in combination with limited interdental, facial or labial, or interocclusal space is presented. This article describes the translational application of novel-design porcelain veneers and adhesive restorative principles in the implant realm. A patient is presented who was treated with a single implant-supported restoration replacing a missing mandibular lateral incisor and partially collapsed interdental space. A screw-retained custom metal ceramic abutment was combined with a bonded porcelain restoration. This unique design was motivated by the limited restorative space and subgingival implant shoulder. It was also developed as a solution to the interference of the screw-access channel with the incisal edge, therefore providing the surgeon with more options during implant axis selection. The porcelain-to-porcelain adhesive approach was used instead of traditional principles of retention and resistance form of the abutment.

  7. Ab initio LCAO-MO cluster-type calculation of the self-consistent electronic screening charge density around a single hydrogen impurity in a nickel crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.W.; Lane, N.F.; Chaney, R.C.


    The electronic structure for a Ni atom cluster embedded in bulk Ni by use of a spin-averaged local exchange SCF Ni crystal potential is calculated with an ab initio LCAO-Mo variational method. A single hydrogen impurity is added at the cluster center (fcc octahedral interstitial site) and the electronic structure computed iteratively until the change in electron density from the pure Ni cluster density is self-consistent. The H-Ni 6 self-consistent density change is compared to the charge density around a free hydrogen atom and to the initial-response density change in H-Ni 14 and H-Ni 38 clusters. 14 references

  8. A multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism typing assay for detecting mutations that result in decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Song, Yajun


    OBJECTIVES: Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has become a major problem for the successful therapy of human infections caused by Salmonella enterica, especially the life-threatening typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. METHODS: By using Luminex xTAG beads, we developed a rapid, reliable and cost-effective multiplexed genotyping assay for simultaneously detecting 11 mutations in gyrA, gyrB and parE of S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A that result in nalidixic acid resistance (Nal(R)) and\\/or decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. RESULTS: This assay yielded unambiguous single nucleotide polymorphism calls on extracted DNA from 292 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (Nal(R) = 223 and Nal(S) = 69) and 106 isolates of Salmonella Paratyphi A (Nal(R) = 24 and Nal(S) = 82). All of the 247 Nal(R) Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates were found to harbour at least one of the target mutations, with GyrA Phe-83 as the most common one (143\\/223 for Salmonella Typhi and 18\\/24 for Salmonella Paratyphi A). We also identified three GyrB mutations in eight Nal(S) Salmonella Typhi isolates (six for GyrB Phe-464, one for GyrB Leu-465 and one for GyrB Asp-466), and mutations GyrB Phe-464 and GyrB Asp-466 seem to be related to the decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility phenotype in Salmonella Typhi. This assay can also be used directly on boiled single colonies. CONCLUSIONS: The assay presented here would be useful for clinical and reference laboratories to rapidly screen quinolone-resistant isolates of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, and decipher the underlying genetic changes for epidemiological purposes.

  9. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards . II. NLTE spectral analysis of the OB-type subdwarf Feige 110 (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Rudkowski, A.; Kampka, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Moehler, S.


    Context. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory (VO), the German Astrophysical VO (GAVO) developed the registered service TheoSSA (Theoretical Stellar Spectra Access). It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code, generally for all effective temperatures, surface gravities, and elemental compositions. We will establish a database of SEDs of flux standards that are easily accessible via TheoSSA's web interface. Aims: The OB-type subdwarf Feige 110 is a standard star for flux calibration. State-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar-atmosphere models that consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements will be used to provide a reliable synthetic spectrum to compare with observations. Methods: In case of Feige 110, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape from the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to the optical wavelength range but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its FUV spectrum. Results: We present a state-of-the-art spectral analysis of Feige 110. We determined , log g = 6.00 ± 0.20, and the abundances of He, N, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Ge. Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ge were identified for the first time in this star. Upper abundance limits were derived for C, O, Si, Ca, and Sc. Conclusions: The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on models and SEDs calculated with state-of-the-art model-atmosphere codes. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Table 2, Figs. 3 and

  10. Fatigue resistance and failure mode of novel-design anterior single-tooth implant restorations: influence of material selection for type III veneers bonded to zirconia abutments. (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Paranhos, Maria Paula Gandolfi; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Magne, Michel; Belser, Urs Christoph


    This study assessed the fatigue resistance and failure mode of type III porcelain and composite resin veneers bonded to custom zirconia implant abutments. Twenty-four standardized zirconia implant abutments were fabricated. Using the CEREC 3 machine, type III veneers of standardized shape were milled in ceramic Vita Mark II or in composite resin Paradigm MZ100. The intaglio surfaces of the restorations were hydrofluoric acid etched and silanated (Mark II) or airborne-particle abraded and silanated (MZ100). The fitting surface of the abutments was airborne-particle abraded, cleaned, and inserted into a bone level implant (BLI RC SLActive 10 mm). All veneers (n=24) were adhesively luted with a zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus), adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a pre-heated light-curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) was simulated, starting with a load of 40 N, followed by stages of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, and 280 N (20,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 140,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (Logrank test at P=.05). Mark II and MZ100 specimens fractured at an average load of 216 N and 229 N (survival rate of 17% and 8%), respectively, with no difference in survival probability (P=.18). Among the fractured samples, 40% of the failures were at the abutment level for Mark II and 27% were at the abutment level for MZ100. No exclusive adhesive failures were observed. Type III Mark II and Paradigm MZ100 veneers showed similar fatigue resistance when bonded to custom non-retentive zirconia implant abutments. The bond was strong enough to induce abutment fractures. MZ100 presented a higher percentage of "friendly" failures, i.e. maintaining the restoration-abutment adhesive interface and the abutment itself intact. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Adaptive kanban control mechanism for a single-stage hybrid system (United States)

    Korugan, Aybek; Gupta, Surendra M.


    In this paper, we consider a hybrid manufacturing system with two discrete production lines. Here the output of either production line can satisfy the demand for the same type of product without any penalties. The interarrival times for demand occurrences and service completions are exponentially distributed i.i.d. variables. In order to control this type of manufacturing system we suggest a single stage pull type control mechanism with adaptive kanbans and state independent routing of the production information.

  12. BioServices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cokelaer, Thomas; Pultz, Dennis; Harder, Lea M


    Web interfaces provide access to numerous biological databases. Many can be accessed to in a programmatic way thanks to Web Services. Building applications that combine several of them would benefit from a single framework....

  13. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding GLUT1 and diabetic nephropathy in Brazilian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Marques, T; Patente, T A; Monteiro, M B; Cavaleiro, A M; Queiroz, M S; Nery, M; de Azevedo, M J; Canani, L H; Parisi, M C; Moura-Neto, A; Passarelli, M; Giannella-Neto, D; Machado, U F; Corrêa-Giannella, M L


    Mesangial cells subject to high extracellular glucose concentrations, as occur in hyperglycaemic states, are unable to down regulate glucose influx, resulting in intracellular activation of deleterious biochemical pathways. A high expression of GLUT1 participates in the development of diabetic glomerulopathy. Variants in the gene encoding GLUT1 (SLC2A1) have been associated to this diabetic complication. The aim of this study was to test whether polymorphisms in SLC2A1 confer susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Brazilian type 1 diabetes patients. Four polymorphisms (rs3820589, rs1385129, rs841847 and rs841848) were genotyped in a Brazilian cohort comprised of 452 patients. A prospective analysis was performed in 155 patients. Mean duration of follow-up was 5.6 ± 2.4 years and the incidence of renal events was 18.0%. The rs3820589 presented an inverse association with the prevalence of incipient DN (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16 - 0.80, p=0.01) and with progression to renal events (HR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.70; p=0.009). AGGT and AGAC haplotypes were associated with the prevalence of incipient DN and the AGAC haplotype was also associated with the prevalence of established/advanced DN. In conclusion, rs3820589 in the SLC2A1 gene modulates the risk to DN in Brazilian patients with inadequate type 1 diabetes control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and indirect single electron transfer (SET-photochemical approaches for the preparation of novel phthalimide and naphthalimide-based lariat-type crown ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Won Cho


    Full Text Available In this review, we describe direct and indirect photochemical approaches that have been developed for the preparation of phthalimide- and naphthalimide-based, lariat-type crown ethers. The direct route utilizes a strategy in which nitrogen-linked side chains containing polyethoxy-tethered phthalimides and naphthalimides, possessing terminal α-trialkylsilyl groups, are synthesized utilizing concise routes and UV-irradiation to form macrocyclic ring systems. In contrast, the indirect route developed for the synthesis of lariat-type crown ethers employs sequences in which SET-promoted macrocyclization reactions of α-trialkylsilyl-terminated, polyethoxy-tethered phthalimides and naphthalimides are followed by a side chain introduction through substitution reactions at the amidol centers in the macrocyclic ethers. The combined observations made in these investigations demonstrate the unique features of SET-promoted photocyclization reactions that make them well-suited for the use in the synthesis of functionalized crown ethers. In addition, while some limitations exist for the general use of SET-photochemical reactions in large-scale organic synthesis, important characteristics of the photoinduced macrocyclization reactions make them applicable to unique situations in which high temporal and spatial control is required.

  15. Microvascular Outcomes of Pediatric-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Single-Center Observational Case Reviews in Sana’a, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ahmed Gunaid


    Full Text Available Microvascular complications of pediatric-onset type 1 diabetes are common in low-income countries. In this study, we aimed at reviewing microvascular outcomes in 6 cases with type 1 diabetes over 14 to 31 years of follow-up. Severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and/or diabetic macular edema (maculopathy (DME and overt diabetic nephropathy (macroalbuminuria were seen among 4 of 6 patients, whereas severe diabetic peripheral neuropathy with Charcot neuroarthropathy was seen in 1 patient only, who had the longest duration of follow-up. The weighted mean (SD (95% confidence interval hemoglobin A 1c was 8.9 (1.6 (8.4-9.4% [74 (17 (68-80 mmol/mol] for PDR/DME and 8.6 (1.7 (8.0-9.0% [71 (19 (65-77 mmol/mol] for macroalbuminuria. Thyroid autoimmunity was positive in 3 patients with overt hypothyroidism in 2 of them. Worse microvascular outcomes among these cases might be attributed to poor glycemic control, lack of knowledge, and limited financial resources.

  16. Outpatient overnight glucose control with dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, or conventional insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Haidar, Ahmad; Legault, Laurent; Matteau-Pelletier, Laurence; Messier, Virginie; Dallaire, Maryse; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi


    Additional benefits of the dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas compared with the single-hormone (insulin alone) artificial pancreas have not been assessed in young people in outpatient unrestricted conditions. We evaluated the efficacy of three systems for nocturnal glucose control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. We did a randomised, three-way, crossover trial in children aged 9-17 years with type 1 diabetes attending a diabetes camp in Canada. With use of sealed envelopes, children were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1:1:1 ratio with blocks of six to different sequences of the three interventions (single-hormone artificial pancreas, dual-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional continuous subcutaneous insulin pump therapy). Each intervention was applied for 3 consecutive nights. Participants, study staff, and endpoint assessors were not masked. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent with glucose concentrations lower than 4·0 mmol/L from 2300 h to 0700 h. Analysis was by intention to treat. A p value of less than 0·0167 was regarded as significant. This study is registered with, number NCT02189694. Between June 30, 2014, and Aug 9, 2014, we enrolled 33 children of mean age 13·3 years (SD 2·3; range 9-17). The time spent at a glucose concentration lower than 4·0 mmol/L was median 0% (IQR 0·0-2·4) during nights with the dual-hormone artificial pancreas, 3·1% (0·0-6·9) during nights with the single-hormone artificial pancreas (p=0·032), and 3·4% (0-11·0) during nights with conventional pump therapy (p=0·0048 compared with dual-hormone artificial pancreas and p=0·32 compared with single-hormone artificial pancreas). 15 hypoglycaemic events (pump therapy compared with four events with the single-hormone system and no events with the dual-hormone system. None of the assessed outcomes varied with the order in which children and young adults were assigned interventions. The dual

  17. Variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of tetragonal and cubic perovskite-type barium titanate phases. (United States)

    Nakatani, Tomotaka; Yoshiasa, Akira; Nakatsuka, Akihiko; Hiratoko, Tatsuya; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Okube, Maki; Sasaki, Satoshi


    A variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of a synthetic BaTiO3 perovskite has been performed over the temperature range 298-778 K. A transition from a tetragonal (P4mm) to a cubic (Pm3m) phase has been revealed near 413 K. In the non-centrosymmetric P4mm symmetry group, both Ti and O atoms are displaced along the c-axis in opposite directions with regard to the Ba position fixed at the origin, so that Ti(4+) and Ba(2+) cations occupy off-center positions in the TiO6 and BaO12 polyhedra, respectively. Smooth temperature-dependent changes of the atomic coordinates become discontinuous with the phase transition. Our observations imply that the cations remain off-center even in the high-temperature cubic phase. The temperature dependence of the mean-square displacements of Ti in the cubic phase includes a significant static component which means that Ti atoms are statistically distributed in the off-center positions.

  18. Fast-electron impact ionization of molecular hydrogen: energy and angular distribution of double and single differential cross sections and Young-type interference (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Kelkar, A. H.; Stia, C. R.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.


    We report the energy and angular distribution of absolute double differential cross sections (DDCSs) of ejected electrons in collisions of 8 keV projectile electrons with molecular hydrogen. The ejected electrons with energy between 1 eV and 400 eV and ejection angles between 30° and 150° are detected. The measured data are compared with the theoretical calculations based on two-effective centre (TEC) model. The first-order interference is derived from the energy distribution of DDCS and the resulting ratio spectra (H2 to 2H) exhibit oscillating behaviour. The signature of first-order interference is also demonstrated in the DDCS spectra as a function of the ejection angle. We have shown that the constructive interference prevails in soft- and binary-collision regions. The single differential cross sections (SDCS) are deduced by integrating the DDCS over the solid angle as well as ejection energy. We demonstrate that the SDCS and corresponding ratio spectra also preserve the signature of interference.

  19. Fast-electron impact ionization of molecular hydrogen: energy and angular distribution of double and single differential cross sections and Young-type interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S; Kasthurirangan, S; Kelkar, A H; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Stia, C R; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail:


    We report the energy and angular distribution of absolute double differential cross sections (DDCSs) of ejected electrons in collisions of 8 keV projectile electrons with molecular hydrogen. The ejected electrons with energy between 1 eV and 400 eV and ejection angles between 30 deg. and 150 deg. are detected. The measured data are compared with the theoretical calculations based on two-effective centre (TEC) model. The first-order interference is derived from the energy distribution of DDCS and the resulting ratio spectra (H{sub 2} to 2H) exhibit oscillating behaviour. The signature of first-order interference is also demonstrated in the DDCS spectra as a function of the ejection angle. We have shown that the constructive interference prevails in soft- and binary-collision regions. The single differential cross sections (SDCS) are deduced by integrating the DDCS over the solid angle as well as ejection energy. We demonstrate that the SDCS and corresponding ratio spectra also preserve the signature of interference.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of low density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering therapy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes in Korea: single-pill regimen (amlodipine/atorvastatin versus double-pill regimen (amlodipine+atorvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Park


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Single-pill combination therapy (amlodipine/atorvastatin might be more effective than double-pill therapy (amlodipine+atorvastatin in patients with diabetes and concomitant hypertension requiring statin therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of a single-pill with that of double-pill for control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, with the ultimate goal of cardiovascular disease prevention, in these patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis model that considered medication adherence. METHODS: Effectiveness was defined as the percentage (% attainment of target LDL-C levels (<100 mg/dL based on adherence for each therapy. Adherence was defined as compliance to medication (≥80% proportion of days covered. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the proportion of patients who were adherent and target goal attainment based on adherence level. The annual medication costs were based on the adherence levels for each regimen. The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER was calculated as the cost per % attainment of the target LDL-C level. RESULTS: The ACER for the single-pill regimen was lower than for the double-pill regimen (4,123 vs. 6,062 Korean won per 1% achievement of target goal. Compared with the double-pill, the medication costs were approximately 32% lower with the single-pill. CONCLUSION:A single-pill for reductions in LDL-C is cost-effective compared with double-pill in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. A single L288I substitution in the fusion protein of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 enhances virus growth in semi-suitable cell lines. (United States)

    Matsuura, Ryosuke; Takada, Marina; Kokuho, Takehiro; Tsuboi, Takamitsu; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru


    The bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-CE vaccine strain was obtained by serial passage of the BN-1 strain in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). We previously identified a substitution (L288I) in the fusion (F) protein between the two strains. To examine the effect of the substitution on CEF adaptation and attenuation, we generated a recombinant BN-1 strain with the L288I substitution in the F protein (F L288I -EGFP). F L288I -EGFP replicated more efficiently than a recombinant BN-1 strain (wt-EGFP) in semi-suitable cell lines, suggesting that the L288I substitution was established in the BN-1 strain during the process of adaptation in CEF.

  2. Frequency of LCT -13910C>T single nucleotide polymorphism associated with adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence among Brazilians of different ethnic groups

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    Silva Joyce MK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult-type hypolactasia, the physiological decline of lactase some time after weaning, was previously associated with the LCT -13910C>T polymorphism worldwide except in Africa. Lactase non-persistence is the most common phenotype in humans, except in northwestern Europe with its long history of pastoralism and milking. We had previously shown association of LCT -13910C>T polymorphism with adult-type hypolactasia in Brazilians; thus, we assessed its frequency among different Brazilian ethnic groups. Methods We investigated the ethnicity-related frequency of this polymorphism in 567 Brazilians [mean age, 42.1 ± 16.8 years; 157 (27.7% men]; 399 (70.4% White, 50 (8.8% Black, 65 (11.5% Brown, and 53 (9.3% Japanese-Brazilian. DNA was extracted from leukocytes; LCT -13910C>T polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results Prevalence of the CC genotype associated with hypolactasia was similar (57% among White and Brown groups; however, prevalence was higher among Blacks (80% and those of Japanese descent (100%. Only 2 (4% Blacks had TT genotype, and 8 (16% had the CT genotype. Assuming an association between CC genotype and hypolactasia, and CT and TT genotypes with lactase persistence, 356 (62.8% individuals had hypolactasia and 211 (37.2% had lactase persistence. The White and Brown groups had the same hypolactasia prevalence (~57%; nevertheless, was 80% among Black individuals and 100% among Japanese-Brazilians (P Conclusion The lactase persistence allele, LCT -13910T, was found in about 43% of both White and Brown and 20% of the Black Brazilians, but was absent among all Japanese Brazilians studied.

  3. Can optical coherence tomography predict early retinal microvascular pathology in type 1 diabetic adolescents without minimal diabetic retinopathy? A single-centre study. (United States)

    Elhabashy, Safinaz Adel; Elbarbary, Nancy Samir; Nageb, Karim Magdy; Mohammed, Mai Mostafa


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proven useful in measuring retinal thickness and volumes in patients with diabetes. To test whether OCT is able to identify early retinal changes and its potential correlations with metabolic parameters and other microvascular complications. Thirty patients with type 1 diabetes without minimal diabetic retinopathy (MDR) (17 males, 13 females, aged 14.3±2.4 years) compared with age-matched healthy volunteers were examined with OCT. Diabetes duration, anthropometric measurements, HbA1c, other microvascular complications (nephropathy, autonomic and peripheral neuropathy) and total serum cholesterol were determined. No statistically significant differences were found between patients with (n=15) and without microvascular complications (n=15) compared to controls regarding retinal volume, nerve fibre layer volume (temporal and nasal quadrants) and ganglion cell layer area in both eyes. No correlation was found between the ganglion cell layer area and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients, except a negative correlation with total serum cholesterol (r=-0.369, p=0.049). The best cut-off value of ganglion cell layer area to detect the level at which thinning of this layer occurs was >1900 pixels. Our study suggests that there is no advantage in performing OCT routinely in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus without MDR. OCT did not show changes in retinal thickness in those patients compared to control. So OCT did not seem to be useful in the preclinical stages of diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, the conventional diagnostic methods are mandatory to detect early diabetic retinopathy.

  4. System services and architecture of the TMI satellite mobile data system (United States)

    Gokhale, D.; Agarwal, A.; Guibord, A.


    The North American Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) system being developed by AMSC/TMI and scheduled to go into service in early 1995 will include the provision for real time packet switched services (mobile data service - MDS) and circuit switched services (mobile telephony service - MTS). These services will utilize geostationary satellites which provide access to mobile terminals (MT's) through L-band beams. The MDS system utilizes a star topology with a centralized data hub (DH) and will support a large number of mobile terminals. The DH, which accesses the satellite via a single Ku band beam, is responsible for satellite resource management, for providing mobile users with access to public and private data networks, and for comprehensive network management of the system. This paper describes the various MDS services available for the users, the ground segment elements involved in the provisioning of these services, and a summary description of the channel types, protocol architecture, and network management capabilities provided within the system.

  5. Semi-quantification of endolymphatic size on MR imaging after intravenous injection of single-dose gadodiamide: comparison between two types of processing strategies. (United States)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Kojiro; Nakamichi, Rei; Bokura, Kiminori; Yoshida, Tadao; Sone, Michihiko; Homann, Georg; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ikeda, Mitsuru


    Many inner ear disorders, including Ménière's disease, are believed to be based on endolymphatic hydrops. We evaluated a newly proposed method for semi-quantification of endolymphatic size in patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops that uses 2 kinds of processed magnetic resonance (MR) images. Twenty-four consecutive patients underwent heavily T2-weighted (hT2W) MR cisternography (MRC), hT2W 3-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) with inversion time of 2250 ms (positive perilymph image, PPI), and hT2W-3D-IR with inversion time of 2050 ms (positive endolymph image, PEI) 4 hours after intravenous administration of single-dose gadolinium-based contrast material (IV-SD-GBCM). Two images were generated using 2 new methods to process PPI, PEI, and MRC. Three radiologists contoured the cochlea and vestibule on MRC, copied regions of interest (ROIs) onto the 2 kinds of generated images, and semi-quantitatively measured the size of the endolymph for the cochlea and vestibule by setting a threshold pixel value. Each observer noted a strong linear correlation between endolymphatic size of both the cochlea and vestibule of the 2 kinds of generated images. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.783, 0.734, and 0.800 in the cochlea and 0.924, 0.930, and 0.933 in the vestibule (P<0.001, for all). In both the cochlea and vestibule, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no statistically significant difference between observers. Use of the 2 kinds of generated images generated from MR images obtained 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM might enable semi-quantification of endolymphatic size with little observer dependency.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate bioconjugate vaccine against Shigella dysenteriae type 1 administered to healthy adults: A single blind, partially randomized Phase I study. (United States)

    Hatz, Christoph F R; Bally, Bettina; Rohrer, Susanne; Steffen, Robert; Kramme, Stefanie; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wacker, Michael; Alaimo, Cristina; Fonck, Veronica Gambillara


    Shigellae cause severe disease in endemic countries, especially in children. Several efficacy trials have been conducted with candidate vaccines against Shigellae, but the lack of protection, the safety concerns, or manufacturing challenges hindered successful market approval. Conjugated vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective for different pathogens (i.e., Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae). The bio-conjugation technology, exploited here for the Shigella dysenteriae candidate vaccine, offers a novel and potentially simpler way to develop and produce vaccines against one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. A novel S. dysenteriae bioconjugate vaccine (GVXN SD133) made of the polysaccharide component of the Shigella O1 lipopolysaccharide, conjugated to the exotoxin protein A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (EPA), was evaluated for immunogenicity and safety in healthy adults in a single blind, partially randomized Phase I study. Forty subjects (10 in each dose group; 2 μg or 10 μg with or without aluminium adjuvant) received two injections 60 days apart and were followed-up for 150 days. Both doses and formulations were well tolerated; the safety and reactogenicity profiles were consistent with that of other conjugated vaccines, adjuvanted or not, independent of the dose and the number of injections. The GVXN SD133 vaccine elicited statistically significant O1 specific humoral responses at all time points in all vaccination groups. Between-group comparisons did not show statistically significant differences in geometric mean titers of immunoglobulin G and A at any post-vaccination time point. This study demonstrated that the GVXN SD133 vaccine has a satisfactory safety profile. It elicited a significant humoral response to Shigella O1 polysaccharides at all doses tested. The protein carrier also elicited functional antibodies, showing the technology's advantages in preserving both sugar and

  7. Single point mutations in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein enhance dengue virus replicative capacity in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and circumvent the type I interferon response. (United States)

    Silveira, G F; Strottmann, D M; de Borba, L; Mansur, D S; Zanchin, N I T; Bordignon, J; dos Santos, C N Duarte


    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide. The outcome of the infection is determined by the interplay of viral and host factors. In the present study, we evaluated the cellular response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mdDCs) infected with recombinant dengue virus type 1 (DV1) strains carrying a single point mutation in the NS3hel protein (L435S or L480S). Both mutated viruses infect and replicate more efficiently and produce more viral progeny in infected mdDCs compared with the parental, non-mutated virus (vBACDV1). Additionally, global gene expression analysis using cDNA microarrays revealed that the mutated DVs induce the up-regulation of the interferon (IFN) signalling and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) canonical pathways in mdDCs. Pronounced production of type I IFN were detected specifically in mdDCs infected with DV1-NS3hel-mutated virus compared with mdDCs infected with the parental virus. In addition, we showed that the type I IFN produced by mdDCs is able to reduce DV1 infection rates, suggesting that cytokine function is effective but not sufficient to mediate viral clearance of DV1-NS3hel-mutated strains. Our results demonstrate that single point mutations in subdomain 2 have important implications for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of DV1-NS3hel. Although a direct functional connection between the increased ATPase activity and viral replication still requires further studies, these mutations speed up viral RNA replication and are sufficient to enhance viral replicative capacity in human primary cell infection and circumvent type I IFN activity. This information may have particular relevance for attenuated vaccine protocols designed for DV. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Comparison of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy for glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: an open-label randomised controlled crossover trial. (United States)

    Haidar, Ahmad; Legault, Laurent; Messier, Virginie; Mitre, Tina Maria; Leroux, Catherine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi


    The artificial pancreas is an emerging technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes and two configurations have been proposed: single-hormone (insulin alone) and dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon). We aimed to delineate the usefulness of glucagon in the artificial pancreas system. We did a randomised crossover trial of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) in participants aged 12 years or older with type 1 diabetes. Participants were assigned in a 1:1:1:1:1:1 ratio with blocked randomisation to the three interventions and attended a research facility for three 24-h study visits. During visits when the patient used the single-hormone artificial pancreas, insulin was delivered based on glucose sensor readings and a predictive dosing algorithm. During dual-hormone artificial pancreas visits, glucagon was also delivered during low or falling glucose. During conventional insulin pump therapy visits, patients received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The study was not masked. The primary outcome was the time for which plasma glucose concentrations were in the target range (4·0-10·0 mmol/L for 2 h postprandially and 4·0-8·0 mmol/L otherwise). Hypoglycaemic events were defined as plasma glucose concentration of less than 3·3 mmol/L with symptoms or less than 3·0 mmol/L irrespective of symptoms. Analysis was by modified intention to treat, in which we included data for all patients who completed at least two visits. A p value of less than 0·0167 (0·05/3) was regarded as significant. This trial is registered with, number NCT01754337. The mean proportion of time spent in the plasma glucose target range over 24 h was 62% (SD 18), 63% (18), and 51% (19) with single-hormone artificial pancreas, dual-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy, respectively. The mean difference in time spent in the target

  9. Entertainment services marketing


    STOIAN Andra; Epuran Gheorghe


    This paper discusses a less treated subject until now: entertainment services. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of these services. Our aim is to find out what entertainment services are, to whom they are addressed, what kind of services we have in Brasov County and the type of strategies applied by entertainment providers for the success of their business. When we discuss about entertainment we cannot leave out our free time, and that is why we ...

  10. 29 CFR 779.204 - Common types of “enterprise.” (United States)


    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Enterprise; the Business Unit § 779.204 Common types of “enterprise.” (a) The single establishment business. In the simplest type of organization—the entire business ordinarily is one enterprise. The entire business...

  11. Characterization of antibodies in single-chain format against the E7 oncoprotein of the Human papillomavirus type 16 and their improvement by mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accardi Luisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are the etiological agents of cervical cancer. The viral E7 protein plays a crucial role in viral oncogenesis. Many strategies have been explored to block the E7 oncoprotein activity. The single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs are valuable tools in cancer immunotherapy and can be used as "intracellular antibodies" to knock out specific protein functions. For both in vivo and in vitro employment, the scFv intrinsic solubility and stability are important to achieve long-lasting effects. Here we report the characterization in terms of reactivity, solubility and thermal stability of three anti-HPV16 E7 scFvs. We have also analysed the scFv43 sequence with the aim of improving stability and then activity of the antibody, previously shown to have antiproliferative activity when expressed in HPV16-positive cells. Methods The three anti-HPV16 E7 scFv 32, 43 51 were selected from the ETH-2 "phage-display" library. Thermal stability was evaluated with ELISA by determining the residual activity of each purified scFv against the recombinant HPV16 E7, after incubation in the presence of human seroalbumine for different time-intervals at different temperatures. Sequence analysis of the scFvs was performed with BLAST and CLUSTALL programs. The scFv43 aminoacid changes were reverted back to the consensus sequence from the immunoglobuline database by site-directed mutagenesis. ScFv solubility was evaluated with Western blotting by determining their relative amounts in the soluble and insoluble fractions of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Results ScFv51 was the most thermally stable scFv considered. Sequence analysis of the most reactive scFv43 has evidenced 2 amino acid changes possibly involved in molecule stability, in the VH and VL CDR3 regions respectively. By mutagenesis, two novel scFv43-derived scFvs were obtained, scFv43 M1 and M2. ScFv43 M2 showed to have improved thermal stability and

  12. Optimization of Extrusion Process of Directly Expanded Snacks Based on Potato Starch in a Single Step for the Formation of Type IV Resistant Starch. (United States)

    Calvo-López, Amira Daniela; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando


    Resistant starch type IV (RSIV) can be produced by chemical modifications (etherized or esterified) such as conversion, substitution, or cross-linking, which can prevent its digestion by blocking enzyme access and forming atypical linkages. In this research, the effects of barrel temperature (145.86-174.14 °C), the screw speed (42.93-57.07 Hz) and derivatization (esterification) in the formation of RSIV content of directly expanded snacks (second generation snacks) were studied. Potato starch was chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation, and expanded by using the extrusion cooking process. Snacks with phosphorylated starch showed expansion index from 2.57 to 3.23, bulk density from 306.19 to 479.00 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 43.27 to 55.81%. Snacks with succinylated starch had expansion index from 3.52 to 3.82, bulk density from 99.85 to 134.51 kg/m 3 and RSIV from 23.17 to 35.01%. The results found in this work showed that it is possible to manufacture extruded directly expanded snacks (second-generation snacks) such as a ready-to-eat (RTE) with good physicochemical properties and without substantial loss of extrusion functionality, which could bring a healthy benefit due to the presence of RSIV.

  13. Orientation and Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Sillenite-Type Bi12TiO20 and Bi12SiO20 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanying Shen


    Full Text Available The full matrix of electro-elastic constants of sillenite-type crystals Bi12TiO20 (BTO and Bi12SiO20 (BSO were determined by the resonance method, with d14 and k14 being on the order of 40–48 pC/N and 31%–36%, respectively. In addition, double-rotated orientation dependence of d33 was investigated, with the maximum values of 25–28 pC/N being achieved in ZXtl45°/54°-cut samples. The electrical resistivity of BSO was found to be two orders higher than that of BTO, being on the order of 7 × 105 Ω cm at 500 °C. The temperature dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. BSO exhibited a high thermal stability in the temperature range of 25–500 °C, while BTO showed a variation of ~3% in the range of 25–350 °C. The high values of d14 and k14, together with the good thermal stability, make BTO and BSO crystals potential candidates for electromechanical applications in medium temperature range.

  14. Sexual dysfunction in female patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional single-centre study among Turkish patients. (United States)

    Tuncel, Ercan; Durgun, Onur; Peynirci, Hande; Ersoy, Canan


    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of female sexual function and related factors in Turkish women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 93 female patients diagnosed with T2DM (age 48.0 ± 7.2 years (Mean ± SD) were included. Data on age, diabetes age, HbA1c level, educational level, diabetes treatment, diabetes-related complications, co-morbid disorders and concomitant medications were recorded, as were the scores obtained using a Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was noted in 55.9% of patients including problems related to desire (60.2%), arousal (52.7%), lubrication (55.9%), orgasm (51.6%) and satisfaction (58.1%) as well as pain during sexual intercourse (54.8%). Total scores were correlated negatively to age (r= -0.329, p = 0.001) and duration of diabetes (r= -0.246, p = 0.018), while significantly higher in patients with than without hypertension (19.6 vs. 22.4, p = 0.012) and with than without insulin therapy (20.0 vs. 23.7, p = 0.050). Our findings indicate the adverse effects of T2DM on sexual function in 55.9% of women in all domains of sexual response cycle, although this seems to be associated with older age, longer duration of diabetes, insulin and antidepressant therapy, presence of hypertension as well as end-organ complications of neuropathy and coronary artery disease (CAD).

  15. A comparison of adding liraglutide versus a single daily dose of insulin aspart to insulin degludec in subjects with type 2 diabetes (BEGIN: VICTOZA ADD-ON). (United States)

    Mathieu, C; Rodbard, H W; Cariou, B; Handelsman, Y; Philis-Tsimikas, A; Ocampo Francisco, A M; Rana, A; Zinman, B


    Two treatment strategies were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on basal insulin requiring intensification: addition of once-daily (OD) liraglutide (Lira) or OD insulin aspart (IAsp) with largest meal. Subjects completing 104 weeks (52-week main trial BEGIN ONCE-LONG + 52-week extension) on insulin degludec (IDeg) OD + metformin with HbA1c ≥ 7.0% (≥53 mmol/mol) were randomized to IDeg+Lira [n = 88, mean HbA1c: 7.7% (61 mmol/mol)] or IDeg+IAsp (n = 89, mean HbA1c: 7.7%) for 26 weeks, continuing metformin. Subjects completing 104 weeks with HbA1c IAsp (-0.39%-points); estimated treatment difference (ETD) (IDeg+Lira-IDeg+IAsp) -0.32%-points (95% CI -0.53; -0.12); p = 0.0024. More IDeg+Lira (49.4%) than IDeg+IAsp (7.2%) subjects achieved HbA1c IAsp) 13.79 (95% CI 5.24; 36.28); p IAsp (+0.9 kg); ETD (IDeg+Lira-IDeg+IAsp) -3.75 kg (95% CI -4.70; -2.79); p IAsp in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with IDeg + metformin. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Cytotoxic T-Cell Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection of C57BL/6 Mice Is Almost Entirely Directed against a Single Immunodominant Determinant (United States)

    Wallace, Morgan E.; Keating, Rachael; Heath, William R.; Carbone, Francis R.


    Many virus infections give rise to surprisingly limited T-cell responses directed to very few immunodominant determinants. We have been examining the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Previous studies have identified the glycoprotein B-derived peptide from residues 498 to 505 (gB498–505) as one of at least three determinants recognized by HSV-1-specific CTLs isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We had previously found that in vitro-derived CTLs directed to gB498–505 show a characteristic pattern of T-cell receptor (TCR) usage, with 60% of gB498–505-specific CD8+ T cells expressing BV10+ TCR β chains and a further 20% expressing BV8S1. In this report, we confirm that this TCR V-region bias is also reflected in the ex vivo response to HSV-1 infection. A high proportion of activated CD8+ draining lymph node cells were found to express these dominant V regions, suggesting that a substantial number of in vivo responding T cells were directed to this one viral determinant. The use of an HSV-1 deletion mutant lacking the gB498–505 determinant in combination with accurate intracellular gamma interferon staining allowed us to quantify the extent of gB-specific T-cell dominance. Together, these results suggested that between 70 and 90% of all CD8+ HSV-1-specific T cells target gB498–505. While deletion of this determinant resulted in an attenuated CD8+ T-cell response, it also permitted the emergence of one or more previously unidentified cryptic specificities. Overall, HSV-1 infection of C57BL/6 mice results in an extremely focused pattern of CD8+ T-cell selection in terms of target specificity and TCR expression. PMID:10438852

  17. A single Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase plays a major role in the biosynthesis of PKS and NRPS derived metabolites in Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bunet

    Full Text Available The phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases are responsible for the activation of the carrier protein domains of the polyketide synthases (PKS, non ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS and fatty acid synthases (FAS. The analysis of the Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 genome has revealed the presence of four putative PPTase encoding genes. One of these genes appears to be essential and is likely involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Two other PPTase genes, samT0172 (alpN and samL0372, are located within a type II PKS gene cluster responsible for the kinamycin production and an hybrid NRPS-PKS cluster involved in antimycin production, respectively, and their products were shown to be specifically involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. Surprisingly, the fourth PPTase gene, which is not located within a secondary metabolite gene cluster, appears to play a pleiotropic role. Its product is likely involved in the activation of the acyl- and peptidyl-carrier protein domains within all the other PKS and NRPS complexes encoded by S. ambofaciens. Indeed, the deletion of this gene affects the production of the spiramycin and stambomycin macrolide antibiotics and of the grey spore pigment, all three being PKS-derived metabolites, as well as the production of the nonribosomally produced compounds, the hydroxamate siderophore coelichelin and the pyrrolamide antibiotic congocidine. In addition, this PPTase seems to act in concert with the product of samL0372 to activate the ACP and/or PCP domains of the antimycin biosynthesis cluster which is also responsible for the production of volatile lactones.

  18. A single Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase plays a major role in the biosynthesis of PKS and NRPS derived metabolites in Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877. (United States)

    Bunet, Robert; Riclea, Ramona; Laureti, Luisa; Hôtel, Laurence; Paris, Cédric; Girardet, Jean-Michel; Spiteller, Dieter; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Leblond, Pierre; Aigle, Bertrand


    The phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are responsible for the activation of the carrier protein domains of the polyketide synthases (PKS), non ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) and fatty acid synthases (FAS). The analysis of the Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 genome has revealed the presence of four putative PPTase encoding genes. One of these genes appears to be essential and is likely involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Two other PPTase genes, samT0172 (alpN) and samL0372, are located within a type II PKS gene cluster responsible for the kinamycin production and an hybrid NRPS-PKS cluster involved in antimycin production, respectively, and their products were shown to be specifically involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. Surprisingly, the fourth PPTase gene, which is not located within a secondary metabolite gene cluster, appears to play a pleiotropic role. Its product is likely involved in the activation of the acyl- and peptidyl-carrier protein domains within all the other PKS and NRPS complexes encoded by S. ambofaciens. Indeed, the deletion of this gene affects the production of the spiramycin and stambomycin macrolide antibiotics and of the grey spore pigment, all three being PKS-derived metabolites, as well as the production of the nonribosomally produced compounds, the hydroxamate siderophore coelichelin and the pyrrolamide antibiotic congocidine. In addition, this PPTase seems to act in concert with the product of samL0372 to activate the ACP and/or PCP domains of the antimycin biosynthesis cluster which is also responsible for the production of volatile lactones.

  19. Increased type I collagen content and DNA binding activity of a single-stranded, cytosine-rich sequence in the high-salt buffer protein extract of the copper-deficient rat heart. (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Saari, Jack T


    Dietary copper (Cu) deficiency not only causes a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but also increases cancer risk in rodent models. However, a possible alteration in gene expression has not been fully examined. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of Cu deficiency on protein profiles in rat heart tissue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets that were either a Cu-adequate diet (6.0 microg Cu/g diet, n = 6) or a Cu-deficient diet (0.3 microg Cu/g diet, n = 6) for 5 weeks. The high-salt buffer (HSB) protein extract from heart tissue of Cu-deficient, but not Cu-adequate rats showed a 132 kDa protein band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. This protein band stained pink with Coomassie Blue, suggesting the presence of collagens or other proline-rich proteins. Dot immunoblotting demonstrated that total type I collagen was increased by 110% in HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient, relative to Cu-adequate, rats. Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the 132 kDa protein band contained a collagen alpha (I) chain precursor as well as a leucine-rich protein 130 (LRP130) in HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient but not Cu-adequate rats. A gel shift assay showed that HSB protein extract from Cu-deficient rats bound to a single-stranded cytosine-rich DNA with higher affinity than the extract of Cu-adequate rats, similar to reports of an increase in LRP130 single-stranded DNA binding activity in several types of tumor cells. Collectively, these results not only suggest an additional feature of altered collagen metabolism with Cu deficiency but also demonstrate for the first time an increase in single-stranded cytosine-rich DNA binding in Cu-deficient rat heart.

  20. A Parallel Study between the Resource Typing as Outlined in the American NIMS Document and the Levels of Service Required of the Police Forces of Quebec (United States)


    35 3 See tables in Annex 4 p. 38 Parallel October 2009 11 Similarly, a level 4 police service consists of the police intervention during...Aviation Administration FLIR Forward Looking Infrared GPS Global Positioning System IA Inspection Authorization IFR /VFR Instrument Flight Rules/Visual...enforcement Aviation (helicopters - patrol & surveillance) ------------------------------------ 9 3 . Law enforcement observation Aircraft (fixed-wing

  1. [Accessibility and quality of Italian health and social services: the experiences of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and of their relatives]. (United States)

    Kodra, Y; Salerno, P; Agazio, E; Mirabella, F; Taruscio, D


    Opinions of patients and relatives about their experiences with health and social services were assessed in a pilot study. The study was carried out in collaboration with two patients' Associations of Neurofibromatosis, "Neurofibromatosi--Onlus" and "LINFA--Onlus". An ad-hoc questionnaire was developed by the Italian National Centre of Rare Diseases and was sent to the Responsibles of the two aforementioned patients' Associations. The Responsibles distributed the questionnaire to their members by mail. The questionnaire investigated, using 5-level Likert scales, the following topics: quality and accessibility of health services (diagnostic exams, pharmacological therapies, rehabilitation, psychological support), quality and accessibility of social services (school, vocational training, health information, information on legal matters and rights). Finally, the questionnaire investigated also opinions about improvements of public health and social services in the last three years. Overall, 79 out 144 questionnaires were filled by patients or their relatives. The most frequent negative experiences concerned vocational training and both health and legal information. The most frequent positive opinions were reported for the human relationships with health professionals. This pilot study seems to point out a promising way to investigate systematically opinions of patients suffering from rare diseases and their relatives.

  2. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.


    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  3. Advanced Service Offshore Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg; Lind, Manya Jaura


    the capabilities, where the deficient development of one capability can be mitigated by the development of another capability (firm-internal determinants). Grounded in organization and service production theory, the paper contributes to the thematic literature on service offshoring and literature on organizational......We analyze the effect of offshored service task types on the development of capabilities in emerging market service provider firms. Using multiple case studies, we find that dependent on task interdependent service types, implying different client interactions (firm-external determinants......), organizational capabilities are developed. More specifically, reciprocal task interdependent services generate human capital and management capabilities, while sequential task interdependent services generate organizational capital and management capabilities. Moreover, we find a relationship between...

  4. Timing of blood transfusion and not ABO blood type is associated with survival in patients treated with radical cystectomy for nonmetastatic bladder cancer: Results from a single high-volume institution. (United States)

    Moschini, Marco; Bianchi, Marco; Rossi, Martina Sofia; Dell׳Oglio, Paolo; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Mattei, Agostino; Damiano, Rocco; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Briganti, Alberto; Colombo, Renzo; Gallina, Andrea


    Perioperative transfusions have been recently associated to poor outcomes as an indirect consequence of immune-hematological changes related to transfusion itself and blood type. We tested the role of blood transfusion on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM), considering the effect of ABO system, Rh factor, and timing of transfusions. The study focused on 728 patients with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy at a single tertiary care referral center between January 1995 and August 2013 with complete ABO blood type information. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the effect of transfusions, stratified according to ABO type and Rh factor, on CSM and OM. The same endpoints were tested in Cox regression models, after adjusting for all available confounders. A total of 341 (46.8%), 277 (38.0%), 83 (11.4%), and 27 (3.7%) patients had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. Overall, 630 (86.5%) and 98 (13.5%) patients were Rh-and Rh+, respectively. At a median follow-up time of 65 months, 225 (30.9%) and 282 (38.7%) patients recorded CSM and OM, respectively. At univariable analyses, ABO blood type and Rh status were not associated to either CSM or OM (all P>0.2). Similar results were observed when ABO blood type and Rh factor were tested in multivariable models (all P>0.3). Conversely, Charlson score, preoperative hemoglobin, number of nodes removed, pathological T stage, and number of positive nodes were associated to both CSM and OM (all Pblood units in the postoperative period (P>0.05) was associated with an increase of CSM and OM. Although ABO type or Rh factor or both were associated with several adverse outcomes in many cancers, we were not able to confirm this association in bladder cancer. Based on our results, the effect of transfusion on survival is independent by ABO type but is associated to the timing of blood supply administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of type I sensitization to alpha-gal in forest service employees and hunters: Is the blood type an overlooked risk factor in epidemiological studies of the alpha-Gal syndrome?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, J.


    Roč. 72, č. 12 (2017), s. 2044-2045 ISSN 0105-4538 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : a-Gal * prevalence * blood type Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 7.361, year: 2016

  6. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter


    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  7. A structured review of chronic care model components supporting transition between healthcare service delivery types for older people with multiple chronic diseases. (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite; McCosker, Laura; Crossley, Kristie; Bonner, Ann


    Older people with chronic diseases often have complex and interacting needs and require treatment and care from a wide range of professionals and services concurrently. This structured review will identify the components of the chronic care model (CCM) required to support healthcare that transitions seamlessly between hospital and ambulatory settings for people over 65 years of age who have two or more chronic diseases. A structured review was conducted by searching six electronic databases combining the terms 'hospital', 'ambulatory', 'elderly', 'chronic disease' and 'integration/seamless'. Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the review. Study setting, objectives, design, population, intervention, CCM components, outcomes and results were extracted and a process of descriptive synthesis applied. All four studies reported only using a few components of the CCM - such as clinical information sharing, community linkages and supported self-management - to create an integrated health system. The implementation of these components in a health service seemed to improve the seamless transition between hospital and ambulatory settings, health outcomes and patient experiences. Further research is required to explore the effect of implementing all CCM components to support transition of care between hospital and ambulatory services.

  8. Exploring Modularity in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana


    insights on the mirroring hypothesis of modularity theory to services. Originality/value The paper provides a conceptualization of service architectures drawing on service design, modularity, and market relationships. The study enriches service design literature with elements from modularity theory......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how modularity manifests in the design of services. The study brings new insights on the organization of service firms by empirically exploring and theoretically advancing the intersection of modularity and service design. Design....../methodology/approach The paper compares two companies that offer similar services in the same geographical region but represent polar case types. A framework grounded on extant literature is constructed and applied to the two cases to assess its practicality and provide theoretical insights. Findings The paper demonstrates...

  9. The opinion of children and their parents about four different types of dental restorations in a public health service in Brazil. (United States)

    Maciel, R; Salvador, D; Azoubel, K; Redivivo, R; Maciel, C; da Franca, C; Amerongen, E; Colares, V


    To investigate the opinion of children and their parents of four different types of restoration placed in primary molars. A mixed method study in which both children and their parents were involved. In the quantitative study, children and parents gave their opinion using a face scale about four different types of restoration immediately after placement, evaluating how satisfied they were. In the qualitative part, children and their parents were interviewed to report their preference among the four types of restoration using dental models and photos. In the quantitative study, 1045 restorations were placed, being conventional restorations (198 with amalgam and 205 with composite resin) and atraumatic interventions [408 with glass ionomer: ART, atraumatic restorative treatment, and 234 with preformed metal crowns (PMCs): Hall technique]. Almost all participants (children and parents) gave a positive opinion (from 94.9 to 100%) on the four types of restoration placed in the children's teeth. There was no statistical significant difference in opinion in terms of acceptance of the four types of restoration placed (Chi square test, p value > 0.05). In the qualitative approach, 18 children and 11 parents were interviewed. If they could choose, children (16/18) preferred the PMCs, while parents (10/11) preferred aesthetic materials such as composite resin and glass ionomer cement. A high degree of satisfaction was observed with children and their parents in the four types of restoration after placement. However, if it could be chosen in advance, children prefer the PMCs and parents a tooth-coloured material.

  10. Long-term outcomes of tension band wiring with a single K-wire in Rockwood type IV/V acute acromio-clavicular dislocations: 25 cases. (United States)

    Lateur, G; Boudissa, M; Rubens-Duval, B; Mader, R; Rouchy, R C; Pailhé, R; Saragaglia, D


    Our objective was to evaluate the long-term functional and radiological outcomes of tension band wiring with a single K-wire for acute Rockwood types IV and V acromio-clavicular dislocation (ACD). Single-centre cross-sectional non-randomised observational cohort study of 25 shoulders treated surgically between January 2002 and December 2004, in 25 patients, 23 males and 2 females, with a mean age of 35±11years (24-46). The evaluation criteria were the absolute and weighted Constant scores, QuickDASH score, subjective shoulder value (SSV), visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score at rest and during activities, and radiographic features in clinically symptomatic patients. Mean values were as follows: follow-up, 150±17months (133-167); absolute Constant score, 88±17 (71-105); weighted Constant score, 92.5±12.5 (80-105); QuickDASH, 15.5±7 (8.5-22.5); SSV, 88±17% (71-105); VAS pain score at rest, 0.2±0.7 (0-0.9); and VAS pain score while active, 1.4±2.3 (0-3.7). The weighted Constant score was less than 70% in only 8% of patients. Of the 17 patients for whom radiographs were obtained, 8 had acromio-clavicular osteoarthritis. Mean coraco-clavicular distance was 12.3±4.3mm (8-16.6) and mean acromio-clavicular distance was 5±5mm (0-10). The recurrence rate was 8%. Tension band wiring with a single K-wire for acute acromio-clavicular dislocation reliably provides good long-term functional outcomes. Recurrences are uncommon and few patients experience symptoms (8%). IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Blood Collection Tube Type and Time to Processing on the Enumeration and High-Content Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells Using the High-Definition Single-Cell Assay. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lee, Mariam; Kolatkar, Anand; McCormick, Madelyn; Dago, Angel D; Kendall, Jude; Carlsson, Nils Anders; Bethel, Kelly; Greenspan, Emily J; Hwang, Shelley E; Waitman, Kathryn R; Nieva, Jorge J; Hicks, James; Kuhn, Peter


    - As circulating tumor cell (CTC) assays gain clinical relevance, it is essential to address preanalytic variability and to develop standard operating procedures for sample handling in order to successfully implement genomically informed, precision health care. - To evaluate the effects of blood collection tube (BCT) type and time-to-assay (TTA) on the enumeration and high-content characterization of CTCs by using the high-definition single-cell assay (HD-SCA). - Blood samples of patients with early- and advanced-stage breast cancer were collected into cell-free DNA (CfDNA), EDTA, acid-citrate-dextrose solution, and heparin BCTs. Time-to-assay was evaluated at 24 and 72 hours, representing the fastest possible and more routine domestic shipping intervals, respectively. - We detected the highest CTC levels and the lowest levels of negative events in CfDNA BCT at 24 hours. At 72 hours in this BCT, all CTC subpopulations were decreased with the larger effect observed in high-definition CTCs and cytokeratin-positive cells smaller than white blood cells. Overall cell retention was also optimal in CfDNA BCT at 24 hours. Whole-genome copy number variation profiles were generated from single cells isolated from all BCT types and TTAs. Cells from CfDNA BCT at 24-hour TTA exhibited the least noise. - Circulating tumor cells can be identified and characterized under a variety of collection, handling, and processing conditions, but the highest quality can be achieved with optimized conditions. We quantified performance differences of the HD-SCA for specific preanalytic variables that may be used as a guide to develop best practices for implementation into patient care and/or research biorepository processes.

  12. Anesthetic services in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.


    Full Text Available Explanation the topic: Due to the development of knowledge and technology our world is becoming a global city where rapidly occur changes in political and economic milieu, such as the introduction of corporate capitalism in the economic crisis, contemporary migrations etc. Health care as a public good on one hand and as the highest individual value of each individual on the other hand, changes and suffers changes. Health care system policy insists on partnership relation of the individual with medical service providers. This refers to the a secure and accessible modern treatment of each individual and to the state as to rationalize and reduce medical costs with effective methods of treatment. Topic position in scientific/professional public: Anesthesiology is evolving along with the surgical disciplines. Highly sophisticated with organized service, anesthesiology is equally important because of the multiplicity of anesthetic services in the surgical treatment of the disease in terms of teamwork and multidisciplinary treatment of the disease. The intention is to provide a description of work, education and our results in the economic, geopolitical and cultural context of the Serbian health system policy as well as to improve safe performance, availability and cost rationalization in anesthesia. The health care system is territorially organized in Serbia. In hospitals, Serbia employs 940 anesthesiologists (1:7,575 inhabitants. According to data from the Regional Medical Chamber of Belgrade,382 anesthesiologists were registered in Belgrade out of total. Anesthesia department network is well organized in all surgical hospitals. Anesthesia services are available depending on the place of residence, type of surgical illness or injury, and the distance to the nearest clinic. Sub-specializations in the field of anesthesiology have not been introduced although pediatric, neurosurgery and cardiosurgical anesthesia have spontaniously singled, as well as

  13. Properties and service performance : Application of FeE460, a comparative investigation towards normalized, quenched and tempered, and thermomechanically treated steel types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuik, J.; Wortel, J. van


    In this summary, the items that have been investigated and the main results of the research contract 7210/KA/607-F1.3/88, 'Application of FeE460, a comparative investigation towards normalized, quenched and tempered, and thermomechanically treated steel types' are described. The steels mentioned

  14. Diagnosis of adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence: genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP C/T-13910 is not consistent with breath test in Colombian Caribbean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Mendoza Torres


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP C/T-13910 located upstream of the lactase gene is used to determine adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence in North-European Caucasian subjects. The applicability of this polymorphism has been studied by comparing it with the standard diagnostic methods in different populations. OBJECTIVE: To compare the lactose hydrogen breath test with the genetic test in a sample of the Colombian Caribbean population. METHODS: Lactose hydrogen breath test and genotyping of SNP C/T-13910 were applied to 128 healthy individuals (mean age 35 ± 1. A positive lactose hydrogen breath test was indicative of hypolactasia. Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The kappa index was used to establish agreement between the two methods. RESULTS: Seventy-six subjects (59% were lactose-maldigesters (hypolactasia and 52 subjects (41% were lactose-digesters (lactase persistence. The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 80%, 20% and 0%, respectively. Genotyping had 97% sensitivity and 46% specificity. The kappa index = 0.473 indicates moderate agreement between the genotyping of SNP C/T-13910 and the lactose hydrogen breath test. CONCLUSION: The moderate agreement indicates that the genotyping of the SNP C/T-13910 is not applicable to determine adult-type hypolactasia/lactase persistence in the population participating in this study.

  15. Impacted Mandibular Third Molars: A Retrospective Study of 1198 Cases to Assess Indications for Surgical Removal, and Correlation with Age, Sex and Type of Impaction-A Single Institutional Experience. (United States)

    Patel, Shital; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Shah, Taksh


    To study the incidence of mandibular third molar impaction in relation to type and side of impaction, age and sex of patients and indications for its surgical removal through data collected from a single institute over a period of 3 and half years. The records of 1198 patients who underwent the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars were reviewed retrospectively. Records were divided into groups according to sex, age, type and side of impaction. Radiographs were studied to determine angular position of impacted mandible third molar. We found that there was a high incidence of mesioangular lower third molar impaction (33.97 %), highest number of patients were found in 15-30 years of age group (48.33 %), a left side (56.93 %) was more commonly involved, female predominance (63.44 %) was observed and recurrent pericoronitis (33.81 %) was the most common indication. Awareness of the indications for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar to the patients will help to avoid future risk of complications and morbidity associated with the same. This will not only help in saving time and money but also prevents the psychological trauma associated with delayed treatment. Removal of only symptomatic IMTM seems to be the logical choice in view of financial constraint in developing countries like India but at the same time early removal offers freedom from future complications in selected cases. So surgeons should apply a meticulous approach in selecting the patients for SRIMTM.

  16. Combined assessment of myocardial perfusion and function by ECG-gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography for the prediction of future cardiac events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshimochi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Yoda, Shunichi; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi; Sato, Yuichi; Kasama, Shu


    The mid-term prognostic significance of electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) remains unclear in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study rates of future cardiac events (nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiac death (CD) and severe heart failure (HF) requiring hospitalization) were compared in patients with and without DM. 1,810 patients (563 DM and 1,247 non-DM) we followed for a mean of 26.3±15.5 months. Summed stress score (SSS), summed difference score (SDS), poststress ejection fraction (EF) and resting end-diastolic volume (EDV) were calculated. In total, 20 cases of AMI (9 in DM (1.59%) and 11 in non-DM (0.88%)), 20 of CD (7 in DM patients (1.24%) and 13 in non-DM (1.04%)) and 54 of severe HF (31 in DM (5.5%) and 23 in non-DM (1.84%)) occurred. Univariate Cox analysis showed that, in DM patients, predictors of total cardiac events were poststress EF (Wald 60.4; P 1c value (Wald 4.30; P<0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that poststress EF (Wald 9.85; P<0.01) and SDS (Wald 6.19; P<0.01) were independent predictors of total cardiac events. Combined assessment of perfusion and function by ECG-gated SPECT may predict future cardiac events in type 2 DM patients. (author)

  17. Collaborative Service Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    While much of prior research on collaboration addresses the service delivery network as a whole, we address collaborative relationships between one type of organization—municipal employment services—and a range of governmental and non-governmental partners for employment services in Denmark...... with collaborators. In short, collaboration requires a healthy and active relationship to foster improved outcomes. These findings have implications for future research about collaborative service delivery concerning the measurement of collaboration, different bases for it, and potential impacts....

  18. Collaborative Service Arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; J. May, Peter


    While much of prior research on collaboration addresses the service delivery network as a whole, we address collaborative relationships between one type of organization—municipal employment services—and a range of governmental and non-governmental partners for employment services in Denmark...... with collaborators. In short, collaboration requires a healthy and active relationship to foster improved outcomes. These findings have implications for future research about collaborative service delivery concerning the measurement of collaboration, different bases for it, and potential impacts....

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Single Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox®) Injection for Relief of Upper Trapezius Myofascial Trigger Point: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. (United States)

    Kwanchuay, Photsawee; Petchnumsin, Thavatchai; Yiemsiri, Pichet; Pasuk, Nakkamol; Srikanok, Wannarat; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak


    Botulinum toxin injection has been applied for pain relief in various chronic pain syndromes. Recently, systematic review studies reported inconclusive effects of Botulinum toxin in myofascial pain management. The present study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) (Botox®) injection for pain reduction in myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-three patients with 48 MTrP on the upper trapezius muscles over three months with moderate to severe pain intensity diagnosed at physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient department were recruited between December 2011 and March 2012. Eligible patients were blinded and randomly injected with single 0.2 ml (20 IU) of BTxA for 24 MTrP and 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution for 24 MTrP at the most tender trigger point on the upper trapezius muscle. All patients were advised for stretching exercise and ergonomic adaptation throughout the study. At 3- and 6-week after injections, visual analogue scale (VAS), the pressure pain threshold (PPT), and reported adverse effects were measured. Both BTxA and control groups demonstrated statistically significant differences in VAS reduction and increased PPT after 3 weeks and 6 weeks compared with before treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in VAS reduction from baseline between the two groups at 3- and 6-week after treatment. A statistically significant difference in improvement of PPT from baseline and 6-week after BTxA injection compared with 0.9% NaCl group was shown (1.0 ± 0.9 and 0.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.036). There was mild degree side-effects that spontaneous resolved within one week in both groups without significant difference in percentage. No severe adverse effects were reported during the study. The efficacy in VAS reduction of a single 20 IU of Botulinum toxin type A (Botox®) injection was not different from 0.9% NaCl for myofascial trigger point at the upper trapezius muscle. However

  20. The effects of socioeconomic status, accessibility to services and patient type on hospital use in Western Australia: a retrospective cohort study of patients with homogenous health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman C D'Arcy J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.