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Sample records for single screening question

  1. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large......-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response....

  2. Single screening questions for cognitive impairment in older people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Kirsty; Hill, Eilidh; Quinn, Terry J; Evans, Jonathan; Stott, David J

    2015-03-01

    Single-item screening questions may be a practical first step in screening for cognitive problems in older people. A form of single-item cognitive assessment is proposed in the NHS England and Wales dementia strategy. We aimed to provide a review and synthesis of the evidence regarding the performance of single-item tests for detection of cognitive impairment. This review used Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy procedures. Two independent researchers searched for relevant papers across multiple, cross-disciplinary electronic databases using previously validated search strings. Our index test was any single screening question for cognitive impairment, including factor analysis of multi-item tools. Our reference standards included clinical diagnosis and multi-domain cognitive assessments. From 884 titles, 11 studies were identified as eligible for inclusion. Four studies were graded low risk of bias and recruited a representative patient sample. Five papers described a single screening question for cognitive impairment with each using a different question. Sensitivity ranged from 26 to 96% and specificity from 45 to 100%. Six papers described the component analysis of multiple item tools with broadly worded single questions ('decline in memory function', 'changes in ability to think and reason' or 'learning new things') performing best. Informant-based, single-item screening questions show promise for detecting cognitive impairment. However, there was substantial heterogeneity in format and application of single-item screens, and several studies were of poor methodological quality. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support routine screening using a single-item approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a multicenter validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit; Iranzo, Alex; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Dauvilliers, Yves; Oertel, Wolfgang; Ju, Yo-El; Puligheddu, Monica; Jennum, Poul; Pelletier, Amelie; Wolfson, Christina; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Frauscher, Birgit; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Cochen De Cock, Valerie; Unger, Marcus M; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Fantini, Maria Livia; Montplaisir, Jacques Y

    2012-06-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response. Four hundred and eighty-four sleep-clinic-based participants (242 idiopathic RBD patients and 242 controls) completed the screen during a multicenter case-control study. All participants underwent a polysomnogram to define gold-standard diagnosis according to standard criteria. We found a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 87.2%. Sensitivity and specificity were similar in healthy volunteers, compared to controls or patients with other sleep diagnoses. A single-question screen for RBD may reliably detect disease, with psychometric properties favorably comparable to those reported for longer questionnaires. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    to existing depression screening tools. METHODS: A cross sectional sample of 153 older primary care patients. Participants completed several depression-screening measures (e.g. a single depression screen, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Major Depression Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale). Measures were......OBJECTIVES: The majority of older adults seek depression treatment in primary care. Despite impressive efforts to integrate depression treatment into primary care, depression often remains undetected. The overall goal of the present study was to compare a single item screening for depression......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  5. 'Do you think you suffer from depression?' Reevaluating the use of a single item question for the screening of depression in older primary care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayalon, Liat; Goldfracht, Margalit; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    to existing depression screening tools. METHODS: A cross sectional sample of 153 older primary care patients. Participants completed several depression-screening measures (e.g. a single depression screen, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Major Depression Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale). Measures were...... evaluated against a depression diagnosis made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTS: Overall, 3.9% of the sample was diagnosed with depression. The most notable finding was that the single-item question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?' had as good or better sensitivity (83......: An easy way to detect depression in older primary care patients would be asking the single question, 'do you think you suffer from depression?'...

  6. Diagnosis of depression in patients receiving specialist community palliative care: does using a single screening question identify depression otherwise diagnosed by clinical interview?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Lovell, Natasha; Ward, Jason; Wood, Felicity; Hosker, Chris

    2013-09-01

    Depression affects a quarter of palliative patients and is associated with reduced quality of life. Screening for psychological problems at key points in the patients' pathway is recommended but there is no consensus as to how to do this. The study's aim was to assess the efficacy of a screening question for depression against a semistructured interview in patients referred to a specialist community palliative care team. Fifty community palliative care patients were assessed using a single question: "Have you felt depressed, most of the day, nearly every day for two or more weeks?" Results were compared with assessment using the validated Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Sensitivity of the single question was 0.8 and specificity was 0.85. The positive predictive value was 0.57 and the negative predictive value was 0.94. The screening question was shown to have acceptable sensitivity and specificity in a small sample of community palliative care patients. It is likely to be most useful to accurately identify those who are not depressed and identify those patients who need a more in-depth assessment of their mood.

  7. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  8. Questioning screening | Kent | Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article raises new evidence about screening and argues for the evaluation in all screening on a benefits/harms ratio and then the choice being agreed by the care-giver and patient. As the evidence changes, so do our prejudices come under scrutiny. Are we prepared to objectively review our position in the light of new ...

  9. The Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly-Screening (HHIE-S) versus a single question: reliability, validity, and relations with quality of life measures in the elderly community, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Ikeda, Hiroki; Hanaie, Kaoru; Morikawa, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Junko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Saeki, Keigo; Kurumatani, Norio

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the usefulness of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly-Screening (HHIE-S) and a single question (SQ) in assessing hearing impairment (HI) and the impact of HI on quality of life (QOL). The objective of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and associations with QOL measures (i.e., subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, subjective loneliness, and physical functioning) of the HHIE-S and the SQ in the elderly community. A self-report questionnaire including HHIE-S, SQ, Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was administered to community elderly (781 males and 950 females). Among them, 97 males and 100 females also responded voluntarily to a request for test-retest and auditory tests. The criterion validity was tested by using pure-tone averages. Regarding the reliability of HHIE-S, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91, Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.90, and intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.85. Regarding the test-retest reliability of SQ, kappa coefficient was 0.65. HHIE-S had significantly lower sensitivity in identifying >25-dB HI, but significantly higher specificity for the detection of >40-dB HI than SQ. HHIE-S had stronger associations with QOL measures than did SQ. HHIE-S had high reliability, while SQ had insufficient reliability. HHIE-S was more specific in detecting HI and more sensitive in assessing the impact of HI on QOL than SQ. HHIE-S is a more effective instrument for assessing HI and QOL research than SQ in the elderly community.

  10. Using a single question to assess physical activity in older adults: a reliability and validity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Dawn P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-item physical activity questions provide a quick approximation of physical activity levels. While recall questionnaires provide a more detailed picture of an individual's level of physical activity, single-item questions may be more appropriate in certain situations. The aim of this study was to evaluate two single-item physical activity questions (one absolute question and one relative question for test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, in a sample of older adults. Methods Data was obtained from the Project to Prevent Falls in Veterans, a fall risk-factor screening and modification trial. One question measured absolute physical activity (seldom, moderately, vigorously active and one measured relative physical activity (more, about as, less active than peers. Test-retest reliability was examined using weighted Kappa statistics (κ in a sample of 43 subjects. Validity was assessed using correlation coefficients (r in participants who received clinical assessments (n = 159. Results The absolute physical activity question was more reliable than the relative physical activity question (κ = 0.75 vs. κ = 0.56. Convergent validity, however, was stronger for the relative physical activity question (r = 0.28 to 0.57 vs. r = 0.10 to 0.33. Discriminant validity was similar for both questions. For the relative physical activity question, there was moderate agreement when this question was re-administered seven days later, fair to moderate/good associations when compared with indicators of physical function, and little to no associations when compared with measures hypothesized to be theoretically not related to physical activity. Conclusions The relative physical activity question had the best combination of test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity. In studies requiring a measure of physical activity, where physical activity is not the primary focus and more

  11. Newborn Screening (NBS): Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early treatment or management can prevent intellectual disability, physical disability, or even early death. How is the screen ... affected babies are at risk of intellectual disability, physical disabilities and even death if they are not diagnosed ...

  12. Validation of The 3-Question Headache Screen in The Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosed and undertreated. A rapid diagnostic method is desirable so that treatment can be initiated early. We compared the 3-question headache screen with the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria in the diagnosis of migraine among ...

  13. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    determine the operating characteristics of a two-question screening tool for intimate partner violence (Women Abuse Screening. Tool–short); and (2) to estimate .... episodes of emotional, physical and sexual violence. A Likert- type scale ..... there is discordancy in the couple's level of education.29 A curvilinear relationship ...

  14. Health literacy-listening skill and patient questions following cancer prevention and screening discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Kathleen M; Rubin, Donald L; Roblin, Douglas W; Williams, Andrew E; Han, Paul K J; Gaglio, Bridget; Cutrona, Sarah L; Costanza, Mary E; Wagner, Joann L

    2016-08-01

    Patient question-asking is essential to shared decision making. We sought to describe patients' questions when faced with cancer prevention and screening decisions, and to explore differences in question-asking as a function of health literacy with respect to spoken information (health literacy-listening). Four-hundred and thirty-three (433) adults listened to simulated physician-patient interactions discussing (i) prophylactic tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention, (ii) PSA testing for prostate cancer and (iii) colorectal cancer screening, and identified questions they would have. Health literacy-listening was assessed using the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening (CMLT-Listening). Two authors developed a coding scheme, which was applied to all questions. Analyses examined whether participants scoring above or below the median on the CMLT-Listening asked a similar variety of questions. Questions were coded into six major function categories: risks/benefits, procedure details, personalizing information, additional information, decision making and credibility. Participants who scored higher on the CMLT-Listening asked a greater variety of risks/benefits questions; those who scored lower asked a greater variety of questions seeking to personalize information. This difference persisted after adjusting for education. Patients' health literacy-listening is associated with distinctive patterns of question utilization following cancer screening and prevention counselling. Providers should not only be responsive to the question functions the patient favours, but also seek to ensure that the patient is exposed to the full range of information needed for shared decision making. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Interim analysis of validity of periodontitis screening questions in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Gary D

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide interim results regarding the validity of six periodontal screening questions in predicting the prevalence of clinically assessed periodontitis among Australian adults. The Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health is a cross-sectional survey of Australians aged 15 years or older. Subjects were selected using a multistage probability sampling design. The interview included six questions to screen for periodontal disease and five demographic/health history questions that represented traditional risk indicators for the disease. Oral examinations were conducted by trained, calibrated dentists who measured periodontal recession and probing depth at mesio-buccal, mid-buccal, and disto-buccal sites on all erupted teeth. A computer algorithm determined three categories of periodontal case status: none/mild, moderate, or severe. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were constructed using six screening questions, five traditional risk indicators, and all 11 variables. This interim analysis used data from 2,999 subjects who resided in the first five states/territories that completed the survey. Based on clinical findings, 4.0% of subjects were classified with "severe" periodontitis and 25.2% were classified with "moderate" periodontitis. Five screening questions had non-response rates of validity in predicting the prevalence of periodontitis.

  16. Screening for disability in a community: the 'ten questions' screen for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: In this analytical comparative cross-sectional survey of two disabilities screening methods. multiphase sampling and multistage data collection procedures were employed. Quantitative research utilizing structured interview checklist was used for data collection. It described the prevalence rates of different types of ...

  17. Dental Fear: One Single Clinical Question for Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, S; Rautava, P; Alanen, P; Aromaa, M; Pienihäkkinen, K; Räihä, H; Vahlberg, T; Mattila, M.-L; Sillanpää, M

    2009-01-01

    A new dental fear measurement instrument, the Short Dental Fear Question (SDFQ), was developed and tested for clinical practice purposes. The correlations of the SDFQ with the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) were tested in 15-16-year-old adolescents. The Spearman correlations (rs) between the dental fear measurement instruments were: SDFQ – DFS: rs = 0.79, n = 26; DFS – DAS: rs = 0.72, n = 26; SDFQ– DAS: rs = 0.69, n = 27. DAS and DFS mean scores were clearly higher in the SDFQ fear group than SDFQ in the relaxed group. The SDFQ is a short and compact instrument which might be convenient for the measurement of dental fear in clinical practice. PMID:19672334

  18. Donor's understanding of the definition of sex as applied to predonation screening questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Ram, S S; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2008-05-01

    Predonation screening questions about sexual risk factors should provide an extra layer of safety from recently acquired infections that may be too early to be detected by testing. Donors are required to read a definition of sex as it applies to predonation screening questions each time they come to donate, but how well donors apply such definitions has not been evaluated. We aimed to determine how donors define sex when answering screening questions. In total, 1297 whole blood donors were asked in a private interview to select from a list of sexual activities which ones they believed were being asked about in sexual background questions. Donors' definitions were coded as under-inclusive, correct or over-inclusive in relation to the blood services' definition. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 21 donors to understand reasoning behind definitions. Most donors had an over-inclusive definition (58.7%) or the correct definition (31.9%). Of the 9.4% of donors who had an under-inclusive definition, 95% included both vaginal and anal sex, but not oral sex. About 9% in each group were first-time donors (P > 0.05) who had never read the definition. The qualitative interviews indicated that donors reason their definition based on their own concept of transmissible disease risk. Donors apply a range of definitions of sex when answering questions about their sexual background. This may be due to different concepts of risk activities, and required reading of the definition has little impact.

  19. A solution to the single-question crowd wisdom problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelec, Dražen; Seung, H Sebastian; McCoy, John

    2017-01-25

    Once considered provocative, the notion that the wisdom of the crowd is superior to any individual has become itself a piece of crowd wisdom, leading to speculation that online voting may soon put credentialed experts out of business. Recent applications include political and economic forecasting, evaluating nuclear safety, public policy, the quality of chemical probes, and possible responses to a restless volcano. Algorithms for extracting wisdom from the crowd are typically based on a democratic voting procedure. They are simple to apply and preserve the independence of personal judgment. However, democratic methods have serious limitations. They are biased for shallow, lowest common denominator information, at the expense of novel or specialized knowledge that is not widely shared. Adjustments based on measuring confidence do not solve this problem reliably. Here we propose the following alternative to a democratic vote: select the answer that is more popular than people predict. We show that this principle yields the best answer under reasonable assumptions about voter behaviour, while the standard 'most popular' or 'most confident' principles fail under exactly those same assumptions. Like traditional voting, the principle accepts unique problems, such as panel decisions about scientific or artistic merit, and legal or historical disputes. The potential application domain is thus broader than that covered by machine learning and psychometric methods, which require data across multiple questions.

  20. Natural ventilation in insect screened single span greenhouses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screened side vents were assessed in single greenhouses in terms of the difference in temperature and humidity inside and outside under tropical conditions. The A-frame (slanted roof) was comparatively advantageous over the conventional ...

  1. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  2. Athletes' view of the preparticipation physical examination. Attitudes toward certain health screening questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carek, P J; Futrell, M

    1999-01-01

    To determine the value student-athletes place on the preparticipation physical examination (PPE) in ensuring safe participation and to determine whether these athletes would accept a station-based PPE that emphasizes health-related issues. Survey. Athletic departments of 2 small southeastern colleges. Population of student-athletes enrolled in these colleges. Athletes' views on the necessity of the PPE to ensure safe participation in athletics, willingness to pay a fee for the currently free examination, appropriateness of the PPE as a setting for counseling by physicians regarding age-specific health screening issues, and PPE as the only routine health maintenance contact with a physician during the year. A majority of athletes (66%) believed they could safely participate in athletics and avoid severe injuries or death and minor injuries without undergoing a PPE. Most athletes believed the PPE prevents or helps to prevent both major (89%) and minor (76%) injuries. Male and female respondents would not be uncomfortable with a physician or other health care provider asking questions regarding health-related issues. However, many athletes (especially women) believed that the PPE is not a place for specific questions (questions related to sexual activity and health, eating disorders, smoking, and personal and family use of alcohol). Most student-athletes do not see a value of the PPE in regard to safe athletic participation; most athletes believe that the PPE prevents or helps to prevent injuries when there is no clear evidence to support this assumption; and athletes are receptive to most preventive health screening, but do not feel comfortable with certain issues being raised (i.e., gynecologic health, eating disorders, and alcohol and nicotine use). With specific modifications aimed toward the needs and comfort level of the student-athlete, the PPE may provide an opportunity to present health-related education and counseling by means of unique and innovative

  3. Three-question set from Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument adds independent prognostic information on cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seferovic, Jelena P; Pfeffer, Marc A; Claggett, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardio-Renal Endpoints (ALTITUDE) trial, we divided 8463 participants with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) into independent training (n = 3252) and validation (n = 5211) sets. In the training set, we identified specific......: In the training set, three questions ('Are your legs numb?', 'Have you ever had an open sore on your foot?' and 'Do your legs hurt when you walk?') were significantly associated with the cardiovascular composite outcome. In the validation set, after multivariable adjustment for key covariates, one or more......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The self-administered Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) is used to diagnose diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We examined whether the MNSI might also provide information on risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of the Aliskiren...

  4. The Concurrent Validity of Brief Screening Questions for Anxiety, Depression, Social Isolation, Catastrophization and Fear of Movement in People with Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Mirkhil, Saeida; Keating, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    (i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions.......(i) to test the concurrent validity of brief screening questions for five psychosocial constructs (anxiety, depression, social isolation, catastrophization and fear of movement), and (ii) to translate into Danish and validate those screening questions....

  5. Student-written single-best answer questions predict performance in finals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason; Harris, Benjamin; Tayyaba, Saadia; Harris, David; Smith, Phil

    2016-10-01

    Single-best answer (SBA) questions are widely used for assessment in medical schools; however, often clinical staff have neither the time nor the incentive to develop high-quality material for revision purposes. A student-led approach to producing formative SBA questions offers a potential solution. Cardiff University School of Medicine students created a bank of SBA questions through a previously described staged approach, involving student question-writing, peer-review and targeted senior clinician input. We arranged questions into discrete tests and posted these online. Student volunteer performance on these tests from the 2012/13 cohort of final-year medical students was recorded and compared with the performance of these students in medical school finals (knowledge and objective structured clinical examinations, OSCEs). In addition, we compared the performance of students that participated in question-writing groups with the performance of the rest of the cohort on the summative SBA assessment. Often clinical staff have neither the time nor the incentive to develop high-quality material for revision purposes Performance in the end-of-year summative clinical knowledge SBA paper correlated strongly with performance in the formative student-written SBA test (r = ~0.60, p performance in end-of-year SBA examinations, and therefore can provide a potentially valuable revision resource. There is potential for student-written questions to be incorporated into summative examinations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Validity of periodontitis screening questions in a Brazilian adult population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Quirino RAMOS

    Full Text Available Abstract Population-based studies assessing self-reported periodontal questions in low-income countries are lacking, and therefore we aimed to assess the accuracy of self-reported periodontal items in Brazil. One thousand one hundred and forty adults from Florianópolis, Brazil, had their periodontium clinically examined, and responded to the following self-reported items on periodontal conditions: Question (Q1, Do you have any wobbly teeth?; Q2, Do your gums usually bleed?; and Q3, Has your dentist ever told you that you have gum disease? Periodontitis was defined as: a. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss in the same tooth, in at least one tooth (PD1; or b. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss, not necessarily in the same tooth (PD2. Sensitivity (SN and specificity (SP were calculated, and analyses were stratified by socioeconomic status and time since last dental visit. Scores were generated in order to determine the accuracy of the whole set of items. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Prevalence of clinically diagnosed periodontitis was 2.6% (95%CI = 1.7–4.0% for PD1 and 3.8% (95%CI = 2.7–5.3% for PD2. Prevalence of self-reported periodontitis varied between 2.7 (Q2 and 22.0% (Q3. SN and SP ranged between 0.0–60.0% and 73.3–98.6%, respectively; Q1 showed the highest accuracy (140.8% followed by Q3 (140.0%. The combined score of the three self-reported items did not improve accuracy estimates; the areas under the ROC curves were 0.70 and 0.68 for PD1 and PD2, respectively. The accuracy of self-reported items was low, and further studies are needed in order to develop valid and reliable periodontitis screening questions for population-based studies.

  7. Validity of periodontitis screening questions in a Brazilian adult population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Renato Quirino; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-10-10

    Population-based studies assessing self-reported periodontal questions in low-income countries are lacking, and therefore we aimed to assess the accuracy of self-reported periodontal items in Brazil. One thousand one hundred and forty adults from Florianópolis, Brazil, had their periodontium clinically examined, and responded to the following self-reported items on periodontal conditions: Question (Q)1, Do you have any wobbly teeth?; Q2, Do your gums usually bleed?; and Q3, Has your dentist ever told you that you have gum disease? Periodontitis was defined as: a. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss in the same tooth, in at least one tooth (PD1); or b. ≥ 6.0 mm periodontal pocket and ≥ 4.0 mm clinical attachment loss, not necessarily in the same tooth (PD2). Sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) were calculated, and analyses were stratified by socioeconomic status and time since last dental visit. Scores were generated in order to determine the accuracy of the whole set of items. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. Prevalence of clinically diagnosed periodontitis was 2.6% (95%CI = 1.7-4.0%) for PD1 and 3.8% (95%CI = 2.7-5.3%) for PD2. Prevalence of self-reported periodontitis varied between 2.7 (Q2) and 22.0% (Q3). SN and SP ranged between 0.0-60.0% and 73.3-98.6%, respectively; Q1 showed the highest accuracy (140.8%) followed by Q3 (140.0%). The combined score of the three self-reported items did not improve accuracy estimates; the areas under the ROC curves were 0.70 and 0.68 for PD1 and PD2, respectively. The accuracy of self-reported items was low, and further studies are needed in order to develop valid and reliable periodontitis screening questions for population-based studies.

  8. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder on a psychiatric inpatient ward and the value of a screening question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Akyüz, Elvan U; Hodsoll, John

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) on an inpatient ward in the UK with a larger sample than previously studied and to investigate the value of a simple screening question during an assessment interview. Four hundred and thirty two consecutive admissions were screened for BDD on an adult psychiatric ward over a period of 13 months. Those who screened positive had a structured diagnostic interview for BDD. The prevalence of BDD was estimated to be 5.8% (C.I. 3.6-8.1%). Our screening question had a slightly low specificity (76.6%) for detecting BDD. The strength of this study was a larger sample size and narrower confidence interval than previous studies. The study adds to previous observations that BDD is poorly identified in psychiatric inpatients. BDD was identified predominantly in those presenting with depression, substance misuse or an anxiety disorder. The screening question could be improved by excluding those with weight or shape concerns. Missing the diagnosis is likely to lead to inappropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-step colony assay for screening antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mieko; Hanyu, Yoshiro

    2017-08-10

    We describe a method, single-step colony assay, for simple and rapid screening of single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) libraries. Colonies of Escherichia coli expressing the scFv library are formed on a hydrophilic filter that is positioned in contact with a membrane coated with an antigen. scFv expression is triggered upon treatment of colonies with an induction reagent, following which scFvs are secreted from the cells and diffused to the antigen-coated membrane. scFvs that exhibit binding affinity for the antigen are captured by the membrane-immobilized antigen. Lastly, detection of scFv binding of the antigen on the membrane allows identification of the clones on the filter that express antigen-specific scFvs. We tested this methodology by using an anti-rabbit IgG scFv, scFv(A10B), and a rat immune scFv library. Experiments conducted using scFv(A10B) revealed that this method improves scFv expression during the colony assay. By using our method to screen an immune library of 3×10 3 scFv clones, we established several clones exhibiting affinity for the antigen. Moreover, we tested 7 other antigens, including peptides, and successfully identified positive clones. We believe that this simple procedure and controlled scFv expression of the single-step colony assay could make the antibody screening both rapid and reliable and lead to successful isolation of positive clones from antibody libraries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-view versus single-view mammography at subsequent screening in a region of the Dutch breast screening programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallenburg, V.v.; Duijm, L.E.M.; Heeten, G.J. den; Groenewoud, J.H.; Jansen, F.H.M.; Fracheboud, J.; Plaisier, M.L.; Doorne-Nagtegaal, H.J. van; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively determined the effect of analogue two-view mammography versus single-view mammography at subsequent screens on breast cancer detection and determined financial consequences for a current digital mammography setting. Two screening radiologists reviewed the mammograms of 536 screen

  11. Two-view versus single-view mammography at subsequent screening in a region of the Dutch breast screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallenburg, Vivian van Breest; Duijm, Lucien E. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Groenewoud, Johanna H.; Jansen, Frits H.; Fracheboud, Jacques; Plaisier, Menno L.; van Doorne-Nagtegaal, Heidi J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively determined the effect of analogue two-view mammography versus single-view mammography at subsequent screens on breast cancer detection and determined financial consequences for a current digital mammography setting. Two screening radiologists reviewed the mammograms of 536 screen

  12. The utility of a single simple question in the evaluation of patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alon; Breiner, Ari; Barnett, Carolina; Katzberg, Hans D; Bril, Vera

    2018-02-01

    Assessing myasthenia gravis (MG) can be challenging, and multiple scales are available to evaluate disease severity. We evaluated the utility of a single, simple question, as part of the MG evaluation: "What percentage of normal do you feel regarding your MG, 0%-100% normal?" A retrospective chart review of patients attending the neuromuscular clinic from January 2014 to December 2015 was performed. Responses were correlated with symptoms and signs, the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMGS), the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII), and the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality of Life scale (MG-QOL15). The total cohort included 169 patients. The percentage of normal correlated strongly with limb muscle weakness and MG scales, moderately with bulbar and respiratory symptoms, and weakly with ocular manifestations. The question, "What percentage of normal do you feel regarding your MG?" is feasible and valid, and can be incorporated easily into routine clinical evaluation. Muscle Nerve 57: 240-244, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Benefits of Single-Touch Screens in Intersubjective Meaning Making

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    What are the benefits of single-touch screens? The paper presents findings of onevideo extract from ten months of observation of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children. Recent studies of collaborative learning mediated by digital touch screens and tabletops emphasize the possibilities for equal levels of verbal and physical participation.Additionally, these studies suggest that multi-touch technologies offer more task-oriented activities compared to single-touch screen in...

  14. Brief screening questions for depression in chiropractic patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Aambakk, Benedicte; Bossen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Depression is an important prognostic factor in low back pain (LBP) that appears to be infrequent in chiropractic populations. Identification of depression in few patients would consequently implicate screening of many. It is therefore desirable to have brief screening tools for depression....... The objective of this study was to investigate if one or two items from the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) could be a reasonable substitute for the complete scale....

  15. Multi-objective vs. single-objective calibration of a hydrologic model using single- and multi-objective screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Shafii, Mahyar; Zink, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis; Tolson, Bryan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic models are traditionally calibrated against observed streamflow. Recent studies have shown however, that only a few global model parameters are constrained using this kind of integral signal. They can be identified using prior screening techniques. Since different objectives might constrain different parameters, it is advisable to use multiple information to calibrate those models. One common approach is to combine these multiple objectives (MO) into one single objective (SO) function and allow the use of a SO optimization algorithm. Another strategy is to consider the different objectives separately and apply a MO Pareto optimization algorithm. In this study, two major research questions will be addressed: 1) How do multi-objective calibrations compare with corresponding single-objective calibrations? 2) How much do calibration results deteriorate when the number of calibrated parameters is reduced by a prior screening technique? The hydrologic model employed in this study is a distributed hydrologic model (mHM) with 52 model parameters, i.e. transfer coefficients. The model uses grid cells as a primary hydrologic unit, and accounts for processes like snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics, infiltration, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation. The model is applied in three distinct catchments over Europe. The SO calibrations are performed using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) algorithm with a fixed budget while the MO calibrations are achieved using the Pareto Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS) algorithm allowing for the same budget. The two objectives used here are the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of the simulated streamflow and the NSE of the logarithmic transformation. It is shown that the SO DDS results are located close to the edges of the Pareto fronts of the PA-DDS. The MO calibrations are hence preferable due to their supply of multiple equivalent solutions from which the

  16. Microfluidic single-cell technology in immunology and antibody screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Yu Fen Samantha; Hu, Hongxing; Merten, Christoph A

    2018-02-01

    Single-cell technology has a major impact on the field of immunology. It enables the kinetics and logic of immune signaling and immune cell migration to be elucidated, facilitates antibody screening and allows massively parallelized analysis of B- and T-cell repertoires. Impressive progress has been made over the last decade, strongly boosted by microfluidic approaches. In this review, we summarize the most powerful microfluidic systems based on continuous flow, nanowells, valves and droplets and we analyze their benefits for phenotypic characterization, drug discovery and next generation sequencing experiments. We describe current limitations and provide an outlook on important future applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2011-03-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  18. Are screening instruments valid for psychotic-like experiences? A validation study of screening questions for psychotic-like experiences using in-depth clinical interview.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Individuals who report psychotic-like experiences are at increased risk of future clinical psychotic disorder. They constitute a unique "high-risk" group for studying the developmental trajectory to schizophrenia and related illnesses. Previous research has used screening instruments to identify this high-risk group, but the validity of these instruments has not yet been established. We administered a screening questionnaire with 7 items designed to assess psychotic-like experiences to 334 adolescents aged 11-13 years. Detailed clinical interviews were subsequently carried out with a sample of these adolescents. We calculated sensitivity and specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each screening question for the specific symptom it enquired about and also in relation to any psychotic-like experience. The predictive power varied substantially between items, with the question on auditory hallucinations ("Have you ever heard voices or sounds that no one else can hear?") providing the best predictive power. For interview-verified auditory hallucinations specifically, this question had a PPV of 71.4% and an NPV of 90.4%. When assessed for its predictive power for any psychotic-like experience (including, but not limited to, auditory hallucinations), it provided a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 88.4%. Two further questions-relating to visual hallucinations and paranoid thoughts-also demonstrated good predictive power for psychotic-like experiences. Our results suggest that it may be possible to screen the general adolescent population for psychotic-like experiences with a high degree of accuracy using a short self-report questionnaire.

  19. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    by-nc/3.0 ... Participants were asked about their experience of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. ..... whether the sensitivity of the screening tool could be enhanced by using different criteria. Analysis of outcome for ...

  20. Questioning the value of screening for gonorrhoea in symptomless heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittrof, R; Hitchings, S; FitzGerald, M

    2009-11-01

    These two papers discuss whether gonorrhoea screening of asymptomatic heterosexual men with no contact history should continue in UK genitourinary medicine clinics. Currently, most clinics routinely test all attenders. This requires an estimated 330,000 tests annually to detect 915 positives (1 in 361). The benefits to these patients are uncertain but the costs are huge and could fund currently unprovided services such as oral contraceptive provision or HIV testing before terminations of pregnancy. However stopping testing would deny individuals the reassurance they seek, prevent early detection of outbreaks and fail to detect carriers who go on to cause morbidity in their partners. On this view, the availability of non-invasive tests should be used to widen screening.

  1. [Psychosocial vulnerability and substance use screening during pregnancy: Evaluation of a composite auto-questionnaire versus usual medical questioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fline-Barthes, M-H; Vandendriessche, D; Gaugue, J; Urso, L; Therby, D; Subtil, D

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate auto-questionnaire use for psychosocial vulnerability and substance use (smoking, alcohol consumption, depression, intimate violence) screening during pregnancy versus usual medical report. An auto-questionnaire based on validated tests (Fagerström/HSI, T-ACE, EPDS, SSQ6) was proposed to 1977 pregnant patients at their first obstetrical consultation. We compared results of auto-questionnaire and usual medical questioning. The auto-questionnaire was filled by 1676 pregnant patients (89.4 %). The two Fagerström/HIS questions showed that 20.7 % smoked during pregnancy. T-ACE score was better than usual medical questioning to detect excessive alcohol consumption (4.0 % vs 0.1 %, P<0.05). Drug use before pregnancy was reported by 9.8 % patients in auto-questionnaire, but was only found in 4.9 % of medical files (P<0.001). Seven percent patients reported at least 3 depressive symptoms on 4 purposed in auto-questionnaire. Intimate violence, physical or psychological, was reported in 9.4 %. All of these vulnerability factors were linked together, in auto-questionnaire or in usual medical reports. Using auto-questionnaire based on standardized screening tests could help medical practioneers to detect psychosocial vulnerability and/or substance use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Routine antenatal syphilis screening in South west Nigeria- a questionable practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubukola, Adesina; Adesina, Oladokun

    2010-06-01

    Untreated maternal syphilis is strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, especially in women with high titre syphilis. The WHO recommends routine serological screening in pregnancy. Some workers have advised a reappraisal of this practice, having demonstrated low sero-prevalence in their antenatal population. In view of this, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis in the antenatal population presenting at a major hospital in south-west Nigeria. This was a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant Nigerian women attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital in the capital of Oyo State. The case record of every pregnant woman presenting for their first antenatal clinic visit over a 4-month period (September 1st to December 31st 2006) was reviewed. During the study period, two thousand six hundred and seventy-eight women sought antenatal care. Three hundred and sixty-nine women (369; 13.4%) had incomplete records and were excluded from analysis. The records of the 2,318(86.6%) women with adequate records were subsequently reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (± 5.34) and the mean gestational age 26.4 weeks (±6.36). The modal parity was 0. Only three patients were found to be reactive for syphilis giving a prevalence of 0.13%. The sero- prevalence value in this study is quite low and may justify the call to discontinue routine antenatal syphilis screening. However, a more rigorous screening program using diagnostic tests with higher sensitivity maybe necessary before jettisoning this traditional aspect of antenatal care.

  3. 'Asking the hard questions': Improving midwifery students' confidence with domestic violence screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Wight, Raechel; Homer, Caroline S E

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence is a global public health issue. Midwives are ideally placed to screen for, and respond to, disclosure of domestic violence. Qualified midwives and midwifery students report a lack of preparedness and low levels of confidence in working with women who disclose domestic violence. This paper reports the findings from an education intervention designed to increase midwifery students' confidence in working with pregnant women who disclose domestic violence. An authentic practice video and associated interactive workshop was developed to bring the 'woman' into the classroom and to provide role-modelling of exemplary midwifery practice in screening for and responding to disclosure of domestic violence. The findings demonstrated that students' confidence increased in a number of target areas, such as responding appropriately to disclosure and assisting women with access to support. Students' confidence increased in areas where responses needed to be individualised as opposed to being able to be scripted. Students appreciated visual demonstration (video of authentic practice) and having the opportunity to practise responding to disclosures through experiential learning. Given the general lack of confidence reported by both midwives and students of midwifery in this area of practice, this strategy may be useful in supporting midwives, students and other health professionals in increasing confidence in working with women who are experiencing domestic violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Rising Incidence of Younger Patients With Colorectal Cancer: Questions About Screening, Biology, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise C; Mota, José Mauricio; Braghiroli, Maria Ignez; Hoff, Paulo M

    2017-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cancer diagnosed globally and an important cause of cancer-related mortality. Of interest, while we have witnessed a declining incidence trend over the past few decades in the older population, incidence rates for adolescents and young adults have been increasing steadily. Several factors may well explain this apparent epidemic in the young, namely a lack of routine screening and emerging lifestyle issues such as obesity, lack of exercise, and dietary factors. It is known that both environmental and genetic factors can increase the likelihood of developing CRC. Although inherited susceptibility is associated with the most striking increases in risk, and must always be considered in a young patient with CRC, the majority of CRCs are in fact sporadic rather than familial. Early-onset CRC is a truly heterogeneous disease, with mounting evidence to suggest that this patient population has a distinctive molecular profile, very different to late-onset CRC cases. Currently, both younger and older patients with CRC are treated in essentially the same manner, but with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC in the young, we will have the opportunity to specifically tailor screening and clinical management strategies in this unique patient population in an effort to improve outcomes. The aim of this review is to outline our current knowledge of the distinguishing features of early-onset CRC, the ongoing research efforts, and the evolving evidence in this field.

  5. Single Molecule Screening of Disease DNA Without Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Young [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The potential of single molecule detection as an analysis tool in biological and medical fields is well recognized today. This fast evolving technique will provide fundamental sensitivity to pick up individual pathogen molecules, and therefore contribute to a more accurate diagnosis and a better chance for a complete cure. Many studies are being carried out to successfully apply this technique in real screening fields. In this dissertation, several attempts are shown that have been made to test and refine the application of the single molecule technique as a clinical screening method. A basic applicability was tested with a 100% target content sample, using electrophoretic mobility and multiple colors as identification tools. Both electrophoretic and spectral information of individual molecule were collected within a second, while the molecule travels along the flow in a capillary. Insertion of a transmission grating made the recording of the whole spectrum of a dye-stained molecule possible without adding complicated instrumental components. Collecting two kinds of information simultaneously and combining them allowed more thorough identification, up to 98.8% accuracy. Probing mRNA molecules with fluorescently labeled cDNA via hybridization was also carried out. The spectral differences among target, probe, and hybrid were interpreted in terms of dispersion distances after transmission grating, and used for the identification of each molecule. The probes were designed to have the least background when they are free, but have strong fluorescence after hybridization via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The mRNA-cDNA hybrids were further imaged in whole blood, plasma, and saliva, to test how far a crude preparation can be tolerated. Imaging was possible with up to 50% of clear bio-matrix contents, suggesting a simple lysis and dilution would be sufficient for imaging for some cells. Real pathogen DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) type-I6 in human genomic DNA

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of a two-question screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Payne, Ann

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective in this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a two-item screening interview for depression versus the formal psychiatric interview, in the setting of a specialist palliative in-patient unit so that we may identify those individuals suffering from depressive disorder and therefore optimise their management in this often-complex population. METHODS: A prospective sample of consecutive admissions (n = 167) consented to partake in the study, and the screening interview was asked separately to the formal psychiatric interview. RESULTS: The two-item questionnaire, achieved a sensitivity of 90.7% (95% CI 76.9-97.0) but a lower specificity of 67.7% (95% CI 58.7-75.7). The false positive rate was 32.3% (95% CI 24.3-41.3), but the false negative rate was found to be a low 9.3% (95% CI 3.0-23.1). A subgroup analysis of individuals with a past experience of depressive illness, (n = 95), revealed that a significant number screened positive for depression by the screening test, 55.2% (16\\/29) compared to those with no background history of depression, 33.3% (22\\/66) (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity and low false negative rate of the two-question screening tool will aid health professionals in identifying depression in the in-patient specialist palliative care unit. Individuals, who admit to a previous experience of depressive illness, are more likely to respond positively to the two-item questionnaire than those who report no prior history of depressive illness (P = 0.045).

  7. Comparison of single questions and brief questionnaire with longer validated food frequency questionnaire to assess adequate fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amelia; Roberts, Kia; O'Leary, Fiona; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a single question (SQ) for fruit and a SQ or five-item questionnaire for vegetable consumption (VFQ) could replace a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to screen for inadequate versus adequate intakes in populations. Participants (109) completed three test screeners: fruit SQ, vegetable SQ, and a five-item VFQ followed by the reference 74-item FFQ (version 2 of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies [DQESv2]) including 13 fruit and 25 vegetable items. The five-item VFQ asked about intake of salad vegetables, cooked vegetables, white potatoes, legumes, and vegetable juice. The screeners were compared with the reference (DQESv2 FFQ) for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive powers (PPV, NPV) to detect intakes of two or more servings of fruit and three or more servings of vegetables. Relative validity was examined using Bland-Altman statistics. The fruit SQ showed a PPV of 56% and an NPV of 83%. The PPV for the vegetable SQ was 30% and the NPV was 89%. For the five-item VFQ, the PPV was 39% and the NPV was 85%. Bland-Altman plots and linear regression equations showed that although the screener showed good agreement for fruit (unstandardized b1 coefficient = 0.04) for vegetable intake the difference between methods increased at higher intake levels (unstandardized b1 coefficients = -0.3 for the SQ, b1 = -0.6 for five-item VFQ). The fruit SQ and the five-item VFQ are suitable replacements for longer FFQs to detect inadequate intake and assess population mean but not individual intakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between nutritional status and positive childhood disability screening using the ten questions plus tool in Sarlahi, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Katz, J; Mullany, L C; Haytmanek, E; Khatry, S K; Darmstadt, G L; West, K P; LeClerq, S C; Tielsch, J M

    2010-12-01

    The study was conducted to examine the association between the indicators of malnutrition and disability of children as reported by caregivers. The Ten Questions Plus questionnaire was administered to caregivers of 1,902 children aged 1-9 years, during August 2007-March 2008, in rural Nepal. Height and weight of children were also measured. The main outcome was a positive response to one or more questions. In total, 514 (27%) children had a positive response to at least one question. Moderate stunting [odds ratio (OR)=1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.12) and severe (OR=2.39, 95% CI 1.60-3.57) stunting were independently associated with reported delay in sitting, standing, or walking. Severe stunting was also associated with report of delayed learning compared to other children of similar age (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.27-3.20). Parental report of disability was quite prevalent in this setting, with over a quarter of the sample screening positive. Chronic malnutrition may be associated with delayed motor and mental development.

  9. Validity of questions about activities of daily living to screen for dependency in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Monica; Coelho-Filho, João Macedo; Veras, Renato Peixoto; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2017-09-04

    and, therefore, can help in the planning of health services aimed at them. Determinar a validade de critério das atividades de vida diária constantes em questionários de funcionalidade em idosos para inquéritos populacionais e identificar quais atividades são válidas para quantificar a necessidade real de ajuda diária dessa população. Amostra populacional de idosos estratificada por níveis de funcionalidade, segundo a autopercepção de dependência nas atividades de vida diária. Autopercepção foi comparada com o padrão ouro - observação direta no domicílio dos idosos nessas atividades por profissional treinado e cego para respostas no questionário. Na visita decidiu-se, para efeito da pesquisa, se o idoso precisava de ajuda para realizar alguma das atividades de vida diária. A sensibilidade de cada atividade de vida diária foi maior quando a autoavaliação de que não havia necessidade de ajuda coincidiu com a avaliação do profissional. A especificidade indica coincidência quanto à necessidade de ajuda na atividades de vida diária - coeficientes de sensibilidade e especificidade acima de 70% foram considerados indicativos de boa validade. As autoavaliações mostraram sensibilidade melhor que especificidade - idosos e observadores concordaram mais quanto à independência do que quanto à dependência cotidiana. Todas as atividades mostraram sensibilidade acima de 70%. Algumas atividades tiveram uma especificidade baixa (fazer compras: 55%) ou muito baixa (pentear os cabelos: 33%). As melhores especificidades foram tomar banho e vestir-se (95,8% ambas), entre as pessoais, e utilizar transporte e realizar movimento bancário (ambas com 78%), entre as instrumentais. Atividades de vida diária podem ser indicadores válidos de dependência funcional. Os melhores coeficientes de validade em geral foram obtidos pelas atividades pessoais. Destacam-se algumas atividades com boas sensibilidades e especificidades - andar 100 metros, tomar banho e

  10. The Benefits of Single-Touch Screens in Intersubjective Meaning Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    What are the benefits of single-touch screens? The paper presents findings of one video extract from ten months of observation of single-touch screen interaction among 8-9 year-old children. Recent studies of collaborative learning mediated by digital touch screens and tabletops emphasize...... the possibilities for equal levels of verbal and physical participation.Additionally, these studies suggest that multi-touch technologies offer more task-oriented activities compared to single-touch screen interaction, in which discussion about turn-taking is more prevalent from the outset. In contrast, applying...... the Embodied Interaction Analysis, we find that the constraints of single-touch screens offer support for intersubjective meaning making in their capacity of constraining the interaction. This “grain of sand” shows how children display and construct a shared work space through embodied interaction...

  11. Ascertainment of iron deficiency and depletion in blood donors through screening questions for pica and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Yau, Yu Ying; Arceo, Sarah M; Hopkins, Julie A; Leitman, Susan F

    2013-08-01

    Pica and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are associated with iron depletion and deficiency. The presence of pica and RLS was prospectively assessed in blood donors. During a 39-month period, 1236 donors deferred for fingerstick hemoglobin (Hb) level of less than 12.5 g/dL and 400 nondeferred "control" donors underwent health screening and laboratory testing (complete blood count, ferritin, iron, transferrin). Pica and RLS were assessed by direct questioning. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given 325 mg of ferrous sulfate daily for 60 days. Reassessments were performed and additional iron tablets dispensed at subsequent visits. Pica was reported in 11% of donors with iron depletion or deficiency, compared with 4% of iron-replete donors (p Pagophagia (ice pica) was most common and often of extraordinary intensity. Female sex, younger age, and lower mean cell volume and transferrin saturation values were strongly associated with pica. Donors with pica given iron reported a marked reduction in the desire to consume the nonnutritive substance by Days 5 to 8 of therapy, with disappearance of symptoms by Days 10 to 14. RLS was reported in 16% of subjects with iron depletion or deficiency compared with 11% of iron-replete donors (p = 0.012). Iron replacement generally resulted in improvement of RLS symptoms; however, at least 4 to 6 weeks of iron therapy was necessary. The presence of pica is associated with a high probability of iron depletion or deficiency in blood donors; however, RLS lacks a strong correlation in this population. Screening questions for pagophagia may be useful in the ascertainment of iron deficiency in donors and may identify those who would benefit from oral iron. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  13. Screening helical CT for mass screening of lung cancer. Application of low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shigeki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Isomura, Takayuki; Endo, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kouji; Itoh, Kengo; Naganawa, Shinji; Maruyama, Kunihiro; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning was investigated for lung cancer screening. Twenty-four helical CT scans of the lung were performed using various parameters in 10 healthy volunteers. The effects of tube current and pitch were evaluated by assessment of image quality and detection of simulated nodules. Screening helical CT was performed at 120 kVp, 50 mA, 1 sec/rotation, 10 mm collimation, and a pitch of 2.0 in 110 patients. The ability of this method to detect nodules and masses, focal parenchymal opacities, and diffuse fibrotic changes was evaluated using conventional CT as the gold standard. A reduction in tube current to 50 mA did not significantly change the assessment of image quality or detection of simulated nodules. Although these factors were degraded by increasing the pitch, there was no significant difference between 1.5 and 2.0. Screening helical CT permitted the entire lung to be scanned with ease during a single-breath-hold in all patients. This method detected 177 of 196 nodules and masses (87 for 91 lesions greater than 5 mm in diameter), 54 of 57 focal parenchymal opacitied, and 15 of 15 cases with fibrotic changes. Screening helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning shows promise for lung cancer screening. (author)

  14. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Employing integrated nano- and microfluidic circuits for detecting and characterizing biological compounds through resistive pulse sensing technology is a vibrant area of research at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. Resistive pulse sensing platforms can be customized to study virtually any particle of choice which can be threaded through a fluidic channel and enable label-free single-particle interrogation with the primary read-out signal being an electric current fingerprint. The ability to perform label-free molecular screening with single-molecule and even single binding site resolution makes resistive pulse sensing technology a powerful tool for analyzing the smallest units of biological systems and how they interact with each other on a molecular level. This task is at the core of experimental systems biology and in particular ‘omics research which in combination with next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug discovery and design forms the foundation of a novel disruptive medical paradigm commonly referred to as personalized medicine or precision medicine. DNA-sequencing has approached the 1000-Dollar-Genome milestone allowing for decoding a complete human genome with unmatched speed and at low cost. Increased sequencing efficiency yields massive amounts of genomic data. Analyzing this data in combination with medical and biometric health data eventually enables understanding the pathways from individual genes to physiological functions. Access to this information triggers fundamental questions for doctors and patients alike: what are the chances of an outbreak for a specific disease? Can individual risks be managed and if so how? Which drugs are available and how should they be applied? Could a new drug be tailored to an individual’s genetic predisposition fast and in an affordable way? In order to provide answers and real-life value to patients, the rapid evolvement of novel computing approaches for analyzing big data in

  15. Screening and Predicting Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in Children Following Single-Incident Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Ellis, Alicia A.; Nehmy, Thomas J.; Ball, Shelley-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Three screening methods to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in children following single-incident trauma were tested. Children and adolescents (N = 90; aged 7-17 years) were assessed within 4 weeks of an injury that led to hospital treatment and followed up 3 and 6 months later. Screening methods were adapted…

  16. Learning Effectiveness and Cognitive Loads in Instructional Materials of Programming Language on Single and Dual Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jenq-Muh; Chang, Ting-Wen; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    The teaching and learning environment in a traditional classroom typically includes a projection screen, a projector, and a computer within a digital interactive table. Instructors may apply multimedia learning materials using various information communication technologies to increase interaction effects. However, a single screen only displays a…

  17. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride

    2015-04-01

    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  18. Concordance between timeline follow-back and single-question assessment of self-reported smoking in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation clinical trials assess tobacco abstinence using self-report and biomarkers. Optimum methods for each are unclear; a common question assesses smoking in the prior 7 days. In contrast, timeline follow-back (TLFB) is another technique often used to assess use of alcohol in treatment trials; it is used less frequently in studies of smoking cessation. The goal of this study was to assess concordance between the 7-day smoking question and a 7-day TLFB. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation was conducted at a busy, urban hospital emergency department (ED) from October 2010 to December 2012. At 1, 3, and 12 months, subjects were contacted by phone to assess smoking status. Those reporting abstinence at 3 months were asked to return for an in-person measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide. For this analysis, smoking status at 1 month was compared for subjects in response to 2 questions asked concurrently, addressing 7-day point prevalence tobacco use and a 7-day TLFB. Of 780 subjects, 666 (85.4%) were available for 1-month follow-up. Of these, 99 (14.9%) reported no smoking in response to the 7-day question, and 96 (14.4%) reported no smoking in response to the 7-day TLFB. The overall proportionate agreement between the 2 methods was 98.6%, with a kappa of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-0.98). A single question that assesses smoking at 7 days provides excellent concordance with the more detailed TLFB. The single question appears adequate to assess self-reported tobacco use in clinical trials of smoking cessation.

  19. Development of nondestructive screening methods for single kernel characterization of wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.P.; Pedersen, D.K.; Munck, L.

    2003-01-01

    The development of nondestructive screening methods for single seed protein, vitreousness, density, and hardness index has been studied for single kernels of European wheat. A single kernel procedure was applied involving, image analysis, near-infrared transmittance (NIT) spectroscopy, laboratory...... predictability. However, by applying an averaging approach, in which single seed replicate measurements are mathematically simulated, a very good NIT prediction model was achieved. This suggests that the single seed NIT spectra contain hardness information, but that a single seed hardness method with higher...

  20. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  1. Reconsidering prenatal screening: an empirical-ethical approach to understand moral dilemmas as a question of personal preferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, E.; Timmermans, D.R.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most Western countries, routine offer of prenatal screening is considered problematic in the Netherlands. The main argument against offering it to every pregnant woman is that women would be brought into a moral dilemma when deciding whether to use screening or not. This paper

  2. Reconsidering prenatal screening: an empirical-ethical approach to understand moral dilemmas as a question of personal preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Gonzalez, M.E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Leeuwen, van E.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most Western countries, routine offer of prenatal screening is considered problematic in the Netherlands. The main argument against offering it to every pregnant woman is that women would be brought into a moral dilemma when deciding whether to use screening or not. This paper

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of three screening questions (3Q/TMD) in relation to the DC/TMD in a specialized orofacial pain clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, Anna; Parvaneh, Hasti; Lobbezoo, Frank; Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Wänman, Anders; Visscher, Corine Mirjam

    2018-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of three screening questions (3Q/TMD) in relation to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD), in a specialized clinic. Consecutive patients, >18 years, referred with a possible TMD complaint to the Orofacial Pain and Dysfunction clinic, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, the Netherlands, were included in the study. All patients (n = 449; mean age 44 years; 72% females), answered the 3Q/TMD and the DC/TMD questionnaire before a DC/TMD examination. The 3Q/TMD constitutes of two questions on weekly pain from the jaw, face and temple region (Q1), and on function (Q2), and one function-related question on weekly catching and/or locking of the jaw (Q3). Q1 and Q2 were evaluated in relation to a DC/TMD pain diagnosis and Q3 in relation to a subgroup of DC/TMD intra-articular diagnosis, referred to as the reference standard. In total, 44% of patients received a pain-related DC/TMD diagnosis and 33% an intra-articular reference DC/TMD diagnosis. Sensitivity for the two pain screening questions was high (0.83-0.94), whereas specificity was low (0.41-0.55). For the function-related question, sensitivity was low (0.48), whereas specificity was high (0.96). In a specialized pain clinic, the two pain questions (Q1, Q2) are positive in most patients with pain-related TMD. Therefore, in case of a positive response, further diagnostic procedures for TMD pain are warranted. For the functional screening question (Q3), a positive response is indicative for an intra-articular DC/TMD diagnosis, while in case of a negative outcome, an intra-articular TMD might still be present.

  4. Screened Coulomb interactions in metallic alloys. II. Screening beyond the single-site and atomic-sphere approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Korzhavyi, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    -electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions......A quantitative description of the configurational part of the total energy of metallic alloys with substantial atomic size difference cannot be achieved in the atomic-sphere approximation: It needs to be corrected at least for the multipole-moment interactions in the Madelung part of the one...

  5. Screening for Breast Cancer Using Near Field Infrared Spectroscopy of a Single Strand of Hair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2001-01-01

    ... predisposition to breast cancer because of the breast of a mutation of the BRCA1 gene. We would like to develop a new method for the screening of breast cancer based on infrared spectroscopy of a single strand of human hair...

  6. Single-cell screening of photosynthetic growth and lactate production by cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammar, P.; Angermayr, S.A.; Sjostrom, S.L.; van der Meer, J.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Hudson, E.P.; Joensson, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are attractive for a range of biotechnological applications including biofuel production. However, due to slow growth, screening of mutant libraries using microtiter plates is not feasible. RESULTS: We present a method for high-throughput, single-cell

  7. Flow-Based Single Cell Deposition for High-Throughput Screening of Protein Libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Stowe

    Full Text Available The identification and engineering of proteins having refined or novel characteristics is an important area of research in many scientific fields. Protein modelling has enabled the rational design of unique proteins, but high-throughput screening of large libraries is still required to identify proteins with potentially valuable properties. Here we report on the development and evaluation of a novel fluorescent activated cell sorting based screening platform. Single bacterial cells, expressing a protein library to be screened, are electronically sorted and deposited onto plates containing solid nutrient growth media in a dense matrix format of between 44 and 195 colonies/cm2. We show that this matrix format is readily applicable to machine interrogation (<30 seconds per plate and subsequent bioinformatic analysis (~60 seconds per plate thus enabling the high-throughput screening of the protein library. We evaluate this platform and show that bacteria containing a bioluminescent protein can be spectrally analysed using an optical imager, and a rare clone (0.5% population can successfully be identified, picked and further characterised. To further enhance this screening platform, we have developed a prototype electronic sort stream multiplexer, that when integrated into a commercial flow cytometric sorter, increases the rate of colony deposition by 89.2% to 24 colonies per second. We believe that the screening platform described here is potentially the foundation of a new generation of high-throughput screening technologies for proteins.

  8. Screening for diabetic retinopathy in rural area using single-field, digital fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruamviboonsuk, Paisan; Wongcumchang, Nattapon; Surawongsin, Pattamaporn; Panyawatananukul, Ekchai; Tiensuwan, Montip

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the practicability of using single-field, 2.3 million-pixel, digital fundus images for screening of diabetic retinopathy in rural areas. All diabetic patients who regularly attended the diabetic clinic at Kabcheang Community Hospital, located at 15 kilometers from the Thailand-Cambodia border, were appointed to the hospital for a 3-day diabetic retinopathy screening programme. The fundi of all patients were captured in single-field, 45 degrees, 2.3 million-pixel images using nonmydriatic digital fundus camera and then sent to a reading center in Bangkok. The fundi were also examined through dilated pupils by a retinal specialist at this hospital. The grading of diabetic retinopathy from two methods was compared for an exact agreement. The average duration of single digital fundus image capture was 2 minutes. The average file size of each image was 750 kilobytes. The average duration of single image transmission to a reading center in Bangkok via satellite was 3 minutes; via a conventional telephone line was 8 minutes. Of all 150 patients, 130 were assessed for an agreement between dilated fundus examination and digital fundus images in diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The exact agreement was 0.87, the weighted kappa statistics was 0.74. The sensitivity of digital fundus images in detecting diabetic retinopathy was 80%, the specificity was 96%. For diabetic macular edema the exact agreement was 0.97, the weighted kappa was 0.43, the sensitivity was 43%, and the specificity was 100%. The image capture of the nonmydriatic digital fundus camera is suitable for screening of diabetic retinopathy and single-field digital fundus images are potentially acceptable tools for the screening. The real-time image transmission via telephone lines to remote reading center, however, may not be practical for routine diabetic retinopathy screening in rural areas.

  9. Screening of a Brassica napus bacterial artificial chromosome library using highly parallel single nucleotide polymorphism assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficient screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers is feasible provided that a multidimensional pooling strategy is implemented. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be screened in multiplexed format, therefore this marker type lends itself particularly well for medium- to high-throughput applications. Combining the power of multiplex-PCR assays with a multidimensional pooling system may prove to be especially challenging in a polyploid genome. In polyploid genomes two classes of SNPs need to be distinguished, polymorphisms between accessions (intragenomic SNPs) and those differentiating between homoeologous genomes (intergenomic SNPs). We have assessed whether the highly parallel Illumina GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay is suitable for the screening of a BAC library of the polyploid Brassica napus genome. Results A multidimensional screening platform was developed for a Brassica napus BAC library which is composed of almost 83,000 clones. Intragenomic and intergenomic SNPs were included in Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay and both SNP classes were used successfully for screening of the multidimensional BAC pools of the Brassica napus library. An optimized scoring method is proposed which is especially valuable for SNP calling of intergenomic SNPs. Validation of the genotyping results by independent methods revealed a success of approximately 80% for the multiplex PCR-based screening regardless of whether intra- or intergenomic SNPs were evaluated. Conclusions Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay can be efficiently used for screening of multidimensional Brassica napus BAC pools. SNP calling was specifically tailored for the evaluation of BAC pool screening data. The developed scoring method can be implemented independently of plant reference samples. It is demonstrated that intergenomic SNPs represent a powerful tool for BAC library screening of a polyploid genome

  10. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    unlimited. NUWC Keyport #17-002. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results Abstract: Field reliability prediction...approach described here assumes that the defect density during testing takes the form of an exponential decay, although other mathematical functions can...be substituted for the exponential. In order to apply the decay rate function to a discrete pass/fail test scheme, the approach provides for

  11. Is single reading with computer-aided detection (CAD) as good as double reading in mammography screening? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azavedo, Edward; Zackrisson, Sophia; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with European guidelines, mammography screening comprises independent readings by two breast radiologists (double reading). CAD (computer-aided detection) has been suggested to complement or replace one of the two readers (single reading + CAD). The aim of this systematic review is to address the following question: Is the reading of mammographic x-ray images by a single breast radiologist together with CAD at least as accurate as double reading? The electronic literature search included the databases Pub Med, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and full-text articles. 1049 abstracts were identified, of which 996 were excluded with reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria; 53 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, four articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and one in a GRADE synthesis. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether the accuracy of single reading + CAD is at least equivalent to that obtained in standard practice, i.e. double reading where two breast radiologists independently read the mammographic images

  12. Is single reading with computer-aided detection (CAD) as good as double reading in mammography screening? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azavedo, Edward; Zackrisson, Sophia; Mejàre, Ingegerd; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne

    2012-07-24

    In accordance with European guidelines, mammography screening comprises independent readings by two breast radiologists (double reading). CAD (computer-aided detection) has been suggested to complement or replace one of the two readers (single reading + CAD).The aim of this systematic review is to address the following question: Is the reading of mammographic x-ray images by a single breast radiologist together with CAD at least as accurate as double reading? The electronic literature search included the databases Pub Med, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and full-text articles. 1049 abstracts were identified, of which 996 were excluded with reference to inclusion and exclusion criteria; 53 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, four articles were included in the qualitative analysis, and one in a GRADE synthesis. The scientific evidence is insufficient to determine whether the accuracy of single reading + CAD is at least equivalent to that obtained in standard practice, i.e. double reading where two breast radiologists independently read the mammographic images.

  13. DNA-electrophoresis of single cells - a method to screen for irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffke, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Microelectrophoresis of single cells can be used to detect γ-irradiation over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. It is a simple and rapid test for DNA damages and can be used for screening. The method was tested on cell suspensions of bone marrow and muscle cells from frozen chicken legs, chicken heart, turkey liver, beef and pork irradiated with doses up to 3 kGy. Cell suspensions were prepared by incubation of tissues in EDTA-SDS-buffer at pH 8. Single cell electrophoresis was performed in 0.75% agarose gel. DNA was visualised by silver staining. In unirradiated samples no or only a small amount of DNA penetrated the cell membranes. Cells of irradiated samples appeared like a ''comet'' due to to migration of DNA-fragments out of cell. (orig.)

  14. Single-cell screening of photosynthetic growth and lactate production by cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Petter; Angermayr, S. Andreas; Sjostrom, Staffan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are attractive for a range of biotechnological applications including biofuel production. However, due to slow growth, screening of mutant libraries using microtiter plates is not feasible.Results: We present a method for high-throughput, single......-cell analysis and sorting of genetically engineered l-lactate-producing strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. A microfluidic device is used to encapsulate single cells in picoliter droplets, assay the droplets for L-lactate production, and sort strains with high productivity. We demonstrate the separation...... of low- and high-producing reference strains, as well as enrichment of a more productive L-lactate-synthesizing population after UV-induced mutagenesis. The droplet platform also revealed population heterogeneity in photosynthetic growth and lactate production, as well as the presence of metabolically...

  15. Electronic assessment of clinical reasoning in clerkships: A mixed-methods comparison of long-menu key-feature problems with context-rich single best answer questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwendiek, S.; Reichert, F.; Duncker, C.; Leng, B.A. De; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.; Bosse, H.M.; Haag, M.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Tonshoff, B.; Dolmans, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which item format would best suit the assessment of clinical reasoning: context-rich single best answer questions (crSBAs) or key-feature problems (KFPs). This study compared KFPs and crSBAs with respect to students' acceptance, their educational impact, and

  16. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Fasting, H

    2006-01-01

    At present, several regions and countries are considering screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, The Chichester Aneurysms Screening Trial has reported poor long term benefit of screening for AAA. We therefore supplement previously published data with a preliminary analysis...

  17. Quantifying the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms to guide colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark A; Makalic, Enes; Dowty, James G; Schmidt, Daniel F; Dite, Gillian S; MacInnis, Robert J; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Clendenning, Mark; Flander, Louisa B; Stanesby, Oliver K; Hopper, John L; Win, Aung K; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used to identify people who should be screened for colorectal cancer. Methods: We simulated one million people with and without colorectal cancer based on published SNP allele frequencies and strengths of colorectal cancer association. We estimated 5-year risks of colorectal cancer by number of risk alleles. Results: We identified 45 SNPs with an average 1.14-fold increase colorectal cancer risk per allele (range: 1.05–1.53). The colorectal cancer risk for people in the highest quintile of risk alleles was 1.81-times that for the average person. Conclusion: We have quantified the extent to which known susceptibility SNPs can stratify the population into clinically useful colorectal cancer risk categories. PMID:26846999

  18. Current Status of Comprehensive Chromosome Screening for Elective Single-Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yih Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most in vitro fertilization (IVF experts and infertility patients agree that the most ideal assisted reproductive technology (ART outcome is to have a healthy, full-term singleton born. To this end, the most reliable policy is the single-embryo transfer (SET. However, unsatisfactory results in IVF may result from plenty of factors, in which aneuploidy associated with advanced maternal age is a major hurdle. Throughout the past few years, we have got a big leap in advancement of the genetic screening of embryos on aneuploidy, translocation, or mutations. This facilitates a higher success rate in IVF accompanied by the policy of elective SET (eSET. As the cost is lowering while the scale of genome characterization continues to be up over the recent years, the contemporary technologies on trophectoderm biopsy and freezing-thaw, comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS with eSET appear to be getting more and more popular for modern IVF centers. Furthermore, evidence has showen that, by these avant-garde techniques (trophectoderm biopsy, vitrification, and CCS, older infertile women with the help of eSET may have an opportunity to increase the success of their live birth rates approaching those reported in younger infertility patients.

  19. Recent Advances and Open Questions in Neutrino-induced Quasi-elastic Scattering and Single Photon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos; Harris, D. A. [Fermilab; Tanaka, H. A. [British Columbia U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Zeller, G. P. [Fermilab

    2015-06-15

    The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations.

  20. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis for breast cancer screening: double reading versus single + CAD reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Kawai, Masaaki; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Shibuya, Daisuke; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Tadashi

    2014-09-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) increases breast cancer detection, but its cost-effectiveness is unknown for breast cancer screening in Japan. We aimed to determine whether screening mammography diagnosed by one physician using CAD is cost-effective when compared with the standard double reading by two physicians. We established our model with a decision tree and Markov model concept based on feasible screening and clinical pathways, combined with prognosis of the health state transition of breast cancer. Cost-effectiveness analysis between double reading by two readers and single reading with CAD by one reader was performed from a social perspective in terms of the expected cost, life expectancy and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The hypothetical population comprised 50-year-old female breast cancer screening examinees. Only direct medical costs related to breast cancer screening and treatment were considered. One simulation cycle was 2 years, and the annual discount rate was 3 %. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the robustness of the model and input data. Single reading with CAD increased expected costs by 2,704 yen and extended life expectancy by 0.0087 years compared with double reading. The ICER was 310,805 yen per life year gained, which is below the threshold. Sensitivity analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the number of breast cancer screening examinees greatly affected the results. Single reading using CAD in mammography screening is more cost-effective than double reading, although the results are highly sensitive to the sensitivity and specificity of CAD and the numbers of examinees.

  2. Progressing single biomolecule force spectroscopy measurements for the screening of DNA binding agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenke; Barbagallo, Romina; Madden, Claire; Roberts, Clive J.; Woolford, Alison; Allen, Stephanie

    2005-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the force-extension properties of single molecules of double stranded (ds) DNA are sensitive to the presence of small molecule DNA binding agents, and also to their mode of binding. These observations raise the possibility of using this approach as a highly sensitive tool for the screening of such agents. However, particularly for studies employing the atomic force microscope (AFM), several non-trivial barriers hinder the progress of this approach to the non-specialist arena and hence also the full realization of this possibility. In this paper, we therefore address a series of key reproducibility and metrological issues associated with this type of measurement. Specifically, we present an improved immobilization method that covalently anchors one end (5' end) of a dual labelled (5'-thiol, 3'-biotin) p53 DNA molecule onto a gold substrate via gold-thiol chemistry, whilst the biotinylated 3' end is available for 'pick-up' using a streptavidin modified AFM tip. We also show that co-surface immobilization of DNA with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) can also lead to a further increase the measured contour length. We demonstrate the impact of these improved protocols through the observation of the cooperative transition plateau in a DNA fragment of approximately 118 bp, a significantly smaller fragment than previously investigated. The results of a comparative study of the effects of a model minor groove binder (Hoechst 33258) and an intercalating drug (proflavine), alone, as a mixture and under different buffer conditions, are also presented.

  3. An x-ray-based capsule for colorectal cancer screening incorporating single photon counting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Ronen; Kimchy, Yoav; Gelbard, Nir; Leibushor, Avi; Golan, Oleg; Elgali, Avner; Hassoon, Salah; Kaplan, Max; Smirnov, Michael; Shpigelman, Boaz; Bar-Ilan, Omer; Rubin, Daniel; Ovadia, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An ingestible capsule for colorectal cancer screening, based on ionizing-radiation imaging, has been developed and is in advanced stages of system stabilization and clinical evaluation. The imaging principle allows future patients using this technology to avoid bowel cleansing, and to continue the normal life routine during procedure. The Check-Cap capsule, or C-Scan ® Cap, imaging principle is essentially based on reconstructing scattered radiation, while both radiation source and radiation detectors reside within the capsule. The radiation source is a custom-made radioisotope encased in a small canister, collimated into rotating beams. While traveling along the human colon, irradiation occurs from within the capsule towards the colon wall. Scattering of radiation occurs both inside and outside the colon segment; some of this radiation is scattered back and detected by sensors onboard the capsule. During procedure, the patient receives small amounts of contrast agent as an addition to his/her normal diet. The presence of contrast agent inside the colon dictates the dominant physical processes to become Compton Scattering and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), which differ mainly by the energy of scattered photons. The detector readout electronics incorporates low-noise Single Photon Counting channels, allowing separation between the products of these different physical processes. Separating between radiation energies essentially allows estimation of the distance from the capsule to the colon wall, hence structural imaging of the intraluminal surface. This allows imaging of structural protrusions into the colon volume, especially focusing on adenomas that may develop into colorectal cancer.

  4. Development of droplets‐based microfluidic systems for single­‐cell high‐throughput screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Godina, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    investment, and a logarithmic increase to screen large combinatorial libraries over the decades also makes it gradually out of depth. Here, we are trying to develop a feasible high‐throughput system that uses microfluidics to compartmentalize a single cell for propagation and analysis in monodisperse......High-throughput screening (HTS) plays an important role in the development of microbial cell factories. One of the most popular approaches is to use microplates combined with the application of robotics, liquid handling and sophisticated detection methods. However, these workstations require large...

  5. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, we introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, we demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm2 for 40-μm wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection.

  6. Screening for mutations in human alpha-globin genes by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Point mutations and small insertions or deletions in the human alpha-globin genes may produce alpha-chain structural variants and alpha-thalassemia. Mutations can be detected either by direct DNA sequencing or by screening methods, which select the mutated exon for sequencing. Although small (about 1 kb, 3 exons and 2 introns, the alpha-globin genes are duplicate (alpha2 and alpha1 and highy G-C rich, which makes them difficult to denature, reducing sequencing efficiency and causing frequent artifacts. We modified some conditions for PCR and electrophoresis in order to detect mutations in these genes employing nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. Primers previously described by other authors for radioactive SSCP and phast-SSCP plus denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were here combined and the resultant fragments (6 new besides 6 original per alpha-gene submitted to silver staining SSCP. Nine structural and one thalassemic mutations were tested, under different conditions including two electrophoretic apparatus (PhastSystem(TM and GenePhor(TM, Amersham Biosciences, different polyacrylamide gel concentrations, run temperatures and denaturing agents, and entire and restriction enzyme cut fragments. One hundred percent of sensitivity was achieved with four of the new fragments formed, using the PhastSystem(TM and 20% gels at 15ºC, without the need of restriction enzymes. This nonradioactive PCR-SSCP approach showed to be simple, rapid and sensitive, reducing the costs involved in frequent sequencing repetitions and increasing the reliability of the results. It can be especially useful for laboratories which do not have an automated sequencer.

  7. Independent screening for single-index hazard rate models with ultrahigh dimensional features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    on performance. An iterative variant of the method is also described which combines screening with penalized regression to handle more complex feature covariance structures. The methodology is evaluated through simulation studies and through application to a real gene expression data set.......In data sets with many more features than observations, independent screening based on all univariate regression models leads to a computationally convenient variable selection method. Recent efforts have shown that, in the case of generalized linear models, independent screening may suffice...... to capture all relevant features with high probability, even in ultrahigh dimension. It is unclear whether this formal sure screening property is attainable when the response is a right-censored survival time. We propose a computationally very efficient independent screening method for survival data which...

  8. Different screening strategies (single or dual for the diagnosis of suspected latent tuberculosis: a cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rook Graham

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous health economic studies recommend either a dual screening strategy [tuberculin skin test (TST followed by interferon-γ-release assay (IGRA] or a single one [IGRA only] for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, the former largely based on claims that it is more cost-effective. We sought to examine that conclusion through the use of a model that accounts for the additional costs of adverse drug reactions and directly compares two commercially available versions of the IGRA: the Quantiferon-TB-Gold-In-Tube (QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB. Methods A LTBI screening model directed at screening contacts was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis, from a UK healthcare perspective, taking into account the risk of isoniazid-related hepatotoxicity and post-exposure TB (2 years post contact using the TST, QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB IGRAs. Results Examining costs alone, the TST/IGRA dual screening strategies (TST/T-SPOT.TB and TST/QFT-GIT; £162,387 and £157,048 per 1000 contacts, respectively cost less than their single strategy counterparts (T-SPOT.TB and QFT-GIT; £203,983 and £202,921 per 1000 contacts which have higher IGRA test costs and greater numbers of persons undergoing LTBI treatment. However, IGRA alone strategies direct healthcare interventions and costs more accurately to those that are truly infected. Subsequently, less contacts need to be treated to prevent an active case of TB (T-SPOT.TB and QFT-GIT; 61.7 and 69.7 contacts in IGRA alone strategies. IGRA single strategies also prevent more cases of post-exposure TB. However, this greater effectiveness does not outweigh the lower incremental costs associated with the dual strategies. Consequently, when these costs are combined with effectiveness, the IGRA dual strategies are more cost-effective than their single strategy counterparts. Comparing between the IGRAs, T-SPOT.TB-based strategies (single and dual; £39,712 and £37,206 per active TB case prevented

  9. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, the author introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, they demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm2 for 40-μm wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection. In the second part of this dissertation, the author used laser-induced native fluorescence coupled with capillary electrophoresis (LINF-CE) and microscope imaging to study the single cell degranulation. On the basis of good temporal correlation with events observed through an optical microscope, they have identified individual peaks in the fluorescence electropherograms as serotonin released from the granular core on contact with the surrounding fluid.

  10. “I’ve never asked one question.” Understanding the barriers among orthopedic surgery residents to screening female patients for intimate partner violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Young, Aynsely; Rotstein, Ori D.; Schemitsch, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. Orthopedic surgery residents may identify IPV among injured patients treated in fracture clinics. Yet, these residents face a number of barriers to recognizing and discussing IPV with patients. We sought to explore orthopedic surgery residents’ knowledge of IPV and their preparedness to screen patients for IPV in academic fracture clinic settings with a view to developing targeted IPV education and training. Methods We conducted focus groups with junior and intermediate residents. Discussions explored residents’ knowledge of and experiences with IPV screening and preparedness for screening and responding to IPV among orthopedic patients. Data were analyzed iteratively using an inductive approach. Results Residents were aware of the issue of abuse generally, but had received no specific information or training on IPV in orthopedics. Residents did not see orthopedics faculty screen patients for IPV or advocate for screening. They did not view IPV screening or intervention as part of the orthopedic surgeon’s role. Residents’ clinical experiences emphasized time management and surgical intervention by effectively “getting through clinic” and “dealing with the surgical problem.” Communication with patients about other health issues was minimal or nonexistent. Conclusion Orthopedic surgery residents are entering a career path where IPV is well documented. They encounter cultural and structural barriers preventing the incorporation of IPV screening into their clinical and educational experiences. Hospitals and academic programs must collaborate in efforts to build capacity for sustainable IPV screening programs among these trainees. PMID:25421078

  11. A Multiplexed Single-Cell CRISPR Screening Platform Enables Systematic Dissection of the Unfolded Protein Response. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional genomics efforts face tradeoffs between number of perturbations examined and complexity of phenotypes measured. We bridge this gap with Perturb-seq, which combines droplet-based single-cell RNA-seq with a strategy for barcoding CRISPR-mediated perturbations, allowing many perturbations to be profiled in pooled format. We applied Perturb-seq to dissect the mammalian unfolded protein response (UPR) using single and combinatorial CRISPR perturbations. Two genome-scale CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) screens identified genes whose repression perturbs ER homeostasis.

  12. The benefits of cancer screening in kidney transplant recipients: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taigo; Kakuta, Yoichi; Abe, Toyofumi; Yamanaka, Kazuaki; Imamura, Ryoichi; Okumi, Masayoshi; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Takahara, Shiro; Nonomura, Norio

    2016-02-01

    The frequency of malignancy is increasing in kidney transplant recipients. Posttransplant malignancy (PTM) is a major cause of long-term graft survival inhibition. In this study, we evaluated the frequency and prognosis of PTM at our center and examined the efficacy of cancer screening. Between 1972 and 2013, 750 patients were followed-up at our center. Annual physical examinations and screenings were performed to detect PTM. We investigated the detail of two distinctive cancer groups: screening-detected cancers and symptom-detected cancers. Seventy-seven PTM were identified during the follow-up period. The mean age at the initial PTM detection was 43.6 ± 12.8 years. The mean interval from transplantation to cancer diagnosis was 134.5 ± 11.3 months. Among the 77 patients, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) was the most common cancer (19.5%, 15/77), followed by renal cell carcinoma (15.6%, 12/77). Of the cancer cases, 46.8% (36/77) were detected via screening. The most frequently screening-detected cancer was renal cell carcinoma of the native kidney and breast cancer (22.2%, 8/36). However, it was difficult to detect PTLD, urothelial carcinoma, and colorectal cancer via screening. Interestingly, Cox proportional regression analyses revealed nonscreened recipients to be a significant prognostic factor for PTM (P kidney transplant recipients. These findings support the provision of long-term appropriate screening for kidney transplant recipients. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Single reading with computer-aided detection performed by selected radiologists in a breast cancer screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.cat [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Ríos, José [Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, (Hospital Clinic) C/ Mallorca, 183. Floor -1. Office #60. 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Grau, Jaume [Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta; Cores, Enrique; Velasco, Martín [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • 1-The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD. • 2-The cancer detection rate improved at the cost of increasing recall rate. • 3-CAD, used by breast radiologists, did not help to detect more cancers. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the impact of shifting from a standard double reading plus arbitration protocol to a single reading by experienced radiologists assisted by computer-aided detection (CAD) in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study approved by the ethics committee. Data from 21,321 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2010–2012) were read following a single reading plus CAD protocol and compared with data from 47,462 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2004–2010) that were interpreted following a double reading plus arbitration protocol. For the single reading, radiologists were selected on the basis of the appraisement of their previous performance. Results: Period 2010–2012 vs. period 2004–2010: Cancer detection rate (CDR): 6.1‰ (95% confidence interval: 5.1–7.2) vs. 5.25‰; Recall rate (RR): 7.02% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.4) vs. 7.24% (selected readers before arbitration) and vs. 3.94 (all readers after arbitration); Predictive positive value of recall: 8.69% vs. 13.32%. Average size of invasive cancers: 14.6 ± 9.5 mm vs. 14.3 ± 9.5 mm. Stage: 0 (22.3/26.1%); I (59.2/50.8%); II (19.2/17.1%); III (3.1/3.3%); IV (0/1.9%). Specialized breast radiologists performed better than general radiologists. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD, at the cost of a moderate increase of the recall rate mainly related to the lack of arbitration.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based concurrent screening of 24-chromosome aneuploidy and unbalanced translocations in preimplantation human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Northrop, Lesley E; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Su, Jing; Levy, Brynn; Scott, Richard T

    2011-04-01

    To develop, validate, and apply a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray-based method for simultaneous preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of unbalanced inheritance of rearranged chromosomes and 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Prospective clinical research study. Academic reproductive medicine center. Eighteen couples carrying a balanced reciprocal or Robertsonian chromosomal rearrangement. PGD on blastocyst trophectoderm biopsy specimens. Aneuploidy, implantation, pregnancy, and delivery rates after SNP microarray-based aneuploidy and translocation screening. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray was capable of detecting translocation-associated imbalances as small as 9.0 megabases. In the 12 transfers performed, sustained implantation occurred for 9 (45%) of 20 balanced-normal and euploid embryos replaced. The clinical pregnancy rate in patients receiving a transfer was 75% with six singleton deliveries and three ongoing singleton pregnancies thus far. Significantly fewer embryos were eligible for transfer with the incorporation of simultaneous 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Arrested embryos were also significantly more likely to possess unbalanced chromosomes when compared with developmentally competent blastocysts. This SNP microarray-based method provides the first opportunity to improve outcomes through comprehensive identification of euploid embryos from translocation carrier couples. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  16. Development of a high throughput single-particle screening for inorganic semiconductor nanorods as neural voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung; Park, Kyoungwon; Li, Jack; Ingargiola, Antonino; Park, Joonhyuck; Shvadchak, Volodymyr; Weiss, Shimon

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring membrane potential in neurons requires sensors with minimal invasiveness, high spatial and temporal (sub-ms) resolution, and large sensitivity for enabling detection of sub-threshold activities. While organic dyes and fluorescent proteins have been developed to possess voltage-sensing properties, photobleaching, cytotoxicity, low sensitivity, and low spatial resolution have obstructed further studies. Semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs), as prospective voltage sensors, have shown excellent sensitivity based on Quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) at room temperature and at single particle level. Both theory and experiment have shown their voltage sensitivity can be increased significantly via material, bandgap, and structural engineering. Based on theoretical calculations, we synthesized one of the optimal candidates for voltage sensors: 12 nm type-II ZnSe/CdS nanorods (NRs), with an asymmetrically located seed. The voltage sensitivity and spectral shift were characterized in vitro using spectrally-resolved microscopy using electrodes grown by thin film deposition, which "sandwich" the NRs. We characterized multiple batches of such NRs and iteratively modified the synthesis to achieve higher voltage sensitivity (ΔF/F> 10%), larger spectral shift (>5 nm), better homogeneity, and better colloidal stability. Using a high throughput screening method, we were able to compare the voltage sensitivity of our NRs with commercial spherical quantum dots (QDs) with single particle statistics. Our method of high throughput screening with spectrally-resolved microscope also provides a versatile tool for studying single particles spectroscopy under field modulation.

  17. Legacy question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  18. Screening for Breast Cancer Using Near-Field Infrared Spectroscopy of a Single Strand of Hair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2003-01-01

    .... In this study, we have successfully developed a new infrared method for the detection in a single strand of hair the presence of lipid deposits that were the putative cause of the observed x-ray patterns...

  19. Development of Cost-Effective Screening Techniques to Assess Single-Event Latchup Susceptibility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although Single-Event Latchup (SEL) has proven to be one of the most significant radiation threats for low-cost missions, conventional SEL hardness assurance...

  20. Subchronic immunotoxicity and screening of reproductive toxicity and developmental immunotoxicity following single instillation of HIPCO-single-walled carbon nanotubes: purity-based comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Je; Kim, Jae-Ho; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Yoon, Cheolho; Jeong, Uiseok; Kim, Younghun

    2016-10-01

    Impurity has been suggested as an important factor determining toxicity following exposure to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this study, we first compared immunotoxicity based on iron content on day 90 after a single intratracheal instillation of SWCNTs in male and female mice. The inflammatory responses were generally stronger in mice exposed to acid-purified (P)-SWCNTs compared to raw (R)-SWCNTs. In addition, both R- and P-SWCNTs induced Th1-polarized immune responses with apoptotic death of BAL cells and systemically impaired the function of antigen-presenting cells (APC). We also screened reproductive and developmental toxicity by cohabitating male and female mice on day 14 after instillation. Interestingly, the pregnancy rate rapidly decreased following exposure to both types of SWCNTs, especially R-SWCNTs. In addition, we investigated developmental immunotoxicity of the offspring on day 28 after exposure to both types of SWCNTs. Their hematological changes were clearer relative to those of the parents and a significant decrease in the alkaline phosphatase and potassium levels was observed in mice of both sexes exposed to the higher dose of R- and P-SWCNTs. In conclusion, we suggest that SWCNTs may induce Th1-polarized immune responses accompanied by suppression of APC function on day 90 after a single instillation without significant iron content dependance. In addition, the consecutive exposure of SWCNTs to the subsequent generation may exacerbate metabolic and hematological disturbance. Furthermore, our results underscore the need to clarify the reproductive and developmental health effects of SWCNTs.

  1. Selection-Based Instruction with Touch-Screen Video and the Emergence of Exact, Recombinative, and Novel Topography-Based Responses to Interview Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, John; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to replicate and extend the literature on using selection-based instruction to teach responses to interview questions by (a) evaluating the emergence of recombinative (i.e., combinations of taught) and novel (i.e., untaught) topography-based intraverbal responses, in addition to exact repetitions of taught…

  2. Identification of tumor associated single-chain Fv by panning and screening antibody phage library using tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong-Zhan; He, Feng-Tian; Li, Zhi-Kui; Wu, Kai-Chun; Cao, Yun-Xin; Chen, Bao-Jun; Fan, Dai-Ming

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the feasibility of panning and screening phage-displaying recombinant single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies for fixed whole cells as the carriers of mAb-binding antigens. METHODS: The recombinant phage displaying libraries for anti-colorectal tumor mAb MC3Ab, MC5Ab and anti-gastric tumor mAb MGD1 was constructed. Panning and screening were carried out by means of modified fixation of colorectal and gastric tumor cells expressed the mAb-binding antigens. Concordance of binding specificity to tumor cells between phage clones and parent antibodies was analyzed. The phage of positive clones was identified with competitive ELISA, and infected by E. coli HB2151 to express soluble ScFv. RESULTS: The ratio of positive clones to MC3-ScF-MC5-ScFv and MGD1-ScFv were 60%, 24% and 30%. MC3-ScFv had Mr 32000 confirmed by Western blot. The specificity to antigen had no difference between 4 positive recombinant phage antibodies and MC3Ab. CONCLUSION: The modified process of fixing whole tumor cells is efficient, convenient and feasible to pan and screen the phage-displaying ScFv of anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies. PMID:12174367

  3. Scintillating screens based on the single crystalline films of multicomponent garnets: new achievements and possibilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Paprocki, K.; Nikl, Martin; Mareš, Jiří A.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.; Sidletskiy, O.; Gerasymov, I.; Grinyov, B.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2016), s. 497-502 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ce dopant * garnets * liquid phase epitaxy * luminescence * scintillators * single crystalline films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2016

  4. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  5. False Low-Risk Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Noninvasive Prenatal Screening in Pentasomy 49,XXXXY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Manesha; Hicks, Melissa A; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2018-01-01

    Introduction  Pentasomy 49,XXXXY is a sex chromosome anomaly difficult to be diagnosed prenatally. We describe a patient of pentasomy 49,XXXXY with false low-risk results using a noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS). A 30-year-old G1P0 woman presented at 33 6/7 weeks, secondary to sonographic fetal anomalies. She had low-risk NIPS at 13 6/7 weeks. Anatomy survey showed bilateral clubfeet, clinodactyly of the left fifth digit, micropenis, and echogenic bowel. Cytogenetics analysis revealed pentasomy 49,XXXXY syndrome. We report third-trimester sonographic features of a fetus with pentasomy 49,XXXXY and the importance of thorough pre- and posttest counseling for NIPS.

  6. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Diel, Roland; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Adam, Gerhard; Schön, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. • Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among refugees in 2015 was low (0.103%). • The number needed to screen to detect one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening resulted in a low sensitivity and high specificity. • Tuberculosis X-ray screening during the European refugee crisis is of low yield. • Improved screening algorithms are needed due to the overwhelming the number of refugees.

  7. Premarital screening for hemoglobinopathies: experience of a single center in Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Al-Doski, Adnan A S; Markous, Raji S D; Mohamad Amin, Khyria A K; Eissa, Adil A Z; Badi, Ameer I A; Asmaro, Rafal R H; Hamamy, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    A program for the prevention of major hemoglobinopathies was initiated in 2008 in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. This study reports on the achievements and challenges of the program. A total of 102,554 individuals (51,277 couples) visiting a premarital center between 2008 and 2012 were screened for carrier status of hemoglobinopathies, and at-risk couples were counseled. A total of 223 (4.3/1,000) couples were identified and counseled as high-risk couples. Available data on 198 high-risk couples indicated that 90.4% proceeded with their marriage plans, and 15% of these married couples decided to have prenatal diagnosis (PND) in subsequent pregnancies with the identification of 8 affected fetuses; all were terminated as chosen by the parents. Thirty affected births were recorded among the high-risk couples. The premarital program managed to reduce the affected birth rate of major hemoglobinopathies by 21.1%. Of the 136 affected babies born during the study period, 77.9% were born to couples married prior to the start of the program, while 22.1% were born to couples identified as having a high risk. The main reason for not taking the option of PND was unaffordable costs. Financial support would have increased opting for PND by high-risk couples. Further reduction in affected birth rates could be achieved by including parallel antenatal screening programs to cover those married before the initiation of the premarital program and improving the public health education and counseling programs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Screening single-atom catalysts for methane activation: α -A l2O3(0001 ) -supported Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Shiwu; Meng, Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Methane activation is one of the biggest challenges for chemical conversion of hydrocarbons and fundamental science. We systematically screen d -block transition metal elements as potential candidates of single-atom catalysts (SACs) for methane dissociation. The adsorption of methane on free metal atoms strongly depends on the number of d electrons of SAC, where the maximum binding energy is formed with the Ni group (electronic configuration d8s2 or d9s1 ). Interestingly, the magnetic moment of the SACs decreases by 2 μB for strong interactions, suggesting that the methane-metal bond forms a spin singlet state involving two electrons of opposite spins. To examine the effect of substrates, the screened transition metals, Ni, Rh, and Pt are further put onto prototype metal oxide surfaces. The substrate dramatically modifies the discrete energy levels of a single metal and its catalytic properties. Single Ni atoms supported on an O-terminated α -A l2O3(0001 ) surface (N i1/A l2O3 ) show superior catalytic properties, with a low activation barrier of 0.4 eV (0.11 eV after zero-point energy correction) for the C-H bond dissociation and simultaneously an extreme stability with a high binding energy of ˜9.39 eV for the Ni anchor. This work identifies N i1/A l2O3 catalyst as an optimal SAC and offers new atomistic insights into the mechanism of methane activation on SACs.

  9. Current Status of Comprehensive Chromosome Screening for Elective Single-Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ming-Yih; Chao, Kuang-Han; Chen, Chin-Der; Chang, Li-Jung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Most in vitro fertilization (IVF) experts and infertility patients agree that the most ideal assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome is to have a healthy, full-term singleton born. To this end, the most reliable policy is the single-embryo transfer (SET). However, unsatisfactory results in IVF may result from plenty of factors, in which aneuploidy associated with advanced maternal age is a major hurdle. Throughout the past few years, we have got a big leap in advancement of the genetic...

  10. Construct validity and responsiveness of the single-item presenteeism question in patients with lower back pain for the measurement of presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Lewis, Martyn; Jowett, Sue; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    Validity and responsiveness study using a randomized clinical trial and prospective cohort study of patients with low back pain (LBP). To provide evidence for construct validity and responsiveness to change of a single-item presenteeism question (SIPQ) in patients with LBP. The SIPQ is a simple, easy to administer tool that has been used to measure the impact of back pain on reduced productivity at work (presenteeism) as a standalone measure. Evidence supporting the validity and responsiveness of the SIPQ among patients with back pain is however lacking. The SIPQ was administered to patients consulting for back pain in a randomized controlled trial (N = 851) and a cohort intervention study (N = 922). Construct validity was assessed using convergent, divergent, and known-group validity. The validity investigation included assessing associations between the SIPQ and pain, disability, psychological, health status, and quality of life measures. Responsiveness was assessed using external indicators of change as comparators, evaluating correlation of clinical change scores and effect size statistics. Moderate to strong correlations were found between presenteeism and pain (r: 0.44-0.77), disability (r: 0.53-0.70), and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical dimensions (r: -0.66 to -0.55). Presenteeism was strongly associated with disease-specific pain and disability scales. The SIPQ was responsive to changes in productivity-presenteeism change scores indicated strong correlation with change scores, and high responsiveness in distribution- and anchor-based testing. The SIPQ is a potentially valid and responsive tool for assessing the impact of back pain on presenteeism. This SIPQ could, with relative ease, facilitate further research on the estimation of presenteeism within economic evaluation studies of musculoskeletal conditions, thus providing policymakers with estimates of economic impact of musculoskeletal disease. Further evidence is, however, merited to assess

  11. Traveling questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  12. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Diel, Roland [University Medical Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Institute for Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Meywald-Walter, Karen [Public Health Department Hamburg Central, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  13. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter; Diel, Roland; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Schoen, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  14. High-throughput de novo screening of receptor agonists with an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D; Fujii, Ikuo; Kondo, Akihiko; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2014-02-28

    Reconstitution of signaling pathways involving single mammalian transmembrane receptors has not been accomplished in yeast cells. In this study, intact EGF receptor (EGFR) and a cell wall-anchored form of EGF were co-expressed on the yeast cell surface, which led to autophosphorylation of the EGFR in an EGF-dependent autocrine manner. After changing from EGF to a conformationally constrained peptide library, cells were fluorescently labeled with an anti-phospho-EGFR antibody. Each cell was subjected to an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system that analyzed the fluorescent intensity of each cell and automatically retrieved each cell with the highest fluorescence. In ~3.2 × 10(6) peptide library, we isolated six novel peptides with agonistic activity of the EGFR in human squamous carcinoma A431 cells. The combination of yeast cells expressing mammalian receptors, a cell wall-anchored peptide library, and an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system might facilitate a rational approach for de novo drug screening.

  15. A Synthetic Biology Project - Developing a single-molecule device for screening drug-target interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Keith; Evans, Luke; Youell, James

    2012-07-16

    This review describes a European-funded project in the area of Synthetic Biology. The project seeks to demonstrate the application of engineering techniques and methodologies to the design and construction of a biosensor for detecting drug-target interactions at the single-molecule level. Production of the proteins required for the system followed the principle of previously described "bioparts" concepts (a system where a database of biological parts - promoters, genes, terminators, linking tags and cleavage sequences - is used to construct novel gene assemblies) and cassette-type assembly of gene expression systems (the concept of linking different "bioparts" to produce functional "cassettes"), but problems were quickly identified with these approaches. DNA substrates for the device were also constructed using a cassette-system. Finally, micro-engineering was used to build a magnetoresistive Magnetic Tweezer device for detection of single molecule DNA modifying enzymes (motors), while the possibility of constructing a Hall Effect version of this device was explored. The device is currently being used to study helicases from Plasmodium as potential targets for anti-malarial drugs, but we also suggest other potential uses for the device. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A disposable screen-printed silver strip sensor for single drop analysis of halide in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hsin; Cheng, Wan-Ling; Muthuraman, Govindan; Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Chung, Hsieh-Hsun; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-06-15

    A screen-printed silver strip with three-electrode configuration of Ag-working, Ag-counter and Ag/Ag(x)O reference electrodes was developed for simultaneous determination of chloride, bromide and iodide in aqueous solutions. It was fabricated simply by screen-printing silver ink onto a polypropylene (PP) base. The in-situ prepared Ag/Ag(x)O reference electrode can avoid the leaching interference in chloride detection while using a conventional Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A single drop of analyte (50 microl) is enough to determine iodide, bromide and chloride by measuring the well-separated oxidation peak currents of respective silver halides. The calibration graph was linear from 10 microM to 20 mM for iodide and bromide and 100 microM to 20 mM for chloride and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.05 microM, 2.95 microM and 18.83 microM for iodide, bromide and chloride, respectively. The strip is designed to be disposable and as such manual polishing is not necessary. The proposed sensor is not only simple to manufacture and easy to operate but also fast and precise with little detection volume. It is successfully applied to the determination of halide ions in real samples.

  17. Screening Test Procedure For Long Life Single Mode Step Index Separate Confinement Heterostructure Single Quantum Well (Sinsch-Sqw) Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, William J.

    1989-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish an effective burn-in and screening procedure for long life SINSCH-SQW laser diodes. The laser diodes were grown by MOCVD and processed with 20μ wide oxide defined stripes. The devices had a high reflective back facet coating with a small etalon bonded to a passivated front facet to ensure single mode operation. The laser diodes were bonded p-side up to copper heat sinks using indium solder. A total of 48 devices were selected prior to burn-in and were operated at 200mA constant current for 2000 hours at an average heat sink temperature of 55°C. The average initial output power was 45mW per device. At the end of the test, the output powers ranged from lmW to 85mW. Most of the devices with the low final power failed catastrophically within 24 hours from the start of the test. Many laser diodes showed very little change in output power while others degraded gradually by varying amounts. Failure analysis showed that failures were facet, bulk, or heat sink related. The temporal output power degradations (i.e., gradual degradation, etc.) can be explained by the identified failure mechanisms. From the test results and failure analysis, a screening strategy based on inspection and burn-in can be devised to reject devices that may fail early. Also, improvements in processing can provide potential yield improvements. After accounting for degradation related to processing, a very long material lifetime is predicted for these SINSCH-SQW laser diodes.

  18. Development of Single Cell Raman Spectroscopy for Cancer Screening and Therapy Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, James W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-24

    The overall goal of this project was to develop a new technology for cancer detection based on single cell laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). This method has the potential to improve the detection of cancer characteristics in single cells by acquiring cellular spectral markers that reflect the intrinsic biology of the cell. These spectral biomarkers are a new form of molecular signatures in the field of cancer research that may hold promise in accurately identifying and diagnosing cancer and measuring patient response to treatment. The primary objectives of this proposed work were to perform a full characterization of the Raman spectra of single normal, transformed, and cancer cells to identify cancer spectral signatures, validate the clinical significance of these results by direct correlation to established clinical parameters for assessing cancer, and to develop the optical technology needed for efficient sampling and analysis of cells needed for the practical use of such a system in the clinic. The results indicated that normal T and B lymphocytes could be distinguished from their neoplastic cultured cells and leukemia patient cells with classification sensitivities and specificities routinely exceeding 90% based on multivariate statistical analysis and leave-one-out cross validation. Differences primarily in the Raman peaks associated with DNA and protein were observed between normal and leukemic cells and were consistent for both the cultured and primary cells. Differences between normal and leukemia patient cells were more subtle than between normal and leukemia cultured cells but were still significant to allow for accurate discrimination. Furthermore, it is revealed that the spectral differences are representative of the neoplastic phenotype of the cells and not a reflection of the different metabolic states (resting versus active) of normal and leukemic cells. The effect of different standard cell fixation protocols (i.e. methanol, paraformaledhye

  19. Une question

    OpenAIRE

    Resweber, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Dans deux conférences consacrées à une analyse critique du discours de Freud, L. Althusser, pose, semble-t-il, la bonne question , quoique d’une manière quelque peu embarrassée et péremptoire. Le rapport de Freud à la philosophie, qu’il soit examiné au travers d’une confrontation problématique entre celle-ci et psychanalyse naissante, ou bien au travers d’un dialogue entre les postulats nouveaux et les thèses classiques défendues par Platon, Kant, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer ou Wittgenstein, ne s...

  20. Machinery Question

    OpenAIRE

    Meacci, Ferdinando

    2008-01-01

    The “machinery question” was developed by the economist David Ricardo (1772–1823) in the chapter “On Machinery” added to the third edition of his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1821). This question related, in his words, to the “influence of machinery on the interests of the different classes of society” and particularly to the “opinion entertained by the labouring class, that the employment of machinery is frequently detrimental to their interests”. Ricardo’s argument was pres...

  1. Screening of nanosatellite microprocessors using californium single-event latch-up test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Okumura, Yuta; Masui, Hirokazu; Takamiya, Koichi; Cho, Mengu

    2016-09-01

    A single-event latch-up (SEL) test using a 252Cf radioisotope was carried out. The results were compared with those of a proton test and from observation in orbit. A radioisotope can reproduce phenomena observed in orbit that are caused by protons. Considering the inexpensive nature of the 252Cf test, it is more suitable for nanosatellites that require low cost and fast delivery. A SEL occurrence rate of a commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessor was derived from the ground test results. The 252Cf test provided a SEL rate approximately 1×106 times greater than that in orbit. This data can be used to derive the minimum SEL occurrence rate in orbit and help satellite designers to evaluate the risk of SEL and take measures if necessary.

  2. Effective screen of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants in rice by single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuelian; Yang, Shixin; Zhang, Dengwei; Zhong, Zhaohui; Tang, Xu; Deng, Kejun; Zhou, Jianping; Qi, Yiping; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    A method based on DNA single-strand conformation polymorphism is demonstrated for effective genotyping of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants in rice. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) has been widely adopted for genome editing in many organisms. A large proportion of mutations generated by CRISPR/Cas9 are very small insertions and deletions (indels), presumably because Cas9 generates blunt-ended double-strand breaks which are subsequently repaired without extensive end-processing. CRISPR/Cas9 is highly effective for targeted mutagenesis in the important crop, rice. For example, homozygous mutant seedlings are commonly recovered from CRISPR/Cas9-treated calli. However, many current mutation detection methods are not very suitable for screening homozygous mutants that typically carry small indels. In this study, we tested a mutation detection method based on single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP). We found it can effectively detect small indels in pilot experiments. By applying the SSCP method for CRISRP-Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in rice, we successfully identified multiple mutants of OsROC5 and OsDEP1. In conclusion, the SSCP analysis will be a useful genotyping method for rapid identification of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutants, including the most desirable homozygous mutants. The method also has high potential for similar applications in other plant species.

  3. A freedom to question...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    the family about things he had read and studied opened up the entire world of academia to me. Here, it seemed that one could as an adult pursue one's interests single-mindedly, without worries about earning a living! Until class ten, I also had very good teach- ers who encouraged questioning. I enjoyed listening to and re-.

  4. Question time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer

    Choosing to train as a nurse is a major decision, rife with different emotions and considerations. Regardless of what point you have reached in your studies, whether you are studying towards a degree or diploma, whatever your age and whether you are from the UK or overseas, you face common challenges. These include surviving financially, juggling study and clinical placements, learning new information and addressing patients' needs. While the profession certainly offers exciting opportunities, nursing students in 2006 face a range of uncertainties. There have been cuts and freezes to existing and vacant posts across NHS trusts, while students from overseas face the additional problem that band 5 and 6 nursing posts have been removed from the Home Office's shortage occupation list. Will there be enough mentors to teach students? Will there be jobs when they qualify? How can students survive financially? Will overseas students be able to stay once qualified? NT put students' key questions to a panel of experts and influential figures.

  5. Single-cell-based image analysis of high-throughput cell array screens for quantification of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Petr; Kumar, Anil; Wörz, Ilka; Erfle, Holger; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Eils, Roland; Rohr, Karl

    2009-04-01

    The identification of eukaryotic genes involved in virus entry and replication is important for understanding viral infection. Our goal is to develop a siRNA-based screening system using cell arrays and high-throughput (HT) fluorescence microscopy. A central issue is efficient, robust, and automated single-cell-based analysis of massive image datasets. We have developed an image analysis approach that comprises (i) a novel, gradient-based thresholding scheme for cell nuclei segmentation which does not require subsequent postprocessing steps for separation of clustered nuclei, (ii) quantification of the virus signal in the neighborhood of cell nuclei, (iii) localization of regions with transfected cells by combining model-based circle fitting and grid fitting, (iv) cell classification as infected or noninfected, and (v) image quality control (e.g., identification of out-of-focus images). We compared the results of our nucleus segmentation approach with a previously developed scheme of adaptive thresholding with subsequent separation of nuclear clusters. Our approach, which does not require a postprocessing step for the separation of nuclear clusters, correctly segmented 97.1% of the nuclei, whereas the previous scheme achieved 95.8%. Using our algorithm for the detection of out-of-focus images, we obtained a high discrimination power of 99.4%. Our overall approach has been applied to more than 55,000 images of cells infected by either hepatitis C or dengue virus. Reduced infection rates were correctly detected in positive siRNA controls, as well as for siRNAs targeting, for example, cellular genes involved in viral infection. Our image analysis approach allows for the automatic and accurate determination of changes in viral infection based on high-throughput single-cell-based siRNA cell array imaging experiments. (c) 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Guo

    Full Text Available The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  7. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Ito, Takuro; Jiang, Yiyue; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary) and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated) E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  8. Raman-Activated Droplet Sorting (RADS) for Label-Free High-Throughput Screening of Microalgal Single-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixian; Ren, Lihui; Su, Yetian; Ji, Yuetong; Liu, Yaoping; Li, Chunyu; Li, Xunrong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Han, Danxiang; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2017-11-21

    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) has attracted increasing interest, yet throughput remains one major factor limiting its broader application. Here we present an integrated Raman-activated droplet sorting (RADS) microfluidic system for functional screening of live cells in a label-free and high-throughput manner, by employing AXT-synthetic industrial microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis) as a model. Raman microspectroscopy analysis of individual cells is carried out prior to their microdroplet encapsulation, which is then directly coupled to DEP-based droplet sorting. To validate the system, H. pluvialis cells containing different levels of AXT were mixed and underwent RADS. Those AXT-hyperproducing cells were sorted with an accuracy of 98.3%, an enrichment ratio of eight folds, and a throughput of ∼260 cells/min. Of the RADS-sorted cells, 92.7% remained alive and able to proliferate, which is equivalent to the unsorted cells. Thus, the RADS achieves a much higher throughput than existing RACS systems, preserves the vitality of cells, and facilitates seamless coupling with downstream manipulations such as single-cell sequencing and cultivation.

  9. The impact of Down syndrome screening on Taiwanese Down syndrome births: a nationwide retrospective study and a screening result from a single medical centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of the Taiwanese National Birth Defect Registration and Notification System was conducted in order to determine the live birth- and stillbirth rates in infants with Down syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and Turner syndrome between 2001 and 2010. The objective was to investigate the impact of Down syndrome screening on the Taiwanese Down syndrome live birth rate. In addition, the results of first-trimester Down syndrome screening between 2006 and 2011, and of second-trimester quadruple testing between 2008 and 2011, were obtained from the National Taiwan University Hospital. All Taiwanese infants born between 2001 and 2010 were included in the first part of the analysis, and women receiving first-trimester Down syndrome screening or second-trimester quadruple testing from the National Taiwan University Hospital were included in the second part. The live birth rate of infants with Down syndrome, per 100 000 live births, decreased from 22.28 in 2001 to 7.79 in 2010. The ratio of liveborn DS to total DS was 48.74% in 2001, and then decreased to 25.88% in 2006, when first-trimester screening was widely introduced in Taiwan. This ratio dropped to 20.64% in 2008, when the second-trimester quadruple test was implemented. The overall positive rate in first-trimester screening in the National Taiwan University Hospital was 3.1%, with a Down syndrome detection rate of 100%; the quadruple test had values of 9.0% and 75%, respectively. The use of first-trimester screening and the second-trimester quadruple test may be responsible for the marked decrease in the Taiwanese Down syndrome live birth rate observed between 2001 and 2010.

  10. Measuring word complexity in speech screening: single-word sampling to identify phonological delay/disorder in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn; Cohen, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Children's speech sound development is assessed by comparing speech production with the typical development of speech sounds based on a child's age and developmental profile. One widely used method of sampling is to elicit a single-word sample along with connected speech. Words produced spontaneously rather than imitated may give a more accurate indication of a child's speech development. A published word complexity measure can be used to score later-developing speech sounds and more complex word patterns. There is a need for a screening word list that is quick to administer and reliably differentiates children with typically developing speech from children with patterns of delayed/disordered speech. To identify a short word list based on word complexity that could be spontaneously named by most typically developing children aged 3;00-5;05 years. One hundred and five children aged between 3;00 and 5;05 years from three local authority nursery schools took part in the study. Items from a published speech assessment were modified and extended to include a range of phonemic targets in different word positions in 78 monosyllabic and polysyllabic words. The 78 words were ranked both by phonemic/phonetic complexity as measured by word complexity and by ease of spontaneous production. The ten most complex words (hereafter Triage 10) were named spontaneously by more than 90% of the children. There was no significant difference between the complexity measures for five identified age groups when the data were examined in 6-month groups. A qualitative analysis revealed eight children with profiles of phonological delay or disorder. When these children were considered separately, there was a statistically significant difference (p speech from those with delayed or disordered speech patterns. The Triage 10 words can be used as a screening tool for triage and general assessment and have the potential to monitor progress during intervention. Further testing is being undertaken to

  11. National Lung Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The NLST results published in 2011 in the New England Journal of Medicine (and updated in Cancer on Nov. 15, 2013) ... life year? This result was published in the New England Journal of Medicine on November 12, 2014. How does lung cancer ...

  12. Beyond screening for chromosomal abnormalities: Advances in non-invasive diagnosis of single gene disorders and fetal exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jane; Chitty, Lyn S

    2018-04-01

    Emerging genomic technologies, largely based around next generation sequencing (NGS), are offering new promise for safer prenatal genetic diagnosis. These innovative approaches will improve screening for fetal aneuploidy, allow definitive non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of single gene disorders at an early gestational stage without the need for invasive testing, and improve our ability to detect monogenic disorders as the aetiology of fetal abnormalities. This presents clinicians and scientists with novel challenges as well as opportunities. In addition, the transformation of prenatal genetic testing arising from the introduction of whole genome, exome and targeted NGS produces unprecedented volumes of data requiring complex analysis and interpretation. Now translating these technologies to the clinic has become the goal of clinical genomics, transforming modern healthcare and personalized medicine. The achievement of this goal requires the most progressive technological tools for rapid high-throughput data generation at an affordable cost. Furthermore, as larger proportions of patients with genetic disease are identified we must be ready to offer appropriate genetic counselling to families and potential parents. In addition, the identification of novel treatment targets will continue to be explored, which is likely to introduce ethical considerations, particularly if genome editing techniques are included in these targeted treatments and transferred into mainstream personalized healthcare. Here we review the impact of NGS technology to analyse cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal plasma to deliver NIPD for monogenic disorders and allow more comprehensive investigation of the abnormal fetus through the use of exome sequencing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  14. Comparison among single-phase test, automated screening method and GC/MS for the traceability of ketamine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Visione

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION Following the law indications, ketamine is not searched: this limit does not make the authorities able to apply the penalties expected for road laws violations. The automation is essential to guarantee the reliability of toxicological screening tests, especially to medico-legal significance. This results highlight the absolutely necessity of the execution of the confirmation test, successively to screening analysis.

  15. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening by array comparative genomic hybridisation: experience of more than 100 cases in a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, J Fc; Yeung, W Sb; Lee, V Cy; Lau, E Yl; Ho, P C; Ng, E Hy

    2017-04-01

    Preimplantation genetic screening has been proposed to improve the in-vitro fertilisation outcome by screening for aneuploid embryos or blastocysts. This study aimed to report the outcome of 133 cycles of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening by array comparative genomic hybridisation. This study of case series was conducted in a tertiary assisted reproductive centre in Hong Kong. Patients who underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis for chromosomal abnormalities or preimplantation genetic screening between 1 April 2012 and 30 June 2015 were included. They underwent in-vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. An embryo biopsy was performed on day-3 embryos and the blastomere was subject to array comparative genomic hybridisation. Embryos with normal copy numbers were replaced. The ongoing pregnancy rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate were studied. During the study period, 133 cycles of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for chromosomal abnormalities or preimplantation genetic screening were initiated in 94 patients. Overall, 112 cycles proceeded to embryo biopsy and 65 cycles had embryo transfer. The ongoing pregnancy rate per transfer cycle after preimplantation genetic screening was 50.0% and that after preimplantation genetic diagnosis was 34.9%. The implantation rates after preimplantation genetic screening and diagnosis were 45.7% and 41.1%, respectively and the miscarriage rates were 8.3% and 28.6%, respectively. There were 26 frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles, in which vitrified and biopsied genetically transferrable embryos were replaced, resulting in an ongoing pregnancy rate of 36.4% in the screening group and 60.0% in the diagnosis group. The clinical outcomes of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening using comparative genomic hybridisation in our unit were comparable to those reported internationally. Genetically transferrable embryos replaced in a natural cycle may improve the ongoing pregnancy rate

  16. A single question regarding mobility in the World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire predicts 3-year mortality in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Ho; Ho, Miao-Chun; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Cheng, Hui-Teng

    2017-09-20

    Low quality of life, depression and poor quality of sleep are associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. It is not clear which factor has the highest predictive power and what the core element is to explain the predictability. We thus conducted a prospective cohort study that included 151 hemodialysis adults. Three traits of interest were assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, an abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, and Athens Insomnia Scale, respectively. They were followed for more than 3 years and the all-cause mortality was 30.5%. The prevalence of quality of life at the lowest tertile, depression and poor quality of sleep was 19.9%, 43.0% and 74.2%, respectively. Discriminant analysis showed the standardized coefficient of each factor as 0.813, -0.289 and 0.066, indicating the highest discriminating power by quality of life to predict mortality. Question 15 "how well are you able to get around?" in the physical health domain of WHOQOL-BREF independently associated a hazard ratio of mortality 0.623 (95% confidence interval 0.423-0.918). Subjective perception of overall quality of life was more related to psycho-social-environmental factors. In conclusion, mobility is an independent and powerful predictor to long term mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

  17. Ultra-sensitive Single Fluorescence-labeled Probe-mediated SUP-M-ddPCR for High-throughput GMO Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chenqi; Xu, Yuancong; Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Pengyu; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2018-04-13

    As genetically modified (GM) technology develops and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) become more available, GMOs face increasing regulations and pressure to adhere to strict labeling guidelines. A singleplex detection method cannot perform the high-throughput analysis necessary for optimal GMO detection. Combining the advantages of multiplex detection and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), a single universal primer-multiplex-ddPCR (SUP-M-ddPCR) strategy was proposed for accurate broad-spectrum screening and quantification. The SUP increases efficiency of the primers in PCR and plays an important role in establishing a high-throughput, multiplex detection method. Emerging ddPCR technology has been used for accurate quantification of nucleic acid molecules without a standard curve. Using maize as a reference point, four heterologous genes (35S, NOS, NPTII, and PAT) were selected to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of this strategy. Surprisingly, these four genes cover more than 93% of the transgenic maize lines and serve as preliminary screening sequences. All screening probes were labeled with FAM fluorescence, which allows the signals from the samples with GMO content and those without to be easily differentiated. This fiveplex screening method is a new development in GMO screening. Utilizing an optimal amplification assay, the specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were validated. The LOD and LOQ of this GMO screening method were 0.1 % and 0.01 %, respectively, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) <25 %. This method could serve as an important tool for the detection of GM maize from different processed, commercially available products. Further, this screening method could be applied to other fields that require reliable and sensitive detection of DNA targets.

  18. Living uterus donation and transplantation: experience of interest and screening in a single center in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Liza; Wallis, Kristin; Koon, E Colin; McKenna, Greg J; Anthony, Tiffany; Leffingwell, Sara G; Klintmalm, Goran B; Gunby, Robert T; Testa, Giuliano

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about attitudes toward uterus donation and transplantation in society and the interest of the women the treatment is aimed to assist. This study examined the interest of recipients and living donors in our uterus transplantation program; it describes the screening protocol we developed and the results of the screening and reports demographic data and characteristics of screened candidates. Initial screening and evaluation included physical examinations by a gynecologist and a transplant surgeon; psychological evaluation; imaging (x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound); blood tests; immunological testing; viral, bacterial, and fungal testing; drug screen; hormonal testing; Papanicolau smear; urinalysis; and electrocardiogram. For selected recipients, the process also included in vitro fertilization. A total of 351 women contacted our department with interest in participating in uterus transplantation; 272 were potential recipients and 79 were potential donors. Among these women, 179 potential recipients and 62 potential donors continued the evaluation after the initial telephone screening. The mean age of the donor candidates was 40 years; all had completed their own family, and 80% were nondirected. Most recipient candidates (92%) had an anatomical lack of the uterus, and of these, 36% had a congenital malformation. The women with a congenital uterine absence were in general younger than the women in the group whose uterus had been removed (mean of 28 and 33 years, respectively). In every step of the initial screening and evaluation process, there were donor and recipient candidates that chose not to continue the process. The reasons for self-withdrawal after expressing interest were not returning phone calls or e-mails (17 donors and 76 recipients); after initial phone screening, no longer interested (1 donor and 9 recipients); in step 1, health history questionnaire not returned after 1 reminder (10 donors and 9 recipients); step 2, not right in

  19. An Ergonomic Study on Influence of Touch-screen Phone Size on Single-hand Operation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Touch-screen smart phones have gradually occupied the market of traditional Qwerty Phones and become the mainstream products of mobile phone industry. However, few ergonomics research has been conducted on the touch screens of smart phones, while it has led to tendosynovitis among users owing to the overuse of thumbs. Sizes of smart phones in market range from 3.0 to 7.0 inches. What’s more, 4.0 inches and above are the common size of current touch screens. Also, considering the users’ habits, one-hand operation is preferred when the other hand is occupied. This paper has collected hand parameters of 80 subjects and has adopted an experiment which includes the performance testing and surveys of subjective evaluation by means of usability evaluation. After analysing correlation between touch-screen sizes and operation performances, the result indicates that under one-hand operation, the size of touch screen affects the operation performance significantly. However, it’s hard to implement one-hand operation if the touch-screen size is over 5.7 inches. Additionally, the thickness of smart phones affects the degree of comfort remarkably.

  20. Early-onset group B streptococcal disease following culture-based screening in Japan: a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Akane; Takahashi, Hironori; Kubo, Takahiko; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Tsukamoto, Keiko; Ito, Yushi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2012-08-01

    We investigated trends in early-onset group B streptococcal disease (EOD) after the introduction of culture-based screening in Japan. A retrospective cohort study examined EOD trends in 9506 pregnancies and 10 715 neonates at our center from 2002 to 2009. EOD occurred in four neonates (4/7332: 0.55/1000 live births). The EOD incidence among infants born to women positive for GBS by screening was 0.90 cases per 1000 live births (1/1107). In contrast, the EOD incidence among infants negative by GBS screening was 0.48 cases per 1000 live births (3/6225). Thus, of the four affected neonates, three had mothers who tested negative on antepartum GBS screening. Two neonates had symptoms of infection during labor and intrapartum antibiotic agents were administered. The other two neonates received no antibiotics because deliveries were uneventful and they were negative on GBS screening. The incidence of EOD is 0.90 cases per 1000 live births among GBS-positive women and 0.48 cases per 1000 live births among GBS-negative women. The results of our study implied that EOD can develop regardless of GBS screening and intrapartum clinical course, although the method of sample collection, indications for antibiotic prophylaxis, and the antibiotics regimen should be considered. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Single blind, randomised trial of efficacy and acceptability of oral picolax versus self administered phosphate enema in bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, W S; Hart, A; Edwards, R; Cook, C F; Wardle, J; McIntyre, P; Aubrey, R; Baron, C; Sutton, S; Cuzick, J; Senapati, A; Northover, J M

    2000-06-03

    To compare the acceptability and efficacy of two methods of self administered bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: a single phosphate enema and a single sachet of Picolax. Single blind, randomised trial. Endoscopy units of two general hospitals. 1442 men and women aged 55-64 years who had agreed to be screened by flexible sigmoidoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MESURESs: Attendance rates, compliance with allocated preparations, adverse effects, quality of bowel preparation, procedure time, and yield of neoplasia. Compliance with the enema was higher than with the Picolax (608 (84%) v 566 (79%); difference 6%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 10%). Almost half of those who refused Picolax used an enema at home. Wind, incontinence, and sleep disturbance were more frequent in the Picolax group than the enema group; bottom soreness was more frequent in the enema group. Around 30% (187) found the diet restriction required by Picolax difficult; 78% (471) found the enema easy to administer. The quality of preparation was better with the enema; the proportion of procedures complete to the descending colon was greater and the mean duration of the procedure was shorter. There was no significant difference in polyp detection rates. A single phosphate enema self administered around one hour before leaving home is a more acceptable and effective method of preparing the distal bowel for flexible sigmoidoscopy than Picolax.

  2. Screening for infectious diseases among asylum seekers newly arrived in Germany in 2015: a systematic single-centre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortas, A Z; Polenz, J; von Hayek, J; Rüdiger, S; Rottbauer, W; Storr, U; Wibmer, T

    2017-12-01

    During the migrant crisis in 2015, Germany was the largest single recipient of new asylum seekers in Europe. The German asylum law requires a screening examination for certain infectious diseases in asylum seekers upon arrival. The aim of this work was to analyse the rate of certain infectious diseases among asylum seekers screened at a reception centre in Southern Germany. Retrospective medical record review. Medical records of 2602 asylum seekers screened by a local public health authority in Germany in 2015 were systematically analysed. The majority of screened subjects came from Afghanistan and Syria. The mean age was 22.1 (±12.0) years. The majority of subjects were male (75.4%). Most individuals were of normal weight or overweight, more subjects were obese than underweight. A total of 78 (3.9%) individuals were infected with hepatitis B and eight (0.4%) with HIV. In 31 cases, chest radiographs suggested active tuberculosis (1.6%), which was confirmed in four cases (0.2%). The physical examination uncovered 44 (1.7%) cases of scabies, nine (0.3%) cases of lice, eight (0.3%) of upper respiratory tract infections, two (0.1%) of varicella and 13 (0.5%) of other skin infections. In the majority of subjects none of the screened infectious diseases were found. No evidence was found that the overall prevalence of certain infectious diseases screened for in the present analysis was considerably higher than in previous migration studies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparisons of screening colonoscopy performed by a nurse practitioner and gastroenterologists: a single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoges-Gonzalez, Michele; Mann, Nirmal Singh; Al-Juburi, Amar; Tseng, David; Inadomi, John; Rossaro, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Several barriers to colorectal cancer screening have been identified including limited access to trained endoscopists and highlight insufficient capacity to meet projected demand for colonoscopies. Two European studies have found that nonphysician providers can perform colonoscopies as safely and accurately as physicians. Training nurse practitioners (NP) to perform colonoscopy may be an effective strategy to increase access. The goal of this study was to compare accuracy, safety, and patient satisfaction in screening colonoscopy performed by board certified gastroenterologists (GI-MD) and a gastroenterology trained nurse practitioner (GI-NP). A consecutive sample of average risk participants referred for screening colonoscopy was randomized to have their procedure performed by either a GI-MD (n = 100) or a GI-NP (n = 50). Participants completed a preprocedure and postprocedure questionnaire. Endoscopists completed a postprocedure questionnaire. Cecal intubation rates, duration of procedure, sedative, and analgesic use, and patient reported procedural pain scores were equivalent among the groups. The GI-NP group had a higher adenoma detection rate compared with the combined GI-MD groups (42% and 17%, respectively, p = .0001) and a higher satisfaction score when compared with the combined GI-MD groups (mean 5.9 ± 13.81 and 8.6 ± 16.11, respectively, p = .042; visual analog scale 0-100 mm, "0" = completely satisfied, "100" = completely dissatisfied). There were no immediate complications reported in any group. The properly trained GI-NP in our study performed screening colonoscopy as safely, accurately, and satisfactorily as the GI-MDs. Using well-trained NPs for screening colonoscopy can be an effective strategy to increase access to colorectal screening.

  4. A Novel Affinity Tag, ABTAG, and Its Application to the Affinity Screening of Single-Domain Antibodies Selected by Phage Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Hussack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABTAG is a camelid single-domain antibody (sdAb that binds to bovine serum albumin (BSA with low picomolar affinity. In surface plasmon resonance (SPR analyses using BSA surfaces, bound ABTAG can be completely dissociated from the BSA surfaces at low pH, over multiple cycles, without any reduction in the capacity of the BSA surfaces to bind ABTAG. A moderate throughput, SPR-based, antibody screening assay exploiting the unique features of ABTAG is described. Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 sdAbs were isolated from a phage-displayed sdAb library derived from the heavy chain antibody repertoire of a llama immunized with CEACAM6. Following one or two rounds of panning, enriched clones were expressed as ABTAG fusions in microtiter plate cultures. The sdAb-ABTAG fusions from culture supernatants were captured on BSA surfaces and CEACAM6 antigen was then bound to the captured molecules. The SPR screening method gives a read-out of relative expression levels of the fusion proteins and kinetic and affinity constants for CEACAM6 binding by the captured molecules. The library was also panned and screened by conventional methods and positive clones were subcloned and expressed for SPR analysis. Compared to conventional panning and screening, the SPR-based ABTAG method yielded a considerably higher diversity of binders, some with affinities that were three orders of magnitude higher affinity than those identified by conventional panning.

  5. Development of an embryoid body-based screening strategy for assessing the hepatocyte differentiation potential of human embryonic stem cells following single-cell dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhough, Sebastian; Bradburn, Helen; Gardner, John; Hay, David C

    2013-02-01

    We have devised an embryoid body-based screening method for the selection of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines capable of forming functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) after single-cell dissociation. The screening method highlighted one cell line from a panel of five that produced albumin-positive cells during embryoid body (EB) formation. Cell lines that did not produce albumin-positive cells during EB formation were shown to respond less well to directed differentiation following single-cell replating. Additionally, the seeding density of the pluripotent populations prior to differentiation was shown to exert a significant effect on the hepatic function of the final population of cells. In summary, we have developed a simple procedure that facilitates the identification of human hESC lines that tolerate single-cell replating and are capable of differentiating to HLCs. Although the hepatic function of cells produced by this method is ∼10-fold lower than our current gold standard stem cell-derived models, we believe that these findings represent an incremental step toward producing HLCs at scale.

  6. Direct quantitative screening of influenza A virus without DNA amplification by single-particle dual-mode total internal reflection scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungah; Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Yeung, Edward S; Kang, Seong Ho

    2017-01-15

    Quantitative screening of influenza A (H7N9) virus without DNA amplification was performed based on single-particle dual-mode total internal reflection scattering (SD-TIRS) with a transmission grating (TG). A gold nanopad was utilized as a substrate for the hybridization of probe DNA molecules with the TIRS nanotag (silver-nanoparticle). The TG effectively isolated the scattering signals in first-order spectral images (n=+1) of the nanotag from that of the substrate, providing excellent enhancement of signal-to-noise and selectivity. By using single-DNA molecule/TIRS nanotag hybridization, target DNA molecules of H7N9 were detected down to 74 zM, which is at least 100,000 times lower than the current detection limit of 9.4fM. By simply modifying the design of the probe DNA molecules, this technique can be used to directly screen other viral DNAs in various human biological samples at the single-molecule level without target amplification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

  8. Intra-observer agreement in single and joint double readings of contrast-enhanced breast MRI screening for women with high genetic breast cancer risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine intra-observer reliability (IR for lesion detection on contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance images (MRI for screening women at high risk of breast cancer in single and joint double readings, without case selection. Methods: Contrast-enhanced breast MRIs were interpreted twice by the same independent reader and twice in joint readings. IR was assessed for lesion detection, normal MRI identification, mass, non-mass like enhancements (NMLE and focus characterisation, and BI-RADS assessment. Results: MRI examinations for 124 breasts, 65 women (mean age 43.4y were retrospectively reviewed with 110 lesions identified. Abnormal BIRADS (3-5 classifications were found for 52.3% in single readings and 58.5% in joint readings. Seven biopsies were performed for 4 histologically confirmed cancers. IR for BI-RADS classifications was good for single (0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.77, and joint readings (0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.93. IR for background parenchymal enhancement (BPE was moderate across single (0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.65 and joint readings (0.44, 95% CI: 0.33-0.56. IR for BI-RADS category according to each enhancement was poor for single (0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.44, and higher for joint readings, (0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.72. Conclusions: IR in BI-RADS breast assessments or BI-RADS lesion assessments are better with joint reading in screening for women with high genetic risks, in particular for abnormal MRI (BI-RADS 3, 4 and 5.

  9. Comparison of Multi-Beam and Single-Beam Cytofluorometers for an Automated Screening System in Gynecologic Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Norihito

    1983-09-01

    Clumps of cells often give a false nuclear fluorescence intensity in a measuring system using flow cytofluorometry. In this study, we examined signal selection procedures in multi-beam and single-beam cytofluorometers with the aim of eliminating such false signals. The signal selection in the multi-beam cytofluorometer was found to be far superior to that in a single-beam cytofluorometer, and the problem of false nuclear fluorescence intensity is effectively obviated by using the former type of cytofluarometer.

  10. A broad phenotypic screen identifies novel phenotypes driven by a single mutant allele in Huntington's disease CAG knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine M Hölter

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HTT gene encoding huntingtin. The disease has an insidious course, typically progressing over 10-15 years until death. Currently there is no effective disease-modifying therapy. To better understand the HD pathogenic process we have developed genetic HTT CAG knock-in mouse models that accurately recapitulate the HD mutation in man. Here, we describe results of a broad, standardized phenotypic screen in 10-46 week old heterozygous HdhQ111 knock-in mice, probing a wide range of physiological systems. The results of this screen revealed a number of behavioral abnormalities in HdhQ111/+ mice that include hypoactivity, decreased anxiety, motor learning and coordination deficits, and impaired olfactory discrimination. The screen also provided evidence supporting subtle cardiovascular, lung, and plasma metabolite alterations. Importantly, our results reveal that a single mutant HTT allele in the mouse is sufficient to elicit multiple phenotypic abnormalities, consistent with a dominant disease process in patients. These data provide a starting point for further investigation of several organ systems in HD, for the dissection of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and for the identification of reliable phenotypic endpoints for therapeutic testing.

  11. Prevalence of Precancerous Conditions and Gastric Cancer Based upon the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea for 7 Years, Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyuk Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Gastric cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Korea. The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP has implemented esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD biennially for all Koreans starting in their 40s. This study was conducted to estimate the clinical relevance of NCSP through identifying the prevalence of gastric disease, including cancer. Materials and Methods. Data from 40,821 subjects who received the screening EGD in the single center for 7 years were retrospectively investigated. Results. The overall prevalence of nonatrophic/atrophic/metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, early gastric cancer (EGC, and advanced gastric cancer (AGC was 44.28%, 27.97%, 14.95%, 0.59%, 0.43%, 0.21%, and 0.09%, respectively. The prevalence of metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, EGC, and AGC was significantly higher in men than in women. The prevalence of preneoplastic/neoplastic disease significantly increased with age. Judged from the ratio of EGC to AGC, the proportion of EGC made up to 70% of all cancers. Conclusions. Screening endoscopy starting for people in their 40s should be strongly recommended for the elderly. Through the NCSP, the early detection of gastric cancer might contribute to the decreased mortality rate due to gastric cancer in Korea.

  12. High performance aptamer affinity chromatography for single-step selective extraction and screening of basic protein lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Zhao, Chao; Yin, Junfa; Wang, Hailin

    2012-08-15

    A DNA aptamer based high-performance affinity chromatography is developed for selective extraction and screening of a basic protein lysozyme. First, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was synthesized in situ by thermally initiated radical polymerization, and then an anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer was covalently immobilized on the surface of the monolith through a 16-atom spacer arm. The target protein lysozyme but non-target proteins can be trapped by the immobilized anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer. In contrast, lysozyme cannot be trapped by the immobilized oligodeoxynucleotide that does not contain the sequence of the anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer. The study clearly demonstrates the trapping of lysozyme by the immobilized anti-lysozyme DNA aptamer is mainly due to specific recognition rather than simple electrostatic interaction of positively charged protein and the negatively charged DNA. The inter-day precision was determined as 0.8% for migration time and 4.2% for peak area, respectively. By the use of aptamer affinity monolith, a screening strategy is developed to selectively extract lysozyme from chicken egg white, showing the advantages of high efficiency, low cost and ease-of-operation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A questioning environment for scaffolding learners' questioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that questioning is one of the most important learning-teaching tools available to both learner and educator, we have created a computer-based scaffolding environment in which students are required to generate questions to interrogate academic texts. Learners have been using this new scaffolding tool this year, and ...

  14. Coupling shRNA screens with single-cell RNA-seq identifies a dual role for mTOR in reprogramming-induced senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Marieke; Georgilis, Athena; Beniazza, Meryam; Beolchi, Patrizia; Banito, Ana; Carroll, Thomas; Kulisic, Marizela; Kaemena, Daniel F; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Martin, Nadine; Reik, Wolf; Zuber, Johannes; Kaji, Keisuke; Chandra, Tamir; Gil, Jesús

    2017-10-15

    Expression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC (OSKM) reprograms somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Reprogramming is a slow and inefficient process, suggesting the presence of safeguarding mechanisms that counteract cell fate conversion. One such mechanism is senescence. To identify modulators of reprogramming-induced senescence, we performed a genome-wide shRNA screen in primary human fibroblasts expressing OSKM. In the screen, we identified novel mediators of OSKM-induced senescence and validated previously implicated genes such as CDKN1A We developed an innovative approach that integrates single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) with the shRNA screen to investigate the mechanism of action of the identified candidates. Our data unveiled regulation of senescence as a novel way by which mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) influences reprogramming. On one hand, mTOR inhibition blunts the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CDKIs), including p16 INK4a , p21 CIP1 , and p15 INK4b , preventing OSKM-induced senescence. On the other hand, inhibition of mTOR blunts the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which itself favors reprogramming. These contrasting actions contribute to explain the complex effect that mTOR has on reprogramming. Overall, our study highlights the advantage of combining functional screens with scRNA-seq to accelerate the discovery of pathways controlling complex phenotypes. © 2017 Aarts et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis: Clinical Experience from a Single Centre and Screening of LRP5 and LRP6 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Roberto; Vincenzi, Monica; Camilot, Marta; Antoniazzi, Franco; Freemont, Anthony J; Adams, Judith E; Laine, Christine; Makitie, Outi; Mughal, M Zulf

    2015-06-01

    We report clinical findings, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone biopsy data in ten children with features of classic idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis (IJO). We also screened the patients for mutations in LRP5 and LRP6. We found low BMD in the lumbar spine, the hip and distal radius. In the spine and distal radius, the reduction in BMD was more marked in the trabecular compartment. Biopsy confirmed that the trabecular compartment is more severely involved with reduction in bone formation and increase in bone resorption. No mutations in LRP5 and LRP6 could be identified. IJO is likely to be a heterogeneous bone disorder, and next-generation genomic sequencing studies may help reveal causative genes.

  16. Development and validation of concurrent preimplantation genetic diagnosis for single gene disorders and comprehensive chromosomal aneuploidy screening without whole genome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rebekah S; Jalas, Chaim; Tao, Xin; Fedick, Anastasia M; Kim, Julia G; Pepe, Russell J; Northrop, Lesley E; Scott, Richard T; Treff, Nathan R

    2016-02-01

    To develop a novel and robust protocol for multifactorial preimplantation genetic testing of trophectoderm biopsies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Prospective and blinded. Not applicable. Couples indicated for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). None. Allele dropout (ADO) and failed amplification rate, genotyping consistency, chromosome screening success rate, and clinical outcomes of qPCR-based screening. The ADO frequency on a single cell from a fibroblast cell line was 1.64% (18/1,096). When two or more cells were tested, the ADO frequency dropped to 0.02% (1/4,426). The rate of amplification failure was 1.38% (55/4,000) overall, with 2.5% (20/800) for single cells and 1.09% (35/3,200) for samples that had two or more cells. Among 152 embryos tested in 17 cases by qPCR-based PGD and CCS, 100% were successfully given a diagnosis, with 0% ADO or amplification failure. Genotyping consistency with reference laboratory results was >99%. Another 304 embryos from 43 cases were included in the clinical application of qPCR-based PGD and CCS, for which 99.7% (303/304) of the embryos were given a definitive diagnosis, with only 0.3% (1/304) having an inconclusive result owing to recombination. In patients receiving a transfer with follow-up, the pregnancy rate was 82% (27/33). This study demonstrates that the use of qPCR for PGD testing delivers consistent and more reliable results than existing methods and that single gene disorder PGD can be run concurrently with CCS without the need for additional embryo biopsy or whole genome amplification. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for single-chain variable fragment antibodies against multiple Cry1 toxins from an immunized mouse phage display antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sa; Bo, Zongyi; Zhang, Cunzheng; Feng, Jianguo; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-04-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a kind of antibody that possess only one chain of the complete antibody while maintaining the antigen-specific binding abilities and can be expressed in prokaryotic system. In this study, scFvs against Cry1 toxins were screened out from an immunized mouse phage displayed antibody library, which was successfully constructed with capacity of 6.25 × 10 7  CFU/mL. Using the mixed and alternative antigen coating strategy and after four rounds of affinity screening, seven positive phage-scFvs against Cry1 toxins were selected and characterized. Among them, clone scFv-3H9 (MG214869) showing relative stable and high binding abilities to six Cry1 toxins was selected for expression and purification. SDS-PAGE indicated that the scFv-3H9 fragments approximately 27 kDa were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli HB2151 strain. The purified scFv-3H9 was used to establish the double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (DAS-ELISA) for detecting six Cry1 toxins, of which the lowest detectable limits (LOD) and the lowest quantitative limits (LOQ) were 3.14-11.07 and 8.22-39.44 ng mL -1 , respectively, with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.997. The average recoveries of Cry1 toxins from spiked rice leaf samples were ranged from 84 to 95%, with coefficient of variation (CV) less than 8.2%, showing good accuracy for the multi-residue determination of six Cry1 toxins in agricultural samples. This research suggested that the constructed phage display antibody library based on the animal which was immunized with the mixture of several antigens under the same category can be used for the quick and effective screening of generic antibodies.

  18. Development of Screen-Printed Texture-Barrier Paste for Single-Side Texturization of Interdigitated Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous cost reduction of silicon-based solar cells is needed to lower the process time and increase efficiency. To achieve lower costs, screen-printed texture-barrier (SPTB paste was first developed for single-side texturization (ST of the interdigitated back-contact (IBC for silicon-based solar cell applications. The SPTB paste was screen-printed on silicon substrates. The SPTB paste was synthesized from intermixed silicate glass (75 wt %, a resin binder (ethyl cellulose ethoce: 20 wt %, and a dispersing agent (fatty acid: 5 wt %. The silicate glass is a necessity for contact formation during firing. A resin binder and a dispersing agent determine the rheology of the SPTB paste. In this work, by modulating various parameters, including post SPTB firing, alkali texturing, and removal of the SPTB, the ST of IBC silicon solar cells was achieved. Since the advantages of the SPTB paste include low toxicity and prompt formation of the texture-barrier, SPTB is potentially suited for simple fabrication at low-cost for solar cell applications. The cost of the SPTB is around $100/kg which is lower than the SiH4/NH3 gas ambient used in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. Thus, the expensive Si3N4 film deposited by PECVD using SiH4 and NH3 gas ambient for silicon solar cells can be replaced by this SPTB.

  19. Development of Screen-Printed Texture-Barrier Paste for Single-Side Texturization of Interdigitated Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Shun; Cheng, Chin-Lung; Whang, Thou-Jen; Chen, Chi-Cheng

    2013-10-17

    Continuous cost reduction of silicon-based solar cells is needed to lower the process time and increase efficiency. To achieve lower costs, screen-printed texture-barrier (SPTB) paste was first developed for single-side texturization (ST) of the interdigitated back-contact (IBC) for silicon-based solar cell applications. The SPTB paste was screen-printed on silicon substrates. The SPTB paste was synthesized from intermixed silicate glass (75 wt %), a resin binder (ethyl cellulose ethoce: 20 wt %), and a dispersing agent (fatty acid: 5 wt %). The silicate glass is a necessity for contact formation during firing. A resin binder and a dispersing agent determine the rheology of the SPTB paste. In this work, by modulating various parameters, including post SPTB firing, alkali texturing, and removal of the SPTB, the ST of IBC silicon solar cells was achieved. Since the advantages of the SPTB paste include low toxicity and prompt formation of the texture-barrier, SPTB is potentially suited for simple fabrication at low-cost for solar cell applications. The cost of the SPTB is around $100/kg which is lower than the SiH₄/NH₃ gas ambient used in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Thus, the expensive Si₃N₄ film deposited by PECVD using SiH₄ and NH₃ gas ambient for silicon solar cells can be replaced by this SPTB.

  20. Identification of enhanced hydrogen and ethanol Escherichia coli producer strains in a glycerol-based medium by screening in single-knock out mutant collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabrera, Gema; Cantero, Domingo; Bolivar, Jorge

    2015-06-28

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. Bioenergy, which includes biodiesel, biohydrogen and bioethanol, has emerged as a sustainable alternative fuel source. For this reason, in recent years biodiesel production has become widespread but this industry currently generates a huge amount of glycerol as a by-product, which has become an environmental problem in its own right. A feasible possibility to solve this problem is the use of waste glycerol as a carbon source for microbial transformation into biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol. For instance, Escherichia coli is a microorganism that can synthesize these compounds under anaerobic conditions. In this work an experimental procedure was established for screening E. coli single mutants to identify strains with enhanced ethanol and/or H2 productions compared to the wild type strain. In an initial screening of 150 single mutants, 12 novel strains (gnd, tdcE, rpiA nanE, tdcB, deoB, sucB, cpsG, frmA, glgC, fumA and gadB) were found to provide enhanced yields for at least one of the target products. The mutations, that improve most significantly the parameters evaluated (gnd and tdcE genes), were combined with other mutations in three engineered E. coli mutant strains in order to further redirect carbon flux towards the desired products. This methodology can be a useful tool to disclose the metabolic pathways that are more susceptible to manipulation in order to obtain higher molar yields of hydrogen and ethanol using glycerol as main carbon source in multiple E. coli mutants.

  1. Burning Questions about Calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  2. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  3. The Questions of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    What are the basic things that compose curriculum, and what are the questions that may be posed about these things? Joseph Schwab's conception of curriculum is used to introduce a scheme of questions concerning the nature, elements, and practice of curriculum. Formulations of questions by other curriculum theorists are reviewed and analysed in…

  4. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter...

  5. Clinical experience with single-nucleotide polymorphism-based non-invasive prenatal screening for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S J; Stosic, M; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Bassett, A S; Norvez, A; Dhamankar, R; Kobara, K; Kirkizlar, E; Zimmermann, B; Wayham, N; Babiarz, J E; Ryan, A; Jinnett, K N; Demko, Z; Benn, P

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for the detection of fetal 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in clinical practice, assess clinical follow-up and review patient choices for women with high-risk results. In this study, 21 948 samples were submitted for screening for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome using a SNP-based NIPT and subsequently evaluated. Follow-up was conducted for all cases with a high-risk result. Ninety-five cases were reported as high risk for fetal 22q11.2 deletion. Diagnostic testing results were available for 61 (64.2%) cases, which confirmed 11 (18.0%) true positives and identified 50 (82.0%) false positives, resulting in a positive predictive value (PPV) of 18.0%. Information regarding invasive testing was available for 84 (88.4%) high-risk cases: 57.1% (48/84) had invasive testing and 42.9% (36/84) did not. Ultrasound anomalies were present in 81.8% of true-positive and 18.0% of false-positive cases. Two additional cases were high risk for a maternal 22q11.2 deletion; one was confirmed by diagnostic testing and one had a positive family history. There were three pregnancy terminations related to screening results of 22q11.2 deletion, two of which were confirmed as true positive by invasive testing. Clinical experience with this SNP-based non-invasive screening test for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome indicates that these deletions have a frequency of approximately 1 in 1000 in the referral population with most identifiable through this test. Use of this screening method requires the availability of counseling and other management resources for high-risk pregnancies. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Computational screening and molecular dynamic simulation of breast cancer associated deleterious non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in TP53 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among the women around the world. Several genes are known to be responsible for conferring the susceptibility to breast cancer. Among them, TP53 is one of the major genetic risk factor which is known to be mutated in many of the breast tumor types. TP53 mutations in breast cancer are known to be related to a poor prognosis and chemo resistance. This renders them as a promising molecular target for the treatment of breast cancer. In this study, we present a computational based screening and molecular dynamic simulation of breast cancer associated deleterious non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in TP53. We have predicted three deleterious coding non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11540654 (R110P, rs17849781 (P278A and rs28934874 (P151T in TP53 with a phenotype in breast tumors using computational tools SIFT, Polyphen-2 and MutDB. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to study the structural and dynamic effects of these TP53 mutations in comparison to the wild-type protein. Results from our simulations revealed a detailed consequence of the mutations on the p53 DNA-binding core domain that may provide insight for therapeutic approaches in breast cancer.

  7. Unattached fraction of short-lived Rn decay products in indoor and outdoor environments: An improved single-screen method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The unattached fraction fp of potential alpha energy of short-lived Rn decay products was measured under realistic, natural conditions in different dwellings and in the open atmosphere by a single-screen technique. An improved data evaluation method was developed where the measured activities of 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) were corrected by the screen-attached activities of 214 Bi ( 214 Po) [RaC (RaC')]. This method is based on the experimental observation that the 214 Bi ( 214 Po) unattached activities are negligible under realistic living conditions and that the size distributions of the aerosol-attached activities of all short-lived Rn daughters are identical. In closed rooms without additional aerosol sources, a mean unattached fraction fp of the potential alpha energy of 0.096 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 6100 cm-3 and at a mean equilibrium factor F of 0.30. This mean fp value is about three times higher than the value used in the literature for the radiation exposure calculation of the human public. In closed rooms with additional aerosol sources (cigarette smoke, heating systems, aerosols from a burning candle), the aerosol particle concentrations ranged up to 10(6) cm-3 and the attachment rates, X, increased up to 1000 h-1. The fp values sometimes decreased below the detection limit of 0.005, and the F values increased to as high as 0.77. In the ambient atmosphere in the vicinity of Goettingen, a mean unattached fraction fp of 0.02 and a mean aerosol particle concentration of 3.4 x 10(4) cm-3 were measured at 1 m above the ground. The mean equilibrium factor F was determined to be 0.7.A

  8. Soil bacterial diversity screening using single 16S rRNA gene V regions coupled with multi-million read generating sequencing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Vasileiadis

    Full Text Available The novel multi-million read generating sequencing technologies are very promising for resolving the immense soil 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity. Yet they have a limited maximum sequence length screening ability, restricting studies in screening DNA stretches of single 16S rRNA gene hypervariable (V regions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of properties of four consecutive V regions (V3-6 on commonly applied analytical methodologies in bacterial ecology studies. Using an in silico approach, the performance of each V region was compared with the complete 16S rRNA gene stretch. We assessed related properties of the soil derived bacterial sequence collection of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP database and concomitantly performed simulations based on published datasets. Results indicate that overall the most prominent V region for soil bacterial diversity studies was V3, even though it was outperformed in some of the tests. Despite its high performance during most tests, V4 was less conserved along flanking sites, thus reducing its ability for bacterial diversity coverage. V5 performed well in the non-redundant RDP database based analysis. However V5 did not resemble the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence results as well as V3 and V4 did when the natural sequence frequency and occurrence approximation was considered in the virtual experiment. Although, the highly conserved flanking sequence regions of V6 provide the ability to amplify partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from very diverse owners, it was demonstrated that V6 was the least informative compared to the rest examined V regions. Our results indicate that environment specific database exploration and theoretical assessment of the experimental approach are strongly suggested in 16S rRNA gene based bacterial diversity studies.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis and risk factors for preoperative death in neonates with single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction: screening data from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial(∗).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atz, Andrew M; Travison, Thomas G; Williams, Ismee A; Pearson, Gail D; Laussen, Peter C; Mahle, William T; Cook, Amanda L; Kirsh, Joel A; Sklansky, Mark; Khaikin, Svetlana; Goldberg, Caren; Frommelt, Michele; Krawczeski, Catherine; Puchalski, Michael D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Baffa, Jeanne M; Rychik, Jack; Ohye, Richard G

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess preoperative risk factors before the first-stage Norwood procedure in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single-ventricle lesions and to evaluate practice patterns in prenatal diagnosis, as well as the role of prenatal diagnosis in outcome. Data from all live births with morphologic single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction screened for the Pediatric Heart Network's Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial were used to investigate prenatal diagnosis and preoperative risk factors. Demographics, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis status, presence of major extracardiac congenital abnormalities, and preoperative mortality rates were recorded. Of 906 infants, 677 (75%) had prenatal diagnosis, 15% were preterm (<37 weeks' gestation), and 16% were low birth weight (<2500 g). Rates of prenatal diagnosis varied by study site (59% to 85%, P < .0001). Major extracardiac congenital abnormalities were less prevalent in those born after prenatal diagnosis (6% vs 10%, P = .03). There were 26 (3%) deaths before Norwood palliation; preoperative mortality did not differ by prenatal diagnosis status (P = .49). In multiple logistic regression models, preterm birth (P = .02), major extracardiac congenital abnormalities (P < .0001), and obstructed pulmonary venous return (P = .02) were independently associated with preoperative mortality. Prenatal diagnosis occurred in 75%. Preoperative death was independently associated with preterm birth, obstructed pulmonary venous return, and major extracardiac congenital abnormalities. Adjusted for gestational age and the presence of obstructed pulmonary venous return, the estimated odds of preoperative mortality were 10 times greater for subjects with a major extracardiac congenital abnormality. Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  11. Live your questions now

    OpenAIRE

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  12. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  13. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  14. Exam Question Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three examination questions which could be used in college chemistry courses. Discusses each problem and gives acceptable solutions. Problems include: "A Multi-Topic Problem for General Chemistry"; "Consumption of Air by Biuret Reagent--a Question Involving Experimental Design"; and "An Instructive Problem in Heterogeneous Equilibrium."…

  15. Probation, 12 essential questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fergus McNeill; Rene Butter; Ioan Durnescu

    2016-01-01

    This volume poses a series of key questions about the practice of probation as an integral part of the European criminal justice system. The contributors are established experts in their respective fields of study and together their questions address the legitimacy, and perhaps continued existence,

  16. Screening for coronary artery disease in respiratory patients: comparison of single- and dual-source CT in patients with a heart rate above 70 bpm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansini, Vittorio; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Tacelli, Nunzia; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Flohr, Thomas; Deken, Valerie; Duhamel, Alain

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the assessibility of coronary arteries in respiratory patients with high heart rates. This study was based on the comparative analysis of two paired populations of 54 patients with a heart rate >70 bpm evaluated with dual-source (group 1) and single-source (group 2) CT. The mean heart rate was 89.1 bpm in group 1 and 86.7 bpm in group 2 (P=0.26). The mean number of assessable segments per patient was significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 2 (P≤0.0001). The proportions of patients in whom proximal and mid-coronary segments were assessable (i.e., the anatomical level enabling screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease) were 35.3% for heart rates <110 bpm, 35.6% for heart rates <100 bpm, 40% for heart rates <90 bpm, and 60% for heart rates <80 bpm in group 1 and 11.3, 12.2, 8.8, and 10% for the corresponding thresholds in group 2 (P<0.05). In both groups of patients, coronary artery imaging was obtained from standard CT angiograms of the chest. The improvement in coronary imaging with dual-source CT suggests that high heart rates should no longer be considered as contraindications for ECG-gated CT angiograms of the chest whenever clinically relevant. (orig.)

  17. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  18. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  19. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  20. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes tetanus? Tetanus is caused by a toxin (poison) produced by ... to heat and many chemical agents. How does tetanus spread? C. tetani spores can be found in ...

  1. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IAC) Parents of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... frecuentes sobre la tosferina Q: Can vaccines prevent pertussis? A: Yes. Vaccines can prevent pertussis, or whooping ...

  2. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  3. Interesting Questions in Freakonomics

    OpenAIRE

    John DiNardo

    2007-01-01

    Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...

  4. Panspermia asks new questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  5. Comparison of radiation dose and image quality from single-energy and dual-energy CT examinations in the same patients screened for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purysko, A S; Primak, A N; Baker, M E; Obuchowski, N A; Remer, E M; John, B; Herts, B R

    2014-12-01

    To compare radiation dose surrogates [volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), size-specific dose estimate (SSDE), and effective dose] and image noise in a cohort of patients undergoing hepatocellular carcinoma screening who underwent both single-energy CT (SECT) and dual-energy CT (DECT). In this institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study, 74 adults (mean age 59.5 years) underwent 64 section SECT (120 kVp and weight-based reference mAs) and 128 section dual-source DECT (100/Sn 140 kVp and CTDIvol, adjusted to match the CDTIvol of the SECT protocol) on different occasions. Noise levels were measured in the liver, inferior vena cava (IVC), retroperitoneal (RP) fat, and aorta. Generalized linear models were constructed to compare dose and noise, adjusting for effective diameter. The total DLP (1371.11 mGy-cm, SD = 527.91) and effective dose (20.57 mSv, SD = 7.92) with SECT were significantly higher than the DLP (864.84 mGy-cm, SD = 322.10) and effective dose (12.97 mSv, SD = 4.83) with DECT (p effective diameter increased (p 0.05) but were significantly lower in the aorta for DECT (25.3 versus 26.4 HU; p = 0.006). DECT imaging of the abdomen can achieve noise levels comparable to those seen with SECT imaging without a dose penalty to patients. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory Sciences Office of Public Health Genomics Publications & Articles Newborn Screening Lab Bulletin Laboratory Partners Multimedia Tools Newborn Screening Program – Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health ...

  7. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education....... Contemporary as well as the 19th century debates about the social dimension and the social question deal with social integration. The recent London Communiqué of Ministers emphasizes the importance of the social dimension in higher education in terms of fostering social cohesion, reducing inequalities...... the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management...

  8. Question Their Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  9. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  10. Transportation questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document summarizes the transport and handling of radioactive materials in a ''question'' and ''answer'' form. It explains what is radioactive material, how it is shipped, and in case there is a spill, who is responsible for it. It also provides safeguard measures for radioactive materials. (TC)

  11. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions Why are triglycerides important? The amount of triglycerides (or blood fats) in blood are one important barometer of metabolic health; high levels are associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Metabolism refers to the chemical process that converts the ...

  12. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  13. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  14. After sympathy, a question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    in particular one young woman's telling of a likewise fictional romantic ending to Dalsgård's piece. The argument developed in the chapter leads to a definition of friendship, which is based on the mutual recognition of difference. It also leads to a question of responsi-bility, which transcends the framework......Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy...... excites it. The precondition for sympathy is thus a willingness to let oneself be moved by the situation of the other, which implies a thorough insight into all that this situation consists of. However, Dalsgård argues, sympathy may lead to a question about the proper response to the distress of another...

  15. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  16. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  17. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of t...... concerning thinking reflects these consequences and finally strives to find another way to think about thinking - a way that brings us back to another of Heidegger's thoughts and that makes it possible to appreciate the work of thought......Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However...

  18. The question about paleoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  19. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have s...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  20. Generating ethnographic research questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena......? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic...

  1. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  2. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary RAISE Questions and Answers Questions & Answers about Psychosis What is psychosis? What causes psychosis? How common ... we learn from RAISE-IES? Questions & Answers About Psychosis Q: What is psychosis? A: The word psychosis ...

  3. Screening for intimate partner violence in a pediatric primary care clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Prescott, Leslie; Feigelman, Susan; Lane, Wendy; Kim, Jeongeun

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence among parents at a pediatric primary care clinic and to evaluate the stability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios of a very brief screen for intimate partner violence. A total of 200 parents (mostly mothers) bringing in children less than 6 years of age for child health supervision completed the Parent Screening Questionnaire in a primary care clinic. The Parent Screening Questionnaire, a brief screen for psychosocial problems developed for the study, includes 3 questions on intimate partner violence. Mothers then completed the computerized study protocol within 2 months. This included the Parent Screening Questionnaire as well as the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Different combinations of the intimate partner violence questions were evaluated against the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. A total of 12.0% of the mothers answered "yes" to at least one of the screening questions. On the standardized Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, responses ranged from 9% reporting a physical injury in the past year to 76% reporting psychological aggression. There was moderate stability of the screening questions. A single question, "Have you ever been in a relationship in which you were physically hurt or threatened by a partner?" in relation to the "physically injured" Revised Conflict Tactics Scale subscale was most effective. Sensitivity was 29%, specificity was 92%, positive predictive value was 41%, and negative predictive value was 88%. The positive likelihood ratio was 3.8, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.77. Intimate partner violence is a prevalent problem. A very brief screen can reasonably identify some mothers who could benefit from additional evaluation and possible services. Additional research is needed to find a more sensitive screen and to examine whether identifying intimate partner violence leads to interventions that benefit mothers, families, and

  4. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  5. 1. Methodological Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcari (a cura di

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this monographic section aims at analysing some methodological questions concerning identities, ethnicities, collectivities and religions, starting from the academic debate occurred between historians and anthropologists since the last decades of Twentieth Century, considering its reception especially for the study of ethnicity and collective and/or (so-called religious identities in the cultural context of ancient Greece. Another aspect of such a methodological section deals with the innovative approach inaugurated by the so-called “School of Wien” in the study of ethnic identity-constructions, especially analysing the relationships with Biblical texts as well as their multiform receptions between late-antiquity and early medieval period.

  6. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  7. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  8. Colorectal cancer mortality 10 years after a single round of guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Andreas; Andersen, Ole; Fischer, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer. Randomised trials have shown that guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening can reduce CRC mortality, but a recent large randomised study from Finland did not find any effect. A feasibility study was carried...

  9. The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory

    OpenAIRE

    The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores two contexts for Francis Skidmore and George Gilbert Scott's screen at Hereford Cathedral. First, it locates the screen within a succession of choir screens at Hereford from the middle ages to the present, thereby charting the typology of the choir screen within a single institutional context. Second, it shows that Skidmore and Scott's work at Hereford should be understood in light of their related work at Lichfield and Salisbury, and that, more distantly, the three buildi...

  10. Assessing Question Quality Using NLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher J.; Johnson, Amy M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    An NLP algorithm was developed to assess question quality to inform feedback on questions generated by students within iSTART (an intelligent tutoring system that teaches reading strategies). A corpus of 4575 questions was coded using a four-level taxonomy. NLP indices were calculated for each question and machine learning was used to predict…

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of automated analysis of single-field non-mydriatic fundus photographs by Bosch DR Algorithm-Comparison with mydriatic fundus photography (ETDRS for screening in undiagnosed diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam Bawankar

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Early diagnosis through effective screening programs is likely to improve vision outcomes. The ETDRS seven-standard-field 35-mm stereoscopic color retinal imaging (ETDRS of the dilated eye is elaborate and requires mydriasis, and is unsuitable for screening. We evaluated an image analysis application for the automated diagnosis of DR from non-mydriatic single-field images. Patients suffering from diabetes for at least 5 years were included if they were 18 years or older. Patients already diagnosed with DR were excluded. Physiologic mydriasis was achieved by placing the subjects in a dark room. Images were captured using a Bosch Mobile Eye Care fundus camera. The images were analyzed by the Retinal Imaging Bosch DR Algorithm for the diagnosis of DR. All subjects also subsequently underwent pharmacological mydriasis and ETDRS imaging. Non-mydriatic and mydriatic images were read by ophthalmologists. The ETDRS readings were used as the gold standard for calculating the sensitivity and specificity for the software. 564 consecutive subjects (1128 eyes were recruited from six centers in India. Each subject was evaluated at a single outpatient visit. Forty-four of 1128 images (3.9% could not be read by the algorithm, and were categorized as inconclusive. In four subjects, neither eye provided an acceptable image: these four subjects were excluded from the analysis. This left 560 subjects for analysis (1084 eyes. The algorithm correctly diagnosed 531 of 560 cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 91%, 97%, 94%, and 95% respectively. The Bosch DR Algorithm shows favorable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing DR from non-mydriatic images, and can greatly simplify screening for DR. This also has major implications for telemedicine in the use of screening for retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of automated analysis of single-field non-mydriatic fundus photographs by Bosch DR Algorithm-Comparison with mydriatic fundus photography (ETDRS) for screening in undiagnosed diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawankar, Pritam; Shanbhag, Nita; K, S Smitha; Dhawan, Bodhraj; Palsule, Aratee; Kumar, Devesh; Chandel, Shailja; Sood, Suneet

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Early diagnosis through effective screening programs is likely to improve vision outcomes. The ETDRS seven-standard-field 35-mm stereoscopic color retinal imaging (ETDRS) of the dilated eye is elaborate and requires mydriasis, and is unsuitable for screening. We evaluated an image analysis application for the automated diagnosis of DR from non-mydriatic single-field images. Patients suffering from diabetes for at least 5 years were included if they were 18 years or older. Patients already diagnosed with DR were excluded. Physiologic mydriasis was achieved by placing the subjects in a dark room. Images were captured using a Bosch Mobile Eye Care fundus camera. The images were analyzed by the Retinal Imaging Bosch DR Algorithm for the diagnosis of DR. All subjects also subsequently underwent pharmacological mydriasis and ETDRS imaging. Non-mydriatic and mydriatic images were read by ophthalmologists. The ETDRS readings were used as the gold standard for calculating the sensitivity and specificity for the software. 564 consecutive subjects (1128 eyes) were recruited from six centers in India. Each subject was evaluated at a single outpatient visit. Forty-four of 1128 images (3.9%) could not be read by the algorithm, and were categorized as inconclusive. In four subjects, neither eye provided an acceptable image: these four subjects were excluded from the analysis. This left 560 subjects for analysis (1084 eyes). The algorithm correctly diagnosed 531 of 560 cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 91%, 97%, 94%, and 95% respectively. The Bosch DR Algorithm shows favorable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing DR from non-mydriatic images, and can greatly simplify screening for DR. This also has major implications for telemedicine in the use of screening for retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  13. 101 questions about energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  14. Une question interdite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  15. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  16. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  17. Prenatal Detection of Congenital Heart Diseases: One-Year Survey Performing a Screening Protocol in a Single Reference Center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alves Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the experience of a tertiary center in Brazil to which patients are referred whose fetuses are at increased risk for congenital heart diseases (CHDs. Methods. This was a cross-sectional observational study. The data was collected prospectively, during the year 2012, through a screening protocol of the fetal heart adapted from the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG guideline. We performed a fetal echocardiogram screening for all pregnant women who were referred to the fetal cardiology outpatient obstetrics clinic of a university hospital. The exams were classified as normal or abnormal. The cases considered abnormal were undergone to a postnatal echocardiogram. We categorized the abnormal fetal heart according to severity in “complex,” “significant,” “minor,” and “others.” Results. We performed 271 fetal heart screening. The incidence of abnormal screenings was 9.96% (27 fetuses. The structural CHD when categorized due to severity showed 48.1% (n=13 of “complex” cases, 18.5% (n=5 “significant” cases, and 7.4% (n=2 “minor” cases. The most common referral reason was by maternal causes (67% followed by fetal causes (33%. The main referral indication was maternal metabolic disease (30%, but there was just one fetus with CHD in such cases (1.2%. CHDs were found in 19/29 fetuses with suspicion of some cardiac abnormality by obstetrician (65.5%. Conclusion. We observed a high rate of CHD in our population. We also found that there was higher incidence of complex cases.

  18. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  19. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  20. Is Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin a Better Single Screening Test for Iron Deficiency Compared to Hemoglobin or Mean Cell Volume in Children and Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuguo Mei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb, mean cell volume (MCV, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP are commonly used to screen for iron deficiency (ID, but systematic evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of these tests is limited. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Hb, MCV, and EP measurements in screening for ID in preschool children, non-pregnant women 15–49 years of age, and pregnant women. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES (NHANES 2003–2006: n = 861, children three to five years of age; n = 3112, non-pregnant women 15 to 49 years of age. NHANES 1999–2006: n = 1150, pregnant women were examined for this purpose. Children or women with blood lead ≥10 µg/dL or C-reactive protein (CRP >5.0 mg/L were excluded. ID was defined as total body iron stores <0 mg/kg body weight, calculated from the ratio of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR to serum ferritin (SF. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of Hb, MCV, and EP measurements in screening for ID. In detecting ID in children three to five years of age, EP (Area under the Curve (AUC 0.80 was superior to Hb (AUC 0.62 (p < 0.01 but not statistically different from MCV (AUC 0.73. In women, EP and Hb were comparable (non-pregnant AUC 0.86 and 0.84, respectively; pregnant 0.77 and 0.74, respectively, and both were better than MCV (non-pregnant AUC 0.80; pregnant 0.70 (p < 0.01. We concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of EP in screening for ID were consistently superior to or at least as effective as those of Hb and MCV in each population examined. For children three to five years of age, EP screening for ID was significantly better than Hb and similar to MCV. For both non-pregnant and pregnant women, the performance of EP and Hb were comparable; both were significantly superior to MCV.

  1. Question Quality in Community Question Answering Forums : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltadzhieva, Antoaneta; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Community Question Answering websites (CQA) offer a new opportunity for users to provide, search and share knowledge. Although the idea of receiving a direct, targeted response to a question sounds very attractive, the quality of the question itself can have an important effect on the likelihood of

  2. Can we screen for pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination in epidemiologic studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew D; Neubauer, Nikki L; Klein-Olarte, Victoria

    2006-10-01

    Large population-based epidemiologic studies of pelvic organ prolapse are rare. One barrier is the need for physical examination in order to confirm disease status. The objectives of this study were to develop a simple screening question for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to evaluate its test characteristics in high and low prevalence populations. Data from 100 women enrolled in the validation study of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) were used to identify the question or questions that most accurately identified women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse. After identifying an accurate and reliable screening question from this original group, its test characteristics were evaluated prospectively in 2 additional distinct populations: a group of 120 women presenting to a tertiary care urogynecology clinic (High prior probability of POP) and 448 women presenting to a nurse practitioner for annual gynecologic examination (Low prior probability of POP). Subjects in these 2 groups each completed the screening question and underwent a POPQ examination by a blinded examiner. A single question was identified from the original study population that most accurately and reliably identified those women with POP "Do you usually have a bulge or something falling out that you can see or feel in your vaginal area?" An affirmative answer to this question was 96% sensitive (95%CI 92-100) and 79% specific (95%CI 77-92) for prolapse beyond the hymen. The 1-week test-retest reliability was good (kappa .84). The prevalence of POP in this group was 29%. No other single question or group of questions had better test characteristics. When prospectively evaluated in the second High probability population (prevalence 39%), similar test characteristics were noted: sensitivity 85% (95%CI 71-93), specificity 86% (95%CI 75-92). However, when evaluated in the Low prior probability group (POP prevalence 3.8%) the specificity improved to 99% (95%CI 98-99), while the sensitivity decreased

  3. My mind is as clear as it used to be: A pilot study illustrating the difficulties of employing a single-item subjective screen to detect cognitive impairment in outpatients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibiger, Gail; Kirsh, Kenneth L; Wall, Jacqueline R; Passik, Steven D

    2003-08-01

    Oncology patients often complain that their "mind does not seem to be clear." This subjective perception, sometimes referred to as "chemo brain," may be due to situational stressors, psychological disorders, organic factors, or effects of neurotoxic medications. Cognitive decline cannot only diminish quality of life, but can also interfere with a patient's ability to make decisions regarding complex treatment issues. The current study investigated the utility of using item 11 of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Screen (ZSDS) as a cognitive screen. A sample of 61 ambulatory cancer patients completed this study. Participants were recruited from four sites of Community Cancer Care, Inc., in Indiana. A battery of cognitive instruments and psychosocial inventories was administered in a standardized order. The sample had a mean age of 58.6 years and comprised 57.4% (n=35) women and 42.6% (n=26) men. Item 11 of the ZSDS was not significantly correlated to the cognitive measures. Correlates of the perception of cognitive impairment were the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) Attention Scale (r=-0.26, PStroop test (F=19.8, Pspecificity indicated that the single-item screen used in this study is not an accurate means for identifying oncology patients with actual cognitive impairment. We conclude that while the perception of cognitive impairment is common in cancer patients, there may be problems in interpreting the nature of these complaints, particularly in separating them from depressive preoccupation.

  4. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  5. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  6. Questioning as a teaching tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michele; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Butani, Lavjay

    2015-03-01

    The Dreyfus and Bloom frameworks can help the great clinical teacher craft questions that are learner-centric and appropriately challenging.Employing strategies to ask the right questions in the right way can further add to the effectiveness of using questions as a valuable teaching,learning, and assessment tool.

  7. Which Are Our Next Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel Joao

    2013-01-01

    The importance of posing the best questions in research studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) is undisputed. Researchers may spend long hours reflecting and discussing with colleagues how to improve a certain question they have in mind. The best questions are always original,

  8. Seek and you shall find--but then what do you do? Cold agglutinins in cardiopulmonary bypass and a single-center experience with cold agglutinin screening before cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Michael D; Cabrerizo-Sanchez, Rosa; Karkouti, Keyvan; Yau, Terrence; Pendergrast, Jacob M; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery can involve deliberate hypothermia of the systemic (22-36 °C) and coronary circulations (as low as 8-12 °C). Adverse sequelae of cold-active antibodies have been feared and reported under such conditions, and some centers thus elect to screen for cold agglutinins before CPB. We reviewed the literature on cold agglutinins in cardiac surgery and described the yields and effects of cold agglutinin screening (CAS) in 14,900 cardiac surgery patients undergoing CPB over 8 years at a single institution. Cold agglutinin screening was positive in 47 cases (0.3%), at an annual testing cost of $17,000 CAD. The response of the surgical team to the preoperative discovery of a cold agglutinin was variable, with CPB modified to avoid hypothermia in approximately one-third of cases. In patients discovered to have a positive CAS, postoperative intensive care unit and hospital length of stay were marginally increased (54.6 vs. 42.8 hours, P = .02; 7 [6-14] vs. 7 [5-9] days, P = .04). However, the composite of mortality or severe morbidity (stroke, myocardial infarction, dialysis, low output syndrome, sepsis, and deep vein thrombosis) was not significantly different (14.9% vs. 9.2%, P = .2). Antibody verification found that only 43% of positive CAS patients had true cold agglutinins (20 patients). Furthermore, the rate of adverse events was low in both CAS-positive and true-positive cold agglutinin patients undergoing CPB and cardiac surgery. Finally, modification of CPB to attenuate hypothermia did not decrease adverse events. Based upon historical and local data, preclinical CAS is cost-substantial and nonspecific. Cold agglutinin screening does not promote an algorithm of care that meaningfully improves patient CPB outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  10. Luminescent properties and energy transfer processes in Ce-Tb doped single crystalline film screens of Lu-based silicate, perovskite and garnet compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Zorenko, T.; Martin, T.; Douissard, P.-A.; Nikl, Martin; Mareš, Jiří A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Sept (2013), s. 415-419 ISSN 1350-4487 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single crystalline films * liquid phase epitaxy * perovskites * luminescence * scintillators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2013

  11. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    features of the disease, which make the possible gain from screening programs questionable. Thus, before embarking on expensive community or national screening programs, the beneficial effect of such an effort on morbidity and mortality must be demonstrated in large-scale trials comparing a screened...

  12. Usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for infants and children for the evaluation of developmental delay in Korean infants and children: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Chung-Hyuk; Kim, Gun-Ha; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment. This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive tests conducted in 209 of 1,403 patients, of whom 758 underwent the K-DST at the Korea University Guro Hospital between January 2015 and December 2016 and 645 were referred from local clinics between January 2015 and June 2016. Based on the K-DST results, the male children significantly more frequently required further or follow-up examination than the female children in most test sections, except for gross motor. The male children had notably lower mean scores than the female children. The PRES/SELSI results showed that when more further or follow-up evaluations were required in the K-DST communication section, significantly more problems in language delay or disorder emerged. When further or follow-up evaluation was required in the cognitive section in the CARS/M-CHAT, the possibility of autism increased significantly. A child tended to score low in the CARS test and show autism when further or follow-up evaluation was recommended in the K-DST. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the K-DST as a screening test early in the development of infants and children in Korea. Data of normal control groups should be examined to determine the accuracy of this investigation.

  13. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  14. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    participation in TREC, we submitted a single run using a hybrid Natural Language Processing ( NLP )-driven approach to accomplish the given task. Evaluation re...for the CDS track uses a variety of NLP - based techniques to address the clinical questions provided. We present a description of our approach, and...discuss our experimental setup, results and eval- uation in the subsequent sections. 2 Description of Our Approach Our hybrid NLP -driven method presents a

  15. Single-molecule supercoil-relaxation assay as a screening tool to determine the mechanism and efficacy of human topoisomerase IB inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Zhang, Hongliang; Agama, Keli; Lorence, Nicholas; Pommier, Yves; Neuman, Keir C.

    2015-01-01

    Human nuclear type IB topoisomerase (Top1) inhibitors are widely used and powerful anti-cancer agents. In this study, we introduce and validate a single-molecule supercoil relaxation assay as a molecular pharmacology tool for characterizing therapeutically relevant Top1 inhibitors. Using this assay, we determined the effects on Top1 supercoil relaxation activity of four Top1 inhibitors; three clinically relevant: camptothecin, LMP-400, LMP-776 (both indenoisoquinoline derivatives), and one natural product in preclinical development, lamellarin-D. Our results demonstrate that Top1 inhibitors have two distinct effects on Top1 activity: a decrease in supercoil relaxation rate and an increase in religation inhibition. The type and magnitude of the inhibition mode depend both on the specific inhibitor and on the topology of the DNA substrate. In general, the efficacy of inhibition is significantly higher with supercoiled than with relaxed DNA substrates. Comparing single-molecule inhibition with cell growth inhibition (IC50) measurements showed a correlation between the binding time of the Top1 inhibitors and their cytotoxic efficacy, independent of the mode of inhibition. This study demonstrates that the single-molecule supercoil relaxation assay is a sensitive method to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of Top1 inhibitors and is relevant for the cellular efficacy of Top1 inhibitors. PMID:26351326

  16. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  17. Three growing questions about Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Crimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through three capital questions, this short essay tries to offer a general panorama and a better understanding of the proteiform complex body or Masonry. Through by a multi-level hermeneutic, this study get the ambition to be comprehensible both to Readers who are not used to this kind of literature and to the ones advanced and skilled in symbolic thought. The main important conclusion owes the quality of the symbolic level, which is the property to refuse a single interpretation: notwithstanding, this does not prevent from a clear historical and political evaluation of the phenomena under analysis, according the methodologies of social sciences. This political evaluability drives to the main valuable output of the essay, which concerns the anthropological statement that the logical label of Masonry, with this name or many others, it exists since always. Under the category of initiatory institution, we may consider the step between individual and society, and a society inside a larger one. Evolving from the needs of the individuals to the ones of social groups, the matter joins to the land of political sciences. The sociological meaning can be posed under analytic view in reason of the functionalist meaning emerging from the alternative couples status-quo/emancipation and conservatism/progressivism. Through by this perspective, anyway the theme seems not to reveal much more, because this “proteiform complex body” manifest itself as something too much complex in its inner core to be considered in a way or in another. What remains is strictly symbolic, with some theological and eschatological points that refuse to be posed under restrain.

  18. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  19. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  20. A set of dual promoter vectors for high throughput cloning, screening, and protein expression in eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems from a single plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinah, Namita; Williams, Charlotte A; Piper, Robert C; Shields, S Brookhart

    2012-08-23

    The ability to produce the same recombinant protein in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells offers many experimental opportunities. However, the cloning of the same gene into multiple plasmids is required, which is time consuming, laborious and still may not produce soluble, stable protein in sufficient quantities. We have developed a set of expression vectors that allows for ligation-independent cloning and rapid functional screening for protein expression in both E. coli and S. cerevisiae. A set of expression vectors was made that can express the same open reading frame in E. coli (via the T7 phage promoter) and in S. cerevisiae (via the CUP1 or MET25 promoter). These plasmids also contain the essential elements for replication and selection in both cell types and have several advantages: they allow for cloning of genes by homologous recombination in yeast, protein expression can be determined before plasmid isolation and sequencing, and a GST-fusion tag is added to aid in soluble expression and purification. We have also included a TEV recognition site that allows for the specific cleavage of the fusion proteins to yield native proteins. The dual promoter vectors can be used for rapid cloning, expression, and purification of target proteins from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems with the ability to study post-translation modifications.

  1. Snoring analysis for the screening of Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome with a single-channel device developed using polysomnographic and snoring databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Raimon; Fiz, José A; Solà-Soler, Jordi; Mesquita, Joana; Morera, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown differences in acoustic snoring characteristics between patients with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) and simple snorers. Usually a few manually isolated snores are analyzed, with an emphasis on postapneic snores in SAHS patients. Automatic analysis of snores can provide objective information over a longer period of sleep. Although some snore detection methods have recently been proposed, they have not yet been applied to full-night analysis devices for screening purposes. We used a new automatic snoring detection and analysis system to monitor snoring during full-night studies to assess whether the acoustic characteristics of snores differ in relation to the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and to classify snoring subjects according to their AHI. A complete procedure for device development was designed, using databases with polysomnography (PSG) and snoring signals. This included annotation of many types of episodes by an expert physician: snores, inspiration and exhalation breath sounds, speech and noise artifacts, The AHI of each subject was estimated with classical PSG analysis, as a gold standard. The system was able to correctly classify 77% of subjects in 4 severity levels, based on snoring analysis and sound-based apnea detection. The sensitivity and specificity of the system, to identify healthy subjects from pathologic patients (mild to severe SAHS), were 83% and 100%, respectively. Besides, the Apnea Index (AI) obtained with the system correlated with the obtained by PSG or Respiratory Polygraphy (RP) (r=0.87, p<0.05).

  2. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  3. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2012-01-01

    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  4. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  5. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry inhibitors fishing assay: a novel method for simultaneously screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitor and superoxide anion scavenger in a single analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Xing, Junpeng; Zheng, Zhong; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2012-02-17

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitors and superoxide anion scavengers play an important role in the treatment of gout and the inhibition of many diseases related to superoxide anion. The respective quantitation of uric acid and superoxide anion by traditional spectroscopic methods is routine in XOD inhibitors and superoxide anion scavengers screening at laboratories worldwide. In the present study, we established an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ-MS) method of higher accuracy and speed that combines screening of superoxide anion scavenger and XOD inhibitor in a single analysis by adding WST-1 (2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium sodium salt) to the enzymatic reaction. We applied the established method to determine the XOD inhibitory activities and superoxide scavenging activities of some herbal extracts and compounds from natural products, which could be classified into six groups based on the results of the assay. Our innovative protocol is fast, accurate and robust. Moreover, it can eliminate false positive and false negative results which may occur in the traditional spectroscopic methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  7. One question might be capable of replacing the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) when measuring disability: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoomes-de Graaf, Marloes; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy; Karel, Yasmaine; Verwoerd, Annemieke; Koes, Bart; Verhagen, Arianne

    2018-02-01

    Is it possible to replace the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) with a single substitute question for people with shoulder pain, when measuring disability and how well does this substitute question perform as a predictor for recovery. A prospective cohort study. A total of 356 patients with shoulder pain in primary care. Convergent, divergent, and "known" groups validity were assessed by using hypotheses testing. Responsiveness was assessed using the Receiver Operating Curve and hypothesis testing. In addition, we performed multivariate regression to assess if the substitute question showed similar properties as the SPADI and if it affected the model itself, using recovery as an outcome. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the total SPADI score and the substitute question was high, and moderate with the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire. The correlation between the substitute question and the EQ-5D-3L was low and the responsiveness was acceptable. The substitute question did not significantly contribute to both prognostic prediction models as opposed to the SPADI. Regardless all models showed poor to fair discrimination. The single question is a reasonable substitute for the SPADI and can be used as a screening instrument for shoulder disability in primary clinical practice. It has slightly poorer predictive power and should therefore not be used for prognosis.

  8. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  9. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  10. Ab initio LCAO-MO cluster-type calculation of the self-consistent electronic screening charge density around a single hydrogen impurity in a nickel crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.W.; Lane, N.F.; Chaney, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The electronic structure for a Ni atom cluster embedded in bulk Ni by use of a spin-averaged local exchange SCF Ni crystal potential is calculated with an ab initio LCAO-Mo variational method. A single hydrogen impurity is added at the cluster center (fcc octahedral interstitial site) and the electronic structure computed iteratively until the change in electron density from the pure Ni cluster density is self-consistent. The H-Ni 6 self-consistent density change is compared to the charge density around a free hydrogen atom and to the initial-response density change in H-Ni 14 and H-Ni 38 clusters. 14 references

  11. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  12. Large-scale image-based profiling of single-cell phenotypes in arrayed CRISPR-Cas9 gene perturbation screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Reinoud; Lüthi, Joel; Lindsay, Helen; Holtackers, René; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2018-01-23

    High-content imaging using automated microscopy and computer vision allows multivariate profiling of single-cell phenotypes. Here, we present methods for the application of the CISPR-Cas9 system in large-scale, image-based, gene perturbation experiments. We show that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene perturbation can be achieved in human tissue culture cells in a timeframe that is compatible with image-based phenotyping. We developed a pipeline to construct a large-scale arrayed library of 2,281 sequence-verified CRISPR-Cas9 targeting plasmids and profiled this library for genes affecting cellular morphology and the subcellular localization of components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We conceived a machine-learning method that harnesses genetic heterogeneity to score gene perturbations and identify phenotypically perturbed cells for in-depth characterization of gene perturbation effects. This approach enables genome-scale image-based multivariate gene perturbation profiling using CRISPR-Cas9. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  13. Screening of 134 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with type 2 diabetes replicates association with 12 SNPs in nine genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Cristen J; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Conneely, Karen N; Duren, William L; Jackson, Anne U; Scott, Laura J; Narisu, Narisu; Chines, Peter S; Skol, Andrew; Stringham, Heather M; Petrie, John; Erdos, Michael R; Swift, Amy J; Enloe, Sareena T; Sprau, Andrew G; Smith, Eboni; Tong, Maurine; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Watanabe, Richard M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Valle, Timo T; Bergman, Richard N; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Mohlke, Karen L; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael

    2007-01-01

    More than 120 published reports have described associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes. However, multiple studies of the same variant have often been discordant. From a literature search, we identified previously reported type 2 diabetes-associated SNPs. We initially genotyped 134 SNPs on 786 index case subjects from type 2 diabetes families and 617 control subjects with normal glucose tolerance from Finland and excluded from analysis 20 SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) > 0.8) with another typed SNP. Of the 114 SNPs examined, we followed up the 20 most significant SNPs (P < 0.10) on an additional 384 case subjects and 366 control subjects from a population-based study in Finland. In the combined data, we replicated association (P < 0.05) for 12 SNPs: PPARG Pro12Ala and His447, KCNJ11 Glu23Lys and rs5210, TNF -857, SLC2A2 Ile110Thr, HNF1A/TCF1 rs2701175 and GE117881_360, PCK1 -232, NEUROD1 Thr45Ala, IL6 -598, and ENPP1 Lys121Gln. The replication of 12 SNPs of 114 tested was significantly greater than expected by chance under the null hypothesis of no association (P = 0.012). We observed that SNPs from genes that had three or more previous reports of association were significantly more likely to be replicated in our sample (P = 0.03), although we also replicated 4 of 58 SNPs from genes that had only one previous report of association.

  14. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... test? • Why is breast screening important? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • How should I prepare ...

  15. The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Hereford Screen: A Prehistory

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores two contexts for Francis Skidmore and George Gilbert Scott's screen at Hereford Cathedral. First, it locates the screen within a succession of choir screens at Hereford from the middle ages to the present, thereby charting the typology of the choir screen within a single institutional context. Second, it shows that Skidmore and Scott's work at Hereford should be understood in light of their related work at Lichfield and Salisbury, and that, more distantly, the three buildings were subject to significant "improvements" in the eighteenth century that Scott and Skidmore's work was intended to erase.

  16. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Immunization Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  17. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  18. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  19. Frequently Asked Questions about Rotavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Frequently Asked Questions About Rotavirus What is Rotavirus? Why can dehydration be serious ... I find information about the vaccine? What is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects ...

  20. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  1. A pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes associada a um questionário de sinais e sintomas na prevenção do câncer colo retal Faecal occult blood (FOB test associated with a questionaire of signs and symptoms in screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luis Altenburg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a eficácia de um programa de prevenção de Câncer Colo Retal (CCR através do método da pesquisa de sangue oculto das fezes (PSO, e um questionário clínico (QSA. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma triagem através do PSO e do QSA em indivíduos acima de 50 anos, oriundos de uma campanha de prevenção de CCR em Joinville, SC. 387 indivíduos aderiram à campanha e 93 foram excluídos.. Foram definidos 3 grupos: 1- PSO +, com 20 sujeitos, QSA +, com 38 sujeitos e PSO e QSA negativos com 21 sujeitos. Foi definida como colonoscopia positiva aquela que detectou adenomas. RESULTADOS: O grupo 1 apresentou 22% de sensibilidade, 74% de especificidade, likelihood ratio positivo (LR de 0, 9, acurácia de 56, 9, valor preditivo positivo (VPP de 31,6 e negativo (VPN de 64. O grupo 2 apresentou 71,4% de sensibilidade, 45,6 de especificidade, LR de 1,3, acurácia de 52,6, VPP de 32,6 e VPN de 81,3. O método apresentou 95,2% de sensibilidade, 63,2 de especificidade, LR de 2, 6, acurácia de 71, 8, VPP de 48.8 e VPN de 97.3. CONCLUSÃO: O método da PSO e QSA são complementares e efetivos como triagem em programas de prevenção de CCR.The purpose of this study is to verify the efficacy of a strategy to screen colorectal cancer(CCR and adenomas using the faecal occult blood test(PSO and a questionnaire (QSAbased in signs and symptoms of CCR. METHODS: A program of prevention was done, and the patients answered the QSA and did the PSO type imunocromatograph. RESULTS: 387 people adhered do the program, 93 were excluded. Three groups were formed: 1: 20 persons, with PSO positive, 2:38 persons with QSA positive, and 3, with 21 persons with PSO and QSA negatives. Group 1 presented a sensibility of 22%, specificity of 74%, Likelihood ratio + of 0,9, accuracy of 56,9, Positive predictive value(VPP of 31,6 and negative(VPN of 64. Group 2 presented sensibility of 71,4%, 45,6% of specificity, Likelihood ratio + 1.3, accuracy of 52,6, VPP de

  2. Screen dealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The screen dealing system provides a facility whereby buyers and sellers of spot thermal coal can make bids and offers via the medium of the Reuters screen. A sale results when a market participant notifies his acceptance of a price to a central dealing desk. Use of the system is available to all genuine participants in the coal trade. This paper reports that it provides a focus for information and for the visible making of coal prices. For years screen trading has been used successfully to trade other commodities. At last coal is being traded electronically. It makes sense. It works. Users like it

  3. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  4. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... travel continues, especially given the ongoing threat of terrorism. The technology used in screening people and their ... can be found on the Radiation Terms and Definitions page on the Health Physics Society website at ...

  5. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the type and approximate amount of legal and illegal drugs a person has taken. How the Test is ... prescription medicines that have not been prescribed, and illegal drugs have not been detected. A blood toxicology screen ...

  6. Streptococcal screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    A streptococcal screen is a test to detect group A streptococcus. This bacteria is the most common cause of ... throat swab. The swab is tested to identify group A streptococcus. It takes about 7 minutes to get the ...

  7. Short apraxia screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  8. The central question in superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    I will argue that the most basic and fundamental question in superconductivity is: when a superconductor in a magnetic field goes normal, how does the supercurrent stop? The supercurrent has to stop before the material becomes resistive because the transition is reversible in an ideal situation, with no Joule heat dissipated. I will argue that the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity cannot answer this question. I will propose an answer to this question that requires that there is flow and counterflow of charge across the normal-superconductor phase boundary, and requires that the normal state current carriers have hole-like character. The conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.

  9. Reflective Questioning in Management Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge C. M. van Seggelen-Damen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflective questioning is a critical activity in management learning and education. This article describes research on the nature of reflective questioning in groups of management students working on final MSc projects. Drawing on content analysis of recorded meetings, we identify the following key dimensions of reflective questioning: provocation, need for cognition, epistemology, locus of cognition, logic, heuristics, level of abstraction, and cognitive complexity. The data suggest that individual reflection by students and collective reflection in group meetings are highly complementary in management education. In particular, individual reflection by students combined with meetings that support and provoke collective reflection may create substantial synergies between individual and collective learning. We also discuss the implications of these findings for management education.

  10. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fit...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  11. Simple screening tools to identify limited health literacy in a low-income patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, Kelly R; Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Lanning, Beth A; During, Christina; Laschober, Ryan; Griggs, Jackson O

    2018-03-01

    Adults with limited health literacy have difficulty managing chronic conditions, higher hospitalization rates, and more healthcare expenditures. Simple screening tools have been developed, but limited work has evaluated instruments among low-income populations. This study assessed health literacy among primary care patients of a federally qualified health center, and compared a single screening question about perceived difficulty completing medical forms.A cross-sectional survey was administered to English-speaking patients ≥40 years. Both the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), a 6-item questionnaire, and a single-item screening question about perceived difficulty with completing medical forms, assessed health literacy. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of inadequate health literacy and receiver operator curves compared the NVS and single-item question.Participants (n = 406) were, on average, aged 58.5 years (±11.3), 72.2% female, and identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.2%), non-Hispanic white (31.0%), non-Hispanic black (40.9%), or other (8.9%). Of the 406 participants, 335 (82.5%) completed the NVS. Patients who declined NVS were more likely to be older (P literacy. Older adults, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black patients, patients with missed office visits, and those reporting less confidence completing medical forms were significantly more likely to have inadequate health literacy. Perceived confidence completing medical forms demonstrated low sensitivity but high specificity at multiple thresholds.This is the first investigation to compare the NVS and confidence completing medical forms question. Many patients declined health literacy assessments, but health literacy screening may identify patients who need additional health education and resources.

  12. Ten Questions about Language Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, R.; Carter, R.; Hughes, R.; Ivanic, R.; Masuhara, H.; Tomlinson, B.

    2003-01-01

    This article was written interactively over an extended period of consultation and explores questions concerning the theory and practice of language awareness, its descriptive orientations, its relationship with critical social dimensions, and its connections with current theories of language teaching and learning. (Author/VWL)

  13. Spinning top—the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featonby, David

    2017-11-01

    The motion of a spinning top can be mystifying at times until some basic principles are understood. In this question the key to understanding what happens is the nature of the bottom tip of the top in contact with the surface on which it spins.

  14. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  15. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    . A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers...... that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about...... the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over...

  16. Screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Britton D; Norton, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Screening is currently recommended in pregnancy for a number of genetic disorders, chromosomal aneuploidy, and structural birth defects in the fetus regardless of maternal age or family history. There is an overwhelming array of sonographic and maternal serum-based options available for carrying out aneuploidy risk assessment in the first and/or second trimester. As with any screening test, the patient should be made aware that a "negative" test or "normal" ultrasound does not guarantee a healthy baby and a "positive" test does not mean the fetus has the condition. The woman should have both pre- and post-test counseling to discuss the benefits, limitations, and options for additional testing. Rapid advancements of genetic technologies have made it possible to screen for the common aneuploidies traditionally associated with advanced maternal age with improved levels of accuracy beyond serum and ultrasound based testing. Prenatal screening for fetal genetic disorders with cell-free DNA has transformed prenatal care with yet unanswered questions related to the financial, ethical, and appropriate application in the provision of prenatal risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol problems experienced ...

  18. Comparing Vertical and Horizontal Screening Methods for Pharmacy Resident Candidates Before Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Peeters

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prior studies have examined autobiographical screening methods among medical student applicants, and demonstrated halo bias with single-rater scoring; though others have questioned its practical significance. Comparing with traditional vertical screening method, we evaluated a horizontal method for initial screening of Post-Graduate Year-1 (PGY-1 pharmacy practice resident candidate applications prior to interviews. Methods: Our screening rubric for PGY-1 pharmacy residency candidates consisted of eight criteria, each scored using a 5-point Likert scale. During the 2014 residency recruitment season, two single-evaluators (A&B scored all eight criteria and their scores were summed into total application scores (vertical method. Meanwhile two other evaluators (C&D each evaluated only two criteria for all applications. The four combined-evaluators (A-D scores, on two criteria each, were summed together into total application scores (horizontal method. For statistical comparison of single-evaluator and combined-evaluators, inter-component reliabilities were analyzed for each evaluator, while inter-rater consistency was also examined. For practical significance, actual selection differences were reviewed. Results:Forty-six applications were evaluated to determine 24 invitations for on-site interviews. Inter-component reliability differed among evaluatorA, evaluatorB, combined-evaluators A-D (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.74, 0.73, 0.58, respectively; lower better. Among raters, inter-rater consistency was excellent (0.86 by intraclass correlation, p Conclusion: Halo bias was seen with the single-evaluators (vertical method; two interview invitations were negatively impacted. For pharmacy resident screening, a horizontal screening method appears to be rigorous in promoting fairness for applicants. As pharmacy residency applications continue to grow, a fair and time-efficient method of screening seems imperative.   Type: Original Research

  19. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The incidence ...

  20. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...

  1. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  2. JAVA Interview Questions with Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikky, James

    2014-01-01

    JAVA Interview Questions with Answers from ComputerTrainingsOnline.com is n interactive java online training provider to establish a standard present in programming languages training. It is a great opportunity to the people who wants to learn object oriented programming languages like java at their own pace as per the flexible schedules. Here you can share your views and thought procedures with our online community and clarify the queries in java with our core professional team. You can lear...

  3. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque,Bruno Saboia de; Callado,Marcelo de Castro

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity. O objetivo deste trabalho é promover um desafio de investigação sobre a moeda digital chamada Bitcoins, bem como e...

  4. [Two simple questions to diagnose post-stroke depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, C H; Müller-Nordhorn, J; Jungehülsing, G J; Rossnagel, K; Reich, A; Roll, S; Laumeier, I; Beerfelde, D; Willich, S N; Villringer, A

    2006-05-01

    Many patients develop a depression after having suffered a stroke. Such a Post-Stroke Depression (PSD) impairs rehabilitation and quality of life. PSD is underdiagnosed in spite of available treatment. Several questionnaires have been created to diagnose a PSD. But questionnaires have been considered cumbersome and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to find out whether two simple, standardised questions will identify those stroke patients, who have developed a PSD. The two case-finding questions and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were sent to patients of the Berlin Acute Stroke Study (BASS) four years after their stroke. Incomplete questionnaires were complemented via mail or telephone. Severity of depression was assessed by means of BDI. Out of 211 patients, 199 responded to the questionnaire (94 %). 193 questionnaires were complete (97 %). Forty-two patients affirmed both case-finding questions (22 %). Compared to patients, who did not affirm both questions, these patients had a higher BDI score (19 +/- 8 vs. 7 +/- 5; p two questions were 89 % and 90 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive value were 60 % and 98 % respectively. The number of confirmed questions (0, 1, 2) correlated well with the BDI score (r (2) = 0.67, p Two standardized questions can identify patients with PSD for further diagnostic evaluation and therapy. Diagnosis of PSD might be facilitated by using them as screening instrument.

  5. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  6. Opportunistische screening...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.J.; Welte, R.; Van Den Hoek, J.A.R.; Van Doornum, G.J.J.; Coutinho, R.A.; Jager, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of young women visiting general practitioners. Design. Economic model analysis. Methods. Data on the health care needs for CT complications were derived from various sources; costing was done using estimated cost

  7. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  8. Open forum: Question and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  9. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  10. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  11. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions; Biocarburants - 5 questions qui derangent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L

    2008-07-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  12. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  13. Application of a combination of a knowledge-based algorithm and 2-stage screening to hypothesis-free genomic data on irinotecan-treated patients for identification of a candidate single nucleotide polymorphism related to an adverse effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiro Takahashi

    Full Text Available Interindividual variation in a drug response among patients is known to cause serious problems in medicine. Genomic information has been proposed as the basis for "personalized" health care. The genome-wide association study (GWAS is a powerful technique for examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and their relationship with drug response variation; however, when using only GWAS, it often happens that no useful SNPs are identified due to multiple testing problems. Therefore, in a previous study, we proposed a combined method consisting of a knowledge-based algorithm, 2 stages of screening, and a permutation test for identifying SNPs. In the present study, we applied this method to a pharmacogenomics study where 109,365 SNPs were genotyped using Illumina Human-1 BeadChip in 168 cancer patients treated with irinotecan chemotherapy. We identified the SNP rs9351963 in potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5 (KCNQ5 as a candidate factor related to incidence of irinotecan-induced diarrhea. The p value for rs9351963 was 3.31×10-5 in Fisher's exact test and 0.0289 in the permutation test (when multiple testing problems were corrected. Additionally, rs9351963 was clearly superior to the clinical parameters and the model involving rs9351963 showed sensitivity of 77.8% and specificity of 57.6% in the evaluation by means of logistic regression. Recent studies showed that KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 genes encode members of the M channel expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle and suggested that these genes are associated with irritable bowel syndrome and similar peristalsis diseases. These results suggest that rs9351963 in KCNQ5 is a possible predictive factor of incidence of diarrhea in cancer patients treated with irinotecan chemotherapy and for selecting chemotherapy regimens, such as irinotecan alone or a combination of irinotecan with a KCNQ5 opener. Nonetheless, clinical importance of rs9351963 should be further elucidated.

  14. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  15. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  16. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  17. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  18. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  19. Analyzing the Hidden Curriculum of Screen Media Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lance E.

    2015-01-01

    This media literacy article introduces a questioning framework for analyzing screen media with students and provides an example analysis of two contemporary commercials. Investigating screen conventions can help students understand the persuasive functions of commercials, as well as how the unique sensory experience of screen viewing affects how…

  20. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several

  1. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education Pamphlets - ...

  2. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  3. Big questions about the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  4. Statistical questions in experimental evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the mathematical analysis of models describing evolutionary dynamics are rapidly increasing our ability to make precise quantitative predictions. These advances have created a growing need for corresponding improvements in our ability to observe evolutionary dynamics in laboratory evolution experiments. High-throughput experimental methods are particularly crucial, in order to maintain many replicate populations and measure statistical differences in evolutionary outcomes at both phenotypic and genomic levels. In this paper, I describe recent technical developments which have greatly increased the throughput of laboratory evolution experiments, and outline a few promising directions for further improvements. I then highlight a few ways in which these new experimental methods can help to answer simple statistical questions about evolutionary dynamics, and potentially guide future theoretical work

  5. Still asking the wrong questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    by setting up a chase for the heffalump entrepreneur. There has however been a break with this approach. Most commonly referenced is William B. Gartner who presents a critique of the field of entrepreneurship, wherein he questions the general investigative trend of charting the psychological make......-up of the entrepreneur (Gartner, 1988). Building on this critique I will use the presentation to show, through the use of a historical case, how much we need new conceptualizations in order to highlight the collective development of ideas, which would also open for a discussion about the values guiding entrepreneurship......The psychological discipline has contributed to an increasingly individualized focus on the entrepreneur. When psychology entered the field of entrepreneurship the main focus was on mapping the different personality traits of the entrepreneur following McClelland, leading researchers astray...

  6. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason 'omics' has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools...... common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current...

  7. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  8. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Touch/Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004 Bernard Stiegler posed “the tragic question of cinema” as that of the germ of regres-­‐‑ sion to television and pornography it has always contained, just as in 1944 Adorno and Hork-­‐‑ heimer argued that Enlightenment reason has always contained a germ of regression making possible a prostitution of theory leading only to the threat of fascism. If comparable threats attend Stiegler’s cinematic question, then this implies the need for an account of this potential for regression, that is, an account of the relationship between desire, technology and knowledge. Tracing the aporias of the origin of desire and trauma in psychoanalysis is one crucial way to pursue this account. Exiting these aporias depends on recognizing that the origin of desire has for human beings always been technical, and hence that the instruments of desire form its conditions and condition its forms. By thus analysing the staging of desire and the setting of fantasy it becomes possible to reflect, for example, on what it means that for Genet fascism was theatre, that for Syberberg Hitler was cinema, and that for Stiegler the new prostitution of the tele-­‐‑visual graphic is digital and algorithmic. Hence arises the potentially tragic question of the possibility or otherwise, in the age of the ubiquitous screen, of a new cinematic invention and a new cinematic practice.

  10. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  11. Answer selection in a multi-stream open domain question answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; McDonald, S.; Tait, J.

    2004-01-01

    Question answering systems aim to meet users' information needs by returning exact answers in response to a question. Traditional open domain question answering systems are built around a single pipeline architecture. In an attempt to exploit multiple resources as well as multiple answering

  12. Validity of self-reported hearing loss in adults: performance of three single questions Validez de la pérdida auditiva auto-referida en adultos: desempeño de tres preguntas únicas Validade da perda auditiva auto-referida em adultos: desempenho de três perguntas únicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ferrite

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the validity of three single questions used to assess self-reported hearing loss as compared to pure-tone audiometry in an adult population. METHODS: A validity study was performed with a random sub-sample of 188 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, drawn from the fourth wave of a population-based cohort study carried out in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected in household visits using questionnaires. Three questions were used to separately assess self-reported hearing loss: Q1, "Do you feel you have a hearing loss?"; Q2, "In general, would you say your hearing is 'excellent,' 'very good,' 'good,' 'fair,' 'poor'?"; Q3, "Currently, do you think you can hear 'the same as before', 'less than before only in the right ear', 'less than before only in the left ear', 'less than before in both ears'?". Measures of accuracy were estimated through seven measures including Youden index. Responses to each question were compared to the results of pure-tone audiometry to estimate accuracy measures. RESULTS: The estimated sensitivity and specificity were 79.6%, 77.4% for Q1; 66.9%, 85.1% for Q2; and 81.5%, 76.4% for Q3, respectively. The Youden index ranged from 51.9% (Q2 to 57.0% (Q1 and 57.9% (Q3. CONCLUSIONS: Each of all three questions provides responses accurate enough to support their use to assess self-reported hearing loss in epidemiological studies with adult populations when pure-tone audiometry is not feasible.OBJETIVO: Estimar la validez de tres preguntas únicas utilizadas para evaluar la pérdida auditiva auto-referida en comparación con la audiometría de sonidos puros en una población adulta. MÉTODOS: Estudio de validez realizado con una sub-muestra aleatoria de 188 individuos, con edad entre 30 y 65 años, seleccionados de la cuarta fase (2006 de un estudio de cohorte de base poblacional conducido en Salvador, noreste de Brasil. Datos fueron colectados en entrevistas domiciliares utilizándose cuestionarios

  13. Questions Arising from the Assessment of EFL Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article questions how narrative writing is assessed, seeking to understand what we test, what we value, and why. It uses a single anomalous case that arose in the course of my recent PhD thesis to highlight the issues, asking if sufficient attention is being given to the value of emotional content in a piece of writing in comparison to its…

  14. Year-Round Education: Some Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Policy and Evaluation Branch.

    Questions concerning year-round schooling are presented and answered in this report. Following a definition of year-round education, examples of single-track and multitrack schedules are described, along with the calendar variations within them. Other issues that are addressed include holidays and intersessions, compliance with the Alberta School…

  15. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Schimel; Michael Keller

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator’s or s group of investigator’s labs, sustained for longer...

  16. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  17. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  18. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  19. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  20. Grant recipients' rights in question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, P D

    1984-01-01

    Although organizations that provide privately funded abortions or abortion referral and counseling are engaging in constitutionally protected activities, opponents of legal abortion are seeking to deny eligibility for federal family planning funding to them. The issue of the rights of organizations receiving federal funds has been simmering for several years, but in 1984 the US Congress must renew the key federal funding authorization for domestic and international family planning services. The question is an abortion issue but a much larger issue as well, involving the limits of the conditions any government agency can put on activities of organizations it helps to fund. Political activity regarding the question has increased, and includes attempts by 4 states to block award of state family planning funds to organizations using private funds for abortion activities, passage of the Adolescent Family Act which permits funding only to programs that do not advocate abortion, attempts to add antiabortion amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act, termination of US Agency for International Development (AID) funding of the scientific journal International Family Planning Perspectives because it reported the findings of research on the health consequences of illegal abortions, attempts to block USAID funds to the Pathfinder Fund because it used nonfederal funds for abortion-related services, and attempts to exclude the Planned Parenthood Federation of America from the annual Combined Federal Campaign, the federal employee's charitable contributions drive. If new restrictions on government funding of family planning organizations become law in 1984, they could undermine the US commitment to family planning. Only 74 of the 5000 US family planning clinics receiving Title X family planning funds perform abortions, and they use state or private funds. Efforts to block Title X funding to agencies involved in abortion would run counter to the laws and policies of 15 states that

  1. The Impact of Multifaceted Questions on Eyewitness Accuracy Following Forced Fabrication Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobak, Quin M; Rindal, Eric J; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    Lawyers will frequently use complex-question forms, such as multifaceted questions (single questions that contain both a true and a false proposition), when cross-examining witnesses, and prior research has shown that use of such questions reduces testimonial accuracy. The present study extends this research by using a forced fabrication paradigm (Chrobak & Zaragoza, 2008) to assess how multifaceted questions might affect eyewitness suggestibility after exposure to misleading post-event information. Consistent with prior studies, the use of multifaceted questions led to lower accuracy than simple questions. The novel finding was that multifaceted questions caused larger impairments in performance among fabrication participants (who had earlier been suggestively interviewed), than in control participants (who had not). We also provide preliminary evidence that the impairment caused by multifaceted questions is due to both (a) having to consider two propositions simultaneously, and (b) the shift in question focus from the fabricated event to a true event.

  2. Areva: questions about a champion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  3. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  4. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  5. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  6. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  7. Community Based Screening, Brief-Intervention and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT for unhealthy tobacco use: single arm study experience and Implementation Success in rural and semi-rural settings, South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT can reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in rural and semi-rural settings. Method: Design and participants: A non-randomized clinical trial with assessments at baseline and post-intervention assessments at 3 and 6 months was conducted in a rural and semi-rural district in South-West of Nigeria. A representative sample of 1203 persons consented to the study and had ASSIST administered to them by trained community healthcare extension workers between October, 2010 and April, 2011. Follow-up participation was more than 99% at all points. Intervention: Participants received a single ASSIST linked brief intervention (BI and referral for treatment (RT at entry, and a booster ASSIST BI and RT at 3 months.Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was self-reported scores on ASSIST. Results: At baseline, out of 1203 respondents, lifetime prevalence and current prevalence of any tobacco products was 405 (33.7% and 248 (20.6% respectively. Of the current users, on the ASSIST, 79 (31.9% scored 0-3 (low health risk, 130 (52.4% scored 4-26 (moderate risk, 39 (15.7% scored 27+ (high risk. At 3 months, out of 1199 respondents, prevalence of current users was 199 (16.5% and out of 1195 respondents, was 169 (14.1% at 6 months. Prevalence of tobacco use reduced significantly at 3 months Z = -3.1, p = 0.01 and at 6 months when compared with baseline Z = 4.2, p = 0.001, but not at 6 months compared with at 3 months, Z = 2.1, p = 0.09. Multivariate analysis revealed that age at initiation of tobacco use, gender, marital status, setting of dwelling and socioeconomic status were the only variables that were associated with current tobacco use at baseline, 3 months and 6 months.Conclusion: A one-time BI with a booster at 3 months had a significant effect on tobacco use in persons living in community settings. This finding suggests a need for promoting the adoption of

  8. Robust and Comprehensive Analysis of 20 Osteoporosis Candidate Genes by Very High-Density Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Screen Among 405 White Nuclear Families Identified Significant Association and Gene–Gene Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dong-Hai; Shen, Hui; Zhao, Lan-Juan; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan; Wang, Wei; Guo, Yan-Fang; Liu, Yong-Jun; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Many “novel” osteoporosis candidate genes have been proposed in recent years. To advance our knowledge of their roles in osteoporosis, we screened 20 such genes using a set of high-density SNPs in a large family-based study. Our efforts led to the prioritization of those osteoporosis genes and the detection of gene–gene interactions. Introduction We performed large-scale family-based association analyses of 20 novel osteoporosis candidate genes using 277 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the quantitative trait BMD variation and the qualitative trait osteoporosis (OP) at three clinically important skeletal sites: spine, hip, and ultradistal radius (UD). Materials and Methods One thousand eight hundred seventy-three subjects from 405 white nuclear families were genotyped and analyzed with an average density of one SNP per 4 kb across the 20 genes. We conducted association analyses by SNP- and haplotype-based family-based association test (FBAT) and performed gene–gene interaction analyses using multianalytic approaches such as multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) and conditional logistic regression. Results and Conclusions We detected four genes (DBP, LRP5, CYP17, and RANK) that showed highly suggestive associations (10,000-permutation derived empirical global p ≤ 0.01) with spine BMD/OP; four genes (CYP19, RANK, RANKL, and CYP17) highly suggestive for hip BMD/OP; and four genes (CYP19, BMP2, RANK, and TNFR2) highly suggestive for UD BMD/OP. The associations between BMP2 with UD BMD and those between RANK with OP at the spine, hip, and UD also met the experiment-wide stringent criterion (empirical global p ≤ 0.0007). Sex-stratified analyses further showed that some of the significant associations in the total sample were driven by either male or female subjects. In addition, we identified and validated a two-locus gene–gene interaction model involving GCR and ESR2, for which prior biological evidence exists. Our results suggested the

  9. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  10. Interface Screenings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2015-01-01

    In Wim Wenders' film Until the End of the World (1991), three different diagrams for the visual integration of bodies are presented: 1) GPS tracking and mapping in a landscape, 2) video recordings layered with the memory perception of these recordings, and 3) data-created images from dreams...... and memories. From a transvisual perspective, the question is whether or not these (by now realized) diagrammatic modes involving the body in ubiquitous global media can be analysed in terms of the affects and events created in concrete interfaces. The examples used are filmic as felt sensations...

  11. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  12. Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THE OFFICE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, ... entry of HIV. This is Top Questions About HIV Prevention and Women 2 especially true for girls and ...

  13. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  14. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  15. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  16. Gestational Diabetes Screening During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy in patients who do not have pregestational diabetes. Unless diagnosed and treated on time, it may cause various maternal, fetal and neonatal complications like macrosomia, polyhydramniosis, preterm labor, in utero ex fetus, infections, neonatal metabolic complications. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes stands on single-step or two-step screening/diagnosis strategies. These screening and diagnosis tests should be well known by physicians who are taking care of pregnants. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 348-354

  17. Heidegger and Derrida on the Nature of Questioning: Towards the Rehabilitation of Questioning in Contemporary Philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Heidegger and Derrida controversy about the nature of questioning is revisited in order to rehabilitate questioning as an essential characteristic of contemporary philosophy. After exploring Heidegger's characterization of philosophy as questioning and Derrida's criticism of the

  18. Stable curves and screens on fatgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penner, Robert; McShane, Greg

    The mapping class group invariant ideal cell decomposition of the Teichmueller space of a punctured surface times an open simplex has been used in a number of computations. This paper answers a question about the asymptotics of this decomposition, namely, in a given cell of the decomposition, whi...... curves can be short? Screens are a new combinatorial structure which provide an answer to this question. The heart of the calculation here involves Ptolemy transformations and the triangle inequalities on lambda lengths....

  19. Radiological mass screening in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pater, J. de

    1987-01-01

    Shortly after the end of the Second World War radiological mass screening was introduced in the Netherlands to detect tuberculosis of the lungs. A secondary effect was that by the same procedure lung tumours could also be detected. However as tuberculosis became less common the need for regular X-ray screening declined. The question at this point was whether routine screening should nevertheless be continued for the early detection of lung cancer. The Health Council opposed this suggestion in 1974 as it was doubtful whether early detection would improve the prognosis

  20. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  2. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  3. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  4. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  5. Colour screening and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1978-03-01

    It is proposed that in Quantum Chromodynamics the colour charge of gluons and of anything with zero triality is screened by a dynamical Higgs mechanism with Higgs scalars made out of gluons. The center Z 3 of the gauge group SU(3) is left unbroken in this way, and single quarks, which have nonzero triality, cannot be screened. Long range forces between them persist therefore. Given that the Higgs mechanism produces a mass gap, the most favorable configuration of field lines between e.g. quark and antiquark will be in strings analogous to magnetic field lines in a superconductor. The strings confine the quarks. The screening mechanism, on the other hand, produces not only the mass gap (which leads to string formation) but is also responsible for saturation of forces, i.e. absence of bound states of six quarks etc. (orig.) [de

  6. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  7. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  8. Development of conventional and single-chamber planar solid oxide fuel cells by screen-printing; Developpement de piles a combustible de type SOFC, conventionnelles et mono-chambres, en technologie planaire par serigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotureau, D.

    2005-06-15

    This work is the first of a new research theme of the laboratory in the field of solid oxide planar fuel cells. With his high experience in the sensor field, the objectives were to realize prototypes using a 'low cost' technology like screen-printing, using classical materials in the field of fuel cells, rather than researching new materials having optimum properties which may be damaged during the realisation of the complete fuel cell. These materials are yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) for electrolyte, strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) for cathode and a nickel oxide-YSZ cermet (NiO-YSZ) for anode. The first part of the study consists in structural and electrical characterizations of chosen materials, both on dense pellets and on screen-printed layers of YSZ, LSM or NiO-YSZ. These characterizations showed a good adequation of our materials for a fuel cell application. The second part consists in testing realised prototypes on electrolyte support and on anode support with screen-printed electrodes and electrolyte. The weak obtained performances are mainly due to the low functional temperature (800 C), the thickness of the electrolyte support (about 1 mm) and the porosity of the YSZ screen-printed layers. Finally, we tested in the same time an original device in which both electrodes are exposed to a fuel and air mixture. This promising device inspired from the research on potentiometric sensors developed in the team by N. Guillet (2001), avoids the tightness problem encountered with two gaseous chambers. Moreover, the performances obtained are just twice below than those obtained with a conventional fuel cell with two gaseous chambers. (author)

  9. Pre-donation screening of blood for transfusion transmissible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All processes and inputs were evaluated and costs calculated for predonation testing by simple rapid techniques and post donation screening by ELISA. Results: 5000 prospective donors were tested in the study period. The cost of single rapid Pre-donation testing was less than that of single ELISA Postdonation screen.

  10. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  11. Question Wording (Version 2.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzner, Timo; Menold, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of the basic rules that should be observed when formulating survey questions. The structure of the chapter is oriented towards the cognitive response process that respondents undergo when answering survey questions. This process involves a total of four tasks: understanding the question text, retrieving information from memory, forming a judgment, and formulating a response in the format provided. Using practical examples, the authors demonstrate how que...

  12. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P < .001). Of the 33 questionnaire items about screening beliefs, 11 (33 %) changed favorably following the educational intervention. In the factor analysis, the 33 items were reduced to 8 underlying factors, such as being too busy to undergo screening and worries about screening procedures. We found a limited number of underlying factors that may help explain patient resistance to colon cancer screening.

  13. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  14. Ethical issues related to screening for Preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer M.; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences ...

  15. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  16. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-04-01

    The rationale for breast cancer screening with mammography is deceptively simple: catch it early and reduce mortality from the disease and the need for mastectomies. But breast cancer is a complex problem, and complex problems rarely have simple solutions. Breast screening brings forward the time of diagnosis only slightly compared to the lifetime of a tumour, and screen-detected tumours have a size where metastases are possible. A key question is if screening can prevent metastases, and if the screen-detected tumours are small enough to allow breast conserving surgery rather than mastectomy. A mortality reduction can never justify a medical intervention in its own right, but must be weighed against the harms. Overdiagnosis is the most important harm of breast screening, but has gained wider recognition only in recent years. Screening leads to the detection and treatment of breast cancers that would otherwise never have been detected because they grow very slowly or not at all and would not have been detected in the woman's lifetime in the absence of screening. Screening therefore turns women into cancer patients unnecessarily, with life-long physical and psychological harms. The debate about the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over a long time-period, which is unique in an international context. This was used to study breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, and the use of mastectomies. Also, a systematic review of overdiagnosis in five other countries allowed us to show that about half of the screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are

  17. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This

  18. Reincarnation Revisited: Question format and the distribution of belief in reincarnation in survey research

    OpenAIRE

    Siegers, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Comparing frequency of belief in reincarnation from different international survey projects (RAMP, EVS, ISSP) reveals differences of about 15 to 20 percent depending on the specific question format. If single binary questions are used, then belief in reincarnation is more often reported than if a forced-choice question is used which offers respondents alternatives to belief in reincarnation (e.g. resurrection). One possible explanation for this result is that respondents confuse reincarnation...

  19. THE EVOLUTION OF THE POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wits-user

    1995-02-22

    Feb 22, 1995 ... Israel, judiciaries have developed what is commonly referred to as the political question doctrine to ... The political question doctrine was first enunciated in Marbury by the United States. Supreme Court when it ..... of power from the then Government of Ghana was in conflict with the Constitution required an ...

  20. Three Key Questions on Measuring Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Jay

    2018-01-01

    The author examines three essential questions on educational assessment: What really matters in a contemporary education? How should we assess those things that matter? How might our assessments enhance learning that matters, not just measure it? In answering these question, he argues that schools need a broader collection of measures, with a…

  1. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  2. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  3. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  4. The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

    This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the…

  5. Questioning Techniques in the Gifted Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using questioning techniques for encouraging purposeful inquiry among gifted students in elementary grades through college levels. A variety of questioning strategies is recommended, focusing primarily on the higher end of Bloom's taxonomy to engage students in higher level thinking. A classroom example is provided.…

  6. The beat-wave accelerator: Twenty questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Many questions in the field of accelerator physics, plasma physics and laser technology need to be addressed if a useful accelerator based on the beat-wave principle is to be constructed. Many of these must be considered together rather than sequentially. An attempt has been made to set out a number of the more important questions in a logical manner. (orig.)

  7. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  8. Statements on questions concerning nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, H.; May, H.

    1978-04-01

    Questions and answers compiled in this publication are excerpts from correspondence with citizens during the licensing procedure for the planned nuclear power plant. Subjects: Environmental impacts, environmental monitoring, earthquake safety, aircraft crashes, disaster control, questions concerning liability, waste management, energy and economy policies, and planning procedure. (HP) [de

  9. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  10. Preprocessing documents to answer Dutch questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Mishne, G.A.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a framework for offline extraction of certain types of information from a document collection, and discuss its usage for answering factoid questions. We implemented this approach as a part of the Dutch Question Answering System developed at the University of Amsterdam. The evaluation of

  11. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  12. Modelling the Effects and Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The thesis focused on the potential effects and costs of population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by considering two overarching questions. In the first part of the thesis the potential impact of current screening policies on the CRC disease burden and costs

  13. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School…

  14. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingshan; Moritz, Sabina; Lorenzetti, Diane; Sykes, Lindsay; Straus, Sharon; Quan, Hude

    2012-06-07

    The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening uptake. Intervention

  15. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear. 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective

  16. Athletic Trainers' Attitudes Toward Drug Screening of Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, Chad; Abdenour, Thomas E.; Finnane, David

    1994-01-01

    Since the inception of NCAA-mandated drug screening in 1986, college athletic trainers have found themselves involved at various levels in institutional drug-screening programs. Several legal, moral, and ethical questions have been raised regarding the drug screening of college athletes, and studies have been conducted to rate athletes' attitudes toward this practice. We examined the responses of certified athletic trainers employed in college settings to ascertain their attitudes toward the ...

  17. Young Children and E-Reading: Research to Date and Questions for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B.; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The practice of reading is rapidly moving from print to screen. Young children are not immune from this trend; indeed, many children's principal literacy experiences occur using iPads and other handheld digital devices. This transition raises important questions about how the emergence and development of literacy might change in these new…

  18. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function......, and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly...

  19. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  20. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  1. Meaningless questions in cosmology and relativistic astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Reinhardt, M.

    1976-01-01

    After a general classification of meaningless questions in science we concentrate on empirically meaningless questions. Introducing the concepts of informationally connected, semiconnected and disconnected observers, a formalism for the analysis of the informational structure of space-time is developed. We discuss some problems of epistemological nature in cosmology and black hole physics. A number of questions like 'What was 'before' the initial singularity of the universe' or 'What is the fate of matter in gravitational collapse inside the event horizon' turn out to be empirically meaningless. We also show that a 'wormhole' does not violate causality for the set of informationally connected observers who do not enter it. (orig.) [de

  2. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  3. Mammography screening. Benefits, harms, and informed choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    the justification of breast screening is therefore not a simple question of whether screening reduces breast cancer mortality. This dissertation quantifies the primary benefits and harms of screening mammography. Denmark has an unscreened "control group" because only two geographical regions offered screening over...... are overdiagnosed. An effect on breast cancer mortality is doubtful in today's setting, and overdiagnosis causes an increase in the use of mastectomies. These findings are discussed in the context of tumour biology and stage at diagnosis. The information provided to women in invitations and on the Internet...... exaggerates benefits, participation is directly recommended, and the harms are downplayed or left out, despite agreement that the objective is informed choice. This raises an ethical discussion concerning autonomy versus paternalism, and the difficulty in weighing benefits against harms. Finally, financial...

  4. Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Prospective Massage Therapist Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist Searching for a massage therapist? Get the ... 1. Are you a member of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)? AMTA members commit to the ...

  5. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  6. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  7. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  8. 101 questions on corals: Towards awareness

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    to nature and man-made changes, in every stakeholder, from local population through tourists to managers. This book serves such a purpose by answering most of the questions we ask everyday about corals and reefs....

  9. Prader-Willi Syndrome: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of ... questions regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something ...

  10. Parents' Decisions to Screen Their Newborn for Fragile X Syndrome. FPG Snapshot #63

    Science.gov (United States)

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2011

    2011-01-01

    State newborn screening (NBS) programs have expanded in recent years, and more tests may be added in the future. The expansion of neonatal screening raises ethical, legal, and social questions. The questions surrounding NBS for fragile X syndrome (FXS) typify these concerns. FXS is an X-linked genetic condition that is the most common inherited…

  11. Preoperative serum tetranectin, CA125 and menopausal status used as single markers in screening and in a risk assessment index (RAI) in discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, F D; Høgdall, E; Kjaer, S K

    2009-01-01

    risk for OC for quick referral to highly specialized centers in gynecologic oncology. These aims were addressed in the present study by evaluating serum tetranectin (TN) and serum CA125 on a large number of pre- and postmenopausal women with ovarian tumors and controls. METHODS: The potential ability...... of the markers to discriminate between the four groups (208 benign ovarian tumor, 153 borderline ovarian tumor (BOT), 445 OC and 1333 age matched controls) in OC screening was examined. We also constructed a risk assessment index (RAI) for discrimination between tumor groups based on these variables...... and menopausal status. RESULTS: Highly significant differences in both TN and CA125 levels were found between all the four groups as well as between the different FIGO stages of OC patients. A very high probability of having OC or a benign tumor, respectively, was predicted by the RAI. CONCLUSIONS: In the case-control...

  12. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  13. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural......, but represents a separate attitudinal meaning dimension. Moreover, the findings support that both prenuclear and nuclear fundamental frequency (F0) patterns must be taken into account in the analysis of tune meaning....

  14. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  15. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  16. Heterointerface Screening Effects between Organic Monolayers and Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yu Jie

    2016-01-21

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The nature and extent of electronic screening at heterointerfaces and their consequences on energy level alignment are of profound importance in numerous applications, such as solar cells, electronics etc. The increasing availability of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) brings additional opportunities for them to be used as interlayers in "van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures" and organic/inorganic flexible devices. These innovations raise the question of the extent to which the 2D TMDs participate actively in dielectric screening at the interface. Here we study perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayers adsorbed on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2), bare graphite, and Au(111) surfaces, revealing a strong dependence of the PTCDA HOMO-LUMO gap on the electronic screening effects from the substrate. The monolayer WSe2 interlayer provides substantial, but not complete, screening at the organic/inorganic interface. Our results lay a foundation for the exploitation of the complex interfacial properties of hybrid systems based on TMD materials.

  17. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  18. Formative student-authored question bank: perceptions, question quality and association with summative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason L; Harris, Benjamin H L; Denny, Paul; Smith, Phil

    2018-02-01

    There are few studies on the value of authoring questions as a study method, the quality of the questions produced by students and student perceptions of student-authored question banks. Here we evaluate PeerWise, a widely used and free online resource that allows students to author, answer and discuss multiple-choice questions. We introduced two undergraduate medical student cohorts to PeerWise (n=603). We looked at their patterns of PeerWise usage; identified associations between student engagement and summative exam performance; and used focus groups to assess student perceptions of the value of PeerWise for learning. We undertook item analysis to assess question difficulty and quality. Over two academic years, the two cohorts wrote 4671 questions, answered questions 606 658 times and posted 7735 comments. Question writing frequency correlated most strongly with summative performance (Spearman's rank: 0.24, p=<0.001). Student focus groups found that: (1) students valued curriculum specificity; and (2) students were concerned about student-authored question quality. Only two questions of the 300 'most-answered' questions analysed had an unacceptable discriminatory value (point-biserial correlation <0.2). Item analysis suggested acceptable question quality despite student concerns. Quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that PeerWise is a valuable study tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Instructor Modeling and Online Question Prompts for Supporting Peer-Questioning During Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ikseon; Land, Susan M.; Turgeon, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the combination of instructor modeling and question prompts for peer-questioning influences students' online questioning and answering activities. Fourteen students in a turfgrass management online class at a large land-grant university participated in two three-week sessions of online discussion. Two randomly selected…

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  1. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... of newborns in the U.S. are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. Research improves the ...

  2. Newborn Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain and spinal cord). Newborn screening for sickle cell disease can alert doctors to begin antibiotic treatment before infections happen. Newborn screening also helps doctors monitor symptoms more closely and can detect other disorders affecting ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical cancer using the Pap test has decreased the number of new cases of ... their chance of dying from cervical cancer . A Pap test is commonly used to screen for cervical cancer. ...

  4. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  5. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force reviewed research studies on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening test for prostate cancer. It concluded that ... used to screen for prostate cancer: • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test: This test looks for PSA, a ...

  6. Understanding the relative sensitivity of radiographic screens to scattered radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K L; Whiting, B R; Kocher, T E; Trauernicht, D P; Van Metter, R L

    1996-10-01

    This study compared the relative response of various screen-film and computed radiography (CR) systems to diagnostic radiation exposure. An analytic model was developed to calculate the total energy deposition within the depth of screen and the readout signal generated from this energy for the x-ray detection system. The model was used to predict the relative sensitivity of several screen-film and CR systems to scattered radiation as a function of various parameters, such as x-ray spectra, phantom thickness, phosphor composition, screen thickness, screen configuration (single front screen, single back screen, screen pair), and readout conditions. In addition, measurements of the scatter degradation factor (SDF) for different screen systems by using the beam stop technique with water phantoms were made to verify the model results. Theoretically calculated values of SDF were in good agreement with experimental data. These results are consistent with the common observation that rare-earth screens generally produce better image quality than calcium tungstate screens and the CR screen.

  7. WNT3A gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density variation in postmenopausal mestizo women of an urban Mexican population: findings of a pathway-based high-density single nucleotide screening

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Valdés-Flores, Margarita; Orozco, Lorena; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a common skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and is a common health problem in Mexico. To date, few genes affecting BMD variation in the Mexican population have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes of the Wnt pathway with BMD variation at various skeletal sites in a cohort of postmenopausal Mexican women. A total of 121 SNPs in or near 15 Wnt signa...

  8. Implementation of depression screening in antenatal clinics through tablet computers: results of a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano-Belisario, José S; Gupta, Ajay K; O'Donoghue, John; Ramchandani, Paul; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip

    2017-05-10

    Mobile devices may facilitate depression screening in the waiting area of antenatal clinics. This can present implementation challenges, of which we focused on survey layout and technology deployment. We assessed the feasibility of using tablet computers to administer a socio-demographic survey, the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to 530 pregnant women attending National Health Service (NHS) antenatal clinics across England. We randomised participants to one of two layout versions of these surveys: (i) a scrolling layout where each survey was presented on a single screen; or (ii) a paging layout where only one question appeared on the screen at any given time. Overall, 85.10% of eligible pregnant women agreed to take part. Of these, 90.95% completed the study procedures. Approximately 23% of participants answered Yes to at least one Whooley question, and approximately 13% of them scored 10 points of more on the EPDS. We observed no association between survey layout and the responses given to the Whooley questions, the median EPDS scores, the number of participants at increased risk of self-harm, and the number of participants asking for technical assistance. However, we observed a difference in the number of participants at each EPDS scoring interval (p = 0.008), which provide an indication of a woman's risk of depression. A scrolling layout resulted in faster completion times (median = 4 min 46 s) than a paging layout (median = 5 min 33 s) (p = 0.024). However, the clinical significance of this difference (47.5 s) is yet to be determined. Tablet computers can be used for depression screening in the waiting area of antenatal clinics. This requires the careful consideration of clinical workflows, and technology-related issues such as connectivity and security. An association between survey layout and EPDS scoring intervals needs to be explored further to determine if it corresponds to a survey layout effect

  9. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  10. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...

  11. Screen Speed Designations: A Need For Standardization And Some Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Gilbert

    1981-07-01

    Anyone who has tried to interchange different intensifying screens for a given procedure while maintaining consistent image density, appreciates the problem resulting from the lack of standardized screen speed designations. The problem has resulted, in part, from the variety of product names which we manufactur-ers have coined for our screens to establish screen brand identity and differentiation. These names, in most cases, give no indication of relative screen speed. Presently, there are no standard measuring procedures which the radiographer can use for routinely determining screen speed. The greater non-linear KVp response of the rare-earth phosphors, in fact, makes the use of single number designations deceptive. Different methods for designating screen speeds will be examined and a technique for transposing between different screens will be discussed.

  12. Some of the unanswered questions in finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Dragana M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A very dynamic development of finance in the last 50 years is inter alia probably due to experiments and innovations in this field. Previously theoretical base could not explain and predict movements especially in volatile times. "The new finance" appeared 50 years ago (portfolio theory CAPM, the efficient market theory, M&M theorem and made substantial progress in understanding movements in globalized and internationalized financial markets. However, many questions remain open. The author tries to put emphasis on some of these questions, perfectly aware that these are not the only ones. Unresolved questions are related to company's aims, project's risks, degree of portfolio optimization, importance of liquidity, dividend policy, as well as factors that determine M&A. As the "new finance" is not able to predict and explain volatile movements, a question that should be posed is whether it is appropriate to add some non-economic factors as the behaviorist theory suggests. Although the behaviorist theory is an important part of "new finance", it is unfortunately the only theory able to explain movements in volatile times. In conclusion, many questions still remain unanswered and wait for appropriate theoretical explanations.

  13. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  14. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Key questions and challenges in angiosperm macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana

    2018-03-25

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On safety goals and related questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what safety goals should be established for nuclear power plants has been receiving a great deal of urgent attention and debate recently, both by those responsible for reactor licensing and by others interested in establishing a quantitative measure of reactor safety. The same question, phrased alternately in the forms: ''What is acceptable risk?'' and ''How safe is safe enough?,'' has been debated extensively for quite a long time. The purpose of the present paper, therefore, is to show that the above questions, taken at face value, exist within an unworkable context, which the authors shall call the Old Regulatory Context (ORC), and that within this context lead to several absurdities. They shall argue that this context needs to be replaced by another context, which they call the Decision Theory Context (DTC), and which the authors discuss here

  19. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  20. How Do College Students Solve Logarithm Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Abdul Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate college students’ work with logarithm questions. Qualitative descriptive research is chosen to reach the research goal. The participants of the study were fourteen Indonesian students who were enrolled at different universities in Ankara, Turkey. They worked to solve ten logarithm questions which were classified according to the contents. After analysing their written responses, interviews were conducted to obtain further explanation about their strategies and common mistakes. The study found that participants’ works in dealing with logarithm questions comprised of (a processing base, (b holding the rule, (c separating, (d jumping, and (e conditioning. Therewith, several participants made common mistake because of misconception about logarithm, arithmetical problems, and misuse of algebra concept. Implication of the finding of the study for teaching and learning logarithm were presented.

  1. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century.

  2. Patient question set proliferation: scope and informatics challenges of patient question set management in a large multispecialty practice with case examples pertaining to tobacco use, menopause, and Urology and Orthopedics specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Loo, Sarah J; North, Frederick

    2016-04-12

    Health care institutions have patient question sets that can expand over time. For a multispecialty group, each specialty might have multiple question sets. As a result, question set governance can be challenging. Knowledge of the counts, variability and repetition of questions in a multispecialty practice can help institutions understand the challenges of question set proliferation. We analyzed patient-facing question sets that were subject to institutional governance and those that were not. We examined question variability and number of repetitious questions for a simulated episode of care. In addition to examining general patient question sets, we used specific examples of tobacco questions, questions from two specialty areas, and questions to menopausal women. In our analysis, there were approximately 269 institutionally governed patient question sets with a mean of 74 questions per set accounting for an estimated 20,000 governed questions. Sampling from selected specialties revealed that 50 % of patient question sets were not institutionally governed. We found over 650 tobacco-related questions in use, many with only slight variations. A simulated use case for a menopausal woman revealed potentially over 200 repeated questions. A group practice with multiple specialties can have a large volume of patient questions that are not centrally developed, stored or governed. This results in a lack of standardization and coordination. Patients may be given multiple repeated questions throughout the course of their care, and providers lack standardized question sets to help construct valid patient phenotypes. Even with the implementation of a single electronic health record, medical practices may still have a health information management gap in the ability to create, store and share patient-generated health information that is meaningful to both patients and physicians.

  3. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  4. Questioning the Universe concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoff, Ahren

    2008-01-01

    UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY  What Is Physics? Methodology The First Scientist Why Do You Believe? Back to the Questions How Do We Answer theQuestions? The Need to BeQuantitative Theories Models AestheticJudgments  MOTION Relating the Variables of Motion Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion Constant Speed Constant Acceleration Two-Dimensional Motion FORCES The Fundamental Forces A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity Weight How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's SecondLaw Newton, the Apple, and the Moon Combining Two Laws The Mass of the Earth Newton's Firs

  5. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoglobulin G avidity techniques for screening of anti: Toxoplasma antibodies among single serum sample pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Rajaii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is that pregnant women acquire the infection during gestation; diagnosis of the acute infection during pregnancy is a complex subject of maternal toxoplasmosis. Thus, the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG and/or IgM Toxoplasma antibodies in a single serum sample drawn during gestation cannot be used to define whether the infection was recently acquired or chronic. Materials and Methods: At this cross-sectional descriptive study, sera of 391 pregnant women examined and compared. They were in an age range of 21-35 years, referred by gynecologists and infectious disease specialists, during March 2012-April 2013. They have referred, 215 (54.98%, 102 (26%, 74 (18.92% in the first, second and third trimesters of gestation, respectively. For each of them, a questionnaire was completed and serum samples were prepared in an equal condition, examined according to the procedures of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and IgG Avidity techniques. Results: We have found 111 (28.38% seronegative and 280 (71.61% seropositive cases by IIF and 124 (31.70% seronegative, 267 (68.28% seropositive cases by ELISA. The IgG avidity test confirmed 45 (69.23% and 7 (10.76% doubtful cases of IgM test in IIF and ELISA techniques. Conclusions: This study highlights how to manage pregnant women with toxoplasmosis, especially in a single serum sample condition.

  6. Ação profissional dos assistentes sociais no sistema único de assistência social: problematizações resultantes de uma pesquisa empírica no RS = Professional activity of social assistants in the single social assistance system: questionings resulting from empiric research in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Vini Rabassa da

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho realiza uma reflexão sobre a ação profissional realizada no Sistema Único de Assistência Social (SUAS a partir de três eixos: os espaços sócio-ocupacionais, os procedimentos usados e o desenvolvimento da autonomia dos usuários. Inicia com uma apresentação da pesquisa sobre seus participantes. Usa dados empíricos obtidos com a aplicação de questionários, realização de entrevistas e discussão realizada em um workshop com alguns assistentes sociais que participaram nos momentos anteriores da pesquisa. Evidencia um período de transição da política, o qual produz novas possibilidades para a ação profissional, porém sem romper com os limites concretos de sua inserção em um modelo neoliberal. Problematiza o CRAS como lócus contraditório que pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de uma autonomia conservadora ou a descoberta de uma consciência de classe direcionada para a busca de uma sociedade justa, democrática e igualitária

  7. Physician behaviors to promote informed decisions for prostate cancer screening: a National Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kallen, Michael A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Galliher, James M; Swank, Paul R; Chan, Evelyn C Y; Volk, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Clinical guidelines for prostate cancer screening (PCS) advise physicians to discuss the potential harms and benefits of screening. However, there is a lack of training programs for informed decision-making (IDM), and it is unknown which IDM behaviors physicians have the most difficulty performing. Identifying difficult behaviors can help tailor training programs. In the context of developing a physician-IDM program for PCS, we aimed to describe physicians' use of nine key IDM behaviors for the PCS discussion and to examine the relation between the behaviors and physician characteristics. A cross-sectional sample of The American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network completed surveys about their behavior regarding PCS (N = 246; response rate = 58%). The surveys included nine physician key IDM behaviors for PCS and a single-item question describing their general practice style for PCS. The most common IDM behavior was to invite men to ask questions. The two least common reported behaviors concerned patients uncertain about screening (i.e., arrange follow-up and provide additional information for undecided men). Physicians reported difficulty with these two behaviors regardless whether they reported to discuss or not to discuss PCS with patients. Reported use of key IDM behaviors was associated with a general practice style for PCS and being affiliated with a residency-training program. Physician training programs for IDM should include physician skills to address the needs of patients uncertain about screening. Future research should determine if actual behavior is associated with self-reported behavior for the PCS discussion.

  8. Consequences of false-positive screening mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosteson, Anna N A; Fryback, Dennis G; Hammond, Cristina S; Hanna, Lucy G; Grove, Margaret R; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D

    2014-06-01

    False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the US Preventive Services Task Force. To measure the effect of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility, and attitudes toward future screening. The Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life substudy telephone survey was performed shortly after screening and 1 year later at 22 DMIST sites and included randomly selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. The 6-question short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory state scale (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D instrument with US scoring. Attitudes toward future screening as measured by women's self-report of future intention to undergo mammographic screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to undergo a hypothetical new type of mammography that would identify as many cancers with half the false-positive results. Among 1450 eligible women invited to participate, 1226 (84.6%) were enrolled, with follow-up interviews obtained in 1028 (83.8%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6, 35.2 vs 32.7), but health utility scores did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at 1 year. Future screening intentions differed by group (25.7% vs 14.2% more likely in false-positive vs negative groups); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (9.9% vs 10.5% in false-positive vs negative groups). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.54-2.93), younger age (2.78; 1.5-5.0), and poorer health (1.63; 1.09-2.43). Women's anticipated high-level anxiety regarding future false-positive mammograms was associated with willingness

  9. Use of key feature questions in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Elisabeth; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2013-03-07

    To prove the hypothesis that procedural knowledge might be tested using Key Feature (KF) questions in written exams, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation (TiHo) pioneered this format in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students. Exams in veterinary medicine are either tested orally, practically, in written form or digitally in written form. The only question formats which were previously used in the written e-exams were Type A Single-choice Questions, Image Analysis and Short Answer Questions. E-exams are held at the TiHo using the electronic exam system Q [kju:] by CODIPLAN GmbH. In order to examine less factual knowledge and more procedural knowledge and thus the decision-making skills of the students, a new question format was integrated into the exam regulations by the TiHo and some examiner used this for the first time in the computer based assessment. Following a successful pilot phase in formative e-exams for students, KF questions were also introduced in summative exams. A number of multiple choice questions were replaced by KF questions in four computer based assessment in veterinary medicine. The subjects were internal medicine, surgery, reproductive medicine and dairy science. The integration and linking of KF questions into the computer based assessment system Q [kju:] went without any complications. The new question format was well received both by the students and the teaching staff who formulated the questions. The hypothesis could be proven that Key Feature questions represent a practicable addition to the existing e-exam question formats for testing procedural knowledge. The number of KF questions will be therefore further increased in examinations in veterinary medicine at the TiHo.

  10. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  11. Aging and Depression: Some Unanswered Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Lissy F.

    1976-01-01

    The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions which this author raises. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. (Author)

  12. Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

  13. Philosophy, Human Development and National Question | Ekei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...

  14. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  15. WDM Questions and Answers-Eng

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rsamir

    WDM Questions and Answers. Why is there growing concern about water issues in the MENA region? The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the most water-scarce region in the world. The renewable water resources per capita is currently 1,100 m. 3 per person per year, compared to a global average of 8,900.

  16. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  17. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  18. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  19. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  20. Transnational aspects of the Kurdish question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Simplifying a complex question, one may observe that the objectives of all Kurdish political movements of the past century have concerned two central issues, culture and territory. The Kurdish language and the region historically known as Kurdistan are the Kurds’ most important national symbols.

  1. Preposed Subjects in Questions: Some Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1977-01-01

    The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)

  2. Semantics-based Question Generation and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, X.; Bouma, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a question generation system based on the approach of semantic rewriting. The state-of-the-art deep linguistic parsing and generation tools are employed to convert (back and forth) between the natural language sentences and their meaning representations in the form of Minimal

  3. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  4. Intellectuals, Tertiary Education and Questions of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In contemplating the roles and responsibilities of intellectuals in the 21st century, the notion of "difference" is significant in at least two senses. First, work on the politics of difference allows us to consider the question "For whom does the intellectual speak?" in a fresh light. Second, we can ask: "To what extent, and in what ways, might…

  5. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  6. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  7. REPRODUCIBILITY OF CHILDHOOD RESPIRATORY SYMPTOM QUESTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUNEKREEF, B; GROOT, B; RIJCKEN, B; HOEK, G; STEENBEKKERS, A; DEBOER, A

    The reproducibility of answers to childhood respiratory symptom questions was investigated by administering two childhood respiratory symptom questionnaires twice, with a one month interval, to the same population of Dutch school children. The questionnaires were completed by the parents of 410

  8. The Miracle Question & Therapy with College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    Solution-focused therapy is based on the premise that client goals and solutions are more important than problems the client depicts in sessions. The miracle question technique is used in the first session to help the client construct and consider a future without the problem: "Suppose that one night, while you were asleep, there was a…

  9. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Predictive Power of Subjective Probability Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Jochem; van Soest, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the predictive validity of stated intentions for actual behaviour. In the context of the 2017 Dutch parliamentary election, we compare how well polls based on probabilistic and deterministic questions line up with subsequent votes. Our empirical strategy is built around a

  11. Questioning the Technical Quality of Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.

    1993-01-01

    Ongoing research finds that alternatives to formal tests carry hidden costs and require trade-offs. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is studying how performance assessments work so that they may be designed to help students reach their highest potential. This article raises priority questions,…

  12. Questions in Crocodilian Physiology | Gans | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphologists, physiologists, behaviourists and ecologists have traditionally asked different and often mutually exclusive questions within their different conceptual frameworks. Only the concept of natural selection and the idea that the animals have been modified for one or another mode of life history provide a common ...

  13. Interdisciplinarity and the Question of Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James, IV

    2012-01-01

    The question of being adds another dimension to interdisciplinary theory and practice. The interdisciplinary approach to complex problems requires engaging with multiple perspectives from various disciplines, schools of thought, ideologies, and belief systems. All of these perspectives possess underlying and often unacknowledged ontological…

  14. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  15. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  16. Input Enhancement and L2 Question Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lydia; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which form-focused instruction and corrective feedback (i.e., "input enhancement"), provided within a primarily communicative program, contribute to learners' accuracy in question formation. Study results are interpreted as evidence that input enhancement can bring about genuine changes in learners' interlanguage…

  17. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  18. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  19. Guiding Questions for Data Analysis, by Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake County Public School System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document, which is provided by the Data and Accountability Department staff at Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), is to be used as a resource to help guide the review of student data. This document provides examples of questions to consider when reviewing frequently accessed reports located in Case21, Quickr, EVAAS®, mClass®, or…

  20. Questions of Value to this presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Questions of Value to this presentation. Does a self assembly of collagen act smart? Can man make collagen based smart biomaterials? To what beneficial uses smart collagen based biomaterials can be put to?

  1. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Bickel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism have impairments in communication that make it difficult for them to acquire the ability to ask appropriate wh- questions. This is a very important skill, and one that clinicians often do not know how to target. Search terms were entered into several databases to locate studies published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies…

  2. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  3. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  4. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  5. Questioning the Athlete's Right to Sue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, A

    1989-03-01

    The once-common doctrine that an athlete assumes the risks of the sport in which he or she competes almost disappeared in the 1970s. In the following interview, legal expert Gerald J. Todaro, JD, questions an athlete's right to sue for an injury that occurred in an inherently dangerous sport.

  6. Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead

    2003-01-01

    The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E original movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study…

  7. Question Word in the Mandarin Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yunyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interrogative sentence in Mandarin language, a question word can be placed in the beginning, middle or end of a sentence. Because of the different nation and culture, when a foreign student learns Mandarin, they find it difficult to understand the question words and the position of the question words in that language. Because of that, the writer proposes to explain such problems. This research aims to find out what are the types of question words in Mandarin, and also to explain the function and usage of question words in the Mandarin interrogative sentence. An interrogative sentence is a very important sentence. In Mandarin, the following question words: 谁(shuí “Who”,在哪里(zài nǎli “where”, 在哪儿(zài nǎ’er “where”,为什么(wèi shénme “why”, 怎么(zěnme “why”,多少(duō shǎo) “how many”,多久(duō jiǔ “how long”,什么时候 (shénme shíhòu “when”,什么(shénme “what”,做什么(zuò shénme “why”,干 什么(gàn shénme “why”,干嘛(gànma “why” and so on are used to ask “who”, “where”, “what”, “how much”, “when”, “what time”, and “why”. Those words have different functions and usage. Each sentence has a certain structure and word order. A question word can be placed in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. When the place is changed, there is a possibility of miscommunication.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160106

  8. A comparative study of mutation screening of sarcomeric genes (MYBPC3, MYH7, TNNT2 using single gene approach versus targeted gene panel next generation sequencing in a cohort of HCM patients in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: NGS enables simultaneous sequencing of large numbers of associated genes in genetic heterogeneous disorders, in a more rapid and cost-effective manner than traditional technologies. However there have been limited direct comparisons between NGS and more established technologies to assess the sensitivity and false negative rates of this new approach. The scope of the present manuscript is to compare variants detected in MYBPC3, MYH7 and TNNT2 genes using the stepwise dHPLC/Sanger versus targeted NGS. Methods: In this study, we have analysed a group of 150 samples of patients from the Bibliotheca Alexandrina-Aswan Heart Centre National HCM program. The genetic testing was simultaneously undertaken by high throughput denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC followed by Sanger based sequencing and targeted next generation deep sequencing using panel of inherited cardiac genes (ICC. The panel included over 100 genes including the 3 sarcomeric genes. Analysis of the sequencing data of the 3 genes was undertaken in a double blinded strategy. Results: NGS analysis detected all pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants identified by dHPLC (50 in total, some samples had double hits. There was a 0% false negative rate for NGS based analysis. Nineteen variants were missed by dHPLC and detected by NGS, thus increasing the diagnostic yield in this co- analysed cohort from 22.0% (33/150 to 31.3% (47/150.Of interest to note that the mutation spectrum in this Egyptian HCM population revealed a high rate of homozygosity in MYBPC3 and MYH7 genes in comparison to other population studies (6/150, 4%. None of the homozygous samples were detected by dHPLC analysis. Conclusion: NGS provides a useful and rapid tool to allow panoramic screening of several genes simultaneously with a high sensitivity rate amongst genes of known etiologic role allowing high throughput analysis of HCM patients and relevant control series in a less characterised

  9. Screening criteria for ILs used in NH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Groll, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a properties-optimization work for the working fluids in NH3 / ionic liquid (ILs) based single-effect absorption heat pumps. The optimum parameters of the IL can be used as criteria in screening task-specified ILs, which play the role of absorbents, in absorption heat pumps.

  10. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...

  11. November 6, 2017, Virtual Meeting on the Charge Questions for the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) Meeting on Endocrine Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    This virtual FIFRA SAP meeting will be discus questions on Continuing Development of Alternative High-Throughput Screens to Determine Endocrine Disruption, focusing on Androgen Receptor, Steroidogenesis, and Thyroid Pathways

  12. Haecceitas and the Question of Being: Heidegger and Duns Scotus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Tonner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the thirty years since his death Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 hasemerged as one of the key philosophers of the 20th Century. Yet he claimed to be moved throughout the entirety of his work by a single question: the question of the meaning of being. According to Heidegger the ancient Greek thinkers experienced being with a sense of wonder that has been lost in modernity. There has never been a satisfactory answer to this question and philosophers are no longer even perplexed by their inability to answer it. It was the question of being (Seinsfrage that Heidegger set out to confront in his unfinished master work Being and Time (1927. The young Heidegger years before the publication of that work had been afforded an insight to an aspect of what would become his central concern from what at first might seem an unlikely source: the medieval philosopher and theologian John Duns Scotus.Scotus inspired Heidegger in so far as his thought was in proximity to “real life,” and while he would later move decisively away from the position he took in his ‘scotus Book,” in a move that has been referred to as the first “turn” in his thought from the ‘system of Catholicism” to liberal Protestantism, Scotus provided the young scholar with an insight into human individuality that would prove decisive in his mature work. Despite this move away from any kind of “onto-logic,” there is an element of Heidegger’s thought that is influenced by Scotus (1265/6-1308, one of the brightest stars of medieval philosophy. So, while my investigation is conducted with the fact of this turn in mind, my aim is to explore this element.

  13. Now That's a Good Question! How to Promote Cognitive Rigor through Classroom Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Erik M. Francis explores how one of the most fundamental instructional strategies--questioning--can provide the proper scaffolding to deepen student thinking, understanding, and application of knowledge. You'll learn: (1) Techniques for using questioning to extend and evaluate student learning experiences; (2) Eight different kinds…

  14. The Use of Remotely Controlled Mandibular Positioner as a Predictive Screening Tool for Mandibular Advancement Device Therapy in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea through Single-Night Progressive Titration of the Mandible: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastoer, Chloé; Dieltjens, Marijke; Oorts, Eline; Hamans, Evert; Braem, Marc J.; Van de Heyning, Paul H.; Vanderveken, Olivier M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To perform a review of the current evidence regarding the use of a remotely controlled mandibular positioner (RCMP) and to analyze the efficacy of RCMP as a predictive selection tool in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with oral appliances that protrude the mandible (OAm), exclusively relying on single-night RCMP titration. Methods: An extensive literature search is performed through PubMed.com, Thecochranelibrary.com (CENTRAL only), Embase.com, and recent conference meeting abstracts in the field. Results: A total of 254 OSA patients from four full-text articles and 5 conference meeting abstracts contribute data to the review. Criteria for successful RCMP test and success with OAm differed between studies. Study populations were not fully comparable due to range-difference in baseline apneahypopnea index (AHI). However, in all studies elimination of airway obstruction events during sleep by RCMP titration predicted OAm therapy success by the determination of the most effective target protrusive position (ETPP). A statistically significant association is found between mean AHI predicted outcome with RCMP and treatment outcome with OAm on polysomnographic or portable sleep monitoring evaluation (p titration of the mandible: a systematic review. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(10):1411–1421. PMID:27568892

  15. WNT3A gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density variation in postmenopausal mestizo women of an urban Mexican population: findings of a pathway-based high-density single nucleotide screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; García-Ortiz, Humberto; Castillejos-López, Manuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Valdés-Flores, Margarita; Orozco, Lorena; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Salmerón, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) is a common skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and is a common health problem in Mexico. To date, few genes affecting BMD variation in the Mexican population have been identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes of the Wnt pathway with BMD variation at various skeletal sites in a cohort of postmenopausal Mexican women. A total of 121 SNPs in or near 15 Wnt signaling pathway genes and 96 ancestry informative markers were genotyped in 425 postmenopausal women using the Illumina GoldenGate microarray SNP genotyping method. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in total hip, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and lumbar spine. Associations were tested by linear regression for quantitative traits adjusting for possible confounding factors. SNP rs752107 in WNT3A was strongly associated with decreased total hip BMD showing the highest significance under the recessive model (P = 0.00012). This SNP is predicted to disrupt a binding site for microRNA-149. In addition, a polymorphism of the Wnt antagonist DKK2 was associated with BMD in femoral neck under a recessive model (P = 0.009). Several LRP4, LRP5, and LRP6 gene variants showed site-specific associations with BMD. In conclusion, this is the first report associating Wnt pathway gene variants with BMD in the Mexican population.

  16. Mammography screening in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, S.; Diekmann, F.

    2008-01-01

    Available data suggest that early detection of breast cancer by mammography screening can reduce mortality by about 25%. Intensified monitoring of women with a family history of breast cancer and regular general screening have recently been introduced in Germany. The screening program is expected to be fully established by 2008. Following its successful introduction (participation rates between 65 and 80%), the German screening program will be conducted and evaluated in accordance with the European guidelines. At least in the screening trials that were conducted prior to the now established screening program the quality criteria were more than fulfilled (e.g. cancer detection rate in Bremen 8.7, Wiesbaden 9.4, Weser-Ems region 8.3/1000). Additional parameters that can be taken into account for quality assurance are the overdiagnosis bias, lead time bias, length bias and selection bias. Moreover, there are some factors that are specific to the German program compared with the breast cancer screening programs already established in other countries. One of these is the intensified screening program for high-risk women (ca. 5% of all carcinomas) and as a result fewer women with an increased genetic risk of breast cancer will be represented in the general screening program. The German screening program involves only a few university centers and hospital-based physicians, which may have adverse effects on research and development as well as mammography training in the future. Therefore, the screening program should also provide for the investigation of new techniques or emerging techniques (e.g. CAD systems in screening mammography) in the future. (orig.) [de

  17. A two-question tool to assess the risk of repeated falls in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr?guez-Molinero, Alejandro; G?lvez-Barr?n, C?sar; Narvaiza, Leire; Mi?arro, Antonio; Ruiz, Jorge; Valldosera, Esther; Gonzalo, Natalia; Ng, Thalia; Sanguino, Mar?a Jes?s; Yuste, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Older adults' perception of their own risk of fall has never been included into screening tools. The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of questions on subjects' self-perception of their own risk of fall. Methods This prospective study was conducted on a probabilistic sample of 772 Spanish community-dwelling older adults, who were followed-up for a one year period. At a baseline visit, subjects were asked about their recent history of falls (question 1: 'H...

  18. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  19. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  20. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  2. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Fitness Nutrition Puberty School Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Gradeschool > School > Health Screenings at School ...

  3. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  5. Outstanding questions: physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics agrees very well with experiment, but many important questions remain unanswered, among them are the following. What is the origin of particle masses and are they due to a Higgs boson? How does one understand the number of species of matter particles and how do they mix? What is the origin of the difference between matter and antimatter, and is it related to the origin of the matter in the Universe? What is the nature of the astrophysical dark matter? How does one unify the fundamental interactions? How does one quantize gravity? In this article, I introduce these questions and discuss how they may be addressed by experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, with particular attention to the search for the Higgs boson and supersymmetry.

  6. Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O. G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental ...... to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology....... scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones...

  7. Searching for a question and an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Le Roux

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on Eckart Otto’s theory of the Pentateuch, his contribution to Pro Pent (the “Project for the study of the Pentateuch” and his influence on our understanding of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. There was something in his thinking that appealed to many South African scholars; an appeal that softened down the harsh criticism and blunted the sharp edges of Pentateuch study of the past two centuries. And this was accomplished by turning the focus to the theological and ethical issues, which were the driving forces behind the formation of the Pentateuch. Put differently: to show the Pentateuch as an answer to a question and Pentateuch criticism as a constant search for the questions to which the Pentateuch is answer.

  8. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The ethics of physicists in questions

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Four CERN physicists, Peggie Rimmer, Ugo Amaldi, Alain Blondel, and Jean-Marie Le Goff, answered questions from 150 college students last Monday during a debate on the theme of the ethics of physics. Organized by CERN and the Department of public instruction of the Canton of Geneva, the meeting followed a reading by the students of the play Die Physiker, by Friedrich Dürrenmatt, which raises the problem of political exploitation of discoveries made during the second world war. The Minister of Education of the Canton de Genève, Mrs Martine Brunschwig-Graf, took part in the debate. The questions posed by students were not lacking in pertinence : Should a physicist reveal a discovery that is dangerous in his opinion ? Who are responsible, those who make the discoveries or those who use them ?

  10. Nuclear power: the question of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Maurer, D.; Thomas, K.

    1978-01-01

    Technologists have been surprised - in view of the persuasive technical arguments - at the strength of public opposition to nuclear power. But their assumption that information and argument can, by their rational force, change public opinion on sensitive issues, rests on oversimplified theories about attitude formation. When the grounds for opposition to or approval of a controversial programme are investigated - as the authors of this article have done, on the issue of nuclear power - it becomes apparent that attitude formation is not, in the technologists' sense, a 'rational' process. Here the authors describe an attitude model, and present the results of its application to the question of public attitudes to nuclear power - including the discovery of the relatively minor role that technical and environmental questions play in determining those attitudes. (author)

  11. Comparison between Two Assessment Methods; Modified Essay Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi S.N.* MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Using the best assessment methods is an important factor in educational development of health students. Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions are two prevalent methods of assessing the students. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of modified essay questions and multiple choice questions in occupational health engineering and work laws courses. Materials & Methods This semi-experimental study was performed during 2013 to 2014 on occupational health students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The class of occupational health and work laws course in 2013 was considered as group A and the class of 2014 as group B. Each group had 50 students.The group A students were assessed by modified essay questions method and the group B by multiple choice questions method.Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software by paired T test and odd’s ratio. Findings The mean grade of occupational health and work laws course was 18.68±0.91 in group A (modified essay questions and was 18.78±0.86 in group B (multiple choice questions which was not significantly different (t=-0.41; p=0.684. The mean grade of chemical chapter (p<0.001 in occupational health engineering and harmful work law (p<0.001 and other (p=0.015 chapters in work laws were significantly different between two groups. Conclusion Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions methods have nearly the same student assessing value for the occupational health engineering and work laws course.

  12. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  13. Questions that calls for a genius

    CERN Multimedia

    McKie, Robin

    2006-01-01

    "Last week an eccentric Russian was tipped to win a "Maths Nobel" for solving the fiendishly difficult Poincare Conjecture, one of seven major "millennium" mathematical mysteries that have been earmarked for urgent solution. But these problems are just the tip of a scientific iceberg. Other fields are also beset by frustrating theoretical failures. Here Robin McKie highlights the most baffing of those questions and suggests how science will one day provide those elusive answers." (1 page)

  14. PROBLEM QUESTIONS OF QUALITATIVE EDUCATION OF PEDIATRICIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Erman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the article put questions of qualitative higher education of pediatricians, necessity of addition of practical work hours in pediatric and maternity care institutions. Also the article describes the ways of skills acquisition corresponding to the tasks of priority national project «Health» with future specialists.Key words: children, education, pediatricians, national project «Health».(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:5-9

  15. Essential Questions on Suicide Bereavement and Postvention

    OpenAIRE

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    During the past decades public and research interest in postvention, i.e., support for families and communities after a suicide, has increased. However, the postvention field is still facing a number of important challenges and questions. This article aims to discuss a series of essential issues on suicide bereavement and postvention, regarding the current state of the art and future developments. Who is a suicide survivor and how many suicide survivors are there? Is suicide bereavement diffe...

  16. Interviews concerning topical questions in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatz, U.; Schatz, A.; Stephany, M.; Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the Nuclex meeting, October 3-7, 1978, Basle/Switzerland, the editorial department of 'Atom und Strom' questioned some leading scientists in nuclear technology on particularly relevant topics. The following subjects were discussed: - How long can we do without nuclear energy, - Modern technology for nuclear power plants, - Nuclear fuel cycle and environment, - Nuclear energy and European Communities, - Nuclear energy and its risks (reflections on incidents). (orig./UA) [de

  17. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Ankylosing Spondylitis: a Reflection and a Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Deysi Hernández Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane, joint entheses and para-articular structures of the spine, including the sacroiliac joints and limbs. We present a case of ankylosing spondylitis that had evolved for 12 years despite the relatively early diagnosis and treatment, showing flexion deformity and limitation of spinal movements. On radiological examination an early evolution to ankylosis was observed, which motivated us to make a reflection and a question.

  19. The central question for the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The principal question for the world's oil industry is how to replace today's and tomorrow's consumption of oil with new reserves. This is very important for the oil companies. Reduced reserves mean reduced values, which immediately has an impact on the balance sheet and the share price. The next ten years the world will consume over 300 billion barrels of oil and it may appear very difficult to replace this with new reserves

  20. Neural network classification of questionable EGRET events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetre, C. A.; Norris, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy gamma rays (greater than 20 MeV) pair producing in the spark chamber of the Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) give rise to a characteristic but highly variable 3-D locus of spark sites, which must be processed to decide whether the event is to be included in the database. A significant fraction (about 15 percent or 10(exp 4) events/day) of the candidate events cannot be categorized (accept/reject) by an automated rule-based procedure; they are therefore tagged, and must be examined and classified manually by a team of expert analysts. We describe a feedforward, back-propagation neural network approach to the classification of the questionable events. The algorithm computes a set of coefficients using representative exemplars drawn from the preclassified set of questionable events. These coefficients map a given input event into a decision vector that, ideally, describes the correct disposition of the event. The net's accuracy is then tested using a different subset of preclassified events. Preliminary results demonstrate the net's ability to correctly classify a large proportion of the events for some categories of questionables. Current work includes the use of much larger training sets to improve the accuracy of the net.