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Sample records for single scaling constant

  1. Post place and route design-technology co-optimization for scaling at single-digit nodes with constant ground rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattii, Luca; Milojevic, Dragomir; Debacker, Peter; Berekovic, Mladen; Sherazi, Syed Muhammad Yasser; Chava, Bharani; Bardon, Marie Garcia; Schuddinck, Pieter; Rodopoulos, Dimitrios; Baert, Rogier; Gerousis, Vassilios; Ryckaert, Julien; Raghavan, Praveen

    2018-01-01

    Standard-cell design, technology choices, and place and route (P&R) efficiency are deeply interrelated in CMOS technology nodes below 10 nm, where lower number of tracks cells and higher pin densities pose increasingly challenging problems to the router in terms of congestion and pin accessibility. To evaluate and downselect the best solutions, a holistic design-technology co-optimization approach leveraging state-of-the-art P&R tools is thus necessary. We adopt such an approach using the imec N7 technology platform, with contacted poly pitch of 42 nm and tightest metal pitch of 32 nm, by comparing post P&R area of an IP block for different standard cell configurations, technology options, and cell height. Keeping the technology node and the set of ground rules unchanged, we demonstrate that a careful combination of these solutions can enable area gains of up to 50%, comparable with the area benefits of migrating to another node. We further demonstrate that these area benefits can be achieved at isoperformance with >20% reduced power. As at the end of the CMOS roadmap, conventional scaling enacted through pitch reduction is made more and more challenging by constraints imposed by lithography limits, material resistivity, manufacturability, and ultimately wafer cost, the approach shown herein offers a valid, attractive, and low-cost alternative.

  2. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, and for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hamiltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant -valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamiltonians employing full spatial ...

  3. Scale solutions and coupling constant in electrodynamics of vector particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Boos, E.E.; Kurennoy, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    A new approach in nonrenormalizable gauge theories is studied, the electrodynamics of vector particles being taken as an example. One and two-loop approximations in Schwinger-Dyson set of equations are considered with account for conditions imposed by gauge invariance. It is shown, that solutions with scale asymptotics can occur in this case but only for a particular value of coupling constant. This value in solutions obtained is close to the value of the fine structure constant α=1/137

  4. Scaling behaviour of leptonic decay constants for heavy quarkonia and heavy mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of QCD sum rules one uses a scheme, allowing one to apply the conditions of both nonrelativistic heavy quark motion inside mesons and the heavy quark flavour independence of nonsplitting nS-state density. In the leading order an analitic expression is derived for leptonic constants of both heavy quarkonia and heavy mesons with a single heavy quark. The expression allows one explicitly to determine scaling properties of the constants. 24 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck-scale phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Smolin, Lee; Starodubtsev, Artem

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple algebraic mechanism for the emergence of deformations of Poincare symmetries in the low-energy limit of quantum theories of gravity. The deformations, called κ-Poincare algebras, are parametrized by a dimensional parameter proportional to the Planck mass, and imply modified energy-momentum relations of a type that may be observable in near future experiments. Our analysis assumes that the low energy limit of a quantum theory of gravity must also involve a limit in which the cosmological constant is taken very small with respect to the Planck scale, and makes use of the fact that in some quantum theories of gravity the cosmological constant results in the (anti)de Sitter symmetry algebra being quantum deformed. We show that deformed Poincare symmetries inevitably emerge in the small-cosmological-constant limit of quantum gravity in 2 + 1 dimensions, where geometry does not have local degrees of freedom. In 3 + 1 dimensions we observe that, besides the quantum deformation of the (anti)de Sitter symmetry algebra, one must also take into account that there are local degrees of freedom leading to a renormalization of the generators for energy and momentum of the excitations. At the present level of development of quantum gravity in 3 + 1 dimensions, it is not yet possible to derive this renormalization from first principles, but we establish the conditions needed for the emergence of a deformed low energy limit symmetry algebra also in the case of 3 + 1 dimensions

  6. Single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite

    KAUST Repository

    Speziale, Sergio

    2008-07-01

    The single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The six non-zero elastic constants of this trigonal mineral are: C11 = 35.1 ± 0.1 GPa, C12 = 21.9 ±0.1 GPa, C13 = 20.0 ± 0.5 GPa, C14 = 0.6 ± 0.2 GPa, C33 = 55 ± 1 GPa, C44 = 11.0 ± 0.2 GPa. The Hill average of the aggregate bulk, shear modulus and the polycrystal Young\\'s modulus and Poisson\\'s ratio are 27.3 ± 0.9 GPa, 9.5 ± 0.8 GPa, 25 ± 2 GPa and 0.34 ± 0.02 respectively. The longitudinal and shear elastic anisotropy are C33/C11 = 0.64 ± 0.01 and C66/C44 =0.60 ± 0.01. The elastic anisotropy in ettringite is connected to its crystallographic structure. Stiff chains of [Al(OH)6]3- octahedra alternating with triplets of Ca2+ in eight-fold coordination run parallel to the c-axis leading to higher stiffness along this direction. The determination of the elastic stiffness tensor can help in the prediction of the early age properties of cement paste when ettringite crystals precipitate and in the modeling of both internal and external sulfate attack when secondary ettringite formation leads to expansion of concrete. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite

    KAUST Repository

    Speziale, Sergio; Jiang, Fuming; Mao, Zhu; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Duffy, Thomas S.; Schilling, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    The single-crystal elastic constants of natural ettringite were determined by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The six non-zero elastic constants of this trigonal mineral are: C11 = 35.1 ± 0.1 GPa, C12 = 21.9 ±0.1 GPa, C13 = 20.0 ± 0.5 GPa, C14 = 0.6 ± 0.2 GPa, C33 = 55 ± 1 GPa, C44 = 11.0 ± 0.2 GPa. The Hill average of the aggregate bulk, shear modulus and the polycrystal Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are 27.3 ± 0.9 GPa, 9.5 ± 0.8 GPa, 25 ± 2 GPa and 0.34 ± 0.02 respectively. The longitudinal and shear elastic anisotropy are C33/C11 = 0.64 ± 0.01 and C66/C44 =0.60 ± 0.01. The elastic anisotropy in ettringite is connected to its crystallographic structure. Stiff chains of [Al(OH)6]3- octahedra alternating with triplets of Ca2+ in eight-fold coordination run parallel to the c-axis leading to higher stiffness along this direction. The determination of the elastic stiffness tensor can help in the prediction of the early age properties of cement paste when ettringite crystals precipitate and in the modeling of both internal and external sulfate attack when secondary ettringite formation leads to expansion of concrete. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Constant-Fluence Area Scaling for Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinko, John E.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted on polyoxymethylene (POM, trade name Delrin registered ) propellants in air at atmospheric pressure. A TEA CO 2 laser with maximum output power up to 20 J was used to deliver 300 ns pulses of 10.6 μm radiation to POM targets. Ablation at a constant fluence and a range of spot areas was achieved by varying combinations of the laser energy and spot size. Relevant empirical scaling laws governing laser propulsion parameters such as the momentum coupling coefficient (C m ) and specific impulse (I sp ) for spot areas within a range of about 0.05-0.25 cm 2 are presented. Experimental measurements of imparted impulse, C m , I sp , and ablated mass per pulse were made using dynamic piezoelectric force sensors and a scientific balance. Finally, Schlieren ICCD imaging of shock waves and vapor plumes was performed and analyzed

  9. Scale of gravity and the cosmological constant within a landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael L.; Salem, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    It is possible that the scale of gravity, parametrized by the apparent Planck mass, may obtain different values within different universes in an encompassing multiverse. We investigate the range over which the Planck mass may scan while still satisfying anthropic constraints. The window for anthropically allowed values of the Planck mass may have important consequences for landscape predictions. For example, if the likelihood to observe some value of the Planck mass is weighted by the inflationary expansion factors of the universes that contain that value, then it appears extremely unlikely to observe the value of the Planck mass that is measured within our universe. This is another example of the runaway inflation problem discussed in recent literature. We also show that the window for the Planck mass significantly weakens the anthropic constraint on the cosmological constant when both are allowed to vary over a landscape

  10. Evaluation of single crystal coefficients from mechanical and x-ray elastic constants of the polycrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauk, V.; Kockelmann, H.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of calculation are developed for determination of single crystal elastic compliance or stiffness constants of cubic and hexagonal materials from mechanical and X-ray elastic constants of polycrystals. The calculations are applied to pure, cubic iron and hexagonal WC. There are no single crystal constants in the literature for WC, because no single crystals suitable for measurement are available. (orig.) [de

  11. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as perturbation, we compute ... The dependence of DM on the energy gap between the ground and the excited states in both the systems has also been studied by using different sets of exchange constants.

  12. Chemical Transfer (Single Small-Scale) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Chemical Transfer Facility (CTF)  is the only U.S. single small-scale  facility, a single repository for the Army’s...

  13. Estimation of Single-Crystal Elastic Constants of Polycrystalline Materials from Back-Scattered Grain Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldipur, P.; Margetan, F. J.; Thompson, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Single-crystal elastic stiffness constants are important input parameters for many calculations in material science. There are well established methods to measure these constants using single-crystal specimens, but such specimens are not always readily available. The ultrasonic properties of metal polycrystals, such as velocity, attenuation, and backscattered grain noise characteristics, depend in part on the single-crystal elastic constants. In this work we consider the estimation of elastic constants from UT measurements and grain-sizing data. We confine ourselves to a class of particularly simple polycrystalline microstructures, found in some jet-engine Nickel alloys, which are single-phase, cubic, equiaxed, and untextured. In past work we described a method to estimate the single-crystal elastic constants from measured ultrasonic velocity and attenuation data accompanied by metallographic analysis of grain size. However, that methodology assumes that all attenuation is due to grain scattering, and thus is not valid if appreciable absorption is present. In this work we describe an alternative approach which uses backscattered grain noise data in place of attenuation data. Efforts to validate the method using a pure copper specimen are discussed, and new results for two jet-engine Nickel alloys are presented

  14. submitter Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Ekin, Jack W; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2016-01-01

    A scaling study of several thousand Nb$_{3}$Sn critical-current $(I_c)$ measurements is used to derive the Extrapolative Scaling Expression (ESE), a relation that can quickly and accurately extrapolate limited datasets to obtain full three-dimensional dependences of I c on magnetic field (B), temperature (T), and mechanical strain (ε). The relation has the advantage of being easy to implement, and offers significant savings in sample characterization time and a useful tool for magnet design. Thorough data-based analysis of the general parameterization of the Unified Scaling Law (USL) shows the existence of three universal scaling constants for practical Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors. The study also identifies the scaling parameters that are conductor specific and need to be fitted to each conductor. This investigation includes two new, rare, and very large I c(B,T,ε) datasets (each with nearly a thousand I c measurements spanning magnetic fields from 1 to 16 T, temperatures from ~2.26 to 14 K, and intrinsic strain...

  15. Large scale geometry and evolution of a universe with radiation pressure and cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert; Coquereaux, Robert; Grossmann, Alex

    2000-01-01

    In view of new experimental results that strongly suggest a non-zero cosmological constant, it becomes interesting to revisit the Friedmann-Lemaitre model of evolution of a universe with cosmological constant and radiation pressure. In this paper, we discuss the explicit solutions for that model, and perform numerical explorations for reasonable values of cosmological parameters. We also analyse the behaviour of redshifts in such models and the description of ``very large scale geometrical features'' when analysed by distant observers.

  16. Characterizing full matrix constants of piezoelectric single crystals with strong anisotropy using two samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liguo; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-10-01

    Although the self-consistency of the full matrix material constants of a piezoelectric sample obtained by the resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy technique can be guaranteed because all constants come from the same sample, it is a great challenge to determine the constants of a piezoelectric sample with strong anisotropy because it might not be possible to identify enough resonance modes from the resonance spectrum. To overcome this difficulty, we developed a strategy to use two samples of similar geometries to increase the number of easy identifiable modes. Unlike the IEEE resonance methods, sample-to-sample variation here is negligible because the two samples have almost the same dimensions, cut from the same specimen and poled under the same conditions. Using this method, we have measured the full matrix constants of a [011]c poled 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystal, which has 17 independent constants. The self-consistency of the obtained results is checked by comparing the calculated elastic stiffness constants c33 D , c44 D , and c55 D with those directly measured ones using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method.

  17. Statistical universalities in fragmentation under scaling symmetry with a constant frequency of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhovski, M A; Saveliev, V L

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses statistical universalities that arise over time during constant frequency fragmentation under scaling symmetry. The explicit expression of particle-size distribution obtained from the evolution kinetic equation shows that, with increasing time, the initial distribution tends to the ultimate steady-state delta function through at least two intermediate universal asymptotics. The earlier asymptotic is the well-known log-normal distribution of Kolmogorov (1941 Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 31 99-101). This distribution is the first universality and has two parameters: the first and the second logarithmic moments of the fragmentation intensity spectrum. The later asymptotic is a power function (stronger universality) with a single parameter that is given by the ratio of the first two logarithmic moments. At large times, the first universality implies that the evolution equation can be reduced exactly to the Fokker-Planck equation instead of making the widely used but inconsistent assumption about the smallness of higher than second order moments. At even larger times, the second universality shows evolution towards a fractal state with dimension identified as a measure of the fracture resistance of the medium

  18. Friedmann cosmology with a cosmological 'constant' in the scale covariant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1986-01-01

    Homogeneous isotropic cosmologies in the presence of a cosmological 'constant' are studied in the scale covariant theory. A class of solutions is obtained for kappa = 0 for models filled with dust, radiation or stiff matter. For kappa not= 0, solutions are presented for the radiation models. (author)

  19. Equivalent Electromagnetic Constants for Microwave Application to Composite Materials for the Multi-Scale Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fujisaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To connect different scale models in the multi-scale problem of microwave use, equivalent material constants were researched numerically by a three-dimensional electromagnetic field, taking into account eddy current and displacement current. A volume averaged method and a standing wave method were used to introduce the equivalent material constants; water particles and aluminum particles are used as composite materials. Consumed electrical power is used for the evaluation. Water particles have the same equivalent material constants for both methods; the same electrical power is obtained for both the precise model (micro-model and the homogeneous model (macro-model. However, aluminum particles have dissimilar equivalent material constants for both methods; different electric power is obtained for both models. The varying electromagnetic phenomena are derived from the expression of eddy current. For small electrical conductivity such as water, the macro-current which flows in the macro-model and the micro-current which flows in the micro-model express the same electromagnetic phenomena. However, for large electrical conductivity such as aluminum, the macro-current and micro-current express different electromagnetic phenomena. The eddy current which is observed in the micro-model is not expressed by the macro-model. Therefore, the equivalent material constant derived from the volume averaged method and the standing wave method is applicable to water with a small electrical conductivity, although not applicable to aluminum with a large electrical conductivity.

  20. A critical oscillation constant as a variable of time scales for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-256 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scale * half-linear equation * (non)oscillation criteria * Hille-Nehari criteria * Kneser criteria * critical constant * oscillation constant * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0009-7

  1. On the thermal inertia and time constant of single-family houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedbrant, J.

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1970s, electricity has become a common heating source in Swedish single-family houses. About one million small houses can use electricity for heating, about 600.000 have electricity as the only heating source, A liberalised European electricity market would most likely raise the Swedish electricity prices during daytime on weekdays and lower it at other times. In the long run, electrical heating of houses would be replaced by fuels, but in the shorter perspective, other strategies may be considered. This report evaluates the use of electricity for heating a dwelling, or part of it, at night when both the demand and the price are low. The stored heat is utilised in the daytime some hours later, when the electricity price is high. Essential for heat storage is the thermal time constant. The report gives a simple theoretical framework for the calculation of the time constant for a single-family house with furniture. Furthermore the comfort time constant, that is, the time for a house to cool down from a maximum to a minimum acceptable temperature, is derived. Two theoretical model houses are calculated, and the results are compared to data from empirical studies in three inhabited test houses. The results show that it was possible to store about 8 kWh/K in a house from the seventies and about 5 kWh/K in a house from the eighties. The time constants were 34 h and 53 h, respectively. During winter conditions with 0 deg C outdoor, the 'comfort' time constants with maximum and minimum indoor temperatures of 23 and 20 deg C were 6 h and 10 h. The results indicate that the maximum load-shifting potential of an average single family house is about 1 kw during 16 daytime hours shifted into 2 kw during 8 night hours. Upscaled to the one million Swedish single-family houses that can use electricity as a heating source, the maximum potential is 1000 MW daytime time-shifted into 2000 MW at night.

  2. The relationship between elastic constants and structure of shock waves in a zinc single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivosheina, M. N.; Kobenko, S. V.; Tuch, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper provides a 3D finite element simulation of shock-loaded anisotropic single crystals on the example of a Zn plate under impact using a mathematical model, which allows for anisotropy in hydrostatic stress and wave velocities in elastic and plastic ranges. The simulation results agree with experimental data, showing the absence of shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a plastic wave in Zn single crystals impacted in the [0001] direction. It is assumed that the absence of an elastic precursor under impact loading of a zinc single crystal along the [0001] direction is determined by the anomalously large ratio of the c/a-axes and close values of the propagation velocities of longitudinal and bulk elastic waves. It is shown that an increase in only one elastic constant along the [0001] direction results in shock wave splitting into an elastic precursor and a shock wave of "plastic" compression.

  3. Cosmological constant in SUGRA models with Planck scale SUSY breaking and degenerate vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, C.D.; Nevzorov, R.; Nielsen, H.B.; Thomas, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The empirical mass of the Higgs boson suggests small to vanishing values of the quartic Higgs self-coupling and the corresponding beta function at the Planck scale, leading to degenerate vacua. This leads us to suggest that the measured value of the cosmological constant can originate from supergravity (SUGRA) models with degenerate vacua. This scenario is realised if there are at least three exactly degenerate vacua. In the first vacuum, associated with the physical one, local supersymmetry (SUSY) is broken near the Planck scale while the breakdown of the SU(2) W ×U(1) Y symmetry takes place at the electroweak (EW) scale. In the second vacuum local SUSY breaking is induced by gaugino condensation at a scale which is just slightly lower than Λ QCD in the physical vacuum. Finally, in the third vacuum local SUSY and EW symmetry are broken near the Planck scale

  4. Schottky junctions on perovskite single crystals: light-modulated dielectric constant and self-biased photodetection

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Parvez Abdul Ajij

    2016-08-16

    Schottky junctions formed between semiconductors and metal contacts are ubiquitous in modern electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we report on the physical properties of Schottky-junctions formed on hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals. It is found that light illumination can significantly increase the dielectric constant of perovskite junctions by 2300%. Furthermore, such Pt/perovskite junctions are used to fabricate self-biased photodetectors. A photodetectivity of 1.4 × 1010 Jones is obtained at zero bias, which increases to 7.1 × 1011 Jones at a bias of +3 V, and the photodetectivity remains almost constant in a wide range of light intensity. These devices also exhibit fast responses with a rising time of 70 μs and a falling time of 150 μs. As a result of the high crystal quality and low defect density, such single-crystal photodetectors show stable performance after storage in air for over 45 days. Our results suggest that hybrid perovskite single crystals provide a new platform to develop promising optoelectronic applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Single-crystal elastic constants of a plutonium-gallium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moment, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The single-crystal elastic constants of a plutonium-1 wt % gallium alloy were determined at room temperature by measuring ultrasonic sound-wave velocities. The three independent elastic constants of this face-centered cubic delta-phase alloy were determined from the longitudinal and the two shear-wave velocities, all along a direction. Their values are C 11 =3.628, C 12 =2.673 and C 44 =3.359 in units of 10 10 N/m 2 ; the respective errors are estimated to be 1%, 1%, and 0.3 %. The Zener anisotropy ratio is 7.03, almost twice that known for any other fcc metal, and falls among the ratios for the body centered cubic alkali metals, which are noted for their high elastic anisotropy. Polycrystalline elastic constants calculated from the single-crystal data are Young's modulus E=4.064, the shear modulus G=1.596 and the bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility) B=2.991, all in units of 10 10 N/m 2 , and Poisson's ratio γ=0.27. These values of E and G are both lower than those obtained by Taylor, Linford and Dean from measurements on polycrystalline specimens. Within a single crystal, the longitudinal sound velocity varies with direction by a factor of 1.4 and the transverse velocity by a factor of 2.6. The maximum Young's modulus (along ) was 5.4 times larger than the minimum (along ). The Debye temperature was calculated to be 105.7 K at 293 K and estimated to be 114 K at 0.K. (Auth.)

  6. Predicting the cosmological constant with the scale-factor cutoff measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Guth, Alan H.; Salem, Michael P.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that anthropic selection from a landscape with a flat prior distribution of cosmological constant Λ gives a reasonable fit to observation. However, a realistic model of the multiverse has a physical volume that diverges with time, and the predicted distribution of Λ depends on how the spacetime volume is regulated. A very promising method of regulation uses a scale-factor cutoff, which avoids a number of serious problems that arise in other approaches. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff avoids the 'youngness problem' (high probability of living in a much younger universe) and the 'Q and G catastrophes' (high probability for the primordial density contrast Q and gravitational constant G to have extremely large or small values). We apply the scale-factor cutoff measure to the probability distribution of Λ, considering both positive and negative values. The results are in good agreement with observation. In particular, the scale-factor cutoff strongly suppresses the probability for values of Λ that are more than about 10 times the observed value. We also discuss qualitatively the prediction for the density parameter Ω, indicating that with this measure there is a possibility of detectable negative curvature.

  7. Approach to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms by automated constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheim, Jens; Abrahamsen, Torveig Weum; Kristensen, Annette Torgunrud; Gaudernack, Gustav; Ekstroem, Per O.

    2003-01-01

    Melting gel techniques have proven to be amenable and powerful tools in point mutation and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. With the introduction of commercially available capillary electrophoresis instruments, a partly automated platform for denaturant capillary electrophoresis with potential for routine screening of selected target sequences has been established. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the use of automated constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (ACDCE) in single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of various target sequences. Optimal analysis conditions for different single nucleotide polymorphisms on ACDCE are evaluated with the Poland algorithm. Laboratory procedures include only PCR and electrophoresis. For direct genotyping of individual SNPs, the samples are analyzed with an internal standard and the alleles are identified by co-migration of sample and standard peaks. In conclusion, SNPs suitable for melting gel analysis based on theoretical thermodynamics were separated by ACDCE under appropriate conditions. With this instrumentation (ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer), 48 samples could be analyzed without any intervention. Several institutions have capillary instrumentation in-house, thus making this SNP analysis method accessible to large groups of researchers without any need for instrument modification

  8. Coulometric-potentiometric determination of autoprotolysis constant and relative acidity scale of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džudović Radmila M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoprotolysis constant and relative acidity scale of water were determined by applying the coulometric-potentiometric method and a hydrogen/palladium (H2/Pd generator anode. In the described procedure for the evaluation of autoprotolysis constant, a strong base generated coulometrically at the platinum cathode in situ in the electrolytic cell, in presence of sodium perchlorate as the supporting electrolyte, is titrated with hydrogen ions obtained by the anodic oxidation of hydrogen dissolved in palladium electrode. The titration was carried out with a glass-SCE electrode pair at 25.0±0.1°C. The value obtained pKw = 13.91 ± 0.06 is in agreement with literature data. The range of acidity scale of water is determined from the difference between the halfneutralization potentials of electrogenerated perchloric acid and that of sodium hydroxide in a sodium perchlorate medium. The halfneutralization potentials were measured using both a glass-SCE and a (H2/Pdind-SCE electrode pairs. A wider range of relative acidity scale of water was obtained with the glass-SCE electrode pair.

  9. Design of Single Stage Axial Turbine with Constant Nozzle Angle Blading for Small Turbojet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra Adnan, F.; Hartono, Firman

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an aerodynamic design of a single stage gas generator axial turbine for small turbojet engine is explained. As per design requirement, the turbine should be able to deliver power output of 155 kW at 0.8139 kg/s gas mass flow, inlet total temperature of 1200 K and inlet total pressure of 335330 Pa. The design phase consist of several steps, i.e.: determination of velocity triangles in 2D plane, 2D blading design and 3D flow analysis at design point using Computational Fluid Dynamics method. In the determination of velocity triangles, two conditions are applied: zero inlet swirl (i.e. the gas flow enter the turbine at axial direction) and constant nozzle angle design (i.e. the inlet and outlet angle of the nozzle blade are constant from root to tip). The 2D approach in cascade plane is used to specify airfoil type at root, mean and tip of the blade based on inlet and outlet flow conditions. The 3D approach is done by simulating the turbine in full configuration to evaluate the overall performance of the turbine. The observed parameters including axial gap, stagger angle, and tip clearance affect its output power. Based on analysis results, axial gap and stagger angle are positively correlated with output power up to a certain point at which the power decreases. Tip clearance, however, gives inversely correlation with output power.

  10. Constant-scale natural boundary mapping to reveal global and cosmic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Whereas conventional maps can be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined central features and relatively poorly defined edges, Constant Scale Natural Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined boundaries that result from natural processes and thus allow spatial and dynamic relationships to be observed in a new way useful to understanding these processes. CSNB mapping presents a new approach to visualization that produces maps markedly different from those produced by conventional cartographic methods. In this approach, any body can be represented by a 3D coordinate system. For a regular body, with its surface relatively smooth on the scale of its size, locations of features can be represented by definite geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid defined surface. A continuous surface on this body can be segmented, its distinctive regional terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships defined, by using selected morphologically identifiable ...

  11. Diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 at room and elevated temperatures determined by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuqing; Stoica, Alexandru D.; Ma, Dong; Beese, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 have been determined by means of in situ loading at room and elevated temperatures using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Theoretical models proposed by Voigt, Reuss, and Kroner were used to determine single-crystal elastic constants from measured diffraction elastic constants, with the Kroner model having the best ability to capture experimental data. The magnitude of single-crystal elastic moduli, computed from single-crystal elastic constants, decreases and the single crystal anisotropy increases as temperature increases, indicating the importance of texture in affecting macroscopic stress at elevated temperatures. The experimental data reported here are of great importance in understanding additive manufacturing of metallic components as: diffraction elastic constants are required for computing residual stresses from residual lattice strains measured using neutron diffraction, which can be used to validate thermomechanical models of additive manufacturing, while single-crystal elastic constants can be used in crystal plasticity modeling, for example, to understand mechanical deformation behavior of additively manufactured components.

  12. Diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 at room and elevated temperatures determined by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhuqing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stoica, Alexandru D. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ma, Dong, E-mail: dongma@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beese, Allison M., E-mail: amb961@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    In this work, diffraction and single-crystal elastic constants of Inconel 625 have been determined by means of in situ loading at room and elevated temperatures using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Theoretical models proposed by Voigt, Reuss, and Kroner were used to determine single-crystal elastic constants from measured diffraction elastic constants, with the Kroner model having the best ability to capture experimental data. The magnitude of single-crystal elastic moduli, computed from single-crystal elastic constants, decreases and the single crystal anisotropy increases as temperature increases, indicating the importance of texture in affecting macroscopic stress at elevated temperatures. The experimental data reported here are of great importance in understanding additive manufacturing of metallic components as: diffraction elastic constants are required for computing residual stresses from residual lattice strains measured using neutron diffraction, which can be used to validate thermomechanical models of additive manufacturing, while single-crystal elastic constants can be used in crystal plasticity modeling, for example, to understand mechanical deformation behavior of additively manufactured components.

  13. Calculations of single crystal elastic constants for yttria partially stabilised zirconia from powder diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, A. J. G.; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.; Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J.; Neo, T. K.; Korsunsky, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.

  14. Calculations of single crystal elastic constants for yttria partially stabilised zirconia from powder diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, A. J. G., E-mail: alexander.lunt@eng.ox.ac.uk; Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.; Korsunsky, A. M. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J. [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Neo, T. K. [Specialist Dental Group, Mount Elizabeth Orchard, 3 Mount Elizabeth, #08-03/08-08/08-10, Singapore 228510 (Singapore)

    2014-08-07

    Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.

  15. Bootstrap analysis of designed experiments for reliability improvement with a non-constant scale parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guodong; He, Zhen; Xue, Li; Cui, Qingan; Lv, Shanshan; Zhou, Panpan

    2017-01-01

    Factors which significantly affect product reliability are of great interest to reliability practitioners. This paper proposes a bootstrap-based methodology for identifying significant factors when both location and scale parameters of the smallest extreme value distribution vary over experimental factors. An industrial thermostat experiment is presented, analyzed, and discussed as an illustrative example. The analysis results show that 1) the misspecification of a constant scale parameter may lead to misidentify spurious effects; 2) the important factors identified by different bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping) are different; 3) the number of factors affecting 10th percentile lifetime significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile. - Highlights: • Product reliability is improved by design of experiments under both scale and location parameters of smallest extreme value distribution vary with experimental factors. • A bootstrap-based methodology is proposed to identify important factors which affect 100pth lifetime percentile significantly. • Bootstrapping confidence intervals associating experimental factors are obtained by using three bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping). • The important factors identified by different bootstrap methods are different. • The number of factors affecting 10th percentile significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile.

  16. Determination of the optical constants of polymer light-emitting diode films from single reflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dexi; Shen Weidong; Ye Hui; Liu Xu; Zhen Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and fast method to determine the optical constant and physical thickness of polymer films from a single reflectivity measurement. A self-consistent dispersion formula of the Forouhi-Bloomer model was introduced to fit the measured spectral curves by a modified 'Downhill' simplex algorithm. Four widely used polymer light-emitting diodes materials: poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], poly(9,9-dioctylfluoreny-2,7-diyl) (PFO), poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) : poly(styrenesulfonate) were investigated by this technique. The refractive indices over the whole visible region as well as the optical band gap extracted by this method agree well with those reported in the literature. The determined physical thicknesses present a deviation less than 4% compared with the experimental values measured by the stylus profiler. The influence of scattering loss on the fitted results is discussed to demonstrate the applicability of this technology for polymer films.

  17. Line-focus acoustic microscopy of Ti-6242 α/β single colony: determination of elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-Y.; Yakovlev, V.; Rokhlin, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Time-resolved line-focus acoustic microscopy is performed for determining elastic constants of Ti-6242 α/β-single colony and Ti-6 α-phase single crystal. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocities are obtained as a function of the propagation angle from measured time-delays of SAW signals. The propagation of surface waves in a semi-infinite half space formed by anisotropic layers inclined arbitrarily to the sample surface is studied to model a quasi-random lamellar structure of the Ti-6242 α/β-single colony. Effective elastic constants of the multilayered structure are derived and verified through the comparison with exact ones, based on which SAW velocities in non-principal planes are calculated. Effective and constituent elastic constants of the α/β-single colony and the α-phase single crystal are inversely determined from the measured and calculated SAW velocities. The α- and β-phase elastic constants from the α/β-single colony so determined are compared with those from the α-single crystal and data in the literature

  18. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term.

  19. Scaling of peak flows with constant flow velocity in random self-similar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mantilla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodology is presented to understand the role of the statistical self-similar topology of real river networks on scaling, or power law, in peak flows for rainfall-runoff events. We created Monte Carlo generated sets of ensembles of 1000 random self-similar networks (RSNs with geometrically distributed interior and exterior generators having parameters pi and pe, respectively. The parameter values were chosen to replicate the observed topology of real river networks. We calculated flow hydrographs in each of these networks by numerically solving the link-based mass and momentum conservation equation under the assumption of constant flow velocity. From these simulated RSNs and hydrographs, the scaling exponents β and φ characterizing power laws with respect to drainage area, and corresponding to the width functions and flow hydrographs respectively, were estimated. We found that, in general, φ > β, which supports a similar finding first reported for simulations in the river network of the Walnut Gulch basin, Arizona. Theoretical estimation of β and φ in RSNs is a complex open problem. Therefore, using results for a simpler problem associated with the expected width function and expected hydrograph for an ensemble of RSNs, we give heuristic arguments for theoretical derivations of the scaling exponents β(E and φ(E that depend on the Horton ratios for stream lengths and areas. These ratios in turn have a known dependence on the parameters of the geometric distributions of RSN generators. Good agreement was found between the analytically conjectured values of β(E and φ(E and the values estimated by the simulated ensembles of RSNs and hydrographs. The independence of the scaling exponents φ(E and φ with respect to the value of flow velocity and runoff intensity implies an interesting connection between unit

  20. Scaling of peak flows with constant flow velocity in random self-similar networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Brent M.; Mantilla, Ricardo; Gupta, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology is presented to understand the role of the statistical self-similar topology of real river networks on scaling, or power law, in peak flows for rainfall-runoff events. We created Monte Carlo generated sets of ensembles of 1000 random self-similar networks (RSNs) with geometrically distributed interior and exterior generators having parameters pi and pe, respectively. The parameter values were chosen to replicate the observed topology of real river networks. We calculated flow hydrographs in each of these networks by numerically solving the link-based mass and momentum conservation equation under the assumption of constant flow velocity. From these simulated RSNs and hydrographs, the scaling exponents β and φ characterizing power laws with respect to drainage area, and corresponding to the width functions and flow hydrographs respectively, were estimated. We found that, in general, φ > β, which supports a similar finding first reported for simulations in the river network of the Walnut Gulch basin, Arizona. Theoretical estimation of β and φ in RSNs is a complex open problem. Therefore, using results for a simpler problem associated with the expected width function and expected hydrograph for an ensemble of RSNs, we give heuristic arguments for theoretical derivations of the scaling exponents β(E) and φ(E) that depend on the Horton ratios for stream lengths and areas. These ratios in turn have a known dependence on the parameters of the geometric distributions of RSN generators. Good agreement was found between the analytically conjectured values of β(E) and φ(E) and the values estimated by the simulated ensembles of RSNs and hydrographs. The independence of the scaling exponents φ(E) and φ with respect to the value of flow velocity and runoff intensity implies an interesting connection between unit hydrograph theory and flow dynamics. Our results provide a reference framework to study scaling exponents under more complex scenarios

  1. Ergodicity breakdown and scaling from single sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashyan, Armen K. [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Buiatti, Marco [Laboratoire de Neurophysique et Physiologie, CNRS UMR 8119 Universite Rene Descartes - Paris 5 45, rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit - INSERM U562, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DRM/DSV, 4 Place du general Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Grigolini, Paolo [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' - Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto dei Processi Chimico, Fisici del CNR Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grigo@df.unipi.it

    2009-01-30

    In the ergodic regime, several methods efficiently estimate the temporal scaling of time series characterized by long-range power-law correlations by converting them into diffusion processes. However, in the condition of ergodicity breakdown, the same methods give ambiguous results. We show that in such regime, two different scaling behaviors emerge depending on the age of the windows used for the estimation. We explain the ambiguity of the estimation methods by the different influence of the two scaling behaviors on each method. Our results suggest that aging drastically alters the scaling properties of non-ergodic processes.

  2. Ergodicity breakdown and scaling from single sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashyan, Armen K.; Buiatti, Marco; Grigolini, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    In the ergodic regime, several methods efficiently estimate the temporal scaling of time series characterized by long-range power-law correlations by converting them into diffusion processes. However, in the condition of ergodicity breakdown, the same methods give ambiguous results. We show that in such regime, two different scaling behaviors emerge depending on the age of the windows used for the estimation. We explain the ambiguity of the estimation methods by the different influence of the two scaling behaviors on each method. Our results suggest that aging drastically alters the scaling properties of non-ergodic processes.

  3. Perspective: Tipping the scales: Search for drifting constants from molecular spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Paul; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Ubachs, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Transitions in atoms and molecules provide an ideal test ground for constraining or detecting a possible variation of the fundamental constants of nature. In this perspective, we review molecular species that are of specific interest in the search for a drifting proton-to-electron mass ratio μ. In particular, we outline the procedures that are used to calculate the sensitivity coefficients for transitions in these molecules and discuss current searches. These methods have led to a rate of change in μ bounded to 6 × 10 −14 /yr from a laboratory experiment performed in the present epoch. On a cosmological time scale, the variation is limited to |Δμ/μ| −5 for look-back times of 10–12× 10 9 years and to |Δμ/μ| −7 for look-back times of 7× 10 9 years. The last result, obtained from high-redshift observation of methanol, translates into μ . /μ=(1.4±1.4)×10 −17 /yr if a linear rate of change is assumed

  4. Signatures of van der Waals binding: A coupling-constant scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per

    2018-02-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) density functional (vdW-DF) method [Rep. Prog. Phys. 78, 066501 (2015), 10.1088/0034-4885/78/6/066501] describes dispersion or vdW binding by tracking the effects of an electrodynamic coupling among pairs of electrons and their associated exchange-correlation holes. This is done in a nonlocal-correlation energy term Ecnl, which permits density functional theory calculation in the Kohn-Sham scheme. However, to map the nature of vdW forces in a fully interacting materials system, it is necessary to also account for associated kinetic-correlation energy effects. Here, we present a coupling-constant scaling analysis, which permits us to compute the kinetic-correlation energy Tcnl that is specific to the vdW-DF account of nonlocal correlations. We thus provide a more complete spatially resolved analysis of the electrodynamical-coupling nature of nonlocal-correlation binding, including vdW attraction, in both covalently and noncovalently bonded systems. We find that kinetic-correlation energy effects play a significant role in the account of vdW or dispersion interactions among molecules. Furthermore, our mapping shows that the total nonlocal-correlation binding is concentrated to pockets in the sparse electron distribution located between the material fragments.

  5. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

  6. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-01-01

    to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model

  7. Henry's Constants of Persistent Organic Pollutants by a Group-Contribution Method Based on Scaled-Particle Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Neil K; Koshy, David M; Prausnitz, John M

    2017-11-07

    A group-contribution method based on scaled-particle theory was developed to predict Henry's constants for six families of persistent organic pollutants: polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The group-contribution model uses limited experimental data to obtain group-interaction parameters for an easy-to-use method to predict Henry's constants for systems where reliable experimental data are scarce. By using group-interaction parameters obtained from data reduction, scaled-particle theory gives the partial molar Gibbs energy of dissolution, Δg̅ 2 , allowing calculation of Henry's constant, H 2 , for more than 700 organic pollutants. The average deviation between predicted values of log H 2 and experiment is 4%. Application of an approximate van't Hoff equation gives the temperature dependence of Henry's constants for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environmentally relevant range 0-40 °C.

  8. Measurements of natural frequency and damping constant of single steam bubble oscillating in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Mikio

    1983-01-01

    The natural frequency fsub(n) and damping constant delta of a bubble in liquid have been determined by observing the resonance of the bubble to forced oscillation. The bubble was retained under a rigid plate horizontal disk, and the oscillation was applied by underwater speaker. The applied frequency f was kept constant while letting the bubble increase its volume and vary its radius R. Bubble resonance was detected by observing wrinkles appearing on the bubble due to surface waves. Resonance curves relating the amplitude of bubble radius variation to the intensity of applied oscillation is derived theoretically. Good agreement was seen between the data obtained from experiment and the theoretically derived resonance curves at test to the validity of the method proposed of determining fsub(n) and delta from bubble resonance. The values of delta and of the resonant bubble radius R 0 of large steam bubbles (8.5mm< R<11.5mm) in water were determined at f=270, 290 and 358 Hz. The results support the assumption that for large bubbles the value of fsub(n) is little influenced by the exchange of mass between liquid and gaseous phases through evaporation and condensation accompanying bubble pressure oscillation. On the other hand, delta is found to be one order of magnitude higher than calculated for steam bubbles without taking into evaporation and condensation the interphase exchange of mass. The effect brought on delta by the interphase mass exchange can be taken into account by adding a new constant deltasub(ph) to the terms constituting the total damping constant. (author)

  9. Scaling relation for leptonic constants of higher excitations in heavy quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Using a specific scheme of the QCD sum rules, one derives the relation for leptonic constants of nS-wave heavy quarkonia, so f 2 n1 /f 2 n2 =n 2 /n 1 , that does not depend on the quarkonium content, and it is in a good agreement with the experimental values of constants for the ψ- and γ-families. 9 refs

  10. Schottky junctions on perovskite single crystals: light-modulated dielectric constant and self-biased photodetection

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Parvez Abdul Ajij; Shi, Dong; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Sheikh, Arif D.; Haque, Mohammed; Kang, Chen-Fang; He, Jr-Hau; Bakr, Osman; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Schottky junctions formed between semiconductors and metal contacts are ubiquitous in modern electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we report on the physical properties of Schottky-junctions formed on hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 single

  11. Strong Nuclear Gravitational Constant and the Origin of Nuclear Planck Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshavatharam U. V. S.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether it may be real or an equivalent, existence of strong nuclear gravitational con- stant G S is assumed. Its value is obtained from Fermi’s weak coupling constant as G S = 6 : 9427284 10 31 m 3 / kg sec 2 and thus “nuclear planck scale” is defined. For strong interaction existence of a new integral charged “confined fermion” of mass 105.383 MeV is assumed. Strong coupling constant is the ratio of nuclear planck energy = 11.97 MeV and assumed 105.383 MeV. 1 s = X s is defined as the strong interaction mass gen- erator. With 105.383 MeV fermion various nuclear unit radii are fitted. Fermi’s weak coupling constant, strong interaction upper limit and Bohr radius are fitted at funda- mental level. Considering Fermi’s weak coupling constant and nuclear planck length a new number X e = 294.8183 is defined for fitting the electron, muon and tau rest masses. Using X s , X e and 105 : 32 = 0 : 769 MeV as the Coulombic energy constant = E c , en- ergy coe cients of the semi-empirical mass formula are estimated as E v = 16 : 32 MeV ; E s = 19 : 37 MeV ; E a = 23 : 86 MeV and E p = 11 : 97 MeV where Coulombic energy term contains [ Z ] 2 : Starting from Z = 2 nuclear binding energy is fitted with two terms along with only one energy constant = 0.769 MeV. Finally nucleon mass and its excited levels are fitted.

  12. Mining Genome-Scale Growth Phenotype Data through Constant-Column Biclustering

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed A.

    2017-01-01

    for mining in growth phenotype data. Here, we propose Gracob, a novel, efficient graph-based method that casts and solves the constant-column biclustering problem as a maximal clique finding problem in a multipartite graph. We compared Gracob with a large

  13. The use of filtering methods to compensate for constant attenuation in single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A back projection of filtered projection (BKFIL) reconstruction algorithm is presented that is applicable to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) in the presence of a constant attenuating medium such as the brain. The filters used in transmission computed tomography (TCT)-comprised of a ramp multiplied by window functions-are modified so that the single-photon ECT filter is a function of the constant attenuation coefficient. The filters give good reconstruction results with sufficient angular and lateral sampling. With continuous samples the BKFIL algorithm has a point spread function that is the Hankel transform of the window function. The resolution and statistical properties of the filters are demonstrated by various simulations which assume an ideal detector response. Statistical formulas for the reconstructed image show that the square of the percent-root-mean-square (percent-rms) uncertainty of the reconstruction is inversely proportional to the total measured counts. The results indicate that constant attenuation can be compensated for by using an attenuation-dependent filter that reconstructs the transverse section reliably. Computer time requirements are two times that of conventional TCT or positron ECT and there is no increase in memory requirements

  14. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    strategies based on: 1) a power control method (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...... of the presented CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&O-CPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high...

  15. Mining Genome-Scale Growth Phenotype Data through Constant-Column Biclustering

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed A.

    2017-07-10

    Growth phenotype profiling of genome-wide gene-deletion strains over stress conditions can offer a clear picture that the essentiality of genes depends on environmental conditions. Systematically identifying groups of genes from such recently emerging high-throughput data that share similar patterns of conditional essentiality and dispensability under various environmental conditions can elucidate how genetic interactions of the growth phenotype are regulated in response to the environment. In this dissertation, we first demonstrate that detecting such “co-fit” gene groups can be cast as a less well-studied problem in biclustering, i.e., constant-column biclustering. Despite significant advances in biclustering techniques, very few were designed for mining in growth phenotype data. Here, we propose Gracob, a novel, efficient graph-based method that casts and solves the constant-column biclustering problem as a maximal clique finding problem in a multipartite graph. We compared Gracob with a large collection of widely used biclustering methods that cover different types of algorithms designed to detect different types of biclusters. Gracob showed superior performance on finding co-fit genes over all the existing methods on both a variety of synthetic data sets with a wide range of settings, and three real growth phenotype data sets for E. coli, proteobacteria, and yeast.

  16. Determination of the kinetic and stoichiometric constant in a conventional bioreactor of activated sludge, to scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Chaparro, Tatiana; Perez Navarrete, Eddie Albert; Vivas Mora, Eneydi

    2003-01-01

    The activated sludge process is the one of the most efficient process, when it comes to removal of organic matter. Implementing in the lab is quite easy, economic technically feasible, and simultaneously offers the possibility of using the results obtained in the lab to be applied in field by determining the kinetic and stoichiometric constants. The activated sludge system was designed, built and operated in the water quality lab, at the Military University in Bogota, Colombia. The bioreactor has an aeration chamber, a sedimentation tank and a feeding source with wastewater taken from a meat packing plant in Bogota. The research was carried out for 3 months, in two stages as follows: in the first stage and in order to obtain a high concentration of biomass the acclimatizing process was carried out. This step allows the bioreactor to run in a continuous flow. In the second stage, the bioreactor was taken in to operation and fed with the acclimated sludge at different sludge ages. This would allow us to determine the kinetics, and the stoichiometric constants. The bioreactor was run with a hydraulic retention time of 8 hours and for different sludge ages (5, 10, and 15 days). The system was monitored with a daily grab samples, and pH, temperature as well as the DBO 5 and suspended volatile solids were terminated

  17. From Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Constant Immunosuppression: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan Chinnadurai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative abilities and the immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs make them potentially the ideal cellular product of choice for treatment of autoimmune and other immune mediated disorders. Although the usefulness of MSCs for therapeutic applications is in early phases, their potential clinical use remains of great interest. Current clinical evidence of use of MSCs from both autologous and allogeneic sources to treat autoimmune disorders confers conflicting clinical benefit outcomes. These varied results may possibly be due to MSC use across wide range of autoimmune disorders with clinical heterogeneity or due to variability of the cellular product. In the light of recent genome wide association studies (GWAS, linking predisposition of autoimmune diseases to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the susceptible genetic loci, the clinical relevance of MSCs possessing SNPs in the critical effector molecules of immunosuppression is largely undiscussed. It is of further interest in the allogeneic setting, where SNPs in the target pathway of MSC's intervention may also modulate clinical outcome. In the present review, we have discussed the known critical SNPs predisposing to disease susceptibility in various autoimmune diseases and their significance in the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs.

  18. How the constants in Hille-Nehari theorems depend on time scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, - (2006), s. 1-15 ISSN 1687-1839 R&D Pro jects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/0079; GA ČR(CZ) GP201/01/P041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scales * oscillation criteria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha; Mkaddem, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modeling to understand its mechanical behavior and its remodeling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network (NN) computation and homogenization equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained NN simulation. Finite element calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house NN program; and (iii) in steps 2-10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenization equations are used to perform the computation at the higher scales. The NN outputs (elastic properties of the microfibril) are used as inputs for the homogenization computation to determine the properties of mineralized collagen fibril. The mechanical and geometrical properties of bone constituents (mineral, collagen, and cross-links) as well as the porosity were taken in consideration. This paper aims to predict analytically the effective elastic constants of cortical bone by modeling its elastic response at these different scales, ranging from the nanostructural to mesostructural levels. Our findings of the lowest scale's output were well integrated with the other higher levels and serve as inputs for the next higher scale modeling. Good agreement was obtained between our predicted results and literature data. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Simple analytical approximation for rotationally inelastic rate constants based on the energy corrected sudden scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the energy corrected sudden (ECS) scaling law of De Pristo et al. when conbined with the power law assumption for the basis rates k/sub l/→0proportional[l(l+1)]/sup -g/ can accurately fit a wide body of rotational energy transfer data. We develop a simple and accurate approximation to this fitting law, and in addition mathematically show the connection between it and our earlier proposed energy based law which also has been successful in describing both theoretical and experimental data on rotationally inelastic collisions

  1. A note on finite-scale Navier–Stokes theory: The case of constant viscosity, strictly adiabatic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, P.M.; Keiffer, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the “piston problem” for the case of a viscous, but non-thermally conducting, gas with constant transport coefficients under the recently introduced generalization of the Navier–Stokes (NS) equations known as the finite-scale Navier–Stokes (FSNS) equations. Along with determining and analyzing the integral curves of the resulting kink-type traveling wave solutions (TWS)s, the present study also reveals the importance of the bulk viscosity vis-a-vis this special case of FSNS theory and highlights the impact that averaging has on the structure of the shock profile

  2. Pathological mechanisms underlying single large‐scale mitochondrial DNA deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mariana C.; Rosa, Hannah S.; Grady, John P.; Blakely, Emma L.; He, Langping; Romain, Nadine; Haller, Ronald G.; Newman, Jane; McFarland, Robert; Ng, Yi Shiau; Gorman, Grainne S.; Schaefer, Andrew M.; Tuppen, Helen A.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Single, large‐scale deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are a common cause of mitochondrial disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the genetic defect and molecular phenotype to improve understanding of pathogenic mechanisms associated with single, large‐scale mtDNA deletions in skeletal muscle. Methods We investigated 23 muscle biopsies taken from adult patients (6 males/17 females with a mean age of 43 years) with characterized single, large‐scale mtDNA deletions. Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency in skeletal muscle biopsies was quantified by immunoreactivity levels for complex I and complex IV proteins. Single muscle fibers with varying degrees of deficiency were selected from 6 patient biopsies for determination of mtDNA deletion level and copy number by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results We have defined 3 “classes” of single, large‐scale deletion with distinct patterns of mitochondrial deficiency, determined by the size and location of the deletion. Single fiber analyses showed that fibers with greater respiratory chain deficiency harbored higher levels of mtDNA deletion with an increase in total mtDNA copy number. For the first time, we have demonstrated that threshold levels for complex I and complex IV deficiency differ based on deletion class. Interpretation Combining genetic and immunofluorescent assays, we conclude that thresholds for complex I and complex IV deficiency are modulated by the deletion of complex‐specific protein‐encoding genes. Furthermore, removal of mt‐tRNA genes impacts specific complexes only at high deletion levels, when complex‐specific protein‐encoding genes remain. These novel findings provide valuable insight into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with these mutations. Ann Neurol 2018;83:115–130 PMID:29283441

  3. All-optical differential equation solver with constant-coefficient tunable based on a single microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Dong, Jianji; Lu, Liangjun; Zhou, Linjie; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang; Chen, Jianping

    2014-07-04

    Photonic integrated circuits for photonic computing open up the possibility for the realization of ultrahigh-speed and ultra wide-band signal processing with compact size and low power consumption. Differential equations model and govern fundamental physical phenomena and engineering systems in virtually any field of science and engineering, such as temperature diffusion processes, physical problems of motion subject to acceleration inputs and frictional forces, and the response of different resistor-capacitor circuits, etc. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme to solve first-order linear ordinary differential equation with constant-coefficient tunable based on a single silicon microring resonator. Besides, we analyze the impact of the chirp and pulse-width of input signals on the computing deviation. This device can be compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may motivate the development of integrated photonic circuits for optical computing.

  4. EFFECT OF STRAIN HARDENING ON FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE IN ALUMINUM ALLOY UNDER CONSTANT AMPLITUDE WITH SINGLE OVERLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirpesh Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study effect of strain hardening on crack closure has been examined with the help of experiments and finite element method on the side edge notched specimen of five different Aluminum alloy (3003 Al, 5052 Al, 6061 T6, 6063 T6, 6351 in mode I under constant amplitude fatigue loading with single overload using Abaqus® 6.10 which is very well accepted FEM application in research. Extended Finite Element Method Module has been used to determine effective stress intensity factor at the crack tip while propagation takes place. FEM results have given good agreement with experimental results. Regression analysis has also been done with SPSS® 16 and dependency of strain hardening coefficient on crack closure has analyzed. A generalized empirical formula has been developed based on strain hardening to calculate effective stress intensity range ratio and a modified Paris law has also been formulated for these aluminum alloy.

  5. Measurement of nucleotide exchange rate constants in single rabbit soleus myofibrils during shortening and lengthening using a fluorescent ATP analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, I; Chaen, S; Bagshaw, C R; Sugi, H

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of displacement of a fluorescent nucleotide, 2'(3')-O-[N[2-[[Cy3]amido]ethyl]carbamoyl]-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Cy3-EDA-ATP), bound to rabbit soleus muscle myofibrils were studied using flash photolysis of caged ATP. Use of myofibrils from this slow twitch muscle allowed better resolution of the kinetics of nucleotide exchange than previous studies with psoas muscle myofibrils (, Biophys. J. 73:2033-2042). Soleus myofibrils in the presence of Cy3-EDA-nucleotides (Cy3-EDA-ATP or Cy3-EDA-ADP) showed selective fluorescence staining of the A-band. The K(m) for Cy3-EDA-ATP and the K(d) for Cy3-EDA-ADP binding to the myofibril A-band were 1.9 microM and 3.8 microM, respectively, indicating stronger binding of nucleotide to soleus cross-bridges compared to psoas cross-bridges (2.6 microM and 50 microM, respectively). After flash photolysis of caged ATP, the A-band fluorescence of the myofibril in the Cy3-EDA-ATP solution under isometric conditions decayed exponentially with a rate constant of 0.045 +/- 0.007 s(-1) (n = 32) at 10 degrees C, which was about seven times slower than that for psoas myofibrils. When a myofibril was allowed to shorten with a constant velocity, the nucleotide displacement rate constant increased from 0.066 s(-1) (isometric) to 0.14 s(-1) at 20 degrees C with increasing shortening velocity up to 0.1 myofibril length/s (V(max), the shortening velocity under no load was approximately 0. 2 myofibril lengths/s). The rate constant was not significantly affected by an isovelocity stretch of up to 0.1 myofibril lengths/s. These results suggest that the cross-bridge kinetics are not significantly affected at higher strain during lengthening but depend on the lower strain during shortening. These data also indicate that the interaction distance between a cross-bridge and the actin filament is at least 16 nm for a single cycle of the ATPase.

  6. A new generation of 99.999% enriched 28Si single crystals for the determination of Avogadro’s constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrosimov, N. V.; Aref'ev, D. G.; Becker, P.; Bettin, H.; Bulanov, A. D.; Churbanov, M. F.; Filimonov, S. V.; Gavva, V. A.; Godisov, O. N.; Gusev, A. V.; Kotereva, T. V.; Nietzold, D.; Peters, M.; Potapov, A. M.; Pohl, H.-J.; Pramann, A.; Riemann, H.; Scheel, P.-T.; Stosch, R.; Wundrack, S.; Zakel, S.

    2017-08-01

    A metrological challenge is currently underway to replace the present definition of the kilogram. One prerequisite for this is that the Avogadro constant, N A, which defines the number of atoms in a mole, needs to be determined with a relative uncertainty of better than 2  ×  10-8. The method applied in this case is based on the x-ray crystal density experiment using silicon crystals. The first attempt, in which silicon of natural isotopic composition was used, failed. The solution chosen subsequently was the usage of silicon highly enriched in 28Si from Russia. First, this paper reviews previous efforts from the very first beginnings to an international collaboration with the goal of producing a 28Si single crystal with a mass of 5 kg, an enrichment greater than 0.9999 and of sufficient chemical purity. Then the paper describes the activities of a follow-up project, conducted by PTB, to produce a new generation of highly enriched silicon in order to demonstrate the quasi-industrial and reliable production of more than 12 kg of the 28Si material with enrichments of five nines. The intention of this project is also to show the availability of 28Si single crystals as a guarantee for the future realisation of the redefined kilogram.

  7. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escott, C C; Hudson, F E; Chan, V C; Petersson, K D; Clark, R G; Dzurak, A S

    2007-01-01

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n + ) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number

  8. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escott, C C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hudson, F E [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chan, V C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersson, K D [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Clark, R G [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, 2052 (Australia); Dzurak, A S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n{sup +}) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number.

  9. Variable dose rate single-arc IMAT delivered with a constant dose rate and variable angular spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Grace; Earl, Matthew A; Yu, Cedric X

    2009-01-01

    Single-arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) has gained worldwide interest in both research and clinical implementation due to its superior plan quality and delivery efficiency. Single-arc IMAT techniques such as the Varian RapidArc(TM) deliver conformal dose distributions to the target in one single gantry rotation, resulting in a delivery time in the order of 2 min. The segments in these techniques are evenly distributed within an arc and are allowed to have different monitor unit (MU) weightings. Therefore, a variable dose-rate (VDR) is required for delivery. Because the VDR requirement complicates the control hardware and software of the linear accelerators (linacs) and prevents most existing linacs from delivering IMAT, we propose an alternative planning approach for IMAT using constant dose-rate (CDR) delivery with variable angular spacing. We prove the equivalence by converting VDR-optimized RapidArc plans to CDR plans, where the evenly spaced beams in the VDR plan are redistributed to uneven spacing such that the segments with larger MU weighting occupy a greater angular interval. To minimize perturbation in the optimized dose distribution, the angular deviation of the segments was restricted to ≤± 5 deg. This restriction requires the treatment arc to be broken into multiple sectors such that the local MU fluctuation within each sector is reduced, thereby lowering the angular deviation of the segments during redistribution. The converted CDR plans were delivered with a single gantry sweep as in the VDR plans but each sector was delivered with a different value of CDR. For four patient cases, including two head-and-neck, one brain and one prostate, all CDR plans developed with the variable spacing scheme produced similar dose distributions to the original VDR plans. For plans with complex angular MU distributions, the number of sectors increased up to four in the CDR plans in order to maintain the original plan quality. Since each sector was

  10. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in cold dark matter models with cosmological constant: The intermediate versus large angular scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Radoslaw; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1994-01-01

    We obtain predictions for cosmic microwave background anisotropies at angular scales near 1 deg in the context of cold dark matter models with a nonzero cosmological constant, normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) detection. The results are compared to those computed in the matter-dominated models. We show that the coherence length of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy is almost insensitive to cosmological parameters, and the rms amplitude of the anisotropy increases moderately with decreasing total matter density, while being most sensitive to the baryon abundance. We apply these results in the statistical analysis of the published data from the UCSB South Pole (SP) experiment (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al. 1993). We reject most of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM)-Lambda models at the 95% confidence level when both SP scans are simulated together (although the combined data set renders less stringent limits than the Gaier et al. data alone). However, the Schuster et al. data considered alone as well as the results of some other recent experiments (MAX, MSAM, Saskatoon), suggest that typical temperature fluctuations on degree scales may be larger than is indicated by the Gaier et al. scan. If so, CDM-Lambda models may indeed provide, from a point of view of CMB anisotropies, an acceptable alternative to flat CDM models.

  11. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  12. Atomic scale mass delivery driven by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Biao; Ding Jianning; Ling Zhiyong; Yuan Ningyi; Cheng Guanggui

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of atomic scale mass delivery by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube was investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. By keeping the bending angle while moving the tube end, the encapsulated atomic scale mass such as atom, molecule and atom group were successfully delivered through the nanotube. The van der Waals interaction between the encapsulated mass and the tube wall provided the driving force for the delivery. There were no dramatic changes in the van der Waals interaction, and a smooth and steady delivery was achieved when constant loading rate was applied. The influence of temperature on the atom group delivery was also analyzed. It is found raising temperature is harmful to the smooth movement of the atom group. However, the delivery rate can be promoted under higher temperature when the atom group is situated before the kink during the delivery.

  13. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing; Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics

  14. Simulating Biomass Fast Pyrolysis at the Single Particle Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Jakes, Joseph E. [U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    2017-07-01

    Simulating fast pyrolysis at the scale of single particles allows for the investigation of the impacts of feedstock-specific parameters such as particle size, shape, and species of origin. For this reason particle-scale modeling has emerged as an important tool for understanding how variations in feedstock properties affect the outcomes of pyrolysis processes. The origins of feedstock properties are largely dictated by the composition and hierarchical structure of biomass, from the microstructural porosity to the external morphology of milled particles. These properties may be accounted for in simulations of fast pyrolysis by several different computational approaches depending on the level of structural and chemical complexity included in the model. The predictive utility of particle-scale simulations of fast pyrolysis can still be enhanced substantially by advancements in several areas. Most notably, considerable progress would be facilitated by the development of pyrolysis kinetic schemes that are decoupled from transport phenomena, predict product evolution from whole-biomass with increased chemical speciation, and are still tractable with present-day computational resources.

  15. SCALE-UP OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS TO FIELD-SCALE ADSORBERS: THEORETICAL BASIS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR A CONSTANT DIFFUSIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is an effective treatment technique for the removal of some toxic organics from drinking water or wastewater, however, it can be a relatively expensive process, especially if it is designed improperly. A rapid method for the design of large-scale f...

  16. Benzodiazepine receptor equilibrium constants for flumazenil and midazolam determined in humans with the single photon emission computer tomography tracer [123I]iomazenil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Friberg, L; Holm, S

    1993-01-01

    twice, once without receptor blockade and once with a constant degree of partial blockade of the benzodiazepine receptors by infusion of nonradioactive flumazenil (Lanexat) or midazolam (Dormicum). Single photon emission computer tomography and blood sampling were performed intermittently for 6 h after...

  17. Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

  18. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Konrath

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVES: The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS. Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies. METHODS: In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250, we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. RESULTS: The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults, intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression, and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior. The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. SIGNIFICANCE: The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  19. Nearly constant ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break length scale in the plasma beta range from 0.2 to 1.4 in the solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tu, C. Y.; He, J.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The spectrum break at the ion scale of the solar wind magnetic fluctuations are considered to give important clue on the turbulence dissipation mechanism. Among several possible mechanisms, the most notable ones are the two mechanisms that related respectively with proton thermal gyro-radius and proton inertial length. However, no definite conclusion has been given for which one is more reasonable because the two parameters have similar values in the normal plasma beta range. Here we do a statistical study for the first time to see if the two mechanism predictions have different dependence on the solar wind velocity and on the plasma beta in the normal plasma beta range in the solar wind at 1 AU. From magnetic measurements by Wind, Ulysses and Messenger, we select 60 data sets with duration longer than 8 hours. We found that the ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break scale do not change considerably with both varying the solar wind speed from 300km/s to 800km/s and varying the plasma beta from 0.2 to 1.4. The average value of the ratio times 2pi is 0.46 ± 0.08. However, the ratio between the proton gyro-radius and the break scale changes clearly. This new result shows that the proton inertial scale could be a single factor that determines the break length scale and hence gives a strong evidence to support the dissipation mechanism related to it in the normal plasma beta range. The value of the constant ratio may relate with the dissipation mechanism, but it needs further theoretical study to give detailed explanation.

  20. Competition of a spring force constant and a phonon energy renormalization in electrochemically doped semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Farhat, H.; Kavan, Ladislav; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2008), s. 3532-3537 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC203/07/J067; GA AV ČR IAA400400804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : spring force constant * electrochemistry * carbon nanotube Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.371, year: 2008

  1. Calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at the alumina/electrolyte interface from the ph dependence of the adsorption of singly charged ions (Na+, Cl-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gololobova, E. G.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Skvortsova, I. V.

    2011-05-01

    A procedure was proposed for the calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at an alumina/electrolyte interface from experimental data on the adsorption of singly charged ions (Na+, Cl-) at various pH values. The calculated constants (p K {1/0}= 4.1, p K {2/0}= 11.9, p K {3/0}= 8.3, and p K {4/0}= 7.7) are shown to agree with the values obtained from an experimental pH dependence of the electrokinetic potential and the results of potentiometric titration of Al2O3 suspensions.

  2. Determination of hydroxyl rate constants by a high-throughput fluorimetric assay: towards a unified reactivity scale for antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louit, G.; Renault, J.P.; Pin, S.; Coffigny, H.; Hanedanian, M.; Taran, F.; Renault, J.P.; Pin, S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe in this article the development of a new method for the determination of rate constants of reaction of the hydroxyl radical, generated by radiolysis of water, with almost any possible molecule. It has been designed to provide a fast and reliable screening of antioxidant banks using microplates. Our particular approach is based on the use of the coumarin molecule as a competitor against the tested molecules: after a fast pulse of low dose irradiation, the fluorescence of 7-hydroxycoumarin produced by the oxidation of coumarin is measured and is inversely proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested antioxidant. We have validated our protocol using 32 molecules whose rate constants with HO . had already been evaluated and found a good agreement between our rate constants and the latter ones. The scopes and limitations of our method, as well as those of other rate constant determination methods, are discussed. (authors)

  3. Large curvature and background scale independence in single-metric approximations to asymptotic safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Tim R. [STAG Research Centre & Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-25

    In single-metric approximations to the exact renormalization group (RG) for quantum gravity, it has been not been clear how to treat the large curvature domain beyond the point where the effective cutoff scale k is less than the lowest eigenvalue of the appropriate modified Laplacian. We explain why this puzzle arises from background dependence, resulting in Wilsonian RG concepts being inapplicable. We show that when properly formulated over an ensemble of backgrounds, the Wilsonian RG can be restored. This in turn implies that solutions should be smooth and well defined no matter how large the curvature is taken. Even for the standard single-metric type approximation schemes, this construction can be rigorously derived by imposing a modified Ward identity (mWI) corresponding to rescaling the background metric by a constant factor. However compatibility in this approximation requires the space-time dimension to be six. Solving the mWI and flow equation simultaneously, new variables are then derived that are independent of overall background scale.

  4. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Simonović, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We derive consistency relations for the late universe (CDM and ΛCDM): relations between an n-point function of the density contrast δ and an (n+1)-point function in the limit in which one of the (n+1) momenta becomes much smaller than the others. These are based on the observation that a long mode, in single-field models of inflation, reduces to a diffeomorphism since its freezing during inflation all the way until the late universe, even when the long mode is inside the horizon (but out of the sound horizon). These results are derived in Newtonian gauge, at first and second order in the small momentum q of the long mode and they are valid non-perturbatively in the short-scale δ. In the non-relativistic limit our results match with [1]. These relations are a consequence of diffeomorphism invariance; they are not satisfied in the presence of extra degrees of freedom during inflation or violation of the Equivalence Principle (extra forces) in the late universe

  5. Surface Brillouin scattering measurement of the elastic constants of single crystal InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G [Materials Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Botha, J R, E-mail: Lesias.Kotane@wits.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2011-01-01

    Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}. The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.

  6. Electronic setup for fluorescence emission measurements and long-time constant-temperature maintenance of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes in water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Matteo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research we have observed that the fluorescence emission from water solutions of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (SWCNT, excited by a laser with a wavelength of 830nm, diminishes with the time. We have already proved that such a fading is a function of the storage time and the storage temperature. In order to study the emission of the SWCNT as a function of these two parameters we have designed and realized a special measurement compartment with a cuvette holder where the SWCNT solutions can be measured and stored at a fixed constant temperature for periods of time as long as several weeks. To maintain the measurement setup under a constant temperature we have designed special experimental setup based on two Peltier cells with electronic temperature control.

  7. Surface Brillouin scattering measurement of the elastic constants of single crystal InAs0.91Sb0.09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G; Botha, J R

    2011-01-01

    Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs 0.91 Sb 0.09 . The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.

  8. Optimizing the solar photo-Fenton process in the treatment of contaminated water. Determination of intrinsic kinetic constants for scale-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Miguel [Universidad de Los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Tabernas (PSA) (Spain); Pulgarin, Cesar [Institute of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Contreras, Sandra; Curco, David; Gimenez, Jaime; Esplugas, Santiago [Department d' Enginyeria Quimica i Metallurgia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    The elimination of aromatic compounds present in surface water by photo-Fenton with sunlight as the source of radiation was studied. The concentrations of Fe{sup 3+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are key factors for this process. A solar simulator and a prototype parabolic collector were used as laboratory-scale reactors to find the parameters of those key factors to be used in the CPC (compound parabolic collector) pilot plant reactor. The initial mineralization rate constant (k{sub obs}) was determined and evaluated at different Fe{sup 3+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to find the best values for maximum efficiency. In all the experiments the mineralization of an aqueous phenol solution was described by assuming a pseudo-first-order reaction. The intrinsic kinetic constants not dependent on the lighting conditions were also estimated for scale-up. (author)

  9. Atomic-Scale Control of Electron Transport through Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Y. F.; Kroger, J.; Berndt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-phthalocyanine molecules adsorbed on Ag(111) were contacted with the tip of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope. Orders-of-magnitude variations of the single-molecule junction conductance were achieved by controllably dehydrogenating the molecule and by modifying the atomic structure...

  10. Microarray-based large scale detection of single feature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-12-08

    Dec 8, 2015 ... mental stages was used to identify single feature polymorphisms (SFPs). ... on a high-density oligonucleotide expression array in which. ∗ ..... The sign (+/−) with SFPs indicates direction of polymorphism. In the. (−) sign (i.e. ...

  11. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  12. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  13. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  14. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  16. Vision for single flux quantum very large scale integrated technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, Arnold; Bunyk, Paul; Kleinsasser, Alan; Spargo, John

    2006-01-01

    Single flux quantum (SFQ) electronics is extremely fast and has very low on-chip power dissipation. SFQ VLSI is an excellent candidate for high-performance computing and other applications requiring extremely high-speed signal processing. Despite this, SFQ technology has generally not been accepted for system implementation. We argue that this is due, at least in part, to the use of outdated tools to produce SFQ circuits and chips. Assuming the use of tools equivalent to those employed in the semiconductor industry, we estimate the density of Josephson junctions, circuit speed, and power dissipation that could be achieved with SFQ technology. Today, CMOS lithography is at 90-65 nm with about 20 layers. Assuming equivalent technology, aggressively increasing the current density above 100 kA cm -2 to achieve junction speeds approximately 1000 GHz, and reducing device footprints by converting device profiles from planar to vertical, one could expect to integrate about 250 M Josephson junctions cm -2 into SFQ digital circuits. This should enable circuit operation with clock frequencies above 200 GHz and place approximately 20 K gates within a radius of one clock period. As a result, complete microprocessors, including integrated memory registers, could be fabricated on a single chip

  17. Vision for single flux quantum very large scale integrated technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, Arnold [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, One Space Park, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Bunyk, Paul [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, One Space Park, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Kleinsasser, Alan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Spargo, John [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, One Space Park, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Single flux quantum (SFQ) electronics is extremely fast and has very low on-chip power dissipation. SFQ VLSI is an excellent candidate for high-performance computing and other applications requiring extremely high-speed signal processing. Despite this, SFQ technology has generally not been accepted for system implementation. We argue that this is due, at least in part, to the use of outdated tools to produce SFQ circuits and chips. Assuming the use of tools equivalent to those employed in the semiconductor industry, we estimate the density of Josephson junctions, circuit speed, and power dissipation that could be achieved with SFQ technology. Today, CMOS lithography is at 90-65 nm with about 20 layers. Assuming equivalent technology, aggressively increasing the current density above 100 kA cm{sup -2} to achieve junction speeds approximately 1000 GHz, and reducing device footprints by converting device profiles from planar to vertical, one could expect to integrate about 250 M Josephson junctions cm{sup -2} into SFQ digital circuits. This should enable circuit operation with clock frequencies above 200 GHz and place approximately 20 K gates within a radius of one clock period. As a result, complete microprocessors, including integrated memory registers, could be fabricated on a single chip.

  18. Are fundamental constants really constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed

  19. Sub-Micrometer Zeolite Films on Gold-Coated Silicon Wafers with Single-Crystal-Like Dielectric Constant and Elastic Modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiriolo, Raffaele [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro Italy; Rangnekar, Neel [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Ave SE Minneapolis MN 55455 USA; Zhang, Han [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Ave SE Minneapolis MN 55455 USA; Shete, Meera [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Ave SE Minneapolis MN 55455 USA; Bai, Peng [Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Theory Center, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant St SE Minneapolis MN 55455 USA; Nelson, John [Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, 12 Shepherd Labs, 100 Union St. S.E. Minneapolis MN 55455 USA; Karapetrova, Evguenia [Surface Scattering and Microdiffraction, X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Building 438-D002 Argonne IL 60439 USA; Macosko, Christopher W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Ave SE Minneapolis MN 55455 USA; Siepmann, Joern Ilja [Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Theory Center, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant St SE Minneapolis MN 55455 USA; Lamanna, Ernesto [Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro Italy; Lavano, Angelo [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro Italy; Tsapatsis, Michael [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Ave SE Minneapolis MN 55455 USA

    2017-05-08

    A low-temperature synthesis coupled with mild activation produces zeolite films exhibiting low dielectric constant (low-k) matching the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured values for single crystals. This synthesis and activation method allows for the fabrication of a device consisting of a b-oriented film of the pure-silica zeolite MFI (silicalite-1) supported on a gold-coated silicon wafer. The zeolite seeds are assembled by a manual assembly process and subjected to optimized secondary growth conditions that do not cause corrosion of the gold underlayer, while strongly promoting in-plane growth. The traditional calcination process is replaced with a non-thermal photochemical activation to ensure preservation of an intact gold layer. The dielectric constant (k), obtained through measurement of electrical capacitance in a metal-insulator-metal configuration, highlights the ultralow k approximate to 1.7 of the synthetized films, which is among the lowest values reported for an MFI film. There is large improvement in elastic modulus of the film (E approximate to 54 GPa) over previous reports, potentially allowing for integration into silicon wafer processing technology.

  20. Prediction of clearance, volume of distribution and half-life by allometric scaling and by use of plasma concentrations predicted from pharmacokinetic constants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, I

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, CL, volume of distribution in the central compartment, VdC, and elimination half-life, t1/2beta) predicted by an empirical allometric approach have been compared with parameters predicted from plasma concentrations calculated by use of the pharmacokinetic constants A, B, alpha and beta, where A and B are the intercepts on the Y axis of the plot of plasma concentration against time and alpha and beta are the rate constants, both pairs of constants being for the distribution and elimination phases, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cefpiramide, actisomide, troglitazone, procaterol, moxalactam and ciprofloxacin were scaled from animal data obtained from the literature. Three methods were used to generate plots for the prediction of clearance in man: dependence of clearance on body weight (simple allometric equation); dependence of the product of clearance and maximum life-span potential (MLP) on body weight; and dependence of the product of clearance and brain weight on body weight. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were predicted in man by use of A, B, alpha and beta obtained from animal data. The predicted plasma concentrations were then used to calculate CL, VdC and t1/2beta. The pharmacokinetic parameters predicted by use of both approaches were compared with measured values. The results indicate that simple allometry did not predict clearance satisfactorily for actisomide, troglitazone, procaterol and ciprofloxacin. Use of MLP or the product of clearance and brain weight improved the prediction of clearance for these four drugs. Except for troglitazone, VdC and t1/2beta predicted for man by use of the allometric approach were comparable with measured values for the drugs studied. CL, VdC and t1/2beta predicted by use of pharmacokinetic constants were comparable with values predicted by simple allometry. Thus, if simple allometry failed to predict clearance of a drug, so did the pharmacokinetic constant

  1. New representation of water activity based on a single solute specific constant to parameterize the hygroscopic growth of aerosols in atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Metzger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water activity is a key factor in aerosol thermodynamics and hygroscopic growth. We introduce a new representation of water activity (aw, which is empirically related to the solute molality (μs through a single solute specific constant, νi. Our approach is widely applicable, considers the Kelvin effect and covers ideal solutions at high relative humidity (RH, including cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activation. It also encompasses concentrated solutions with high ionic strength at low RH such as the relative humidity of deliquescence (RHD. The constant νi can thus be used to parameterize the aerosol hygroscopic growth over a wide range of particle sizes, from nanometer nucleation mode to micrometer coarse mode particles. In contrast to other aw-representations, our νi factor corrects the solute molality both linearly and in exponent form x · ax. We present four representations of our basic aw-parameterization at different levels of complexity for different aw-ranges, e.g. up to 0.95, 0.98 or 1. νi is constant over the selected aw-range, and in its most comprehensive form, the parameterization describes the entire aw range (0–1. In this work we focus on single solute solutions. νi can be pre-determined with a root-finding method from our water activity representation using an aw−μs data pair, e.g. at solute saturation using RHD and solubility measurements. Our aw and supersaturation (Köhler-theory results compare well with the thermodynamic reference model E-AIM for the key compounds NaCl and (NH42SO4 relevant for CCN modeling and calibration studies. Envisaged applications include regional and global atmospheric chemistry and

  2. The Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale: An Alternative Way of Measuring Mathematical Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Peña, M. Isabel; Guilera, Georgina; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale (SIMA), based on the item suggested by Ashcraft, provided valid and reliable scores of mathematical anxiety. A large sample of university students (n = 279) was administered the SIMA and the 25-item Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS) to evaluate the relation between the scores…

  3. Electrochemistry of single molecules and biomolecules, molecular scale nanostructures, and low-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazmutdinov, Renat R.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemistry at ultra-small scales, where even the single molecule or biomolecule can be characterized and manipulated, is on the way to a consolidated status. At the same time molecular electrochemistry is expanding into other areas of sophisticated nano- and molecular scale systems includin...... molecular scale metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and other nanostructures, e.g. nanotubes, “nanoflowers” etc.. The new structures offer both new electronic properties and highly confined novel charge transfer environments....

  4. Cosmological constants and variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D

    2005-01-01

    We review properties of theories for the variation of the gravitation and fine structure 'constants'. We highlight some general features of the cosmological models that exist in these theories with reference to recent quasar data that is consistent with time-variation in the fine structure 'constant' since a redshift of 3.5. The behaviour of a simple class of varying alpha cosmologies is outlined in the light of all the observational constraints. We also discuss some of the consequences of varying 'constants' for oscillating universes and show by means of exact solutions that they appear to evolve monotonically in time even though the scale factor of the universe oscillates

  5. Investigation of optical and magneto-optical constants and their surface-oxide-layer effects of single-crystalline GdCo2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.J.; Canfield, P.C.; Lynch, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the optical and magneto-optical properties of single-crystalline GdCo 2 by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and magneto-optical Kerr spectrometry (MOKS). The diagonal component of the optical conductivity tensor of the compound was obtained by SE in the 1.5-5.5 eV region and the off-diagonal component by using the measured magneto-optical parameters (Kerr rotation and ellipticity) by MOKS and the SE data. The measured spectra were corrected for the surface oxide layer by employing a three-phase model treating the oxide layer as nonmagnetic with constant refractive index. The magnitude of the diagonal component becomes enhanced and the optical transition structures of the off-diagonal component become more pronounced by the oxide correction. The overall optical and magneto-optical data are discussed in terms of the calculated spin-polarized band structure and optical absorption of the compound and the effect of the surface oxide layer

  6. Measurement of the infrared optical constants for spectral modeling: n and k values for (NH4)2SO4 via single-angle reflectance and ellipsometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Myers, Tanya L.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tiwald, Thomas E.

    2017-05-05

    The optical constants n and k can be used to model infrared spectra, including refraction, absorption, reflectance, and emissivity, but obtaining reliable values for solid materials (pure or otherwise) presents a challenge: In the past, the best results for n and k have been obtained from bulk, homogeneous materials, free of defects. That is, materials where the Fresnel equations are operant since there is no light scattering. Since it is often not possible to obtain a pure macroscopic (crystalline) material, it may be possible to press the material into a (uniform, void-free) disk. We have recently been able to do this with ammonium sulfate powder and then measured the n & k values via two independent methods: 1) Ellipsometry - which measures the changes in amplitude and phase of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence, and 2) Single angle specular reflectance with an FT spectrometer using a specular reflectance device within an FT instrument which measures the change in amplitude of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence over a wide wavelength range. The quality of the derived n & k values was tested by generating the reflectance spectra of the pellet and comparing to the calculated to measured reflectance spectra of the pure material which has been previously published. The comparison to literature values showed good accuracy and good agreement, indicating promise to measure other materials by such methods.

  7. Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Harmonics Compensation Strategy of Smart Charger for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Ikeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses harmonic current compensation of the constant DC-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC-based strategy of smart chargers for electric vehicles (EVs in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders (SPTWDFs under nonlinear load conditions. The basic principle of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy under nonlinear load conditions is discussed in detail. The instantaneous power flowing into the three-leg pulse-width modulated (PWM rectifier, which performs as a smart charger, shows that the CDCVC-based strategy achieves balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor. The CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy does not require any calculation blocks of fundamental reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. Thus, the authors propose a simplified algorithm to compensate for reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. A digital computer simulation is implemented to confirm the validity and high practicability of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy using PSIM software. Simulation results demonstrate that balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor in SPTWDFs are obtained on the secondary side of the pole-mounted distribution transformer (PMDT during both the battery-charging and discharging operations in EVs, compensating for the reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents.

  8. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained

  9. Similarity analysis and scaling criteria for LWRs under single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1983-03-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single phase and two-phase flow conditions have been derived. For a single phase case the continuity, integral momentum, and energy equations in one-dimensional area average forms have been used. From this, the geometrical similarity groups, friction number, Richardson number, characteristic time constant ratio, Biot number, and heat source number are obtained. The Biot number involves the heat transfer coefficient which may cause some difficulties in simulating the turbulent flow regime. For a two-phase flow case, the similarity groups obtained from a perturbation analysis based on the one-dimensional drift-flux model have been used. The physical significance of the phase change number, subcooling number, drift-flux number, friction number are discussed and conditions imposed by these groups are evaluated. In the two-phase flow case, the critical heat flux is one of the most important transients which should be simulated in a scale model. The above results are applied to the LOFT facility in case of a natural circulation simulation. Some preliminary conclusions on the feasibility of the facility have been obtained.

  10. Delving Deep into Multiscale Pedestrian Detection via Single Scale Feature Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinchuan Fu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard pipeline in pedestrian detection is sliding a pedestrian model on an image feature pyramid to detect pedestrians of different scales. In this pipeline, feature pyramid construction is time consuming and becomes the bottleneck for fast detection. Recently, a method called multiresolution filtered channels (MRFC was proposed which only used single scale feature maps to achieve fast detection. However, there are two shortcomings in MRFC which limit its accuracy. One is that the receptive field correspondence in different scales is weak. Another is that the features used are not scale invariance. In this paper, two solutions are proposed to tackle with the two shortcomings respectively. Specifically, scale-aware pooling is proposed to make a better receptive field correspondence, and soft decision tree is proposed to relive scale variance problem. When coupled with efficient sliding window classification strategy, our detector achieves fast detecting speed at the same time with state-of-the-art accuracy.

  11. Single Image Super-Resolution Based on Multi-Scale Competitive Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofeng; Qu, Xiaobo; He, Yifan; Guo, Di

    2018-03-06

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are successful in single-image super-resolution. Traditional CNNs are limited to exploit multi-scale contextual information for image reconstruction due to the fixed convolutional kernel in their building modules. To restore various scales of image details, we enhance the multi-scale inference capability of CNNs by introducing competition among multi-scale convolutional filters, and build up a shallow network under limited computational resources. The proposed network has the following two advantages: (1) the multi-scale convolutional kernel provides the multi-context for image super-resolution, and (2) the maximum competitive strategy adaptively chooses the optimal scale of information for image reconstruction. Our experimental results on image super-resolution show that the performance of the proposed network outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Level-statistics in Disordered Systems: A single parametric scaling and Connection to Brownian Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Pragya

    2004-01-01

    We find that the statistics of levels undergoing metal-insulator transition in systems with multi-parametric Gaussian disorders and non-interacting electrons behaves in a way similar to that of the single parametric Brownian ensembles \\cite{dy}. The latter appear during a Poisson $\\to$ Wigner-Dyson transition, driven by a random perturbation. The analogy provides the analytical evidence for the single parameter scaling of the level-correlations in disordered systems as well as a tool to obtai...

  13. Absolute NMR shielding scales and nuclear spin–rotation constants in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br and {sup 127}I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demissie, Taye B., E-mail: taye.b.demissie@uit.no; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Jaszuński, Michał [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44, 01 224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-28

    We present nuclear spin–rotation constants, absolute nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding constants, and shielding spans of all the nuclei in {sup 175}LuX and {sup 197}AuX (X = {sup 19}F, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 79}Br, {sup 127}I), calculated using coupled-cluster singles-and-doubles with a perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) correction theory, four-component relativistic density functional theory (relativistic DFT), and non-relativistic DFT. The total nuclear spin–rotation constants determined by adding the relativistic corrections obtained from DFT calculations to the CCSD(T) values are in general in agreement with available experimental data, indicating that the computational approach followed in this study allows us to predict reliable results for the unknown spin–rotation constants in these molecules. The total NMR absolute shielding constants are determined for all the nuclei following the same approach as that applied for the nuclear spin–rotation constants. In most of the molecules, relativistic effects significantly change the computed shielding constants, demonstrating that straightforward application of the non-relativistic formula relating the electronic contribution to the nuclear spin–rotation constants and the paramagnetic contribution to the shielding constants does not yield correct results. We also analyze the origin of the unusually large absolute shielding constant and its relativistic correction of gold in AuF compared to the other gold monohalides.

  14. Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction in parallel microbore tubes using MDIMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darekar, Mayur; Singh, K.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction of U(VI) from simulated lean streams is explored using micro-scale contactor comprising of a MDIMJ (Monoblock Distributor with Integrated Microfluidic Junction) and PTFE microbore tubes. 30% (v/v) TBP in dodecane has been used as the extracting phase. The objective of the study is to demonstrate numbering up approach for scale-up of micro-scale extraction using indigenously conceptualized and fabricated MDIMJ. First the performance of MIDIMJ for equal flow distribution is tested. Then the effects of inlet flow rate and O/A ratio on stage efficiency and percentage extraction are studied. The experiments show that it is easy to scale-up single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction by using MDIMJ for numbering up approach. Maximum capacity tested is 4.8 LPH. With O/A = 2/1, more than 90% extraction is achieved in a very short contact time of less than 3s. The study thus demonstrates possibility of process intensification and easy scale-up of micro-scale solvent extraction

  15. Industrial-scale separation of high-purity single-chirality single-wall carbon nanotubes for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomogida, Yohei; Tanaka, Takeshi; Zhang, Minfang; Yudasaka, Masako; Wei, Xiaojun; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Single-chirality, single-wall carbon nanotubes are desired due to their inherent physical properties and performance characteristics. Here, we demonstrate a chromatographic separation method based on a newly discovered chirality-selective affinity between carbon nanotubes and a gel containing a mixture of the surfactants. In this system, two different selectivities are found: chiral-angle selectivity and diameter selectivity. Since the chirality of nanotubes is determined by the chiral angle and diameter, combining these independent selectivities leads to high-resolution single-chirality separation with milligram-scale throughput and high purity. Furthermore, we present efficient vascular imaging of mice using separated single-chirality (9,4) nanotubes. Due to efficient absorption and emission, blood vessels can be recognized even with the use of ∼100-fold lower injected dose than the reported value for pristine nanotubes. Thus, 1 day of separation provides material for up to 15,000 imaging experiments, which is acceptable for industrial use. PMID:27350127

  16. A single gene (yes controls pigmentation of eyes and scales in Heliothis virescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brown

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A yellow-eyed mutant was discovered in a strain of Heliothis virescens, the tobacco budworm, that already exhibited a mutation for yellow scale, y. We investigated the inheritance of these visible mutations as candidate markers for transgenesis. Yellow eye was controlled by a single, recessive, autosomal factor, the same type of inheritance previously known for y. Presence of the recombinant mutants with yellow scales with wild type eyes in test crosses indicated independent segregation of genes for these traits. The recombinant class with wild type scales and yellow eyes was completely absent and there was a corresponding increase of the double mutant parental class having yellow scales and yellow eyes. These results indicated that a single factor for yellow eye also controls yellow scales independently of y. This gene was named yes, for yellow eye and scale. We hypothesize that yes controls both eye and scale color through a deficiency in transport of pigment precursors in both the ommochrome and melanin pathways. The unlinked gene y likely controls an enzyme affecting the melanin pathway only. Both y and yes segregated independently of AceIn, acetylcholinesterase insensitivity, and sodium channel hscp, which are genes related to insecticide resistance.

  17. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  18. Role of optometry school in single day large scale school vision testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, N; Ramani, Krishnakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: School vision testing aims at identification and management of refractive errors. Large-scale school vision testing using conventional methods is time-consuming and demands a lot of chair time from the eye care professionals. A new strategy involving a school of optometry in single day large scale school vision testing is discussed. Aim: The aim was to describe a new approach of performing vision testing of school children on a large scale in a single day. Materials and Methods: A single day vision testing strategy was implemented wherein 123 members (20 teams comprising optometry students and headed by optometrists) conducted vision testing for children in 51 schools. School vision testing included basic vision screening, refraction, frame measurements, frame choice and referrals for other ocular problems. Results: A total of 12448 children were screened, among whom 420 (3.37%) were identified to have refractive errors. 28 (1.26%) children belonged to the primary, 163 to middle (9.80%), 129 (4.67%) to secondary and 100 (1.73%) to the higher secondary levels of education respectively. 265 (2.12%) children were referred for further evaluation. Conclusion: Single day large scale school vision testing can be adopted by schools of optometry to reach a higher number of children within a short span. PMID:25709271

  19. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  20. Atomic-scale structure of single-layer MoS2 nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helveg, S.; Lauritsen, J. V.; Lægsgaard, E.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the atomic-scale realm of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoclusters, which are of interest as a model system in hydrodesulfurization catalysis. The STM gives the first real space images of the shape and edge structure of single-layer MoS2...

  1. A psychometric comparison of three scales and a single-item measure to assess sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristen P; Herbenick, Debby; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Sanders, Stephanie; Reece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to systematically compare and contrast the psychometric properties of three scales developed to measure sexual satisfaction and a single-item measure of sexual satisfaction. The Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS), Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (GMSEX), and the New Sexual Satisfaction Scale-Short (NSSS-S) were compared to one another and to a single-item measure of sexual satisfaction. Conceptualization of the constructs, distribution of scores, internal consistency, convergent validity, test-retest reliability, and factor structure were compared between the measures. A total of 211 men and 214 women completed the scales and a measure of relationship satisfaction, with 33% (n = 139) of the sample reassessed two months later. All scales demonstrated appropriate distribution of scores and adequate internal consistency. The GMSEX, NSSS-S, and the single-item measure demonstrated convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was demonstrated by the ISS, GMSEX, and NSSS-S, but not the single-item measure. Taken together, the GMSEX received the strongest psychometric support in this sample for a unidimensional measure of sexual satisfaction and the NSSS-S received the strongest psychometric support in this sample for a bidimensional measure of sexual satisfaction.

  2. Photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor: photoreactor modeling and reaction kinetics constants independent of radiation field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina-Márquez, Jose; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    The six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM) of the radiation field in the photoreactor, combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models, has proved to be suitable to describe the degradation of water pollutants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactors, combining simplicity and accuracy. In this study, the above approach was extended to model the photocatalytic mineralization of a commercial herbicides mixture (2,4-D, diuron, and ametryne used in Colombian sugar cane crops) in a solar, pilot-scale, compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using a slurry suspension of TiO(2). The ray-tracing technique was used jointly with the SFM to determine the direction of both the direct and diffuse solar photon fluxes and the spatial profile of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the CPC reactor. Herbicides mineralization kinetics with explicit photon absorption effects were utilized to remove the dependence of the observed rate constants from the reactor geometry and radiation field in the photoreactor. The results showed that the overall model fitted the experimental data of herbicides mineralization in the solar CPC reactor satisfactorily for both cloudy and sunny days. Using the above approach kinetic parameters independent of the radiation field in the reactor can be estimated directly from the results of experiments carried out in a solar CPC reactor. The SFM combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models proved to be a simple, but reliable model, for solar photocatalytic applications.

  3. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  4. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T 2 scales as n γ . The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging

  5. Large-scale single-chirality separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes by simple gel chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Nishide, Daisuke; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    Monostructured single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are important in both scientific research and electronic and biomedical applications; however, the bulk separation of SWCNTs into populations of single-chirality nanotubes remains challenging. Here we report a simple and effective method for the large-scale chirality separation of SWCNTs using a single-surfactant multicolumn gel chromatography method utilizing one surfactant and a series of vertically connected gel columns. This method is based on the structure-dependent interaction strength of SWCNTs with an allyl dextran-based gel. Overloading an SWCNT dispersion on the top column results in the adsorption sites of the column becoming fully occupied by the nanotubes that exhibit the strongest interaction with the gel. The unbound nanotubes flow through to the next column, and the nanotubes with the second strongest interaction with the gel are adsorbed in this stage. In this manner, 13 different (n, m) species were separated. Metallic SWCNTs were finally collected as unbound nanotubes because they exhibited the lowest interaction with the gel. PMID:21556063

  6. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  7. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  8. Effects of ambient temperature and oxygen concentration on diesel spray combustion using a single-nozzle injector in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2013-09-02

    This work investigates the effects of ambient conditions on diesel spray combustion in an optically accessible, constant volume chamber using a single-nozzle fuel injector. The ambient O2 concentration was varied between five discrete values from 10% to 21% and three different ambient temperatures (800 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K). These conditions simulate different exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and ambient temperatures in diesel engines. Both conventional diesel combustion and low temperature combustion (LTC) modes were observed under these conditions. A transient analysis and a quasi-steady state analysis are employed in this article. The transient analysis focuses on the flame development from beginning to the end, illustrating how the flame structure changes during this process; the quasi-steady state analysis focuses on the stable flame structure. The transient analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging of both OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL). In addition, three different images were acquired using an ICCD camera, corresponding to OH* chemiluminescence, narrow-band flame emission at 430 nm (Band A) and at 470 nm (Band B), and were used to investigate the quasi-steady state combustion process. From the transient analysis, it was found that the NL signal becomes stronger and confined to narrow regions when the temperature and O2 concentration increase during the development of flame. The OH* intensity is much lower for the 10% ambient O2 and 800 K conditions compared to the higher temperatures and O2 levels. This implies the occurrence of LTC under these conditions. Results from the quasi-steady combustion stage indicate that high-temperature reactions effectively oxidize the soot in the downstream locations where only OH* signal is observed. In addition, an area was calculated for each spectral region, and results show that the area of Band A and Band B emissions in these images is larger than the area of OH* emissions at the lower O2

  9. Scaling of F-actin network rheology to probe single filament elasticity and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, M L; Shin, J H; MacKintosh, F C; Mahadevan, L; Matsudaira, P A; Weitz, D A

    2004-10-29

    The linear and nonlinear viscoelastic response of networks of cross-linked and bundled cytoskeletal filaments demonstrates remarkable scaling with both frequency and applied prestress, which helps elucidate the origins of the viscoelasticity. The frequency dependence of the shear modulus reflects the underlying single-filament relaxation dynamics for 0.1-10 rad/sec. Moreover, the nonlinear strain stiffening of such networks exhibits a universal form as a function of prestress; this is quantitatively explained by the full force-extension relation of single semiflexible filaments.

  10. The impact of ordinate scaling on the visual analysis of single-case data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Evan H; Radley, Keith C

    2017-08-01

    Visual analysis is the primary method for detecting the presence of treatment effects in graphically displayed single-case data and it is often referred to as the "gold standard." Although researchers have developed standards for the application of visual analysis (e.g., Horner et al., 2005), over- and underestimation of effect size magnitude is not uncommon among analysts. Several characteristics have been identified as potential contributors to these errors; however, researchers have largely focused on characteristics of the data itself (e.g., autocorrelation), paying less attention to characteristics of the graphic display which are largely in control of the analyst (e.g., ordinate scaling). The current study investigated the impact that differences in ordinate scaling, a graphic display characteristic, had on experts' accuracy in judgments regarding the magnitude of effect present in single-case percentage data. 32 participants were asked to evaluate eight ABAB data sets (2 each presenting null, small, moderate, and large effects) along with three iterations of each (32 graphs in total) in which only the ordinate scale was manipulated. Results suggest that raters are less accurate in their detection of treatment effects as the ordinate scale is constricted. Additionally, raters were more likely to overestimate the size of a treatment effect when the ordinate scale was constricted. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanoscale heterostructures with molecular-scale single-crystal metal wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Paromita; Halder, Aditi; Viswanath, B; Kundu, Dipan; Ramanath, Ganpati; Ravishankar, N

    2010-01-13

    Creating nanoscale heterostructures with molecular-scale (synthesis of nanoscale heterostructures with single-crystal molecular-scale Au nanowires attached to different nanostructure substrates. Our method involves the formation of Au nanoparticle seeds by the reduction of rocksalt AuCl nanocubes heterogeneously nucleated on the substrates and subsequent nanowire growth by oriented attachment of Au nanoparticles from the solution phase. Nanoscale heterostructures fabricated by such site-specific nucleation and growth are attractive for many applications including nanoelectronic device wiring, catalysis, and sensing.

  12. Is the sun constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.B.; Dearborn, D.S.P.

    1979-01-01

    Small fluctuations in the solar constant can occur on timescales much shorter than the Kelvin time. Changes in the ability of convection to transmit energy through the superadiabatic and transition regions of the convection zone cause structure adjustments which can occur on a time scale of days. The bulk of the convection zone reacts to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium (though not thermal equilibrium) and causes a luminosity change. While small radius variations will occur, most of the change will be seen in temperature

  13. Towards a single empirical correlation to predict kLa across scales and processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra; Gernaey, Krist; Albæk, Mads O.

    Mathematical models are increasingly used in fermentation. Nevertheless, one of the major limitations of these models is that the parameters they include are process specific, e.g. the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). Oxygen transfer was studied in order to establish a single equation...... different calculations of the average shear rate. The experimental kLa value was determined with the direct method; however, eight variations of its calculation were evaluated. Several simple correlations were fitted to the measured kLa data. The standard empirical equation was found to be best...... scales using on ‐ line viscosity measurements. A single correlation for all processes and all scales could not be established...

  14. Multi-scale simulation of single crystal hollow turbine blade manufactured by liquid metal cooling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal cooling (LMC process as a powerful directional solidification (DS technique is prospectively used to manufacture single crystal (SC turbine blades. An understanding of the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution in LMC process is required in order to improve the properties of the blades. For this reason, a multi-scale model coupling with the temperature field, grain growth and solute diffusion was established. The temperature distribution and mushy zone evolution of the hollow blade was simulated and discussed. According to the simulation results, the mushy zone might be convex and ahead of the ceramic beads at a lower withdrawal rate, while it will be concave and laggard at a higher withdrawal rate, and a uniform and horizontal mushy zone will be formed at a medium withdrawal rate. Grain growth of the blade at different withdrawal rates was also investigated. Single crystal structures were all selected out at three different withdrawal rates. Moreover, mis-orientation of the grains at 8 mm/min reached ~30°, while it was ~5° and ~15° at 10 mm/min and 12 mm/min, respectively. The model for predicting dendritic morphology was verified by corresponding experiment. Large scale for 2D dendritic distribution in the whole sections was investigated by experiment and simulation, and they presented a well agreement with each other. Keywords: Hollow blade, Single crystal, Multi-scale simulation, Liquid metal cooling

  15. Soft matter interactions at the molecular scale: interaction forces and energies between single hydrophobic model peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Philipp; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2017-02-08

    In all realms of soft matter research a fundamental understanding of the structure/property relationships based on molecular interactions is crucial for developing a framework for the targeted design of soft materials. However, a molecular picture is often difficult to ascertain and yet essential for understanding the many different competing interactions at play, including entropies and cooperativities, hydration effects, and the enormous design space of soft matter. Here, we characterized for the first time the interaction between single hydrophobic molecules quantitatively using atomic force microscopy, and demonstrated that single molecular hydrophobic interaction free energies are dominated by the area of the smallest interacting hydrophobe. The interaction free energy amounts to 3-4 kT per hydrophobic unit. Also, we find that the transition state of the hydrophobic interactions is located at 3 Å with respect to the ground state, based on Bell-Evans theory. Our results provide a new path for understanding the nature of hydrophobic interactions at the single molecular scale. Our approach enables us to systematically vary hydrophobic and any other interaction type by utilizing peptide chemistry providing a strategic advancement to unravel molecular surface and soft matter interactions at the single molecular scale.

  16. Scaling of dynamical decoupling for a single electron spin in nanodiamonds at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong-Qi; Liu, Gang-Qin; Chang, Yan-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yu, E-mail: xypan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-01-01

    Overcoming the spin qubit decoherence is a challenge for quantum science and technology. We investigate the decoherence process in nanodiamonds by Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) technique at room temperature. We find that the coherence time T{sub 2} scales as n{sup γ}. The elongation effect of coherence time can be represented by a constant power of the number of pulses n. Considering the filter function of CPMG decoupling sequence as a δ function, the spectrum density of noise has been reconstructed directly from the coherence time measurements and a Lorentzian noise power spectrum model agrees well with the experiment. These results are helpful for the application of nanodiamonds to nanoscale magnetic imaging.

  17. Large-Scale Mixed Temperate Forest Mapping at the Single Tree Level using Airborne Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, V.; Morsdorf, F.; Ginzler, C.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring vegetation on a single tree level is critical to understand and model a variety of processes, functions, and changes in forest systems. Remote sensing technologies are increasingly utilized to complement and upscale the field-based measurements of forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) systems provide valuable information in the vertical dimension for effective vegetation structure mapping. Although many algorithms exist to extract single tree segments from forest scans, they are often tuned to perform well in homogeneous coniferous or deciduous areas and are not successful in mixed forests. Other methods are too computationally expensive to apply operationally. The aim of this study was to develop a single tree detection workflow using leaf-off ALS data for the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Aargau covers an area of over 1,400km2 and features mixed forests with various development stages and topography. Forest type was classified using random forests to guide local parameter selection. Canopy height model-based treetop maxima were detected and maintained based on the relationship between tree height and window size, used as a proxy to crown diameter. Watershed segmentation was used to generate crown polygons surrounding each maximum. The location, height, and crown dimensions of single trees were derived from the ALS returns within each polygon. Validation was performed through comparison with field measurements and extrapolated estimates from long-term monitoring plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory within the framework of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research. This method shows promise for robust, large-scale single tree detection in mixed forests. The single tree data will aid ecological studies as well as forest management practices. Figure description: Height-normalized ALS point cloud data (top) and resulting single tree segments (bottom) on the Laegeren mountain in Switzerland.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in African American single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Hall, Lynne A

    2009-02-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale is a commonly used measure of global self-esteem, an important element of mental health. The purpose of this cross sectional secondary analysis was to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 98 African American single mothers. The RSE Scale showed adequate internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of .83. Two factors that accounted for a total of 54.7% of the variance were extracted. Self-esteem showed a strong negative relationship with both depressive symptoms and negative thinking. This study provides support for the internal consistency of the RSE Scale and partial support for its construct validity in this population. The RSE appears to represent a bidimensional construct of self-esteem for African American women, with the cultural influences of racial esteem and the rejection of negative stereotypes forming a separate and distinct aspect of this concept. The RSE Scale should be used and interpreted with caution in this population given these findings.

  19. Scaling Analysis of the Single-Phase Natural Circulation: the Hydraulic Similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xin-Guo; Choi, Ki-Yong

    2015-01-01

    These passive safety systems all rely on the natural circulation to cool down the reactor cores during an accident. Thus, a robust and accurate scaling methodology must be developed and employed to both assist in the design of a scaled-down test facility and guide the tests in order to mimic the natural circulation flow of its prototype. The natural circulation system generally consists of a heat source, the connecting pipes and several heat sinks. Although many applauding scaling methodologies have been proposed during last several decades, few works have been dedicated to systematically analyze and exactly preserve the hydraulic similarity. In the present study, the hydraulic similarity analyses are performed at both system and local level. By this mean, the scaling criteria for the exact hydraulic similarity in a full-pressure model have been sought. In other words, not only the system-level but also the local-level hydraulic similarities are pursued. As the hydraulic characteristics of a fluid system is governed by the momentum equation, the scaling analysis starts with it. A dimensionless integral loop momentum equation is derived to obtain the dimensionless numbers. In the dimensionless momentum equation, two dimensionless numbers, the dimensionless flow resistance number and the dimensionless gravitational force number, are identified along with a unique hydraulic time scale, characterizing the system hydraulic response. A full-height full-pressure model is also made to see which model among the full-height model and reduced-height model can preserve the hydraulic behavior of the prototype. From the dimensionless integral momentum equation, a unique hydraulic time scale, which characterizes the hydraulic response of a single-phase natural circulation system, is identified along with two dimensionless parameters: the dimensionless flow resistance number and the dimensionless gravitational force number. By satisfying the equality of both dimensionless numbers

  20. Scaling Analysis of the Single-Phase Natural Circulation: the Hydraulic Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xin-Guo; Choi, Ki-Yong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    These passive safety systems all rely on the natural circulation to cool down the reactor cores during an accident. Thus, a robust and accurate scaling methodology must be developed and employed to both assist in the design of a scaled-down test facility and guide the tests in order to mimic the natural circulation flow of its prototype. The natural circulation system generally consists of a heat source, the connecting pipes and several heat sinks. Although many applauding scaling methodologies have been proposed during last several decades, few works have been dedicated to systematically analyze and exactly preserve the hydraulic similarity. In the present study, the hydraulic similarity analyses are performed at both system and local level. By this mean, the scaling criteria for the exact hydraulic similarity in a full-pressure model have been sought. In other words, not only the system-level but also the local-level hydraulic similarities are pursued. As the hydraulic characteristics of a fluid system is governed by the momentum equation, the scaling analysis starts with it. A dimensionless integral loop momentum equation is derived to obtain the dimensionless numbers. In the dimensionless momentum equation, two dimensionless numbers, the dimensionless flow resistance number and the dimensionless gravitational force number, are identified along with a unique hydraulic time scale, characterizing the system hydraulic response. A full-height full-pressure model is also made to see which model among the full-height model and reduced-height model can preserve the hydraulic behavior of the prototype. From the dimensionless integral momentum equation, a unique hydraulic time scale, which characterizes the hydraulic response of a single-phase natural circulation system, is identified along with two dimensionless parameters: the dimensionless flow resistance number and the dimensionless gravitational force number. By satisfying the equality of both dimensionless numbers

  1. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yinghang; Gong, Yubing; Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. → Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. → Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. → Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  2. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Yinghang [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Gong, Yubing, E-mail: gongyubing09@hotmail.co [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  3. Design of an omnidirectional single-point photodetector for large-scale spatial coordinate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Mao, Chensheng; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    In high precision and large-scale coordinate measurement, one commonly used approach to determine the coordinate of a target point is utilizing the spatial trigonometric relationships between multiple laser transmitter stations and the target point. A light receiving device at the target point is the key element in large-scale coordinate measurement systems. To ensure high-resolution and highly sensitive spatial coordinate measurement, a high-performance and miniaturized omnidirectional single-point photodetector (OSPD) is greatly desired. We report one design of OSPD using an aspheric lens, which achieves an enhanced reception angle of -5 deg to 45 deg in vertical and 360 deg in horizontal. As the heart of our OSPD, the aspheric lens is designed in a geometric model and optimized by LightTools Software, which enables the reflection of a wide-angle incident light beam into the single-point photodiode. The performance of home-made OSPD is characterized with working distances from 1 to 13 m and further analyzed utilizing developed a geometric model. The experimental and analytic results verify that our device is highly suitable for large-scale coordinate metrology. The developed device also holds great potential in various applications such as omnidirectional vision sensor, indoor global positioning system, and optical wireless communication systems.

  4. Large-Scale Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Chun-Jiang; Sun, Ling-Dong; Luo, Feng

    2008-01-01

    We present an innovative approach to the production of single-crystal iron oxide nanorings employing a solution-based route. Single-crystal hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanorings were synthesized using a double anion-assisted hydrothermal method (involving phosphate and sulfate ions), which can...... an intriguing three-dimensional magnetic configuration. This work provides an easily scaled-up method for preparing tailor-made iron oxide nanorings that could meet the demands of a variety of applications ranging from medicine to magnetoelectronics....... able to control the size, morphology, and surface architecture to produce a variety of three-dimensional hollow nanostructures. These can then be converted to magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by a reduction or reduction-oxidation process while preserving the same morphology. The structures...

  5. An adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers based on ultrahigh frequency ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyang; Lam, Kwok Ho; Chen, Ruimin; Chen, Zeyu; Yu, Ping; Chen, Zhongping; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the fabrication, characterization, and microparticle manipulation capability of an adjustable multi-scale single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) that is capable of flexibly changing the size of "tweezers" like ordinary metal tweezers with a single-element ultrahigh frequency (UHF) ultrasonic transducer. The measured resonant frequency of the developed transducer at 526 MHz is the highest frequency of piezoelectric single crystal based ultrasonic transducers ever reported. This focused UHF ultrasonic transducer exhibits a wide bandwidth (95.5% at -10 dB) due to high attenuation of high-frequency ultrasound wave, which allows the SBAT effectively excite with a wide range of excitation frequency from 150 to 400 MHz by using the "piezoelectric actuator" model. Through controlling the excitation frequency, the wavelength of ultrasound emitted from the SBAT can be changed to selectively manipulate a single microparticle of different sizes (3-100 μm) by using only one transducer. This concept of flexibly changing "tweezers" size is firstly introduced into the study of SBAT. At the same time, it was found that this incident ultrasound wavelength play an important role in lateral trapping and manipulation for microparticle of different sizes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2637-2647. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Control Algorithms for Large-scale Single-axis Photovoltaic Trackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical yield of large-scale photovoltaic power plants can be greatly improved by employing solar trackers. While fixed-tilt superstructures are stationary and immobile, trackers move the PV-module plane in order to optimize its alignment to the sun. This paper introduces control algorithms for single-axis trackers (SAT, including a discussion for optimal alignment and backtracking. The results are used to simulate and compare the electrical yield of fixed-tilt and SAT systems. The proposed algorithms have been field tested, and are in operation in solar parks worldwide.

  7. The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2017-01-15

    We device a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.

  8. The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Blümlein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We devise a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.

  9. Statistical analysis of error rate of large-scale single flux quantum logic circuit by considering fluctuation of timing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Yuki; Masubuchi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the timing margin and the error rate of the large-scale single flux quantum logic circuits is quantitatively investigated to establish a timing design guideline. We observed that the fluctuation in the set-up/hold time of single flux quantum logic gates caused by thermal noises is the most probable origin of the logical error of the large-scale single flux quantum circuit. The appropriate timing margin for stable operation of the large-scale logic circuit is discussed by taking the fluctuation of setup/hold time and the timing jitter in the single flux quantum circuits. As a case study, the dependence of the error rate of the 1-million-bit single flux quantum shift register on the timing margin is statistically analyzed. The result indicates that adjustment of timing margin and the bias voltage is important for stable operation of a large-scale SFQ logic circuit.

  10. Statistical analysis of error rate of large-scale single flux quantum logic circuit by considering fluctuation of timing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanashi, Yuki, E-mail: yamanasi@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Masubuchi, Kota; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between the timing margin and the error rate of the large-scale single flux quantum logic circuits is quantitatively investigated to establish a timing design guideline. We observed that the fluctuation in the set-up/hold time of single flux quantum logic gates caused by thermal noises is the most probable origin of the logical error of the large-scale single flux quantum circuit. The appropriate timing margin for stable operation of the large-scale logic circuit is discussed by taking the fluctuation of setup/hold time and the timing jitter in the single flux quantum circuits. As a case study, the dependence of the error rate of the 1-million-bit single flux quantum shift register on the timing margin is statistically analyzed. The result indicates that adjustment of timing margin and the bias voltage is important for stable operation of a large-scale SFQ logic circuit.

  11. High-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different p$_\\text{T}$ ranges. In-situ techniques exploiting the p$_\\text{T}$ balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower p$_\\text{T}$, but at very high p$_\\text{T}$ (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for such in-situ techniques. A low JES uncertainty at high-p$_\\text{T}$ is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest p$_\\text{T}$ range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy deposition belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  12. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  13. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 2. Scale awareness and application to single-column model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sha; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin; Zhang, Minghua; Toto, Tami; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Endo, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    three-dimensional fields have been produced using the Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system for the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains region. The GSI system is implemented in a multiscale data assimilation framework using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. From the fine-resolution three-dimensional fields, large-scale forcing is derived explicitly at grid-scale resolution; a subgrid-scale dynamic component is derived separately, representing subgrid-scale horizontal dynamic processes. Analyses show that the subgrid-scale dynamic component is often a major component over the large-scale forcing for grid scales larger than 200 km. The single-column model (SCM) of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 is used to examine the impact of the grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components on simulated precipitation and cloud fields associated with a mesoscale convective system. It is found that grid-scale size impacts simulated precipitation, resulting in an overestimation for grid scales of about 200 km but an underestimation for smaller grids. The subgrid-scale dynamic component has an appreciable impact on the simulations, suggesting that grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components should be considered in the interpretation of SCM simulations.

  14. Comparison of Single and Multi-Scale Method for Leaf and Wood Points Classification from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongqiang; Zhou, Guiyun; Zhou, Junjie

    2018-04-01

    The classification of leaf and wood points is an essential preprocessing step for extracting inventory measurements and canopy characterization of trees from the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. The geometry-based approach is one of the widely used classification method. In the geometry-based method, it is common practice to extract salient features at one single scale before the features are used for classification. It remains unclear how different scale(s) used affect the classification accuracy and efficiency. To assess the scale effect on the classification accuracy and efficiency, we extracted the single-scale and multi-scale salient features from the point clouds of two oak trees of different sizes and conducted the classification on leaf and wood. Our experimental results show that the balanced accuracy of the multi-scale method is higher than the average balanced accuracy of the single-scale method by about 10 % for both trees. The average speed-up ratio of single scale classifiers over multi-scale classifier for each tree is higher than 30.

  15. Psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky Alesia B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are a common and bothersome symptom of fibromyalgia (FM. This study reports psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with FM. Methods Analyses were based on data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin (studies 1056 and 1077. In a daily diary, patients reported the quality of their sleep on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 ("best possible sleep" to 10 ("worst possible sleep". Test re-test reliability of the Sleep Quality Scale was evaluated by computing intraclass correlation coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep scores. Responsiveness to treatment was evaluated by standardized effect sizes computed as the difference between least squares mean changes in Sleep Quality scores in the pregabalin and placebo groups divided by the standard deviation of Sleep Quality scores across all patients at baseline. Results Studies 1056 and 1077 included 748 and 745 patients, respectively. Most patients were female (study 1056: 94.4%; study 1077: 94.5% and white (study 1056: 90.2%; study 1077: 91.0%. Mean ages were 48.8 years (study 1056 and 50.1 years (study 1077. Test re-test reliability coefficients of the Sleep Quality Scale were 0.91 and 0.90 in the 1056 and 1077 studies, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary scores were 0.64 (p Conclusion These results provide evidence of the reproducibility, convergent validity, and responsiveness to treatment of the Sleep Quality Scale and provide a foundation for its further use and evaluation in FM patients.

  16. Current scaling of radiated power for 40-mm diameter single wire arrays on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, T. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Chandler, G. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Seaman, J. F.; McGurn, J.; Lazier, S.; Torres, J.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T.; Nielsen, D.; Hawn, R.; Bailey, J. E.; Lake, P.; Carlson, A. L.; Seamen, H.; Moore, T.; Smelser, R.; Pyle, J.; Wagoner, T. C.; LePell, P. D.; Deeney, C.; Douglas, M. R.; McDaniel, D.; Struve, K.; Mazarakis, M.; Stygar, W. A.

    2004-11-01

    In order to estimate the radiated power that can be expected from the next-generation Z-pinch driver such as ZR at 28 MA, current-scaling experiments have been conducted on the 20 MA driver Z. We report on the current scaling of single 40 mm diameter tungsten 240 wire arrays with a fixed 110 ns implosion time. The wire diameter is decreased in proportion to the load current. Reducing the charge voltage on the Marx banks reduces the load current. On one shot, firing only three of the four levels of the Z machine further reduced the load current. The radiated energy scaled as the current squared as expected but the radiated power scaled as the current to the 3.52±0.42 power due to increased x-ray pulse width at lower current. As the current is reduced, the rise time of the x-ray pulse increases and at the lowest current value of 10.4 MA, a shoulder appears on the leading edge of the x-ray pulse. In order to determine the nature of the plasma producing the leading edge of the x-ray pulse at low currents further shots were taken with an on-axis aperture to view on-axis precursor plasma. This aperture appeared to perturb the pinch in a favorable manner such that with the aperture in place there was no leading edge to the x-ray pulses at lower currents and the radiated power scaled as the current squared ±0.75. For a full-current shot we will present x-ray images that show precursor plasma emitting on-axis 77 ns before the main x-ray burst.

  17. Single-polymer dynamics under constraints: scaling theory and computer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milchev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The relaxation, diffusion and translocation dynamics of single linear polymer chains in confinement is briefly reviewed with emphasis on the comparison between theoretical scaling predictions and observations from experiment or, most frequently, from computer simulations. Besides cylindrical, spherical and slit-like constraints, related problems such as the chain dynamics in a random medium and the translocation dynamics through a nanopore are also considered. Another particular kind of confinement is imposed by polymer adsorption on attractive surfaces or selective interfaces-a short overview of single-chain dynamics is also contained in this survey. While both theory and numerical experiments consider predominantly coarse-grained models of self-avoiding linear chain molecules with typically Rouse dynamics, we also note some recent studies which examine the impact of hydrodynamic interactions on polymer dynamics in confinement. In all of the aforementioned cases we focus mainly on the consequences of imposed geometric restrictions on single-chain dynamics and try to check our degree of understanding by assessing the agreement between theoretical predictions and observations. (topical review)

  18. Transition from many domain to single domain martensite morphology in small-scale shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the martensitic transformation during a superelastic cycle is studied by in situ scanning electron microscopy deformation experiments in microwires of Cu–Zn–Al. The diameters of the wires studied (21–136 μm) span the range in which significant size effects upon transformation hysteresis have been observed. In larger wires the transformation is accommodated by the continual nucleation of many new martensite plates that grow and eventually coalesce with their neighbors. In small wires a single martensite plate nucleates at the start of transformation and then proceeds to grow in a monolithic fashion; the wire transforms by smooth axial propagation of a single interface. The transition from many domain to single domain transformation is gradual with wire diameter, and is based upon scaling of the domain density with sample size. We attribute it to a crossover from bulk to surface obstacle control of transformation front propagation. This observation also sheds light on reported size effects in energy dissipation in shape memory alloys

  19. Multi-scale Modeling of Compressible Single-phase Flow in Porous Media using Molecular Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    In this study, an efficient coupling between Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Darcy-scale flow in porous media is presented. The cell-centered finite difference method with a non-uniform rectangular mesh were used to discretize the simulation domain and solve the governing equations. To speed up the MC simulations, we implemented a recently developed scheme that quickly generates MC Markov chains out of pre-computed ones, based on the reweighting and reconstruction algorithm. This method astonishingly reduces the required computational time by MC simulations from hours to seconds. In addition, the reweighting and reconstruction scheme, which was originally designed to work with the LJ potential model, is extended to work with a potential model that accounts for the molecular quadrupole moment of fluids with non-spherical molecules such as CO2. The potential model was used to simulate the thermodynamic equilibrium properties for single-phase and two-phase systems using the canonical ensemble and the Gibbs ensemble, respectively. Comparing the simulation results with the experimental data showed that the implemented model has an excellent fit outperforming the standard LJ model. To demonstrate the strength of the proposed coupling in terms of computational time efficiency and numerical accuracy in fluid properties, various numerical experiments covering different compressible single-phase flow scenarios were conducted. The novelty in the introduced scheme is in allowing an efficient coupling of the molecular scale and Darcy scale in reservoir simulators. This leads to an accurate description of the thermodynamic behavior of the simulated reservoir fluids; consequently enhancing the confidence in the flow predictions in porous media.

  20. Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Bonnette, Matthew Ryan; Stoker, Philip; Crow-Miller, Britt; Wentz, Elizabeth

    2017-10-15

    A growing body of literature examines urban water sustainability with increasing evidence that locally-based physical and social spatial interactions contribute to water use. These studies however are based on single-city analysis and often fail to consider whether these interactions occur more generally. We examine a multi-city comparison using a common set of spatially-explicit water, socioeconomic, and biophysical data. We investigate the relative importance of variables for explaining the variations of single family residential (SFR) water uses at Census Block Group (CBG) and Census Tract (CT) scales in four representative western US cities - Austin, Phoenix, Portland, and Salt Lake City, - which cover a wide range of climate and development density. We used both ordinary least squares regression and spatial error regression models to identify the influence of spatial dependence on water use patterns. Our results show that older downtown areas show lower water use than newer suburban areas in all four cities. Tax assessed value and building age are the main determinants of SFR water use across the four cities regardless of the scale. Impervious surface area becomes an important variable for summer water use in all cities, and it is important in all seasons for arid environments such as Phoenix. CT level analysis shows better model predictability than CBG analysis. In all cities, seasons, and spatial scales, spatial error regression models better explain the variations of SFR water use. Such a spatially-varying relationship of urban water consumption provides additional evidence for the need to integrate urban land use planning and municipal water planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Single-Phase Current Source Solar Inverter with Constant Instantaneous Power, Improved Reliability, and Reduced-Size DC-Link Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Craig R.

    This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any electrolytic capacitors. Instead an inductor is used as the DC-link filter and reliable AC film capacitors are utilized for the filter and auxiliary capacitor. The proposed topology has a life expectancy on par with PV panels. The proposed modulation technique can be used for any current source inverter where an unbalanced three-phase operation is desires such as active filters and power controllers. The proposed topology is ready for the next phase of microgrid and power system controllers in that it accepts reactive power commands. This work presents the proposed topology and its working principle supported by with numerical verifications and hardware results. Conclusions and future work are also presented.

  2. Max-Min SINR in Large-Scale Single-Cell MU-MIMO: Asymptotic Analysis and Low Complexity Transceivers

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem; Kammoun, Abla; Sanguinetti, Luca; Debbah, Merouane; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the downlink and uplink of large-scale single-cell MU-MIMO systems in which the base station (BS) endowed with M antennas communicates with K single-antenna user equipments (UEs). Particularly, we aim at reducing the complexity

  3. Constant physics and characteristics of fundamental constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrach, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present some evidence which supports a surprising physical interpretation of the fundamental constants. First, we relate two of them through the renormalization group. This leaves as many fundamental constants as base units. Second, we introduce and a dimensional system of units without fundamental constants. Third, and most important, we find, while interpreting the units of the a dimensional system, that is all cases accessible to experimentation the fundamental constants indicate either discretization at small values or boundedness at large values of the corresponding physical quantity. (Author) 12 refs

  4. Development and validation of the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-04-01

    Empathy involves feeling compassion for others and imagining how they feel. In this article, we develop and validate the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), which contains only one item that takes seconds to complete. In seven studies (N=5,724), the SITES was found to be both reliable and valid. It correlated in expected ways with a wide variety of intrapersonal outcomes. For example, it is negatively correlated with narcissism, depression, anxiety, and alexithymia. In contrast, it is positively correlated with other measures of empathy, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and agreeableness. The SITES also correlates with a wide variety of interpersonal outcomes, especially compassion for others and helping others. The SITES is recommended in situations when time or question quantity is constrained.

  5. Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler - Single particle model approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Soerensen, Lasse Holst [ReaTech/ReAddit, Frederiksborgsveij 399, Niels Bohr, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Clausen, Soennik [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Berg, Mogens [ENERGI E2 A/S, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    Burning of coal and biomass particles are studied and compared by measurements in an entrained flow reactor and by modelling. The results are applied to study the burning of pulverized biomass in a large scale utility boiler originally planned for coal. A simplified single particle approach, where the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout. (author)

  6. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (p...LeukoGating can be established using microscopy as a reference, and is comparable to BT chamber and SPT determination. Leukocyte concentrations can be measured with CVA on flow cytometers in research and clinical settings....

  7. Scanning, Multibeam, Single Photon Lidars for Rapid, Large Scale, High Resolution, Topographic and Bathymetric Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Degnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several scanning, single photon sensitive, 3D imaging lidars are herein described that operate at aircraft above ground levels (AGLs between 1 and 11 km, and speeds in excess of 200 knots. With 100 beamlets and laser fire rates up to 60 kHz, we, at the Sigma Space Corporation (Lanham, MD, USA, have interrogated up to 6 million ground pixels per second, all of which can record multiple returns from volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies. High range resolution has been achieved through the use of subnanosecond laser pulsewidths, detectors and timing receivers. The systems are presently being deployed on a variety of aircraft to demonstrate their utility in multiple applications including large scale surveying, bathymetry, forestry, etc. Efficient noise filters, suitable for near realtime imaging, have been shown to effectively eliminate the solar background during daytime operations. Geolocation elevation errors measured to date are at the subdecimeter level. Key differences between our Single Photon Lidars, and competing Geiger Mode lidars are also discussed.

  8. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  9. Scaling of the steady state and stability behaviour of single and two-phase natural circulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Bade, M.H.; Kumar, N.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Scaling methods for both single-phase and two-phase natural circulation systems have been presented. For single-phase systems, simulation of the steady state flow can be achieved by preserving just one nondimensional parameter. For uniform diameter two-phase systems also, it is possible to simulate the steady state behaviour with just one non-dimensional parameter. Simulation of the stability behaviour requires geometric similarity in addition to the similarity of the physical parameters appearing in the governing equations. The scaling laws proposed have been tested with experimental data in case of single-phase natural circulation. (author)

  10. Solar radiation transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse through measurements on scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Kyritsis, S.

    1998-01-01

    The solar transmissivity of a single-span greenhouse has been investigated experimentally using a scale model, of dimensions 40 cm width and 80 cm length. The solar transmissivity was measured at 48 positions on the “ground” surface of the scale model using 48 small silicon solar cells. The greenhouse model was positioned horizontally on a specially made goniometric mechanism. In this way, the greenhouse azimuth could be changed so that typical days of the year could be simulated using different combinations of greenhouse azimuth and the position of the sun in the sky. The measured solar transmissivity distribution at the “ground” surface and the average greenhouse solar transmissivity are presented and analysed, for characteristic days of the year, for winter and summer for a latitude of 37°58′ (Athens, Greece). It is shown that for the latitude of 37°58′ N during winter, the E–W orientation is preferable to the N–S one. The side walls, and especially the East and West ones for the E–W orientation, reduce considerably the greenhouse transmissivity at areas close to the walls for long periods of the day when the angle of incidence of the solar rays to these walls is large. (author)

  11. Quantifying streamflow change caused by forest disturbance at a large spatial scale: A single watershed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2010-12-01

    Climatic variability and forest disturbance are commonly recognized as two major drivers influencing streamflow change in large-scale forested watersheds. The greatest challenge in evaluating quantitative hydrological effects of forest disturbance is the removal of climatic effect on hydrology. In this paper, a method was designed to quantify respective contributions of large-scale forest disturbance and climatic variability on streamflow using the Willow River watershed (2860 km2) located in the central part of British Columbia, Canada. Long-term (>50 years) data on hydrology, climate, and timber harvesting history represented by equivalent clear-cutting area (ECA) were available to discern climatic and forestry influences on streamflow by three steps. First, effective precipitation, an integrated climatic index, was generated by subtracting evapotranspiration from precipitation. Second, modified double mass curves were developed by plotting accumulated annual streamflow against annual effective precipitation, which presented a much clearer picture of the cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow following removal of climatic influence. The average annual streamflow changes that were attributed to forest disturbances and climatic variability were then estimated to be +58.7 and -72.4 mm, respectively. The positive (increasing) and negative (decreasing) values in streamflow change indicated opposite change directions, which suggest an offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability in the study watershed. Finally, a multivariate Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was generated to establish quantitative relationships between accumulated annual streamflow deviation attributed to forest disturbances and annual ECA. The model was then used to project streamflow change under various timber harvesting scenarios. The methodology can be effectively applied to any large-scale single watershed where long-term data (>50

  12. Synthesis of Large-Scale Single-Crystalline Monolayer WS2 Using a Semi-Sealed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Lan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As a two-dimensional semiconductor, WS2 has attracted great attention due to its rich physical properties and potential applications. However, it is still difficult to synthesize monolayer single-crystalline WS2 at larger scale. Here, we report the growth of large-scale triangular single-crystalline WS2 with a semi-sealed installation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Through this method, triangular single-crystalline WS2 with an average length of more than 300 µm was obtained. The largest one was about 405 μm in length. WS2 triangles with different sizes and thicknesses were analyzed by optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM. Their optical properties were evaluated by Raman and photoluminescence (PL spectra. This report paves the way to fabricating large-scale single-crystalline monolayer WS2, which is useful for the growth of high-quality WS2 and its potential applications in the future.

  13. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  14. Cosmological Hubble constant and nuclear Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbuniev, Amelia; Besliu, Calin; Jipa, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the Universe after the Big Bang and the evolution of the dense and highly excited nuclear matter formed by relativistic nuclear collisions are investigated and compared. Values of the Hubble constants for cosmological and nuclear processes are obtained. For nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies the nuclear Hubble constant is obtained in the frame of different models involving the hydrodynamic flow of the nuclear matter. Significant difference in the values of the two Hubble constant - cosmological and nuclear - is observed

  15. Determination of Peukert's Constant Using Impedance Spectroscopy: Application to Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edmund Martin; Kim, Sangtae

    2016-12-15

    Peukert's equation is widely used to model the rate dependence of battery capacity, and has recently attracted attention for application to supercapacitors. Here we present a newly developed method to readily determine Peukert's constant using impedance spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy is ideal for this purpose as it has the capability of probing electrical performance of a device over a wide range of time-scales within a single measurement. We demonstrate that the new method yields consistent results with conventional galvanostatic measurements through applying it to commercially available supercapacitors. Additionally, the novel method is much simpler and more precise, making it an attractive alternative for the determination of Peukert's constant.

  16. High-Accuracy Elevation Data at Large Scales from Airborne Single-Pass SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Jean-Pierre Schumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs are essential data sets for disaster risk management and humanitarian relief services as well as many environmental process models. At present, on the hand, globally available DEMs only meet the basic requirements and for many services and modeling studies are not of high enough spatial resolution and lack accuracy in the vertical. On the other hand, LiDAR-DEMs are of very high spatial resolution and great vertical accuracy but acquisition operations can be very costly for spatial scales larger than a couple of hundred square km and also have severe limitations in wetland areas and under cloudy and rainy conditions. The ideal situation would thus be to have a DEM technology that allows larger spatial coverage than LiDAR but without compromising resolution and vertical accuracy and still performing under some adverse weather conditions and at a reasonable cost. In this paper, we present a novel single pass In-SAR technology for airborne vehicles that is cost-effective and can generate DEMs with a vertical error of around 0.3 m for an average spatial resolution of 3 m. To demonstrate this capability, we compare a sample single-pass In-SAR Ka-band DEM of the California Central Valley from the NASA/JPL airborne GLISTIN-A to a high-resolution LiDAR DEM. We also perform a simple sensitivity analysis to floodplain inundation. Based on the findings of our analysis, we argue that this type of technology can and should be used to replace large regions of globally available lower resolution DEMs, particularly in coastal, delta and floodplain areas where a high number of assets, habitats and lives are at risk from natural disasters. We conclude with a discussion on requirements, advantages and caveats in terms of instrument and data processing.

  17. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephan; Sahker, Ethan; Hedden, Suzy

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker's congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41-0.52) suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93), accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains.

  18. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices.

  19. A robust single-beam optical trap for a gram-scale mechanical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, P A; Nguyen, T T-H; Slagmolen, B J J; Ward, R L; Shaddock, D A; McClelland, D E

    2017-11-06

    Precise optical control of microscopic particles has been mastered over the past three decades, with atoms, molecules and nano-particles now routinely trapped and cooled with extraordinary precision, enabling rapid progress in the study of quantum phenomena. Achieving the same level of control over macroscopic objects is expected to bring further advances in precision measurement, quantum information processing and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. However, cavity optomechanical systems dominated by radiation pressure - so-called 'optical springs' - are inherently unstable due to the delayed dynamical response of the cavity. Here we demonstrate a fully stable, single-beam optical trap for a gram-scale mechanical oscillator. The interaction of radiation pressure with thermo-optic feedback generates damping that exceeds the mechanical loss by four orders of magnitude. The stability of the resultant spring is robust to changes in laser power and detuning, and allows purely passive self-locking of the cavity. Our results open up a new way of trapping and cooling macroscopic objects for optomechanical experiments.

  20. Large-scale synthesis of single-crystalline MgO with bone-like nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Haixia; Yang Qing; Tang Kaibin; Xie Yi

    2006-01-01

    Uniform bone-like MgO nanocrystals have been prepared via a solvothermal process using commercial Mg powders as the starting material in the absence of any catalyst or surfactant followed by a subsequent calcination. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements indicate that the product consists of a large quantity of bone-like nanocrystals with lengths of 120-200 nm. The widths of these nanocrystals at both ends are in the range of 20-50 nm, which are 3-20 nm wider than those of the middle parts. Explorations of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) exhibit that the product is high-quality cubic single-crystalline nanocrystals. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement suggests that the product has an intensive emission centered at 410 nm, showing that the product has potential application in optical devices. The advantages of our method lie in high yield, the easy availability of the starting materials and permitting large-scale production at low cost. The growth mechanism was proposed to be related with solvent's oxidation in the precursor formation process and following nucleation and mass-transfer in the decomposition of the precursor

  1. Large-scale separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes by electronic type using click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jo-Eun; Song, Sun Gu; Yoo, Pil J.; Song, Changsik; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2018-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be either metallic or semiconducting, making their separation critical for applications in nanoelectronics, biomedical materials, and solar cells. Herein, we investigate a novel solution-phase separation method based on click chemistry (azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition) and determine its efficiency and scalability. In this method, metallic SWCNTs in metallic/semiconducting SWCNT mixtures are selectively functionalized with alkyne groups by being reacted with 4-propargyloxybenezenediazonium tetrafluoroborate. Subsequently, silica nanoparticles are functionalized with azide groups and reacted with alkyne-bearing metallic SWCNTs in the SWCNT mixture in the presence of a Cu catalyst. As a result, metallic SWCNTs are anchored on silica powder, whereas non-functionalized semiconducting SWCNTs remain in solution. Low-speed centrifugation effectively removes the silica powder with attached metallic SWCNTs, furnishing a solution of highly pure semiconducting SWCNTs, as confirmed by Raman and UV-vis/near-infrared absorption measurements. This novel separation scheme exhibits the advantage of simultaneously separating both metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs from their mixtures, being cost-effective and therefore applicable at an industrial scale.

  2. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  3. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  4. Single and two-phase similarity analysis of a reduced-scale natural convection loop relative to a full-scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, David A.; Faccini, Jose L.H.

    2002-01-01

    The main topic in this paper is a new device being considered to improve nuclear reactor safety employing the natural circulation. A scaled experiment used to demonstrate the performance of the device is also described. We also applied a similarity analysis method for single and two-phase natural convection loop flow to the IEN CCN experiment and to an APEX like experiment to verify the degree of similarity relative to a full-scale prototype like the AP600. Most of the CCN similarity numbers that represent important single and two-phase similarity conditions are comparable to the APEX like loop non-dimensional numbers calculated employing the same methodology. Despite the much smaller geometric, pressure, and power scales, we conclude that the IEN CCN has single and two-phase natural circulation similarity numbers that represent fairly well the full-scale prototype. even lacking most complementary primary and safety systems, this IEN circuit provided a much valid experience to develop human, experimental, and analytical resources, besides its utilization as a training tool. (author)

  5. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  6. Does the Assessment of Recovery Capital scale reflect a single or multiple domains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Arndt,1–3 Ethan Sahker,1,4 Suzy Hedden1 1Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation, 2Department of Psychiatry, Carver College of Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 4Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, Counseling Psychology Program College of Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores. Multiple group factor analysis provided a quasi-confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The solution accounted for 75.24% of the total variance, suggesting that 10 factors provide a reasonably good fit. However, Tucker’s congruence coefficients between the factor structure and defining weights (0.41–0.52 suggested a poor fit to the hypothesized 10-domain structure. Principal components of the 10-domain scores yielded one factor whose eigenvalue was greater than one (5.93, accounting for 75.8% of the common variance. A few domains had perceptible but small unique variance components suggesting that a few of the domains may warrant enrichment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is one general factor, with a caveat. Using the 10 measures inflates the chance for Type I errors. Using one general measure avoids this issue, is simple to interpret, and could reduce the number of items. However, those seeking to maximally predict later recovery success may need to use the full instrument and all 10 domains. Keywords: social support, psychometrics, quality of life

  7. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  8. Large-scale membrane transfer process: its application to single-crystal-silicon continuous membrane deformable mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tong; Sasaki, Takashi; Hane, Kazuhiro; Akiyama, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale membrane transfer process developed for the construction of large-scale membrane devices via the transfer of continuous single-crystal-silicon membranes from one substrate to another. This technique is applied for fabricating a large stroke deformable mirror. A bimorph spring array is used to generate a large air gap between the mirror membrane and the electrode. A 1.9 mm × 1.9 mm × 2 µm single-crystal-silicon membrane is successfully transferred to the electrode substrate by Au–Si eutectic bonding and the subsequent all-dry release process. This process provides an effective approach for transferring a free-standing large continuous single-crystal-silicon to a flexible suspension spring array with a large air gap. (paper)

  9. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  10. Comparison of single- and multi-scale models for the prediction of the Culicoides biting midge distribution in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Lühken

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed Culicoides presence-absence data from 46 sampling sites in Germany, where monitoring was carried out from April 2007 until May 2008. Culicoides presence-absence data were analysed in relation to land cover data, in order to study whether the prevalence of biting midges is correlated to land cover data with respect to the trapping sites. We differentiated eight scales, i.e. buffer zones with radii of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10 km, around each site, and chose several land cover variables. For each species, we built eight single-scale models (i.e. predictor variables from one of the eight scales for each model based on averaged, generalised linear models and two multiscale models (i.e. predictor variables from all of the eight scales based on averaged, generalised linear models and generalised linear models with random forest variable selection. There were no significant differences between performance indicators of models built with land cover data from different buffer zones around the trapping sites. However, the overall performance of multi-scale models was higher than the alternatives. Furthermore, these models mostly achieved the best performance for the different species using the index area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, as also presented in this study, the relevance of the different variables could significantly differ between various scales, including the number of species affected and the positive or negative direction. This is an even more severe problem if multi-scale models are concerned, in which one model can have the same variable at different scales but with different directions, i.e. negative and positive direction of the same variable at different scales. However, multi-scale modelling is a promising approach to model the distribution of Culicoides species, accounting much more for the ecology of biting midges, which uses different resources (breeding sites, hosts, etc. at

  11. Flight Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 0.13-Scale Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane During Constant-Altitude Transitions, TED No. NACA DE 368

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Powell M., Jr.; Kibry, Robert H.; Smith, Charles C., Jr.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation is being conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 0.13-scale flying model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. This paper presents the results of flight tests to determine the stability and control characteristics of the model during constant-altitude slow transitions from hovering to normal unstalled forward flight. The tests indicated that the airplane can be flown through the transition range fairly easily although some difficulty will probably encountered in controlling the yawing motions at angles of attack between about 60 and 40. An increase in the size of the vertical tail will not materially improve the controllability of the yawing motions in this range of angle of attack but the use of a yaw damper will make the yawing motions easy to control throughout the entire transitional flight range. The tests also indicated that the airplane can probably be flown sideways satisfactorily at speeds up to approximately 33 knots (full scale) with the normal control system and up to approximately 37 knots (full scale) with both elevons and rudders rigged to move differentially for roll control. At sideways speeds above these values, the airplane will have a strong tendency to diverge uncontrollably in roll.

  12. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  13. Colossal dielectric constant and Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in $Pb(Fe_{1/2}Nb_{1/2})O_{3-x}PbTiO_3$ single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, K.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, materials exhibiting colossal dielectric constant ($CDC$) have attracted significant attention because of their high dielectric constant and potential applications in electronic devices, such as high dielectric capacitors, capacitor sensors, random access memories and so on.

  14. Experimental Determination of the Avogadro Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mental physical constant such as charge of an electron or the. Boltzmann constant ... ideas was that the number of particles or molecules in a gas of given volume could not ... knowledge of at least one property of a single molecule. Loschmidt ...

  15. Neoclassical theory of electromagnetic interactions a single theory for macroscopic and microscopic scales

    CERN Document Server

    Babin, Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present their recently developed theory of electromagnetic interactions. This neoclassical approach extends the classical electromagnetic theory down to atomic scales and allows the explanation of various non-classical phenomena in the same framework. While the classical Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetism theory succeeds in describing the physical reality at macroscopic scales, it struggles at atomic scales. Here, quantum mechanics traditionally takes over to describe non-classical phenomena such as the hydrogen spectrum and de Broglie waves. By means of modifying the classical theory, the approach presented here is able to consistently explain quantum-mechanical effects, and while similar to quantum mechanics in some respects, this neoclassical theory also differs markedly from it. In particular, the newly developed framework omits probabilistic interpretations of the wave function and features a new fundamental spatial scale which, at the size of the free electron, is much lar...

  16. Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; 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Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; 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Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-03-02

    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV collected during 2009 and 2010. Then, using the decay of K_s and Lambda particles, the calorimeter response to specific types of particles (positively and negatively charged pions, protons, and anti-protons) is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo predictions. Finally, the jet energy scale uncertainty is determined by propagating the response uncertainty for single charged and neutral particles to jets. The response uncertainty is 2-5% for central isolated hadrons and 1-3% for the final calorimeter jet energy scale.

  17. Anti-control of chaos of single time scale brushless dc motors and chaos synchronization of different order systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhengming; Chang Chingming; Chen Yensheng

    2006-01-01

    Anti-control of chaos of single time scale brushless dc motors (BLDCM) and chaos synchronization of different order systems are studied in this paper. By addition of an external nonlinear term, we can obtain anti-control of chaos. Then, by addition of the coupling terms, by the use of Lyapunov stability theorem and by the linearization of the error dynamics, chaos synchronization between a third-order BLDCM and a second-order Duffing system are presented

  18. Scaling in the sine-Gordon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Abraham, S.I.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that both the classical and the quantum sine-Gordon theory depend on a single scaling parameter and therefore the coupling constant cannot be freely chosen. To introduce a meaningful coupling constant it is proposed to include higher Fourier terms in the sine-Gordon potential. The two term case is exactly solvable. (Auth.)

  19. STM studies of an atomic-scale gate electrode formed by a single charged vacancy in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Daughton, David; Gupta, Jay

    2009-03-01

    Electric-field control of spin-spin interactions at the atomic level is desirable for the realization of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. Here we demonstrate the realization of an atomic-scale gate electrode formed by a single charged vacancy on the GaAs(110) surface[1]. We can position these vacancies with atomic precision using the tip of a home-built, low temperature STM. Tunneling spectroscopy of single Mn acceptors is used to quantify the electrostatic field as a function of distance from the vacancy. Single Mn acceptors are formed by substituting Mn adatoms for Ga atoms in the first layer of the p-GaAs(110) surface[2]. Depending on the distance, the in-gap resonance of single Mn acceptors can shift as much as 200meV. Our data indicate that the electrostatic field decays according to a screened Coulomb potential. The charge state of the vacancy can be switched to neutral, as evidenced by the Mn resonance returning to its unperturbed position. Reversible control of the local electric field as well as charged states of defects in semiconductors can open new insights such as realizing an atomic-scale gate control and studying spin-spin interactions in semiconductors. http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/sim jgupta [1] D. Lee and J.A. Gupta (in preparation) [2] D. Kitchen et al., Nature 442, 436-439 (2006)

  20. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  1. Plane-dependent ML scatter scaling: 3D extension of the 2D simulated single scatter (SSS) estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Ahmadreza; Salvo, Koen; Vahle, Thomas; Panin, Vladimir; Casey, Michael; Boada, Fernando; Defrise, Michel; Nuyts, Johan

    2017-08-01

    Scatter correction is typically done using a simulation of the single scatter, which is then scaled to account for multiple scatters and other possible model mismatches. This scaling factor is determined by fitting the simulated scatter sinogram to the measured sinogram, using only counts measured along LORs that do not intersect the patient body, i.e. ‘scatter-tails’. Extending previous work, we propose to scale the scatter with a plane dependent factor, which is determined as an additional unknown in the maximum likelihood (ML) reconstructions, using counts in the entire sinogram rather than only the ‘scatter-tails’. The ML-scaled scatter estimates are validated using a Monte-Carlo simulation of a NEMA-like phantom, a phantom scan with typical contrast ratios of a 68Ga-PSMA scan, and 23 whole-body 18F-FDG patient scans. On average, we observe a 12.2% change in the total amount of tracer activity of the MLEM reconstructions of our whole-body patient database when the proposed ML scatter scales are used. Furthermore, reconstructions using the ML-scaled scatter estimates are found to eliminate the typical ‘halo’ artifacts that are often observed in the vicinity of high focal uptake regions.

  2. Tachyon constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.

    2018-04-01

    The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.

  3. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  4. The scaling of burnout data for a single fluid at a fixed pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, G.J.

    1966-12-01

    The success of the scaling factor concept in linking burnout measurements made in two different fluids has been amply demonstrated. This memorandum investigates the possibility of linking measurements made on two different systems in the same fluid. It seems that good accuracy may be obtained for systems whose linear dimensions differ by as much as a factor of two; this offers the possibility of saving very substantial amounts of power in testing reactor fuel element. A novel conclusion is that systems do not need to be geometrically similar in order to be linked by scaling factors. (author)

  5. Multi-scale Modeling of Compressible Single-phase Flow in Porous Media using Molecular Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    potential model that accounts for the molecular quadrupole moment of fluids with non-spherical molecules such as CO2. The potential model was used to simulate the thermodynamic equilibrium properties for single-phase and two-phase systems using the canonical

  6. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press (...

  7. Single Mode Theory for Impedance Eduction in Large-Scale Ducts with Grazing Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; June, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    An impedance eduction theory for a rigid wall duct containing an acoustic liner with an unknown impedance and uniform grazing flow is presented. The unique features of the theory are: 1) non-planar waves propagate in the hard wall sections of the duct, 2) input data consist solely of complex acoustic pressures acquired on a wall adjacent to the liner, and 3) multiple higher-order modes may exist in the direction perpendicular to the liner and the opposite rigid wall. The approach is to first measure the axial propagation constant of a dominant higher-order mode in the liner sample section. This axial propagation constant is then used in conjunction with a closed-form solution to a reduced form of the convected Helmholtz equation and the wall impedance boundary condition to educe the liner impedance. The theory is validated on a conventional liner whose impedance spectrum is educed in two flow ducts with different cross sections. For the frequencies and Mach numbers of interest, no higher-order modes propagate in the hard wall sections of the smaller duct. A benchmark method is used to educe the impedance spectrum in this duct. A dominant higher-order vertical mode propagates in the larger duct for similar test conditions, and the current theory is applied to educe the impedance spectrum. Results show that when the theory is applied to data acquired in the larger duct with a dominant higher-order vertical mode, the same impedance spectra is educed as that obtained in the small duct where only the plane wave mode is present and the benchmark method is used. This result holds for each higher-order vertical mode that is considered.

  8. Scale-dependent effects on wave propagation in magnetically affected single/double-layered compositionally graded nanosize beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with the wave propagation analysis of single/double layered functionally graded (FG) size-dependent nanobeams in elastic medium and subjected to a longitudinal magnetic field employing nonlocal elasticity theory. Material properties of nanobeam change gradually according to the sigmoid function. Applying an analytical solution, the acoustical and optical dispersion relations are explored for various wave number, nonlocality parameter, material composition, elastic foundation constants, and magnetic field intensity. It is found that frequency and phase velocity of waves propagating in S-FGM nanobeam are significantly affected by these parameters. Also, presence of cut-off and escape frequencies in wave propagation analysis of embedded S-FGM nanobeams is investigated.

  9. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastase, Horatiu; Weltman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  10. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now.

  11. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastase, Horatiu, E-mail: nastase@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Weltman, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.weltman@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2015-07-30

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  12. End-of-pipe single-sludge denitrification in pilot-scale recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Nielsen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A step toward environmental sustainability of recirculat aquaculture systems (RAS) is implementation ofsingle-sludge denitrification, a process eliminating nitrate from the aqueous environment while reduc-ing the organic matter discharge simultaneously. Two 1700 L pilot-scale RAS systems each...

  13. Item analysis of single-peaked response data : the psychometric evaluation of bipolar measurement scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, Maaike Geertruida

    2011-01-01

    The thesis explains the fundamental difference between unipolar and bipolar measurement scales for psychological characteristics. We explore the use of correspondence analysis (CA), a technique that is similar to principal component analysis and is available in SAS and SPSS, to select items that

  14. Evolution of the solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The ultimate source of the energy utilized by life on Earth is the Sun, and the behavior of the Sun determines to a large extent the conditions under which life originated and continues to thrive. What can be said about the history of the Sun. Has the solar constant, the rate at which energy is received by the Earth from the Sun per unit area per unit time, been constant at its present level since Archean times. Three mechanisms by which it has been suggested that the solar energy output can vary with time are discussed, characterized by long (approx. 10 9 years), intermediate (approx. 10 8 years), and short (approx. years to decades) time scales

  15. madSTORM: a superresolution technique for large-scale multiplexing at single-molecule accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jason; Manna, Asit; Barr, Valarie A.; Hong, Jennifer; Neuman, Keir C.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of heterogeneous cellular structures using single-molecule localization microscopy has been limited by poorly defined localization accuracy and inadequate multiplexing capacity. Using fluorescent nanodiamonds as fiducial markers, we define and achieve localization precision required for single-molecule accuracy in dSTORM images. Coupled with this advance, our new multiplexing strategy, madSTORM, allows accurate targeting of multiple molecules using sequential binding and elution of fluorescent antibodies. madSTORM is used on an activated T-cell to localize 25 epitopes, 14 of which are on components of the same multimolecular T-cell receptor complex. We obtain an average localization precision of 2.6 nm, alignment error of 2.0 nm, and molecules within structures. Probing the molecular topology of complex signaling cascades and other heterogeneous networks is feasible with madSTORM. PMID:27708141

  16. Scaling from single molecule to macroscopic adhesion at polymer/metal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzig, Thomas; Raman, Sangeetha; Valtiner, Markus

    2015-03-10

    Understanding the evolution of macroscopic adhesion based on fundamental molecular interactions is crucial to designing strong and smart polymer/metal interfaces that play an important role in many industrial and biomedical applications. Here we show how macroscopic adhesion can be predicted on the basis of single molecular interactions. In particular, we carry out dynamic single molecule-force spectroscopy (SM-AFM) in the framework of Bell-Evans' theory to gain information about the energy barrier between the bound and unbound states of an amine/gold junction. Furthermore, we use Jarzynski's equality to obtain the equilibrium ground-state energy difference of the amine/gold bond from these nonequilibrium force measurements. In addition, we perform surface forces apparatus (SFA) experiments to measure macroscopic adhesion forces at contacts where approximately 10(7) amine/gold bonds are formed simultaneously. The SFA approach provides an amine/gold interaction energy (normalized by the number of interacting molecules) of (36 ± 1)k(B)T, which is in excellent agreement with the interaction free energy of (35 ± 3)k(B)T calculated using Jarzynski's equality and single-molecule AFM experiments. Our results validate Jarzynski's equality for the field of polymer/metal interactions by measuring both sides of the equation. Furthermore, the comparison of SFA and AFM shows how macroscopic interaction energies can be predicted on the basis of single molecular interactions, providing a new strategy to potentially predict adhesive properties of novel glues or coatings as well as bio- and wet adhesion.

  17. The general behavior of NLO unintegrated parton distributions based on the single-scale evolution and the angular ordering constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, H.; Modarres, M.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the complexity of generalized two hard scale (k t ,μ) evolution equation, well known as the Ciafaloni, Catani, Fiorani and Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equations, and calculate the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF), Kimber, Martin and Ryskin (KMR) proposed a procedure based on (i) the inclusion of single-scale (μ) only at the last step of evolution and (ii) the angular ordering constraint (AOC) on the DGLAP terms (the DGLAP collinear approximation), to bring the second scale, k t into the UPDF evolution equations. In this work we intend to use the MSTW2008 (Martin et al.) parton distribution functions (PDF) and try to calculate UPDF for various values of x (the longitudinal fraction of parton momentum), μ (the probe scale) and k t (the parton transverse momentum) to see the general behavior of three-dimensional UPDF at the NLO level up to the LHC working energy scales (μ 2 ). It is shown that there exits some pronounced peaks for the three-dimensional UPDF(f a (x,k t )) with respect to the two variables x and k t at various energies (μ). These peaks get larger and move to larger values of k t , as the energy (μ) is increased. We hope these peaks could be detected in the LHC experiments at CERN and other laboratories in the less exclusive processes.

  18. Gaussian approximation to single particle correlations at and below the picosecond scale for Lennard-Jones and nanoparticle fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses; Ashwin, S S; Cohen, E G D

    2008-01-01

    To describe short time (picosecond) and small scale (nanometre) transport in fluids, a Green's function approach was recently developed. This approach relies on an expansion of the distribution of single particle displacements around a Gaussian function, yielding an infinite series of correction terms. Applying a recent theorem (van Zon and Cohen 2006 J. Stat. Phys. 123 1–37) shows that for sufficiently small times the terms in this series become successively smaller, so that truncating the series near or at the Gaussian level might provide a good approximation. In this paper, we derive a theoretical estimate for the time scale at which truncating the series at or near the Gaussian level could be supposed to be accurate for equilibrium nanoscale systems. In order to numerically estimate this time scale, the coefficients for the first few terms in the series are determined in computer simulations for a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid, an isotopic LJ mixture and a suspension of a LJ-based model of nanoparticles in a LJ fluid. The results suggest that for LJ fluids an expansion around a Gaussian is accurate at time scales up to a picosecond, while for nanoparticles in suspension (a nanofluid), the characteristic time scale up to which the Gaussian is accurate becomes of the order of 5–10 ps. (invited article)

  19. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure part III: test of the equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 France (France); Hui, Lam [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup −3}÷10{sup −4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.

  20. Organic Single-Crystal Semiconductor Films on a Millimeter Domain Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Jehan; Kim, Geunjin; Yu, Kilho; Jo, Yong-Ryun; Kim, Bong-Joong; Kim, Junghwan; Kang, Hongkyu; Park, Byoungwook; Lee, Kwanghee

    2015-11-18

    Nucleation and growth processes can be effectively controlled in organic semiconductor films through a new concept of template-mediated molecular crystal seeds during the phase transition; the effective control of these processes ensures millimeter-scale crystal domains, as well as the performance of the resulting organic films with intrinsic hole mobility of 18 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Single molecule translocation in smectics illustrates the challenge for time-mapping in simulations on multiple scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Peter, Christine; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-09-21

    Understanding the connections between the characteristic dynamical time scales associated with a coarse-grained (CG) and a detailed representation is central to the applicability of the coarse-graining methods to understand molecular processes. The process of coarse graining leads to an accelerated dynamics, owing to the smoothening of the underlying free-energy landscapes. Often a single time-mapping factor is used to relate the time scales associated with the two representations. We critically examine this idea using a model system ideally suited for this purpose. Single molecular transport properties are studied via molecular dynamics simulations of the CG and atomistic representations of a liquid crystalline, azobenzene containing mesogen, simulated in the smectic and the isotropic phases. The out-of-plane dynamics in the smectic phase occurs via molecular hops from one smectic layer to the next. Hopping can occur via two mechanisms, with and without significant reorientation. The out-of-plane transport can be understood as a superposition of two (one associated with each mode of transport) independent continuous time random walks for which a single time-mapping factor would be rather inadequate. A comparison of the free-energy surfaces, relevant to the out-of-plane transport, qualitatively supports the above observations. Thus, this work underlines the need for building CG models that exhibit both structural and dynamical consistency to the underlying atomistic model.

  2. Single molecule translocation in smectics illustrates the challenge for time-mapping in simulations on multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Peter, Christine; Kremer, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the connections between the characteristic dynamical time scales associated with a coarse-grained (CG) and a detailed representation is central to the applicability of the coarse-graining methods to understand molecular processes. The process of coarse graining leads to an accelerated dynamics, owing to the smoothening of the underlying free-energy landscapes. Often a single time-mapping factor is used to relate the time scales associated with the two representations. We critically examine this idea using a model system ideally suited for this purpose. Single molecular transport properties are studied via molecular dynamics simulations of the CG and atomistic representations of a liquid crystalline, azobenzene containing mesogen, simulated in the smectic and the isotropic phases. The out-of-plane dynamics in the smectic phase occurs via molecular hops from one smectic layer to the next. Hopping can occur via two mechanisms, with and without significant reorientation. The out-of-plane transport can be understood as a superposition of two (one associated with each mode of transport) independent continuous time random walks for which a single time-mapping factor would be rather inadequate. A comparison of the free-energy surfaces, relevant to the out-of-plane transport, qualitatively supports the above observations. Thus, this work underlines the need for building CG models that exhibit both structural and dynamical consistency to the underlying atomistic model.

  3. On the colour of wing scales in butterflies: iridescence and preferred orientation of single gyroid photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkery, Robert W; Tyrode, Eric C

    2017-08-06

    Lycaenid butterflies from the genera Callophrys , Cyanophrys and Thecla have evolved remarkable biophotonic gyroid nanostructures within their wing scales that have only recently been replicated by nanoscale additive manufacturing. These nanostructures selectively reflect parts of the visible spectrum to give their characteristic non-iridescent, matte-green appearance, despite a distinct blue-green-yellow iridescence predicted for individual crystals from theory. It has been hypothesized that the organism must achieve its uniform appearance by growing crystals with some restrictions on the possible distribution of orientations, yet preferential orientation observed in Callophrys rubi confirms that this distribution need not be uniform. By analysing scanning electron microscope and optical images of 912 crystals in three wing scales, we find no preference for their rotational alignment in the plane of the scales. However, crystal orientation normal to the scale was highly correlated to their colour at low (conical) angles of view and illumination. This correlation enabled the use of optical images, each containing up to 10 4 -10 5 crystals, for concluding the preferential alignment seen along the [Formula: see text] at the level of single scales, appears ubiquitous. By contrast, [Formula: see text] orientations were found to occur at no greater rate than that expected by chance. Above a critical cone angle, all crystals reflected bright green light indicating the dominant light scattering is due to the predicted band gap along the [Formula: see text] direction, independent of the domain orientation. Together with the natural variation in scale and wing shapes, we can readily understand the detailed mechanism of uniform colour production and iridescence suppression in these butterflies. It appears that the combination of preferential alignment normal to the wing scale, and uniform distribution within the plane is a near optimal solution for homogenizing the angular

  4. Tracking Single Units in Chronic, Large Scale, Neural Recordings for Brain Machine Interface Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eEleryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study of population coding in neurobiological systems, tracking unit identity may be critical to assess possible changes in the coding properties of neuronal constituents over prolonged periods of time. Ensuring unit stability is even more critical for reliable neural decoding of motor variables in intra-cortically controlled brain-machine interfaces (BMIs. Variability in intrinsic spike patterns, tuning characteristics, and single-unit identity over chronic use is a major challenge to maintaining this stability, requiring frequent daily calibration of neural decoders in BMI sessions by an experienced human operator. Here, we report on a unit-stability tracking algorithm that efficiently and autonomously identifies putative single-units that are stable across many sessions using a relatively short duration recording interval at the start of each session. The algorithm first builds a database of features extracted from units' average spike waveforms and firing patterns across many days of recording. It then uses these features to decide whether spike occurrences on the same channel on one day belong to the same unit recorded on another day or not. We assessed the overall performance of the algorithm for different choices of features and classifiers trained using human expert judgment, and quantified it as a function of accuracy and execution time. Overall, we found a trade-off between accuracy and execution time with increasing data volumes from chronically implanted rhesus macaques, with an average of 12 seconds processing time per channel at ~90% classification accuracy. Furthermore, 77% of the resulting putative single-units matched those tracked by human experts. These results demonstrate that over the span of a few months of recordings, automated unit tracking can be performed with high accuracy and used to streamline the calibration phase during BMI sessions.

  5. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  6. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  7. Probing Single Nanometer-scale Particles with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, G.S.; Love, J.C.; Kushmerick, J.G.; Charles, L.F.; Keating, C.D.; Toleno, B.J.; Lyn, M.E.; Castleman, A.W.; Natan, M.J.; Weiss, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy can be used to isolate single particles on surfaces for further study. Local optical and electronic properties coupled with topographic information collected by the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) give insight into the intrinsic properties of the species under study. Since each spectroscopic measurement is done on a single particle, each sample is 'monodisperse', regardless of the degree of heterogeneity of the original preparation. We illustrate this with three example systems - a metal cluster of known atomic structure, metal nanoparticles dispersed from colloid suspensions, and metallocarbohedrenes (Met-Cars) deposited with other reaction products. Au and Ag nanoparticles were imaged using a photon emission STM. The threshold voltage, the lowest bias voltage at which photons are produced, was determined for Au nanoparticles. Electronic spectra of small clusters of Ni atoms on MoS 2 were recorded. Preliminary images of Zr-based Met-Car-containing soot were obtained on Au and MoS 2 substrates and partial electronic spectra were recorded of these possible Met-Car particles

  8. destiny: diffusion maps for large-scale single-cell data in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Philipp; Haghverdi, Laleh; Büttner, Maren; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten; Buettner, Florian

    2016-04-15

    : Diffusion maps are a spectral method for non-linear dimension reduction and have recently been adapted for the visualization of single-cell expression data. Here we present destiny, an efficient R implementation of the diffusion map algorithm. Our package includes a single-cell specific noise model allowing for missing and censored values. In contrast to previous implementations, we further present an efficient nearest-neighbour approximation that allows for the processing of hundreds of thousands of cells and a functionality for projecting new data on existing diffusion maps. We exemplarily apply destiny to a recent time-resolved mass cytometry dataset of cellular reprogramming. destiny is an open-source R/Bioconductor package "bioconductor.org/packages/destiny" also available at www.helmholtz-muenchen.de/icb/destiny A detailed vignette describing functions and workflows is provided with the package. carsten.marr@helmholtz-muenchen.de or f.buettner@helmholtz-muenchen.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Time-scales for quenching single-bubble sonoluminescence in the presence of alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jingfeng; Matula, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    A small amount of alcohol added to water dramatically decreases the light intensity from single-bubble sonoluminescence [Weninger et al., J. Phys. Chem. 99, 14195-14197 (1995)]. From an excess accumulation at the bubble surface [Ashokkumar et al., J. Phys. Chem. 104, 8462-8465 (2000)], the molecules evaporate into the bubble interior, reducing the effective adiabatic exponent of the gas, and decreasing the bubble temperature and light output [Toegel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2509-2512 (2000)]. There is a debate as to the rate at which alcohol is injected into the bubble interior. One camp favors the notion that molecules must be repetitively injected over many acoustic cycles. Another camp favors the notion that most quenching occurs during a single collapse. An experiment has been conducted in order to resolve the debate. Quenching rates were measured by recording the instantaneous bubble response and corresponding light emission during a sudden increase in pressure. It was found that complete quenching in the presence of methanol requires over 8000 acoustic cycles, while quenching with butanol occurs in about 20 acoustic cycles. These observations are consistent with the view that quenching requires the repetitive injection of alcohol molecules over repetitive acoustic cycles.

  10. Micro-positron emission tomography for measuring sub-core scale single and multiphase transport parameters in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahasky, Christopher; Benson, Sally M.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate descriptions of heterogeneity in porous media are important for understanding and modeling single phase (e.g. contaminant transport, saltwater intrusion) and multiphase (e.g. geologic carbon storage, enhanced oil recovery) transport problems. Application of medical imaging to experimentally quantify these processes has led to significant progress in material characterization and understanding fluid transport behavior at laboratory scales. While widely utilized in cancer diagnosis and management, cardiology, and neurology, positron emission tomography (PET) has had relatively limited applications in earth science. This study utilizes a small-bore micro-PET scanner to image and quantify the transport behavior of pulses of a conservative aqueous radiotracer injected during single and multiphase flow experiments in two heterogeneous Berea sandstone cores. The cores are discretized into axial-parallel streamtubes, and using the reconstructed micro-PET data, expressions are derived from spatial moment analysis for calculating sub-core tracer flux and pore water velocity. Using the flux and velocity measurements, it is possible to calculate porosity and saturation from volumetric flux balance, and calculate permeability and water relative permeability from Darcy's law. Second spatial moment analysis enables measurement of sub-core solute dispersion during both single phase and multiphase experiments. A numerical simulation model is developed to verify the assumptions of the streamtube dimension reduction technique. A variation of the reactor ratio is presented as a diagnostic metric to efficiently determine the validity of the streamtube approximation in core and column-scale experiments. This study introduces a new method to quantify sub-core permeability, relative permeability, and dispersion. These experimental and analytical methods provide a foundation for future work on experimental measurements of differences in transport behavior across scales.

  11. Probing dynamics and pinning of single vortices in superconductors at nanometer scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embon, L.; Anahory, Y.; Suhov, A.; Halbertal, D.; Cuppens, J.; Yakovenko, A.; Uri, A.; Myasoedov, Y.; Rappaport, M. L.; Huber, M. E.; Gurevich, A.; Zeldov, E.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of quantized magnetic vortices and their pinning by materials defects determine electromagnetic properties of superconductors, particularly their ability to carry non-dissipative currents. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the complex physics of vortex matter, the behavior of vortices driven by current through a multi-scale potential of the actual materials defects is still not well understood, mostly due to the scarcity of appropriate experimental tools capable of tracing vortex trajectories on nanometer scales. Using a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference microscope we report here an investigation of controlled dynamics of vortices in lead films with sub-Angstrom spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity. We measured, for the first time, the fundamental dependence of the elementary pinning force of multiple defects on the vortex displacement, revealing a far more complex behavior than has previously been recognized, including striking spring softening and broken-spring depinning, as well as spontaneous hysteretic switching between cellular vortex trajectories. Our results indicate the importance of thermal fluctuations even at 4.2 K and of the vital role of ripples in the pinning potential, giving new insights into the mechanisms of magnetic relaxation and electromagnetic response of superconductors.

  12. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-03-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes. The results are compared with previous results for SOI microprocessors with feature sizes of 130 and 180 nm. The cross section of the 90 nm SOI processors is smaller than results for 130 and 180 nm counterparts, but the threshold is about the same. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage for SOI microprocessors is discussed.

  15. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    of SN 1995K of about 22.7, but the uncertainty of this value is still so large that this measurement alone cannot be used to determine the value of q0. This will require many more observations of supernovae at least as distant as the present one, a daunting task that may nevertheless be possible within this broad, international programme. It is estimated that a reliable measurement of q0 may become possible when about 20 Type Ia supernovae with accurate peak magnitudes have been measured. According to the discovery predictions, this could be possible within the next couple of years. In this connection, it is of some importance that for this investigation, it is in principle not necessary to know the correct value of the Hubble constant H0 in advance; q0 may still be determined by comparing the relative distance scale of distant supernovae with that of nearby ones. This research is described in more detail in a forthcoming article in the September 1995 issue of the ESO Messenger. Notes: [1] Brian P. Schmidt (Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australia), Bruno Leibundgut, Jason Spyromilio, Jeremy Walsh (ESO), Mark M. Phillips, Nicholas B. Suntzeff, Mario Hamuy, Robert A. Schommer (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory), Roberto Aviles (formerly Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory; now at ESO), Robert P. Kirshner, Adam Riess, Peter Challis, Peter Garnavich (Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachussetts, U.S.A.), Christopher Stubbs, Craig Hogan (University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A.), Alan Dressler (Carnegie Observatories, U.S.A.) and Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A.) [2] In astronomy, the redshift denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant galaxy gives a direct estimate of the apparent recession velocity as caused by the universal expansion. Since the expansion rate increases with the distance, the velocity is itself a

  16. Subchannel Scale Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Rod Bundle Geometry under Single-phase Adiabatic Conditions Using CUPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Jong; Park, Goon Cherl; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In Korea, subchannel analysis code, MATRA has been developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). MATRA has been used for reactor core T/H design and DNBR (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio) calculation. Also, the code has been successfully coupled with neutronics code and fuel analysis code. However, since major concern of the code is not the accident simulation, some features of the code are not optimized for the accident conditions, such as the homogeneous model for two-phase flow and spatial marching method for numerical scheme. For this reason, in the present study, application of CUPID for the subchannel scale T/H analysis in rod bundle geometry was conducted. CUPID is a component scale T/H analysis code which adopts three dimensional two-fluid three-field model developed by KAERI. In this paper, the validation results of the CUPID code for subchannel scale rod bundle analysis at single phase adiabatic conditions were presented. At first, the physical models required for a subchannel scale analysis were implemented to CUPID. In the future, the scope of validation tests will be extended to diabetic and two phase flow conditions and required models will be implemented into CUPID.

  17. Validation of the Single-Factor Model of the Relationship Assessment Scale among Married and Cohabiting Persons from Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of intimate partner relationships is particularly important because this union is the foundation of the family. Satisfaction with the relationship can be defined as the overall attitude to the relationship and the partner. The Hendrick's Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS is a instrument commonly used to assess the construct. Previous research papers have showed that this scale has high internal consistency and a single-factor structure. Although there are validation studies of the RAS, these studies used inappropriate statistical techniques to analyze its Likert-type items, and to determine the number of factors; likewise, its factor invariance across sex has not been previously contrasted. Therefore, this study posed the following research questions: Does the RAS have consistent and discriminating items? Basing the analysis on a polychoric correlation matrix, what is its level of internal consistency? How many factors emerge using rigorous empirical methods? Is the single-factor model invariant across sex? In order to answer these research questions, we used a random route probability sampling in this instrument validation study of the RAS. The sample was extracted from the population of married couples or the ones living in consensual union in Monterrey, Mexico. There were 431 female and 376 male participants in the study. The RAS’ items were consistent and discriminative. The internal consistency of the scale was excellent in the whole sample (ordinal α = .93, as well as among female (ordinal α = .94 and male participants (ordinal α = .92. Horn's parallel analysis and Velicer's  minimum average partial test suggested a one factor solution. Moreover, the single-factor model (with one correlation between the residuals of the two negatively worded items had a close fit to the data, and its properties of invariance across sex were very acceptable by the Unweighted Least Squares method. We conclude that the scale shows internal

  18. On the cosmical constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, R.

    1977-01-01

    On the grounds of the two correspondence limits, the Newtonian limit and the special theory limit of Einstein field equations, a modification of the cosmical constant has been proposed which gives realistic results in the case of a homogeneous universe. Also, according to this modification an explanation for the negative pressure in the steady-state model of the universe has been given. (author)

  19. Cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one

  20. The Yamabe constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Murchadha, N.

    1991-01-01

    The set of riemannian three-metrics with positive Yamabe constant defines the space of independent data for the gravitational field. The boundary of this set is investigated, and it is shown that metrics close to the boundary satisfy the positive-energy theorem. (Author) 18 refs

  1. On the determination of the Hubble constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.; Harutyunyan, V.V.; Kocharyan, A.A.

    1990-10-01

    The possibility of an alternative determination of the distance scale of the Universe and the Hubble constant based on the numerical analysis of the hierarchical nature of the large scale Universe (galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is proposed. The results of computer experiments performed by means of special numerical algorithms are represented. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs

  2. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain; Zhang, Yang; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Krahne, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain

    2013-11-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Contact angle goniometry on single micron-scale fibers for composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel; Bomholt, Niels; Jeppesen, Jonas Camillus

    2017-01-01

    Probing the wetting properties of microfibers by polymer resins is of significant interest for the rational design of composite materials. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of contact angles on wetted micron scale fibers by imaging the fluid meniscus with telecentric optics at a spatial...... resolution of 4 um followed by automated image analysis. The meniscus is described as a catenary in the zero gravity approximation and by fitting this to the measured profile, the contact angle is obtained at the intersection between the fluid and the fiber surface. The method is validated by measuring...... agreement between con-tact angles for the PMMA/H2O system for fibers with diameters 20–800 um and for sessile drops. The ability of the method to discriminate contact angles for a series of commercial glass fibers against epoxy resin is successfully demonstrated. AFM imaging shows that the surface...

  5. Dielectric constant of ionic solutions: a field-theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Amir; Andelman, David; Orland, Henri

    2012-06-01

    We study the variation of the dielectric response of a dielectric liquid (e.g. water) when a salt is added to the solution. Employing field-theoretical methods, we expand the Gibbs free energy to first order in a loop expansion and calculate self-consistently the dielectric constant. We predict analytically the dielectric decrement which depends on the ionic strength in a complex way. Furthermore, a qualitative description of the hydration shell is found and is characterized by a single length scale. Our prediction fits rather well a large range of concentrations for different salts using only one fit parameter related to the size of ions and dipoles.

  6. 15 years of zooming in and zooming out: Developing a new single scale national active fault database of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, William; Langridge, Robert; Villamor, Pilar; Litchfield, Nicola; Van Dissen, Russ; Townsend, Dougal; Lee, Julie; Heron, David; Lukovic, Biljana

    2014-05-01

    In New Zealand, we are currently reconciling multiple digital coverages of mapped active faults into a national coverage at a single scale (1:250,000). This seems at first glance to be a relatively simple task. However, methods used to capture data, the scale of capture, and the initial purpose of the fault mapping, has produced datasets that have very different characteristics. The New Zealand digital active fault database (AFDB) was initially developed as a way of managing active fault locations and fault-related features within a computer-based spatial framework. The data contained within the AFDB comes from a wide range of studies, from plate tectonic (1:500,000) to cadastral (1:2,000) scale. The database was designed to allow capture of field observations and remotely sourced data without a loss in data resolution. This approach has worked well as a method for compiling a centralised database for fault information but not for providing a complete national coverage at a single scale. During the last 15 years other complementary projects have used and also contributed data to the AFDB, most notably the QMAP project (a national series of geological maps completed over 19 years that include coverage of active and inactive faults at 1:250,000). AFDB linework and attributes was incorporated into this series but simplification of linework and attributes has occurred to maintain map clarity at 1:250,000 scale. Also, during this period on-going mapping of active faults has improved upon these data. Other projects of note that have used data from the AFDB include the National Seismic Hazard Model of New Zealand and the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The main goal of the current project has been to provide the best digital spatial representation of a fault trace at 1:250,000 scale and combine this with the most up to date attributes. In some areas this has required a simplification of very fine detailed data and in some cases new mapping to provide a complete coverage

  7. Construction of Lines of Constant Density and Constant Refractive Index for Ternary Liquid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasic, Aleksandar Z.; Djordjevic, Bojan D.

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates construction of density constant and refractive index constant lines in triangular coordinate system on basis of systematic experimental determinations of density and refractive index for both homogeneous (single-phase) ternary liquid mixtures (of known composition) and the corresponding binary compositions. Background information,…

  8. Nanometer-scale discernment of field emission from tungsten surface with single carbon monoxide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Suwa, Yuji; Katagiri, Souichi

    2017-12-01

    Unusual quantized beam fluctuations were found in the emission current from a cold-field emitter (CFE) operating in an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa. To clarify the microscopic mechanism behind these fluctuations, we developed a new calculation method to evaluate the field emission from a heterogeneous surface under a strong electric field of 4 × 109 V/m by using the local potential distribution obtained by a first-principles calculation, instead of by using the work function. As a result of the first-principles calculations of a single molecule adsorbed on a tungsten surface, we found that dissociative adsorption of a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule enhances the emission current by changing the potential barrier in the area surrounding the C and O adatoms when these two atoms are placed at their most stable positions. It is also found that the migration of the O atom from the most stable position reduces the emission current. These types of enhancement and reduction of the emission current quantitatively explain the observed quantized fluctuations of the CFE emission current.

  9. In situ probing the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Boyin; Wah Ng, Tuck; Fu, Jing; Hemayet Uddin, Md; Paterson, David L; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel approach to probe the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometre resolution by combining focused ion beam (FIB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After removing layers of pre-defined thickness in the order of 100 nm on the target bacterial cells with FIB milling, AFM of different modes can be employed to probe the cellular interior under both ambient and aqueous environments. Our initial investigations focused on the surface topology induced by FIB milling and the hydration effects on AFM measurements, followed by assessment of the sample protocols. With fine-tuning of the process parameters, in situ AFM probing beneath the bacterial cell wall was achieved for the first time. We further demonstrate the proposed method by performing a spatial mapping of intracellular elasticity and chemistry of the multi-drug resistant strain Klebsiella pneumoniae cells prior to and after it was exposed to the ‘last-line’ antibiotic polymyxin B. Our results revealed increased stiffness occurring in both surface and interior regions of the treated cells, suggesting loss of integrity of the outer membrane from polymyxin treatments. In addition, the hydrophobicity measurement using a functionalized AFM tip was able to highlight the evident hydrophobic portion of the cell such as the regions containing cell membrane. We expect that the proposed FIB–AFM platform will help in gaining deeper insights of bacteria–drug interactions to develop potential strategies for combating multi-drug resistance. (paper)

  10. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  11. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, S.P.; Lancaster, R.J.; Garcia, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k SP method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results

  12. Estimation of high-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different pT ranges. In situ techniques exploiting the pT balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower pT, but at very high pT (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for in-situ techniques. The JES uncertainty at high-pT is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest pT range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy depositions belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  13. Production in constant evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant now has 25 years of operation behind it: a quarter century adding value and demonstrating the reasons why it is one of the most important energy producing facilities in the Spanish power market. Particularly noteworthy is the enterprising spirit of the plant, which has strived to continuously improve with the large number of modernization projects that it has undertaken over the past 25 years. The plant has constantly evolved thanks to the amount of investments made to improve safety and reliability and the perseverance to stay technologically up to date. Efficiency, training and teamwork have been key to the success of the plant over these 25 years of constant change and progress. (Author)

  14. Nano-scale microfluidics to study 3D chemotaxis at the single cell level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Frick

    Full Text Available Directed migration of cells relies on their ability to sense directional guidance cues and to interact with pericellular structures in order to transduce contractile cytoskeletal- into mechanical forces. These biomechanical processes depend highly on microenvironmental factors such as exposure to 2D surfaces or 3D matrices. In vivo, the majority of cells are exposed to 3D environments. Data on 3D cell migration are mostly derived from intravital microscopy or collagen-based in vitro assays. Both approaches offer only limited controllability of experimental conditions. Here, we developed an automated microfluidic system that allows positioning of cells in 3D microenvironments containing highly controlled diffusion-based chemokine gradients. Tracking migration in such gradients was feasible in real time at the single cell level. Moreover, the setup allowed on-chip immunocytochemistry and thus linking of functional with phenotypical properties in individual cells. Spatially defined retrieval of cells from the device allows down-stream off-chip analysis. Using dendritic cells as a model, our setup specifically allowed us for the first time to quantitate key migration characteristics of cells exposed to identical gradients of the chemokine CCL19 yet placed on 2D vs in 3D environments. Migration properties between 2D and 3D migration were distinct. Morphological features of cells migrating in an in vitro 3D environment were similar to those of cells migrating in animal tissues, but different from cells migrating on a surface. Our system thus offers a highly controllable in vitro-mimic of a 3D environment that cells traffic in vivo.

  15. Stabilized power constant alimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, L.

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [fr

  16. Comparative analysis of single-step and two-step biodiesel production using supercritical methanol on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Martinovic, Ferenc L.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.; Molnar, Tibor T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-step supercritical transesterification compared to the two-step process. • Two-step process: oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification. • Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. • Higher biodiesel yields in two-step process at milder reaction conditions. • Two-step process has potential to be cost-competitive with the single-step process. - Abstract: Single-step supercritical transesterification and two-step biodiesel production process consisting of oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification were studied and compared. For this purpose, comparative experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor and optimal reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio and time) were determined. Results indicate that in comparison to a single-step transesterification, methyl esterification (second step of the two-step process) produces higher biodiesel yields (95 wt% vs. 91 wt%) at lower temperatures (270 °C vs. 350 °C), pressures (8 MPa vs. 12 MPa) and methanol to oil molar ratios (1:20 vs. 1:42). This can be explained by the fact that the reaction system consisting of free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol achieves supercritical condition at milder reaction conditions. Furthermore, the dissolved FFA increases the acidity of supercritical methanol and acts as an acid catalyst that increases the reaction rate. There is a direct correlation between FFA content of the product obtained in hydrolysis and biodiesel yields in methyl esterification. Therefore, the reaction parameters of hydrolysis were optimized to yield the highest FFA content at 12 MPa, 250 °C and 1:20 oil to water molar ratio. Results of direct material and energy costs comparison suggest that the process based on the two-step reaction has the potential to be cost-competitive with the process based on single-step supercritical transesterification. Higher biodiesel yields, similar or lower energy

  17. Dysphagia is prevalent in patients with CPEO and single, large-scale deletions in mtDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Hedermann; Løkken, Nicoline; Dahlqvist, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Background  The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of subjective and objective dysphagia in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) due to single, large-scale deletions (LSDs) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Methods  Sixteen patients with CPEO and single LSDs...... and single LSDs of mtDNA had a prolonged cold-water test, including one with a PEG-tube, who was unable to perform the test, and nine patients reported subjective swallowing problems (56.3%). All mitochondrial myopathy patients in the control group had a normal duration of the cold-water test.  Conclusions......  The study shows that dysphagia is a common problem in patients with CPEO and LSDs of mtDNA. Dysphagia seems to be progressive with age as abnormal swallowing occurred preferentially in persons ≥ 45 years. The study shows that increased awareness of this symptom should be given to address appropriate...

  18. Constant conditional entropy and related hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Dębowski, Łukasz; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-01-01

    Constant entropy rate (conditional entropies must remain constant as the sequence length increases) and uniform information density (conditional probabilities must remain constant as the sequence length increases) are two information theoretic principles that are argued to underlie a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Here we revise the predictions of these principles in the light of Hilberg’s law on the scaling of conditional entropy in language and related laws. We show that constant entropy rate (CER) and two interpretations for uniform information density (UID), full UID and strong UID, are inconsistent with these laws. Strong UID implies CER but the reverse is not true. Full UID, a particular case of UID, leads to costly uncorrelated sequences that are totally unrealistic. We conclude that CER and its particular cases are incomplete hypotheses about the scaling of conditional entropies. (letter)

  19. Assessing Health Status in Inflammatory Bowel Disease using a Novel Single-Item Numeric Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, Bijal; Spiegel, Brennan; Ippoliti, Andrew; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Simpson, Peter; Shih, David; Targan, Stephan; McGovern, Dermot; Melmed, Gil Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current instruments used to measure disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are often cumbersome, time-consuming, and expensive; although used in clinical trials, they are not convenient for clinical practice. A numeric rating scale (NRS) is a quick, inexpensive, and convenient patient-reported outcome (PRO) that can capture the patient’s overall perception of health. Aims To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of an NRS and evaluate its use in clinical practice in patients with CD and UC. Methods We prospectively evaluated patient-reported NRS scores and measured correlations between NRS and a range of severity measures, including physician-reported NRS, Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI), Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI), inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with CD. Subsequently, we evaluated the correlation between the NRS and standard measures of health status (HBI or simple colitis clinical activity index [SCCAI]) and laboratory tests (sedimentation rate [ESR], CRP, and fecal calprotectin) in patients with CD and UC. Results The patient-reported NRS showed excellent correlation with CDAI (R2=0.59, p<0.0001), IBDQ (R2=0.66, p<0.0001), and HBI (R2=0.32, p<0.0001) in patients with CD. The NRS showed poor, but statistically significant correlation with SCCAI (R2=0.25, p<0.0001) in patients with UC. The NRS did not correlate with CRP, ESR, or calprotectin. The NRS was reliable and responsive to change. Conclusions The NRS is a valid, reliable, and responsive measure that may be useful to evaluate patients with CD and possibly UC. PMID:23250673

  20. Universe of constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  1. Connecting Fundamental Constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, D.

    2008-01-01

    A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension will appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a π√(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment

  2. An alternative to the search for single polymorphisms: toward molecular personality scales for the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Scally, Matthew; Terracciano, Antonio; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Costa, Paul T

    2010-12-01

    There is growing evidence that personality traits are affected by many genes, all of which have very small effects. As an alternative to the largely unsuccessful search for individual polymorphisms associated with personality traits, the authors identified large sets of potentially related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and summed them to form molecular personality scales (MPSs) with from 4 to 2,497 SNPs. Scales were derived from two thirds of a large (N = 3,972) sample of individuals from Sardinia who completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and were assessed in a genomewide association scan. When MPSs were correlated with the phenotype in the remaining one third of the sample, very small but significant associations were found for 4 of the 5e personality factors when the longest scales were examined. These data suggest that MPSs for Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness (but not Extraversion) contain genetic information that can be refined in future studies, and the procedures described here should be applicable to other quantitative traits. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The holographic dictionary for Beta functions of multi-trace coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharony, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics,Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Gur-Ari, Guy [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics,Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel); Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Klinghoffer, Nizan [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics,Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2015-05-06

    Field theories with weakly coupled holographic duals, such as large N gauge theories, have a natural separation of their operators into ‘single-trace operators’ (dual to single-particle states) and ‘multi-trace operators’ (dual to multi-particle states). There are examples of large N gauge theories where the beta functions of single-trace coupling constants all vanish, but marginal multi-trace coupling constants have non-vanishing beta functions that spoil conformal invariance (even when all multi-trace coupling constants vanish). The holographic dual of such theories should be a classical solution in anti-de Sitter space, in which the boundary conditions that correspond to the multi-trace coupling constants depend on the cutoff scale, in a way that spoils conformal invariance. We argue that this is realized through specific bulk coupling constants that lead to a running of the multi-trace coupling constants. This fills a missing entry in the holographic dictionary.

  4. On the constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhu; Gong, Yungui

    2018-03-01

    The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations during slow-roll inflation are usually calculated with the method of Bessel function approximation. For constant-roll or ultra slow-roll inflation, the method of Bessel function approximation may be invalid. We compare the numerical results with the analytical results derived from the Bessel function approximation, and we find that they differ significantly on super-horizon scales if the constant slow-roll parameter ηH is not small. More accurate method is needed for calculating the primordial power spectrum for constant-roll inflation.

  5. Fine-structure constant: Is it really a constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    It is often claimed that the fine-structure ''constant'' α is shown to be strictly constant in time by a variety of astronomical and geophysical results. These constrain its fractional rate of change alpha-dot/α to at least some orders of magnitude below the Hubble rate H 0 . We argue that the conclusion is not as straightforward as claimed since there are good physical reasons to expect alpha-dot/α 0 . We propose to decide the issue by constructing a framework for a variability based on very general assumptions: covariance, gauge invariance, causality, and time-reversal invariance of electromagnetism, as well as the idea that the Planck-Wheeler length (10 -33 cm) is the shortest scale allowable in any theory. The framework endows α with well-defined dynamics, and entails a modification of Maxwell electrodynamics. It proves very difficult to rule it out with purely electromagnetic experiments. In a cosmological setting, the framework predicts an alpha-dot/α which can be compatible with the astronomical constraints; hence, these are too insensitive to rule out α variability. There is marginal conflict with the geophysical constraints: however, no firm decision is possible because of uncertainty about various cosmological parameters. By contrast the framework's predictions for spatial gradients of α are in fatal conflict with the results of the Eoetvoes-Dicke-Braginsky experiments. Hence these tests of the equivalence principle rule out with confidence spacetime variability of α at any level

  6. The inconstant solar constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, R.C.; Hudson, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite measures the radiant power emitted by the sun in the direction of the earth and has worked flawlessly since 1980. The main motivation for ACRIM's use to measure the solar constant is the determination of the extent to which this quantity's variations affect earth weather and climate. Data from the solar minimum of 1986-1987 is eagerly anticipated, with a view to the possible presence of a solar cycle variation in addition to that caused directly by sunspots

  7. Mimicking the cosmological constant: Constant curvature spherical solutions in a nonminimally coupled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a perfect fluid matter distribution that leads to a constant curvature region, thanks to the effect of a nonminimal coupling. This distribution exhibits a density profile within the range found in the interstellar medium and an adequate matching of the metric components at its boundary. By identifying this constant curvature with the value of the cosmological constant and superimposing the spherical distributions arising from different matter sources throughout the universe, one is able to mimic a large-scale homogeneous cosmological constant solution.

  8. Finite-field evaluation of the Lennard-Jones atom-wall interaction constant C3 for alkali-metal atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Dzuba, V.A.; Safronova, U.I.; Safronova, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-field scaling method is applied to evaluate the Lennard-Jones interaction constant C 3 for alkali-metal atoms. The calculations are based on the relativistic single-double approximation in which single and double excitations of Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave functions are included to all orders in perturbation theory

  9. Max-Min SINR in Large-Scale Single-Cell MU-MIMO: Asymptotic Analysis and Low Complexity Transceivers

    KAUST Repository

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2016-12-28

    This work focuses on the downlink and uplink of large-scale single-cell MU-MIMO systems in which the base station (BS) endowed with M antennas communicates with K single-antenna user equipments (UEs). Particularly, we aim at reducing the complexity of the linear precoder and receiver that maximize the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio subject to a given power constraint. To this end, we consider the asymptotic regime in which M and K grow large with a given ratio. Tools from random matrix theory (RMT) are then used to compute, in closed form, accurate approximations for the parameters of the optimal precoder and receiver, when imperfect channel state information (modeled by the generic Gauss-Markov formulation form) is available at the BS. The asymptotic analysis allows us to derive the asymptotically optimal linear precoder and receiver that are characterized by a lower complexity (due to the dependence on the large scale components of the channel) and, possibly, by a better resilience to imperfect channel state information. However, the implementation of both is still challenging as it requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. To overcome this issue, we apply the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) technique to the precoding and receiving vector of each UE and make use of RMT to determine the optimal weighting coefficients on a per- UE basis that asymptotically solve the max-min SINR problem. Numerical results are used to validate the asymptotic analysis in the finite system regime and to show that the proposed TPE transceivers efficiently mimic the optimal ones, while requiring much lower computational complexity.

  10. Relaxing a large cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian; Sola, Joan; Stefancic, Hrvoje

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological constant (CC) problem is the biggest enigma of theoretical physics ever. In recent times, it has been rephrased as the dark energy (DE) problem in order to encompass a wider spectrum of possibilities. It is, in any case, a polyhedric puzzle with many faces, including the cosmic coincidence problem, i.e. why the density of matter ρ m is presently so close to the CC density ρ Λ . However, the oldest, toughest and most intriguing face of this polyhedron is the big CC problem, namely why the measured value of ρ Λ at present is so small as compared to any typical density scale existing in high energy physics, especially taking into account the many phase transitions that our Universe has undergone since the early times, including inflation. In this Letter, we propose to extend the field equations of General Relativity by including a class of invariant terms that automatically relax the value of the CC irrespective of the initial size of the vacuum energy in the early epochs. We show that, at late times, the Universe enters an eternal de Sitter stage mimicking a tiny positive cosmological constant. Thus, these models could be able to solve the big CC problem without fine-tuning and have also a bearing on the cosmic coincidence problem. Remarkably, they mimic the ΛCDM model to a large extent, but they still leave some characteristic imprints that should be testable in the next generation of experiments.

  11. Filament instability under constant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.

  12. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Serrano, A.; Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Robles-Pérez, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts

  13. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Serrano, A. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Bastos, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Robles-Pérez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-02-12

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts.

  14. Imaging Live Cells at the Nanometer-Scale with Single-Molecule Microscopy: Obstacles and Achievements in Experiment Optimization for Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Beth L.; Matson, Jyl S.; DiRita, Victor J.; Biteen, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy enables biological investigations inside living cells to achieve millisecond- and nanometer-scale resolution. Although single-molecule-based methods are becoming increasingly accessible to non-experts, optimizing new single-molecule experiments can be challenging, in particular when super-resolution imaging and tracking are applied to live cells. In this review, we summarize common obstacles to live-cell single-molecule microscopy and describe the methods we have developed and applied to overcome these challenges in live bacteria. We examine the choice of fluorophore and labeling scheme, approaches to achieving single-molecule levels of fluorescence, considerations for maintaining cell viability, and strategies for detecting single-molecule signals in the presence of noise and sample drift. We also discuss methods for analyzing single-molecule trajectories and the challenges presented by the finite size of a bacterial cell and the curvature of the bacterial membrane. PMID:25123183

  15. Derivation of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, A.

    1980-01-01

    The fine-structure constant is derived as a dynamical property of quantum electrodynamics. Single-particle solutions of the coupled Maxwell and Dirac equations have a physical charge spectrum. The solutions are used to construct lepton-and quark-like particles. The strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces are described as the interactions of complex charges in multiple combinations

  16. Vanishing cosmological constant in elementary particles theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisano, F.; Tonasse, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The quest of a vanishing cosmological constant is considered in the simplest anomaly-free chiral gauge extension of the electroweak standard model where the new physics is limited to a well defined additional flavordynamics above the Fermi scale, namely up to a few TeVs by matching the gauge coupling constants at the electroweak scale, and with an extended Higgs structure. In contrast to the electroweak standard model, it is shown how the extended scalar sector of the theory allows a vanishing or a very small cosmological constant. the details of the cancellation mechanism are presented. At accessible energies the theory is indistinguishable from the standard model of elementary particles and it is in agreement with all existing data. (author). 32 refs

  17. Running coupling constants of the Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boose, D.; Jacquot, J.L.; Polonyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We compute the one-loop expressions of two running coupling constants of the Luttinger model. The obtained expressions have a nontrivial momentum dependence with Landau poles. The reason for the discrepancy between our results and those of other studies, which find that the scaling laws are trivial, is explained

  18. Multi-scale Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) nest/roost habitat selection in Arizona and a comparison with single-scale modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad C. Timm; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Joseph L. Ganey

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy of future habitat selection studies will benefit by taking a multi-scale approach. In addition to potentially providing increased explanatory power and predictive capacity, multi-scale habitat models enhance our understanding of the scales at which species respond to their environment, which is critical knowledge required to implement effective...

  19. Potential constants and centrifugal distortion constants of octahedral hexafluoride molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manivannan, G [Government Thirumagal Mill' s Coll., Gudiyattam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1981-04-01

    The kinetic constants method outlined by Thirugnanasambandham (1964) based on Wilson's (1955) group theory has been adapted in evaluating the potential constants for SF/sub 6/, SeF/sub 6/, WF/sub 6/, IrF/sub 6/, UF/sub 6/, NpF/sub 6/, and PuF/sub 6/ using the experimentally observed vibrational frequency data. These constants are used to calculate the centrifugal distortion constants for the first time.

  20. Comparison of children versus adults undergoing mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy: large-scale analysis of a single institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Zeng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As almost any version of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL was safely and efficiently applied for adults as well as children without age being a limiting risk factor, the aim of the study was to compare the different characteristics as well as the efficacy, outcome, and safety of the pediatric and adult patients who had undergone mini-PCNL (MPCNL in a single institution. METHODS: We retrospective reviewed 331 renal units in children and 8537 renal units in adults that had undergone MPCNL for upper urinary tract stones between the years of 2000-2012. The safety, efficacy, and outcome were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: The children had a smaller stone size (2.3 vs. 3.1 cm but had smilar stone distribution (number and locations. The children required fewer percutaneous accesses, smaller nephrostomy tract, shorter operative time and less hemoglobin drop. The children also had higher initial stone free rate (SFR (80.4% vs. 78.6% after single session of MPCNL (p0.05. Both groups had low rate of high grade Clavien complications. There was no grade III, IV, V complications and no angiographic embolization required in pediatric group. One important caveat, children who required multiple percutaneous nephrostomy tracts had significant higher transfusion rate than in adults (18.8% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: This contemporary largest-scale analysis confirms that the stone-free rate in pediatric patients is at least as good as in adults without an increase of complication rates. However, multiple percutaneous nephrostomy tracts should be practiced with caution in children.

  1. Molecular equilibrium structures from experimental rotational constants and calculated vibration-rotation interaction constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, F; Jorgensen, P; Olsen, Jeppe

    2002-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out of the accuracy of molecular equilibrium geometries obtained from least-squares fits involving experimental rotational constants B(0) and sums of ab initio vibration-rotation interaction constants alpha(r)(B). The vibration-rotation interaction constants have been...... calculated for 18 single-configuration dominated molecules containing hydrogen and first-row atoms at various standard levels of ab initio theory. Comparisons with the experimental data and tests for the internal consistency of the calculations show that the equilibrium structures generated using Hartree......-Fock vibration-rotation interaction constants have an accuracy similar to that obtained by a direct minimization of the CCSD(T) energy. The most accurate vibration-rotation interaction constants are those calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ level. The equilibrium bond distances determined from these interaction...

  2. Large-scale preparation of CdS quantum dots by direct thermolysis of a single-source precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhiguo; Cai Wei; Sui Jiehe [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2008-01-23

    CdS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized on a large scale, based on the direct thermolysis of one single-source precursor (Me{sub 4}N){sub 4}[S{sub 4}Cd{sub 10}(SPh){sub 16}], in hexadecylamine (HDA). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that the CdS QDs are well-defined, nearly spherical particles. The clear lattice fringes in high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) images confirm the crystalline nature of the QDs. The broad diffraction in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and diffuse diffraction rings of the selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern are typical of nanomeric-size particles and indicative of the hexagonal phase of CdS QDs. The absorption spectra confirm quantum confinement of CdS QDs. The synthesis process for CdS QDs was investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that the nucleation and growth stages were separated automatically in a homogeneous system.

  3. Association constants of telluronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, N.A.; Rivkin, B.B.; Sadekov, T.D.; Shvajka, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    Association constants in acetonitrile of triphenyl telluronium salts, which are dilute electrolytes, are determined through the conductometry method. Satisfactory correlation dependence of constants of interion association and threshold molar electroconductivity on the Litvinenko-Popov constants for depositing groups is identified. 6 refs

  4. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  5. Quintessence and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.; Wetterich, C.

    2003-01-01

    Quintessence -- the energy density of a slowly evolving scalar field -- may constitute a dynamical form of the homogeneous dark energy in the universe. We review the basic idea in the light of the cosmological constant problem. Cosmological observations or a time variation of fundamental 'constants' can distinguish quintessence from a cosmological constant

  6. Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.

  7. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1998-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  8. The composing technique of fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system with single chip microcomputers and PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zurun; Wu Shiying; Liu Haitao; Yao Yangsen; Wang Yingguan; Yang Chaowen

    1997-01-01

    The technique of employing single-chip microcomputers and PC computers to compose a fast and large scale nuclear data acquisition and control system was discussed in detail. The optimum composition mode of this kind of system, the acquisition and control circuit unit based on single-chip microcomputers, the real-time communication methods and the software composition under the Windows 3.2 were also described. One, two and three dimensional spectra measured by this system were demonstrated

  9. Constant-roll (quasi-)linear inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, A.; Marzola, L.; Pappas, T.; Racioppi, A.; Tamvakis, K.

    2018-05-01

    In constant-roll inflation, the scalar field that drives the accelerated expansion of the Universe is rolling down its potential at a constant rate. Within this framework, we highlight the relations between the Hubble slow-roll parameters and the potential ones, studying in detail the case of a single-field Coleman-Weinberg model characterised by a non-minimal coupling of the inflaton to gravity. With respect to the exact constant-roll predictions, we find that assuming an approximate slow-roll behaviour yields a difference of Δ r = 0.001 in the tensor-to-scalar ratio prediction. Such a discrepancy is in principle testable by future satellite missions. As for the scalar spectral index ns, we find that the existing 2-σ bound constrains the value of the non-minimal coupling to ξphi ~ 0.29–0.31 in the model under consideration.

  10. Derivation of the optical constants of anisotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.; Strong, P. F.

    1985-07-01

    This report concerns the development of methods for obtaining the optical constants of anisotropic crystals of the triclinic and monoclinic systems. The principal method used, classical dispersion theory, is adapted to these crystal systems by extending the Lorentz line parameters to include the angles characterizing the individual resonances, and by replacing the dielectric constant by a dielectric tensor. The sample crystals are gypsium, orthoclase and chalcanthite. The derived optical constants are shown to be suitable for modeling the optical properties of particulate media in the infrared spectral region. For those materials where suitable size single crystals are not available, an extension of a previously used method is applied to alabaster, a polycrystalline material of the monoclinic crystal system.

  11. Peculiar temperature aging effects on the piezoelectric constant of Pb(Mg1sol3Nb2sol3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal near the morphotropic phase boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guisheng; Wang Xiaofeng; Yang Danfeng; Duan Ziqing; Feng Chude; Chen Kai

    2005-01-01

    After temperature aging, peculiar changes of the piezoelectric response of 0.67 Pb(Mg 1sol3 Nb 2sol3 )O 3- 0.33 PbTiO 3 crystals appeared. The piezoelectric constant d 33 of the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼35 deg. C abruptly rose more than 1000 pC/N in some regions after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h. For the (001)-cut crystals with T RT ∼74 deg. C, in spite of a fall of 40-100 pC/N after heat treatment at 65 deg. C for 12 h, the values of d 33 rose 50-100 pC/N unexpectedly after the subsequent heat treatment at 85 deg. C for 4 h. The structure adjustment caused by the internal stress relaxation during heat treatment at T>T RT accounted for the enhancement of d 33

  12. Elemental and Isotopic Tomography at Single-Atom-Scale in 4.0 and 2.4 Ga Zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, J. W.; Reinhard, D. A.; Snoeyenbos, D.; Lawrence, D.; Martin, I.; Kelly, T. F.; Ushikubo, T.; Strickland, A.; Cavosie, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Atom probe tomography can determine identity (mass/charge ratio) and 3-D position of individual atoms in minerals such as zircon. These data provide unique information for understanding the thermal history and mechanisms of mineral reaction and exchange, including radiation damage. Nine needle-shaped specimens ~100 nm in diameter (at the apex) were sampled from 2 zircons by FIB and analyzed with a local-electrode atom probe (LEAP), CAMECA LEAP 4000X HR. The LEAP uses pulsed-laser heating to field evaporate the tip of a zircon needle and accelerates the ions into a position-sensitive TOF-MS. With due care for complex isobaric interferences (molecules, multiple ionizations) and background correction, it is possible to individually identify up to 10E8 atoms/needle (36% detection efficiency) by mass/charge (MRP ~ 1000@ m/n=16Da) and position (X-Y-Z coordinates on 0.2 nm scale) (Kelly & Larson 2012). The 3-D distribution of Pb and Y differ at atom-scale in the 2 zircons. Zircon #1 (4007 Ma, Jack Hills, W. Australia, Cavosie 2005, Ushikubo et al. 2008, Bouvier et al. 2011) is homogeneous in Pb and Y. In contrast, incompatible elements, including Pb and Y, are concentrated in equant 5-10 nm dia. domains, spaced ~50 nm apart in zircon #2 (2438 Ma, Albion-Raft R-Grouse Ck core complex, Utah, Strickland et al. 2011). U is homogeneously distributed in both zircons. The analyzed domains suffered 4-8 x 10E15 α-decay events/mg due to U and Th decay and yet both zircons yield >97% concordant U-Pb ages by SIMS, suggesting annealing of radiation damage during the life of the zircons. The 207-Pb/206-Pb ratios for these nm-scale domains, as measured by LEAP, average 0.17 for the 2.4 Ga Zrc2 (3 needles) and 0.43 for the 4.0 Ga Zrc1 (5 needles). These ratios are less precise (±40% 2σ) due to ultra-small sample size, but are in excellent agreement with values measured by SIMS, 0.1684 and 0.4269, respectively. Thus Pb in both zircons is radiogenic. The Pb-Y-rich domains and lack of

  13. Single mode solid state distributed feedback dye laser fabricated by grey scale electron beam lithography on dye doped SU-8 resist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Rasmussen, Torben; Shi, Peixiong

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate grey scale electron beam lithography on functionalized SU-8 resist for fabrication of single mode solid state dye laser devices. The resist is doped with Rhodamine 6G perchlorate and the lasers are based on a first order Bragg grating distributed feedback resonator. The lasers...

  14. Concurrent Validity and Sensitivity to Change of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) within an Elementary Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rhonda L.; Eklund, Katie; Kilgus, Stephen P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity, sensitivity to change, and teacher acceptability of Direct Behavior Rating single-item scales (DBR-SIS), a brief progress monitoring measure designed to assess student behavioral change in response to intervention. Twenty-four elementary teacher-student dyads implemented a daily…

  15. Predictions of the spontaneous symmetry-breaking theory for visual code completeness and spatial scaling in single-cell learning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C J

    2001-05-01

    This article shows analytically that single-cell learning rules that give rise to oriented and localized receptive fields, when their synaptic weights are randomly and independently initialized according to a plausible assumption of zero prior information, will generate visual codes that are invariant under two-dimensional translations, rotations, and scale magnifications, provided that the statistics of their training images are sufficiently invariant under these transformations. Such codes span different image locations, orientations, and size scales with equal economy. Thus, single-cell rules could account for the spatial scaling property of the cortical simple-cell code. This prediction is tested computationally by training with natural scenes; it is demonstrated that a single-cell learning rule can give rise to simple-cell receptive fields spanning the full range of orientations, image locations, and spatial frequencies (except at the extreme high and low frequencies at which the scale invariance of the statistics of digitally sampled images must ultimately break down, because of the image boundary and the finite pixel resolution). Thus, no constraint on completeness, or any other coupling between cells, is necessary to induce the visual code to span wide ranges of locations, orientations, and size scales. This prediction is made using the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have previously shown can also explain the data-driven self-organization of a wide variety of transformation invariances in neurons' responses, such as the translation invariance of complex cell response.

  16. Elongational flow of polymer melts at constant strain rate, constant stress and constant force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of polymer melts in elongational flow is typically performed at constant elongational rate or rarely at constant tensile stress conditions. One of the disadvantages of these deformation modes is that they are hampered by the onset of "necking" instabilities according to the Considère criterion. Experiments at constant tensile force have been performed even more rarely, in spite of the fact that this deformation mode is free from necking instabilities and is of considerable industrial relevance as it is the correct analogue of steady fiber spinning. It is the objective of the present contribution to present for the first time a full experimental characterization of a long-chain branched polyethylene melt in elongational flow. Experiments were performed at constant elongation rate, constant tensile stress and constant tensile force by use of a Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER) in combination with an Anton Paar MCR301 rotational rheometer. The accessible experimental window and experimental limitations are discussed. The experimental data are modelled by using the Wagner I model. Predictions of the steady-start elongational viscosity in constant strain rate and creep experiments are found to be identical, albeit only by extrapolation of the experimental data to Hencky strains of the order of 6. For constant stress experiments, a minimum in the strain rate and a corresponding maximum in the elongational viscosity is found at a Hencky strain of the order of 3, which, although larger than the steady-state value, follows roughly the general trend of the steady-state elongational viscosity. The constitutive analysis also reveals that constant tensile force experiments indicate a larger strain hardening potential than seen in constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress experiments. This may be indicative of the effect of necking under constant elongation rate or constant tensile stress conditions according to the Considère criterion.

  17. LA PLANTA ÚNICA COMO TIPO RESISTENTE A LA ESCALA / the single plan as a type resistant to scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colmenares Vilata

    2014-05-01

    centre and the container with the periphery is still valid, because the necessary density of the first and the extensive occupation of the second mean that it is impossible to invert the terms. However, both represent the strictly pragmatic development of the principles of the “free plan” as a generic operating system, giving rise to large constructions that test the resistance to the scale of the type itself. Taking the characteristic neutrality of the “single plan” as a reference, the text analyses the behaviour with regard to the change of size of its two complementary configurations: the large hypostile hall and the clear-span pavillion.

  18. Optimizing the performance of small-scale organic Rankine cycle that utilizes a single-screw expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziviani, D.; Gusev, S.; Lecompte, S.; Groll, E.A.; Braun, J.E.; Horton, W.T.; Broek, M. van den; De Paepe, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A total of 102 steady-state points with R245fa and SES336 have been collected. • R245fa led to 10% higher power output despite lower expander isentropic efficiency. • The ORC running with SES36 presented a better matching between expander and cycle. • The theoretical matching between expander volume ratio and cycle efficiency is determined. • Steady-state performance maps are used to build a feed-forward controller. - Abstract: This paper deals with the operation and optimization of a down-scaled industrial organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for low-grade waste heat recovery. The system is a sub-critical regenerative ORC with a nominal power output of 11 kW. The ORC unit has been assembled using off-the-shelf components including three identical plate heat exchangers, a liquid receiver, a multi-stage centrifugal pump and a single-screw compressor adapted to operate as an expander. The experimental results are used to evaluate the influence of the expander performance on the behavior of the ORC system at nominal and part-load conditions. The matching between the volumetric expander and the system operating conditions is also analyzed. Results showed that in the case of SES36, both the expander efficiency and system performance were maximized for a pressure ratio between 7 and 9. In the case of R245fa, while the system efficiency achieved values similar to SES36, but the expander maximum isentropic efficiency was 17% lower. Two analyses are carried out to optimize the operation of the ORC unit with R245fa. At first, the insights gained by analyzing the experimental data are used to evaluate the theoretical matching between volumetric expander and the system maximum efficiency in terms of the Second Law of thermodynamics. Secondly, a control-oriented steady-state cycle model based on empirical correlations calibrated on the experimental results is developed. The model is used to implement a feed-forward control strategy based on predetermined steady

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  20. Time variable cosmological constants from the age of universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lixin; Lu Jianbo; Li Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, time variable cosmological constant, dubbed age cosmological constant, is investigated motivated by the fact: any cosmological length scale and time scale can introduce a cosmological constant or vacuum energy density into Einstein's theory. The age cosmological constant takes the form ρ Λ =3c 2 M P 2 /t Λ 2 , where t Λ is the age or conformal age of our universe. The effective equation of state (EoS) of age cosmological constant are w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c and w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c (1+z) when the age and conformal age of universe are taken as the role of cosmological time scales respectively. The EoS are the same as the so-called agegraphic dark energy models. However, the evolution histories are different from the agegraphic ones for their different evolution equations.

  1. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  2. Pricing constant maturity credit default swaps under jumo dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsson, H.; Schoutens, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the pricing of Constant Maturity Credit Default Swaps (CMCDS) under single sided jump models. The CMCDS offers default protection in exchange for a floating premium which is periodically reset and indexed to the market spread on a CDS with constant maturity tenor written on

  3. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  4. The supply voltage scaled dependency of the recovery of single event upset in advanced complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor static random-access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Da-Wei; Qin Jun-Rui; Chen Shu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Using computer-aided design three-dimensional simulation technology, the supply voltage scaled dependency of the recovery of single event upset and charge collection in static random-access memory cells are investigated. It reveals that the recovery linear energy transfer threshold decreases with the supply voltage reducing, which is quite attractive for dynamic voltage scaling and subthreshold circuit radiation-hardened design. Additionally, the effect of supply voltage on charge collection is also investigated. It is concluded that the supply voltage mainly affects the bipolar gain of the parasitical bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and the existence of the source plays an important role in supply voltage variation. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  5. Evaluating cloud processes in large-scale models: Of idealized case studies, parameterization testbeds and single-column modelling on climate time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Roel

    2016-04-01

    Boundary-layer schemes have always formed an integral part of General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for numerical weather and climate prediction. The spatial and temporal scales associated with boundary-layer processes and clouds are typically much smaller than those at which GCMs are discretized, which makes their representation through parameterization a necessity. The need for generally applicable boundary-layer parameterizations has motivated many scientific studies, which in effect has created its own active research field in the atmospheric sciences. Of particular interest has been the evaluation of boundary-layer schemes at "process-level". This means that parameterized physics are studied in isolated mode from the larger-scale circulation, using prescribed forcings and excluding any upscale interaction. Although feedbacks are thus prevented, the benefit is an enhanced model transparency, which might aid an investigator in identifying model errors and understanding model behavior. The popularity and success of the process-level approach is demonstrated by the many past and ongoing model inter-comparison studies that have been organized by initiatives such as GCSS/GASS. A red line in the results of these studies is that although most schemes somehow manage to capture first-order aspects of boundary layer cloud fields, there certainly remains room for improvement in many areas. Only too often are boundary layer parameterizations still found to be at the heart of problems in large-scale models, negatively affecting forecast skills of NWP models or causing uncertainty in numerical predictions of future climate. How to break this parameterization "deadlock" remains an open problem. This presentation attempts to give an overview of the various existing methods for the process-level evaluation of boundary-layer physics in large-scale models. This includes i) idealized case studies, ii) longer-term evaluation at permanent meteorological sites (the testbed approach

  6. Automatic single questionnaire intensity (SQI, EMS98 scale) estimation using ranking models built on the existing BCSF database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlupp, A.; Sira, C.; Schmitt, K.; Schaming, M.

    2013-12-01

    In charge of intensity estimations in France, BCSF has collected and manually analyzed more than 47000 online individual macroseismic questionnaires since 2000 up to intensity VI. These macroseismic data allow us to estimate one SQI value (Single Questionnaire Intensity) for each form following the EMS98 scale. The reliability of the automatic intensity estimation is important as they are today used for automatic shakemaps communications and crisis management. Today, the automatic intensity estimation at BCSF is based on the direct use of thumbnails selected on a menu by the witnesses. Each thumbnail corresponds to an EMS-98 intensity value, allowing us to quickly issue an intensity map of the communal intensity by averaging the SQIs at each city. Afterwards an expert, to determine a definitive SQI, manually analyzes each form. This work is time consuming and not anymore suitable considering the increasing number of testimonies at BCSF. Nevertheless, it can take into account incoherent answers. We tested several automatic methods (USGS algorithm, Correlation coefficient, Thumbnails) (Sira et al. 2013, IASPEI) and compared them with 'expert' SQIs. These methods gave us medium score (between 50 to 60% of well SQI determined and 35 to 40% with plus one or minus one intensity degree). The best fit was observed with the thumbnails. Here, we present new approaches based on 3 statistical ranking methods as 1) Multinomial logistic regression model, 2) Discriminant analysis DISQUAL and 3) Support vector machines (SVMs). The two first methods are standard methods, while the third one is more recent. Theses methods could be applied because the BCSF has already in his database more then 47000 forms and because their questions and answers are well adapted for a statistical analysis. The ranking models could then be used as automatic method constrained on expert analysis. The performance of the automatic methods and the reliability of the estimated SQI can be evaluated thanks to

  7. Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

  8. Inflation with a smooth constant-roll to constant-roll era transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study canonical scalar field models, with a varying second slow-roll parameter, that allow transitions between constant-roll eras. In the models with two constant-roll eras, it is possible to avoid fine-tunings in the initial conditions of the scalar field. We mainly focus on the stability of the resulting solutions, and we also investigate if these solutions are attractors of the cosmological system. We shall calculate the resulting scalar potential and, by using a numerical approach, we examine the stability and attractor properties of the solutions. As we show, the first constant-roll era is dynamically unstable towards linear perturbations, and the cosmological system is driven by the attractor solution to the final constant-roll era. As we demonstrate, it is possible to have a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in some cases; however, this is strongly model dependent and depends on the rate of the final constant-roll era. Finally, we present, in brief, the essential features of a model that allows oscillations between constant-roll eras.

  9. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  10. Cosmological constant in the quantum multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Grant; Nomura, Yasunori; Roberts, Hannes L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein.

  11. Understanding fine structure constants and three generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1988-02-01

    We put forward a model inspired by random dynamics that relates the smallness of the gauge coupling constants to the number of generations being 'large'. The new element in the present version of our model is the appearance of a free parameter χ that is a measure of the (presumably relatively minor) importance of a term in the plaquette action proportional to the trace in the (1/6, 2, 3) representation of the Standard Model. Calling N gen the number of generations, the sets of allowed (N gen , χN gen )-pairs obtained by imposing the three measured coupling constant values of the Standard Model form three lines. In addition to finding that these lines cross at a single point (as needed for a consistent fit), the intersection occurs with surprising accuracy at the integer N gen = 3 (thereby predicting exactly three generations). It is also encouraging that the parameter χ turns out to be small and positive as expected. (orig.)

  12. Empirical modeling of single-wake advection and expansion using full-scale pulsed lidar-based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single...

  13. From single steps to mass migration: the problem of scale in the movement ecology of the Serengeti wildebeest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, Colin J; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Morrison, Thomas A; Couzin, Iain D; Levin, Simon A

    2018-05-19

    A central question in ecology is how to link processes that occur over different scales. The daily interactions of individual organisms ultimately determine community dynamics, population fluctuations and the functioning of entire ecosystems. Observations of these multiscale ecological processes are constrained by various technological, biological or logistical issues, and there are often vast discrepancies between the scale at which observation is possible and the scale of the question of interest. Animal movement is characterized by processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Second-by-second decisions accumulate to produce annual movement patterns. Individuals influence, and are influenced by, collective movement decisions, which then govern the spatial distribution of populations and the connectivity of meta-populations. While the field of movement ecology is experiencing unprecedented growth in the availability of movement data, there remain challenges in integrating observations with questions of ecological interest. In this article, we present the major challenges of addressing these issues within the context of the Serengeti wildebeest migration, a keystone ecological phenomena that crosses multiple scales of space, time and biological complexity.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Statistical shape model-based reconstruction of a scaled, patient-specific surface model of the pelvis from a single standard AP x-ray radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Guoyan [Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Bern, Stauffacherstrasse 78, CH-3014 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to investigate the feasibility of using a statistical shape model (SSM)-based reconstruction technique to derive a scaled, patient-specific surface model of the pelvis from a single standard anteroposterior (AP) x-ray radiograph and the feasibility of estimating the scale of the reconstructed surface model by performing a surface-based 3D/3D matching. Methods: Data sets of 14 pelvises (one plastic bone, 12 cadavers, and one patient) were used to validate the single-image based reconstruction technique. This reconstruction technique is based on a hybrid 2D/3D deformable registration process combining a landmark-to-ray registration with a SSM-based 2D/3D reconstruction. The landmark-to-ray registration was used to find an initial scale and an initial rigid transformation between the x-ray image and the SSM. The estimated scale and rigid transformation were used to initialize the SSM-based 2D/3D reconstruction. The optimal reconstruction was then achieved in three stages by iteratively matching the projections of the apparent contours extracted from a 3D model derived from the SSM to the image contours extracted from the x-ray radiograph: Iterative affine registration, statistical instantiation, and iterative regularized shape deformation. The image contours are first detected by using a semiautomatic segmentation tool based on the Livewire algorithm and then approximated by a set of sparse dominant points that are adaptively sampled from the detected contours. The unknown scales of the reconstructed models were estimated by performing a surface-based 3D/3D matching between the reconstructed models and the associated ground truth models that were derived from a CT-based reconstruction method. Such a matching also allowed for computing the errors between the reconstructed models and the associated ground truth models. Results: The technique could reconstruct the surface models of all 14 pelvises directly from the landmark

  15. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies.

  16. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam

    2012-01-01

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies

  17. Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)

  18. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nez, F.

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  19. Atomic-scale nanoindentation: detection and identification of single glide events in three dimensions by force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egberts, P; Bennewitz, R

    2011-01-01

    Indentation experiments on the nanometre scale have been performed by means of atomic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum on KBr(100) surfaces. The surfaces yield in the form of discrete surface displacements with a typical length scale of 1 A. These surface displacements are detected in both normal and lateral directions. Measurement of the lateral tip displacement requires a load-dependent calibration due to the load dependence of the effective lateral compliance. Correlation of the lateral and normal displacements for each glide event allow identification of the activated slip system. The results are discussed in terms of the resolved shear stress in indentation experiments and of typical results in atomistic simulations of nanometre-scale indentation.

  20. Single and two-phase natural circulation in Westinghouse pressurized water reactor simulators: Phenomena, analysis and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.R.; Chapman, J.C.; Kukita, Y.; Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H.; Chen, Y.S.; Tasaka, K.

    1987-01-01

    Natural circulation data obtained in the 1/48 scale W four loop PWR simulator - the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) are discussed and summarized. Core cooling modes, the primary fluid state, the primary loop mass flow and localized natural circulation phenomena occurring in the steam generator are presented. TRAC-PF1 LSTF model (using both a 1 U-tube and a 3 U-tube steam generator model) analyses of the LSTF natural circulation data including the SG recirculation patterns are presented and compared to the data. The LSTF data are then compared to similar natural circulation data obtained in the Primarkreislaufe (PKL) and the Semiscale facilities. Based on the 1/48 to 1/1705 scaling range which exists between the facilities, the implications of these data towrard natural circulation behavior in commercial plants are briefly discussed

  1. Expanded Large-Scale Forcing Properties Derived from the Multiscale Data Assimilation System and Its Application to Single-Column Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.; Li, Z.; Liu, Y.; Lin, W.; Toto, T.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Fridlind, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present an approach to derive large-scale forcing that is used to drive single-column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs)/large eddy simulation (LES) for evaluating fast physics parameterizations in climate models. The forcing fields are derived by use of a newly developed multi-scale data assimilation (MS-DA) system. This DA system is developed on top of the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) System and is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a cloud resolving resolution of 2 km. This approach has been applied to the generation of large scale forcing for a set of Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The dense ARM in-situ observations and high-resolution satellite data effectively constrain the WRF model. The evaluation shows that the derived forcing displays accuracies comparable to the existing continuous forcing product and, overall, a better dynamic consistency with observed cloud and precipitation. One important application of this approach is to derive large-scale hydrometeor forcing and multiscale forcing, which is not provided in the existing continuous forcing product. It is shown that the hydrometeor forcing poses an appreciable impact on cloud and precipitation fields in the single-column model simulations. The large-scale forcing exhibits a significant dependency on domain-size that represents SCM grid-sizes. Subgrid processes often contribute a significant component to the large-scale forcing, and this contribution is sensitive to the grid-size and cloud-regime.

  2. Fundamental Constants in Physics and their Time Dependence

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    In the Standard Model of Particle Physics we are dealing with 28 fundamental constants. In the experiments these constants can be measured, but theoretically they are not understood. I will discuss these constants, which are mostly mass parameters. Astrophysical measurements indicate that the finestructure constant is not a real constant, but depends on time. Grand unification then implies also a time variation of the QCD scale. Thus the masses of the atomic nuclei and the magnetic moments of the nuclei will depend on time. I proposed an experiment, which is currently done by Prof. Haensch in Munich and his group. The first results indicate a time dependence of the QCD scale. I will discuss the theoretical implications.

  3. Stand dynamics following gap-scale exogenous disturbance in a single cohort mixed species stand in Morgan County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian S. Hughett; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2014-01-01

    Differences in composition, structure, and growth under canopy gaps created by the mortality of a single stem were analyzed using analysis of variance under two scenarios, with stem removed or with stem left as a standing snag. There were no significant differences in composition and structure of large diameter residual stems within upper canopy strata. Some...

  4. Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Berglund, E.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bos, K.; Boterenbrood, H.; Colijn, A.P.; de Jong, P.; de Nooij, L.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Ferrari, P.; Garitaonandia, H.; Geerts, D.A.A.; Gosselink, M.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; Igonkina, O.; Kayl, M.S.; Klous, S.; Kluit, P.; Koffeman, E.; Lee, H.; Lenz, T.; Linde, F.; Luijckx, G.; Massaro, G.; Mechnich, J.; Mussche, I.; Ottersbach, J.P.; Reichold, A.; Rijpstra, M.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Snuverink, J.; Ta, D.; Tsiakiris, M.; Turlay, E.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vreeswijk, M.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty on the calorimeter energy response to jets of particles is derived for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, the calorimeter response to single isolated charged hadrons is measured and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation using proton-proton collisions at

  5. Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2011-01-01

    Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...

  6. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology; De la constante de Rydberg a la metrologie des constantes fondamentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez, F

    2005-06-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  7. Investigations on heavy ion induced Single-Event Transients (SETs) in highly-scaled FinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillardin, M., E-mail: marc.gaillardin@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Raine, M.; Paillet, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Adell, P.C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Girard, S. [Université de Saint-Etienne, Laboratoire H. Curien, UMR-5516, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Duhamel, O. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O. [CEA, LETI-Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate Single-Event Transients (SET) in different designs of multiple-gate devices made of FinFETs with various geometries. Heavy ion experimental results are explained by using a thorough charge collection analysis of fast transients measured on dedicated test structures. Multi-level simulations are performed to get new insights into the charge collection mechanisms in multiple-gate devices. Implications for multiple-gate device design hardening are finally discussed.

  8. Quantum black holes and Planck's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)

  9. Advanced Control Strategies to Enable a More Wide-Scale Adoption of Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng

    , a thorough evaluation of those topologies in terms of e.g. efficiency, reliability, leakage current mitigation ability, and reactive power injection capability has been presented in Chapter 3, where a multidisciplinary assessment approach with characterized features of energy production estimation...... and lifetime prediction based on mission profiles (e.g. solar irradiance level and ambient temperature) has been proposed. Grid detection and synchronization techniques have also been discussed in Chapter 2, since they are of importance in the control of single-phase systems both in normal operation mode...

  10. Universal relation between spectroscopic constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.

  11. A comment on technical naturalness and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a model of dynamical relaxation of the cosmological constant. Technical naturalness of the model and the present value of the vacuum energy density imply an upper bound on the supersymmetry breaking scale and the reheating temperature at the TeV scale

  12. Elastic constants from microscopic strain fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta; Nielaba; Rao; Binder

    2000-02-01

    Fluctuations of the instantaneous local Lagrangian strain epsilon(ij)(r,t), measured with respect to a static "reference" lattice, are used to obtain accurate estimates of the elastic constants of model solids from atomistic computer simulations. The measured strains are systematically coarse-grained by averaging them within subsystems (of size L(b)) of a system (of total size L) in the canonical ensemble. Using a simple finite size scaling theory we predict the behavior of the fluctuations as a function of L(b)/L and extract elastic constants of the system in the thermodynamic limit at nonzero temperature. Our method is simple to implement, efficient, and general enough to be able to handle a wide class of model systems, including those with singular potentials without any essential modification. We illustrate the technique by computing isothermal elastic constants of "hard" and "soft" disk triangular solids in two dimensions from Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. We compare our results with those from earlier simulations and theory.

  13. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B., E-mail: l.ma@ifw-dresden.de; Jorgensen, M. R. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Miao, S. D. [Anhui Key Lab of Controllable Chemical Reaction and Material Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Tunxi Road. 193, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2016-04-25

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  14. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B.; Jorgensen, M. R.; Miao, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  15. Atom-scale covalent electrochemical modification of single-layer graphene on SiC substrates by diaryliodonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearba, Raluca I.; Mueller, Kory M.; Veneman, Peter A.; Holliday, Bradley J.; Chan, Calvin K.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to its high conductivity, graphene holds promise as an electrode for energy devices such as batteries and photovoltaics. However, to this end, the work function and doping levels in graphene need to be precisely tuned. One promising route for modifying graphene's electronic properties is via controlled covalent electrochemical grafting of molecules. We show that by employing diaryliodonium salts instead of the commonly used diazonium salts, spontaneous functionalization is avoided. This then allows for precise tuning of the grafting density. Moreover, by employing bis(4-nitrophenyl)iodonium(III) tetrafluoroborate (DNP) salt calibration curves, the surface functionalization density (coverage) of glassy carbon was controlled using cyclic voltammetry in varying salt concentrations. These electro-grafting conditions and calibration curves translated directly over to modifying single layer epitaxial graphene substrates (grown on insulating 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1)). In addition to quantifying the functionalization densities using electrochemical methods, samples with low grafting densities were characterized by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). We show that the use of buffer-layer free graphene substrates is required for clear observation of the nitrophenyl modifications. Furthermore, atomically-resolved STM images of single site modifications were obtained, showing no preferential grafting at defect sites or SiC step edges as supposed previously in the literature. Most of the grafts exhibit threefold symmetry, but occasional extended modifications (larger than 4 nm) were observed as well

  16. Benchmark of AC and DC active power decoupling circuits for second-order harmonic mitigation in kW-scale single-phase inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    studied, where the commercially available film capacitors, circuit topologies, and control strategies for active power decoupling are all taken into account. Then, an adaptive decoupling voltage control method is proposed to further improve the performance of dc decoupling in terms of efficiency...... and reliability. The feasibility and superiority of the identified solution for active power decoupling together with the proposed adaptive decoupling voltage control method are finally verified by both the experimental results obtained on a 2 kW single-phase inverter.......This paper presents the benchmark study of ac and dc active power decoupling circuits for second-order harmonic mitigation in kW-scale single-phase inverters. First of all, the best solutions of active power decoupling to achieve high efficiency and power density are identified and comprehensively...

  17. Stabilized power constant alimentation; Alimentation regulee a puissance constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The study and realization of a stabilized power alimentation variable from 5 to 100 watts are described. In order to realize a constant power drift of Lithium compensated diodes, we have searched a 1 per cent precision of regulation and a response time minus than 1 sec. Recent components like Hall multiplicator and integrated amplifiers give this possibility and it is easy to use permutable circuits. (author) [French] On decrit l'etude et la realisation d'une alimentation a puissance constante reglable dans une gamme de 5 a 100 watts. Prevue pour le drift a puissance constante des diodes compensees au lithium, l'etude a ete menee en vue d'obtenir une precision de regulation de 1 pour cent et un temps de reponse inferieur a la seconde. Des systemes recents tels que multiplicateurs a effet Hall et circuits integres ont permis d'atteindre ce but tout en facilitant l'emploi de modules interchangeables. (auteur)

  18. A method to generate fully multi-scale optimal interpolation by combining efficient single process analyses, illustrated by a DINEOF analysis spiced with a local optimal interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Beckers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a method in which the optimal interpolation of multi-scale processes can be expanded into a succession of simpler interpolations. First, we prove how the optimal analysis of a superposition of two processes can be obtained by different mathematical formulations involving iterations and analysis focusing on a single process. From the different mathematical equivalent formulations, we then select the most efficient ones by analyzing the behavior of the different possibilities in a simple and well-controlled test case. The clear guidelines deduced from this experiment are then applied to a real situation in which we combine large-scale analysis of hourly Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI satellite images using data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions (DINEOF with a local optimal interpolation using a Gaussian covariance. It is shown that the optimal combination indeed provides the best reconstruction and can therefore be exploited to extract the maximum amount of useful information from the original data.

  19. Damage to the surface of the small intestinal villus: an objective scale of assessment of the effects of single and fractionated radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, K.E.; Watt, C. (Glasgow Univ. (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.W. (Glasgow Inst. of Radiotherapeutics and Oncology (UK))

    1983-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare damage to mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation with different doses of photons and neutrons. Various stages of the collapse of villous structure seen after radiation include the production of conical and rudimentary villi and a flattened mucosa. A scale is proposed to relate radiation to villous damage. Points from this scale are taken to produce comparative ratios for equivalent damage produced by different radiation conditions. RBE values are quoted for neutron, X and gamma radiation given as single or fractionated irradiation doses and as whole or partial body irradiation. The relationship between the stroma in intravillous pegs and that of the pericryptal compartment is explored.

  20. Damage to the surface of the small intestinal villus: an objective scale of assessment of the effects of single and fractionated radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Watt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare damage to mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation with different doses of photons and neutrons. Various stages of the collapse of villous structure seen after radiation include the production of conical and rudimentary villi and a flattened mucosa. A scale is proposed to relate radiation to villous damage. Points from this scale are taken to produce comparative ratios for equivalent damage produced by different radiation conditions. RBE values are quoted for neutron, X and gamma radiation given as single or fractionated irradiation doses and as whole or partial body irradiation. The relationship between the stroma in intravillous pegs and that of the pericryptal compartment is explored. (author)

  1. Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, H Z

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t −1 . With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/√(2 π)= 0.399. Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108–20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as 1/3 (4 π) 2/3 =1.802, well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results. (paper)

  2. Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, H. Z.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t-1. With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/\\sqrt {2\\,\\pi }= 0.399 . Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108-20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as \\frac {1}{3}(4\\,\\pi )^{2/3}=1.802 , well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results.

  3. Initial study of divertor particle and heat flux width scaling in lower-single-null configuration on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liang; Xu Guosheng; Guo Houyang; Gan Kaifu; Gong Xianzu; Hu Liqun

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of divertor particle and power deposition widths on plasma current (I_p) for lower hybrid current driven (LHCD) L- and H-mode plasmas was initially studied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) under a lower single null (LSN) divertor configuration. And the profile widths were obtained from the divertor triple Langmuir probe array and an infra-red (IR) camera. It is shown that the deposition widths of divertor particle and heat flux profiles both display a strong negative dependence on increasing plasma current, in L-mode, ELM-free H-mode and ELMy H-mode scenarios. The experimental results show good agreement with the heuristic SOL width model proposed by Goldston. (author)

  4. Propagator with positive cosmological constant in the 3D Euclidean quantum gravity toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunting, William E; Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    We study the propagator on a single tetrahedron in a three-dimensional toy model of quantum gravity with positive cosmological constant. The cosmological constant is included in the model via q-deformation of the spatial symmetry algebra, that is, we use the Turaev–Viro amplitude. The expected repulsive effect of dark energy is recovered in numerical and analytic calculations of the propagator at large scales comparable to the infrared cutoff. However, due to the simplicity of the model, we do not obtain the exact Newton limit of the propagator. This is a first step toward the similar calculation in the full 3+1 dimensional theory with larger numbers of simplicies. (paper)

  5. Modeling the effects of cohesive energy for single particle on the material removal in chemical mechanical polishing at atomic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongguang; Zhao Yongwu; An Wei; Wang Jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical model for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) based on interface solid physical and chemical theory in addition to energy equilibrium knowledge. And the effects of oxidation concentration and particle size on the material removal in CMP are investigated. It is shown that the mechanical energy and removal cohesive energy couple with the particle size, and being a cause of the non-linear size-removal rate relation. Furthermore, it also shows a nonlinear dependence of removal rate on removal cohesive energy. The model predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the published experimental data. The current study provides an important starting point for delineating the micro-removal mechanism in the CMP process at atomic scale

  6. Constant Current versus Constant Voltage Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez de Noriega, Fernando; Eitan, Renana; Marmor, Odeya; Lavi, Adi; Linetzky, Eduard; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi

    2015-02-18

    Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor efficacy and safety have been established for constant voltage (CV) devices and more recently for constant current (CC) devices. CC devices adjust output voltage to provide CC stimulation irrespective of impedance fluctuation, while the current applied by CV stimulation depends on the impedance that may change over time. No study has directly compared the clinical effects of these two stimulation modalities. Objective: To compare the safety and clinical impact of CC STN DBS to CV STN DBS in patients with advanced PD 2 years after surgery. Methods: Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had undergone STN DBS surgery for idiopathic PD, had been implanted with a Medtronic Activa PC and if their stimulation program and medication had been stable for at least 1 year. This single-center trial was designed as a double-blind, randomized, prospective study with crossover after 2 weeks. Motor equivalence of the 2 modalities was confirmed utilizing part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). PD diaries and multiple subjective and objective evaluations of quality of life, depression, cognition and emotional processing were evaluated on both CV and on CC stimulation. Analysis using the paired t test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was performed to identify any significant difference between the stimulation modalities. Results: 8 patients were recruited (6 men, 2 women); 1 patient did not complete the study. The average age at surgery was 56.7 years (range 47-63). Disease duration at the time of surgery was 7.5 years (range 3-12). Patients were recruited 23.8 months (range 22.5-24) after surgery. At the postoperative study baseline, this patient group showed an average motor improvement of 69% (range 51-97) as measured by the change in UPDRS part III with stimulation alone. Levodopa equivalent

  7. Elastic constants and internal friction of fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    We review recent experimental studies at NBS on the anisotropic elastic constants and internal friction of fiber-reinforced composites. Materials that were studied include: boron-aluminum, boron-epoxy, graphite-epoxy, glass-epoxy, and aramid-epoxy. In all cases, elastic-constant direction dependence could be described by relationships developed for single crystals of homogeneous materials. Elastic stiffness and internal friction were found to vary inversely

  8. Experimental determination of third-order elastic constants of diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J M; Gupta, Y M

    2011-03-25

    To determine the nonlinear elastic response of diamond, single crystals were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to 120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and elastic wave velocities were measured by using laser interferometry. The measured elastic wave profiles were used, in combination with published acoustic measurements, to determine the complete set of third-order elastic constants. These constants represent the first experimental determination, and several differ significantly from those calculated by using theoretical models.

  9. Calculation of magnetic hyperfine constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufaical, R.F.; Maffeo, B.; Brandi, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine constants of the V sub(K) center in CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 have been calculated assuming a phenomenological model, based on the F 2 - 'central molucule', to describe the wavefunction of the defect. Calculations have shown that introduction of a small degree of covalence, between this central molecule and neighboring ions, is necessary to improve the electronic structure description of the defect. It was also shown that the results for the hyperfine constants are strongly dependent on the relaxations of the ions neighboring the central molecule; these relaxations have been determined by fitting the experimental data. The present results are compared with other previous calculations where similar and different theoretical methods have been used

  10. On the gravitational constant change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukov, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nowadays viewpoint on the problem of G gravitational constant invariability is presented in brief. The methods and results of checking of the G dependence on the nature of substance (checking of the equivalence principle), G dependepce on distance (checking of Newton gravity law) and time (cosmological experiments) are presented. It is pointed out that all performed experiments don't give any reasons to have doubts in G constancy in space and time and G independence on the nature of the substance

  11. Photodissociation constant of NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nootebos, M.A.; Bange, P.

    1992-01-01

    The velocity of the dissociation of NO 2 into ozone and NO mainly depends on the ultraviolet sunlight quantity, and with that the cloudiness. A correct value for this reaction constant is important for the accurate modelling of O 3 - and NO 2 -concentrations in plumes of electric power plants, in particular in the case of determination of the amount of photochemical summer smog. An advanced signal processing method (deconvolution, correlation) was applied on the measurements. The measurements were carried out from aeroplanes

  12. A road map for the realization of global-scale thorium breeding fuel cycle by single molten-fluoride flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Arakawa, K.; Erbay, L. B.

    2007-01-01

    For global survival in this century, we urgently need to launch a completely new global nuclear fission industry. To get worldwide public acceptance of nuclear energy, improvements are essential not only on safety, radio-waste management and economy but also especially nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards. However, such global fission industry cannot replace the present fossil fuel industry in the next 50 years, unless the doubling-time of nuclear energy is less than 10 years, preferably 5-7 years. Such a doubling-time cannot be established by any kind of classical 'Fission Breeding Power Station' concept. We need a symbiotic system which couples fission power reactors with a system which can convert fertile thorium to fissile U-233, such as a spallation or D/T fusion (if and when it becomes available). For such a purpose, THORIMS-NES [Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System] has been proposed, which is composed of simple thermal fission power stations (FUJI) and fissile producing Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB). Its system functions are very ambitious, delicate and complex, but can be realized in the form of simple hardware applying the multifunctional 'single-phase molten-fluoride' circulation system. This system has no difficulties relating with 'radiation-damage', 'heat-removal' and 'chemical processing' owing to the simple 'idealistic ionic liquid' character. FUJI is size-flexible (economical even in smaller sizes), fuel self-sustaining without any continuous chemical processing and without core-graphite replacement, and AMSB is based on a single-fluid molten-salt target/blanket concept, which solves most engineering difficulties such as radiation-damage, heat-removal etc., except high-current proton accelerator development. Several AMSBs are accommodated in the regional centers (several ten sites in the world) with batch chemical processing plants including radio-waste management. The integrated thorium breeding fuel cycle is

  13. The validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in adolescents and a comparison with single-item life satisfaction measures: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Veljko

    2016-12-01

    The validity of the life satisfaction measures commonly used among adults has been rarely examined in adolescent samples. The present research had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the structural validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) among adolescents and to test measurement invariance across gender; (2) to compare the criterion and convergent validity of the SWLS and single-item life satisfaction measures among adolescents. Three samples of Serbian adolescents were recruited for the present research. Study 1 (N = 481, M age  = 17.01 years) examined the structure of the SWLS via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and evaluated measurement invariance of the SWLS across gender by a multi-group CFA. Study 2 (N = 283, M age  = 17.34 years) and Study 3 (N = 220, M age  = 16.73 years) compared the convergent validity of the SWLS and single-item life satisfaction measures. The results of Study 1 supported the original one-factor model of the SWLS among adolescents and provided evidence for strong measurement invariance of the SWLS across gender. The findings of Study 2 and Study 3 showed that the SWLS and single-item measures were equally valid and strongly associated (r = .734 in Study 2 and r = .668 in Study 3). No substantial differences in correlations with school success and well-being indicators were found between the SWLS and single-item measures. Our findings support the use of the SWLS among adolescents and indicate that single-item life satisfaction measures perform as well as the SWLS in adolescent samples.

  14. Efficient mutagenesis by Cas9 protein-mediated oligonucleotide insertion and large-scale assessment of single-guide RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, James A; Valen, Eivind; Thyme, Summer B; Huang, Peng; Akhmetova, Laila; Ahkmetova, Laila; Pauli, Andrea; Montague, Tessa G; Zimmerman, Steven; Richter, Constance; Schier, Alexander F

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been implemented in a variety of model organisms to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. A wide range of mutation rates has been reported, but at a limited number of genomic target sites. To uncover the rules that govern effective Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in zebrafish, we targeted over a hundred genomic loci for mutagenesis using a streamlined and cloning-free method. We generated mutations in 85% of target genes with mutation rates varying across several orders of magnitude, and identified sequence composition rules that influence mutagenesis. We increased rates of mutagenesis by implementing several novel approaches. The activities of poor or unsuccessful single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) initiating with a 5' adenine were improved by rescuing 5' end homogeneity of the sgRNA. In some cases, direct injection of Cas9 protein/sgRNA complex further increased mutagenic activity. We also observed that low diversity of mutant alleles led to repeated failure to obtain frame-shift mutations. This limitation was overcome by knock-in of a stop codon cassette that ensured coding frame truncation. Our improved methods and detailed protocols make Cas9-mediated mutagenesis an attractive approach for labs of all sizes.

  15. Small scale endemism in Brazil's Atlantic Forest: 14 new species of Mesabolivar (Araneae, Pholcidae), each known from a single locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2015-04-07

    In an ongoing mega-transect project that aims at analyzing pholcid spider diversity and distribution in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, many species appear restricted to small geographic ranges. Of the 84 species collected between 2003 and 2011 at 17 sites between Bahia and Santa Catarina, 51 species (61%) were found at only one locality. The present paper focuses on such species in the genus Mesabolivar, and compares diversity and distribution patterns of this genus within and outside the Atlantic Forest. The percentage of species known from single localities is higher in the Atlantic Forest (34 of 52 species; 65%) than outside the Atlantic Forest (10 of 25; 40%). Distribution rages of species in the Atlantic Forest are significantly smaller than of species outside the Atlantic Forest (mean maximum distances between localities: 184 versus 541 km; medians: 10 km versus 220 km). The following species are newly described (arranged from north to south), each currently known from the respective type locality only: M. caipora; M. kathrinae; M. bonita; M. pau (Bahia); M. monteverde; M. perezi (Espírito Santo); M. giupponii; M. goitaca; M. sai (Rio de Janeiro); M. tamoio; M. unicornis; M. gabettae; M. inornatus (São Paulo); M. itapoa (Santa Catarina).

  16. Detecting cm-scale hot spot over 24-km-long single-mode fiber by using differential pulse pair BOTDA based on double-peak spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakaridia, Sanogo; Pan, Yue; Xu, Pengbai; Zhou, Dengwang; Wang, Benzhang; Teng, Lei; Lu, Zhiwei; Ba, Dexin; Dong, Yongkang

    2017-07-24

    In distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensor when the length of the perturbation to be detected is much smaller than the spatial resolution that is defined by the pulse width, the measured Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) experiences two or multiple peaks. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a technique using differential pulse pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) based on double-peak BGS to enhance small-scale events detection capability, where two types of single mode fiber (main fiber and secondary fiber) with 116 MHz Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) difference have been used. We have realized detection of a 5-cm hot spot at the far end of 24-km single mode fiber by employing a 50-cm spatial resolution DPP-BOTDA with only 1GS/s sampling rate (corresponding to 10 cm/point). The BFS at the far end of 24-km sensing fiber has been measured with 0.54 MHz standard deviation which corresponds to a 0.5°C temperature accuracy. This technique is simple and cost effective because it is implemented using the similar experimental setup of the standard BOTDA, however, it should be noted that the consecutive small-scale events have to be separated by a minimum length corresponding to the spatial resolution defined by the pulse width difference.

  17. Beyond single syllables: large-scale modeling of reading aloud with the Connectionist Dual Process (CDP++) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-09-01

    Most words in English have more than one syllable, yet the most influential computational models of reading aloud are restricted to processing monosyllabic words. Here, we present CDP++, a new version of the Connectionist Dual Process model (Perry, Ziegler, & Zorzi, 2007). CDP++ is able to simulate the reading aloud of mono- and disyllabic words and nonwords, and learns to assign stress in exactly the same way as it learns to associate graphemes with phonemes. CDP++ is able to simulate the monosyllabic benchmark effects its predecessor could, and therefore shows full backwards compatibility. CDP++ also accounts for a number of novel effects specific to disyllabic words, including the effects of stress regularity and syllable number. In terms of database performance, CDP++ accounts for over 49% of the reaction time variance on items selected from the English Lexicon Project, a very large database of several thousand of words. With its lexicon of over 32,000 words, CDP++ is therefore a notable example of the successful scaling-up of a connectionist model to a size that more realistically approximates the human lexical system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Higgs inflation and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The Higgs not only induces the masses of all SM particles, the Higgs, given its special mass value, is the natural candidate for the inflaton and in fact is ruling the evolution of the early universe, by providing the necessary dark energy which remains the dominant energy density. SM running couplings not only allow us to extrapolate SM physics up to the Planck scale, but equally important they are triggering the Higgs mechanism. This is possible by the fact that the bare mass term in the Higgs potential changes sign at about μ{sub 0}≅1.40 x 10{sup 16} GeV and in the symmetric phase is enhanced by quadratic terms in the Planck mass. Such a huge Higgs mass term is able to play a key role in triggering inflation in the early universe. In this article we extend our previous investigation by working out the details of a Higgs inflation scenario. We show how different terms contributing to the Higgs Lagrangian are affecting inflation. Given the SM and its extrapolation to scales μ>μ{sub 0} we find a calculable cosmological constant V(0) which is weakly scale dependent and actually remains large during inflation. This is different to the Higgs fluctuation field dependent ΔV(φ), which decays exponentially during inflation, and actually would not provide a sufficient amount of inflation. The fluctuation field has a different effective mass which shifts the bare Higgs transition point to a lower value μ'{sub 0} ≅7.7 x 10{sup 14} GeV. The vacuum energy V(0) being proportional to M{sub Pl}{sup 4} has a coefficient which vanishes near the Higgs transition point, such that the bare and the renormalized cosmological constant match at this point. The role of the Higgs in reheating and baryogenesis is emphasized.

  19. High-accuracy single-pass InSAR DEM for large-scale flood hazard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Faherty, D.; Moller, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we used a unique opportunity of the GLISTIN-A (NASA airborne mission designed to characterizing the cryosphere) track to Greenland to acquire a high-resolution InSAR DEM of a large area in the Red River of the North Basin (north of Grand Forks, ND, USA), which is a very flood-vulnerable valley, particularly in spring time due to increased soil moisture content near state of saturation and/or, typical for this region, snowmelt. Having an InSAR DEM that meets flood inundation modeling and mapping requirements comparable to LiDAR, would demonstrate great application potential of new radar technology for national agencies with an operational flood forecasting mandate and also local state governments active in flood event prediction, disaster response and mitigation. Specifically, we derived a bare-earth DEM in SAR geometry by first removing the inherent far range bias related to airborne operation, which at the more typical large-scale DEM resolution of 30 m has a sensor accuracy of plus or minus 2.5 cm. Subsequently, an intelligent classifier based on informed relationships between InSAR height, intensity and correlation was used to distinguish between bare-earth, roads or embankments, buildings and tall vegetation in order to facilitate the creation of a bare-earth DEM that would meet the requirements for accurate floodplain inundation mapping. Using state-of-the-art LiDAR terrain data, we demonstrate that capability by achieving a root mean squared error of approximately 25 cm and further illustrating its applicability to flood modeling.

  20. Large-scale image-based profiling of single-cell phenotypes in arrayed CRISPR-Cas9 gene perturbation screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Reinoud; Lüthi, Joel; Lindsay, Helen; Holtackers, René; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2018-01-23

    High-content imaging using automated microscopy and computer vision allows multivariate profiling of single-cell phenotypes. Here, we present methods for the application of the CISPR-Cas9 system in large-scale, image-based, gene perturbation experiments. We show that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene perturbation can be achieved in human tissue culture cells in a timeframe that is compatible with image-based phenotyping. We developed a pipeline to construct a large-scale arrayed library of 2,281 sequence-verified CRISPR-Cas9 targeting plasmids and profiled this library for genes affecting cellular morphology and the subcellular localization of components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We conceived a machine-learning method that harnesses genetic heterogeneity to score gene perturbations and identify phenotypically perturbed cells for in-depth characterization of gene perturbation effects. This approach enables genome-scale image-based multivariate gene perturbation profiling using CRISPR-Cas9. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  1. Constant envelope OFDM scheme for 6PolSK-QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2018-03-01

    A constant envelope OFDM scheme with phase modulator (PM-CE-OFDM) for 6PolSK-QPSK modulation was demonstrated. Performance under large fiber launch power is measured to check its advantages in counteracting fiber nonlinear impairments. In our simulation, PM-CE-OFDM, RF-assisted constant envelope OFDM (RF-CE-OFDM) and conventional OFDM (Con-OFDM) are transmitted through 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) single channel and WDM system. Simulation results confirm that PM-CE-OFDM has best performance in resisting fiber nonlinearity. In addition, benefiting from the simple system structure, the complexity and cost of PM-CE-OFDM system could be reduced effectively.

  2. An Ensemble Three-Dimensional Constrained Variational Analysis Method to Derive Large-Scale Forcing Data for Single-Column Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuaiqi

    Atmospheric vertical velocities and advective tendencies are essential as large-scale forcing data to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models (CRM) and large-eddy simulations (LES). They cannot be directly measured or easily calculated with great accuracy from field measurements. In the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, a constrained variational algorithm (1DCVA) has been used to derive large-scale forcing data over a sounding network domain with the aid of flux measurements at the surface and top of the atmosphere (TOA). We extend the 1DCVA algorithm into three dimensions (3DCVA) along with other improvements to calculate gridded large-scale forcing data. We also introduce an ensemble framework using different background data, error covariance matrices and constraint variables to quantify the uncertainties of the large-scale forcing data. The results of sensitivity study show that the derived forcing data and SCM simulated clouds are more sensitive to the background data than to the error covariance matrices and constraint variables, while horizontal moisture advection has relatively large sensitivities to the precipitation, the dominate constraint variable. Using a mid-latitude cyclone case study in March 3rd, 2000 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, we investigate the spatial distribution of diabatic heating sources (Q1) and moisture sinks (Q2), and show that they are consistent with the satellite clouds and intuitive structure of the mid-latitude cyclone. We also evaluate the Q1 and Q2 in analysis/reanalysis, finding that the regional analysis/reanalysis all tend to underestimate the sub-grid scale upward transport of moist static energy in the lower troposphere. With the uncertainties from large-scale forcing data and observation specified, we compare SCM results and observations and find that models have large biases on cloud properties which could not be fully explained by the uncertainty from the large-scale forcing

  3. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  4. Cryptography in constant parallel time

    CERN Document Server

    Applebaum, Benny

    2013-01-01

    Locally computable (NC0) functions are 'simple' functions for which every bit of the output can be computed by reading a small number of bits of their input. The study of locally computable cryptography attempts to construct cryptographic functions that achieve this strong notion of simplicity and simultaneously provide a high level of security. Such constructions are highly parallelizable and they can be realized by Boolean circuits of constant depth.This book establishes, for the first time, the possibility of local implementations for many basic cryptographic primitives such as one-way func

  5. Low power constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Raut, S.M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low power ultrafast constant fraction discriminator, which significantly reduces the power consumption. A conventional fast discriminator consumes about 1250 MW of power whereas this low power version consumes about 440 MW. In a multi detector system, where the number of discriminators is very large, reduction of power is of utmost importance. This low power discriminator is being designed for GRACE (Gamma Ray Atmospheric Cerenkov Experiments) telescope where 1000 channels of discriminators are required. A novel method of decreasing power consumption has been described. (author)

  6. Can coupling constants be related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan; Ng, Wing-Chiu.

    1978-06-01

    We analyze the conditions under which several coupling constants in field theory can be related to each other. When the relation is independent of the renormalization point, the relation between any g and g' must satisfy a differential equation as follows from the renormalization group equations. Using this differential equation, we investigate the criteria for the feasibility of a power-series relation for various theories, especially the Weinberg-Salam type (including Higgs bosons) with an arbitrary number of quark and lepton flavors. (orig./WL) [de

  7. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  8. Hydrodynamic constants from cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2008-01-01

    We study a gravity dual of Bjorken flow of N=4 SYM-theory plasma. We point out that the cosmic censorship hypothesis may explain why the regularity of the dual geometry constrains the hydrodynamic constants. We also investigate the apparent horizon of the dual geometry. We find that the dual geometry constructed on Fefferman-Graham (FG) coordinates is not appropriate for examination of the apparent horizon since the coordinates do not cover the trapped region. However, the preliminary analysis on FG coordinates suggests that the location of the apparent horizon is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic parameters. (author)

  9. Formas estructurales de fuerza constante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewski, Waclaw

    1963-05-01

    Full Text Available The author seeks to prove the need to obtain the most essential form in the various types of structures by applying a number of rational principles, of which the constant stress principle is one of the most decisive. The structural form should be a logical consequence of all its functional circumstances, and this requires a clear understanding of the general behaviour of each part of the structure, and also of the main stresses which operate on it, considered as a unitary whole. To complete his theoretical argument, the author gives some examples, in the design of which the criterion of constant stress has been adopted. The author considers the various aspects which are involved in obtaining a structural design that satisfies given functional and aesthetic requirements. In doing so he refers to his personal experience within Poland, and infers technical principles of general validity which should determine the rational design of the form, as an integrated aspect of the structural pattern. The projects which illustrate this paper are Polish designs of undoubted constructive significance, in which the principle of constant stress has been applied. Finally the author condenses his whole theory in a simple and straightforward practical formula, which should be followed if a truly rational form is to be achieved: the constancy of stress in the various structural elements.El autor se esfuerza en mostrar la necesidad de llegar a la forma real en las distintas estructuras siguiendo una serie de principios racionales, entre los que domina el criterio de la fuerza constante. La forma ha de ser una consecuencia lógica en todos sus aspectos, y esto exige un claro conocimiento del comportamiento general de cada una de las partes de la estructura, y de los esfuerzos generales que dominan en la misma al considerarla como un todo. Para completar la exposición de orden teórico, el autor presenta algunos ejemplos en cuyo proyecto se ha seguido el criterio de

  10. Cosmological constant and general isocurvature initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotta, R.; Riazuelo, A.; Durrer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate in detail the question of whether a nonvanishing cosmological constant is required by the present-day cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data when general isocurvature initial conditions are taken into account. We also discuss the differences between the usual Bayesian and the frequentist approaches in data analysis. We show that the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized matter power spectrum is dominated by the adiabatic mode and therefore breaks the degeneracy between initial conditions which is present in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We find that in a flat universe the Bayesian analysis requires Ω Λ =e0 to more than 3σ, while in the frequentist approach Ω Λ =0 is still within 3σ for a value of h≤0.48. Both conclusions hold regardless of the initial conditions

  11. Benchmark of AC and DC Active Power Decoupling Circuits for Second-Order Harmonic Mitigation in Kilowatt-Scale Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Tang, Yi; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    efficiency and high power density is identified and comprehensively studied, and the commercially available film capacitors, the circuit topologies, and the control strategies adopted for active power decoupling are all taken into account. Then, an adaptive decoupling voltage control method is proposed...... to further improve the performance of dc decoupling in terms of efficiency and reliability. The feasibility and superiority of the identified solution for active power decoupling together with the proposed adaptive decoupling voltage control method are finally verified by both the simulation and experimental......This paper presents the benchmark study of ac and dc active power decoupling circuits for second order harmonic mitigation in kW scale single-phase inverters. First of all, a brief comparison of recently reported active power decoupling circuits is given, and the best solution that can achieve high...

  12. Steam reforming of methane over Pt/Rh based wire mesh catalyst in single channel reformer for small scale syngas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    of a catalytic parallel plate type heat exchanger (CPHE) reformer stack, where coated Pt/Rh based wire mesh is used as a catalyst. Heat is supplied to the endothermic reaction with infrared electric heaters. All the experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure and at stable operating conditions......The purpose of this study is to investigate a small scale steam methane reformer for syngas production for a micro combined heat and power (mCPH) unit under different operational conditions. The study presents an experimental analysis of the performance of a specially built single channel...... to evaluate the effect of flow maldistribution in a CPHE reformer stack on the CH4 conversion and H2 yield....

  13. Discovery, genotyping and characterization of structural variation and novel sequence at single nucleotide resolution from de novo genome assemblies on a population scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Siyang; Huang, Shujia; Rao, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    present a novel approach implemented in a single software package, AsmVar, to discover, genotype and characterize different forms of structural variation and novel sequence from population-scale de novo genome assemblies up to nucleotide resolution. Application of AsmVar to several human de novo genome......) as well as large deletions. However, these approaches consistently display a substantial bias against the recovery of complex structural variants and novel sequence in individual genomes and do not provide interpretation information such as the annotation of ancestral state and formation mechanism. We...... assemblies captures a wide spectrum of structural variants and novel sequences present in the human population in high sensitivity and specificity. Our method provides a direct solution for investigating structural variants and novel sequences from de novo genome assemblies, facilitating the construction...

  14. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  15. Energy, stability and cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deser, S.

    1982-01-01

    The definition of energy and its use in studying stability in general relativity are extended to the case when there is a nonvanishing cosmological constant Λ. Existence of energy is first demonstrated for any model (with arbitrary Λ). It is defined with respect to sets of solutions tending asymptotically to any background space possessing timelike Killing symmetry, and is both conserved and of flux integral form. When Λ O, small excitations about De Sitter space are stable inside the event horizon. Outside excitations can contribute negatively due to the Killing vector's flip at the horizon. This is a universal phenomenon associated with the possibility of Hawking radiation. Apart from this effect, the Λ>O theory appears to be stable, also at the semi-classical level. (author)

  16. Evolution of the solar 'constant'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, M J

    1980-06-01

    Variations in solar luminosity over geological time are discussed in light of the effect of the solar constant on the evolution of life on earth. Consideration is given to long-term (5 - 7% in a billion years) increases in luminosity due to the conversion of hydrogen into helium in the solar interior, temporary enhancements to solar luminosity due to the accretion of matter from the interstellar medium at intervals on the order of 100 million years, and small-amplitude rapid fluctuations of luminosity due to the stochastic nature of convection on the solar surface. It is noted that encounters with dense interstellar clouds could have had serious consequences for life on earth due to the peaking of the accretion-induced luminosity variation at short wavelengths.

  17. Asympotics with positive cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonga, Beatrice; Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2014-03-01

    Since observations to date imply that our universe has a positive cosmological constant, one needs an extension of the theory of isolated systems and gravitational radiation in full general relativity from the asymptotically flat to asymptotically de Sitter space-times. In current definitions, one mimics the boundary conditions used in asymptotically AdS context to conclude that the asymptotic symmetry group is the de Sitter group. However, these conditions severely restricts radiation and in fact rules out non-zero flux of energy, momentum and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves. Therefore, these formulations of asymptotically de Sitter space-times are uninteresting beyond non-radiative spacetimes. The situation is compared and contrasted with conserved charges and fluxes at null infinity in asymptotically flat space-times.

  18. The fundamental constants a mystery of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist

  19. Search for a Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubachs, W.

    2013-06-01

    Since the days of Dirac scientists have speculated about the possibility that the laws of nature, and the fundamental constants appearing in those laws, are not rock-solid and eternal but may be subject to change in time or space. Such a scenario of evolving constants might provide an answer to the deepest puzzle of contemporary science, namely why the conditions in our local Universe allow for extreme complexity: the fine-tuning problem. In the past decade it has been established that spectral lines of atoms and molecules, which can currently be measured at ever-higher accuracies, form an ideal test ground for probing drifting constants. This has brought this subject from the realm of metaphysics to that of experimental science. In particular the spectra of molecules are sensitive for probing a variation of the proton-electron mass ratio μ, either on a cosmological time scale, or on a laboratory time scale. A comparison can be made between spectra of molecular hydrogen observed in the laboratory and at a high redshift (z=2-3), using the Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile) and the Keck telescope (Hawaii). This puts a constraint on a varying mass ratio Δμ/μ at the 10^{-5} level. The optical work can also be extended to include CO molecules. Further a novel direction will be discussed: it was discovered that molecules exhibiting hindered internal rotation have spectral lines in the radio-spectrum that are extremely sensitive to a varying proton-electron mass ratio. Such lines in the spectrum of methanol were recently observed with the radio-telescope in Effelsberg (Germany). F. van Weerdenburg, M.T. Murphy, A.L. Malec, L. Kaper, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 180802 (2011). A. Malec, R. Buning, M.T. Murphy, N. Milutinovic, S.L. Ellison, J.X. Prochaska, L. Kaper, J. Tumlinson, R.F. Carswell, W. Ubachs, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 403, 1541 (2010). E.J. Salumbides, M.L. Niu, J. Bagdonaite, N. de Oliveira, D. Joyeux, L. Nahon, W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 86, 022510

  20. Energy, Exergy and Economic Evaluation Comparison of Small-Scale Single and Dual Pressure Organic Rankine Cycles Integrated with Low-Grade Heat Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Fontalvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat sources such as solar thermal, geothermal, exhaust gases and industrial waste heat are suitable alternatives for power generation which can be exploited by means of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. This paper combines thermodynamic optimization and economic analysis to assess the performance of single and dual pressure ORC operating with different organic fluids and targeting small-scale applications. Maximum power output is lower than 45 KW while the temperature of the heat source varies in the range 100–200 °C. The studied working fluids, namely R1234yf, R1234ze(E and R1234ze(Z, are selected based on environmental, safety and thermal performance criteria. Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE and Specific Investment Cost (SIC for two operation conditions are presented: maximum power output and maximum thermal efficiency. Results showed that R1234ze(Z achieves the highest net power output (up to 44 kW when net power output is optimized. Regenerative ORC achieves the highest performance when thermal efficiency is optimized (up to 18%. Simple ORC is the most cost-effective among the studied cycle configurations, requiring a selling price of energy of 0.3 USD/kWh to obtain a payback period of 8 years. According to SIC results, the working fluid R1234ze(Z exhibits great potential for simple ORC when compared to conventional R245fa.

  1. Design and analysis of a small-scale natural gas liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zongming; Cui, Mengmeng; Xie, Ying; Li, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of energy consumption and environmental protection concerns, it is of enormous economic and environmental values for the development of stranded gas. As a means for exploitation and transportation of stranded gas to market, a novel small-scale liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling is put up with in this paper. Taking unit energy consumption as the target function, Aspen HYSYS is employed to simulate and optimize the process to achieve the liquefaction rate of 0.77 with unit energy consumption of 9.90 kW/kmol/h. Furthermore, the adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. Based on the optimization results, the exergy losses of main equipment in the process are evaluated and analyzed in details. With compact device, safety operation, simple capability, this liquefaction process proves to be suitable for the development of small gas reserves, satellite distribution fields of gas or coalbed methane fields. - Highlights: •A novel small-scale liquefaction process used in stranded gas is designed. •The adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. •The exergy analysis of main equipment in the process is analyzed

  2. Design and analysis of a small-scale natural gas liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Zongming; Cui, Mengmeng; Xie, Ying; Li, Chunlin

    2014-03-01

    With the growth of energy consumption and environmental protection concerns, it is of enormous economic and environmental values for the development of stranded gas. As a means for exploitation and transportation of stranded gas to market, a novel small-scale liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling is put up with in this paper. Taking unit energy consumption as the target function, Aspen HYSYS is employed to simulate and optimize the process to achieve the liquefaction rate of 0.77 with unit energy consumption of 9.90 kW/kmol/h. Furthermore, the adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. Based on the optimization results, the exergy losses of main equipment in the process are evaluated and analyzed in details. With compact device, safety operation, simple capability, this liquefaction process proves to be suitable for the development of small gas reserves, satellite distribution fields of gas or coalbed methane fields. - Highlights: •A novel small-scale liquefaction process used in stranded gas is designed. •The adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. •The exergy analysis of main equipment in the process is analyzed.

  3. Genome-wide survey of single-nucleotide polymorphisms reveals fine-scale population structure and signs of selection in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghann K. Devlin-Durante

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The advent of next-generation sequencing tools has made it possible to conduct fine-scale surveys of population differentiation and genome-wide scans for signatures of selection in non-model organisms. Such surveys are of particular importance in sharply declining coral species, since knowledge of population boundaries and signs of local adaptation can inform restoration and conservation efforts. Here, we use genome-wide surveys of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, to reveal fine-scale population structure and infer the major barrier to gene flow that separates the eastern and western Caribbean populations between the Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The exact location of this break had been subject to discussion because two previous studies based on microsatellite data had come to differing conclusions. We investigate this contradiction by analyzing an extended set of 11 microsatellite markers including the five previously employed and discovered that one of the original microsatellite loci is apparently under selection. Exclusion of this locus reconciles the results from the SNP and the microsatellite datasets. Scans for outlier loci in the SNP data detected 13 candidate loci under positive selection, however there was no correlation between available environmental parameters and genetic distance. Together, these results suggest that reef restoration efforts should use local sources and utilize existing functional variation among geographic regions in ex situ crossing experiments to improve stress resistance of this species.

  4. Genome-wide survey of single-nucleotide polymorphisms reveals fine-scale population structure and signs of selection in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Durante, Meghann K; Baums, Iliana B

    2017-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing tools has made it possible to conduct fine-scale surveys of population differentiation and genome-wide scans for signatures of selection in non-model organisms. Such surveys are of particular importance in sharply declining coral species, since knowledge of population boundaries and signs of local adaptation can inform restoration and conservation efforts. Here, we use genome-wide surveys of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata , to reveal fine-scale population structure and infer the major barrier to gene flow that separates the eastern and western Caribbean populations between the Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The exact location of this break had been subject to discussion because two previous studies based on microsatellite data had come to differing conclusions. We investigate this contradiction by analyzing an extended set of 11 microsatellite markers including the five previously employed and discovered that one of the original microsatellite loci is apparently under selection. Exclusion of this locus reconciles the results from the SNP and the microsatellite datasets. Scans for outlier loci in the SNP data detected 13 candidate loci under positive selection, however there was no correlation between available environmental parameters and genetic distance. Together, these results suggest that reef restoration efforts should use local sources and utilize existing functional variation among geographic regions in ex situ crossing experiments to improve stress resistance of this species.

  5. Dynamical black rings with a positive cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    We construct dynamical black ring solutions in the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell system with a positive cosmological constant and investigate the geometrical structure. The solutions describe the physical process such that a thin black ring at early time shrinks and changes into a single black hole as time increases. We also discuss the multiblack rings and the coalescence of them.

  6. Dynamics of the cosmological and Newton’s constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolin, Lee

    2016-01-01

    A modification of general relativity is presented in which Newton’s constant, G, and the cosmological constant, Λ, become a conjugate pair of dynamical variables. These are functions of a global time, hence the theory is presented in the framework of shape dynamics, which trades many-fingered time for a local scale invariance and an overall reparametrization of the global time. As a result, due to the fact that these global dynamical variables are canonically conjugate, the field equations are consistent. The theory predicts a relationship with no free parameters between the rates of change of Newton’s constant and the cosmological constant, in terms of the spatial average of the matter Lagrangian density. (paper)

  7. Decay constants in soft wall AdS/QCD revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R.F. Braga

    2016-12-01

    We show here that a modified framework of soft wall AdS/QCD involving an additional dimensionfull parameter, associated with an ultraviolet energy scale, provides decay constants decreasing with radial excitation level. In this version of the soft wall model the two point function of gauge theory operators is calculated at a finite position of the anti-de Sitter space radial coordinate.

  8. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  9. Price of shifting the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evslin, Jarah; Sen, Anjan A.; Ruchika

    2018-05-01

    An anisotropic measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature fixes the product of the Hubble constant and the acoustic scale H0rd. Therefore, regardless of the dark energy dynamics, to accommodate a higher value of H0 one needs a lower rd and so necessarily a modification of early time cosmology. One must either reduce the age of the Universe at the drag epoch or else the speed of sound in the primordial plasma. The first can be achieved, for example, with dark radiation or very early dark energy, automatically preserving the angular size of the acoustic scale in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with no modifications to post-recombination dark energy. However, it is known that the simplest such modifications fall afoul of CMB constraints at higher multipoles. As an example, we combine anisotropic BAO with geometric measurements from strong lensing time delays from H0LiCOW and megamasers from the Megamaser Cosmology Project to measure rd, with and without the local distance ladder measurement of H0. We find that the best fit value of rd is indeed quite insensitive to the dark energy model and is also hardly affected by the inclusion of the local distance ladder data.

  10. Capacitive Cells for Dielectric Constant Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    A simple capacitive cell for dielectric constant measurement in liquids is presented. As an illustrative application, the cell is used for measuring the degradation of overheated edible oil through the evaluation of their dielectric constant.

  11. The Dielectric Constant of Lubrication Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carey, A

    1998-01-01

    The values of the dielectric constant of simple molecules is discussed first, along with the relationship between the dielectric constant and other physical properties such as boiling point, melting...

  12. Globally Coupled Chaotic Maps with Constant Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinghui

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the motion of the globally coupled maps (logistic map) with a constant force. It is shown that the constant force can cause multi-synchronization for the globally coupled chaotic maps studied by us.

  13. STABILITY CONSTANT OF THE TRISGLYCINATO METAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    overall stability constants of the complexes were found to be similar. Keywords: Glycinato, titration ... +. −. = 1 where Ka = dissociation constant of the amino acid. [ ]+. H = concentration of the .... Synthesis and techniques in inorganic chemistry.

  14. Developmental and Subcellular Organization of Single-Cell C₄ Photosynthesis in Bienertia sinuspersici Determined by Large-Scale Proteomics and cDNA Assembly from 454 DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Sascha; Friso, Giulia; Doroshenk, Kelly A; Sun, Qi; Sharpe, Richard M; Okita, Thomas W; Wimmer, Diana; Edwards, Gerald E; van Wijk, Klaas J

    2015-05-01

    Kranz C4 species strictly depend on separation of primary and secondary carbon fixation reactions in different cell types. In contrast, the single-cell C4 (SCC4) species Bienertia sinuspersici utilizes intracellular compartmentation including two physiologically and biochemically different chloroplast types; however, information on identity, localization, and induction of proteins required for this SCC4 system is currently very limited. In this study, we determined the distribution of photosynthesis-related proteins and the induction of the C4 system during development by label-free proteomics of subcellular fractions and leaves of different developmental stages. This was enabled by inferring a protein sequence database from 454 sequencing of Bienertia cDNAs. Large-scale proteome rearrangements were observed as C4 photosynthesis developed during leaf maturation. The proteomes of the two chloroplasts are different with differential accumulation of linear and cyclic electron transport components, primary and secondary carbon fixation reactions, and a triose-phosphate shuttle that is shared between the two chloroplast types. This differential protein distribution pattern suggests the presence of a mRNA or protein-sorting mechanism for nuclear-encoded, chloroplast-targeted proteins in SCC4 species. The combined information was used to provide a comprehensive model for NAD-ME type carbon fixation in SCC4 species.

  15. Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kutter, T

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will use a large liquid argon (LAr) detector to measure the CP violating phase, determine the neutrino mass hier- archy and perform precision tests of the three-flavor paradigm in long-baseline neutrino oscillations. The detector will consist of four modules each with a fiducial mass of 10 kt of LAr and due to its unprecedented size will allow sensitive searches for proton decay and the detection and measurement of electron neutrinos from core collapse supernovae [1]. The first 10 kt module will use single-phase LAr detection technique and be itself modular in design. The successful manufacturing, installation and operation of several full-scale detector components in a suitable configuration represents a critical engineering milestone prior to the construction and operation of the first full 10 kt DUNE detector module at the SURF underground site. A charged particle beam test of a prototype detector will provide critical calibration measurements as well as inva...

  16. Concurrent validity and sensitivity to change of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) within an elementary sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rhonda L; Eklund, Katie; Kilgus, Stephen P

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity, sensitivity to change, and teacher acceptability of Direct Behavior Rating single-item scales (DBR-SIS), a brief progress monitoring measure designed to assess student behavioral change in response to intervention. Twenty-four elementary teacher-student dyads implemented a daily report card intervention to promote positive student behavior during prespecified classroom activities. During both baseline and intervention, teachers completed DBR-SIS ratings of 2 target behaviors (i.e., Academic Engagement, Disruptive Behavior) whereas research assistants collected systematic direct observation (SDO) data in relation to the same behaviors. Five change metrics (i.e., absolute change, percent of change from baseline, improvement rate difference, Tau-U, and standardized mean difference; Gresham, 2005) were calculated for both DBR-SIS and SDO data, yielding estimates of the change in student behavior in response to intervention. Mean DBR-SIS scores were predominantly moderately to highly correlated with SDO data within both baseline and intervention, demonstrating evidence of the former's concurrent validity. DBR-SIS change metrics were also significantly correlated with SDO change metrics for both Disruptive Behavior and Academic Engagement, yielding evidence of the former's sensitivity to change. In addition, teacher Usage Rating Profile-Assessment (URP-A) ratings indicated they found DBR-SIS to be acceptable and usable. Implications for practice, study limitations, and areas of future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. New approach to the dosimetry of ionizing radiations by fluorescence measurement, according to the single photon counting technique, correlated in time at the nanosecond scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohier, Till

    2011-01-01

    This research thesis reports the first fundamental study of the dosimetry of charged and gamma radiations by measurement of fluorescence resolved in time at a nanosecond scale, in organic matter. This method allows an in-depth and real-time analysis of the deposited dose, while taking ionisation as well as excitation processes into account. The author describes mechanisms of interaction and deposition of energy on dense matter, reports the detailed study of the ion-matter interaction, and the interaction of secondary electrons produced within traces. He addresses mechanisms of energy relaxation, and more particularly the study or organic scintillators. Then, he presents the adopted experimental approach: experimental observation with a statistic reconstitution of the curve representing the intensity of the emitted fluorescence in time and with a nanosecond resolution by using a scintillating sensor for time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). The next part reports the development of an experimental multi-modal platform for dosimetry by TCSPC aimed at the measurement of fluorescence decays under pulsed excitation (nanosecond pulsed ion beams) and continuous flow excitation (non pulsed beams and radioactive sources). Experimental results are then presented for fluorescence measurements, and compared with measurements obtained by using an ionization chamber under the same irradiation conditions: dose deposited by hellions and carbon ions within polyvinyl toluene and polyethylene terephthalate, use of scintillating optic fibers under gamma irradiation of Caesium 137 and Cobalt 60. A new experimental approach is finally presented to perform dosimetry measurements while experimentally ignoring luminescence produced by Cerenkov effect [fr

  18. Surface Casimir densities and induced cosmological constant on parallel branes in AdS spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saharian, Aram A.

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum expectation value of the surface energy-momentum tensor is evaluated for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling parameter subject to Robin boundary conditions on two parallel branes located on (D+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk. The general case of different Robin coefficients on separate branes is considered. As a regularization procedure the generalized zeta function technique is used, in combination with contour integral representations. The surface energies on the branes are presented in the form of the sums of single brane and second brane-induced parts. For the geometry of a single brane both regions, on the left (L-region) and on the right (R-region), of the brane are considered. The surface densities for separate L- and R-regions contain pole and finite contributions. For an infinitely thin brane taking these regions together, in odd spatial dimensions the pole parts cancel and the total surface energy is finite. The parts in the surface densities generated by the presence of the second brane are finite for all nonzero values of the interbrane separation. It is shown that for large distances between the branes the induced surface densities give rise to an exponentially suppressed cosmological constant on the brane. In the Randall-Sundrum braneworld model, for the interbrane distances solving the hierarchy problem between the gravitational and electroweak mass scales, the cosmological constant generated on the visible brane is of the right order of magnitude with the value suggested by the cosmological observations

  19. Magnetically modified biocells in constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, E.G.; Panina, L.K. [Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kolikov, V.A., E-mail: kolikov1@yandex.ru [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bogomolova, E.V. [Botanical Institute of the RAS after V.L.Komarov, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Snetov, V.N. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherepkova, I.A. [Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kiselev, A.A. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell’ size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Highlights: • The inverse problem was solved for finding zero velocity isolines of magnetically modified biological cells. • Solution of the inverse problem depends on the size of cells and the number of nanoparticles attached to the single cell. • The experimental data are in agreement with theoretical solution.

  20. Preliminary Planck constant measurements via UME oscillating magnet Kibble balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, H.; Babayiğit Aşkın, N.; Korutlu, B.; Orhan, R.

    2018-06-01

    The UME Kibble balance project was initiated in the second half of 2014. During this period we have studied the theoretical aspects of Kibble balances, in which an oscillating magnet generates AC Faraday’s voltage in a stationary coil, and constructed a trial version to implement this idea. The remarkable feature of this approach is that it can establish the link between the Planck constant and a macroscopic mass by one single experiment in the most natural way. Weak dependences on variations of environmental and experimental conditions, small size, and other useful features offered by this novel approach reduce the complexity of the experimental set-up. This paper describes the principles of the oscillating magnet Kibble balance and gives details of the preliminary Planck constant measurements. The value of the Planck constant determined with our apparatus is \\boldsymbol{h}/{{\\boldsymbol{h}}\\boldsymbol 90}={1}{.000} {004}~ , with a relative standard uncertainty of 6 ppm.

  1. Computerized data base of the fundamental constants of nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A.; Hampel, V.E.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-seven fundamental constants of nature were computerized from the up-to-date evaluations of E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor. The constants are annotated with regard to symbol, value, uncertainty, and scaling factor. This computerization is part of the scientific data base project of the Information Research Group at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The MASTER CONTROL data base management system is used. The computerized fundamental constants can be requested from the ERDA Computer Program Exchange and Information Center of the Argonne National Laboratory or from the National Technical Information Service of the U. S. Department of Commerce. This is the first of a series of releases on preparation of computerized scientific and technological data banks. The next release is a data bank of conversion factors for different units of measurements. 3 figures

  2. Post-operative Pain Analysis between Single Visit and Two Visit Root Canal Treatments using Visual Analogue Scale: An In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tarale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate post-operative pain, after root canal therapy, performed in one appointment versus two appointment using calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament. Study design: In this in-vivo study, 60 patients requiring root canal therapy on permanent 1st molars were included. Patients were randomly divided into two experimental and one control group. Group1: One visit therapy (n=20 Group2: Two visit therapy with 1 week of calcium hydroxide dressing (n=20 Group3(Control: Two visit therapy with 1 week of sterile dry cotton pellet dressing (n=20 Materials and method : The standard protocol for all the patients included local anaesthesia, isolation & access cavity preparation, chemomechanical preparation with Rotary Protaper NiTi instruments, and irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite, 17% EDTA, 0.9%saline and 2% chlorhexidine. Teeth in group1 (n=20 were obturated on the same appointment using single cone technique (6% gutta percha points and AH Plus sealer. Teeth in group 2(n=20 and group 3(n=20 were given a dressing of calcium hydroxide and dry cotton pellet respectively for a week followed by double seal with Cavit G and IRM. These teeth were obturated on the 2nd appointment using same material and techniques as in group 1. Teeth in all three groups were restored with dual cure composite resin. A modified Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure preoperative pain and postoperative pain after 6, 12, 24 & 48hrs interval. Statistical analysis was performed using an independent-sample t test. There was no statistically significant difference between groups at any of the four postoperative intervals. There was no significant difference among all the three groups studied after 12, 24hrs & 48hrs. Conclusion : Within the limitations of this in vivo study, it may be concluded that Single Visit Endodontics provides excellent results, if care in diagnosis and proper case selection is given importance. Calcium hydroxide

  3. Degravitation, inflation and the cosmological constant as an afterglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Subodh P.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we adopt the phenomenological approach of taking the degravitation paradigm seriously as a consistent modification of gravity in the IR, and investigate its consequences for various cosmological situations. We motivate degravitation — where Netwon's constant is promoted to a scale dependent filter function — as arising from either a small (resonant) mass for the graviton, or as an effect in semi-classical gravity. After addressing how the Bianchi identities are to be satisfied in such a set up, we turn our attention towards the cosmological consequences of degravitation. By considering the example filter function corresponding to a resonantly massive graviton (with a filter scale larger than the present horizon scale), we show that slow roll inflation, hybrid inflation and old inflation remain quantitatively unchanged. We also find that the degravitation mechanism inherits a memory of past energy densities in the present epoch in such a way that is likely significant for present cosmological evolution. For example, if the universe underwent inflation in the past due to it having tunneled out of some false vacuum, we find that degravitation implies a remnant 'afterglow' cosmological constant, whose scale immediately afterwards is parametrically suppressed by the filter scale (L) in Planck units Λ ∼ l 2 pl /L 2 . We discuss circumstances through which this scenario reasonably yields the presently observed value for Λ ∼ O(10 −120 ). We also find that in a universe still currently trapped in some false vacuum state, resonance graviton models of degravitation only degravitate initially Planck or GUT scale energy densities down to the presently observed value over timescales comparable to the filter scale. We argue that different functional forms for the filter function will yield similar conclusions. In this way, we argue that although the degravitation models we study have the potential to explain why the cosmological constant is not large

  4. CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of the latest Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) adjustment of the values of the fundamental constants. The new set of constants, referred to as the 1998 values, replaces the values recommended for international use by CODATA in 1986. The values of the constants, and particularly the Rydberg constant, are of relevance to the calculation of precise atomic spectra. The standard uncertainty (estimated standard deviation) of the new recommended value of the Rydberg constant, which is based on precision frequency metrology and a detailed analysis of the theory, is approximately 1/160 times the uncertainty of the 1986 value. The new set of recommended values as well as a searchable bibliographic database that gives citations to the relevant literature is available on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants and physics.nist.gov/constantsbib, respectively

  5. Lack of replication of thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms implicated in Parkinson’s disease: a large-scale international study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Alexis; Nelson, Lorene M; Payami, Haydeh; Ioannidis, John P A; Fiske, Brian K; Annesi, Grazia; Belin, Andrea Carmine; Factor, Stewart A; Ferrarese, Carlo; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Higgins, Donald S; Kawakami, Hideshi; Krüger, Rejko; Marder, Karen S; Mayeux, Richard P; Mellick, George D; Nutt, John G; Ritz, Beate; Samii, Ali; Tanner, Caroline M; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Dehem, Marie; Montimurro, Jennifer S; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background A genome-wide association study identified 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with Parkinson’s disease. Small-scale replication studies were largely non-confirmatory, but a meta-analysis that included data from the original study could not exclude all SNP associations, leaving relevance of several markers uncertain. Methods Investigators from three Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research-funded genetics consortia—comprising 14 teams—contributed DNA samples from 5526 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 6682 controls, which were genotyped for the 13 SNPs. Most (88%) participants were of white, non-Hispanic descent. We assessed log-additive genetic effects using fixed and random effects models stratified by team and ethnic origin, and tested for heterogeneity across strata. A meta-analysis was undertaken that incorporated data from the original genome-wide study as well as subsequent replication studies. Findings In fixed and random-effects models no associations with any of the 13 SNPs were identified (odds ratios 0·89 to 1·09). Heterogeneity between studies and between ethnic groups was low for all SNPs. Subgroup analyses by age at study entry, ethnic origin, sex, and family history did not show any consistent associations. In our meta-analysis, no SNP showed significant association (summary odds ratios 0·95 to 1.08); there was little heterogeneity except for SNP rs7520966. Interpretation Our results do not lend support to the finding that the 13 SNPs reported in the original genome-wide association study are genetic susceptibility factors for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:17052658

  6. Communication: An improved linear scaling perturbative triples correction for the domain based local pair-natural orbital based singles and doubles coupled cluster method [DLPNO-CCSD(T)

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Yang

    2018-01-04

    In this communication, an improved perturbative triples correction (T) algorithm for domain based local pair-natural orbital singles and doubles coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD) theory is reported. In our previous implementation, the semi-canonical approximation was used and linear scaling was achieved for both the DLPNO-CCSD and (T) parts of the calculation. In this work, we refer to this previous method as DLPNO-CCSD(T0) to emphasize the semi-canonical approximation. It is well-established that the DLPNO-CCSD method can predict very accurate absolute and relative energies with respect to the parent canonical CCSD method. However, the (T0) approximation may introduce significant errors in absolute energies as the triples correction grows up in magnitude. In the majority of cases, the relative energies from (T0) are as accurate as the canonical (T) results of themselves. Unfortunately, in rare cases and in particular for small gap systems, the (T0) approximation breaks down and relative energies show large deviations from the parent canonical CCSD(T) results. To address this problem, an iterative (T) algorithm based on the previous DLPNO-CCSD(T0) algorithm has been implemented [abbreviated here as DLPNO-CCSD(T)]. Using triples natural orbitals to represent the virtual spaces for triples amplitudes, storage bottlenecks are avoided. Various carefully designed approximations ease the computational burden such that overall, the increase in the DLPNO-(T) calculation time over DLPNO-(T0) only amounts to a factor of about two (depending on the basis set). Benchmark calculations for the GMTKN30 database show that compared to DLPNO-CCSD(T0), the errors in absolute energies are greatly reduced and relative energies are moderately improved. The particularly problematic case of cumulene chains of increasing lengths is also successfully addressed by DLPNO-CCSD(T).

  7. Communication: An improved linear scaling perturbative triples correction for the domain based local pair-natural orbital based singles and doubles coupled cluster method [DLPNO-CCSD(T)

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Yang; Riplinger, Christoph; Becker, Ute; Liakos, Dimitrios G.; Minenkov, Yury; Cavallo, Luigi; Neese, Frank

    2018-01-01

    In this communication, an improved perturbative triples correction (T) algorithm for domain based local pair-natural orbital singles and doubles coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD) theory is reported. In our previous implementation, the semi-canonical approximation was used and linear scaling was achieved for both the DLPNO-CCSD and (T) parts of the calculation. In this work, we refer to this previous method as DLPNO-CCSD(T0) to emphasize the semi-canonical approximation. It is well-established that the DLPNO-CCSD method can predict very accurate absolute and relative energies with respect to the parent canonical CCSD method. However, the (T0) approximation may introduce significant errors in absolute energies as the triples correction grows up in magnitude. In the majority of cases, the relative energies from (T0) are as accurate as the canonical (T) results of themselves. Unfortunately, in rare cases and in particular for small gap systems, the (T0) approximation breaks down and relative energies show large deviations from the parent canonical CCSD(T) results. To address this problem, an iterative (T) algorithm based on the previous DLPNO-CCSD(T0) algorithm has been implemented [abbreviated here as DLPNO-CCSD(T)]. Using triples natural orbitals to represent the virtual spaces for triples amplitudes, storage bottlenecks are avoided. Various carefully designed approximations ease the computational burden such that overall, the increase in the DLPNO-(T) calculation time over DLPNO-(T0) only amounts to a factor of about two (depending on the basis set). Benchmark calculations for the GMTKN30 database show that compared to DLPNO-CCSD(T0), the errors in absolute energies are greatly reduced and relative energies are moderately improved. The particularly problematic case of cumulene chains of increasing lengths is also successfully addressed by DLPNO-CCSD(T).

  8. Sensitivity of molecular vibrational dynamics to energy exchange rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, G D; Coletti, C; Kurnosov, A K; Napartovich, A P

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of molecular vibrational population dynamics, governing the CO laser operated in fundamental and overtone transitions, to vibration-to-vibration rate constants is investigated. With this aim, three rate constant sets have been used, differing in their completeness (i.e. accounting for single-quantum exchange only, or for multi-quantum exchange with a limited number of rate constants obtained by semiclassical calculations, and, finally, with an exhaustive set of rate constants including asymmetric exchange processes, as well) and in the employed interaction potential. The most complete set among these three is introduced in this paper. An existing earlier kinetic model was updated to include the latter new data. Comparison of data produced by kinetic modelling with the above mentioned sets of rate constants shows that the vibrational distribution function, and, in particular, the CO overtone laser characteristics, are very sensitive to the choice of the model. The most complete model predicts slower evolution of the vibrational distribution, in qualitative agreement with experiments

  9. Stability constants of scandium complexes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisako; Itoh, Naomi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    The stability constants of scandium complexes with some carboxylate ligands were determined potentiometrically at 25.0 and 40.0 0 C and at an ionic strength of 0.10 with potassium nitrate as supporting electrolyte. The constants of the scandium complexes were appreciably greater than those of the corresponding lanthanoid complexes, as expected. The changes in free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for the formation of the scandium complexes were calculated from the stability constants at two temperatures. (author)

  10. Constant exposure technique in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    The principles and advantages of the constant exposure technique are explained. Choice of exposure factors is analyzed. Film, paper and intensifying screens used throughout the investigation and film and paper processing are described. Exposure technique and the use of image quality indicators are given. Methods of determining of radiographic image quality are presented. Conclusions about the use of constant exposure vs. constant kilovoltage technique are formulated. (author)

  11. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  12. Comment on “Recent progress in thermodynamics of radiation——exergy of radiation,effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chen et al.proposed the concepts of effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon in a recent paper [Chen Z S,Mo S P,Hu P.Recent progress in thermodynamics of radiation―exergy of radiation,effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon.Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci,2008,51(8):1096―1109] by enduing a single photon with macroscale thermodynamic parameters such as exergy and entropy.This paper argues that applying these concepts and their inferences to macro-scale thermodynamic system will lead to the results which conflict with macroscale thermodynamic laws.This means that the concepts of effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon are not correct.

  13. Dielectric constant of atomic fluids with variable polarizability

    OpenAIRE

    Alder, B. J.; Beers, J. C.; Strauss, H. L.; Weis, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Clausius-Mossotti function for the dielectric constant is expanded in terms of single atom and pair polarizabilities, leading to contributions that depend on both the trace and the anisotropy of the pair-polarizability tensor. The short-range contribution of the anisotropic part to the pair polarizabilities has previously been obtained empirically from light scattering experiments, whereas the trace contribution is now empirically determined by comparison to dielectric experiments. For he...

  14. Decay constants in soft wall AdS/QCD revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Diles, Saulo, E-mail: smdiles@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Contreras, M.A. Martin, E-mail: ma.martin41@uniandes.edu.co [High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Universidad de los Andes, Carrera 1, No 18A-10, Bloque Ip, ZIP 111711, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-12-10

    Phenomenological AdS/QCD models, like hard wall and soft wall, provide hadronic mass spectra in reasonable consistency with experimental and (or) lattice results. These simple models are inspired in the AdS/CFT correspondence and assume that gauge/gravity duality holds in a scenario where conformal invariance is broken through the introduction of an energy scale. Another important property of hadrons: the decay constant, can also be obtained from these models. However, a consistent formulation of an AdS/QCD model that reproduces the observed behavior of decay constants of vector meson excited states is still lacking. In particular: for radially excited states of heavy vector mesons, the experimental data lead to decay constants that decrease with the radial excitation level. We show here that a modified framework of soft wall AdS/QCD involving an additional dimensionfull parameter, associated with an ultraviolet energy scale, provides decay constants decreasing with radial excitation level. In this version of the soft wall model the two point function of gauge theory operators is calculated at a finite position of the anti-de Sitter space radial coordinate.

  15. Spin-rotation and NMR shielding constants in HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaszuński, Michał, E-mail: michal.jaszunski@icho.edu.pl [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa, Kasprzaka 44 (Poland); Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B.; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø—The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Garbacz, Piotr; Jackowski, Karol; Makulski, Włodzimierz [Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-12-21

    The spin-rotation and nuclear magnetic shielding constants are analysed for both nuclei in the HCl molecule. Nonrelativistic ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of approximation show that it is essential to include relativistic effects to obtain spin-rotation constants consistent with accurate experimental data. Our best estimates for the spin-rotation constants of {sup 1}H{sup 35}Cl are C{sub Cl}  = −53.914 kHz and C{sub H}  = 42.672 kHz (for the lowest rovibrational level). For the chlorine shielding constant, the ab initio value computed including the relativistic corrections, σ(Cl) = 976.202 ppm, provides a new absolute shielding scale; for hydrogen we find σ(H) = 31.403 ppm (both at 300 K). Combining the theoretical results with our new gas-phase NMR experimental data allows us to improve the accuracy of the magnetic dipole moments of both chlorine isotopes. For the hydrogen shielding constant, including relativistic effects yields better agreement between experimental and computed values.

  16. Spin-rotation and NMR shielding constants in HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszuński, Michał; Repisky, Michal; Demissie, Taye B.; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Garbacz, Piotr; Jackowski, Karol; Makulski, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The spin-rotation and nuclear magnetic shielding constants are analysed for both nuclei in the HCl molecule. Nonrelativistic ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T) level of approximation show that it is essential to include relativistic effects to obtain spin-rotation constants consistent with accurate experimental data. Our best estimates for the spin-rotation constants of 1 H 35 Cl are C Cl   = −53.914 kHz and C H   = 42.672 kHz (for the lowest rovibrational level). For the chlorine shielding constant, the ab initio value computed including the relativistic corrections, σ(Cl) = 976.202 ppm, provides a new absolute shielding scale; for hydrogen we find σ(H) = 31.403 ppm (both at 300 K). Combining the theoretical results with our new gas-phase NMR experimental data allows us to improve the accuracy of the magnetic dipole moments of both chlorine isotopes. For the hydrogen shielding constant, including relativistic effects yields better agreement between experimental and computed values

  17. Small cosmological constant from the QCD trace anomaly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetzhold, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    According to recent astrophysical observations the large scale mean pressure of our present Universe is negative suggesting a positive cosmological constant-like term. The issue of whether nonperturbative effects of self-interacting quantum fields in curved space-times may yield a significant contribution is addressed. Focusing on the trace anomaly of quantum chromodynamics, a preliminary estimate of the expected order of magnitude yields a remarkable coincidence with the empirical data, indicating the potential relevance of this effect

  18. Newton's constant from a minimal length: additional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlmann, Hanno

    2011-01-01

    We follow arguments of Verlinde (2010 arXiv:1001.0785 [hep-th]) and Klinkhamer (2010 arXiv:1006.2094 [hep-th]), and construct two models of the microscopic theory of a holographic screen that allow for the thermodynamical derivation of Newton's law, with Newton's constant expressed in terms of a minimal length scale l contained in the area spectrum of the microscopic theory. One of the models is loosely related to the quantum structure of surfaces and isolated horizons in loop quantum gravity. Our investigation shows that the conclusions reached by Klinkhamer regarding the new length scale l seem to be generic in all their qualitative aspects.

  19. Large-scale single-crystal growth of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 for neutron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Garam; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, J. M. Sungil; Park, Seong-Hun; Hong, Chang Seop; Lee, Kwang-Sei

    2016-05-01

    Neutron scattering studies on low-dimensional quantum spin systems require large-size single-crystals. Single-crystals of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 showing low-dimensional magnetic behaviors were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method in a two-solvent system at different temperature settings. The best results were obtained for the bilayer solution of methanol and isopropanol with a molar ratio of 2:1 at 35 °C. The quality of the obtained single-crystals was tested by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and single-crystal neutron diffraction. In addition, to confirm structural phase transitions (SPTs), thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 300 K and 175 K, respectively, were conducted, confirming the presence of a SPT at Tup=288 K on heating and Tdown=285 K on cooling.

  20. Equilibrium-constant expressions for aqueous plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Equilibrium-constant expressions for Pu disproportionation reactions traditionally contain three or four terms representing the concentrations or fractions of the oxidation states. The expressions can be rewritten so that one of the oxidation states is replaced by a term containing the oxidation number of the plutonium. Experimental estimations of the numerical values of the constants can then be checked in several ways. (author)

  1. A null test of the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We provide a consistency relation between cosmological observables in general relativity with the cosmological constant. Breaking of this relation at any redshift would imply the breakdown of the hypothesis of the cosmological constant as an explanation of the current acceleration of the universe. (author)

  2. A stringy nature needs just two constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziano, G.

    1986-01-01

    Dual string theories of everything, being purely geometrical, contain only two fundamental constants: c, for relativistic invariance, and a length lambda, for quantization. Planck's and Newton's constants appear only through Planck's length, a ''calculable'' fraction of lambda. Only the existence of a light sector breaks a ''reciprocity'' principle and unification at lambda, which is also the theory's cut-off

  3. On special relativity with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hanying; Huang Chaoguang; Xu Zhan; Zhou Bin

    2004-01-01

    Based on the principle of relativity and the postulate of invariant speed and length, we propose the theory of special relativity with cosmological constant SRc,R, in which the cosmological constant is linked with the invariant length. Its relation with the doubly special relativity is briefly mentioned

  4. DETERMINATION OF STABILITY CONSTANTS OF MANGANESE (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Amino acids, dissociation constant, potentiometry, stability constant. INTRODUCTION. Acids – base titration involves the gradual addition or removal of protons for example using the deprotic form of glycine. The plot has two distinct stages corresponding to the deprotonation of the two different groups on glycine.

  5. Shapley Value for Constant-sum Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelnitskaya, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    It is proved that Young's axiomatization for the Shapley value by marginalism, efficiency, and symmetry is still valid for the Shapley value defined on the class of nonnegative constant-sum games and on the entire class of constant-sum games as well. To support an interest to study the class of

  6. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  7. The time constant of the somatogravic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Grácio, B J; de Winkel, K N; Groen, E L; Wentink, M; Bos, J E

    2013-02-01

    Without visual feedback, humans perceive tilt when experiencing a sustained linear acceleration. This tilt illusion is commonly referred to as the somatogravic illusion. Although the physiological basis of the illusion seems to be well understood, the dynamic behavior is still subject to discussion. In this study, the dynamic behavior of the illusion was measured experimentally for three motion profiles with different frequency content. Subjects were exposed to pure centripetal accelerations in the lateral direction and were asked to indicate their tilt percept by means of a joystick. Variable-radius centrifugation during constant angular rotation was used to generate these motion profiles. Two self-motion perception models were fitted to the experimental data and were used to obtain the time constant of the somatogravic illusion. Results showed that the time constant of the somatogravic illusion was on the order of two seconds, in contrast to the higher time constant found in fixed-radius centrifugation studies. Furthermore, the time constant was significantly affected by the frequency content of the motion profiles. Motion profiles with higher frequency content revealed shorter time constants which cannot be explained by self-motion perception models that assume a fixed time constant. Therefore, these models need to be improved with a mechanism that deals with this variable time constant. Apart from the fundamental importance, these results also have practical consequences for the simulation of sustained accelerations in motion simulators.

  8. Electronic measurement of the Boltzmann constant with a quantum-voltage-calibrated Johnson-noise thermometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benz, Samuel; White, D. Rod; Qu, JiFeng; Rogalla, Horst; Tew, Weston

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the CODATA value of the Boltzmann constant is dominated by a single gas-based thermometry measurement with a relative standard uncertainty of 1.8×10−6 [P.J. Mohr, B.N. Taylor, D.B. Newell, CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2006, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80 (2008)

  9. Zero cosmological constant from normalized general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Aharon; Rubin, Shimon

    2009-01-01

    Normalizing the Einstein-Hilbert action by the volume functional makes the theory invariant under constant shifts in the Lagrangian. The associated field equations then resemble unimodular gravity whose otherwise arbitrary cosmological constant is now determined as a Machian universal average. We prove that an empty space-time is necessarily Ricci tensor flat, and demonstrate the vanishing of the cosmological constant within the scalar field paradigm. The cosmological analysis, carried out at the mini-superspace level, reveals a vanishing cosmological constant for a universe which cannot be closed as long as gravity is attractive. Finally, we give an example of a normalized theory of gravity which does give rise to a non-zero cosmological constant.

  10. Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-10-01

    Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological "constant" in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.

  11. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  12. Atomic scale studies of La/Sr ordering in La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Roldan, Manuel

    2016-12-21

    Many fascinating properties of materials depend strongly on the local chemical environment. This is the case for many complex oxides, such as materials with colossal magnetoresistance, where small variations of composition at the atomic scale can affect drastically the macroscopic properties. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the local chemical composition with atomic resolution and to find out if any underlying chemical order is in any way connected to the magnetic properties of double perovskite La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (LSMO) manganite oxides. For these compounds, charge and orbital ordering are observed for some doping values near x = 0.50 [1, 2]. For this purpose, we have use aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements and also theoretical simulations. We have compared different compositions within three distinct magnetic regions of the phase diagram: a ferromagnetic metallic sample with x=0.36, an insulating, antiferromagnetic (AF) x=0.56 and an additional AF x=0.50 sample which also exhibits charge ordering. High angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images, also known as Z-contrast, confirm that our single crystals exhibit high crystal quality. No secondary phases or defects are observed. Figure 1 displays an atomic resolution image obtained with the c-axis perpendicular to the electron beam of a x=0.50 sample. The perovskite (P)-like planes and the rock salt (R)-like planes are clearly observed, highlighted in green and red, respectively, on the image. The P-like planes exhibit a slightly high contrast, suggesting a possible La enrichment. EELS atomic resolution maps (inset) support a high degree of La segregation on those planes, while R-like planes are Sr rich. However, due to dechanneling of the beam, detailed image simulations are essential to accurately quantify the local chemical composition in an atomic column-by-atomic column fashion. For all our

  13. Elastic constants of a Laves phase compound: C15 NbCr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormeci, A.; Chu, F.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.P.; Albers, R.C.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    The single-crystal elastic constants of C15 NbCr 2 have been computed by using a first-principles, self-consistent, full-potential total energy method. From these single-crystal elastic constants the isotropic elastic moduli are calculated using the Voigt and Reuss averages. The calculated values are in fair agreement with the experimental values. The implications of the results are discussed with regards to Poisson's ratio and the direction dependence of Young's modulus

  14. FOREWORD: International determination of the Avogadro constant International determination of the Avogadro constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Enrico; Nicolaus, Arnold

    2011-04-01

    This issue of Metrologia collects papers about the results of an international research project aimed at the determination of the Avogadro constant, NA, by counting the atoms in a silicon crystal highly enriched with the isotope 28Si. Fifty years ago, Egidi [1] thought about realizing an atomic mass standard. In 1965, Bonse and Hart [2] operated the first x-ray interferometer, thus paving the way to the achievement of Egidi's dream, and soon Deslattes et al [3] completed the first counting of the atoms in a natural silicon crystal. The present project, outlined by Zosi [4] in 1983, began in 2004 by combining the experiences and capabilities of the BIPM, INRIM, IRMM, NIST, NPL, NMIA, NMIJ and PTB. The start signal, ratified by a memorandum of understanding, was a contract for the production of a silicon crystal highly enriched with 28Si. The enrichment process was undertaken by the Central Design Bureau of Machine Building in St Petersburg. Subsequently, a polycrystal was grown in the Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod and a 28Si boule was grown and purified by the Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung in Berlin. Isotope enrichment made it possible to apply isotope dilution mass spectroscopy, to determine the Avogadro constant with unprecedented accuracy, and to fulfil Egidi's dream. To convey Egidi's 'fantasy' into practice, two 28Si kilogram prototypes shaped as quasi-perfect spheres were manufactured by the Australian Centre for Precision Optics; their isotopic composition, molar mass, mass, volume, density and lattice parameter were accurately determined and their surfaces were chemically and physically characterized at the atomic scale. The paper by Andreas et al reviews the work carried out; it collates all the findings and illustrates how Avogadro's constant was obtained. Impurity concentration and gradients in the enriched crystal were measured by infrared spectroscopy and taken into

  15. Statistical orientation fluctuations: constant angular momentum versus constant rotational frequency constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, A L [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Statistical orientation fluctuations are calculated with two alternative assumptions: the rotational frequency remains constant as the shape orientation fluctuates; and, the average angular momentum remains constant as the shape orientation fluctuates. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs.

  16. On the constants for some Sobolev imbeddings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzocchero Livio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the imbedding inequality is the Sobolev space (or Bessel potential space of type and (integer or fractional order . We write down upper bounds for the constants , using an argument previously applied in the literature in particular cases. We prove that the upper bounds computed in this way are in fact the sharp constants if , , and exhibit the maximising functions. Furthermore, using convenient trial functions, we derive lower bounds on for in many cases these are close to the previous upper bounds, as illustrated by a number of examples, thus characterizing the sharp constants with little uncertainty.

  17. Scalar-tensor cosmology with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslanka, K.

    1983-01-01

    The equations of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with cosmological constant in the case of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model can be reduced to dynamical system of three differential equations with unknown functions H=R/R, THETA=phi/phi, S=e/phi. When new variables are introduced the system becomes more symmetrical and cosmological solutions R(t), phi(t), e(t) are found. It is shown that when cosmological constant is introduced large class of solutions which depend also on Dicke-Brans parameter can be obtained. Investigations of these solutions give general limits for cosmological constant and mean density of matter in plane model. (author)

  18. Cosmological constant and advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Turner, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors could measure the frequency sweep of a binary inspiral (characterized by its chirp mass) to high accuracy. The observed chirp mass is the intrinsic chirp mass of the binary source multiplied by (1+z), where z is the redshift of the source. Assuming a nonzero cosmological constant, we compute the expected redshift distribution of observed events for an advanced LIGO detector. We find that the redshift distribution has a robust and sizable dependence on the cosmological constant; the data from advanced LIGO detectors could provide an independent measurement of the cosmological constant. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  20. Reactor group constants and benchmark test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-08-01

    The evaluated nuclear data files such as JENDL, ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2 are validated by analyzing critical mock-up experiments for various type reactors and assessing applicability for nuclear characteristics such as criticality, reaction rates, reactivities, etc. This is called Benchmark Testing. In the nuclear calculations, the diffusion and transport codes use the group constant library which is generated by processing the nuclear data files. In this paper, the calculation methods of the reactor group constants and benchmark test are described. Finally, a new group constants scheme is proposed. (author)

  1. WWC Review of the Report "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 study, "Conceptualizing Astronomical Scale: Virtual Simulations on Handheld Tablet Computers Reverse Misconceptions," examined the effects of using the true-to-scale (TTS) display mode versus the orrery display mode in the iPad's Solar Walk software application on students' knowledge of the Earth's place in the solar system. The…

  2. Diffusional falsification of kinetic constants on Lineweaver-Burk plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Y S; Chang, H N

    1983-11-07

    The effect of mass transfer resistances on the Lineweaver-Burk plots in immobilized enzyme systems has been investigated numerically and with analytical approximate solutions. While Hamilton, Gardner & Colton (1974) studied the effect of internal diffusion resistances in planar geometry, our study was extended to the combined effect of internal and external diffusion in cylindrical and spherical geometries as well. The variation of Lineweaver-Burk plots with respect to the geometries was minimized by modifying the Thiele modulus and the Biot number with the shape factor. Especially for a small Biot number all the three Lineweaver-Burk plots fell on a single line. As was discussed by Hamilton et al. (1974), the curvature of the line for large external diffusion resistances was small enough to be assumed linear, which was confirmed from the two approximate solutions for large and small substrate concentrations. Two methods for obtaining intrinsic kinetic constants were proposed: First, we obtained both maximum reaction rate and Michaelis constant by fitting experimental data to a straight line where external diffusion resistance was relatively large, and second, we obtained Michaelis constant from apparent Michaelis constant from the figure in case we knew maximum reaction rate a priori.

  3. The cosmological constant, branes and non-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautason, Fridhrik Freyr

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we derive an equation for the classical cosmological constant in general string compactifications by employing scaling symmetries present in string theory. We find that in heterotic string theory, a perturbatively small, but non-vanishing, cosmological constant is impossible unless non-perturbative and/or string loop corrections are taken into account. In type II string theory we show that the classical cosmological constant is given by a sum of two terms, the source actions evaluated on-shell, and a certain combination of non-vanishing fluxes integrated over spacetime. In many cases we can express the classical cosmological constant in terms of only the source contributions by exploiting two scaling symmetries. This result can be used in two ways. First one can simply predict the classical cosmological constant in a given setup without solving all equations of motion. A second application is to give constraints on the near brane behavior of supergravity fields when the cosmological constant is known. In particular we motivate that energy densities of some fields diverge in the well-known KKLT scenario for de Sitter solutions in type IIB string theory. More precisely, we show, using our results and minimal assumptions, that energy densities of the three-form fluxes diverge in the near-source region of internal space. This divergence is unusual, since these fields do not directly couple to the source, and has been interpreted as a hint of instability of the solution. In the last chapter of the thesis we discuss the worldvolume actions of exotic five-branes. Using a specific chain of T- and S-dualities in a spacetime with two circular isometries, we derive the DBI and WZ actions of the so-called 5 2 2 - and 5 2 3 -brane. These actions describe the dynamics of the branes as well as their couplings to the ten-dimensional gauge potentials. We propose a modified Bianchi identity for the non-geometric Q-flux due to one of the branes. Q-flux often appears

  4. Rate constants of chemical reactions from semiclassical transition state theory in full and one dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Samuel M., E-mail: samuel.greene@chem.ox.ac.uk; Shan, Xiao, E-mail: xiao.shan@chem.ox.ac.uk; Clary, David C., E-mail: david.clary@chem.ox.ac.u [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-28

    Semiclassical Transition State Theory (SCTST), a method for calculating rate constants of chemical reactions, offers gains in computational efficiency relative to more accurate quantum scattering methods. In full-dimensional (FD) SCTST, reaction probabilities are calculated from third and fourth potential derivatives along all vibrational degrees of freedom. However, the computational cost of FD SCTST scales unfavorably with system size, which prohibits its application to larger systems. In this study, the accuracy and efficiency of 1-D SCTST, in which only third and fourth derivatives along the reaction mode are used, are investigated in comparison to those of FD SCTST. Potential derivatives are obtained from numerical ab initio Hessian matrix calculations at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory, and Richardson extrapolation is applied to improve the accuracy of these derivatives. Reaction barriers are calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level. Results from FD SCTST agree with results from previous theoretical and experimental studies when Richardson extrapolation is applied. Results from our implementation of 1-D SCTST, which uses only 4 single-point MP2/cc-pVTZ energy calculations in addition to those for conventional TST, agree with FD results to within a factor of 5 at 250 K. This degree of agreement and the efficiency of the 1-D method suggest its potential as a means of approximating rate constants for systems too large for existing quantum scattering methods.

  5. Estimation of stability constants of metal monoacidocomplexes in aqueous solutions (1:2) of electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of the model of isoactive solutions it is shown that osmosis pressure of aqueous solutions (1:2) of electrolytes is well described by the Van-der-Vaals model for ideal associated gas. Stabilisty constants were calculated using osmosis mole parts of interacting particles as a concentrational scale. Stability constants in the scale of osmosis mole parts are equal to thermodynamic contstants, rated for an infinitely diluted solution

  6. Running Newton constant, improved gravitational actions, and galaxy rotation curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, M.; Weyer, H.

    2004-01-01

    A renormalization group (RG) improvement of the Einstein-Hilbert action is performed which promotes Newton's constant and the cosmological constant to scalar functions on spacetime. They arise from solutions of an exact RG equation by means of a 'cutoff identification' which associates RG scales to the points of spacetime. The resulting modified Einstein equations for spherically symmetric, static spacetimes are derived and analyzed in detail. The modifications of the Newtonian limit due to the RG evolution are obtained for the general case. As an application, the viability of a scenario is investigated where strong quantum effects in the infrared cause Newton's constant to grow at large (astrophysical) distances. For two specific RG trajectories exact vacuum spacetimes modifying the Schwarzschild metric are obtained by means of a solution-generating Weyl transformation. Their possible relevance to the problem of the observed approximately flat galaxy rotation curves is discussed. It is found that a power law running of Newton's constant with a small exponent of the order 10 -6 would account for their non-Keplerian behavior without having to postulate the presence of any dark matter in the galactic halo

  7. Automated real time constant-specificity surveillance for disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Shannon C; Brownstein, John S; Berger, Bonnie; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2007-06-13

    For real time surveillance, detection of abnormal disease patterns is based on a difference between patterns observed, and those predicted by models of historical data. The usefulness of outbreak detection strategies depends on their specificity; the false alarm rate affects the interpretation of alarms. We evaluate the specificity of five traditional models: autoregressive, Serfling, trimmed seasonal, wavelet-based, and generalized linear. We apply each to 12 years of emergency department visits for respiratory infection syndromes at a pediatric hospital, finding that the specificity of the five models was almost always a non-constant function of the day of the week, month, and year of the study (p accounting for not only the expected number of visits, but also the variance of the number of visits. The expectation-variance model achieves constant specificity on all three time scales, as well as earlier detection and improved sensitivity compared to traditional methods in most circumstances. Modeling the variance of visit patterns enables real-time detection with known, constant specificity at all times. With constant specificity, public health practitioners can better interpret the alarms and better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surveillance systems.

  8. Relationship between electrophilicity index, Hammett constant and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Inter-relationships between the electrophilicity index (ω), Hammett constant (óp) and nucleus- independent chemical ... cess of DFT is that it provides simple working equa- tions to elucidate ... compasses both the ability of an electrophile to ac-.

  9. Canonoid transformations and constants of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, L.J.; Oliveira, L.C.; Teixeira, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions for a canonoid transformation with respect to a given Hamiltonian are obtained in terms of the Lagrange brackets of the trasformation. The relation of these conditions with the constants of motion is discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. An improved dosimeter having constant flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    A dosemeter designed for individual use which can be used to monitor toxic radon gas and toxic related products of radon gas in mines and which incorporates a constant air stream flowing through the dosimeter is described. (U.K.)

  11. New perspectives on constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicciarella, Francesco; Mabillard, Joel; Pieroni, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    We study constant-roll inflation using the β-function formalism. We show that the constant rate of the inflaton roll is translated into a first order differential equation for the β-function which can be solved easily. The solutions to this equation correspond to the usual constant-roll models. We then construct, by perturbing these exact solutions, more general classes of models that satisfy the constant-roll equation asymptotically. In the case of an asymptotic power law solution, these corrections naturally provide an end to the inflationary phase. Interestingly, while from a theoretical point of view (in particular in terms of the holographic interpretation) these models are intrinsically different from standard slow-roll inflation, they may have phenomenological predictions in good agreement with present cosmological data.

  12. Hydrolysis and formation constants at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.L.

    1982-05-01

    A database consisting of hydrolysis and formation constants for about 20 metals associated with the disposal of nuclear waste is given. Complexing ligands for the various ionic species of these metals include OH, F, Cl, SO 4 , PO 4 and CO 3 . Table 1 consists of tabulated calculated and experimental values of log K/sub xy/, mainly at 25 0 C and various ionic strengths together with references to the origin of the data. Table 2 consists of a column of recommended stability constants at 25 0 C and zero ionic strength tabulated in the column headed log K/sub xy/(0); other columns contain coefficients for an extended Debye-Huckel equation to permit calculations of stability constants up to 3 ionic strength, and up to 0.7 ionic strength using the Davies equation. Selected stability constants calculated with these coefficients for various ionic strengths agree to an average of +- 2% when compared with published experimental and calculated values

  13. Wormholes and the cosmological constant problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanov, I.

    The author reviews the cosmological constant problem and the recently proposed wormhole mechanism for its solution. Summation over wormholes in the Euclidean path integral for gravity turns all the coupling parameters into dynamical variables, sampled from a probability distribution. A formal saddle point analysis results in a distribution with a sharp peak at the cosmological constant equal to zero, which appears to solve the cosmological constant problem. He discusses the instabilities of the gravitational Euclidean path integral and the difficulties with its interpretation. He presents an alternate formalism for baby universes, based on the "third quantization" of the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This approach is analyzed in a minisuperspace model for quantum gravity, where it reduces to simple quantum mechanics. Once again, the coupling parameters become dynamical. Unfortunately, the a priori probability distribution for the cosmological constant and other parameters is typically a smooth function, with no sharp peaks.

  14. Building evolutionary architectures support constant change

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal; Kua, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The software development ecosystem is constantly changing, providing a constant stream of new tools, frameworks, techniques, and paradigms. Over the past few years, incremental developments in core engineering practices for software development have created the foundations for rethinking how architecture changes over time, along with ways to protect important architectural characteristics as it evolves. This practical guide ties those parts together with a new way to think about architecture and time.

  15. Nuclei quadrupole coupling constants in diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.; Rebane, T.K.

    1993-01-01

    An approximate relationship between the constants of quadrupole interaction of nuclei in a two-atom molecule is found. It enabled to establish proportionality of oscillatory-rotation corrections to these constants for both nuclei in the molecule. Similar results were obtained for the factors of electrical dipole-quadrupole screening of nuclei. Applicability of these relationships is proven by the example of lithium deuteride molecule. 4 refs., 1 tab

  16. Parametrised Constants and Replication for Spatial Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Haagensen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Parametrised replication and replication are common ways of expressing infinite computation in process calculi. While parametrised constants can be encoded using replication in the π-calculus, this changes in the presence of spatial mobility as found in e.g. the distributed π- calculus...... of the distributed π-calculus with parametrised constants and replication are incomparable. On the other hand, we shall see that there exists a simple encoding of recursion in mobile ambients....

  17. A model for solar constant secular changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, contrast models for solar active region and global photospheric features are used to reproduce the observed Active Cavity Radiometer and Earth Radiation Budget secular trends in reasonably good fashion. A prediction for the next decade of solar constant variations is made using the model. Secular trends in the solar constant obtained from the present model support the view that the Maunder Minimum may be related to the Little Ice Age of the 17th century.

  18. A quadri-constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Gu Zhongdao

    1992-01-01

    A quad Constant Fraction (Amplitude and Rise Time Compensation) Discriminator Circuit is described, which is based on the ECL high-speed dual comparator AD 9687. The CFD (ARCD) is of the constant fraction timing type (the amplitude and rise time compensation timing type) employing a leading edge discriminator to eliminate error triggers caused by noises. A timing walk measurement indicates a timing walk of less than +- 150 ps from -50 mV to -5 V

  19. Renormalization group equations with multiple coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghika, G.; Visinescu, M.

    1975-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the renormalization group equations of a renormalizable field theory with multiple coupling constants. A method for the investigation of the asymptotic stability is presented. This method is applied to a gauge theory with Yukawa and self-quartic couplings of scalar mesons in order to find the domains of asymptotic freedom. An asymptotic expansion for the solutions which tend to the origin of the coupling constants is given

  20. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ·· φ/H φ-dot remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime

  1. RNA structure and scalar coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.

  2. A General Constant Power Generation Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Hossein Dehghani; Maswood, Ali Iftekhar; Konstantinou, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPPs) typically operate by tracking the maximum power point in order to maximize conversion efficiency. However, with the continuous increase of installed grid-connected PVPPs, power system operators have been experiencing new challenges, like overloading, overvoltages...... on a hysteresis band controller in order to obtain fast dynamic response under transients and low power oscillation during steady-state operation. The performance of the proposed algorithm for both single- and two-stage PVPPs is examined on a 50-kVA simulation setup of these topologies. Moreover, experimental...... and operation during grid voltage disturbances. Consequently, constant power generation (CPG) is imposed by grid codes. An algorithm for the calculation of the photovoltaic panel voltage reference, which generates a constant power from the PVPP, is introduced in this paper. The key novelty of the proposed...

  3. Mineral dielectric constants and the oxide additivity rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, R.D.; Subramanian, M.A.; Mariano, A.N.; Rossman, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The 1 MHz dielectric constants of a variety of synthetic aluminate garnets: Y 3 Al 5 O 12 , Ho 3 Al 5 O 12 , Y 2.93 Nd .07 Sc 2 Al 3 O 12 and Gd 2.95 Nd .05 Sc 1.98 Cr .02 Al 3 O 12 and several silicates: CaB 2 Si 2 O 8 (danburite), Ca 3 Al 2 Si 3 O 12 (grossular) and Mg 2 Al 4 Si 5 O 18 (cordierite) were determined using the two-terminal method with edge corrections. These data and polarizabilities derived from the published single crystal dielectric constants of simple oxides were used to compare compound polarizabilities obtained from the Clausius-Mosotti equation and the oxide additivity rule

  4. The role of Newton's constant in Einstein's gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alfaro, V.

    1983-01-01

    The role of the Newton constant in Einstein particle physics is discussed. The troubles paguing the quantum theory of gravity, including the abscence of an effective cosmological constant, are discussed. The Planck length is studied. The key point is that gravity theory is invariant under general coordinate transformations (GCT). The law of transformations of a tensor under GCT, with attention on dilatations, is determined. The results are compared to the case of a conformal invariant theory in a flat space. The fields in the flat limit are redefined under this rule: in the flat limit the kinetic term must be invariant under conformal transformations. The procedure exhibits clearly the fundamental scale invariance of the Einstein theory

  5. Classically exact surface diffusion constants at arbitrary temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voter, A.F.; Cohen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    An expression is presented for computing the classical diffusion constant of a point defect (e.g., an adatom) in an infinite lattice of binding sites at arbitrary temperature. The transition state theory diffusion constant is simply multiplied by a dynamical correction factor that is computed from short-time classical trajectories initiated at the site boundaries. The time scale limitations of direct molecular dynamics are thus avoided in the low- and middle-temperature regimes. The expression results from taking the time derivative of the particle mean-square displacement in the lattice-discretized coordinate system. Applications are presented for surface diffusion on fcc(100) and fcc(111) Lennard-Jones crystal faces

  6. Dynamic Characteristics of The DSI-Type Constant-Flow Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Hu, Sheng-Yan; Chou, Hsien-Chin; Lee, Hsing-Han

    Constant flow valves have been presented in industrial applications or academic studies, which compensate recess pressures of a hydrostatic bearing to resist load fluctuating. The flow rate of constant-flow valves can be constant in spite of the pressure changes in recesses, however the design parameters must be specified. This paper analyzes the dynamic responses of DSI-type constant-flow valves that is designed as double pistons on both ends of a spool with single feedback of working pressure and regulating restriction at inlet. In this study the static analysis presents the specific relationships among design parameters for constant flow rate and the dynamic analyses give the variations around the constant flow rate as the working pressure fluctuates.

  7. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

    KAUST Repository

    Sridhar, A.

    2017-03-28

    A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

  8. A Parallel Priority Queue with Constant Time Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Träff, Jesper Larsson; Zaroliagis, Christos D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a parallel priority queue that supports the following operations in constant time:parallel insertionof a sequence of elements ordered according to key,parallel decrease keyfor a sequence of elements ordered according to key,deletion of the minimum key element, anddeletion of an arbitrary...... application is a parallel implementation of Dijkstra's algorithm for the single-source shortest path problem, which runs inO(n) time andO(mlogn) work on a CREW PRAM on graphs withnvertices andmedges. This is a logarithmic factor improvement in the running time compared with previous approaches....

  9. Effective constants for wave propagation through partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.

    1985-01-01

    The multipole scattering coefficients for elastic wave scattering from a spherical inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium have been calculated. These coefficients may be used to obtain estimates of the effective macroscopic constants for long-wavelength propagation of elastic waves through partially saturated media. If the volume average of the single scattering from spherical bubbles of gas and liquid is required to vanish, the resulting equations determine the effective bulk modulus, density, and viscosity of the multiphase fluid filling the pores. The formula for the effective viscosity during compressional wave excitation is apparently new

  10. Can we calculate the fundamental dimensionless constants of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.

    1987-07-01

    We review some dynamical models to calculate the dimensionless constants α=e 2 /4πε 0 (h/2π)c, β=M p /m e (or β'=m μ /m e ), γ=G Fermi m e 2 /c(h/2π) 3 and δ=G Newton m e 2 /(e 2 /4πε 0 ) which are associated with the four different manifestations (electromagnetic, strong, weak and gravitational) of a possible single interaction. (author). 15 refs

  11. Dielectric constant of atomic fluids with variable polarizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, B J; Beers, J C; Strauss, H L; Weis, J J

    1980-06-01

    The Clausius-Mossotti function for the dielectric constant is expanded in terms of single atom and pair polarizabilities, leading to contributions that depend on both the trace and the anisotropy of the pair-polarizability tensor. The short-range contribution of the anisotropic part to the pair polarizabilities has previously been obtained empirically from light scattering experiments, whereas the trace contribution is now empirically determined by comparison to dielectric experiments. For helium, the short-range trace part agrees well with electronic structure calculations, whereas for argon qualitative agreement is achieved.

  12. Cosmological constant is a conserved charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.

  13. Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad

    2017-11-01

    Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10-120 in a randomly generated 1 09-dimensional Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Kachru landscape.

  14. Conformally invariant braneworld and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    A six-dimensional braneworld scenario based on a model describing the interaction of gravity, gauge fields and 3+1 branes in a conformally invariant way is described. The action of the model is defined using a measure of integration built of degrees of freedom independent of the metric. There is no need to fine tune any bulk cosmological constant or the tension of the two (in the scenario described here) parallel branes to obtain zero cosmological constant, the only solutions are those with zero 4D cosmological constant. The two extra dimensions are compactified in a 'football' fashion and the branes lie on the two opposite poles of the compact 'football-shaped' sphere

  15. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    1994-01-01

    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption...... experiments in 0.01 m NaNO3 electrolyte (pH 3-6). The surface equilibrium constants were calculated according to the two-layer model by Dzombak & Morel (1990). Near equilibrium between protons/hydroxyls in solution and the ferrihydrite surface was obtained within minutes while equilibration with silicate...

  16. Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)

  17. On-Chip Chemical Self-Assembly of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) : Toward Robust and Scale Invariant SWNTs Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derenskyi, Vladimir; Gomulya, Widianta; Talsma, Wytse; Salazar-Rios, Jorge Mario; Fritsch, Martin; Nirmalraj, Peter; Riel, Heike; Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ullrich; Loi, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the fabrication of carbon nanotubes field effect transistors by chemical self-assembly of semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) on prepatterned substrates is demonstrated. Polyfluorenes derivatives have been demonstrated to be effective in selecting s-SWNTs from raw

  18. The Cosmological Constant Problem (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  19. The Cosmological Constant Problem (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  20. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  1. Relaxing neutrino mass bounds by a running cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Schrempp, L.

    2007-11-15

    We establish an indirect link between relic neutrinos and the dark energy sector which originates from the vacuum energy contributions of the neutrino quantum fields. Via renormalization group effects they induce a running of the cosmological constant with time which dynamically influences the evolution of the cosmic neutrino background. We demonstrate that the resulting reduction of the relic neutrino abundance allows to largely evade current cosmological neutrino mass bounds and discuss how the scenario might be probed by the help of future large scale structure surveys and Planck data. (orig.)

  2. QCD Axion Dark Matter with a Small Decay Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Raymond T; Hall, Lawrence J; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2018-05-25

    The QCD axion is a good dark matter candidate. The observed dark matter abundance can arise from misalignment or defect mechanisms, which generically require an axion decay constant f_{a}∼O(10^{11})  GeV (or higher). We introduce a new cosmological origin for axion dark matter, parametric resonance from oscillations of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking field, that requires f_{a}∼(10^{8}-10^{11})  GeV. The axions may be warm enough to give deviations from cold dark matter in large scale structure.

  3. QCD Axion Dark Matter with a Small Decay Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Raymond T.; Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    The QCD axion is a good dark matter candidate. The observed dark matter abundance can arise from misalignment or defect mechanisms, which generically require an axion decay constant fa˜O (1011) GeV (or higher). We introduce a new cosmological origin for axion dark matter, parametric resonance from oscillations of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking field, that requires fa˜(108- 1011) GeV . The axions may be warm enough to give deviations from cold dark matter in large scale structure.

  4. Relaxing neutrino mass bounds by a running cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, F.; Schrempp, L.

    2007-11-01

    We establish an indirect link between relic neutrinos and the dark energy sector which originates from the vacuum energy contributions of the neutrino quantum fields. Via renormalization group effects they induce a running of the cosmological constant with time which dynamically influences the evolution of the cosmic neutrino background. We demonstrate that the resulting reduction of the relic neutrino abundance allows to largely evade current cosmological neutrino mass bounds and discuss how the scenario might be probed by the help of future large scale structure surveys and Planck data. (orig.)

  5. Rippled cosmological dark matter from a damped oscillating Newton constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Aharon

    2005-01-01

    Let the reciprocal Newton 'constant' be an apparently non-dynamical Brans-Dicke scalar field damped oscillating towards its general relativistic VEV. We show, without introducing additional matter fields or dust, that the corresponding cosmological evolution averagely resembles, in the Jordan frame, the familiar dark radiation → dark matter → dark energy domination sequence. The fingerprints of our theory are fine ripples, hopefully testable, in the FRW scale factor; they die away at the general relativity limit. The possibility that the Brans-Dicke scalar also serves as the inflaton is favourably examined

  6. Child Behavior Checklist Juvenile Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-JBD) and CBCL Posttraumatic Stress Problems (CBCL-PTSP) Scales Are Measures of a Single Dysregulatory Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Lynsay; Althoff, Robert; Ivanova, Masha; Rettew, David; Waxler, Ellen; Sulman, Julie; Hudziak, James

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Child Behavior Checklist Juvenile Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-JBD) profile and Posttraumatic Stress Problems (CBCL-PTSP) scale have been used to assess juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. However, their validity is questionable according to previous research. Both measures are…

  7. Rapid and accurate determination of Stern-Volmer quenching constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodpaster, John V.; McGuffin, Victoria L.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a novel system has been designed, characterized, and validated for the determination of fluorescence quenching constants. Capillary flow injection methods are used to automate the preparation and mixing of the fluorophore and quencher solutions. Because of the small diameter of the capillary (75-200 μm), fluorescence measurements can be made without corrections for primary and secondary absorbance effects. The fluorescence spectrometer is equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) that has a detection limit of 3.0x10 -9 M (2.3 ppb) and a linear dynamic range of 10 5 for integration times of 0.01-10 s. This spectrometer has a 300 nm spectral range with 1 nm resolution, allowing the fluorescence quenching constants to be calculated at single wavelengths or over integrated wavelength ranges. This system was validated by comparison to traditional methods for the determination of Stern-Volmer constants for alternant and nonalternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with nitromethane and triethylamine. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  8. Time constant of logarithmic creep and relaxation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2001-07-15

    Full Text Available length and hardness which vary logarithmically with time. For dimensional reasons, a logarithmic variation must involve a time constant tau characteristic of the process, so that the deformation is proportional to ln(t/tau). Two distinct mechanisms...

  9. The Nature of the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M. D.; Capistrano, A. J. S.; Monte, E. M.

    General relativity postulates the Minkowski space-time as the standard (flat) geometry against which we compare all curved space-times and also as the gravitational ground state where particles, quantum fields and their vacua are defined. On the other hand, experimental evidences tell that there exists a non-zero cosmological constant, which implies in a deSitter ground state, which not compatible with the assumed Minkowski structure. Such inconsistency is an evidence of the missing standard of curvature in Riemann's geometry, which in general relativity manifests itself in the form of the cosmological constant problem. We show how the lack of a curvature standard in Riemann's geometry can be fixed by Nash's theorem on metric perturbations. The resulting higher dimensional gravitational theory is more general than general relativity, similar to brane-world gravity, but where the propagation of the gravitational field along the extra dimensions is a mathematical necessity, rather than a postulate. After a brief introduction to Nash's theorem, we show that the vacuum energy density must remain confined to four-dimensional space-times, but the cosmological constant resulting from the contracted Bianchi identity represents a gravitational term which is not confined. In this case, the comparison between the vacuum energy and the cosmological constant in general relativity does not make sense. Instead, the geometrical fix provided by Nash's theorem suggests that the vacuum energy density contributes to the perturbations of the gravitational field.

  10. A Memorandum Report: Physical Constants of MCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    the density and surface tension. In effect, this constant is a corrected molar volume = P = MS / = S / where P = Parachor M = molar volume ...3 3. Vapor Pressure of MCE Calculated from the Experimental Data by Method of Least Squares...values were obtained by averaging the determinations for each sample separately, and then averaging those values. **No average was calculated due to

  11. Study on electromagnetic constants of rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurazakov, A.A.; Adib, Yu.Sh.; Karakhodzhaev, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Values of electromagnetic constant S and rotation bands of odd nuclei with Z=64-70 within the mass number change interval A=153-173 are determined. Values of γ-transition mixing parameter with M1+E2 multipolarity are presented. ρ parameter dependence on mass number A is discussed

  12. Dissociative electron attachment to ozone: rate constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J.D.; Cicman, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    The rate constant for dissociative electron attachment to ozone has been derived over the energy range of 0-10 eV by using previously measured cross section data revisited here in regards to discrimination effect occurring during the extraction of ions. The obtained data for both possible channels exhibit the maximum at mean electron energies close to 1 eV. (author)

  13. Constant force linear permanent magnet actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Encica, L.; Meessen, K.J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In applications, such as vibration isolation, gravity compensation, pick-and-place machines, etc., there is a need for (long-stroke) passive constant force actuators combined with tubular permanent magnet actuators to minimize the power consumption, hence, passively counteract the gravitational

  14. Lifetime of titanium filament at constant current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Lanni, C.

    1981-01-01

    Titanium Sublimation Pump (TSP) represents the most efficient and the least expensive method to produce Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) in storage rings. In ISABELLE, a proton storage accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, for example, TSP provides a pumping speed for hydrogen of > 2 x 10 6 l/s. Due to the finite life of titanium filaments, new filaments have to be switched in before the end of filament burn out, to ensure smooth operation of the accelerator. Therefore, several operational modes that can be used to activate the TSP were studied. The constant current mode is a convenient way of maintaining constant evaporating rate by increasing the power input while the filament diameter decreases as titanium evaporates. The filaments used in this experiment were standard Varian 916-0024 filaments made of Ti 85%, Mo 15% alloy. During their lifetime at a constant current of 48 amperes, the evaporation rate rose to a maximum at about 10% of their life and then flattened out to a constant value, 0.25 g/hr. The maximum evaporation rate occurs coincidently with the recrystallization of 74% Ti 26% Mo 2 from microstructure crystalline at higher titanium concentration to macrostructure crystalline at lower titanium concentration. As the macrocrystal grows, the slip plane develops at the grain boundary resulting in high resistance at the slip plane which will eventually cause the filament burn out due to local heating

  15. Far field photoluminescence imaging of single AlGaN nanowire in the sub-wavelength scale using confinement of polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivadasan, A.K.; Dhara, Sandip [Nanomaterials and Sensors Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Sardar, Manas [Theoretical Studies Section, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-03-15

    Till now the nanoscale focusing and imaging in the sub-diffraction limit is achieved mainly with the help of plasmonic field enhancement by confining the light assisted with noble metal nanostructures. Using far field imaging technique, we have recorded polarized spectroscopic photoluminescence (PL) imaging of a single AlGaN nanowire (NW) of diameter ∝100 nm using confinement of polarized light. It is found that the PL from a single NW is influenced by the proximity to other NWs. The PL intensity is proportional to 1/(l x d), where l and d are the average NW length and separation between the NWs, respectively. We suggest that the proximity induced PL intensity enhancement can be understood by assuming the existence of reasonably long lived photons in the intervening space between the NWs. A nonzero non-equilibrium population of such photons may cause stimulated emission leading to the enhancement of PL emission with the intensity proportional to 1/(l x d). The enhancement of PL emission facilitates far field spectroscopic imaging of a single semiconductor AlGaN NW of sub-wavelength dimension. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. The contrasting roles of Planck's constant in classical and quantum theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2018-04-01

    We trace the historical appearance of Planck's constant in physics, and we note that initially the constant did not appear in connection with quanta. Furthermore, we emphasize that Planck's constant can appear in both classical and quantum theories. In both theories, Planck's constant sets the scale of atomic phenomena. However, the roles played in the foundations of the theories are sharply different. In quantum theory, Planck's constant is crucial to the structure of the theory. On the other hand, in classical electrodynamics, Planck's constant is optional, since it appears only as the scale factor for the (homogeneous) source-free contribution to the general solution of Maxwell's equations. Since classical electrodynamics can be solved while taking the homogenous source-free contribution in the solution as zero or non-zero, there are naturally two different theories of classical electrodynamics, one in which Planck's constant is taken as zero and one where it is taken as non-zero. The textbooks of classical electromagnetism present only the version in which Planck's constant is taken to vanish.

  17. Critical behavior of the dielectric constant in asymmetric fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, C E; Sengers, J V; Anisimov, M A

    2011-12-08

    By applying a thermodynamic theory that incorporates the concept of complete scaling, we derive the asymptotic temperature dependence of the critical behavior of the dielectric constant above the critical temperature along the critical isochore and below the critical temperature along the coexistence curve. The amplitudes of the singular terms in the temperature expansions are related to the changes of the critical temperature and the critical chemical potential upon the introduction of an electric field. The results of the thermodynamic theory are then compared with the critical behavior implied by the classical Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The Clausius-Mossotti approximation fails to account for any singular temperature dependence of the dielectric constant above the critical temperature. Below the critical temperature it produces an apparent asymmetric critical behavior with singular terms similar to those implied by the thermodynamic theory, but with significantly different coefficients. We conclude that the Clausius-Mossotti approximation only can account for the observed asymptotic critical behavior of the dielectric constant when the dependence of the critical temperature on the electric field is negligibly small. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. How universe evolves with cosmological and gravitational constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She-Sheng Xue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With a basic varying space–time cutoff ℓ˜, we study a regularized and quantized Einstein–Cartan gravitational field theory and its domains of ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir≳0 and ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv≈4/3 of the gravitational gauge coupling g=(4/3G/GNewton. Because the fundamental operators of quantum gravitational field theory are dimension-2 area operators, the cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the squared correlation length Λ∝ξ−2. The correlation length ξ characterizes an infrared size of a causally correlate patch of the universe. The cosmological constant Λ and the gravitational constant G are related by a generalized Bianchi identity. As the basic space–time cutoff ℓ˜ decreases and approaches to the Planck length ℓpl, the universe undergoes inflation in the domain of the ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir, then evolves to the low-redshift universe in the domain of ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv. We give the quantitative description of the low-redshift universe in the scaling-invariant domain of the ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv, and its deviation from the ΛCDM can be examined by low-redshift (z≲1 cosmological observations, such as supernova Type Ia.

  19. Single-step electron transfer on the nanometer scale: ultra-fast charge shift in strongly coupled zinc porphyrin-gold porphyrin dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortage, Jérôme; Boixel, Julien; Blart, Errol; Hammarström, Leif; Becker, Hans Christian; Odobel, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, electrochemical properties, and photoinduced electron transfer processes of a series of three novel zinc(II)-gold(III) bisporphyrin dyads (ZnP--S--AuP(+)) are described. The systems studied consist of two trisaryl porphyrins connected directly in the meso position via an alkyne unit to tert-(phenylenethynylene) or penta(phenylenethynylene) spacers. In these dyads, the estimated center to center interporphyrin separation distance varies from 32 to 45 A. The absorption, emission, and electrochemical data indicate that there are strong electronic interactions between the linked elements, thanks to the direct attachment of the spacer on the porphyrin ring through the alkyne unit. At room temperature in toluene, light excitation of the zinc porphyrin results in almost quantitative formation of the charge shifted state (.+)ZnP--S--AuP(.), whose lifetime is in the order of hundreds of picoseconds. In this solvent, the charge-separated state decays to the ground state through the intermediate population of the zinc porphyrin triplet excited state. Excitation of the gold porphyrin leads instead to rapid energy transfer to the triplet ZnP. In dichloromethane the charge shift reactions are even faster, with time constants down to 2 ps, and may be induced also by excitation of the gold porphyrin. In this latter solvent, the longest charge-shifted lifetime (tau=2.3 ns) was obtained with the penta-(phenylenethynylene) spacer. The charge shift reactions are discussed in terms of bridge-mediated super-exchange mechanisms as electron or hole transfer. These new bis-porphyrin arrays, with strong electronic coupling, represent interesting molecular systems in which extremely fast and efficient long-range photoinduced charge shift occurs over a long distance. The rate constants are two to three orders of magnitude larger than for corresponding ZnP--AuP(+) dyads linked via meso-phenyl groups to oligo-phenyleneethynylene spacers. This study demonstrates the critical

  20. Single-grain 40Ar-39Ar ages of glauconies: implications for the geologic time scale and global sea level variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith; Evensen; York; Odin

    1998-03-06

    The mineral series glaucony supplies 40% of the absolute-age database for the geologic time scale of the last 250 million years. However, glauconies have long been suspected of giving young potassium-argon ages on bulk samples. Laser-probe argon-argon dating shows that glaucony populations comprise grains with a wide range of ages, suggesting a period of genesis several times longer ( approximately 5 million years) than previously thought. An estimate of the age of their enclosing sediments (and therefore of time scale boundaries) is given by the oldest nonrelict grains in the glaucony populations, whereas the formation times of the younger grains appear to be modulated by global sea level.