WorldWideScience

Sample records for single sample analysis

  1. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  2. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  3. Sampling and single particle analysis for the chemical characterisation of fine atmospheric particulates: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Michele; Gasparon, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    To better understand the potential environmental and human health impacts of fine airborne particulate matter (APM), detailed physical and chemical characterisation is required. The only means to accurately distinguish between the multiple compositions in APM is by single particle analysis. A variety of methods and instruments are available, which range from filter-based sample collection for off-line laboratory analysis to on-line instruments that detect the airborne particles and generate size distribution and chemical data in real time. There are many reasons for sampling particulates in the ambient atmosphere and as a consequence, different measurement strategies and sampling devices are used depending on the scientific objectives and subsequent analytical techniques. This review is designed as a guide to some of the techniques available for the sampling and subsequent chemical analysis of individual inorganic particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zooplankton diversity analysis through single-gene sequencing of a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Mutsumi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth's surface and are critical for the homeostasis of the environment. Among the components of the ocean ecosystem, zooplankton play vital roles in energy and matter transfer through the system. Despite their importance, understanding of zooplankton biodiversity is limited because of their fragile nature, small body size, and the large number of species from various taxonomic phyla. Here we present the results of single-gene zooplankton community analysis using a method that determines a large number of mitochondrial COI gene sequences from a bulk zooplankton sample. This approach will enable us to estimate the species richness of almost the entire zooplankton community. Results A sample was collected from a depth of 721 m to the surface in the western equatorial Pacific off Pohnpei Island, Micronesia, with a plankton net equipped with a 2-m2 mouth opening. A total of 1,336 mitochondrial COI gene sequences were determined from the cDNA library made from the sample. From the determined sequences, the occurrence of 189 species of zooplankton was estimated. BLASTN search results showed high degrees of similarity (>98% between the query and database for 10 species, including holozooplankton and merozooplankton. Conclusion In conjunction with the Census of Marine Zooplankton and Barcode of Life projects, single-gene zooplankton community analysis will be a powerful tool for estimating the species richness of zooplankton communities.

  5. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  6. A single lysis solution for the analysis of tissue samples by different proteomic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, P.; Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    -based proteomics (reverse-phase lysate arrays or direct antibody arrays), allowing the direct comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yielded by these technologies when applied to the same samples. The usefulness of the CLB1 solution for gel-based proteomics was further established by 2D PAGE analysis...... taken place in molecular biology, cell biology and genomics there is a pressing need to accelerate the translation of basic discoveries into clinical applications. This need, compounded by mounting evidence that cellular model systems are unable to fully recapitulate all biological aspects of human...... dissease, is driving scientists to increasingly use clinically relevant samples for biomarker and target discovery. Tissues are heterogeneous and as a result optimization of sample preparation is critical for generating accurate, representative, and highly reproducible quantitative data. Although a large...

  7. A Simple Fractionated Extraction Method for the Comprehensive Analysis of Metabolites, Lipids, and Proteins from a Single Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed; Bernach, Michal; Bajdzienko, Krzysztof; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Understanding of complex biological systems requires the measurement, analysis and integration of multiple compound classes of the living cell, usually determined by transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic measurements. In this protocol, we introduce a simple method for the reproducible extraction of metabolites, lipids and proteins from biological tissues using a single aliquot per sample. The extraction method is based on a methyl tert-butyl ether: methanol: water system for liquid: liquid partitioning of hydrophobic and polar metabolites into two immiscible phases along with the precipitation of proteins and other macromolecules as a solid pellet. This method, therefore, provides three different fractions of specific molecular composition, which are fully compatible with common high throughput 'omics' technologies such as liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometers. Even though the method was initially developed for the analysis of different plant tissue samples, it has proved to be fully compatible for the extraction and analysis of biological samples from systems as diverse as algae, insects, and mammalian tissues and cell cultures.

  8. Optimization of plasma sampling depth and aerosol gas flow rates for single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálomista, Ildikó; Kéri, Albert; Galbács, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    We performed experiments to assess the separate and also the combined effect of the sampling depth and the aerosol gas flow rates on the signal formation in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) measurements by using dispersions containing Ag and Au NPs. It was found that the NP signal can significantly be improved by the optimization of the sampling depth. With respect to the "robust" setting, a signal improvement of nearly 100% could be achieved, which translates into a 25-30% improvement in size detection limits. It was also found that the shape of the spICP-MS signal histograms also change with the change of the plasma sampling depth. It was demonstrated that nanoparticle peak separation can also be significantly enhanced by using sampling depth optimization. The effect of the aerosol dilution gas flow, now standard in most ICP-MS instruments, on the spICP-MS signal formation was also studied for the first time in the literature, as this flow was hoped to make spICP-MS measurements more practical and faster via the on-line dilution of the aerosol generated from nano-dispersions. Our experimental results revealed that the dilution gas flow can only be used for a moderate aerosol dilution in spICP-MS measurements, if the gas flow going to the pneumatic nebulizer is proportionally lowered at the same time. This however was found to cause a significant worsening in the operation of the sample introduction system, which gives rise to a strong NP signal loss. Thus it was concluded that the use of the aerosol dilution gas flow, in its present form, can not be suggested for spICP-MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  10. Single Particle-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy Analysis of Metallic Nanoparticles in Environmental Samples with Large Dissolved Analyte Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertfeger, D M; Velicogna, Jessica R; Jesmer, Alexander H; Scroggins, Richard P; Princz, Juliska I

    2016-10-18

    There is an increasing interest to use single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (SP-ICPMS) to help quantify exposure to engineered nanoparticles, and their transformation products, released into the environment. Hindering the use of this analytical technique for environmental samples is the presence of high levels of dissolved analyte which impedes resolution of the particle signal from the dissolved. While sample dilution is often necessary to achieve the low analyte concentrations necessary for SP-ICPMS analysis, and to reduce the occurrence of matrix effects on the analyte signal, it is used here to also reduce the dissolved signal relative to the particulate, while maintaining a matrix chemistry that promotes particle stability. We propose a simple, systematic dilution series approach where by the first dilution is used to quantify the dissolved analyte, the second is used to optimize the particle signal, and the third is used as an analytical quality control. Using simple suspensions of well characterized Au and Ag nanoparticles spiked with the dissolved analyte form, as well as suspensions of complex environmental media (i.e., extracts from soils previously contaminated with engineered silver nanoparticles), we show how this dilution series technique improves resolution of the particle signal which in turn improves the accuracy of particle counts, quantification of particulate mass and determination of particle size. The technique proposed here is meant to offer a systematic and reproducible approach to the SP-ICPMS analysis of environmental samples and improve the quality and consistency of data generated from this relatively new analytical tool.

  11. Sample preparation for semivolatile organics analysis of Hanford single-shell tank waste with high nitrate/nitrite and water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromatt, R.W.; Hoppe, E.W.; Steele, M.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes research work carried out to solve sample preparation problems associated with applying gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS) to the analysis of single shell tank (SST) samples from Hanford for semivolatile organic compounds. Poor performance was found when applying the procedures based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Contract Laboratory Program, Statement of Work (CLP SOW). Analysis work was carried out on simulated drainable liquid modeled after the SST core samples which had evidenced analysis problems. Some work was also conducted on true SST samples. It was found that the pH range was too broad in the original procedure. It was also found that by decreasing the amount of methanol used in the extraction process, problems associated with the formation of an azeotrope phase could be avoided. The authors suggest a new procedure, whose eventual application to a wide array of SST samples will lend itself to better quality control limits

  12. Forensic Sampling and Analysis from a Single Substrate: Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Followed by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedick, Patrick W; Bills, Brandon J; Manicke, Nicholas E; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-10-17

    Sample preparation is the most common bottleneck in the analysis and processing of forensic evidence. Time-consuming steps in many forensic tests involve complex separations, such as liquid and gas chromatography or various types of extraction techniques, typically coupled with mass spectrometry (e.g., LC-MS). Ambient ionization ameliorates these slow steps by reducing or even eliminating sample preparation. While some ambient ionization techniques have been adopted by the forensic community, there is significant resistance to discarding chromatography as most forensic analyses require both an identification and a confirmation technique. Here, we describe the use of a paper substrate, the surface of which has been inkjet printed with silver nanoparticles, for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The same substrate can also act as the paper substrate for paper spray mass spectrometry. The coupling of SERS and paper spray ionization creates a quick, forensically feasible combination.

  13. Environmental Stress Testing of the Single Sample Cylinder: A Proven Consensus Standard for Internal Gas Analysis (IGA) or Residual Gas Analysis (RGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Philipp WH

    2010-01-01

    In August 2008, Schuessler Consulting was contracted by NASA GSFC in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program to perform two separate studies on moisture laden air in a stainless steel cylinder that had been designed to become a consensus standard for Test Method 1018. This Test Method was originally released for hybrids under Mil. Std. 883 but was quickly utilized on other microelectronic devices under the auspice of Mil. Std. 750. The cylinder had subsequently been fabricated for the 750 community. It was back-filled with moist air and subsequently analyzed over a period of time under a previous NASA contract. It had been shown that moisture in the 4000 - 5000 ppm range could be analyzed rather precisely with a mass spectrometer, commonly referred to as a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). The scope of this study was to ascertain if the composition and precision varied as a function of thermal shock at sub-zero temperatures and whether there was consensus when the standard was submitted to other RGA units. It was demonstrated and published that the consensus standard would yield precise RGA data for moisture within +/- 1% when optimized for a given RGA unit. It has been subsequently shown in this study at Oneida Research Services, that sub-zero storage did not affect that precision when a well-defined protocol for the analysis was followed. The consensus standard was taken to a second facility for analysis where it was found that moisture adsorption on the transfer lines caused precision to drop to +/- 12%. The Single Sample Cylinder (SSC) is a one liter stainless steel cylinder with associated sampling valves and has considerable weight and volume. But this considerable size allows for approximately 300 gas samples of the same composition to be delivered to any RGA unit. Lastly, a smaller cylinder, approximately 75 cc, of a second consensus standard was fabricated and tested with a different mix of fixed gases where moisture was kept in the

  14. Improved methodology for identification of protists and microalgae from plankton samples preserved in Lugol's iodine solution: combining microscopic analysis with single-cell PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Barbara M; Pfandl, Karin; Boenigk, Jens

    2008-04-01

    Here we introduce a method for quantitative analysis of planktonic protists and microalgae from preserved field samples combining morphological and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence analysis. We linked a microscopic screening with PCR of single cells using field samples preserved with Lugol's iodine solution. Cells possessing a rigid cell wall were incubated with Viscozyme and subsequently with proteinase K for cell disruption; this was unnecessary for fragile cells. The addition of sodium thiosulfate to the PCR tube considerably decreased the inhibiting effect of the fixative (iodine) on the PCR and thus allowed for successful single-cell PCR even of long DNA fragments (up to as many as 3,000 base pairs). We further applied the protocol to investigate the dominant SSU rRNA genotypes in distinct flagellate morphospecies originating from different samples. We hypothesized that despite the morphological similarity, protist morphospecies in different habitats or sampled during different seasons are represented by different genotypes. Our results indicate species-specific differences: the two species Ochromonas sp. and Dinobryon divergens were represented by several different genotypes each, and for the latter species, the dominating genotype differed with habitat. In contrast, Dinobryon pediforme, Dinobryon bavaricum, and Synura sphagnicola were exclusively represented by a single genotype each, and the respective genotype was the same in different samples. In summary, our results highlight the significance of molecular variation within protist morphospecies.

  15. Improved Methodology for Identification of Protists and Microalgae from Plankton Samples Preserved in Lugol's Iodine Solution: Combining Microscopic Analysis with Single-Cell PCR▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Barbara M.; Pfandl, Karin; Boenigk, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Here we introduce a method for quantitative analysis of planktonic protists and microalgae from preserved field samples combining morphological and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence analysis. We linked a microscopic screening with PCR of single cells using field samples preserved with Lugol's iodine solution. Cells possessing a rigid cell wall were incubated with Viscozyme and subsequently with proteinase K for cell disruption; this was unnecessary for fragile cells. The addition of sodium thiosulfate to the PCR tube considerably decreased the inhibiting effect of the fixative (iodine) on the PCR and thus allowed for successful single-cell PCR even of long DNA fragments (up to as many as 3,000 base pairs). We further applied the protocol to investigate the dominant SSU rRNA genotypes in distinct flagellate morphospecies originating from different samples. We hypothesized that despite the morphological similarity, protist morphospecies in different habitats or sampled during different seasons are represented by different genotypes. Our results indicate species-specific differences: the two species Ochromonas sp. and Dinobryon divergens were represented by several different genotypes each, and for the latter species, the dominating genotype differed with habitat. In contrast, Dinobryon pediforme, Dinobryon bavaricum, and Synura sphagnicola were exclusively represented by a single genotype each, and the respective genotype was the same in different samples. In summary, our results highlight the significance of molecular variation within protist morphospecies. PMID:18296536

  16. A disposable screen-printed silver strip sensor for single drop analysis of halide in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hsin; Cheng, Wan-Ling; Muthuraman, Govindan; Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Chung, Hsieh-Hsun; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2009-06-15

    A screen-printed silver strip with three-electrode configuration of Ag-working, Ag-counter and Ag/Ag(x)O reference electrodes was developed for simultaneous determination of chloride, bromide and iodide in aqueous solutions. It was fabricated simply by screen-printing silver ink onto a polypropylene (PP) base. The in-situ prepared Ag/Ag(x)O reference electrode can avoid the leaching interference in chloride detection while using a conventional Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A single drop of analyte (50 microl) is enough to determine iodide, bromide and chloride by measuring the well-separated oxidation peak currents of respective silver halides. The calibration graph was linear from 10 microM to 20 mM for iodide and bromide and 100 microM to 20 mM for chloride and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.05 microM, 2.95 microM and 18.83 microM for iodide, bromide and chloride, respectively. The strip is designed to be disposable and as such manual polishing is not necessary. The proposed sensor is not only simple to manufacture and easy to operate but also fast and precise with little detection volume. It is successfully applied to the determination of halide ions in real samples.

  17. Relative effectiveness of kinetic analysis vs single point readings for classifying environmental samples based on community-level physiological profiles (CLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Mills, A. L.; Young, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of average-well-color-development-normalized single-point absorbance readings (AWCD) vs the kinetic parameters mu(m), lambda, A, and integral (AREA) of the modified Gompertz equation fit to the color development curve resulting from reduction of a redox sensitive dye from microbial respiration of 95 separate sole carbon sources in microplate wells was compared for a dilution series of rhizosphere samples from hydroponically grown wheat and potato ranging in inoculum densities of 1 x 10(4)-4 x 10(6) cells ml-1. Patterns generated with each parameter were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) to test relative resolving power. Samples of equivalent cell density (undiluted samples) were correctly classified by rhizosphere type for all parameters based on DFA analysis of the first five PC scores. Analysis of undiluted and 1:4 diluted samples resulted in misclassification of at least two of the wheat samples for all parameters except the AWCD normalized (0.50 abs. units) data, and analysis of undiluted, 1:4, and 1:16 diluted samples resulted in misclassification for all parameter types. Ordination of samples along the first principal component (PC) was correlated to inoculum density in analyses performed on all of the kinetic parameters, but no such influence was seen for AWCD-derived results. The carbon sources responsible for classification differed among the variable types with the exception of AREA and A, which were strongly correlated. These results indicate that the use of kinetic parameters for pattern analysis in CLPP may provide some additional information, but only if the influence of inoculum density is carefully considered. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards diffractive imaging with single pulses of FEL radiation. Dynamics within irradiatied samples and their influence on the analysis of imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenglin

    2010-08-01

    3D single particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) of bioparticles (such as proteins, macromolecules and viruses) is one of the main possible applications of the new generation of light sources: free-electron lasers (FELs), which are now available at FLASH (Hamburg, Germany) and LCLS (Stanford, U.S.A.). The extremely bright and ultrashort FEL pulses potentially enable CDI to achieve high resolution down to subnanometer length scale. However, intense FEL pulses cause serious radiation damage in bioparticles, even during single shots, which may set the resolution limits for CDI with FELs. Currently, since the signal-to-noise ratio is very low for small biological particles, direct experimental study of radiation damage in the single particle imaging is fairly difficult. Single atomic (noble gas) clusters become good objects to reveal effects of radiation damage processes on CDI with FEL radiation. This thesis studies three aspects of the radiation damage problem, which are treated in three independent chapters: (1) Molecular Dynamics simulations to quantitively describe radiation damage processes within irradiated atomic clusters during single pulses; (2) reconstruction analysis of single-shot CDI diffraction patterns of atomic clusters, which may potentially help to understand the radiation damage occurring in biological samples; and (3) testing the effects of coating water layers in CDI, which is supposed to minimize the radiation damage in irradiated bioparticles. (orig.)

  19. Towards diffractive imaging with single pulses of FEL radiation. Dynamics within irradiatied samples and their influence on the analysis of imaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fenglin

    2010-08-15

    3D single particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) of bioparticles (such as proteins, macromolecules and viruses) is one of the main possible applications of the new generation of light sources: free-electron lasers (FELs), which are now available at FLASH (Hamburg, Germany) and LCLS (Stanford, U.S.A.). The extremely bright and ultrashort FEL pulses potentially enable CDI to achieve high resolution down to subnanometer length scale. However, intense FEL pulses cause serious radiation damage in bioparticles, even during single shots, which may set the resolution limits for CDI with FELs. Currently, since the signal-to-noise ratio is very low for small biological particles, direct experimental study of radiation damage in the single particle imaging is fairly difficult. Single atomic (noble gas) clusters become good objects to reveal effects of radiation damage processes on CDI with FEL radiation. This thesis studies three aspects of the radiation damage problem, which are treated in three independent chapters: (1) Molecular Dynamics simulations to quantitively describe radiation damage processes within irradiated atomic clusters during single pulses; (2) reconstruction analysis of single-shot CDI diffraction patterns of atomic clusters, which may potentially help to understand the radiation damage occurring in biological samples; and (3) testing the effects of coating water layers in CDI, which is supposed to minimize the radiation damage in irradiated bioparticles. (orig.)

  20. Prediction of the systemic exposure to oral 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin using single-sample analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, A.; de Jonge, M. J.; Punt, C. J.; Loos, W. J.; Nooter, K.; Stoter, G.; Porro, M. G.; Verweij, J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate limited-sampling strategies for prediction of the area under the plasma-concentration time curves (AUCs) of the lactone and total (i. e., lactone plus carboxylate) forms of the novel topoisomerase-I inhibitor 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin (9-AC).

  1. Prediction of the systemic exposure to oral 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin using single-sample analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sparreboom (Alex); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); C.J.A. Punt (Cornelis); W.J. Loos (Walter); K. Nooter (Kees); G. Stoter (Gerrit); M.G. Porro; J. Verweij (Jaap)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to develop and validate limited-sampling strategies for prediction of the area under the plasma-concentration time curves (AUCs) of the lactone and total (i. e., lactone plus carboxylate) forms of the novel topoisomerase-I

  2. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  3. Analysis of monazite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartiwa Sumadi; Yayah Rohayati

    1996-01-01

    The 'monazit' analytical program has been set up for routine work of Rare Earth Elements analysis in the monazite and xenotime minerals samples. Total relative error of the analysis is very low, less than 2.50%, and the reproducibility of counting statistic and stability of the instrument were very excellent. The precision and accuracy of the analytical program are very good with the maximum percentage relative are 5.22% and 1.61%, respectively. The mineral compositions of the 30 monazite samples have been also calculated using their chemical constituents, and the results were compared to the grain counting microscopic analysis

  4. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

    2007-02-09

    Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

  5. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  6. High throughput and accurate serum proteome profiling by integrated sample preparation technology and single-run data independent mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yu, Quan; Chen, Wendong; Xing, Jinchun; Chen, Chenxi; Tian, Ruijun

    2018-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based serum proteome analysis is extremely challenging due to its high complexity and dynamic range of protein abundances. Developing high throughput and accurate serum proteomic profiling approach capable of analyzing large cohorts is urgently needed for biomarker discovery. Herein, we report a streamlined workflow for fast and accurate proteomic profiling from 1μL of blood serum. The workflow combined an integrated technique for highly sensitive and reproducible sample preparation and a new data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based MS method. Comparing with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) approach, the optimized DIA method doubled the number of detected peptides and proteins with better reproducibility. Without protein immunodepletion and prefractionation, the single-run DIA analysis enables quantitative profiling of over 300 proteins with 50min gradient time. The quantified proteins span more than five orders of magnitude of abundance range and contain over 50 FDA-approved disease markers. The workflow allowed us to analyze 20 serum samples per day, with about 358 protein groups per sample being identified. A proof-of-concept study on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) serum samples confirmed the feasibility of the workflow for large scale serum proteomic profiling and disease-related biomarker discovery. Blood serum or plasma is the predominant specimen for clinical proteomic studies while the analysis is extremely challenging for its high complexity. Many efforts had been made in the past for serum proteomics for maximizing protein identifications, whereas few have been concerned with throughput and reproducibility. Here, we establish a rapid, robust and high reproducible DIA-based workflow for streamlined serum proteomic profiling from 1μL serum. The workflow doesn't need protein depletion and pre-fractionation, while still being able to detect disease-relevant proteins accurately. The workflow is promising in clinical application

  7. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  8. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  9. Revisiting sample entropy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, R. B.; Wilson, J. D.; Eswaran, H.; Lowery, C. L.; Preißl, H.

    2007-03-01

    We modify the definition of sample entropy (SaEn) by incorporating a time delay between the components of the block (from which the densities are estimated) and show that the modified method characterizes the complexity of the system better than the original version. We apply the modified SaEn to the standard deterministic systems and stochastic processes (uncorrelated and long range correlated (LRC) processes) and show that the underlying complexity of the system is better quantified by the modified method. We extend this analysis to the RR intervals of the normal and congestive heart failure (CHF) subjects (available via www.physionet.org) and show that there is a good degree of separation between the two groups.

  10. Analysis of metal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez T, J.J.; Lopez M, J.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    An elemental analysis, metallographic and of phases was realized in order to determine the oxidation states of Fe contained in three metallic pieces: block, plate and cylinder of unknown material. Results are presented from the elemental analysis which was carried out in the Tandem Accelerator of ININ by Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The phase analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction which allowed to know the type of alloy or alloys formed. The combined application of nuclear techniques with metallographic techniques allows the integral characterization of industrial metals. (Author)

  11. a comparison between the use of single and composite samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr F Neser

    A comparison between single and composite milk samples for the genetic evaluation of milk composition in dairy cattle ... Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme replaced composite sampling with a single sample in 1995. The implementation of the new Scheme was ... Materials and methods. To obtain information on the ...

  12. A Single Platinum Microelectrode for Identifying Soft Drink Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammograms recorded with a single platinum microelectrode were used along with a non-supervised pattern recognition, namely, Principal Component Analysis, to conduct a qualitative analysis of sixteen different brands of carbonated soft drinks (Kuat, Soda Antarctica, H2OH!, Sprite 2.0, Guarana Antarctica, Guarana Antarctica Zero, Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Plus, Pepsi, Pepsi Light, Pepsi Twist, Pepsi Twist Light, Pepsi Twist 3, Schin Cola, and Classic Dillar’s. In this analysis, soft drink samples were not subjected to pre-treatment. Good differentiation among all the analysed soft drinks was achieved using the voltammetric data. An analysis of the loading plots shows that the potentials of −0.65 V, −0.4 V, 0.4 V, and 0.750 V facilitated the discrimination process. The electrochemical processes related to this potential are the reduction of hydrogen ions and inhibition of the platinum oxidation by the caffeine adsorption on the electrode surface. Additionally, the single platinum microelectrode was useful for the quality control of the soft drink samples, as it helped to identify the time at which the beverage was opened.

  13. Uranium-233 analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, R.A.; Ballou, J.E.; Case, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Two liquid scintillation techniques were compared for 233 U analysis: a two-phase extraction system (D2EHPA) developed by Keough and Powers, 1970, for Pu analysis; and a single-phase emulsion system (TT21) that holds the total sample in suspension with the scintillator. The first system (D2EHPA) was superior in reducing background (two- to threefold) and in accommodating a larger sample volume (fivefold). Samples containing > 50 mg/ml of slats were not extracted quantitatively by D2EHPA

  14. A single-sampling hair trap for mesocarnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan N. Pauli; Matthew B. Hamilton; Edward B. Crain; Steven W. Buskirk

    2007-01-01

    Although techniques to analyze and quantifY DNA-based data have progressed, methods to noninvasively collect samples lag behind. Samples are generally collected from devices that permit coincident sampling of multiple individuals. Because of cross-contamination, substantive genotyping errors can arise. We developed a cost-effective (US$4.60/trap) single-capture hair...

  15. Environmental sampling for trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Often too little attention is given to the sampling before and after actual instrumental measurement. This leads to errors, despite increasingly sensitive analytical systems. This is one of the first books to pay proper attention to representative sampling. It offers an overview of the most common techniques used today for taking environmental samples. The techniques are clearly presented, yield accurate and reproducible results and can be used to sample -air - water - soil and sediments - plants and animals. A comprehensive handbook, this volume provides an excellent starting point for researchers in the rapidly expanding field of environmental analysis. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of single biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of elemental information from single cultured cells using nuclear microscopy is an area of great potential because it can provide both quantitative information on the uptake of elements by the cell, and also its elemental response to a wide variety of external stimuli. A recent technique based on nuclear physics technology enables the analysis of single cells down to the parts per million level to be achieved

  17. GET electronics samples data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovinazzo, J.; Goigoux, T.; Anvar, S.; Baron, P.; Blank, B.; Delagnes, E.; Grinyer, G.F.; Pancin, J.; Pedroza, J.L.; Pibernat, J.; Pollacco, E.; Rebii, A.

    2016-01-01

    The General Electronics for TPCs (GET) has been developed to equip a generation of time projection chamber detectors for nuclear physics, and may also be used for a wider range of detector types. The goal of this paper is to propose first analysis procedures to be applied on raw data samples from the GET system, in order to correct for systematic effects observed on test measurements. We also present a method to estimate the response function of the GET system channels. The response function is required in analysis where the input signal needs to be reconstructed, in terms of time distribution, from the registered output samples.

  18. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  19. SWOT ANALYSIS ON SAMPLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIS ANCA OANA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Audit sampling involves the application of audit procedures to less than 100% of items within an account balance or class of transactions. Our article aims to study audit sampling in audit of financial statements. As an audit technique largely used, in both its statistical and nonstatistical form, the method is very important for auditors. It should be applied correctly for a fair view of financial statements, to satisfy the needs of all financial users. In order to be applied correctly the method must be understood by all its users and mainly by auditors. Otherwise the risk of not applying it correctly would cause loose of reputation and discredit, litigations and even prison. Since there is not a unitary practice and methodology for applying the technique, the risk of incorrectly applying it is pretty high. The SWOT analysis is a technique used that shows the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. We applied SWOT analysis in studying the sampling method, from the perspective of three players: the audit company, the audited entity and users of financial statements. The study shows that by applying the sampling method the audit company and the audited entity both save time, effort and money. The disadvantages of the method are difficulty in applying and understanding its insight. Being largely used as an audit method and being a factor of a correct audit opinion, the sampling method’s advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities must be understood by auditors.

  20. Single versus duplicate blood samples in ACTH stimulated adrenal vein sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, T.; Arntz, M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Deinum, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the preferred test for subtyping primary aldosteronism. However, the procedure is technically demanding and costly. In AVS it is common practice to take duplicate blood samples at each location. In this paper we explore whether a single sample procedure

  1. Multielemental analysis of milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Al-Dayel; Jameel Al-Hefne; Didarul A Chowdhury; Turki Al-Ajyan

    2002-01-01

    Milk is a basic food since it provides essential nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, Vitamins, enzymes). In fact, in formula milk essential elements have been usually added in order to satisfy nutritional requirements. However, too high additions of these elements can produce detrimental effects on human health. More important, milk can also constitute a source of exposure to toxic elements, especially dangerous for infants. Method is presented for the multielemental analysis of a wide range of elements in milk samples. The aim of this work is the development of a multielemental method for the analysis of major, minor and trace essential and toxic elements in milk. Several milk samples with different origins were collected from the Saudi Arabia markets and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). For preparation of the samples for analysis, they were digested by closed vessel microwave digestion system with H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 . About 40 elements were determined. A reference material was analysed for the validation of the proposed method. (Author)

  2. a comparison between the use of single and composite samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr F Neser

    South African Society for Animal Science. 44. A comparison between single and composite milk samples for the genetic evaluation of milk composition in dairy cattle. R. van Dyk1, F.W.C. Neser1# & F.H. Kanfer2. 1 Department of Animal Science, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

  3. Genomic Sequencing of Single Microbial Cells from Environmental Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishoey, Thomas; Woyke, Tanja; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Novotny, Mark; Lasken, Roger S.

    2008-02-01

    Recently developed techniques allow genomic DNA sequencing from single microbial cells [Lasken RS: Single-cell genomic sequencing using multiple displacement amplification, Curr Opin Microbiol 2007, 10:510-516]. Here, we focus on research strategies for putting these methods into practice in the laboratory setting. An immediate consequence of single-cell sequencing is that it provides an alternative to culturing organisms as a prerequisite for genomic sequencing. The microgram amounts of DNA required as template are amplified from a single bacterium by a method called multiple displacement amplification (MDA) avoiding the need to grow cells. The ability to sequence DNA from individual cells will likely have an immense impact on microbiology considering the vast numbers of novel organisms, which have been inaccessible unless culture-independent methods could be used. However, special approaches have been necessary to work with amplified DNA. MDA may not recover the entire genome from the single copy present in most bacteria. Also, some sequence rearrangements can occur during the DNA amplification reaction. Over the past two years many research groups have begun to use MDA, and some practical approaches to single-cell sequencing have been developed. We review the consensus that is emerging on optimum methods, reliability of amplified template, and the proper interpretation of 'composite' genomes which result from the necessity of combining data from several single-cell MDA reactions in order to complete the assembly. Preferred laboratory methods are considered on the basis of experience at several large sequencing centers where >70% of genomes are now often recovered from single cells. Methods are reviewed for preparation of bacterial fractions from environmental samples, single-cell isolation, DNA amplification by MDA, and DNA sequencing.

  4. Reliable single cell array CGH for clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew T Czyż

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated cancer cells (DCCs and circulating tumor cells (CTCs are extremely rare, but comprise the precursors cells of distant metastases or therapy resistant cells. The detailed molecular analysis of these cells may help to identify key events of cancer cell dissemination, metastatic colony formation and systemic therapy escape. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Ampli1™ whole genome amplification (WGA technology and high-resolution oligonucleotide aCGH microarrays we optimized conditions for the analysis of structural copy number changes. The protocol presented here enables reliable detection of numerical genomic alterations as small as 0.1 Mb in a single cell. Analysis of single cells from well-characterized cell lines and single normal cells confirmed the stringent quantitative nature of the amplification and hybridization protocol. Importantly, fixation and staining procedures used to detect DCCs showed no significant impact on the outcome of the analysis, proving the clinical usability of our method. In a proof-of-principle study we tracked the chromosomal changes of single DCCs over a full course of high-dose chemotherapy treatment by isolating and analyzing DCCs of an individual breast cancer patient at four different time points. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The protocol enables detailed genome analysis of DCCs and thereby assessment of the clonal evolution during the natural course of the disease and under selection pressures. The results from an exemplary patient provide evidence that DCCs surviving selective therapeutic conditions may be recruited from a pool of genomically less advanced cells, which display a stable subset of specific genomic alterations.

  5. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion.

  6. An automated image analysis framework for segmentation and division plane detection of single live Staphylococcus aureus cells which can operate at millisecond sampling time scales using bespoke Slimfield microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J. M.; Miller, Helen; Foster, Simon; Leake, Mark C.

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in cell strains such as Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Here we report an image analysis framework for automated detection and image segmentation of cells in S. aureus cell clusters, and explicit identification of their cell division planes. We use a new combination of several existing analytical tools of image analysis to detect cellular and subcellular morphological features relevant to cell division from millisecond time scale sampled images of live pathogens at a detection precision of single molecules. We demonstrate this approach using a fluorescent reporter GFP fused to the protein EzrA that localises to a mid-cell plane during division and is involved in regulation of cell size and division. This image analysis framework presents a valuable platform from which to study candidate new antimicrobials which target the cell division machinery, but may also have more general application in detecting morphologically complex structures of fluorescently labelled proteins present in clusters of other types of cells.

  7. Venus Suface Sampling and Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort is developing the technology to transfer particulate samples from a Venus drill (being developed by Honeybee Robotics in a Phase 2 Small Business...

  8. Single-Cell Genomic Analysis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual cells in an organism are variable, which strongly impacts cellular processes. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled single-cell genomic analysis to become widespread, addressing shortcomings of analyses conducted on populations of bulk cells. While the field of single-cell plant genomics is in its infancy, there is great potential to gain insights into cell lineage and functional cell types to help understand complex cellular interactions in plants. In this review, we discuss current approaches for single-cell plant genomic analysis, with a focus on single-cell isolation, DNA amplification, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. We outline the technical challenges of analysing material from a single plant cell, and then examine applications of single-cell genomics and the integration of this approach with genome editing. Finally, we indicate future directions we expect in the rapidly developing field of plant single-cell genomic analysis.

  9. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  10. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  11. Single-stage mass spectrometric analyses of resin bead samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. H.; Walker, R. L.; Bertram, L. K.; Carter, J. A.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium and uranium from dissolver solutions loaded on resin beads can be analyzed on single-stage mass spectrometers with little or no degradation of results provided proper care is exercised with regard to sample handling techniques. Additionally, storage of samples on resin beads is feasible for periods at least as long as six months provided the beads are not exposed to residual HNO/sub 3/ and air; it is probable that beads will retain their integrity much longer than six months when stored under collodion, but as yet no data to support this contention have been collected. Conventional or commercial mass spectrometers can readily be adapted to the resin bead technique by installing a pulse-counting detection system. The cost of such conversion will vary depending on whether or not a data acquisition system will be needed. A reasonable estimate is that the cost will be in the neighborhood of $15,000; this figure includes the price of a multi-channel analyzer to serve as a temporary data storage device, but does not include the cost of a computer. It does not appear that it will be practicable to switch easily back and forth between pulse-counting and current integration modes unless the instrument is provided with a movable Faraday cup. Using the same multiplier in both modes would undoubtedly degrade its performance in each. The requirements of low background counting rates and high gain for pulse counting, and of relatively high signal handling capacity in current integration are mutually incompatible if demanded of the same multiplier.

  12. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing: a method for simultaneously monitoring numerous known allelic variants in single DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duborjal Hervé

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and especially viruses, are highly variable even within an individual host, intensifying the difficulty of distinguishing and accurately quantifying numerous allelic variants co-existing in a single nucleic acid sample. The majority of currently available techniques are based on real-time PCR or primer extension and often require multiplexing adjustments that impose a practical limitation of the number of alleles that can be monitored simultaneously at a single locus. Results Here, we describe a novel method that allows the simultaneous quantification of numerous allelic variants in a single reaction tube and without multiplexing. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing (QSS begins with a single PCR amplification step using a pair of primers flanking the polymorphic region of interest. Next, PCR products are submitted to single-letter sequencing with a fluorescently-labelled primer located upstream of the polymorphic region. The resulting monochromatic electropherogram shows numerous specific diagnostic peaks, attributable to specific variants, signifying their presence/absence in the DNA sample. Moreover, peak fluorescence can be quantified and used to estimate the frequency of the corresponding variant in the DNA population. Using engineered allelic markers in the genome of Cauliflower mosaic virus, we reliably monitored six different viral genotypes in DNA extracted from infected plants. Evaluation of the intrinsic variance of this method, as applied to both artificial plasmid DNA mixes and viral genome populations, demonstrates that QSS is a robust and reliable method of detection and quantification for variants with a relative frequency of between 0.05 and 1. Conclusion This simple method is easily transferable to many other biological systems and questions, including those involving high throughput analysis, and can be performed in any laboratory since it does not require specialized

  13. Integrated sampling procedure for metabolome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Jochen; Schiesling, Carola; Reuss, Matthias; Dauner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Metabolome analysis, the analysis of large sets of intracellular metabolites, has become an important systems analysis method in biotechnological and pharmaceutical research. In metabolic engineering, the integration of metabolome data with fluxome and proteome data into large-scale mathematical models promises to foster rational strategies for strain and cell line improvement. However, the development of reproducible sampling procedures for quantitative analysis of intracellular metabolite concentrations represents a major challenge, accomplishing (i) fast transfer of sample, (ii) efficient quenching of metabolism, (iii) quantitative metabolite extraction, and (iv) optimum sample conditioning for subsequent quantitative analysis. In addressing these requirements, we propose an integrated sampling procedure. Simultaneous quenching and quantitative extraction of intracellular metabolites were realized by short-time exposure of cells to temperatures unit operations into a one unit operation, (ii) the avoidance of any alteration of the sample due to chemical reagents in quenching and extraction, and (iii) automation. A sampling frequency of 5 s(-)(1) and an overall individual sample processing time faster than 30 s allow observing responses of intracellular metabolite concentrations to extracellular stimuli on a subsecond time scale. Recovery and reliability of the unit operations were analyzed. Impact of sample conditioning on subsequent IC-MS analysis of metabolites was examined as well. The integrated sampling procedure was validated through consistent results from steady-state metabolite analysis of Escherichia coli cultivated in a chemostat at D = 0.1 h(-)(1).

  14. Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk samples in a perchloric acid and nitric acid mixture, addition of zinc hold-back carrier, precipitation of phosphorus as ammonium phospho molybdate (A.M.P.) and sample counting in a Geiger-Mueller detector. The analysis sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to phosphorus analyses in commercial milk samples. (author)

  15. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents ...

  16. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  17. Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...

  18. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents...... multiple sampling, is cost-effective, easy to construct, and safe for target and nontarget species. Our initial field tests on endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and swift foxes (Vulpes velox) suggest that this hair snare may be effective in collecting uncontaminated samples for DNA...

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  20. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  1. Parallel single-cell analysis microfluidic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus; Gool, Elmar; Frimat, Jean-Philippe; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; le Gac, Severine

    2011-01-01

    We report a PDMS microfluidic platform for parallel single-cell analysis (PaSCAl) as a powerful tool to decipher the heterogeneity found in cell populations. Cells are trapped individually in dedicated pockets, and thereafter, a number of invasive or non-invasive analysis schemes are performed.

  2. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of 241 Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the 241 Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for 244 Cm analysis

  3. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Board issued Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) which noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In response, the US Department of Energy, in May 1996, issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan's objectives, concentrating on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks for near term core sampling and analysis, which along with sampling and analysis of other non-High Priority tanks, could provide the scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and.measure safety related phenomenology of the waste. When the analysis results of the High Priority and other-tank sampling were reviewed, it was expected that a series of 12 questions, 9 related to safety issues and 3 related to planning for the disposal process, should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. This report discusses the execution of the Implementation Plan and the results achieved in addressing the questions. Through sampling and analysis, all nine safety related questions have been answered and extensive data for the three disposal planning related questions have been collected, allowing for key decision making. Many more tanks than the original 28 High Priority tanks identified in the Implementation Plan were sampled and analyzed. Twenty-one High Priority tanks and 85 other tanks were core sampled and used to address the questions. Thirty-eight additional tanks were auger

  4. A single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongming; Wu Ruisheng; Li Bin

    1998-01-01

    The single-chip computer analysis system for liquid fluorescence is an intelligent analytic instrument, which is based on the principle that the liquid containing hydrocarbons can give out several characteristic fluorescences when irradiated by strong light. Besides a single-chip computer, the system makes use of the keyboard and the calculation and printing functions of a CASIO printing calculator. It combines optics, mechanism and electronics into one, and is small, light and practical, so it can be used for surface water sample analysis in oil field and impurity analysis of other materials

  5. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-U-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue.Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-U-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 16, 1996 sampling of SST 241-U-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  6. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-110 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-110. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 30, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-110. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media

  7. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  8. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  9. Archival Bone Marrow Samples: Suitable for Multiple Biomarker Analysis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, A. Laeya; Wesolowska, Agata

    2015-01-01

    Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... genome amplification (WGA), multiple marker analysis including 10 short tandem repeats, and finally a comprehensive genotyping of 33,683 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with multiplexed targeted next-generation sequencing. A total of 73 samples from 21 bone marrow smears and 13 bone marrow...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  10. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Gorelik, Olga

    2010-01-01

    An improved protocol for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of samples of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material has been developed to increase the degree of consistency among results so that meaningful comparisons can be made among different samples. This improved TGA protocol is suitable for incorporation into the protocol for characterization of carbon nanotube material. In most cases, TGA of carbon nanotube materials is performed in gas mixtures that contain oxygen at various concentrations. The improved protocol is summarized.

  11. Isotope dilution analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.; Korenova, Z.; Klas, J.; Klehr, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis has been used for the determination of several trace elements - especially metals - in a variety of environmental samples, including aerosols, water, soils, biological materials and geological materials. Variations of the basic concept include classical IDA, substoichiometric IDA, and more recently, sub-superequivalence IDA. Each variation has its advantages and limitations. A periodic chart has been used to identify those elements which have been measured in environmental samples using one or more of these methods. (author)

  12. Photothermal analysis of individual nanoparticulate samples using micromechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tom; Schmid, Silvan; Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    photothermal spectroscopy, a novel method that enables the analysis of individual nanoparticulate samples. Absorption of light by an individual sample placed on a microstring resonator results in local heating of the string, which is reflected in its resonance frequency. The working principle...... polystyrene nanoparticles are detected. With the current setup, nanoparticulate samples with a mass of ∼40 ag are detectable. By using nanostrings, visible and infrared photothermal spectroscopy in the subattogram mass regime is possible and single molecule detection is within reach. © 2013 American Chemical...

  13. Analysis report for 241-BY-104 Auger samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of the surface crust samples taken from single-shell tank (SST) BY-104, suspected of containing ferrocyanide wastes. This sampling and analysis will assist in ascertaining whether there is any hazard due to combustion (burning) or explosion of these solid wastes. These characteristics are important to future efforts to characterize the salt and sludge in this type of waste tank. This report will outline the methodology and detail the results of analyses performed during the characterization of this material. All analyses were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company at the 222-S laboratory unless stated otherwise

  14. Analysis report for 241-BY-104 Auger samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-11-10

    This report describes the analysis of the surface crust samples taken from single-shell tank (SST) BY-104, suspected of containing ferrocyanide wastes. This sampling and analysis will assist in ascertaining whether there is any hazard due to combustion (burning) or explosion of these solid wastes. These characteristics are important to future efforts to characterize the salt and sludge in this type of waste tank. This report will outline the methodology and detail the results of analyses performed during the characterization of this material. All analyses were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company at the 222-S laboratory unless stated otherwise.

  15. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R.; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemical...... artifacts, in vitro protein and peptide modifications, and contaminations. Those often result in sample loss and affect the sensitivity, dynamic range and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis. Here we describe a simple and reproducible phosphoproteomics protocol, where lysis, denaturation, reduction......, and alkylation are performed in a single step, thus reducing sample loss and increasing reproducibility. Moreover, unlike standard cell lysis procedures the cell harvesting is performed at high temperatures (99 °C) and without detergents and subsequent need for protein precipitation. Phosphopeptides are enriched...

  16. Compositing water samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Maluk, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Researchers are able to derive

  17. DNA analysis by single molecule stretching in nanofluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, E.; Juarros, A.; Retolaza, A.

    2011-01-01

    Stretching single DNA molecules by confinement in nanofluidic channels has attracted a great interest during the last few years as a DNA analysis tool. We have designed and fabricated a sealed micro/nanofluidic device for DNA stretching applications, based on the use of the high throughput Nano......Imprint Lithography (NIL) technology combined with a conventional anodic bonding of the silicon base and Pyrex cover. Using this chip, we have performed single molecule imaging on a bench-top fluorescent microscope system. Lambda phage DNA was used as a model sample to characterize the chip. Single molecules of λ...... a method to determining DNA size. The results of this work prove that the developed fabrication process is a good alternative for the fabrication of single molecule DNA biochips and it allows developing a variety of innovative bio/chemical sensors based on single-molecule DNA sequencing devices....

  18. Ion beam analysis of radioactive samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raepsaet, C.; Khodja, H.; Bossis, P.; Pipon, Y.; Roudil, D.

    2009-06-01

    The nuclear microprobe facility of the Pierre Süe Laboratory is fitted with two microbeam lines. One is dedicated to non-active samples. The other one, located in a controlled shielded area, offers the unique feature of being devoted to radioactive samples. Operational since 1998, it is strongly linked to nuclear research programs and has been dimensioned to accept radioactive but non-contaminant radioactive samples, including small quantities of UOX or MOX irradiated fuel. The samples, transported in a shipping cask, are unloaded and handled in hot cells with slaved arms. The analysis chamber, situated in a concrete cell, is equipped with charged particle detectors and a Si(Li) X-ray detector, shielded in order to reduce the radioactive noise produced by the sample, allowing ERDA, RBS, NRA and PIXE. After a description of the facility, including the sample handling in the hot cells and the analysis chamber, we will give an overview of the various experimental programs which have been performed, with an emphasis on the determination of the hydrogen distribution and local content in nuclear fuel cladding tubes.

  19. Analysis through neutronic activation of soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the present job they report the results obtained of the analysis by neutronic activation of 30 chemical elements, in 35 representative samples of soils of 17 zones of the western region of Cuba , affected by an epidemic of epidemic neuropathy. (author) [es

  20. Preparation of samples for coal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucada, E.; Pazos, C.

    1986-11-01

    Taking and preparing coal samples for analysis is fundamental to obtaining reliable data. The sensitivity and precision of the monitoring equipment (calorimeters, devices for measuring sulphur content and for immediate elemental analysis, etc) are of little use if the samples analysed, normally less than 1 g, are not representative of the batch from which they are taken, a batch usually being of several tonnes. Moreover, as even the slightest error in results has major economic repercussions for the suppliers (mining companies) and buyers (power stations, cement works, etc), it is clear that sound criteria for use in the selection of equipment and sampling and preparation methods are of prime importance. The aim of this article is to give a general survey of this process describing the fundamental characteristics of each stage and, in terms of these, to provide basic selection criteria for the equipment. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Bayesian predictive sample size selection design for single-arm exploratory clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramukai, Satoshi; Daimon, Takashi; Zohar, Sarah

    2012-12-30

    The aim of an exploratory clinical trial is to determine whether a new intervention is promising for further testing in confirmatory clinical trials. Most exploratory clinical trials are designed as single-arm trials using a binary outcome with or without interim monitoring for early stopping. In this context, we propose a Bayesian adaptive design denoted as predictive sample size selection design (PSSD). The design allows for sample size selection following any planned interim analyses for early stopping of a trial, together with sample size determination before starting the trial. In the PSSD, we determine the sample size using the method proposed by Sambucini (Statistics in Medicine 2008; 27:1199-1224), which adopts a predictive probability criterion with two kinds of prior distributions, that is, an 'analysis prior' used to compute posterior probabilities and a 'design prior' used to obtain prior predictive distributions. In the sample size determination of the PSSD, we provide two sample sizes, that is, N and N(max) , using two types of design priors. At each interim analysis, we calculate the predictive probabilities of achieving a successful result at the end of the trial using the analysis prior in order to stop the trial in case of low or high efficacy (Lee et al., Clinical Trials 2008; 5:93-106), and we select an optimal sample size, that is, either N or N(max) as needed, on the basis of the predictive probabilities. We investigate the operating characteristics through simulation studies, and the PSSD retrospectively applies to a lung cancer clinical trial. (243) Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A single sample GnRHa stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Parvin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH has been the standard test for diagnosing central precocious puberty. Because GnRH is no longer available, GnRH analogues (GnRHa are now used. Random LH concentration, measured by the third-generation immunochemiluminometric assay, is a useful screening tool for central precocious puberty. However, GnRHa stimulation test should be considered, when a basal LH measurement is inconclusive. However optimal sampling times for luteinizing hormone (LH have yet to be established. Purpose To determine the appropriate sampling time for LH post leuprolide challenge. Methods A retrospective analysis of multi-sample GnRHa stimulation tests performed in 155 children (aged 1–9 years referred for precocious puberty to Texas Children’s Hospital. After 20 mcg/kg of SQ leuprolide acetate, samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours. Results Of 71 children with clinical evidence of central precocious puberty, fifty nine children had a peak LH >5 mIU/mL. 52 (88% of these responders had positive responses at 1 hour (95% CI is 80–96%, whereas all 59 children (100% had a peak LH response >5 mIU/mL at 3 hours (95% CI is 94-100%, P = 0.005. Conclusions A single serum LH sample collected 3 hours post GnRHa challenge is the optimal sample to establish the diagnosis of central precocious puberty.

  3. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants

  4. Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-10-01

    Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. OVERVIEW OF BERYLLIUM SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, M

    2009-04-01

    Because of its unique properties as a lightweight metal with high tensile strength, beryllium is widely used in applications including cell phones, golf clubs, aerospace, and nuclear weapons. Beryllium is also encountered in industries such as aluminium manufacturing, and in environmental remediation projects. Workplace exposure to beryllium particulates is a growing concern, as exposure to minute quantities of anthropogenic forms of beryllium may lead to sensitization and to chronic beryllium disease, which can be fatal and for which no cure is currently known. Furthermore, there is no known exposure-response relationship with which to establish a 'safe' maximum level of beryllium exposure. As a result, the current trend is toward ever lower occupational exposure limits, which in turn make exposure assessment, both in terms of sampling and analysis, more challenging. The problems are exacerbated by difficulties in sample preparation for refractory forms of beryllium, such as beryllium oxide, and by indications that some beryllium forms may be more toxic than others. This chapter provides an overview of sources and uses of beryllium, health risks, and occupational exposure limits. It also provides a general overview of sampling, analysis, and data evaluation issues that will be explored in greater depth in the remaining chapters. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive resource to aid personnel in a wide variety of disciplines in selecting sampling and analysis methods that will facilitate informed decision-making in workplace and environmental settings.

  6. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H

    2016-03-01

    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  7. Nuclear techniques for analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The main purposes of this meeting were to establish the state-of-the-art in the field, to identify new research and development that is required to provide an adequate framework for analysis of environmental samples and to assess needs and possibilities for international cooperation in problem areas. This technical report was prepared on the subject based on the contributions made by the participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  8. Single solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous analysis of polar and non-polar pesticides in urine samples by gas chromatography and ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla-Reyes, Rocío; Fernández-Moreno, José Luis; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido; Vidal, José Luis Martínez

    2011-07-15

    A new multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of more than two hundred pesticides, including non-polar and polar pesticides (carbamates, organochlorine, organophosphorous, pyrethroids, herbicides and insecticides) in urine at trace levels by gas and ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively (GC-IT-MS/MS, UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). Non-polar and polar pesticides were simultaneously extracted from urine samples by a simple and fast solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure using C(18) cartridges as sorbent, and dichloromethane as elution solvent. Recovery was in the range of 60-120%. Precision values expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) were lower than 25%. Identification and confirmation of the compounds were performed by the use of retention time windows, comparison of spectra (GC-amenable compounds) or the estimation of the ion ratio (LC-amenable compounds). For GC-amenable pesticides, limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.001 to 0.436 μg L(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.003 to 1.452 μg L(-1). For LC-amenable pesticides, LODs ranged from 0.003 to 1.048 μg L(-1) and LOQs ranged from 0.011 to 3.494 μg L(-1). Finally, the optimized method was applied to the analysis of fourteen real samples of infants from agricultural population. Some pesticides such as methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, piperonyl butoxide and propoxur were found at concentrations ranged from 1.61 to 24.4 μg L(-1), whereas methiocarb sulfoxide was detected at trace levels in two samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of sample treatments on genome recovery via single-cell genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clingenpeel, Scott [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Schwientek, Patrick [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Hugenholtz, Philip [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Woyke, Tanja [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2014-06-13

    It is known that single-cell genomics is a powerful tool for accessing genetic information from uncultivated microorganisms. Methods of handling samples before single-cell genomic amplification may affect the quality of the genomes obtained. Using three bacterial strains we demonstrate that, compared to cryopreservation, lower-quality single-cell genomes are recovered when the sample is preserved in ethanol or if the sample undergoes fluorescence in situ hybridization, while sample preservation in paraformaldehyde renders it completely unsuitable for sequencing.

  10. Influence of sampling depth and post-sampling analysis time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Applied Microbiology Unit, Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salaam,. P.O. Box 35060, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ABSTRACT .... Each sample was immediately emptied into sterilised ice- cooled (0ºC - 0.2ºC) plastic bottle, .... colour varied from green, cream, yellow and sometimes translucent. Pearson Correlation.

  11. Mars Analogue Field Research and Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    We describe results from the data analysis from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns 2009 to 2016) in the Utah desert and in other extreme environments (Iceland, Eifel, La Reunion) relevant to habitability and astrobiology in Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL). We discuss results relevant to the scientific study of the habitability factors influenced by the properties of dust, organics, water history and the diagnostics and characterisation of microbial life. We also discuss perspectives for the preparation of future lander and sample return missions. We deployed at Mars Desert Research station, Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. We find high diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples. We compare campaign results from 2009-2013 campaigns in Utah and other sites to new measurements concerning: the comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life.

  12. Microextraction sample preparation techniques in biomedical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szultka, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-11-01

    Biologically active compounds are found in biological samples at relatively low concentration levels. The sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in the analytical procedure. The microextraction techniques are dominant. Metabolomic studies also require application of proper analytical technique for the determination of endogenic metabolites present in biological matrix on trace concentration levels. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (combination types on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the current achievements and applications of microextraction techniques. The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for microextraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies concerning the systematic approach to method development. This review is dedicated to the description of microextraction techniques and their application in biomedical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  14. Hepatic mitochondrial function analysis using needle liver biopsy samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. METHODS: An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean. Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n = 6 each showed low coefficient of variation (<10% in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR. Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

  15. Optimization of genetic analysis for single cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hussein mouawia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular genetic analysis of microdissected cells by laser, a method for selecting a starting material of pure DNA or RNA uncontaminated. Our study focuses on technical pre-PCR (polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of DNA from a single cell (leukocyte isolated from human blood after laser microdissection and aims to optimize the yield of DNA extracted of this cell to be amplified without errors and provide reliable genetic analyzes. This study has allowed us to reduce the duration of cell lysis in order to perform the step of expanding genomic PEP (primer extension preamplification directly after lysis the same day and the quality of genomic amplification and eliminate purification step of the product PEP, step with a risk of contamination and risk of loss of genetic material related to manipulation. This approach has shown that the combination of at least 3 STR (short tandem repeat markers for genetic analysis of single cell improves the efficiency and accuracy of PCR and minimizes the loss of allele (allele drop out; ADO. This protocol can be applied to large scale and an effective means suitable for genetic testing for molecular diagnostic from isolated single cell (cancerous - fetal.

  16. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  17. Dielectrophoretic capture and genetic analysis of single neuroblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Carpenter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the diversity of cells that escape the primary tumor and seed micrometastases remains rudimentary, and approaches for studying circulating and disseminated tumor cells have been limited by low throughput and sensitivity, reliance on single parameter sorting, and a focus on enumeration rather than phenotypic and genetic characterization. Here we utilize a highly sensitive microfluidic and dielectrophoretic approach for the isolation and genetic analysis of individual tumor cells. We employed fluorescence labeling to isolate 208 single cells from spiking experiments conducted with 11 cell lines, including 8 neuroblastoma cell lines, and achieved a capture sensitivity of 1 tumor cell per 106 white blood cells. Sample fixation or freezing had no detectable effect on cell capture. Point mutations were accurately detected in the whole genome amplification product of captured single tumor cells but not in negative control white blood cells. We applied this approach to capture 144 single tumor cells from 10 bone marrow samples from patients suffering from neuroblastoma. In this pediatric malignancy, high-risk patients often exhibit wide-spread hematogenous metastasis, but access to primary tumor can be difficult or impossible. Here we used flow-based sorting to pre-enrich samples with tumor involvement below 0.02%. For all patients for whom a mutation in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase gene had already been detected in their primary tumor, the same mutation was detected in single cells from their marrow. These findings demonstrate a novel, non-invasive, and adaptable method for the capture and genetic analysis of single tumor cells from cancer patients.

  18. Detection and mapping of Cannabinoids in single hair samples through rapid derivatization- Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Emma; Francese, Simona; Bassindale, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The sample preparation method reported in this work has permitted for the first time the application of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Profiling and Imaging (MALDI-MSP and MALDI-MSI) for the detection and mapping of cannabinoids in a single hair sample. MALDI-MSI analysis of hair samples has recently been suggested as an alternative technique to traditional methods of GC-MS and LC-MS due to simpler sample preparation, the ability to detect a narrower time frame ...

  19. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Anawar, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  20. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  1. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  2. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-03-05

    In July 1993, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) transmitted Recommendation 93-5 (Conway 1993) to the US Department of Energy (DOE). Recommendation 93-5 noted that there was insufficient tank waste technical information and the pace to obtain it was too slow to ensure that Hanford Site wastes could be safely stored, that associated operations could be conducted safely, and that future disposal data requirements could be met. In May 1996, the DOE issued Revision 1 of the Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL 1996). The Implementation Plan revision presented a modified approach to achieve the original plan`s objectives. The approach concentrated on actions necessary to ensure that wastes can be safely stored, that operations can be safely conducted, and that timely characterization information for the tank waste Disposal Program could be obtained. The Implementation Plan proposed 28 High Priority tanks, which, if sampled and analyzed, were expected to provide information to answer questions regarding safety and disposal issues. The High Priority tank list was originally developed in Section 9.0 of the Tank Waste Characterization Basis (Brown et al. 1995) by integrating the needs of the various safety and disposal programs. The High Priority tank list represents a set of tanks that were expected to provide the highest information return for characterization resources expended. The High Priority tanks were selected for near-term core sampling and were not expected to be the only tanks that would provide meaningful information. Sampling and analysis of non-High Priority tanks also could be used to provide scientific and technical data to confirm assumptions, calibrate models, and measure safety related phenomenological characteristics of the waste. When the sampling and analysis results of the High Priority and other tanks were reviewed, it was expected that a series of questions should be answered allowing key decisions to be made. The first

  3. Ergonomic analysis of radiopharmaceuticals samples preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciene Betzler C.; Santos, Isaac Luquetti dos; Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Rebelo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)

  4. MPLEx: a Robust and Universal Protocol for Single-Sample Integrative Proteomic, Metabolomic, and Lipidomic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Sims, Amy C.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Shukla, Anil K.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-05-03

    ABSTRACT

    Integrative multi-omics analyses can empower more effective investigation and complete understanding of complex biological systems. Despite recent advances in a range of omics analyses, multi-omic measurements of the same sample are still challenging and current methods have not been well evaluated in terms of reproducibility and broad applicability. Here we adapted a solvent-based method, widely applied for extracting lipids and metabolites, to add proteomics to mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements. Themetabolite,protein, andlipidextraction (MPLEx) protocol proved to be robust and applicable to a diverse set of sample types, including cell cultures, microbial communities, and tissues. To illustrate the utility of this protocol, an integrative multi-omics analysis was performed using a lung epithelial cell line infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which showed the impact of this virus on the host glycolytic pathway and also suggested a role for lipids during infection. The MPLEx method is a simple, fast, and robust protocol that can be applied for integrative multi-omic measurements from diverse sample types (e.g., environmental,in vitro, and clinical).

    IMPORTANCEIn systems biology studies, the integration of multiple omics measurements (i.e., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics) has been shown to provide a more complete and informative view of biological pathways. Thus, the prospect of extracting different types of molecules (e.g., DNAs, RNAs, proteins, and metabolites) and performing multiple omics measurements on single samples is very attractive, but such studies are challenging due to the fact that the extraction conditions differ according to the molecule type. Here, we adapted an organic solvent-based extraction method that demonstrated

  5. Analysis of mercury in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoester, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility to determine mercury in sub-ppm levels in biological samples has been studied through neutron activation analysis , using as standards aliquots of mercury nitrate solution, deposited on treated cellulose with thio acetamide and ammonia. Sample and standards were irradiated simultaneously in quartz ampoules during 8 hours at a flux of 5 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s and were counted in a hyper pure germanium detector after 4 weeks of decay. Corrections were made for the interference of 75 Se in the 279 keV photopeak used in the determination. The results obtained for the reference materials IAEA-H-8(horse kidney), IAEA-M A-A2(fish flesh) and IAEA-M A-A-1(cope pod homogenate) were (0.91±0.07), (0.56±0.02) and (0.17±0.02) ppm, versus certified values of (0.91±0.08), (0.47±0.02) and (0.28±0.01) ppm respectively. (EMR). 54 refs., 8 app

  6. Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, Mehdi; Nolan, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Simulator (SAMSIM) is a numerical model dedicated to plan and validate operations of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the surface of Mars. The SAM instrument suite, currently operating on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), is an analytical laboratory designed to investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. SAMSIM was developed using Matlab and Simulink libraries of MathWorks Inc. to provide MSL mission planners with accurate predictions of the instrument electrical, thermal, mechanical, and fluid responses to scripted commands. This tool is a first example of a multi-purpose, full-scale numerical modeling of a flight instrument with the purpose of supplementing or even eliminating entirely the need for a hardware engineer model during instrument development and operation. SAMSIM simulates the complex interactions that occur between the instrument Command and Data Handling unit (C&DH) and all subsystems during the execution of experiment sequences. A typical SAM experiment takes many hours to complete and involves hundreds of components. During the simulation, the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and gas dynamics states of each hardware component are accurately modeled and propagated within the simulation environment at faster than real time. This allows the simulation, in just a few minutes, of experiment sequences that takes many hours to execute on the real instrument. The SAMSIM model is divided into five distinct but interacting modules: software, mechanical, thermal, gas flow, and electrical modules. The software module simulates the instrument C&DH by executing a customized version of the instrument flight software in a Matlab environment. The inputs and outputs to this synthetic C&DH are mapped to virtual sensors and command lines that mimic in their structure and connectivity the layout of the instrument harnesses. This module executes

  7. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglan, N. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France); Kim, S.B. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Cossonnet, C. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/STEME/LMRE, Orsay (France); Croudace, I.W.; Warwick, P.E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom); Fournier, M. [IRSN/DG/DMQ, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Galeriu, D. [IFIN-HH, Horia-Hulubei, Inst. Phys. and Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Momoshima, N. [Kyushu University, Radioisotope Ctr., Fukuoka (Japan); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  8. Large sample neutron activation analysis avoids representative sub-sampling and sample preparation difficulties : An added value for forensic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, P.; Romanò, Sabrina; Romolo, Francesco Saverio

    2017-01-01

    A crucial part of any chemical analysis is the degree of representativeness of the measurand(s) in the test portion for the same measurands in the object, originally collected for investigation. Such an object usually may have either to be homogenized and sub-sampled, or digested/dissolved. Any

  9. Analysis of Pivot Sampling in Dual-Pivot Quicksort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebel, Markus E.; Wild, Sebastian; Martinez, Conrado

    2016-01-01

    The new dual-pivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy—used in Oracle’s Java runtime library since version 7—features intriguing asymmetries. They make a basic variant of this algorithm use less comparisons than classic single-pivot Quicksort. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the case where...... for Yaroslavskiy’s algorithm in practice. Consequently, we take a more holistic approach and give also the precise leading term of the average number of swaps, the number of executed Java Bytecode instructions and the number of scanned elements, a new simple cost measure that approximates I/O costs in the memory......’s algorithm in practice: compared with corresponding versions of classic single-pivot Quicksort, dual-pivot Quicksort needs significantly less I/Os, both with and without pivot sampling. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York....

  10. Single Molecule Analysis of Resection Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Pablo; Cruz-García, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Homologous recombination is initiated by the so-called DNA end resection, the 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation of a single strand of the DNA at each side of the break. The presence of resected DNA is an obligatory step for homologous recombination. Moreover, the amount of resected DNA modulates the prevalence of different recombination pathways. In different model organisms, there are several published ways to visualize and measure with more or less detail the amount of DNA resected. In human cells, however, technical constraints hampered the study of resection at high resolution. Some information might be gathered from the study of endonuclease-created DSBs, in which the resection of breaks at known sites can be followed by PCR or ChIP. In this chapter, we describe in detail a novel assay to study DNA end resection in breaks located on unknown positions. Here, we use ionizing radiation to induce double-strand breaks, but the same approach can be used to monitor resection induced by different DNA damaging agents. By modifying the DNA-combing technique, used for high-resolution replication analyses, we can measure resection progression at the level of individual DNA fibers. Thus, we named the method Single Molecule Analysis of Resection Tracks (SMART). We use human cells in culture as a model system, but in principle the same approach would be feasible to any model organism adjusting accordingly the DNA isolation part of the protocol.

  11. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  12. Final Sampling and Analysis Plan for Background Sampling, Fort Sheridan, Illinois

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... This Background Sampling and Analysis Plan (BSAP) is designed to address this issue through the collection of additional background samples at Fort Sheridan to support the statistical analysis and the Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA...

  13. Representative process sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, Lars Petersen; Esbensen, Kim

    2005-01-01

     - and which sampling scheme will be optimal (random, stratified random or systematic selection). In addition variography will delineate cyclic behaviors as well as long-term trends thereby ensuring that future sampling will not accidentally be performed with a sampling rate coincident with the frequency...

  14. Mixture model analysis of complex samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a complex sampling design on the estimation of mixture models. An approximate or pseudo likelihood approach is proposed to obtain consistent estimates of class-specific parameters when the sample arises from such a complex design. The effects of ignoring the sample

  15. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    The Theory of Sampling (TOS) provides a description of all errors involved in sampling of heterogeneous materials as well as all necessary tools for their evaluation, elimination and/or minimization. This tutorial elaborates on—and illustrates—selected central aspects of TOS. The theoretical...... aspects are illustrated with many practical examples of TOS at work in typical scenarios, presented to yield a general overview. TOS provides a full scientific definition of the concept of sampling correctness, an attribute of the sampling process that must never be compromised. For this purpose...... the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) also receives special attention. TOS provides the first complete scientific definition of sampling representativeness. Only correct (unbiased) mass reduction will ensure representative sampling. It is essential to induct scientific and technological professions in the TOS...

  16. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  17. Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum Nitride by GA Gazonas and JW McCauley Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL JJ Guo, KM Reddy, A Hirata, T Fujita, and MW Chen...Sample Size Induced Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of Single-Crystal Aluminum Nitride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...their microscopic structure. In this study, we report a size induced brittle-to-ductile transition in single-crystal aluminum nitride (AlN). When the

  18. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  19. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  20. Using Inverse Probability Bootstrap Sampling to Eliminate Sample Induced Bias in Model Based Analysis of Unequal Probability Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nahorniak

    Full Text Available In ecology, as in other research fields, efficient sampling for population estimation often drives sample designs toward unequal probability sampling, such as in stratified sampling. Design based statistical analysis tools are appropriate for seamless integration of sample design into the statistical analysis. However, it is also common and necessary, after a sampling design has been implemented, to use datasets to address questions that, in many cases, were not considered during the sampling design phase. Questions may arise requiring the use of model based statistical tools such as multiple regression, quantile regression, or regression tree analysis. However, such model based tools may require, for ensuring unbiased estimation, data from simple random samples, which can be problematic when analyzing data from unequal probability designs. Despite numerous method specific tools available to properly account for sampling design, too often in the analysis of ecological data, sample design is ignored and consequences are not properly considered. We demonstrate here that violation of this assumption can lead to biased parameter estimates in ecological research. In addition, to the set of tools available for researchers to properly account for sampling design in model based analysis, we introduce inverse probability bootstrapping (IPB. Inverse probability bootstrapping is an easily implemented method for obtaining equal probability re-samples from a probability sample, from which unbiased model based estimates can be made. We demonstrate the potential for bias in model-based analyses that ignore sample inclusion probabilities, and the effectiveness of IPB sampling in eliminating this bias, using both simulated and actual ecological data. For illustration, we considered three model based analysis tools--linear regression, quantile regression, and boosted regression tree analysis. In all models, using both simulated and actual ecological data, we

  1. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  2. PIXE and XRF analysis of honey samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braziewicz, J.; Fijal, I.; Czyzewski, T.; Jaskola, M. E-mail: jaskola@fuw.edu.pl; Korman, A.; Banas, D.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Majewska, U.; Zemlo, L

    2002-02-01

    The systematic determination of trace-element concentrations in honey samples was done by the PIXE method using a 2 MeV proton beam and by the total reflection XRF method. The different kinds of honey samples were collected in the period of spring-summer in three places of Poland: in the centre of Warsaw (a highly polluted region) and about 100 km east of Warsaw and 70 km southwest of Warsaw (as regions free from industrial and transport pollution). The measured samples have shown that the concentrations of trace elements are similar in the honey samples from these places.

  3. Colling Wipe Samples for VX Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Hoppes, W G

    2010-02-11

    This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides uniform procedures for the collection of wipe samples of VX residues from surfaces. Personnel may use this procedure to collect and handle wipe samples in the field. Various surfaces, including building materials (wood, metal, tile, vinyl, etc.) and equipment, may be sampled based on this procedure. The purpose of such sampling is to determine whether or not the relevant surfaces are contaminated, to determine the extent of their contamination, to evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures, and to determine the amount of contaminant that might present as a contact hazard.

  4. High-pressure oxygenation of thin-wall YBCO single-domain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, X; Savchuk, Y; Sergienko, N; Prikhna, T; Diko, P

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen annealing of ReBCO bulk material, necessary to achieve superconducting properties, usually induces micro- and macro-cracks. This leads to a crack-assisted oxygenation process that allows oxygenating large bulk samples faster than single crystals. But excellent superconducting properties are cancelled by the poor mechanical ones. More progressive oxygenation strategy has been shown to reduce drastically the oxygenation cracks. The problem then arises to keep a reasonable annealing time. The concept of bulk Y123 single-domain samples with thin-wall geometry has been introduced to bypass the inherent limitation due to a slow oxygen diffusion rate. But it is not enough. The use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) enables to speed up further the process. It introduces a displacement in the equilibrium phase diagram towards higher temperatures, i.e., higher diffusion rates, to achieve a given oxygen content in the material. Remarkable results were obtained by applying such a high pressure oxygen annealing process on thin-wall single-domain samples. The trapped field of 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain samples was doubled (0.6T vs 0.3T at 77K) using an annealing time twice shorter (about 3 days). The initial development was made on thin bars. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample

  5. Single particle raster image analysis of diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfils, M; Schuster, E; Lorén, N; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M

    2017-04-01

    As a complement to the standard RICS method of analysing Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy images with estimation of the image correlation function, we introduce the method SPRIA, Single Particle Raster Image Analysis. Here, we start by identifying individual particles and estimate the diffusion coefficient for each particle by a maximum likelihood method. Averaging over the particles gives a diffusion coefficient estimate for the whole image. In examples both with simulated and experimental data, we show that the new method gives accurate estimates. It also gives directly standard error estimates. The method should be possible to extend to study heterogeneous materials and systems of particles with varying diffusion coefficient, as demonstrated in a simple simulation example. A requirement for applying the SPRIA method is that the particle concentration is low enough so that we can identify the individual particles. We also describe a bootstrap method for estimating the standard error of standard RICS. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Micro-PIXE for single cell analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STIM analysis provides high spatial resolution imaging (< 200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (< 0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for sub-cellular imaging of trace elements in various fields of interest will be presented: in patho-physiology of trace elements involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, and in toxicology of metals such as cobalt. (author)

  7. Stress analysis of a single osteon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. A.; Daud, R.; Amin, N. A. M.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Basaruddin, K. S.; Junoh, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Cortical boneis considered as a composite material as it was made up of different phases such as osteon, interstitial bone and cement line. Bone is known for its function to give supports in vertebrae. The bone also has a special feature that was enable it to resist the fracture under certain condition. Many researchers are interested in understanding the fracture mechanic of the bone because of its special micro-structure. The objective of this study was to develop numericalmodelof a single osteon using Finite Element Method to determine stress distribution and predict the location of microcrack initiation.A finite element stress and strain analysis has been carried out for an osteon under radial loading. With radial loading, high values of stresses were predicted at the innermost lamellar of osteon. These findings suggest that stress was accumulated in the lamella near the Haversian canal. The microcrack in osteon may start in the lamella near to the canal, correlates with the data in literature.

  8. A sampling algorithm for segregation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henshall John

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods for detecting Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL without markers have generally used iterative peeling algorithms for determining genotype probabilities. These algorithms have considerable shortcomings in complex pedigrees. A Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC method which samples the pedigree of the whole population jointly is described. Simultaneous sampling of the pedigree was achieved by sampling descent graphs using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. A descent graph describes the inheritance state of each allele and provides pedigrees guaranteed to be consistent with Mendelian sampling. Sampling descent graphs overcomes most, if not all, of the limitations incurred by iterative peeling algorithms. The algorithm was able to find the QTL in most of the simulated populations. However, when the QTL was not modeled or found then its effect was ascribed to the polygenic component. No QTL were detected when they were not simulated.

  9. Preparation and characterization of single crystal samples for high-pressure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, D; Antonangeli, D; Aracne, C; Benterou, J

    2005-10-26

    To date, most research utilizing the diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been conducted with polycrystalline samples, thus the results are limited to addressing average bulk properties. However, experiments on single crystals can yield data on a range of orientation dependent properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, elasticity and plasticity. Here we report new procedures to produce extremely high-quality metallic single crystal samples of size compatible with DAC experiments in the Mbar range. So far, we have produced samples of zinc, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, cobalt, molybdenum and cerium, and have evaluated the quality of the finished samples with white-light interferometry, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and inelastic x-ray scattering.

  10. Tank 241-BY-105 rotary core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-BY-105 (BY-105)

  11. Sampling and analysis of groundwater colloids. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, M.; Manninen, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this literature study was to give basic information of colloids: their formation, colloid material, sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids. Colloids are commonly refereed to as particles in the size range of 1 nm to 1000 nm. They are defined as a suspension of solid material in a liquid that does not appear to separate even after a long period of time. Colloids can be formed from a variety of inorganic or organic material. Inorganic colloids in natural groundwaters are formed by physical fragmentation of the host rock or by precipitation. The water chemistry strongly controls the stability of colloids. The amount of colloid particles in a solution tends to decrease with the increasing ionic strength of the solution. Increases in pH and organic material tend to increase the stability of colloids. The mobility of colloids in a porous medium is controlled mainly by groundwater movement, sedimentation, diffusion and interception. Factors controlling sampling artefacts are oxygen diffusion: leads to e.g. calcite precipitation, pumping rates and filtering techniques. Efforts to minimise artefact formation should be taken if the scope of the sampling programme is to study the colloid particles. The colloid phase size distribution can be determined by light scattering systems, laser induced break down or by single particle analysis using SEM micrographs. Elemental compositions can be analysed with EDS spectrometry from single colloid particles. Bulk compositions of the colloid phase can be analysed with e.g. ICP-MS analyser. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for groundwater colloid samplings. Recommendations for future work are listed in the conclusions of this report. (orig.)

  12. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste

  13. XRF analysis of criminalistic samples by use of sample capsulation in a fusible organic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, K.G.; Gimel'farb, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    A method of express preparation of liquid, powdered solid samples and suspensions for XRF analysis is proposed which is based on sample capsulation in a fusible organic matrix. Procedures have been developed of XRF analysis of criminalistic samples by use of the method suggested. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Electrodeposition as a sample preparation technique for TXRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesel, S.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2000-01-01

    TXRF analysis of trace elements at concentrations in the μg/L range and below in high salt matrices normally requires a number of sample preparation steps that include separation of the salt matrix and preconcentration of the trace elements. A neat approach which allows samples to be prepared straightforwardly in a single step involves the application of electrochemical deposition using the TXRF sample support itself as an electrode. For this work a common three-electrode arrangement (radiometer analytical) with a rotating disc electrode as the working electrode, as is frequently employed in voltametric analysis, has been used. A special electrode tip has been constructed as a holder for the sample carrier which consists of polished glassy carbon. This material has been proven to be suitable for both its electrical and chemical properties. Measurements of the trace elements were performed using the ATOMIKA 8030C TXRF spectrometer, with the option of variable incident angles. In first experiments an artificial sea water matrix containing various trace elements in the μg/L range has been used. Elements such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb deposited on glassy carbon carriers. The deposition can be optimized by controlling the potential of the working electrode with respect to the reference electrode. Metal ions with a suitable standard potential are reduced to the metallic state and plated onto the electrode surface. When deposition is finished the sample carrier is demounted, rinsed with ultra-pure water and measured directly. Deposition yields for the elements under investigation are quite similar, and with an appropriate choice of the reference element, quantification can be achieved directly by internal standardization. The influence of parameters such as time, pH value, and trace element concentration on the deposition yield has been examined, and the results will be presented along with reproducibility studies. (author)

  15. 7 CFR 58.812 - Methods of sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of sample analysis. 58.812 Section 58.812... Procedures § 58.812 Methods of sample analysis. Samples shall be tested according to the applicable methods... Marketing Service, Dairy Programs, or the Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official...

  16. 7 CFR 58.245 - Method of sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of sample analysis. 58.245 Section 58.245... Procedures § 58.245 Method of sample analysis. Samples shall be tested according to the applicable methods of... Service, Dairy Programs, or Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists or...

  17. Single sample expression-anchored mechanisms predict survival in head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression signatures that are predictive of therapeutic response or prognosis are increasingly useful in clinical care; however, mechanistic (and intuitive interpretation of expression arrays remains an unmet challenge. Additionally, there is surprisingly little gene overlap among distinct clinically validated expression signatures. These "causality challenges" hinder the adoption of signatures as compared to functionally well-characterized single gene biomarkers. To increase the utility of multi-gene signatures in survival studies, we developed a novel approach to generate "personal mechanism signatures" of molecular pathways and functions from gene expression arrays. FAIME, the Functional Analysis of Individual Microarray Expression, computes mechanism scores using rank-weighted gene expression of an individual sample. By comparing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC samples with non-tumor control tissues, the precision and recall of deregulated FAIME-derived mechanisms of pathways and molecular functions are comparable to those produced by conventional cohort-wide methods (e.g. GSEA. The overlap of "Oncogenic FAIME Features of HNSCC" (statistically significant and differentially regulated FAIME-derived genesets representing GO functions or KEGG pathways derived from HNSCC tissue among three distinct HNSCC datasets (pathways:46%, p<0.001 is more significant than the gene overlap (genes:4%. These Oncogenic FAIME Features of HNSCC can accurately discriminate tumors from control tissues in two additional HNSCC datasets (n = 35 and 91, F-accuracy = 100% and 97%, empirical p<0.001, area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 99% and 92%, and stratify recurrence-free survival in patients from two independent studies (p = 0.0018 and p = 0.032, log-rank. Previous approaches depending on group assignment of individual samples before selecting features or learning a classifier are limited by design to

  18. Gold-FISH: A correlative approach to microscopic imaging of single microbial cells in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seki, David; Woebken, Dagmar; Eickhorst, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is routinely used for the phylogenetic identification, detection, and quantification of single microbial cells environmental microbiology. Oligonucleotide probes that match the 16S rRNA sequence of target organisms are generally applied and the resulting signals are visualized via fluorescence microscopy. Consequently, the detection of the microbial cells of interest is limited by the resolution and the sensitivity of light microscopy where objects smaller than 0.2 µm can hardly be represented. Visualizing microbial cells at magnifications beyond light microscopy, however, can provide information on the composition and potential complexity of microbial habitats - the actual sites of nutrient cycling in soil and sediments. We present a recently developed technique that combines (1) the phylogenetic identification and detection of individual microorganisms by epifluorescence microscopy, with (2) the in situ localization of gold-labelled target cells on an ultrastructural level by SEM. Based on 16S rRNA targeted in situ hybridization combined with catalyzed reporter deposition, a streptavidin conjugate labeled with a fluorescent dye and nanogold particles is introduced into whole microbial cells. A two-step visualization process including an autometallographic enhancement of nanogold particles then allows for either fluorescence or electron microscopy, or a correlative application thereof. We will present applications of the Gold-FISH protocol to samples of marine sediments, agricultural soils, and plant roots. The detection and enumeration of bacterial cells in soil and sediment samples was comparable to CARD-FISH applications via fluorescence microscopy. Examples of microbe-surface interaction analysis will be presented on the basis of bacteria colonizing the rhizoplane of rice roots. In principle, Gold-FISH can be performed on any material to give a snapshot of microbe-surface interactions and provides a promising tool for

  19. Tank 10H Saltcake Core Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-01-01

    In support of Low-Curie Salt (LCS) process validation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) has undertaken a program of tank characterization, including salt sampling. As part of this initiative, they sampled the surface and subsurface of Tank 10H saltcake using a series of three 12-inch long sample tubes. These tubes each contain 1-foot long segments of the saltcake from one location, representing the top three feet of saltcake. The primary objective of the characterization that will be useful to the selection and processing of the next waste tanks. Most important is the determination of the Cs-137 concentration and liquid retention properties of Tank 10H saltcake to confirm acceptability of processing. Additional chemical analyses are performed to provide information on salt elemental, ionic, and radiological composition to aid in assessment of the suitability of processing drained and dissolved material and in refining the information in the waste characterization system (WCS)

  20. Microfluidic Wheatstone bridge for rapid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyeri, Melikhan; Ranka, Mikhil; Sittipolkul, Natawan; Schroeder, Charles M

    2011-12-21

    We developed a microfluidic analogue of the classic Wheatstone bridge circuit for automated, real-time sampling of solutions in a flow-through device format. We demonstrate precise control of flow rate and flow direction in the "bridge" microchannel using an on-chip membrane valve, which functions as an integrated "variable resistor". We implement an automated feedback control mechanism in order to dynamically adjust valve opening, thereby manipulating the pressure drop across the bridge and precisely controlling fluid flow in the bridge channel. At a critical valve opening, the flow in the bridge channel can be completely stopped by balancing the flow resistances in the Wheatstone bridge device, which facilitates rapid, on-demand fluid sampling in the bridge channel. In this article, we present the underlying mechanism for device operation and report key design parameters that determine device performance. Overall, the microfluidic Wheatstone bridge represents a new and versatile method for on-chip flow control and sample manipulation.

  1. Hotspot and sampling analysis for effective maintenance and performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this project, we propose two sampling methods addressing how much and where the agencies need to collect infrastraucture condition data for accurate Level-of-Maintenance (LOM) estimation in maintenance network with single type or multiple ty...

  2. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  3. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  4. A proposal for the measurement of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction strengths in a single sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.; Sil, Shreekantha; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2012-01-01

    We establish an exact analytical treatment for the determination of the strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions in a single sample by measuring persistent spin current. A hidden symmetry is exploited in the Hamiltonian to show that the spin current vanishes when the strength of the Dresselhaus interaction becomes equal to the strength of the Rashba term. The results are sustained even in the presence of disorder and thus an experiment in this regard will be challenging. -- Highlights: ► An exact analytical treatment is given for the measurement of spin–orbit interaction strengths in a single sample. ► Persistent spin current is calculated. ► Our present analysis gives us confidence to propose an experiment in this line.

  5. An algebraic analysis of bore hole samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, D.R. [Southern California Univ., Dept. of Mathematics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Waid, C. [Waid Group, Inc., Gonzales, LA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Quadratic cylinders are considered as models for strata occurring along linear fault lines. The question as to whether the cylinder can be recovered from the curve of intersection with the surface of a bore sample is then addressed. Basic techniques from algebraic geometry are used to show that there are at most two irreducible quadratic cylinders having the same bounded but infinite intersection with the surface of a right circular cylinder and each of the two is uniquely determined from the other. (Author)

  6. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Alexei J; Rambaut, Andrew

    2007-11-08

    The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at http://beast-mcmc.googlecode.com/ under the GNU LGPL license. BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.

  7. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Alexei J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. Results BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at http://beast-mcmc.googlecode.com/ under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusion BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.

  8. Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides the mission analysis for the Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System task, which supports the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from single-shell tanks for treatment and final closure

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for PUREX canyon vessel flushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, C.N.

    1995-01-01

    A sampling and analysis plan is necessary to provide direction for the sampling and analytical activities determined by the data quality objectives. This document defines the sampling and analysis necessary to support the deactivation of the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility vessels that are regulated pursuant to Washington Administrative Code 173-303

  10. Single- versus multiple-sample method to measure glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Flamant, Martin; Dubourg, Laurence; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lemoine, Sandrine; Cavalier, Etienne; Schaeffner, Elke; Ebert, Natalie; Pottel, Hans

    2018-01-08

    There are many different ways to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using various exogenous filtration markers, each having their own strengths and limitations. However, not only the marker, but also the methodology may vary in many ways, including the use of urinary or plasma clearance, and, in the case of plasma clearance, the number of time points used to calculate the area under the concentration-time curve, ranging from only one (Jacobsson method) to eight (or more) blood samples. We collected the results obtained from 5106 plasma clearances (iohexol or 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)) using three to four time points, allowing GFR calculation using the slope-intercept method and the Bröchner-Mortensen correction. For each time point, the Jacobsson formula was applied to obtain the single-sample GFR. We used Bland-Altman plots to determine the accuracy of the Jacobsson method at each time point. The single-sample method showed within 10% concordances with the multiple-sample method of 66.4%, 83.6%, 91.4% and 96.0% at the time points 120, 180, 240 and ≥300 min, respectively. Concordance was poorer at lower GFR levels, and this trend is in parallel with increasing age. Results were similar in males and females. Some discordance was found in the obese subjects. Single-sample GFR is highly concordant with a multiple-sample strategy, except in the low GFR range (<30 mL/min). © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple microfluidic dispenser for single-microparticle and cell samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukurti, A; Eggleton, C D; Desai, S A; Disharoon, D I; Marr, D W M

    2014-12-21

    Non-destructive isolation of single-cells has become an important need for many biology research laboratories; however, there is a lack of easily employed and inexpensive tools. Here, we present a single-particle sample delivery approach fabricated from simple, economical components that may address this need. In this, we employ unique flow and timing strategies to bridge the significant force and length scale differences inherent in transitioning from single particle isolation to delivery. Demonstrating this approach, we use an optical trap to isolate individual microparticles and red blood cells that are dispensed within separate 50 μl droplets off a microfluidic chip for collection into microscope slides or microtiter plates.

  12. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  13. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  14. Investigation of applicability of extrapolation method for sample field determination in single-yoke measuring setup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stupakov, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 307, - (2006), s. 279-287 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic measurement * open magnetic sample * surface field determination * single-yoke setup * magnetic non-destructive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2006

  15. Chromium-51-EDTA clearance in adults with a single-plasma sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, J; Groth, S; Rehling, M; Gref, M

    1998-12-01

    In 1996, a committee on renal clearance recommended a mean sojourn time-based methodology for single-sample determination of plasma clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) to be used on adults if the patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is suspected to be >30 ml/min. The main purpose of this study was to derive a mean sojourn time-based formula for calculation of 51Cr-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance in adults. Two groups of patients with 51Cr-EDTA clearance (Cl) between 16 and 172 ml/min were studied. In Group I (n = 46), reference Cl was determined as a multiplasma sample, single-injection method (ClSM). Sixteen blood samples were drawn from 0 until 5 hr after a single intravenous injection of 51Cr-EDTA. In Group II (n = 1046), reference Cl was determined by the Brøchner-Mortensen four-sample clearance method (ClBM). The plasma time-activity curves of Group I were used to derive two mean sojourn time-based formulas (Formulas 1 and 2) for calculation of a single-sample clearance. Formula 1 was derived from the entire time-activity curve, whereas the derivation of Formula 2 used only the final slope of the time-activity curve. The accuracy of the two formulas and the Christensen and Groth 99mTc-DTPA formula was tested on Group II. Chromium-51-EDTA Cl calculated by Formula 1 was almost identical to the Cl calculated by the reference Cl method (r = 0.982; SDdiff = 5.82 ml/min). Both 51Cr-EDTA Cl calculated by Formula 2 and by the 99mTc-DTPA formula showed close correlation with the reference method (r = 0.976, r = 0.985, respectively) but systematically overestimated GFR for the whole range of clearance values by 3.5 and 3.2 ml/min (ptime methodology. The determination is marginally more accurate (ptime-activity curve than from only the final slope. The single-sample formula derived for determination of 99mTc-DTPA Cl tends slightly to overestimate GFR if used to calculate 51Cr-EDTA Cl.

  16. 1998 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1998_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  17. 1999 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1999_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  18. 1997 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sample Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1997_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis (BSA) program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office....

  19. Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dennis, Simon; Kwantes, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets-23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic Model, SpNMF, and CSM). Second, various methods of corpus creation were explored to facilitate the semantic models' similarity estimates. Removing numeric and single characters, and also truncating document length improved performance. Automated construction of smaller Wikipedia-based corpora proved to be very effective, even improving upon the performance of corpora that had been chosen for the domain. Model performance was further improved by augmenting corpora with dataset paragraphs. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Analysis of aerosol samples in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, P.; Navarrete, M.; Ramirez, A.; Avila, P.

    2000-01-01

    Total solid particles and 9 metals potentially hazardous for health were determined in Mexico City dwellings by gravimetry and X-ray fluorescence techniques, respectively. Monitoring was performed in spring and winter, on districts covering center, northeast, southeast and southwest of the City. Results show that, in general, the average concentration of metallic contaminants have increased with time and, in the particular case of lead it is higher than the indicative WHO maximum level. The total solid particles figures are also above the U.S. norm of 75 μg.m -3 . Results obtained in samples taken in the same dwelling at different seasons show that lead was not present in a measurable concentration all the time. It seems to exist a correlation between the increase in lead and the increase in total solid particles whose distribution pattern in Mexico City follows wind directions. Another relevant correlation seems to exist between lead concentration and the rate of combustion of fuel in the transport system, which varies with the zone and the season. (author)

  1. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, Lorena [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grane, Nuria [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Psillakis, Elefteria [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania, Crete (Greece); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2007-05-29

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 {mu}L microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low {mu}g L{sup -1} range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction.

  2. Microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextration of chlorobenzenes from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Lorena; Domini, Claudia E.; Grane, Nuria; Psillakis, Elefteria; Canals, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    A one-step and in-situ sample preparation method used for quantifying chlorobenzene compounds in water samples has been developed, coupling microwave and headspace single-drop microextraction (MW-HS-SDME). The chlorobenzenes in water samples were extracted directly onto an ionic liquid single-drop in headspace mode under the aid of microwave radiation. For optimization, a Plackett-Burman screening design was initially used, followed by a mixed-level factorial design. The factors considered were: drop volume, aqueous sample volume, stirring speed, ionic strength, extraction time, ionic liquid type, microwave power and length of the Y-shaped glass-tube. The optimum experimental conditions found from this statistical evaluation were: a 5 μL microdrop of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate exposed for 20 min to the headspace of a 30 mL aqueous sample, irradiated by microwaves at 200 W and placed in a 50 mL spherical flask connected to a 25 cm Y-shaped glass-tube. Under the optimised experimental conditions, the response of a high performance liquid chromatographic system was found to be linear over the range studied and with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.9995 and 0.9999. The method showed a good level of repeatability, with relative standard deviations varying between 2.3 and 8.3% (n = 5). Detection limits were found in the low μg L -1 range varying between 0.016 and 0.039 μg L -1 . Overall, the performance of the proposed method demonstrated the favourable effect of microwave sample irradiation upon HS-SDME. Finally, recovery studies from different types of environmental water samples revealed that matrix had little effect upon extraction

  3. Novel Sample-handling Approach for XRD Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Feldman, S.; Vaniman, D.; Bryson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sample preparation and sample handling are among the most critical operations associated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These operations require attention in a laboratory environment, but they become a major constraint in the deployment of XRD instruments for robotic planetary exploration. We are developing a novel sample handling system that dramatically relaxes the constraints on sample preparation by allowing characterization of coarse-grained material that would normally be impossible to analyze with conventional powder-XRD techniques.

  4. Influence of sampling depth and post-sampling analysis time on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples taken at water depth and at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-sampling. It was observed that the total and faecal coliform bacteria were significantly higher in the 3 m water depth samples than in the surface water samples (ANOVA, F = 59.41, 26.751, 9.82 (T.C); 46.41, 26.81, ...

  5. Field testing of collection cards for Cannabis sativa samples with a single hexanucleotide DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Lindsay; Hemenway, John; Shirley, Nicholas; LaNier, Tommy; Coyle, Heather Miller

    2011-09-01

    The validity and feasibility of using DNA collection cards in the field for preservation and analysis of Cannabis sativa genotypes were investigated using a highly specific hexanucleotide marker. Collection cards were submitted to the National Marijuana Initiative, which selectively trained and managed the collection of specific types of samples from a variety of participating agencies. Samples collected at seizure sites included fresh marijuana leaf samples, dried "dispensary" samples, U.S. border seizures, and hashish. Using a standardized PCR kit with custom-labeled oligonucleotide primers specific to marijuana, collection cards produced eight genotypes and 13 different alleles, extremely low baselines, and no cross-reactivity with control plant species. Results were produced from all sample types with the exception of hashish. Plant DNA collection cards represent an easily implementable method for the genetic identification and relatedness of C. sativa street and grow site-seized samples with applications for databasing and market disruption. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Riba; T. Gleichmann; S. Zimmermann; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1??m and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35?pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20??m in size....

  7. Proton-induced single event upset characterisation of a 1 giga-sample per second analog to digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.A.; Marshall, P.W.; Carts, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The SPT7760 is an analog to digital converter that is used in satellite for digital processing. In this paper we describe the characterization and analysis of proton-induced single event upsets (SEU) for the SPT7760 operating at sample rates from 125 Msps (Mega-samples per second) to 1 Gsps. The SEU cross-section has been measured as a function of sample rate for various input levels. The data collected is clearly non-linear for all cases. The data shows that this device has a relative low cross-section for proton-induced SEUs and remains functional at a proton dose of 580 krad (Si). (A.C.)

  8. Large scale sample management and data analysis via MIRACLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Ines; List, Markus; Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig

    of staining conditions and mode of signal analysis. However, the sample management and data analysis still poses challenges because of the high number of samples, sample dilutions, customized array patterns, and various programs necessary for array construction and data processing. We developed...... a comprehensive and user-friendly web application called MIRACLE (MIcroarray R-based Analysis of Complex Lysate Experiments), which bridges the gap between sample management and array analysis by conveniently keeping track of the sample information from lysate preparation, through array construction and signal......, offering experimental scientists a customized end-to-end solution for sample management and for data analysis. MIRACLE thus has the potential to further spread utilization of RPPAs as an emerging technology for high-throughput protein analysis....

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 221-U Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugg, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed to be conducted to support the evaluation of alternatives for the final disposition of the 221-U Facility. This SAP will describe general sample locations and the minimum number of samples required. It will also identify the specific contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) and the required analysis. This SAP does not define the exact sample locations and equipment to be used in the field due to the nature of unknowns associated with the 221-U Facility

  10. Detection of Janus Kinase 2 gene single point mutation in real samples with electrochemical DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Seda Nur; Kosova, Buket; Ozsoz, Mehmet

    2014-02-15

    Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) gene single point mutations, which have been reported to be associated with myeloproliferative disorders, are usually detected through conventional methods such as melting curve assays, allele-specific and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs). Herein, an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of a Guanine (G) to Thymine (T) transversion at nucleotide position 1849 of the JAK2 gene was reported. Due to clinical importance of this mutation, easy and sensitive tests are needed to be developed. Our aim was to design a biosensor system that is capable of detecting the mutation within less than 1h with high sensitivity. For these purposes, an electrochemical sensing system was developed based on detecting hybridization. Hybridization between probe and its target and discrimination of single point mutation was investigated by monitoring guanine oxidation signals observed at +1.0 V with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) by using synthetic oligonucleotides and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplicons. Hybridization between probe and PCR amplicons was also determined with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We successfully detect hybridization first in synthetic samples, and ultimately in real samples involving blood samples from patients as well as additional healthy controls. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was calculated as 44 pmol of target sequence in a 40-μl reaction volume in real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 216-A-29 Ditch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1998-06-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines procedures to be used for collecting and handling samples to be obtained from the 216-A-29 Ditch, and identifies requirements for field and laboratory measurements. The sampling strategy describes here is derived from a Data Quality Objectives workshop conducted in January 1997 to support sampling to assure worker safety during construction and to assess the validity of a 1988 ditch sampling campaign and the effectiveness of subsequent stabilization. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activities is to characterize soil contamination in the vicinity of a proposed road over the 216-A-29 Ditch

  12. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  13. Analysis of Single Event Evoked Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    stimuli is available in the literature, and since this study deals with single responses, an assumption had to be made before the information in the...Figue 4 Repon e mocekroadpten.trp atrsadt ln 0m10 4 4 22 A S10 2D 3 40 5 64 10 i 13 10 II0 Visul wo (miautes) of side of dck Figure 5. The effect of unit...differences in their average evoked responses. These responses will also lend themselves to detection based on information from multiple electrodes because

  14. Development of environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Esaka, Fumitaka

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been developing environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards and preparing a clean chemistry laboratory with clean rooms. Methods to be developed are a bulk analysis and a particle analysis. In the bulk analysis, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer or Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer are used to measure nuclear materials after chemical treatment of sample. In the particle analysis, Electron Probe Micro Analyzer and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer are used for elemental analysis and isotopic analysis, respectively. The design of the clean chemistry laboratory has been carried out and construction will be completed by the end of March, 2001. (author)

  15. Multiplex single particle analysis in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, D; Romeo, G; Causa, F; De Santo, I; Netti, P A

    2014-10-21

    A straightforward way to measure separated micrometric sized particles in microfluidic flow is reported. The light scattering profile (LSP) of each single particle is fully characterized by using a CMOS-camera based small angle light scattering (SALS) apparatus, ranging from 2° up to 30°. To ensure controlled particle passage through the incident laser, a viscoelastic 3D alignment effect by viscoelastic induced particle migration has been implemented in a simple and cost-effective microfluidic device. Different polystyrene particle sizes are measured in microfluidic flows and the obtained scattering signatures are matched with the Lorenz-Mie based scattering theory. The results confirm the possibility of using this apparatus for real multiplex particle analyses in microfluidic particle flows.

  16. Estimation of technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine plasma clearance by use of one single plasma sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Suur, R.; Magnusson, G.; Karolinska Inst., Stockholm; Bois-Svensson, I.; Jansson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that technetium 99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) is a suitable replacement for iodine 131 or 123 hippurate in gamma-camera renography. Also, the determination of its clearance is of value, since it correlates well with that of hippurate and thus may be an indirect measure of renal plasma flow. In order to simplify the clearance method we developed formulas for the estimation of plasma clearance of MAG-3 based on a single plasma sample and compared them with the multiple sample method based on 7 plasma samples. The correlation to effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) (according to Tauxe's method, using iodine 123 hippurate), which ranged from 75 to 654 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , was determined in these patients. Using the developed regression equations the error of estimate for the simplified clearance method was acceptably low (18-14 ml/min), when the single plasma sample was taken 44-64 min post-injection. Formulas for different sampling times at 44, 48, 52, 56, 60 and 64 min are given, and we recommend 60 min as optimal, with an error of estimate of 15.5 ml/min. The correlation between the MAG-3 clearances and ERPF was high (r=0.90). Since normal values for MAG-3 clearance are not yet available, transformation to estimated ERPF values by the regression equation (ERPF=1.86xC MAG-3 +4.6) could be of clinical value in order to compare it with the normal values for ERPF given in the literature. (orig.)

  17. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz Roberto Nogueira da

    1998-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  18. Structural and magnetic properties evolution study method using a single ribbon-shaped sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Javier A.

    2017-06-01

    A new type of study is presented for magnetic and structural characterization of amorphous or nanocrystalline metallic alloys in ribbon or wire-shaped samples. A single sample is subjecting to successive steps of flash isocurrent heat treatments with increasing duration in time, followed by a rapid cooling, while magneto-electric properties evolution are scanned in situ at room temperature. When one set of isocurrent heat treatments is finished, the annealing current is increased and a new set of isocurrent treatments starts. The properties studied were the saturation magnetization and the coercive field at 50 Hz, magnetic permeability at 100 kHz and electrical resistance from where we also obtained the crystalline fraction. The method was applied on two samples of Finemet-like alloys and the results were analyzed from the perspective of current literature. With the present method it is possible to obtain a general and meticulous understanding of the structural and magnetic evolution of the samples tested, with a considerable saving of time and samples.

  19. Sampling procedure for the foliar analysis of deciduous trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S; Raitio, H; Vervaeke, P; Mertens, J.; Lust, N

    2002-01-01

    Sampling can be the source of the greatest errors in the overall results of foliar analysis. This paper reviews the variability in heavy metal concentrations in tree crowns, which is a feature that should be known and understood when designing a suitable leaf sampling procedure. The leaf sampling

  20. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  1. Development of a new sample chamber for proton microprobe analysis of mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, M.; Sueno, S.; Kamiya, H.; Kimoto, S.; Ohyi, H.; Hayashi, K.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a newly developed proton microprobe sample chamber designed for analysis of heterogeneous mineral samples. The instrument features a computer-driven stage and is equipped with novel beam and sample optics, external microscope and filter exchange system. Under the employed optical geometry, axes of beam and sample optics are collinear and normal to the sample surface, an essential aspect allowing high spatial resolution of analyses and accurate micrometer-scale sample and beam positioning. Use of a long working distance in conjunction with integral reflectance mirror are the primary design constraints satisfied for successful development. Based on measurements, the presented proton microprobe is expected to enhance studies requiring effective and easy-to-perform nondestructive microanalytical analysis of minerals. (orig.)

  2. 178 175 Analysis of Some Clay Samples from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... ABSTRACT: Analysis of some clay samples presumed to be kaolin obtained from different deposits in Yauri (kebbi state), Goronyo, Munwadata, Atokonyo (Sokoto state), Nigeria was carried out. The samples were subjected to quantitative analysis to determine major and trace constituents using gravimetric ...

  3. Analysis of Some Clay Samples from Yauri (Kebbi State), Goronyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of some clay samples presumed to be kaolin obtained from different deposits in Yauri (kebbi state), Goronyo, Munwadata, Atokonyo (Sokoto state), Nigeria was carried out. The samples were subjected to quantitative analysis to determine major and trace constituents using gravimetric, colorimetric, titrimetric and ...

  4. Size analysis of single-core magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Frank, E-mail: f.ludwig@tu-bs.de [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Balceris, Christoph; Viereck, Thilo [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Gavilan, Helena; Costo, Rocio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Zeng, Lunjie; Olsson, Eva [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer [ACREO Swedish ICT AB, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Single-core iron-oxide nanoparticles with nominal core diameters of 14 nm and 19 nm were analyzed with a variety of non-magnetic and magnetic analysis techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), static magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) measurements, ac susceptibility (ACS) and magnetorelaxometry (MRX). From the experimental data, distributions of core and hydrodynamic sizes are derived. Except for TEM where a number-weighted distribution is directly obtained, models have to be applied in order to determine size distributions from the measurand. It was found that the mean core diameters determined from TEM, M-H, ACS and MRX measurements agree well although they are based on different models (Langevin function, Brownian and Néel relaxation times). Especially for the sample with large cores, particle interaction effects come into play, causing agglomerates which were detected in DLS, ACS and MRX measurements. We observed that the number and size of agglomerates can be minimized by sufficiently strong diluting the suspension. - Highlights: • Investigation of size parameters of single-core magnetic nanoparticles with nominal core diameters of 14 nm and 19 nm utilizing different magnetic and non-magnetic methods • Hydrodynamic size determined from ac susceptibility measurements is consistent with the DLS findings • Core size agrees determined from static magnetization curves, MRX and ACS data agrees with results from TEM although the estimation is based on different models (Langevin function, Brownian and Néel relaxation times).

  5. Large scale sample management and data analysis via MIRACLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Ines; List, Markus; Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig

    Reverse-phase protein arrays (RPPAs) allow sensitive quantification of relative protein abundance in thousands of samples in parallel. In the past years the technology advanced based on improved methods and protocols concerning sample preparation and printing, antibody selection, optimization of ......, offering experimental scientists a customized end-to-end solution for sample management and for data analysis. MIRACLE thus has the potential to further spread utilization of RPPAs as an emerging technology for high-throughput protein analysis....

  6. Single cell array impedance analysis in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinagac, Emre; Taskin, Selen; Kizil, Huseyin

    2016-10-01

    Impedance analysis of single cells is presented in this paper. Following the separation of a target cell type by dielectrophoresis in our previous work, this paper focuses on capturing the cells as a single array and performing impedance analysis to point out the signature difference between each cell type. Lab-on-a-chip devices having a titanium interdigitated electrode layer on a glass substrate and a PDMS microchannel are fabricated to capture each cell in a single form and perform impedance analysis. HCT116 (homosapiens colon colorectal carcin) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells are used in our experiments.

  7. Estimation of effective renal plasma flow in children by use of a single plasma sample after injection of orthoiodohippurate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauxe, W.N.; Hagge, W.; Stickler, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    Estimates of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) in adults have been greatly simplified by the use of recently developed regression equations based on a single plasma concentration of radioiodinated orthoiodohippurate (OIH) obtained 44 min after a single intravenous injection of the material. The paper reports similar equations for the prediction of ERPF in children. Studies were made in 30 children of both sexes, aged 4 to 16 years, with a wide variety of renal diseases. A single intravenous injection of labelled OIH was made and plasma was sampled at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after injection. Plasma concentration curves were analysed by the conventional two-compartment analysis technique (Sapirstein, Matthews) and ERPF was computed from them. In addition to ERPF calculations, sizes of the two volumes of distribution (V 1 and V 2 ), intercompartmental flow rates and fractional rate constants were also calculated. Surface area (SA) was calculated from the DuBois height-weight regression formula. Reciprocals of the OIH plasma concentration in terms of per cent injected dose per litre were calculated at each sampling time; this reciprocal is designated x. These values at each sampling time were plotted against ERPF and regression equations and residual error (Sy.x) were calculated. The optimal sampling time was found to occur at 53 min and the corresponding linear regression equation was 19.33 + 3.87x with a Sy.x value of 36 ml. This compares with an optimal sampling time in adults of 44 min. The mean initial volume of distribution (V 1 ) was found to be 5.3 litres and the mean V 2 was found to be 6.8 litres. In contrast to findings in the previous study in adults these volumes were found to correlate well with SA. A mean intercompartmental flow rate of 276 ml/min was found. No correlation between this value and clinical diagnosis was found. The relationship of the concentration reciprocal and plasma flow was a linear one instead of the polynomial one

  8. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  9. Sampling, storage and sample preparation procedures for X ray fluorescence analysis of environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    X ray fluorescence (XRF) method is one of the most commonly used nuclear analytical technique because of its multielement and non-destructive character, speed, economy and ease of operation. From the point of view of quality assurance practices, sampling and sample preparation procedures are the most crucial steps in all analytical techniques, (including X ray fluorescence) applied for the analysis of heterogeneous materials. This technical document covers recent modes of the X ray fluorescence method and recent developments in sample preparation techniques for the analysis of environmental materials. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Sampling and sample preparation methods for the analysis of trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Iyengar, V.

    1978-05-01

    The authors attempt to give a most systamtic possible treatment of the sample taking and sample preparation of biological material (particularly in human medicine) for trace analysis (e.g. neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry). Contamination and loss problems are discussed as well as the manifold problems of the different consistency of solid and liquid biological materials, as well as the stabilization of the sample material. The process of dry and wet ashing is particularly dealt with, where new methods are also described. (RB) [de

  11. Mixed infection and clonal representativeness of a single sputum sample in tuberculosis patients from a penitentiary hospital in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portaels Françoise

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on recurrent tuberculosis (TB, TB molecular epidemiology and drug susceptibility testing rely on the analysis of one Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate from a single sputum sample collected at different disease episodes. This scheme rests on the postulate that a culture of one sputum sample is homogeneous and representative of the total bacillary population in a patient. Methods We systematically analysed several pre-treatment isolates from each of 199 smear-positive male adult inmates admitted to a prison TB hospital by standard IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, followed by PCR typing based on multiple loci containing variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs on a subset of isolates. Drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed on all isolates for isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol. Results We found mixed infection in 26 (13.1% cases. In contrast, analysis of a single pre-treatment isolate per patient would have led to missed mixed infections in all or 14 of these 26 cases by using only standard DNA fingerprinting or the PCR multilocus-based method, respectively. Differences in DST among isolates from the same patient were observed in 10 cases, of which 6 were from patients with mixed infection. Conclusion These results suggest that the actual heterogeneity of the bacillary population in patients, especially in high TB incidence settings, may be frequently underestimated using current analytical schemes. These findings have therefore important implications for correct interpretation and evaluation of molecular epidemiology data and in treatment evaluations.

  12. Sample Size of One: Operational Qualitative Analysis in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoven

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis has two extraordinary capabilities: first, finding answers to questions we are too clueless to ask; and second, causal inference – hypothesis testing and assessment – within a single unique context (sample size of one. These capabilities are broadly useful, and they are critically important in village-level civil-military operations. Company commanders need to learn quickly, "What are the problems and possibilities here and now, in this specific village? What happens if we do A, B, and C?" – and that is an ill-defined, one-of-a-kind problem. The U.S. Army's Eighty-Third Civil Affairs Battalion is our "first user" innovation partner in a new project to adapt qualitative research methods to an operational tempo and purpose. Our aim is to develop a simple, low-cost methodology and training program for local civil-military operations conducted by non-specialist conventional forces. Complementary to that, this paper focuses on some essential basics that can be implemented by college professors without significant cost, effort, or disruption.

  13. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 19F Floor Sample Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.

    2010-01-01

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  14. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 18F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Shine [1]. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL [2]. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results [3] to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL{sub 95%}) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL{sub 95%}) on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL{sub 95%} was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  15. Prediction of two-sample 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid plasma clearance from single-sample method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Li; Ma Ying-Chun; Wang Mei; Zhang Chun-Li; Wang Rong-Fu; Wang Hai-Yan

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an equation to predict dual plasma sample method (DPSM) 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) plasma clearance from single plasma sample method (SPSM), and to clarify the condition in which DPSM can be substituted by SPSM in measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were selected. Watson modified Christensen and Groth equation was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by SPSM (sGFR). The equation recommended by the Nephrourology Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine was used to calculate 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance by DPSM (tGFR) in each patient. The difference between sGFR and tGFR was expressed as percent of the average of these two methods, and tGFR was predicted from sGFR. Plasma creatinine was measured by the kinetic picrate method, and GFR estimated by abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation (aGFR) and Cockcroft-Gault equation (cGFR) were evaluated as criteria in selection of DPSM and SPSM. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients with CKD were selected (208 male and 161 female). The average age and body weight were 51.4±15.5 years and 67.2±12.5 kg, respectively. The causes of CKD were glomerular disease, renal arterial stenosis, chronic tubulointerstitial disease, and other causes or causes unknown. The average tGFR was 62.9±36.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , ranging from 1-180 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . sGFR was significantly correlated with tGFR (r=0.9194, p 2 ; in contrast, then tGFR was±30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , the difference was constant (-1.1%, 95% confidence interval -18.3%, 16.1%), and tGFR could be predicted from sGFR using the equation: predicted tGFR (ml/min/1.73 m 2 )=7 4244+0.7318 x sGFR+0.0022 x sGFR 2 (n=299, r 2 =0.9428, p 2 , the diagnostic sensitivity of a cut off value of aGFR=45 ml/min/1.73 m 2 was 91.8%, and recommended as a criterion in the selection of DPSM and SPSM. When GFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , t

  16. Variation in orgasm occurrence by sexual orientation in a sample of U.S. singles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A; Wallen, Kim; Fisher, Helen E

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding orgasm variation, little is known about ways in which sexual orientation is associated with men's and women's orgasm occurrence. To assess orgasm occurrence during sexual activity across sexual orientation categories. Data were collected by Internet questionnaire from 6,151 men and women (ages 21-65+ years) as part of a nationally representative sample of single individuals in the United States. Analyses were restricted to a subsample of 2,850 singles (1,497 men, 1,353 women) who had experienced sexual activity in the past 12 months. Participants reported their sex/gender, self-identified sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual), and what percentage of the time they experience orgasm when having sex with a familiar partner. Mean occurrence rate for experiencing orgasm during sexual activity with a familiar partner was 62.9% among single women and 85.1% among single men, which was significantly different (F1,2848  = 370.6, P sexual orientation: heterosexual men 85.5%, gay men 84.7%, bisexual men 77.6% (F2,1494  = 2.67, P = 0.07, η(2)  = 0.004). For women, however, mean occurrence rate of orgasm varied significantly by sexual orientation: heterosexual women 61.6%, lesbian women 74.7%, bisexual women 58.0% (F2,1350  = 10.95, P sexual orientation, have less predictable, more varied orgasm experiences than do men and that for women, but not men, the likelihood of orgasm varies with sexual orientation. These findings demonstrate the need for further investigations into the comparative sexual experiences and sexual health outcomes of sexual minorities. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for water sampling activities for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) processing and disposal sites. This water sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders (WSAWO) to be implemented during 1993. Monitoring at the former Lakeview processing site is for characterization purposes and in preparation for the risk assessment, scheduled for the fall of 1993. Compliance monitoring was conducted at the disposal site. Details of the sampling plan are discussed in Section 5.0

  18. Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that were accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the workshop on the analysis of returned comet nucleus samples held in Milpitas, California, January 16 to 18, 1989. The abstracts deal with the nature of cometary ices, cryogenic handling and sampling equipment, origin and composition of samples, and spectroscopic, thermal and chemical processing methods of cometary nuclei. Laboratory simulation experimental results on dust samples are reported. Some results obtained from Halley's comet are also included. Microanalytic techniques for examining trace elements of cometary particles, synchrotron x ray fluorescence and instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA), are presented

  19. Global metabolite analysis of yeast: evaluation of sample preparation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Højer-Pedersen, Jesper; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Sample preparation is considered one of the limiting steps in microbial metabolome analysis. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes behave very differently during the several steps of classical sample preparation methods for analysis of metabolites. Even within the eukaryote kingdom there is a vast diversity...... of cell structures that make it imprudent to blindly adopt protocols that were designed for a specific group of microorganisms. We have therefore reviewed and evaluated the whole sample preparation procedures for analysis of yeast metabolites. Our focus has been on the current needs in metabolome analysis...... with reduced pressure solvent evaporation and therefore represents an attractive sample preparation procedure for high-throughput metabolome analysis of yeasts. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Hypothesis testing in genetic linkage analysis via Gibbs sampling ( )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... Genetic linkage analysis involves estimating parameters in a genetic model in which a genetic trait is regressed on some factors such as ... Key words: Gibbs sampling, pedigree, linkage analysis, likelihood. INTRODUCTION ..... Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 6: 721-741. Guo SW, Thompson EA ...

  1. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basche, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  2. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognetti, F.; Citro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  3. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  4. Single-Tube Flow Cytometry Assay for the Detection of Mature Lymphoid Neoplasms in Paucicellular Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchini, Alessandra; Demurtas, Anna; Aliberti, Sabrina; Barreca, Antonella; Novero, Domenico; Pacchioni, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) has become a useful support for cytomorphologic evaluation (CM) of fine-needle aspirates (FNA) and serous cavity effusions (SCE) in cases of suspected non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). FC results may be hampered by the scarce viability and low cellularity of the specimens. We developed a single-tube FC assay (STA) that included 10 antibodies cocktailed in 8-color labeling, a cell viability dye, and a logical gating strategy to detect NHL in hypocellular samples. The results were correlated with CM and confirmed by histologic or molecular data when available. Using the STA, we detected B-type NHL in 31 out of 103 hypocellular samples (81 FNA and 22 SCE). Of these, 8 were not confirmed by CM and 2 were considered to be only suspicious. The FC-negative samples had a final diagnosis of benign/reactive process (42/72), carcinoma (27/72), or Hodgkin lymphoma (3/72). The STA approach allowed obtainment of maximum immunophenotyping data in specimens containing a low number of cells and a large amount of debris. The information obtained by STA can help cytomorphologists not only to recognize but also to exclude malignant lymphomas. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Elemental composition of platelets. Part I. Sampling and sample preparation of platelets for trace-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Borberg, H.; Kasperek, K.; Kiem, J.; Siegers, M.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Gross, R.

    1979-01-01

    Sampling of platelets for trace-element analysis poses special problems: obtaining adequate sample materials, achieving a sufficient cell purity, preserving viability (integrity), correcting for trapped plasma, and controlling contamination. We used a blood-cell separator for the primary isolation of platelets from blood, and differential centrifugation in natural plasma to further isolate them. The pyrimidopyrimidine RA233 was used as a stabilizer to maintain viability. 131 I-labeled human serum albumin was used to estimate trapped plasma. Contamination was controlled by using five-times-distilled water to simulate donor's blood in the system and by comparing three fractions: the serum, the first portion of the platelet-rich plasma, and the supernatant plasma after the final centrifugation. Neutron activation analysis was used for the elemental analysis. A single differential centrifugation of the platelet-rich plasma from the blood-cell separator at 400 x g for 8 min was optimum (mean mass fractions: erythrocytes/platelets < 5 mg/g and leukocytes/platelets < 20 mg/g). The trapped plasma in the wet platelet samples amounted to about 0.40 g/g. No appreciable contamination from the sampling system was found for the elements Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn. 2 figures, 3 tables

  6. Quantitative analysis of light elements in aerosol samples by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, R.; Reis, M.A.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative PIGE analysis of aerosol samples collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filters was performed by a method that avoids the use of comparative standards. Nuclear cross sections and calibration parameters established before in an extensive work on thick and intermediate samples were employed. For these samples, the excitation functions of nuclear reactions, induced by the incident protons on target's light elements, were used as input for a code that evaluates the gamma-ray yield integrating along the depth of the sample. In the present work we apply the same code to validate the use of an effective energy for thin sample analysis. Results pertaining to boron, fluorine and sodium concentrations are presented. In order to establish a correlation with sodium values, PIXE results related to chlorine are also presented, giving support to the reliability of this PIGE method for thin film analysis

  7. Isolation of RNA from tumor samples: single-step guanidinium acid-phenol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Naomi; Leek, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The guanidinium acid-phenol method of RNA extraction is relatively fast (4 h) and is useful for the processing of large numbers of samples, without the need for ultracentrifugation. This protocol produces total RNA that includes ribosomal, transfer, and messenger RNA. This high-quality RNA is suitable for Northern blot analysis, dot-blot hybridization, poly (A) RNA selection, in vitro translation, cDNA library construction, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, ribonuclease protection assay, and primer extension experiments.

  8. Collimated scanning for large sample neutron activation analysis of inhomogeneous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, T.; National Technical University of Athens, Athens; Tzika, F.; Stamatelatos, I.E.

    2012-01-01

    A technique was developed for the identification of inhomogeneities in activity distribution and the correction of their effect on the interpretation of gamma spectrometry data in Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis. The method was based on collimated gamma scanning using a germanium detector to obtain the activity pattern in the bulk sample and Monte Carlo simulations in order to correct the experimental data for the effect of the inhomogeneous activity distribution. The method was experimentally evaluated in the case of a large cylindrical reference sample of 2 L in volume containing quartz as matrix material and a known source of radioactivity and an excellent agreement was observed. The discussed technique improves the trueness of quantitative analysis of large samples with inhomogeneous activity distribution. (author)

  9. A review of single-sample-based models and other approaches for radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L. F; Plummer, Niel

    2016-01-01

    underlying assumptions on which the various models and approaches are based can result in a wide range of estimates of 14C0 and limit the usefulness of radiocarbon as a dating tool for groundwater. In each of the three generalized approaches (single-sample-based models, statistical approach, and geochemical mass-balance approach), successful application depends on scrutiny of the isotopic (14C and 13C) and chemical data to conceptualize the reactions and processes that affect the 14C content of DIC in aquifers. The recently developed graphical analysis method is shown to aid in determining which approach is most appropriate for the isotopic and chemical data from a groundwater system.

  10. Sampling in forests for radionuclide analysis. General and practical guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aro, Lasse (Finnish Forest Research Inst. (METLA) (Finland)); Plamboeck, Agneta H. (Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Rantavaara, Aino; Vetikko, Virve (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Straalberg, Elisabeth (Inst. Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway))

    2009-01-15

    The NKS project FOREST was established to prepare a guide for sampling in forest ecosystems for radionuclide analysis. The aim of this guide is to improve the reliability of datasets generated in future studies by promoting the use of consistent, recommended practices, thorough documentation of field sampling regimes and robust preparation of samples from the forest ecosystem. The guide covers general aims of sampling, the description of major compartments of the forest ecosystem and outlines key factors to consider when planning sampling campaigns for radioecological field studies in forests. Recommended and known sampling methods for various sample types are also compiled and presented. The guide focuses on sampling practices that are applicable in various types of boreal forests, robust descriptions of sampling sites, and documentation of the origin and details of individual samples. The guide is intended for scientists, students, forestry experts and technicians who appreciate the need to use sound sampling procedures in forest radioecological projects. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in field studies and sampling campaigns, using robust techniques, thereby fostering competence in sampling. (au)

  11. Sampling in forests for radionuclide analysis. General and practical guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, Lasse; Plamboeck, Agneta H.; Rantavaara, Aino; Vetikko, Virve; Straelberg, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The NKS project FOREST was established to prepare a guide for sampling in forest ecosystems for radionuclide analysis. The aim of this guide is to improve the reliability of datasets generated in future studies by promoting the use of consistent, recommended practices, thorough documentation of field sampling regimes and robust preparation of samples from the forest ecosystem. The guide covers general aims of sampling, the description of major compartments of the forest ecosystem and outlines key factors to consider when planning sampling campaigns for radioecological field studies in forests. Recommended and known sampling methods for various sample types are also compiled and presented. The guide focuses on sampling practices that are applicable in various types of boreal forests, robust descriptions of sampling sites, and documentation of the origin and details of individual samples. The guide is intended for scientists, students, forestry experts and technicians who appreciate the need to use sound sampling procedures in forest radioecological projects. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in field studies and sampling campaigns, using robust techniques, thereby fostering competence in sampling. (au)

  12. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  13. Optimization and Modeling of Quadrupole Orbitrap Parameters for Sensitive Analysis toward Single-Cell Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun; Kovatch, Jessica Rae; Badiong, Albert; Merbouh, Nabyl

    2017-10-06

    Single-cell proteomics represents a field of extremely sensitive proteomic analysis, owing to the minute amount of yet complex proteins in a single cell. Without amplification potential as of nucleic acids, single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) analysis demands special instrumentation running with optimized parameters to maximize the sensitivity and throughput for comprehensive proteomic discovery. To facilitate such analysis, we here investigated two factors critical to peptide sequencing and protein detection in shotgun proteomics, i.e. precursor ion isolation window (IW) and maximum precursor ion injection time (ITmax), on an ultrahigh-field quadrupole Orbitrap (Q-Exactive HF). Counterintuitive to the frequently used proteomic parameters for bulk samples (>100 ng), our experimental data and subsequent modeling suggested a universally optimal IW of 4.0 Th for sample quantity ranging from 100 ng to 1 ng, and a sample-quantity dependent ITmax of more than 250 ms for 1-ng samples. Compared with the benchmark condition of IW = 2.0 Th and ITmax = 50 ms, our optimization generated up to 300% increase to the detected protein groups for 1-ng samples. The additionally identified proteins allowed deeper penetration of proteome for better revealing crucial cellular functions such as signaling and cell adhesion. We hope this effort can prompt single-cell and trace proteomic analysis and enable a rational selection of MS parameters.

  14. Production of uranium standard samples for spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuilly, M.; Leclerc, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    This report describes the conditions of preparation of twelve castings of uranium intended for use as reference samples in spectrographic analysis. Results are given of impurity determinations carried out by several laboratories using different methods, together with the 'probable values' of the concentrations. Samples of these different castings are now available and can be sent to any laboratory which requires them. (authors) [fr

  15. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J.G.; Konings, W.N.

    2009-01-01

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling

  16. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J. Gijs; Konings, Wil N.

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling

  17. 384 Power plant waste water sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerty, K.J.; Knotek, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the 384 Power House Sampling and Analysis Plan. The Plan describes sampling methods, locations, frequency, analytes, and stream descriptions. The effluent streams from 384, were characterized in 1989, in support of the Stream Specific Report (WHC-EP-0342, Addendum 1)

  18. Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theodoridis, G; Koster, EHM; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been introduced for the extraction of organic compounds from environmental samples. This relatively new extraction technique has now also gained a lot of interest in a broad field of analysis including food, biological and pharmaceutical samples. SPME has a

  19. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for the 384 Day Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    This instruction defines the sampling and analysis activities to be performed in support of the decommissioning of the 384 Day Tanks. The purpose of the sampling is to determine whether a release from the tanks has occurred and the extent of the contamination, if any

  20. Estimation of 131J-Jodohippurateclearance by a simplified method using a single plasma sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, H.; Golde, G.; Kampf, D.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical volumes calculated from the reciprocal of the plasma concentration of 131 J-Jodohippurate were compared in 95 patients with clearance values calculated by the 2-compartment-method and in 18 patients with conventional PAH-clearance. For estimating Hippurate-clearance from a single blood sampling the most favorable time is 45 min. after injection (r = 0.96; clearance 400/ml/min.: r = 0.98). Clearance values may be derived from the formula: C = 0.4 + 7.26 V - 0.021 x V 2 (V = injected activity/activity per l plasma taken 45 min. after injection). The simplicity, precision and reproducibility of the above mentioned clearance-method is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  1. Quantitative portable gamma spectroscopy sample analysis for non-standard sample geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enghauser, M.W.; Ebara, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizing a portable spectroscopy system, a quantitative method for analysis of samples containing a mixture of fission and activation products in nonstandard geometries was developed. The method can be used with various sample and shielding configurations where analysis on a laboratory based gamma spectroscopy system is impractical. The portable gamma spectroscopy method involves calibration of the detector and modeling of the sample and shielding to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in the sample. The method utilizes the intrinsic efficiency of the detector and the unattenuated gamma fluence rate at the detector surface per unit activity from the sample to calculate the nuclide activity and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). For a complex geometry, a computer code written for shielding applications (MICROSHIELD) is utilized to determine the unattenuated gamma fluence rate per unit activity at the detector surface. Lastly, the method is only applicable to nuclides which emit gamma rays and cannot be used for pure beta emitters. In addition, if sample self absorption and shielding is significant, the attenuation will result in high MDA's for nuclides which solely emit low energy gamma rays. The following presents the analysis technique and presents verification results demonstrating the accuracy of the method

  2. Quantitative portable gamma-spectroscopy sample analysis for non-standard sample geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing a portable spectroscopy system, a quantitative method for analysis of samples containing a mixture of fission and activation products in nonstandard geometries was developed. This method was not developed to replace other methods such as Monte Carlo or Discrete Ordinates but rather to offer an alternative rapid solution. The method can be used with various sample and shielding configurations where analysis on a laboratory based gamma-spectroscopy system is impractical. The portable gamma-spectroscopy method involves calibration of the detector and modeling of the sample and shielding to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in the sample. The method utilizes the intrinsic efficiency of the detector and the unattenuated gamma fluence rate at the detector surface per unit activity from the sample to calculate the nuclide activity and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). For a complex geometry, a computer code written for shielding applications (MICROSHIELD) is utilized to determine the unattenuated gamma fluence rate per unit activity at the detector surface. Lastly, the method is only applicable to nuclides which emit gamma-rays and cannot be used for pure beta or alpha emitters. In addition, if sample self absorption and shielding is significant, the attenuation will result in high MDA's for nuclides which solely emit low energy gamma-rays. The following presents the analysis technique and presents verification results using actual experimental data, rather than comparisons to other approximations such as Monte Carlo techniques, to demonstrate the accuracy of the method given a known geometry and source term. (author)

  3. Single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle using Cartesian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzl, Jens; Schmidt, Michaela; Pontana, François; Longère, Benjamin; Lugauer, Felix; Maier, Andreas; Hornegger, Joachim; Forman, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate a single-breath-hold approach for Cartesian 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle with a nearly isotropic resolution of [Formula: see text] and a breath-hold duration of [Formula: see text]19 s against a standard stack of 2-D CINE slices acquired in multiple breath-holds. Validation is performed with data sets from ten healthy volunteers. A Cartesian sampling pattern based on the spiral phyllotaxis and a compressed sensing reconstruction method are proposed to allow 3-D CINE imaging with high acceleration factors. The fully integrated reconstruction uses multiple graphics processing units to speed up the reconstruction. The 2-D CINE and 3-D CINE are compared based on ventricular function parameters, contrast-to-noise ratio and edge sharpness measurements. Visual comparisons of corresponding short-axis slices of 2-D and 3-D CINE show an excellent match, while 3-D CINE also allows reformatting to other orientations. Ventricular function parameters do not significantly differ from values based on 2-D CINE imaging. Reconstruction times are below 4 min. We demonstrate single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging in volunteers and three example patient cases, which features fast reconstruction and allows reformatting to arbitrary orientations.

  4. Single cell PCR amplification of diatoms using fresh and preserved samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paul B.; Lefebvre, Keely E.; Bull, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Single cell Chelex® DNA extraction and nested PCR amplification were used to examine partial gene sequences from natural diatom populations for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at and above the level of species. DNA was extracted from cells that were either fresh collected or stored in RNAlater. Extractions from Lugol's fixation were also attempted with limited success. Three partial gene sequences (rbcL, 18S, and psbA) were recovered using existing and new primers with a nested or double nested PCR approach with amplification and success rates between 70 and 96%. An rbcL consensus tree grouped morphologically similar specimens and was consistent across the two primary sample treatments: fresh and RNAlater. This tool will greatly enhance the number of microscopic diatom taxa (and potentially other microbes) available for barcoding and phylogenetic studies. The near-term increase in sequence data for diatoms generated via routine single cell extractions and PCR will act as a multiproxy validation of longer-term next generation genomics. PMID:26528252

  5. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2007-04-02

    The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

  6. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, W.J.

    1998-08-11

    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

  7. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997)

  8. An Integrated Tool for System Analysis of Sample Return Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Winski, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The next important step in space exploration is the return of sample materials from extraterrestrial locations to Earth for analysis. Most mission concepts that return sample material to Earth share one common element: an Earth entry vehicle. The analysis and design of entry vehicles is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application of mass sizing, flight mechanics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, thermal analysis, structural analysis, and impact analysis tools. Integration of a multidisciplinary problem is a challenging task; the execution process and data transfer among disciplines should be automated and consistent. This paper describes an integrated analysis tool for the design and sizing of an Earth entry vehicle. The current tool includes the following disciplines: mass sizing, flight mechanics, aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and impact analysis tools. Python and Java languages are used for integration. Results are presented and compared with the results from previous studies.

  9. Determining Sample Sizes for Precise Contrast Analysis with Heterogeneous Variances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Show-Li; Shieh, Gwowen

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is one of the most frequently used statistical analyses in practical applications. Accordingly, the single and multiple comparison procedures are frequently applied to assess the differences among mean effects. However, the underlying assumption of homogeneous variances may not always be tenable. This study…

  10. Considerations of acidifying water samples for 99Tc analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.L.; Lieberman, R.; Richardson, W.S. III; Wakamo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental water samples are routinely acidified before radionuclide analysis to prevent adsorption of radionuclides on the container walls. This study addresses the concern for volatilizing 99Tc from acid solutions during evaporation before beta analysis has been addressed. Water samples can be acidified to pH 1.7 with nitric acid and evaporated to dryness on planchets without significant losses of technetium due to volatilization. However, the planchets should not be flamed unless a detergent is used, and control samples should be flamed to determine the loss of activity under the conditions used

  11. Brief communication: Is variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi sample too high to be from a single species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee

    2005-07-01

    This study uses data resampling to test the null hypothesis that the degree of variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi hominid sample is within the range variation of a single species. The statistical significance of the variation in the Dmanisi sample is examined using simulated distributions based on comparative samples of modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Results show that it is unlikely to find the maximum difference observed in the Dmanisi sample in distributions of female-female pairs from comparative single-species samples. Given that two sexes are represented, the difference in the Dmanisi sample is not enough to reject the null hypothesis of a single species. Results of this study suggest no compelling reason to invoke multiple taxa to explain variation in the cranial capacity of the Dmanisi hominids. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  12. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  13. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of air filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuykendall, W.E.; Fite, L.E. Jr.; Wainerdi, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports the capabilities of automated instrumental neutron activation analysis as demonstrated on 40 air filter samples from Cleveland's area. The results indicate the usefulness of the method in the measurement of elemental concentrations in airborne particulates. Through the use of automated gamma-ray spectrometry procedures, magnetic tape recording of spectral data and computerized processing of data, the method becomes very competitive from the standpoint of sensitivity and cost. The capabilities of the technique for air filter analysis may be summarized as follows: a., over 33 elements are measurable in a filter sample; b., the median detection limit for airborne concentration of an element is approximately 4.10 -9 grams.meter -3 ; c., around 26 elements are detectable in a typical cellulose filter sample; d., the method is non-destructive, therefore the sample can be retained for further analysis. (T.G.)

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Plant-Derived Samples by Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commonly used for the qualitative analysis of natural plant-derived samples, especially in combination with reverse-phase liquid chromatography [35-38]. Figure 1: Qualitative analysis by LC- Q-TOF-MS/MS. Table 1: Applications of different ion sources. Ion source. Type and/or properties of suitable compounds. Reference.

  16. Pattern recognition analysis for characterization of coal and ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Different pattern recognition techniques were applied for classification of a large number of coal, and coal fly ash samples. Cluster analysis was performed on 116 samples using the concentration data of 40 elements. The effect of number and type of the elements on the clustering was studied in detail. It was proved that short time activation analysis enables the characterization of these types of samples if 139 Ba and 87 Sr are included, these data being obtained by increasing the irradiation and counting times. The two elements and chlorine were found to be necessary for such a classification. The combination between cluster analysis and principal component analysis gives accurate and confirmed results. The statistical analyses of the subgroups are compared. (author) 11 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. New trends in sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Maia, Alexandra S; Gonçalves, Virgínia M F; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Environmental samples include a wide variety of complex matrices, with low concentrations of analytes and presence of several interferences. Sample preparation is a critical step and the main source of uncertainties in the analysis of environmental samples, and it is usually laborious, high cost, time consuming, and polluting. In this context, there is increasing interest in developing faster, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Recently, new methods have been developed and optimized in order to miniaturize extraction steps, to reduce solvent consumption or become solventless, and to automate systems. This review attempts to present an overview of the fundamentals, procedure, and application of the most recently developed sample preparation techniques for the extraction, cleanup, and concentration of organic pollutants from environmental samples. These techniques include: solid phase microextraction, on-line solid phase extraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe).

  18. Sample Preparation Report of the Fourth OPCW Confidence Building Exercise on Biomedical Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udey, R. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Corzett, T. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alcaraz, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-03

    Following the successful completion of the 3rd biomedical confidence building exercise (February 2013 – March 2013), which included the analysis of plasma and urine samples spiked at low ppb levels as part of the exercise scenario, another confidence building exercise was targeted to be conducted in 2014. In this 4th exercise, it was desired to focus specifically on the analysis of plasma samples. The scenario was designed as an investigation of an alleged use of chemical weapons where plasma samples were collected, as plasma has been reported to contain CWA adducts which remain present in the human body for several weeks (Solano et al. 2008). In the 3rd exercise most participants used the fluoride regeneration method to analyze for the presence of nerve agents in plasma samples. For the 4th biomedical exercise it was decided to evaluate the analysis of human plasma samples for the presence/absence of the VX adducts and aged adducts to blood proteins (e.g., VX-butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and aged BuChE adducts using a pepsin digest technique to yield nonapeptides; or equivalent). As the aging of VX-BuChE adducts is relatively slow (t1/2 = 77 hr at 37 °C [Aurbek et al. 2009]), soman (GD), which ages much more quickly (t1/2 = 9 min at 37 °C [Masson et al. 2010]), was used to simulate an aged VX sample. Additional objectives of this exercise included having laboratories assess novel OP-adducted plasma sample preparation techniques and analytical instrumentation methodologies, as well as refining/designating the reporting formats for these new techniques.

  19. Protocol for Microplastics Sampling on the Sea Surface and Sample Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač Viršek, Manca; Palatinus, Andreja; Koren, Špela; Peterlin, Monika; Horvat, Petra; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic pollution in the marine environment is a scientific topic that has received increasing attention over the last decade. The majority of scientific publications address microplastic pollution of the sea surface. The protocol below describes the methodology for sampling, sample preparation, separation and chemical identification of microplastic particles. A manta net fixed on an »A frame« attached to the side of the vessel was used for sampling. Microplastic particles caught in the cod end of the net were separated from samples by visual identification and use of stereomicroscopes. Particles were analyzed for their size using an image analysis program and for their chemical structure using ATR-FTIR and micro FTIR spectroscopy. The described protocol is in line with recommendations for microplastics monitoring published by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter. This written protocol with video guide will support the work of researchers that deal with microplastics monitoring all over the world. PMID:28060297

  20. Platforms for Single-Cell Collection and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Valihrach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has become an established method to study cell heterogeneity and for rare cell characterization. Despite the high cost and technical constraints, applications are increasing every year in all fields of biology. Following the trend, there is a tremendous development of tools for single-cell analysis, especially in the RNA sequencing field. Every improvement increases sensitivity and throughput. Collecting a large amount of data also stimulates the development of new approaches for bioinformatic analysis and interpretation. However, the essential requirement for any analysis is the collection of single cells of high quality. The single-cell isolation must be fast, effective, and gentle to maintain the native expression profiles. Classical methods for single-cell isolation are micromanipulation, microdissection, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. In the last decade several new and highly efficient approaches have been developed, which not just supplement but may fully replace the traditional ones. These new techniques are based on microfluidic chips, droplets, micro-well plates, and automatic collection of cells using capillaries, magnets, an electric field, or a punching probe. In this review we summarize the current methods and developments in this field. We discuss the advantages of the different commercially available platforms and their applicability, and also provide remarks on future developments.

  1. Single-cell analysis of endothelial morphogenesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxin A.; Castranova, Daniel; Pham, Van N.; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2015-01-01

    Vessel formation has been extensively studied at the tissue level, but the difficulty in imaging the endothelium with cellular resolution has hampered study of the morphogenesis and behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) in vivo. We are using endothelial-specific transgenes and high-resolution imaging to examine single ECs in zebrafish. By generating mosaics with transgenes that simultaneously mark endothelial nuclei and membranes we are able to definitively identify and study the morphology and behavior of individual ECs during vessel sprouting and lumen formation. Using these methods, we show that developing trunk vessels are composed of ECs of varying morphology, and that single-cell analysis can be used to quantitate alterations in morphology and dynamics in ECs that are defective in proper guidance and patterning. Finally, we use single-cell analysis of intersegmental vessels undergoing lumen formation to demonstrate the coexistence of seamless transcellular lumens and single or multicellular enclosed lumens with autocellular or intercellular junctions, suggesting that heterogeneous mechanisms contribute to vascular lumen formation in vivo. The tools that we have developed for single EC analysis should facilitate further rigorous qualitative and quantitative analysis of EC morphology and behavior in vivo. PMID:26253401

  2. On the preparation of as-produced and purified single-walled carbon nanotube samples for standardized X-ray diffraction characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, Rula M.; Rivero, Iris V.; Spearman, Shayla S.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to specify proper sample conditioning for acquiring representative X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles for single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples. In doing so, a specimen preparation method for quantitative XRD characterization of as-produced and purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples has been identified. Series of powder XRD profiles were collected at different temperatures, states, and points of time to establish appropriate conditions for acquiring XRD profiles without inducing much change to the specimen. It was concluded that heating in the 300-450 deg. C range for 20 minutes, preferably vacuum-assisted, and then sealing the sample is an appropriate XRD specimen preparation technique for purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples, while raw samples do not require preconditioning for characterization. - Graphical Abstract: A sample preparation method for XRD characterization of as-produced and purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples is identified. The preparation technique seeks to acquire representative XRD profiles without inducing changes to the samples. Purified samples required 20 minutes of heating at (300-450)deg. C, while raw samples did not require preconditioning for characterization. Highlights: → Purification routines may induce adsorption onto the SWCNT samples. → Heating a SWCNT sample may result in material loss, desorption, and SWCNTs closing. → Raw arc-discharge samples do not require preparation for XRD characterization. → Heating is appropriate specimen preparation for purified and heat-treated samples. → XRD data fitting is required for structural analysis of SWCNT bundles.

  3. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olise, Felix S., E-mail: felix_olise@rushpost.com [Department of Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005 (Nigeria); Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P. [CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A. [IST/CTN: Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear (CTN), EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFA: Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PIXE technique has been used to determine K and Br in a major Nigerian food item. • Samples were analysed using two proton beam energies, namely 1.25 MeV and 2.15 MeV. • Mismatched Ca results reflect its nature and accuracy/precision of the procedure. • Explanations for the presence of the contaminant in the samples are presented. • Other sources originating from erroneous burning of dangerous products suspected. -- Abstract: The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO{sub 3} levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about −16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  4. SAMSAN- MODERN NUMERICAL METHODS FOR CLASSICAL SAMPLED SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    SAMSAN was developed to aid the control system analyst by providing a self consistent set of computer algorithms that support large order control system design and evaluation studies, with an emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Control system analysts have access to a vast array of published algorithms to solve an equally large spectrum of controls related computational problems. The analyst usually spends considerable time and effort bringing these published algorithms to an integrated operational status and often finds them less general than desired. SAMSAN reduces the burden on the analyst by providing a set of algorithms that have been well tested and documented, and that can be readily integrated for solving control system problems. Algorithm selection for SAMSAN has been biased toward numerical accuracy for large order systems with computational speed and portability being considered important but not paramount. In addition to containing relevant subroutines from EISPAK for eigen-analysis and from LINPAK for the solution of linear systems and related problems, SAMSAN contains the following not so generally available capabilities: 1) Reduction of a real non-symmetric matrix to block diagonal form via a real similarity transformation matrix which is well conditioned with respect to inversion, 2) Solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem with balancing and grading, 3) Computation of all zeros of the determinant of a matrix of polynomials, 4) Matrix exponentiation and the evaluation of integrals involving the matrix exponential, with option to first block diagonalize, 5) Root locus and frequency response for single variable transfer functions in the S, Z, and W domains, 6) Several methods of computing zeros for linear systems, and 7) The ability to generate documentation "on demand". All matrix operations in the SAMSAN algorithms assume non-symmetric matrices with real double precision elements. There is no fixed size limit on any matrix in any

  5. Ash contents of foodstuff samples in environmental radioactivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hayano, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Statistical data of the ash content in various environmental samples obtained from an environmental radioactivity survey project commissioned by the Japanese government of Science and Technology Agency (at present Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Sciences and Technology) during the past 10 years are expressed for establishing a standard of ash content in environmental samples based on radioactivity analysis. The ash content for some kinds of environmental samples such as dietary food, milk, Japanese radish, spinach, fish, green tea and potato was reviewed in the light of statistical and stochastic viewpoints. For all of the samples reviewed in this paper, the coefficient of variation varied from 4.7% for milk to 36.3% for cabbage. Dietary food and milk samples were reviewed more than 1900 and 1400 samples, respectively. Especially, ash content of dietary food depended mainly on the dietary culture reflected on the period. However it showed an almost invariant distribution within 18.7% of coefficient of variation during the past 10 years. Pretreatment of environmental samples especially ashing processes are important from the viewpoint on environmental radioactivity analysis, which is one of the especial fields in analytical chemistry. Statistical reviewed data obtained in this paper may be useful for sample preparation. (author)

  6. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent experience in the analysis of postmortem samples for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W. Jr.; Kirby, L.J.; Nelson, I.C.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures are described for isotopic analysis of large autopsy tissue samples for 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu at Hanford. Internal tracers ( 242 Pu, 236 Pu) are presently used to measure radiochemical recovery to an accuracy of +- 5 percent. Sample sizes may be up to at least 400g for soft tissues and up to 50g for bone with recoveries of 70 +- 30 percent. Some critical points of the procedure, problems and their solutions are discussed

  8. Single particle and molecular assembly analysis of polyribosomes by single- and double-tilt cryo electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G. [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France); Afonina, Zhanna A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klaholz, Bruno P., E-mail: klaholz@igbmc.fr [IGBMC (Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology), Department of Integrative Structural Biology, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR 7104/ Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U964/ Université de Strasbourg, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch (France)

    2013-03-15

    Cryo electron tomography (cryo-ET) can provide cellular and molecular structural information on various biological samples. However, the detailed interpretation of tomograms reconstructed from single-tilt data tends to suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio and artefacts caused by some systematically missing angular views. While these can be overcome by sub-tomogram averaging, they remain limiting for the analysis of unique structures. Double-tilt ET can improve the tomogram quality by acquiring a second tilt series after an in-plane rotation, but its usage is not widespread yet because it is considered technically demanding and it is rarely used under cryo conditions. Here we show that double-tilt cryo-ET improves the quality of 3D reconstructions so significantly that even single particle analysis can be envisaged despite of the intrinsically low image contrast obtained from frozen-hydrated specimens. This is illustrated by the analysis of eukaryotic polyribosomes in which individual ribosomes were reconstructed using single-tilt, partial and full double-tilt geometries. The improved tomograms favour the faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging and allow a better 3D classification using multivariate statistical analysis. Our study of single particles and molecular assemblies within polysomes illustrates that the dual-axis approach is particularly useful for cryo applications of ET, both for unique objects and for structures that can be classified and averaged. - Highlights: ► Double-tilt cryo-ET improves 3D reconstructions thus making single particle analysis possible. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET data favour a faster convergence of iterative sub-tomogram averaging. ► Individual ribosomes were reconstructed from single-tilt, partial/ full double-tilt geometries. ► Double-tilt cryo-ET facilitates analysis of larger molecular assemblies such as in cell sections. ► Dual-axis cryo-ET is applicable to unique objects and to structures that can be

  9. Current trends in sample preparation for cosmetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke

    2017-01-01

    The widespread applications of cosmetics in modern life make their analysis particularly important from a safety point of view. There is a wide variety of restricted ingredients and prohibited substances that primarily influence the safety of cosmetics. Sample preparation for cosmetic analysis is a crucial step as the complex matrices may seriously interfere with the determination of target analytes. In this review, some new developments (2010-2016) in sample preparation techniques for cosmetic analysis, including liquid-phase microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, pressurized liquid extraction, cloud point extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and microwave digestion, are presented. Furthermore, the research and progress in sample preparation techniques and their applications in the separation and purification of allowed ingredients and prohibited substances are reviewed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  11. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  12. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for 241 Am, 6569 for 137 Cs, 4535 for 239+240 Pu, 4431 for 90 Sr, 1146 for 238 Pu, 269 for 241 Pu, and 114 each for 239 Pu and 240 Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included

  13. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.

    2014-08-19

    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.

  14. Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  16. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  17. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP

  18. Calibration of HPGe detector for flowing sample neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, F.S.; Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo; Mohamed Soliman; Ahmed, M.M.; Rizk, R.A.M.; Megahid, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This work is concerned with the calibration of the HPGe detector used in flowing sample neutron activation analysis technique. The optimum counting configuration and half-life based correction factors have been estimated using Monte Carlo computer simulations. Depending on detection efficiency, sample volume and flow type around the detector, the optimum geometry was achieved using 4 mm diameter hose rolled in spiral shape around the detector. The derived results showed that the half-life based efficiency correction factors are strongly dependent on sample flow rate and the isotope half-life. (author)

  19. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP.

  20. Single Particle Tracking: Analysis Techniques for Live Cell Nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relich, Peter Kristopher, II

    Single molecule experiments are a set of experiments designed specifically to study the properties of individual molecules. It has only been in the last three decades where single molecule experiments have been applied to the life sciences; where they have been successfully implemented in systems biology for probing the behaviors of sub-cellular mechanisms. The advent and growth of super-resolution techniques in single molecule experiments has made the fundamental behaviors of light and the associated nano-probes a necessary concern amongst life scientists wishing to advance the state of human knowledge in biology. This dissertation disseminates some of the practices learned in experimental live cell microscopy. The topic of single particle tracking is addressed here in a format that is designed for the physicist who embarks upon single molecule studies. Specifically, the focus is on the necessary procedures to generate single particle tracking analysis techniques that can be implemented to answer biological questions. These analysis techniques range from designing and testing a particle tracking algorithm to inferring model parameters once an image has been processed. The intellectual contributions of the author include the techniques in diffusion estimation, localization filtering, and trajectory associations for tracking which will all be discussed in detail in later chapters. The author of this thesis has also contributed to the software development of automated gain calibration, live cell particle simulations, and various single particle tracking packages. Future work includes further evaluation of this laboratory's single particle tracking software, entropy based approaches towards hypothesis validations, and the uncertainty quantification of gain calibration.

  1. Towards proper sampling and statistical analysis of defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in applied statistics with great relevance to defect sampling and analysis are presented. Three main issues are considered; (i proper handling of multiple defect types, (ii relating sample data originating from polished inspection surfaces (2D to finite material volumes (3D, and (iii application of advanced extreme value theory in statistical analysis of block maximum data. Original and rigorous, but practical mathematical solutions are presented. Finally, these methods are applied to make prediction regarding defect sizes in a steel alloy containing multiple defect types.

  2. A fast analysis system for forensic DNA reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Albinsson, Linda; Ansell, Carina; Tapper, Helene; Hansson, Oskar; Holgersson, Stig; Ansell, Ricky

    2008-06-01

    On January 1st, 2006, the Swedish legislation on obtaining DNA reference samples from suspects and the recording of DNA profiles in databases was changed. As a result the number of samples analysed at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) increased from about 4500 in 2005 to more than 25,000 in 2006. To meet this challenge, SKL launched a new analysis system to create an unbroken chain, from sampling to incorporation of a profile in the national DNA database and subsequent automatic generation of digitally signed hit reports. The system integrates logistics, digital data transfer, new functions in LIMS (ForumDNA Version 4, Ida Infront AB) and laboratory automation. Buccal swab samples are secured on a FTA card attached to an identity form, which is barcoded with a unique sample ID. After sampling, the police officer sends a digital request to SKL. The sample is automatically registered in LIMS and processed on delivery. The resulting DNA profiles are automatically classified according to quality using a custom-made expert system. Building the evaluation around mathematical rules makes it reproducible, standardised and minimises manual work and clerk errors. All samples are run in duplicate and the two profiles are compared within LIMS before incorporation in the database. In the first year of operation, the median time for completion of an analysis was 3 days, measured from delivery of the sample to incorporation of the profile in the national DNA database. In spite of the dramatic increase in the number of reference samples there was no backlog.

  3. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  4. Single cell analysis contemporary research and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cossarizza, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the current state of the art in single cell analysis, an area that involves many fields of science – from clinical hematology, functional analysis and drug screening, to platelet and microparticle analysis, marine biology and fundamental cancer research. This book brings together an eclectic group of current applications, all of which have a significant impact on our current state of knowledge. The authors of these chapters are all pioneering researchers in the field of single cell analysis. The book will not only appeal to those readers more focused on clinical applications, but also those interested in highly technical aspects of the technologies. All of the technologies identified utilize unique applications of photon detection systems.

  5. Quantification and size characterisation of silver nanoparticles in environmental aqueous samples and consumer products by single particle-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Ramón; Barahona, Francisco; Geiss, Otmar; Ponti, Jessica; José Luis, Tadeo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa

    2017-12-01

    Single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICPMS) is a promising technique able to generate the number based-particle size distribution (PSD) of nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous suspensions. However, SP-ICPMS analysis is not consolidated as routine-technique yet and is not typically applied to real test samples with unknown composition. This work presents a methodology to detect, quantify and characterise the number-based PSD of Ag-NPs in different environmental aqueous samples (drinking and lake waters), aqueous samples derived from migration tests and consumer products using SP-ICPMS. The procedure is built from a pragmatic view and involves the analysis of serial dilutions of the original sample until no variation in the measured size values is observed while keeping particle counts proportional to the dilution applied. After evaluation of the analytical figures of merit, the SP-ICPMS method exhibited excellent linearity (r 2 >0.999) in the range (1-25) × 10 4 particlesmL -1 for 30, 50 and 80nm nominal size Ag-NPs standards. The precision in terms of repeatability was studied according to the RSDs of the measured size and particle number concentration values and a t-test (p = 95%) at the two intermediate concentration levels was applied to determine the bias of SP-ICPMS size values compared to reference values. The method showed good repeatability and an overall acceptable bias in the studied concentration range. The experimental minimum detectable size for Ag-NPs ranged between 12 and 15nm. Additionally, results derived from direct SP-ICPMS analysis were compared to the results conducted for fractions collected by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation and supernatant fractions after centrifugal filtration. The method has been successfully applied to determine the presence of Ag-NPs in: lake water; tap water; tap water filtered by a filter jar; seven different liquid silver-based consumer products; and migration solutions (pure water and

  6. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

  7. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Ciobanu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.

  8. Single base pair mutation analysis by PNA directed PCR clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, H.; Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method that allows direct analysis of single base mutation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. The method utilizes the finding that PNAs (peptide nucleic acids) recognize and bind to their complementary nucleic acid sequences with higher thermal stability and specificity...

  9. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain cultures of lactobacilli and mixed culture starter made from them. KiBeom Lee1*, Ho-Jin Kim1 and Sang-Kyu Park2. 1Bio Center Technopark, 7-50 Songdo, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea. 2Nambu University, Chumdan ...

  10. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  11. CrazyEgg Reports for Single Page Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CrazyEgg provides an in depth look at visitor behavior on one page. While you can use GA to do trend analysis of your web area, CrazyEgg helps diagnose the design of a single Web page by visually displaying all visitor clicks during a specified time.

  12. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Toffoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  13. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  14. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  15. Sample size determination for mediation analysis of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haitao; Liu, Suyu; Miao, Danmin; Yuan, Ying

    2018-03-27

    Sample size planning for longitudinal data is crucial when designing mediation studies because sufficient statistical power is not only required in grant applications and peer-reviewed publications, but is essential to reliable research results. However, sample size determination is not straightforward for mediation analysis of longitudinal design. To facilitate planning the sample size for longitudinal mediation studies with a multilevel mediation model, this article provides the sample size required to achieve 80% power by simulations under various sizes of the mediation effect, within-subject correlations and numbers of repeated measures. The sample size calculation is based on three commonly used mediation tests: Sobel's method, distribution of product method and the bootstrap method. Among the three methods of testing the mediation effects, Sobel's method required the largest sample size to achieve 80% power. Bootstrapping and the distribution of the product method performed similarly and were more powerful than Sobel's method, as reflected by the relatively smaller sample sizes. For all three methods, the sample size required to achieve 80% power depended on the value of the ICC (i.e., within-subject correlation). A larger value of ICC typically required a larger sample size to achieve 80% power. Simulation results also illustrated the advantage of the longitudinal study design. The sample size tables for most encountered scenarios in practice have also been published for convenient use. Extensive simulations study showed that the distribution of the product method and bootstrapping method have superior performance to the Sobel's method, but the product method was recommended to use in practice in terms of less computation time load compared to the bootstrapping method. A R package has been developed for the product method of sample size determination in mediation longitudinal study design.

  16. Single aflatoxin contaminated corn kernel analysis with fluorescence hyperspectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2010-04-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin levels in food and feed are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food and 100 ppb in feed for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests including thin-layer chromatography (TCL) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These analytical tests require the destruction of samples, and are costly and time consuming. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, nondestructive way is crucial to the grain industry, particularly to corn industry. Hyperspectral imaging technology offers a non-invasive approach toward screening for food safety inspection and quality control based on its spectral signature. The focus of this paper is to classify aflatoxin contaminated single corn kernels using fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. Field inoculated corn kernels were used in the study. Contaminated and control kernels under long wavelength ultraviolet excitation were imaged using a visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral camera. The imaged kernels were chemically analyzed to provide reference information for image analysis. This paper describes a procedure to process corn kernels located in different images for statistical training and classification. Two classification algorithms, Maximum Likelihood and Binary Encoding, were used to classify each corn kernel into "control" or "contaminated" through pixel classification. The Binary Encoding approach had a slightly better performance with accuracy equals to 87% or 88% when 20 ppb or 100 ppb was used as classification threshold, respectively.

  17. 40 CFR 503.8 - Sampling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling and analysis. 503.8 Section 503.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS....A., “Occurrence of Pathogens in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges”, EPA 600/1-87-014...

  18. Modern methods of sample preparation for GC analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, S.; Janssen, H.-G.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2009-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of techniques is available for the preparation of (semi-) solid, liquid and gaseous samples, prior to their instrumental analysis by means of capillary gas chromatography (GC) or, increasingly, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC). In the past two decades, a large number

  19. Chemical Analysis of Some Limestone Samples from the Middle Belt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Chemical analysis of fifteen (15) limestone samples, 13 of which were locally sourced, was carried out using gravimetric as well as flame emission and uv- visible spectroscopic methods. The range of parameters ... and some other filler applications. Keywords: Industrial, Ink, Limestone, Local Source, Spectroscopy.

  20. Sampling And Analysis Of Carbonyl In Laboratory Atmospheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sampling and analytical method has been developed for carbonyl concentrations in different laboratory atmospheres at the faculty of Science Bayero University; Kano, Nigeria using cold oximation followed by titrimetric finish. The analysis was carried out between 008 and 1800 hrs from from October 2002 to June 2003.

  1. Modern Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled System Analysis-SAMSAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1984-01-01

    SAMSAN aids control-system analyst by providing self-consistent set of computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies, with emphasis placed on sampled system analysis. Program provides set of algorithms readily integrated for solving control-system problems.

  2. Numerical Methods for Classical Sampled-System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.; Bauer, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    SAMSAN provides control-system analyst with self-consistent computer algorithms that support large-order control-system design and evaluation studies. Emphasizes sampled-system analysis. SAMSAN reduces burden on analyst by providing set of algorithms well tested and documented and readily integrated for solving control-system problems.

  3. 400 area secondary cooling water sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, L.L.

    1996-10-29

    This is a total rewrite of the Sampling and Analysis Plan in response to, and to ensure compliance with, the State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4501 issued on July 31, 1996. This revision describes changes in facility status and implements requirements of the permit.

  4. Qualitative Analysis of Plant-Derived Samples by Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Currently, mass spectrometry has become an effective method for the qualitative analysis of plant-derived samples. Precursor and product ions can be obtained by tandem mass spectrometry, supplying rich information for determining the structural formulas of compounds. In this work, we review the optimization of ...

  5. 40 CFR 86.240-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust sample analysis. 86.240-94 Section 86.240-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium...

  6. Image analysis driven single-cell analytics for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balomenos, Athanasios D; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Aspridou, Zafiro; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P; Manolakos, Elias S

    2017-04-04

    Time-lapse microscopy is an essential tool for capturing and correlating bacterial morphology and gene expression dynamics at single-cell resolution. However state-of-the-art computational methods are limited in terms of the complexity of cell movies that they can analyze and lack of automation. The proposed Bacterial image analysis driven Single Cell Analytics (BaSCA) computational pipeline addresses these limitations thus enabling high throughput systems microbiology. BaSCA can segment and track multiple bacterial colonies and single-cells, as they grow and divide over time (cell segmentation and lineage tree construction) to give rise to dense communities with thousands of interacting cells in the field of view. It combines advanced image processing and machine learning methods to deliver very accurate bacterial cell segmentation and tracking (F-measure over 95%) even when processing images of imperfect quality with several overcrowded colonies in the field of view. In addition, BaSCA extracts on the fly a plethora of single-cell properties, which get organized into a database summarizing the analysis of the cell movie. We present alternative ways to analyze and visually explore the spatiotemporal evolution of single-cell properties in order to understand trends and epigenetic effects across cell generations. The robustness of BaSCA is demonstrated across different imaging modalities and microscopy types. BaSCA can be used to analyze accurately and efficiently cell movies both at a high resolution (single-cell level) and at a large scale (communities with many dense colonies) as needed to shed light on e.g. how bacterial community effects and epigenetic information transfer play a role on important phenomena for human health, such as biofilm formation, persisters' emergence etc. Moreover, it enables studying the role of single-cell stochasticity without losing sight of community effects that may drive it.

  7. Trace metal analysis for fingerprinting oil spill samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotts, J.P.; Reilly, T.; Plourde, K.; Hendrick, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Coast Guard Central Oil Identification Laboratory (COIL) uses four organic analytical techniques to fingerprint oil spill samples: gas chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography; inorganic constituents are not addressed. Theoretically, trace metal analysis would enhance oil fingerprinting in cases in which the water-borne oil samples are significantly weathered, because of the low volatility of trace metals. The feasibility of fingerprinting spilled oil and suspected source sample pairs via trace metal analysis has been examined. A total of 14 pairs of light fuel oils, previously matched via COIL's organic fingerprinting methods, were analyzed by atomic absorption for nickel, iron, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium content and then qualitatively compared. Light fuels were selected because of their susceptibility to weathering

  8. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.

    1983-01-01

    A fast method for the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of gold in geochemical samples is described. The method is intended for samples having background concentrations of gold. The method is based on the dissolution of samples with hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia followed by the dissolution of the fluorides with boric acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold is then adsorbed on activated carbon by filtrating the solution through a thin carbon layer. The activity measurements are carried out using a Ge(Li)-detector and a multichannel analyzer. The chemical yields of the separation determined by reirradiation vary between 60 and 90%. The detection limit of the method is 0.2 ng/g gold in rock samples. USGS standard rocks and exploration reference materials are analyzed and the results are presented and compared with literature data. (author)

  9. Markov chain analysis of single spin flip Ising simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennecke, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Markov processes defined by random and loop-based schemes for single spin flip attempts in Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D Ising model are investigated, by explicitly constructing their transition matrices. Their analysis reveals that loops over all lattice sites using a Metropolis-type single spin flip probability often do not define ergodic Markov chains, and have distorted dynamical properties even if they are ergodic. The transition matrices also enable a comparison of the dynamics of random versus loop spin selection and Glauber versus Metropolis probabilities

  10. Sample entropy analysis of cervical neoplasia gene-expression signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Salama A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce Approximate Entropy as a mathematical method of analysis for microarray data. Approximate entropy is applied here as a method to classify the complex gene expression patterns resultant of a clinical sample set. Since Entropy is a measure of disorder in a system, we believe that by choosing genes which display minimum entropy in normal controls and maximum entropy in the cancerous sample set we will be able to distinguish those genes which display the greatest variability in the cancerous set. Here we describe a method of utilizing Approximate Sample Entropy (ApSE analysis to identify genes of interest with the highest probability of producing an accurate, predictive, classification model from our data set. Results In the development of a diagnostic gene-expression profile for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, we identified 208 genes which are unchanging in all normal tissue samples, yet exhibit a random pattern indicative of the genetic instability and heterogeneity of malignant cells. This may be measured in terms of the ApSE when compared to normal tissue. We have validated 10 of these genes on 10 Normal and 20 cancer and CIN3 samples. We report that the predictive value of the sample entropy calculation for these 10 genes of interest is promising (75% sensitivity, 80% specificity for prediction of cervical cancer over CIN3. Conclusion The success of the Approximate Sample Entropy approach in discerning alterations in complexity from biological system with such relatively small sample set, and extracting biologically relevant genes of interest hold great promise.

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  12. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  13. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  15. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  16. Approach to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms by automated constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheim, Jens; Abrahamsen, Torveig Weum; Kristensen, Annette Torgunrud; Gaudernack, Gustav; Ekstroem, Per O.

    2003-01-01

    Melting gel techniques have proven to be amenable and powerful tools in point mutation and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. With the introduction of commercially available capillary electrophoresis instruments, a partly automated platform for denaturant capillary electrophoresis with potential for routine screening of selected target sequences has been established. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the use of automated constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (ACDCE) in single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of various target sequences. Optimal analysis conditions for different single nucleotide polymorphisms on ACDCE are evaluated with the Poland algorithm. Laboratory procedures include only PCR and electrophoresis. For direct genotyping of individual SNPs, the samples are analyzed with an internal standard and the alleles are identified by co-migration of sample and standard peaks. In conclusion, SNPs suitable for melting gel analysis based on theoretical thermodynamics were separated by ACDCE under appropriate conditions. With this instrumentation (ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer), 48 samples could be analyzed without any intervention. Several institutions have capillary instrumentation in-house, thus making this SNP analysis method accessible to large groups of researchers without any need for instrument modification

  17. Analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1993-01-01

    The EINSTEIN galaxy catalog contains x-ray data for 148 early-type (E and SO) galaxies. A detailed analysis of the global properties of this sample are studied. By comparing the x-ray properties with other tracers of the ISM, as well as with observables related to the stellar dynamics and populations of the sample, we expect to determine more clearly the physical relationships that determine the evolution of early-type galaxies. Previous studies with smaller samples have explored the relationships between x-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and luminosities in other bands. Using our larger sample and the statistical techniques of survival analysis, a number of these earlier analyses were repeated. For our full sample, a strong statistical correlation is found between L(sub X) and L(sub B) (the probability that the null hypothesis is upheld is P less than 10(exp -4) from a variety of rank correlation tests. Regressions with several algorithms yield consistent results.

  18. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R

    2014-04-01

    The last 10 years have seen great progress in the analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs (SCDs). This special issue includes five articles that provide an overview of current work on that topic, including standardized mean difference statistics, multilevel models, Bayesian statistics, and generalized additive models. Each article analyzes a common example across articles and presents syntax or macros for how to do them. These articles are followed by commentaries from single-case design researchers and journal editors. This introduction briefly describes each article and then discusses several issues that must be addressed before we can know what analyses will eventually be best to use in SCD research. These issues include modeling trend, modeling error covariances, computing standardized effect size estimates, assessing statistical power, incorporating more accurate models of outcome distributions, exploring whether Bayesian statistics can improve estimation given the small samples common in SCDs, and the need for annotated syntax and graphical user interfaces that make complex statistics accessible to SCD researchers. The article then discusses reasons why SCD researchers are likely to incorporate statistical analyses into their research more often in the future, including changing expectations and contingencies regarding SCD research from outside SCD communities, changes and diversity within SCD communities, corrections of erroneous beliefs about the relationship between SCD research and statistics, and demonstrations of how statistics can help SCD researchers better meet their goals. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  20. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  2. Spectrochemical analysis of powdered biological samples using transversely excited atmospheric carbon dioxide laser plasma excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Sanja; Momcilovic, Milos; Staicu, Angela; Mutic, Jelena; Trtica, Milan; Savovic, Jelena

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method for quantitative elemental analysis of powdered biological materials based on laboratory prepared calibration samples. The analysis was done using ungated single pulse LIBS in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. Transversely-Excited Atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser was used as an energy source for plasma generation on samples. The material used for the analysis was a blue-green alga Spirulina, widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and also in a few biotechnological applications. To demonstrate the analytical potential of this particular LIBS system the obtained spectra were compared to the spectra obtained using a commercial LIBS system based on pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A single sample of known concentration was used to estimate detection limits for Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si and Sr and compare detection power of these two LIBS systems. TEA CO2 laser based LIBS was also applied for quantitative analysis of the elements in powder Spirulina samples. Analytical curves for Ba, Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr were constructed using laboratory produced matrix-matched calibration samples. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used as the reference technique for elemental quantification, and reasonably well agreement between ICP and LIBS data was obtained. Results confirm that, in respect to its sensitivity and precision, TEA CO2 laser based LIBS can be successfully applied for quantitative analysis of macro and micro-elements in algal samples. The fact that nearly all classes of materials can be prepared as powders implies that the proposed method could be easily extended to a quantitative analysis of different kinds of materials, organic, biological or inorganic.

  3. Dynamic Headspace Sampling as an Initial Step for Sample Preparation in Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnowski, Wojciech; Majchrzak, Tomasz; Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    This work represents a brief summary of the use of dynamic headspace (DHS) as a technique for sample preparation in chromatographic analysis. Despite numerous developments in the area of analyte isolation and enrichment, DHS remains one of the fundamental methods used with GC. In our opinion, interest in this technique will not diminish significantly because it conforms to stipulations of green analytical chemistry. Moreover, DHS fulfills the need for methods that facilitate detection and determination of analytes present at ultratrace levels in complex matrixes. The main focus of this work was placed on the theoretical fundamentals of this method. Also described herein were DHS development, the advantages and disadvantages of this technique compared with other headspace sampling techniques, and selected examples of its applications in food and environmental analyses.

  4. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis......, and both prognosis and prediction of outcome of chemotherapy. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise what has been achieved to date using proteomic technologies and to bring forward novel strategies - based on the analysis of clinically relevant samples - that promise to accelerate...

  5. Evaluating Treatment Effects Using Data Envelopment Analysis on Matched Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Kromann, Lene

    2018-01-01

    An intuitively obvious approach to evaluating the effects of a new business model is to compare the performance of firms using the business model (the treatment group) with the performance of a simi- lar group of firms that do not use the business model (the control group). Data Envelopment...... Analysis (DEA) can be a powerful tool in such comparisons because it allows us to estimate changes in average performance as well as in frontier performance. In this paper, we suggest using matching together with DEA as a way to ensure sub-sample homogeneity. The advantages of using a matched sample...

  6. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in sea water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Imai, Sakingo; Ohmori, Sayoko.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical values of trace elements in sea water samples have been fluctuated according to the sampling locations, the analytical procedures and so on. It is very important in marine chemistry to elucidate the cause of such concentration variations. This report is the analytical results of the samples obtained in the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Sea of Japan, by means of neutron activation analysis. As the preconcentration, 1-pyrrolidine carbothio acid (APDC)-chelate extraction and freeze-drying were adopted. The specimens obtained by this extraction from 500 or 800 ml samples were irradiated by KUR reactor for 1 min, 1 hr to 10 hrs and the gamma-ray spectrometry with a Ge(Li) detector was used for the determination of V, Mn, Cu, Zn, U, Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, Sb and Au. By about 80 hrs irradiation of the specimens obtained by freeze-drying from 20 ml samples and their gamma-ray spectrometry, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb and Cs were determined. The former procedure gives concentrations of elements in species reactable with APDC, but the latter method shows entire concentrations of the elements in the sea water samples. Some considerations on the analytical values and the comparisons of the both methods are described. (author)

  7. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Webster, Chris R.; Cabane, M.; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory(MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatilesextracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantiallyto the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essentialstep in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite locatedin the interior of MSLs Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole massspectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupledthrough solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on thesame samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyzevolatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In additionto measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conducta sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction fromsieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rovers roboticarm.

  8. The Sample Analysis at Mars Investigation and Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Webster, Christopher R.; Cabane, Michel; Conrad, Pamela G.; Coll, Patrice; Atreya, Sushil K.; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Carignan, Daniel; Cascia, Mark; Chalmers, Robert A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Errigo, Therese; Everson, Paula; Franz, Heather; Farley, Rodger; Feng, Steven; Frazier, Gregory; Freissinet, Caroline; Glavin, Daniel P.; Harpold, Daniel N.; Hawk, Douglas; Holmes, Vincent; Johnson, Christopher S.; Jones, Andrea; Jordan, Patrick; Kellogg, James; Lewis, Jesse; Lyness, Eric; Malespin, Charles A.; Martin, David K.; Maurer, John; McAdam, Amy C.; McLennan, Douglas; Nolan, Thomas J.; Noriega, Marvin; Pavlov, Alexander A.; Prats, Benito; Raaen, Eric; Sheinman, Oren; Sheppard, David; Smith, James; Stern, Jennifer C.; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Jones, John; Gundersen, Cindy; Steele, Andrew; Wray, James; Botta, Oliver; Leshin, Laurie A.; Owen, Tobias; Battel, Steve; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Manning, Heidi; Squyres, Steven; Navarro-González, Rafael; McKay, Christopher P.; Raulin, Francois; Sternberg, Robert; Buch, Arnaud; Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Teinturier, Samuel; Baffes, Curt; Feldman, Jason; Flesch, Greg; Forouhar, Siamak; Garcia, Ray; Keymeulen, Didier; Woodward, Steve; Block, Bruce P.; Arnett, Ken; Miller, Ryan; Edmonson, Charles; Gorevan, Stephen; Mumm, Erik

    2012-09-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step in the search for past or present life on Mars. SAM is a 40 kg instrument suite located in the interior of MSL's Curiosity rover. The SAM instruments are a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a 6-column gas chromatograph all coupled through solid and gas processing systems to provide complementary information on the same samples. The SAM suite is able to measure a suite of light isotopes and to analyze volatiles directly from the atmosphere or thermally released from solid samples. In addition to measurements of simple inorganic compounds and noble gases SAM will conduct a sensitive search for organic compounds with either thermal or chemical extraction from sieved samples delivered by the sample processing system on the Curiosity rover's robotic arm.

  9. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source

  10. Compatibility grab sampling and analysis plan for fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. Analytical requirements are taken from two revisions of the Compatibility data quality objectives (DQOs). Revision 1 of the DQO (Fowler 1995) listed analyses to be performed to meet both safety and operational data needs for the Compatibility program. Revision 2A of the DQO (Mulkey and Miller 1998) addresses only the safety-related requirements; the operational requirements of Fowler (1995) have not been superseded by Mulkey and Miller (1998). Therefore, safety-related data needs are taken from Mulkey and Miller (1998) and operational-related data needs are taken from Fowler (1995). Ammonia and total alpha analyses are also performed in accordance with Fowler (1998a, 1998b)

  11. Semiautomatic exchanger of samples for carry out neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.; Quintana C, G.; Torres R, C. E.; Mejia J, J. O.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the design methodology and implementation of a semiautomatic exchanger of samples for the Analysis Laboratory by Neutron Activation of the Reactor department is presented. Taking into account the antecedents, the necessities of improvement are described, as well as the equipment that previously contained the Laboratory. The project of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples was developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, with its own technology to increase independence from commercial equipment. Each element of the semiautomatic exchanger of samples is described both in the design phase as construction. The achieved results are positive and encouraging for the fulfillment of the proposed objective that is to increase the capacity of the Laboratory. (Author)

  12. Sampling and analysis of pesticides in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusà, V; Coscollà, C; Mellouki, W; Pastor, A; de la Guardia, M

    2009-04-10

    Developments in the sampling and determination of pesticides in ambient air have been discussed and data on the occurrence of pesticides in atmosphere have been presented. Developments in active sampling methods were reviewed and the different materials used for trapping pesticides from gas and particulate phases were discussed. Likewise, the use and developments of passive air samplers were reviewed. This article pays special attention to the analysis of pesticides trapped from ambient air, and recapitulate the procedures for extraction, clean-up and determination of these substances. Improvements in sampling procedures, analytical methods and monitoring activities are necessary to advance the knowledge of occurrence of currently used pesticides in atmosphere and their impact over environment and humans.

  13. Optimized variational analysis scheme of single Doppler radar wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshi K.; Allen, Steve; Mizuno, Koki; Whitehead, Victor; Wilk, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A computer scheme for extracting singularities has been developed and applied to single Doppler radar wind data. The scheme is planned for use in real-time wind and singularity analysis and forecasting. The method, known as Doppler Operational Variational Extraction of Singularities is outlined, focusing on the principle of local symmetry. Results are presented from the application of the scheme to a storm-generated gust front in Oklahoma on May 28, 1987.

  14. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject...... to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...

  15. Improvements and experience in the analysis of reprocessing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Cricchio, A.; Meester, R. de; Romkowski, M.; Wilhelmi, M.; Arenz, H.J.; Stijl, E. van der; Baeckmann, A. von

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the analysis of input samples for reprocessing were obtained. To cope with the decomposition of reprocessing input solutions owling to the high radioactivity, an aluminium capsule technique was developed. A known amount of the dissolver solution was weighed into an aluminium can, dried, and the capsule was sealed. In this form, the sample could be stored over a long period and could be redissolved later for the analysis. The isotope correlation technique offers an attractive alternative for measuring the plutonium isotopic content in the dissolver solution. Moreover, this technique allows for consistency checks of analytical results. For this purpose, a data bank of correlated isotopic data is in use. To improve the efficiency of analytical work, four automatic instruments have been developed. The conditioning of samples for the U-Pu isotopic measurement was achieved by an automatic ion exchanger. A mass spectrometer, to which a high vacuum lock is connected, allows the automatic measurement of U-Pu samples. A process-computer controls the heating, focusing and scanning processes during the measurement and evaluates the data. To ease the data handling, alpha-spectrometry as well as a balance have been automated. (author)

  16. Contemporary Impact Analysis Methodology for Planetary Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Scott V.; Bayandor, Javid; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Armand, Sasan C.

    2015-01-01

    Development of an Earth entry vehicle and the methodology created to evaluate the vehicle's impact landing response when returning to Earth is reported. NASA's future Mars Sample Return Mission requires a robust vehicle to return Martian samples back to Earth for analysis. The Earth entry vehicle is a proposed solution to this Mars mission requirement. During Earth reentry, the vehicle slows within the atmosphere and then impacts the ground at its terminal velocity. To protect the Martian samples, a spherical energy absorber called an impact sphere is under development. The impact sphere is composed of hybrid composite and crushable foam elements that endure large plastic deformations during impact and cause a highly nonlinear vehicle response. The developed analysis methodology captures a range of complex structural interactions and much of the failure physics that occurs during impact. Numerical models were created and benchmarked against experimental tests conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The postimpact structural damage assessment showed close correlation between simulation predictions and experimental results. Acceleration, velocity, displacement, damage modes, and failure mechanisms were all effectively captured. These investigations demonstrate that the Earth entry vehicle has great potential in facilitating future sample return missions.

  17. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  18. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  20. Analysis of sample γ-spectrometry with mathematic simulating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Peng Taiping; Yang Gaozhao; Wang Wenchuan; Feng Chun

    2005-01-01

    When a sample contains various energy γ-rays, its peak area records not only the events of optical-electronic effect but also the Compton scattering events of higher energy γ-rays. So the γ-ray intensity conducted by the peak area can not be gained. Using the anti-matrix method, the better results of analysis on the γ-spectrometry can be obtained. (authors)

  1. Macrostrategies for language teaching. A sample of lesson analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela; Haldan

    2016-01-01

    This study is a casual sample of lesson analysis based on the model offered by B. Kumaravadivelu in his book Beyond Methods: Macrostrategies for Language Teaching (published by Yale University Press in New Haven and London in 2003), and it is meant to raise awareness that there is no “best method” ready to be used in the classroom, and that teacher beliefs, reasoning and cognition play a crucial role in shaping the whole process of student acquisition.

  2. [Progress on Determination and Analysis of Zopiclone in Biological Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, C X; Gong, D; Zhang, L P; Zhao, J X

    2017-12-01

    As a new hypnotic, zopiclone is widely used in clinical treatment. There are many methods for determination of zopiclone, including spectrophotometry, chromatography and chromatography mass spectrum, etc. Present paper reviews different kinds of biological samples associated with zopiclone, extraction and purification methods, and determination and analysis methods, which aims to provide references for the relevant research and practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  3. Precise analysis of the metal package photomultiplier single photoelectron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.E.; Fedorko, I.; Sykora, I.; Tokar, S.; Menzione, A.

    2000-01-01

    A deconvolution method based on a sophisticated photomultiplier response function was used to analyse the compact metal package photomultiplier spectra taken in single photoelectron mode. The spectra taken by Hamamtsu R5600 and R5900 photomultipliers have been analysed. The detailed analysis shows that the method appropriately describes the process of charge multiplication in these photomultipliers in a wide range of working regimes and the deconvoluted parameters are established with about 1% accuracy. The method can be used for a detailed analysis of photomultiplier noise and for calibration purposes

  4. Transuranium analysis methodologies for biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, R.A.; Lee, K.D.; Curry, B.; Leventhal, L.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the most abundant transuranium nuclides in the environment (i.e., plutonium and, to a lesser extent, americium) are available. There is a lack of procedures for doing sequential analysis for Np, Pu, Am, and Cm in environmental samples, primarily because of current emphasis on Pu and Am. Reprocessing requirements and waste disposal connected with the fuel cycle indicate that neptunium and curium must be considered in environmental radioactive assessments. Therefore it was necessary to develop procedures that determine all four of these radionuclides in the environment. The state of the art of transuranium analysis methodology as applied to environmental samples is discussed relative to different sample sources, such as soil, vegetation, air, water, and animals. Isotope-dilution analysis with 243 Am ( 239 Np) and 236 Pu or 242 Pu radionuclide tracers is used. Americium and curium are analyzed as a group, with 243 Am as the tracer. Sequential extraction procedures employing bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)orthophosphoric acid (HDEHP) were found to result in lower yields and higher Am--Cm fractionation than ion-exchange methods

  5. Application of Microfluidic Techniques to Pyrochemical Salt Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Launiere, C.; Smith, N.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic techniques enable production of micro-samples of molten salt for analysis by at-line and off-line sensors and detectors. These sampling systems are intended for implementation in an electrochemical used fuel treatment facility as part of the material balance and control system. Microfluidics may reduce random statistical error associated with sampling inhomogeneity because a large number of uniform sub-microlitre droplets may be generated and successively analyzed. The approach combines two immiscible fluids in a microchannel under laminar flow conditions to generate slug flows. Because the slug flow regime is characterized by regularly sized and spaced droplets, it is commonly used in low-volume/high-throughput assays of aqueous and organic phases. This scheme is now being applied to high-temperature molten salts in combination with a second fluid that is stable at elevated temperatures. The microchip systems are being tested to determine the channel geometries and absolute and relative phase flow rates required to achieve stable slug flow. Because imaging is difficult at the 5000 C process temperatures the fluorescence of salt ions under ultraviolet illumination is used to discern flow regimes. As molten chloride melts are optically transparent, UV-visible light spectroscopy is also being explored as a spectroscopic technique for integration with at-line microchannel systems to overcome some of the current challenges to in situ analysis. A second technique that is amenable to droplet analysis is Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). A pneumatic droplet generator is being interfaced with a LIBS system for analysis of molten salts at near-process temperatures. Tests of the pneumatic generator are being run using water and molten salts, and in tandem with off-line analysis of the salt droplets with a LIBS spectrometer. (author)

  6. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  7. Improved sampling and analysis of images in corneal confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaldemose, E L; Fontain, F I; Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R

    2017-10-01

    Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a noninvasive clinical method to analyse and quantify corneal nerve fibres in vivo. Although the CCM technique is in constant progress, there are methodological limitations in terms of sampling of images and objectivity of the nerve quantification. The aim of this study was to present a randomized sampling method of the CCM images and to develop an adjusted area-dependent image analysis. Furthermore, a manual nerve fibre analysis method was compared to a fully automated method. 23 idiopathic small-fibre neuropathy patients were investigated using CCM. Corneal nerve fibre length density (CNFL) and corneal nerve fibre branch density (CNBD) were determined in both a manual and automatic manner. Differences in CNFL and CNBD between (1) the randomized and the most common sampling method, (2) the adjusted and the unadjusted area and (3) the manual and automated quantification method were investigated. The CNFL values were significantly lower when using the randomized sampling method compared to the most common method (p = 0.01). There was not a statistical significant difference in the CNBD values between the randomized and the most common sampling method (p = 0.85). CNFL and CNBD values were increased when using the adjusted area compared to the standard area. Additionally, the study found a significant increase in the CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method compared to the automatic method (p ≤ 0.001). The study demonstrated a significant difference in the CNFL values between the randomized and common sampling method indicating the importance of clear guidelines for the image sampling. The increase in CNFL and CNBD values when using the adjusted cornea area is not surprising. The observed increases in both CNFL and CNBD values when using the manual method of nerve quantification compared to the automatic method are consistent with earlier findings. This study underlines the importance of improving the analysis of the

  8. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented...... here were fabricated exclusive using commercially relevant fabrication methods such as injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. Further, to reduce the complexity of the final system, I have worked towards an all-in-one device which includes sample loading, priming (removal of air), droplet formation......, droplet packing, imaging and amplification (heating). The project has been broken into sub-projects, in which several devices of simpler application have been developed. Most of these employ gravity for concentrating and packing droplets, which has been made possible by the use of large area chambers...

  9. Signal Integrity Analysis in Single and Bundled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.K.; Pandya, N.D.; Kaushik, B.K.; Manhas, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CN T) can be considered as an emerging interconnect material in current nano scale regime. They are more promising than other interconnect materials such as Al or Cu because of their robustness to electromigration. This research paper aims to address the crosstalk-related issues (signal integrity) in interconnect lines. Different analytical models of single- (SWCNT), double- (DWCNT), and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT) are studied to analyze the crosstalk delay at global interconnect lengths. A capacitively coupled three-line bus architecture employing CMOS driver is used for accurate estimation of crosstalk delay. Each line in bus architecture is represented with the equivalent RLC models of single and bundled SWCNT, DWCNT, and MWCNT interconnects. Crosstalk delay is observed at middle line (victim) when it switches in opposite direction with respect to the other two lines (aggressors). Using the data predicted by ITRS 2012, a comparative analysis on the basis of crosstalk delay is performed for bundled SWCNT/DWCNT and single MWCNT interconnects. It is observed that the overall crosstalk delay is improved by 40.92% and 21.37% for single MWCNT in comparison to bundled SWCNT and bundled DWCNT interconnects, respectively.

  10. Considerations on ultra trace analysis of carbamates in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J M F; Sandra, Tom; Sandra, Pat

    2003-05-09

    A new routine method for the ultra trace analysis of carbamates in water samples is presented, using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS). Instrumental conditions of LC-ESI-MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, showed excellent linear response for the six N-methyl carbamates studied (aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, oxamyl and pirimicarb) in the range from 1 to 50 microg/l and a precision having a relative standard deviation below 7.8% was achieved. Instrumental limits of detection of 0.10 microg/l were found for these carbamates, with the exception of methomyl for which 0.50 microg/l was measured. The SPE assays were shown to be easy, fast, very sensitive, requiring a low volume (50 ml) of water sample. For laboratory-spiked water samples having 0.03 and 0.30 microg/l of individual N-methyl carbamates, higher selectivities were achieved in cartridges having octadecylsilica, polystyrene-divinylbenzene and N-vinylpyrrolidane-divinylbenzene as solid phases, for which reasonable average recoveries were obtained. Ten replicates using octadecylsilica SPE cartridges, showed average recoveries between 73.7 and 92.6% with a relative standard deviation lower than 14.7%. The present methodology evidences good robustness, accuracy and precision for monitoring of N-methyl carbamates in water samples, and is shown to be a suitable alternative to replace the currently dedicated analytical systems. The limits of detection for the analysis of N-methyl carbamates in water samples reached in the present methodology (0.5 to 3 ng/l), clearly cover the maximum concentration admissible for pesticides, established by the European Union directive on water quality.

  11. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  12. Extractables analysis of single-use flexible plastic biocontainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghitoiu, Liliana; Liu, Jian; Lee, Hans; Perez, Lourdes; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Ronk, Michael; Hammond, Matthew R; Nunn, Heather; Lower, Asher; Rogers, Gary; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the extractable profiles of bioprocessing components have become an integral part of drug development efforts to minimize possible compromise in process performance, decrease in drug product quality, and potential safety risk to patients due to the possibility of small molecules leaching out from the components. In this study, an effective extraction solvent system was developed to evaluate the organic extractable profiles of single-use bioprocess equipment, which has been gaining increasing popularity in the biopharmaceutical industry because of the many advantages over the traditional stainless steel-based bioreactors and other fluid mixing and storage vessels. The chosen extraction conditions were intended to represent aggressive conditions relative to the application of single-use bags in biopharmaceutical manufacture, in which aqueous based systems are largely utilized. Those extraction conditions, along with a non-targeted analytical strategy, allowed for the generation and identification of an array of extractable compounds; a total of 53 organic compounds were identified from four types of commercially available single-use bags, the majority of which are degradation products of polymer additives. The success of this overall extractables analysis strategy was reflected partially by the effectiveness in the extraction and identification of a compound that was later found to be highly detrimental to mammalian cell growth. The usage of single-use bioreactors has been increasing in biopharmaceutical industry because of the appealing advantages that it promises regarding to the cleaning, sterilization, operational flexibility, and so on, during manufacturing of biologics. However, compared to its conventional counterparts based mainly on stainless steel, single-use bioreactors are more susceptible to potential problems associated with compound leaching into the bioprocessing fluid. As a result, extractable profiling of the single-use system has become

  13. Single-Use Sensor Strips for Reliable Field Analysis of Gunshot Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-13

    determined in a single GSR assay. Wearable textile -based printed electrodes were also examined towards a ’Lab-on-Sleeve’ forensic field analysis. New...Example of the different cyclic square-wave stripping voltammetric signals obtained with “swiping” samples at a bare SPCE electrode . Score plot of the...A) The Forensic Finger exhibiting the three electrode surface screen-printed onto a flexible nitrile finger cot (bottom left inset), as well as a

  14. Single Particle ICP-MS: Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Manuel D; Olesik, John W; Barber, Angela G; Challis, Katie; Ranville, James F

    2016-07-01

    From its early beginnings in characterizing aerosol particles to its recent applications for investigating natural waters and waste streams, single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) has proven to be a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of aqueous dispersions of metal-containing nanomaterials. Combining the high-throughput of an ensemble technique with the specificity of a single particle counting technique and the elemental specificity of ICP-MS, spICP-MS is capable of rapidly providing researchers with information pertaining to size, size distribution, particle number concentration, and major elemental composition with minimal sample perturbation. Recently, advances in data acquisition, signal processing, and the implementation of alternative mass analyzers (e.g., time-of-flight) has resulted in a wider breadth of particle analyses and made significant progress toward overcoming many of the challenges in the quantitative analysis of nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of spICP-MS development from a niche technique to application for routine analysis, a discussion of the key issues for quantitative analysis, and examples of its further advancement for analysis of increasingly complex environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract Single particle ICP-MS workflow for the analysis of suspended nanoparticles.

  15. Plasma sample preparation by ultrafiltration for FTIR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, A.; Hansen, R.D.; Cooper, B.A.; Smith, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) may be significantly altered with disease. Isotope dilution techniques, considered to be the 'gold standard' methods for measuring TBW, are expensive, time consuming and require considerable expertise, especially during the sample preparatory phase. In this study, a new method, ultrafiltration (UF), was hypothesised to be an efficient alternative to vacuum sublimation (VS) in the preparation of plasma samples for Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) determination of TBW. Deuterium Oxide (D 2 O) concentrations were prepared in human plasma and subjected to both techniques. FTIR analysis was carried out on the resulting VS and UF solutions and on D 2 O concentrations in distilled water. The resulting absorbance values were then statistically compared. Urea concentrations prepared in D 2 O-containing plasma were also compared to 'blank' plasma to investigate the effect of high plasma urea concentration on the resulting H 2 O/D 2 O mixture obtained during UF Paired t-tests showed that the VS plasma samples (p=0.003), but not the UF samples (p=0.9), were significantly different to D 2 O standards prepared in distilled water. While there was no evidence of an effect of urea on UF at low (0.4 g/L) D 2 O concentration, a marginal (p=0.04) effect occurred at a higher (1.6 g/L) D 2 O level. Throughput of samples was much more efficient with the UF technique. These findings indicate that the new UF method is an accurate, more efficient method of plasma sample preparation than the VS method in the FTIR determination of TBW

  16. Searching for stable Na-ordered phases in single-crystal samples of γ-NaxCoO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, G. J.; Prodi, Andrea; Chu, S. Y.; Lee, Y. S.; Sheu, H. S.; Chou, F. C.

    2007-11-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of single-crystal γ phase NaxCoO2 with 0.25≤x≤0.84 using a nonaqueous electrochemical chronoamperemetry technique. By carefully mapping the overpotential versus x (for xfind six distinct stable phases with Na levels corresponding to xtilde 0.75, 0.71, 0.50, 0.43, 0.33, and 0.25. The composition with x≃0.55 appears to have a critical Na concentration which separates samples with different magnetic behavior as well as different Na ion diffusion mechanisms. Chemical analysis of an aged crystal reveals different Na ion diffusion mechanisms above and below xc˜0.53 , where the diffusion process above xc has a diffusion coefficient about five times larger than that below xc . The series of crystals were studied with x-ray diffraction, susceptibility, and transport measurements. The crystal with x=0.5 shows a weak ferromagnetic transition below T=27K in addition to the usual transitions at T=51 and 88K . The resistivity of the Curie-Weiss metallic Na0.71CoO2 composition has a very low residual resistivity, which attests to the high homogeneity of the crystals prepared by this improved electrochemical method. Our results on the various stable crystal compositions point to the importance of Na ion ordering across the phase diagram.

  17. Quantitative analysis of solid samples using modified specular reflectance accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Mazurek, Sylwester; Szostak, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is a fast, reliable and cost effective analytical method, requiring minimal or no sample preparation. It is commonly used in the course of qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients and food. We demonstrate that simpler and cheaper specular reflectance (SR) accessory working in a DRIFTS like mode (SR-DL) can be an alternative for DIRFTS attachment. An application of a modified SR accessory for quantitative analysis of solids samples is presented. As a case study the concentration of cinnarizine in commercial tablets has been determined from DRIFTS and SR-DL infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra recorded using DTGS (deuterated triglicine sulphate) detector in the IR and NIR regions and InGaAs (indium-gallium arsenide) detector in the NIR range. Based on these spectra Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were constructed and relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for the calibration, validation and analysed data sets. They amounted to 2.4-2.5%, 2.1-2.7% and 2.0-2.6% for the DRIFTS attachment while 2.1-2.2%, 2.0-2.3% and 1.9-2.6%, respectively, for the modified SR accessory. Obtained error values indicate that modified SR accessory can be effectively used for quantification of solid pharmaceutical samples in the mid- and near-infrared regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  19. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ''beyond extremely unlikely'' frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  20. Colorimetric Analysis of Ochratoxin A in Beverage Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Diana; Valdez, Luis F.; Gutiérrez Salgado, Juan Manuel; Marty, Jean Louis; Muñoz, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript describes the use of a portable and low cost fluorescence setup to quantify the concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beverage samples using an in-house developed system and different color models. It is reported that OTA is naturally fluorescent, for that reason an ultraviolet light at 365 nm was used to excite the samples and a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensor was used to get a photograph of the OTA under excitation conditions, which is controlled by an executable interface designed in MATLAB. For each concentration of OTA, the coordinates with respect to each model color were obtained and plotted to quantify the mycotoxin present in the sample. It was possible to observe that despite the fact no extraction column was employed, the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) model shows a proportional relation to the evaluated concentrations. Despite the fact more analysis and other methods are required to quantify the OTA concentration, the brightness and a,b for the color-opponent dimensions (L*a*b) and Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) tests provide results whereby it is possible to identify the concentration of OTA in beverage samples such as beer and wine. PMID:27834900

  1. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. It is written in accordance with requirements identified in Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey et al. 1999) and Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program (Fowler 1999). In addition to analyses to support Compatibility, the Waste Feed Delivery program has requested that tank samples obtained for Compatibility also be analyzed to confirm the high-level waste and/or low-activity waste envelope(s) for the tank waste (Baldwin 1999). The analytical requirements to confirm waste envelopes are identified in Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999a) and Data Quality Objectives for RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for High-Level Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999b)

  2. Colorimetric Analysis of Ochratoxin A in Beverage Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bueno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the use of a portable and low cost fluorescence setup to quantify the concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA in beverage samples using an in-house developed system and different color models. It is reported that OTA is naturally fluorescent, for that reason an ultraviolet light at 365 nm was used to excite the samples and a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS sensor was used to get a photograph of the OTA under excitation conditions, which is controlled by an executable interface designed in MATLAB. For each concentration of OTA, the coordinates with respect to each model color were obtained and plotted to quantify the mycotoxin present in the sample. It was possible to observe that despite the fact no extraction column was employed, the Red, Green, Blue (RGB model shows a proportional relation to the evaluated concentrations. Despite the fact more analysis and other methods are required to quantify the OTA concentration, the brightness and a,b for the color-opponent dimensions (L*a*b and Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV tests provide results whereby it is possible to identify the concentration of OTA in beverage samples such as beer and wine.

  3. Glycan family analysis for deducing N-glycan topology from single MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David; Bern, Marshall; North, Simon J; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne

    2009-02-01

    In the past few years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as the premier tool for identification and quantification of biological molecules such as peptides and glycans. There are two basic strategies: single-MS, which uses a single round of mass analysis, and MS/MS (or higher order MS(n)), which adds one or more additional rounds of mass analysis, interspersed with fragmentation steps. Single-MS offers higher throughput, broader mass coverage and more direct quantitation, but generally much weaker identification. Single-MS, however, does work fairly well for the case of N-glycan identification, which are more constrained than other biological polymers. We previously demonstrated single-MS identification of N-glycans to the level of 'cartoons' (monosaccharide composition and topology) by a system that incorporates an expert's detailed knowledge of the biological sample. In this article, we explore the possibility of ab initio single-MS N-glycan identification, with the goal of extending single-MS, or primarily-single-MS, identification to non-expert users, novel conditions and unstudied tissues. We propose and test three cartoon-assignment algorithms that make inferences informed by biological knowledge about glycan synthesis. To test the algorithms, we used 71 single-MS spectra from a variety of tissues and organisms, containing more than 2800 manually annotated peaks. The most successful of the algorithms computes the most richly connected subgraph within a 'cartoon graph'. This algorithm uniquely assigns the correct cartoon to more than half of the peaks in 41 out of the 71 spectra.

  4. Analysis of biological samples for americium and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglio, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing biological materials by liquid scintillation counting for americium and curium which greatly reduces the contribution from 40 K is described. The method employs an extractant liquid scintillation cocktail using N,N,N-trioctyl-N-methyl-ammonium chloride as the extractant. Instrument as well as tissue backgrounds are reduced. The lowered backgrounds allow picocurie level samples to be analyzed by liquid scintillation counting instead of alpha pulse height analysis. The samples are reduced to a carbon-free ash and then dissolved in 8M LiNo 3 which is also 10 -2 M in HNO 3 . An aliquot is placed in a liquid scintillation vial along with the extractant-scintillator, shaken and counted

  5. Multielement neutron activation analysis of underground water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Fujimoto, Yuzo; Ishida, Keiko; Mamuro, Tetsuo.

    1980-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution and large volume Ge (Li) detectors followed by data processing with an electronic computer was applied to the multielemental analysis to elucidate the chemical qualities of the underground water which has been widely used in the sake brewing industries in Mikage, Uozaki and Nishinomiya districts, called as miyamizu. The evaporated residues of the water samples were subjected to the neutron irradiations in reactor for 1 min at a thermal flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 and for 30 hrs at a thermal flux of 9.3 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .sec -1 or for 5 hrs at a thermal flux of 3.9 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .sec -1 . Thus, 11 elements in the former short irradiation and 38 elements in the latter two kinds of long irradiation can be analyzed. Conventional chemical analysis including atomic absorption method and others are also applied on the same samples, and putting the all results together, some considerations concerning the geochemical meaning of the analytical values are made. (author)

  6. Analysis of physical and chemical composition of honey samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the physical and chemical compositions of seven honey samples, which were obtained from selected markets in Ibadan metropolis. Seven samples of honey were obtained namely from sample A (Forestry honey Ibadan), Sample B (Pure honey), Sample C (Mr. honey), Sample D (Taraba honey), sample ...

  7. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  8. Biological Nanopores: Confined Spaces for Electrochemical Single-Molecule Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chan; Long, Yi-Tao

    2018-02-20

    Nanopore sensing is developing into a powerful single-molecule approach to investigate the features of biomolecules that are not accessible by studying ensemble systems. When a target molecule is transported through a nanopore, the ions occupying the pore are excluded, resulting in an electrical signal from the intermittent ionic blockade event. By statistical analysis of the amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and shapes of the blockade events, many properties of the target molecule can be obtained in real time at the single-molecule level, including its size, conformation, structure, charge, geometry, and interactions with other molecules. With the development of the use of α-hemolysin to characterize individual polynucleotides, nanopore technology has attracted a wide range of research interest in the fields of biology, physics, chemistry, and nanoscience. As a powerful single-molecule analytical method, nanopore technology has been applied for the detection of various biomolecules, including oligonucleotides, peptides, oligosaccharides, organic molecules, and disease-related proteins. In this Account, we highlight recent developments of biological nanopores in DNA-based sensing and in studying the conformational structures of DNA and RNA. Furthermore, we introduce the application of biological nanopores to investigate the conformations of peptides affected by charge, length, and dipole moment and to study disease-related proteins' structures and aggregation transitions influenced by an inhibitor, a promoter, or an applied voltage. To improve the sensing ability of biological nanopores and further extend their application to a wider range of molecular sensing, we focus on exploring novel biological nanopores, such as aerolysin and Stable Protein 1. Aerolysin exhibits an especially high sensitivity for the detection of single oligonucleotides both in current separation and duration. Finally, to facilitate the use of nanopore measurements and statistical analysis

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  10. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  11. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  12. Neutron-activation analysis of routine mineral-processing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Eddy, B.; Pearton, D.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was applied to a suite of typical mineral-processing samples to establish which elements can be rapidly determined in them by this technique. A total of 35 elements can be determined with precisions (from the counting statistics) ranging from better than 1 per cent to approximately 20 per cent. The elements that can be determined have been tabulated together with the experimental conditions, the precision from the counting statistics, and the estimated number of analyses possible per day. With an automated system, this number can be as high as 150 in the most favourable cases [af

  13. Nonactivation interaction techniques in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nonactivation interaction analytical methods are based on the interaction processes of nuclear and X-ray radiation with a sample, leading to their absorption and backscattering, to the ionization of gases or excitation of fluorescent X-ray by radiation, but not to the activation of determined elements. From the point of view of environmental analysis, the most useful nonactivation interaction techniques are X-ray fluorescence by photon or charged particle excitation, ionization of gases by nuclear radiation, elastic scattering of charged particles and backscattering of beta radiation. The significant advantage of these methods is that they are nondestructive. (author)

  14. Single point aerosol sampling: Evaluation of mixing and probe performance in a nuclear stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Fairchild, C.I.; Wood, G.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARMs) have been developed for sampling of radionuclides from stacks and ducts that differ from the methods required by the U.S. EPA. The EPA methods are prescriptive in selection of sampling locations and in design of sampling probes whereas the alternative methods are performance driven. Tests were conducted in a stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of the ARMs. Coefficients of variation of the velocity tracer gas, and aerosol particle profiles were determined at three sampling locations. Results showed numerical criteria placed upon the coefficients of variation by the ARMs were met at sampling stations located 9 and 14 stack diameters from flow entrance, but not at a location that is 1.5 diameters downstream from the inlet. Experiments were conducted to characterize the transmission of 10 {mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter liquid aerosol particles through three types of sampling probes. The transmission ratio (ratio of aerosol concentration at the probe exit plane to the concentration in the free stream) was 107% for a 113 L/min (4-cfm) anisokinetic shrouded probe, but only 20% for an isokinetic probe that follows the EPA requirements. A specially designed isokinetic probe showed a transmission ratio of 63%. The shrouded probe performance would conform to the ARM criteria; however, the isokinetic probes would not.

  15. Replica Analysis for Portfolio Optimization with Single-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we use replica analysis to investigate the influence of correlation among the return rates of assets on the solution of the portfolio optimization problem. We consider the behavior of an optimal solution for the case where the return rate is described with a single-factor model and compare the findings obtained from our proposed methods with correlated return rates with those obtained with independent return rates. We then analytically assess the increase in the investment risk when correlation is included. Furthermore, we also compare our approach with analytical procedures for minimizing the investment risk from operations research.

  16. Optofluidics for handling and analysis of single living cells

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2017-12-07

    Optofluidics is a field with important applications in areas such as biotechnology, chemical synthesis and analytical chemistry. Optofluidic devices combine optical elements into microfluidic devices in ways that increase portability and sensitivity of analysis for diagnostic or screening purposes .In fact in these devices fluids give fine adaptability, mobility and accessibility to nanoscale photonic devices which otherwise could not be realized using conventional devices. This review describes several cases inwhich optical or microfluidic approaches are used to trap single cells in proximity of integrated optical sensor for being analysed.

  17. Getting started with microbiome analysis: sample acquisition to bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjit; Eipers, Peter; Little, Rebecca B; Crowley, Michael; Crossman, David K; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Morrow, Casey D

    2014-07-14

    Historically, in order to study microbes, it was necessary to grow them in the laboratory. It was clear though that many microbe communities were refractory to study because none of the members could be grown outside of their native habitat. The development of culture-independent methods to study microbiota using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene variable regions present in all prokaryotic organisms has provided new opportunities to investigate complex microbial communities. In this unit, the process for a microbiome analysis is described. Many of the components required for this process may already exist. A pipeline is described for acquisition of samples from different sites on the human body, isolation of microbial DNA, and DNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Finally, a new analytical workflow for basic bioinformatics data analysis, QWRAP, is described, which can be used by clinical and basic science investigators. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Radioactive kryptonates in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''radioactive Kryptonates'' is used for substances into which atoms or ions of the radioactive nuclide 85 Kr are incorporated. The basis of the use of radioactive Kryptonates in analytical chemistry is that during a chemical reaction the crystalline lattice of the kryptonated carrier is destroyed, the carrier consumed, and the radioactive krypton released (radio-release method). Analysis can be made with a calibration curve or by comparison with a standard. Radio-release methods with the aid of radioactive Kryptonates as analytical reagents are very useful for the analysis of environmental samples, e.g. for the determination of air pollutants (ozone, sulphur dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, mercury); and water pollutants (oxygen, dichromate, vanadium, hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide). (author)

  19. Characterizing single-molecule FRET dynamics with probability distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Yusdi; Torella, Joseph P; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2010-07-12

    Probability distribution analysis (PDA) is a recently developed statistical tool for predicting the shapes of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) histograms, which allows the identification of single or multiple static molecular species within a single histogram. We used a generalized PDA method to predict the shapes of FRET histograms for molecules interconverting dynamically between multiple states. This method is tested on a series of model systems, including both static DNA fragments and dynamic DNA hairpins. By fitting the shape of this expected distribution to experimental data, the timescale of hairpin conformational fluctuations can be recovered, in good agreement with earlier published results obtained using different techniques. This method is also applied to studying the conformational fluctuations in the unliganded Klenow fragment (KF) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, which allows both confirmation of the consistency of a simple, two-state kinetic model with the observed smFRET distribution of unliganded KF and extraction of a millisecond fluctuation timescale, in good agreement with rates reported elsewhere. We expect this method to be useful in extracting rates from processes exhibiting dynamic FRET, and in hypothesis-testing models of conformational dynamics against experimental data.

  20. Tetramethylammonium-filled protein nanopore for single-molecule analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yao, Fujun; Kang, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-06

    Nanopore technology, as the simplest and most inexpensive single-molecule tool, is being intensively developed. In nanopore stochastic sensing, KCl and NaCl have traditionally been employed as pore-filled electrolytes for recording the change of ion conductance in nanopores triggered by analyte translocation through the pore. However, some challenges limit its further advance. Here we used tetramethylammonium (TMA) chloride, instead of KCl, as a novel analysis system for nanopores. Some unique nanopore characteristics were observed: (1) The stability of the planar lipid bilayer for embedding the protein pores was elevated at least 6 times. (2) The TMA-Cl system could effectively reduce the noise of single-channel recording. (3) It was easy to control the insertion of protein pores into the lipid bilayer, and the formed single nanopore could last for a sufficiently long time. (4) TMA-Cl could be used as a DNA speed bump in the nanopore to slow DNA translocation speed. (5) The capacity of the nanopore capture of DNA (capture rate) increased significantly and simultaneously increased the translocation time of DNA in the pore. (6) The TMA-filled nanopore could discriminate between various polynucleotides.

  1. Condensing Raman spectrum for single-cell phenotype analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shiwei

    2015-12-09

    Background In recent years, high throughput and non-invasive Raman spectrometry technique has matured as an effective approach to identification of individual cells by species, even in complex, mixed populations. Raman profiling is an appealing optical microscopic method to achieve this. To fully utilize Raman proling for single-cell analysis, an extensive understanding of Raman spectra is necessary to answer questions such as which filtering methodologies are effective for pre-processing of Raman spectra, what strains can be distinguished by Raman spectra, and what features serve best as Raman-based biomarkers for single-cells, etc. Results In this work, we have proposed an approach called rDisc to discretize the original Raman spectrum into only a few (usually less than 20) representative peaks (Raman shifts). The approach has advantages in removing noises, and condensing the original spectrum. In particular, effective signal processing procedures were designed to eliminate noise, utilising wavelet transform denoising, baseline correction, and signal normalization. In the discretizing process, representative peaks were selected to signicantly decrease the Raman data size. More importantly, the selected peaks are chosen as suitable to serve as key biological markers to differentiate species and other cellular features. Additionally, the classication performance of discretized spectra was found to be comparable to full spectrum having more than 1000 Raman shifts. Overall, the discretized spectrum needs about 5storage space of a full spectrum and the processing speed is considerably faster. This makes rDisc clearly superior to other methods for single-cell classication.

  2. A novel method for single sample multi-axial nanoindentation of hydrated heterogeneous tissues based on testing great white shark jaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L Ferrara

    Full Text Available Nanomechanical testing methods that are suitable for a range of hydrated tissues are crucial for understanding biological systems. Nanoindentation of tissues can provide valuable insights into biology, tissue engineering and biomimetic design. However, testing hydrated biological samples still remains a significant challenge. Shark jaw cartilage is an ideal substrate for developing a method to test hydrated tissues because it is a unique heterogeneous composite of both mineralized (hard and non-mineralized (soft layers and possesses a jaw geometry that is challenging to test mechanically. The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for obtaining multidirectional nanomechanical properties for both layers of jaw cartilage from a single sample, taken from the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias. A method for obtaining multidirectional data from a single sample is necessary for examining tissue mechanics in this shark because it is a protected species and hence samples may be difficult to obtain. Results show that this method maintains hydration of samples that would otherwise rapidly dehydrate. Our study is the first analysis of nanomechanical properties of great white shark jaw cartilage. Variation in nanomechanical properties were detected in different orthogonal directions for both layers of jaw cartilage in this species. The data further suggest that the mineralized layer of shark jaw cartilage is less stiff than previously posited. Our method allows multidirectional nanomechanical properties to be obtained from a single, small, hydrated heterogeneous sample. Our technique is therefore suitable for use when specimens are rare, valuable or limited in quantity, such as samples obtained from endangered species or pathological tissues. We also outline a method for tip-to-optic calibration that facilitates nanoindentation of soft biological tissues. Our technique may help address the critical need for a nanomechanical testing method

  3. Analysis of a global random stratified sample of nurse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Fernández-Fernández, M P; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2015-06-01

    To identify, compare and contrast the major component parts of heterogeneous stratified sample of nursing legislation. Nursing legislation varies from one jurisdiction to another. Up until now no research exists into whether the variations of such legislation are random or if variations are related to a set of key attributes. This mixed method study used a random stratified sample of legislation to map through documentary analysis the content of 14 nursing acts and then explored, using quantitative techniques, whether the material contained relates to a number of key attributes. These attributes include: legal tradition of the jurisdiction; model of regulation; administrative approach; area of the world; and the economic status of the jurisdiction. Twelve component parts of nursing legislation were identified. These were remarkably similar irrespective of attributes of interest. However, not all component parts were specified in the same level of detail and the manner by which the elements were addressed did vary. A number of potential relationships between the structure of the legislation and the key attributes of interest were identified. This study generated a comprehensive and integrated map of a global sample of nursing legislation. It provides a set of descriptors to be used to undertake further quantitative work and provides an important policy tool to facilitate dialogue between regulatory bodies. At the individual nurse level it offers insights that can help nurses pursue recognition of credentials across jurisdictions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  4. Analysis of hepatitis C viral dynamics using Latin hypercube sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachpute, Gaurav; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2012-12-01

    We consider a mathematical model comprising four coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to study hepatitis C viral dynamics. The model includes the efficacies of a combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin. There are two main objectives of this paper. The first one is to approximate the percentage of cases in which there is a viral clearance in absence of treatment as well as percentage of response to treatment for various efficacy levels. The other is to better understand and identify the parameters that play a key role in the decline of viral load and can be estimated in a clinical setting. A condition for the stability of the uninfected and the infected steady states is presented. A large number of sample points for the model parameters (which are physiologically feasible) are generated using Latin hypercube sampling. An analysis of the simulated values identifies that, approximately 29.85% cases result in clearance of the virus during the early phase of the infection. Results from the χ2 and the Spearman's tests done on the samples, indicate a distinctly different distribution for certain parameters for the cases exhibiting viral clearance under the combination therapy.

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis With Small Samples and Missing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is an extremely popular method for determining the underlying factor structure for a set of variables. Due to its exploratory nature, EFA is notorious for being conducted with small sample sizes, and recent reviews of psychological research have reported that between 40% and 60% of applied studies have 200 or fewer observations. Recent methodological studies have addressed small size requirements for EFA models; however, these models have only considered complete data, which are the exception rather than the rule in psychology. Furthermore, the extant literature on missing data techniques with small samples is scant, and nearly all existing studies focus on topics that are not of primary interest to EFA models. Therefore, this article presents a simulation to assess the performance of various missing data techniques for EFA models with both small samples and missing data. Results show that deletion methods do not extract the proper number of factors and estimate the factor loadings with severe bias, even when data are missing completely at random. Predictive mean matching is the best method overall when considering extracting the correct number of factors and estimating factor loadings without bias, although 2-stage estimation was a close second.

  6. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  7. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  8. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-06-21

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste.

  10. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste

  11. Automatic differential analysis of NMR experiments in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margueritte, Laure; Markov, Petar; Chiron, Lionel; Starck, Jean-Philippe; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Bourjot, Mélanie; Delsuc, Marc-André

    2017-11-20

    Liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful tool for the analysis of complex mixtures of unknown molecules. This capacity has been used in many analytical approaches: metabolomics, identification of active compounds in natural extracts, and characterization of species, and such studies require the acquisition of many diverse NMR measurements on series of samples. Although acquisition can easily be performed automatically, the number of NMR experiments involved in these studies increases very rapidly, and this data avalanche requires to resort to automatic processing and analysis. We present here a program that allows the autonomous, unsupervised processing of a large corpus of 1D, 2D, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy experiments from a series of samples acquired in different conditions. The program provides all the signal processing steps, as well as peak-picking and bucketing of 1D and 2D spectra, the program and its components are fully available. In an experiment mimicking the search of a bioactive species in a natural extract, we use it for the automatic detection of small amounts of artemisinin added to a series of plant extracts and for the generation of the spectral fingerprint of this molecule. This program called Plasmodesma is a novel tool that should be useful to decipher complex mixtures, particularly in the discovery of biologically active natural products from plants extracts but can also in drug discovery or metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Multi-element neutron activation analysis of Brazilian coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, L.T.; Requejo, C.S.

    1982-09-01

    The elements U, Th, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Tb, Yb, Lu, Sc, Ta, Hf, Co, Ni, Cr, Mo, Ti, V, W, In, Ga, Mn, Ba, Sr, Mg, Rb, Cs, K, Cl, Br, As, Sb, Au, Ca, Al and Fe were determined in coal samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis, by using both thermal and epithermal neutron irradiations. The irradiation times were 10 minutes and 8 or 16 hours in a position where the thermal neutron flux was about 10 12 n.cm - 2 .s - 1 and 72 non-consecutive hours for epithermal irradiation at a flux of about 10 11 n.Cm - 2 .s - 1 . After the instrumental analysis of the above mentioned elements, Zn and Se were determined with chemical separation. The relative standard deviation of, at least, 4 determinations was about + - 10% for the majority of the results. The coal samples analysed were supplied by: Cia. Estadual da Tecnologia e Saneamento Basico (CETESB-SP), Cia. de Pesquisas e Lavras Minerais (COPELMI-RS), Cia. Carbonifera Urussunga (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Prospera (SC), Cia. Carbonifera Treviso (SC), Cia. Nacional de Mineracao de Carvao do Barro Branco (SC) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ). (Author) [pt

  13. Analysis of Selected Legacy 85Kr Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Legacy samples composed of 85Kr encapsulated in solid zeolite 5A material and five small metal tubes containing a mixture of the zeolite combined with a glass matrix resulting from hot isostatic pressing have been preserved. The samples were a result of krypton R&D encapsulation efforts in the late 1970s performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These samples were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in mid-FY 2014. Upon receipt the outer shipping package was opened, and the inner package, removed and placed in a radiological hood. The individual capsules were double bagged as they were removed from the inner shipping pig and placed into individual glass sample bottles for further analysis. The five capsules were then x-ray imaged. Capsules 1 and 4 appear intact and to contain an amorphous mass within the capsules. Capsule 2 clearly shows the saw marks on the capsule and a quantity of loose pellet or bead-like material remaining in the capsule. Capsule 3 shows similar bead-like material within the intact capsule. Capsule 5 had been opened at an undetermined time in the past. The end of this capsule appears to have been cut off, and there are additional saw marks on the side of the capsule. X-ray tomography allowed the capsules to be viewed along the three axes. Of most interest was determining whether there was any residual material in the closed end of Capsule 5. The images confirmed the presence of residual material within this capsule. The material appears to be compacted but still retains some of the bead-like morphology. Based on the nondestructive analysis (NDA) results, a proposed path forward was formulated to advance this effort toward the original goals of understanding the effects of extended storage on the waste form and package. Based on the initial NDA and the fact that there are at least two breached samples, it was proposed that exploratory tests be conducted with the breached specimens before opening the three intact

  14. A new TXRF vacuum chamber with sample changer for chemical analysis using silicon drift chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Several TXRF spectrometers for chemical analysis as well as for wafer surface analysis are commercially available. But there is no one available for chemical analysis offering the possibility to measure the samples in vacuum conditions. Vacuum of 10 -2 mbar in the sample environment helps to reduce the background due to scattering from air, thus to improve the detection limits as well as to reduce the absorption of low energy fluorescence radiation from low Z elements and extend the elemental range to be measured and removes the Ar lines from the spectrum. The x-ray group of the Atominstitut designed and fabricated a new vacuum chamber for TXRF equipped with a 12 position sample changer from Italstructures, Riva, Italy. The detector used was a 10 mm 2 silicon drift detector (KETEK, Munich, Germany), offering the advantage of electrically cooling, so no LN2 is required. The chamber was designed to be attached to a diffraction tube housing, e.g. with a fine focus Mo-x-ray tube and uses a multilayer monochromator. Spectra are stored by a small AMTEK MCA and control between sample changer and MCA communication is done by a modified AMPTEK software. The performance is expressed in detection limits of 1 pg Rb for Mo Ka excitation with 50 kV, 40 mA excitation conditions, 1000 s lifetime, obtained from a sample containing 600 pg Rb as single element standard. Details on performance, reproducibility and light element excitation and detection are presented. (author)

  15. Searching for signatures across microbial communities: Metagenomic analysis of soil samples from mangrove and other ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imchen, Madangchanok; Kumavath, Ranjith; Barh, Debmalya; Azevedo, Vasco; Ghosh, Preetam; Viana, Marcus; Wattam, Alice R

    2017-08-18

    In this study, we categorize the microbial community in mangrove sediment samples from four different locations within a vast mangrove system in Kerala, India. We compared this data to other samples taken from the other known mangrove data, a tropical rainforest, and ocean sediment. An examination of the microbial communities from a large mangrove forest that stretches across southwestern India showed strong similarities across the higher taxonomic levels. When ocean sediment and a single isolate from a tropical rain forest were included in the analysis, a strong pattern emerged with Bacteria from the phylum Proteobacteria being the prominent taxon among the forest samples. The ocean samples were predominantly Archaea, with Euryarchaeota as the dominant phylum. Principal component and functional analyses grouped the samples isolated from forests, including those from disparate mangrove forests and the tropical rain forest, from the ocean. Our findings show similar patterns in samples were isolated from forests, and these were distinct from the ocean sediment isolates. The taxonomic structure was maintained to the level of class, and functional analysis of the genes present also displayed these similarities. Our report for the first time shows the richness of microbial diversity in the Kerala coast and its differences with tropical rain forest and ocean microbiome.

  16. Surface noise analysis using a single-ion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidis, N.; Gerber, S.; Bolloten, G.; Ramm, M.; Ransford, A.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Talukdar, I.; Häffner, H.

    2014-06-01

    We use a single-ion electric-field noise sensor in combination with in situ surface treatment and analysis tools, to investigate the relationship between electric-field noise from metal surfaces in vacuum and the composition of the surface. These experiments are performed in a setup that integrates ion trapping capabilities with surface analysis tools. We find that treatment of an aluminum-copper surface with energetic argon ions significantly reduces the level of room-temperature electric-field noise, but the surface does not need to be atomically clean to show noise levels comparable to those of the best cryogenic traps. The noise levels after treatment are low enough to allow fault-tolerant trapped-ion quantum information processing on a microfabricated surface trap at room temperature.

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  18. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis. Part I: heterogeneity study of illicit drugs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujourdy, L; Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Franc, A; Nagy, J

    2013-09-10

    Sampling of illicit drugs for qualitative and quantitative analysis would normally be considered as routine and comparable tasks in forensic drugs laboratories and previously similar statistical sampling approaches have been applied. However, we believe that two different sampling approaches, based on two different theoretical and statistical backgrounds are more appropriate. Furthermore the application of the qualitative sampling approach can be impractical for quantitative sampling as it could generate many analytical samples from a single seizure. In some countries the purity of the illicit drug in a seizure may affect the criminal sentence and therefore, reliable results for quantitative analysis are crucial. It was decided to investigate a new approach, which although incorporating some statistics also took account of our background knowledge about the composition of the drugs we were analysing. The ultimate goal was to produce recommendations for a practical sampling plan for quantitative analysis. It was found that the two key factors which had a significant effect on obtaining a representative analytical sample from a bulk seizure were the heterogeneity of the drug powder and the particle sizes of its components. This article concentrates on drug heterogeneity. Particle size effects will be addressed in part II of this study. A sampling plan was devised for a range of drug seizure types and asked ENFSI member laboratories to use it when analysing real drug seizures to provide heterogeneity data for the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA and cannabis (herbal and resin)). It was found that for routine quantitative drugs analysis, the sampling problems caused by heterogeneity can be solved by using an incremental sampling protocol. Furthermore, the number of increments that need to be taken for a particular drug is dependent on the relative standard deviation (RSD) required by an individual laboratory and the analytical method that

  19. Two-dimensional strandness-dependent electrophoresis: a method to characterize single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, and RNA-DNA hybrids in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gudmundur H; Gudmundsson, Bjarki; Thormar, Hans G; Alfredsson, Arni; Jonsson, Jon J

    2006-03-01

    We describe two-dimensional strandness-dependent electrophoresis (2D-SDE) for quantification and length distribution analysis of single-stranded (ss) DNA fragments, double-stranded (ds) DNA fragments, RNA-DNA hybrids, and nicked DNA fragments in complex samples. In the first dimension nucleic acid molecules are separated based on strandness and length in the presence of 7 M urea. After the first-dimension electrophoresis all nucleic acid fragments are heat denatured in the gel. During the second-dimension electrophoresis all nucleic acid fragments are single-stranded and migrate according to length. 2D-SDE takes about 90 min and requires only basic skills and equipment. We show that 2D-SDE has many applications in analyzing complex nucleic acid samples including (1) estimation of renaturation efficiency and kinetics, (2) monitoring cDNA synthesis, (3) detection of nicked DNA fragments, and (4) estimation of quality and in vitro damage of nucleic acid samples. Results from 2D-SDE should be useful to validate techniques such as complex polymerase chain reaction, subtractive hybridization, cDNA synthesis, cDNA normalization, and microarray analysis. 2D-SDE could also be used, e.g., to characterize biological nucleic acid samples. Information obtained with 2D-SDE cannot be readily obtained with other methods. 2D-SDE can be used for preparative isolation of ssDNA fragments, dsDNA fragments, and RNA-DNA hybrids.

  20. Modal Analysis of a Single-Structure Multiaxis MEMS Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on designing a single-structure triaxes MEMS capacitive gyroscope which is capable of measuring the three angular velocities on a single drive. A Z-shaped beam for the support of folded coupling spring has been applied to suppress the unwanted mode and decrease the stress effect at the spring ends. The unique coupling spring has changed the driving motion, due to which slide film damping in the driving mode has been reduced. This reduction can lead to higher performance of the sensor with less requirements on vacuum level which decreases the cost of fabrication. Simulation analysis has been performed in COMSOL Multiphysics and Matlab Simulink to finalize the design for fabrication. After finite element analysis, the driving, x-sensing, z-sensing, and y-sensing are, respectively, found to be 13.30 KHz, 13.40 KHz, 13.47 KHz, and 13.51 KHz.

  1. Bulk segregant analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Becker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk segregant analysis (BSA using microarrays, and extreme array mapping (XAM have recently been used to rapidly identify genomic regions associated with phenotypes in multiple species. These experiments, however, require the identification of single feature polymorphisms (SFP between the cross parents for each new combination of genotypes, which raises the cost of experiments. The availability of the genomic polymorphism data in Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with the efficient designs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP genotyping arrays removes the requirement for SFP detection and lowers the per array cost, thereby lowering the overall cost per experiment. To demonstrate that these approaches would be functional on SNP arrays and determine confidence intervals, we analyzed hybridizations of natural accessions to the Arabidopsis ATSNPTILE array and simulated BSA or XAM given a variety of gene models, populations, and bulk selection parameters. Our results show a striking degree of correlation between the genotyping output of both methods, which suggests that the benefit of SFP genotyping in context of BSA can be had with the cheaper, more efficient SNP arrays. As a final proof of concept, we hybridized the DNA from bulks of an F2 mapping population of a Sulfur and Selenium ionomics mutant to both the Arabidopsis ATTILE1R and ATSNPTILE arrays, which produced almost identical results. We have produced R scripts that prompt the user for the required parameters and perform the BSA analysis using the ATSNPTILE1 array and have provided them as supplemental data files.

  2. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in adults: accuracy of five single-sample plasma clearance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Rabøl, A

    1989-01-01

    After an intravenous injection of a tracer that is removed from the body solely by filtration in the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be determined from its plasma clearance. The method requires a great number of blood samples but collection of urine is not needed. In the present...

  3. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    -bleached and gamma-irradiated samples. We show that there is a linear relationship between the over-dispersion and the mean dose. Knowing this uncertainty relationship enables us to estimate the burial dose by comparing the predicted uncertainty on the running mean with that calculated from actual dispersion. (c...

  4. Single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Ohhara, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction technique is a powerful method to analyze the reaction mechanism whose hydrogen atom or proton has a key role in the reaction. Especially hydrogen atom or proton transfer(HT/PT) is one of the most elemental phenomena and often observed in many organic, inorganic, enzymatic and catalytic reactions. We describe several applications in chemistry. At first, hydrogen atom in metal hydride complexes, which is quite difficult to do using X-ray diffraction because of the great cloud of electrons of central metal atom. Secondary, hydrogen atom in hydrogen-bonding network, e.g., low-barrier hydrogen bond(LBHB) system. Neutron diffraction can refine the thermal motion of hydrogen atom. Finally, our results, photo-induced HT/PTs using 'deuterium atom labeling' technique and 'crystalline-state reaction' technique, which are currently developing applications. Despite the success illustrated by the many studies presented here or many other studies, we have many problems in using single-crystal neutron diffraction technique. For example, extremely limited flux and the requirement for mm-size sample crystals. Now, these limitations are being solved by the operation of powerful instruments at a new generation of pulsed neutron sources, including iBIX diffractometer running at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex(J-PARC) in Japan. (author)

  5. Quantitative in-situ TEM nanotensile testing of single crystal Ni facilitated by a new sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaeeaghmiyoni, Vahid; Idrissi, Hosni; Groten, Jonas; Schwaiger, Ruth; Schryvers, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared. The present results reveal a dislocation nucleation-controlled plasticity, in which small loops induced by FIB near the edges of the samples play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace determination of uranium and thorium in biological samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedik, Ljudmila; Repinc, Urska; Byrne, Anthony R.; Stegnar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) is an excellent method for determining uranium and thorium; it offers unique possibilities for their ultratrace analysis using selective radiochemical separations. Regarding the favourably sensitive nuclear characteristics of uranium and of thorium with respect to RNAA, but the different half-lives of their induced nuclides, two different approaches were used. In the first approach uranium and thorium were determined separately via 239 U, 239 Np and 233 Pa. In the second approach these elements were 239 239 233 determined simultaneously in a single sample using U and/or Np and Pa. Isolation of induced nuclides was based on separation by extraction and/or anion exchange chromatography. Chemical yields were measured in each sample aliquot using added 235 U, 238 Np and 231 Pa radioisotopic tracers. (author)

  7. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were

  8. Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a

  9. Organic Contaminants Library for the Sample Analysis at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Canham, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    A library containing mass spectra for Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) materials has been developed with the purpose of contamination identification and control. Based on analysis of the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric (GCMS) data through thermal desorption, organic compounds were successfully identified from material samples, such as polymers, paints and adhesives. The library contains the spectra for all the compounds found in each of these analyzed files and is supplemented by a file information spreadsheet, a spreadsheet-formatted library for easy searching, and a Perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) based normalization protocol to make corrections to SAM data in order to meet the standard set by commercial libraries. An example of the library in use can be seen in Figure 1, where the abundances match closely, the spectral shape is retained, and the library picks up on it with an 88% identification probability. Of course, there are also compounds that have not been identified and are retained as unknowns. The library we have developed, along with its supplemental materials, is useful from both organizational and practical viewpoints. Through them we are able to organize large volumes of GCMS data, while at the same time breaking down the components that each material sample is made of. This approach in turn allows us straightforward and fast access to information that will be critical while performing analysis on the data recorded by the SAM instrumentation. In addition, the normalization protocol dramatically increased the identification probability. In SAM GCMS, PFTBA signals were obfuscated, resulting in library matches far away from PFTBA; by using the normalization protocol we were able to transform it into a 92% probable spectral match for PFTBA. The project has demonstrated conclusively that the library is successful in identifying unknown compounds utilizing both the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution & Identification System (AMDIS) and the Ion

  10. Nanofluidic single-molecule sorting of DNA: a new concept in separation and analysis of biomolecules towards ultimate level performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takatoki; Fujii, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    Separation and separation-based analysis of biomolecules are fundamentally important techniques in the field of biotechnology. These techniques, however, depend on stochastic processes that intrinsically involve uncertainty, and thus it is not possible to achieve 100% separation accuracy. Theoretically, the ultimate resolution and sensitivity should be realized in a single-molecule system because of the deterministic nature of single-molecule manipulation. Here, we have proposed and experimentally demonstrated the concept of a 'single-molecule sorter' that detects and correctly identifies individual single molecules, realizing the ultimate level of resolution and sensitivity for any separation-based technology. The single-molecule sorter was created using a nanofluidic network consisting of a single inlet channel that branches off into multiple outlet channels. It includes two major functional elements, namely a single-molecule detection and identification element and a flow path switching element to accurately separate single molecules. With this system we have successfully demonstrated the world's first single-molecule sorting using DNA as a sample molecule. In the future, we hope to expand the application of such devices to comprehensive sorting of single-proteins from a single cell. We also believe that in addition to the single-molecule sorting method reported here, other types of single-molecule based processes will emerge and find use in a wide variety of applications.

  11. Non-Destructive Study of Bulk Crystallinity and Elemental Composition of Natural Gold Single Crystal Samples by Energy-Resolved Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Rakovan, John; Shinohara, Takenao; Kockelmann, Winfried; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.

    2017-01-01

    Energy-resolved neutron imaging enables non-destructive analyses of bulk structure and elemental composition, which can be resolved with high spatial resolution at bright pulsed spallation neutron sources due to recent developments and improvements of neutron counting detectors. This technique, suitable for many applications, is demonstrated here with a specific study of ~5–10 mm thick natural gold samples. Through the analysis of neutron absorption resonances the spatial distribution of palladium (with average elemental concentration of ~0.4 atom% and ~5 atom%) is mapped within the gold samples. At the same time, the analysis of coherent neutron scattering in the thermal and cold energy regimes reveals which samples have a single-crystalline bulk structure through the entire sample volume. A spatially resolved analysis is possible because neutron transmission spectra are measured simultaneously on each detector pixel in the epithermal, thermal and cold energy ranges. With a pixel size of 55 μm and a detector-area of 512 by 512 pixels, a total of 262,144 neutron transmission spectra are measured concurrently. The results of our experiments indicate that high resolution energy-resolved neutron imaging is a very attractive analytical technique in cases where other conventional non-destructive methods are ineffective due to sample opacity. PMID:28102285

  12. Cross-sectional atom probe tomography sample preparation for improved analysis of fins on SOI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Andrew J., E-mail: andy.martin@globalfoundries.com; Weng, Weihao; Zhu, Zhengmao; Loesing, Rainer; Shaffer, James; Katnani, Ahmad

    2016-02-15

    Sample preparation for atom probe tomography of 3D semiconductor devices has proven to significantly affect field evaporation and the reliability of reconstructed data. A cross-sectional preparation method is applied to state-of-the-art Si finFET technology on SOI. This preparation approach advantageously provides a conductive path for voltage and heat, offers analysis of many fins within a single tip, and improves resolution across interfaces of particular interest. Measured B and Ge profiles exhibit good correlation with SIMS and EDX and show no signs of B clustering or pile-up near the Si/SiGe interface of the fin. - Highlights: • Cross-section atom probe tomography sample preparation of fins on SOI. • >5 fins captured in single atom probe tip via cross-section method. • Oxides affect collection efficiency, reconstruction accuracy, and data reliability. • Sample orientation affects field evaporation of dissimilar materials. • Data is well-matched to SIMS and EDX analysis.

  13. Heavy metal analysis in groundwater samples by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Ficaris, Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In order to obtain information about levels of heavy metals in groundwater, analysis were carried out on samples from monitoring and supplying wells located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The analytical technique used was Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and all the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam and a Si(Li) detector in total reflection condition. The determined elements were Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values (MPV) established by the Brazilian Health Department. The detection limits obtained varying from 0.10 up to 8 {mu}g.L{sup -1} were in agreement with the values presented by others analytical techniques. (author)

  14. Heavy metal analysis in groundwater samples by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Ficaris, Maria; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura , Piracicaba, SP . Lab. Instrumentacao Nuclear.; Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain information about levels of heavy metals in groundwater, analysis were carried out on samples from monitoring and supplying wells located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The analytical technique used was Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and all the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam and a Si(Li) detector in total reflection condition. The determined elements were Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values (MPV) established by the Brazilian Health Department. The detection limits obtained varying from 0.10 up to 8 μg.L -1 were in agreement with the values presented by others analytical techniques. (author)

  15. IBA analysis of some precolumbian gilded-copper samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Murillo, G.; Policroniades, R.; Acosta, L.; Zavala, E.P.; Rocha, M.F.; Centeno, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The elemental composition and depth profiles obtained by IBA techniques on some gilded-copper fragments from the Moche site of Loma Negra, in the Piura Valley, on the Northern Coast of Peru are presented in this article. A previous radiocarbon dating of a wooden fragment indicated that Loma Negra was occupied around 295 AD. A PIXE analysis using a 2.6 MeV external proton beam, was used to obtain the concentration of trace elements in the samples. RBS analyses using 2.72 MeV 4 He + and 12.0 MeV 12 C 3+ were used to obtain the Au, Ag, Cu atomic profiles. NRA with a 1.02 MeV deuteron beam was used to measure the oxygen and carbon concentrations through the 16 O(d,p) 17 O, 16 O(d,α) 14 N and 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C reactions

  16. PIXE analysis of marine environmental samples from the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Shitashima, Kiminori; Tsubota, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol samples from the western North Pacific Ocean are collected during a cruise of R/V Hakuhomaru from Japan to Hawaii and they are analyzed by PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Concentrations of radon daughters are measured with CR-39 track detectors mounted on the impactor to estimate the transport time of air mass from the Asian Continent. Distributions of particulate element concentrations clearly demonstrate the influence of the westerlies. Strong correlations are observed between fine sulphur concentrations and those of heavy metals such as Fe and Zn. Vertical profiles of heavy metal elements contained in marine particulates are also investigated at a trench in the Pacific Ocean and basins in the Japan Sea. Particulate element concentrations determined by PIXE agree well with those determined by chemical analysis of filtered/total water. Remarkable changes in depth profiles of particulate manganese are observed at the trench, which suggest horizontal transport of marine particulates from the trench wall. (N.K.)

  17. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  18. Genetic analysis of bulimia nervosa: methods and sample description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Walter H; Devlin, Bernie; Barbarich, Nicole; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Bergen, Andrew W; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Mauri, Mauro; Cassano, Giovanni; Keel, Pamela; Plotnicov, Katherine; Pollice, Christine; Klump, Kelly L; Lilenfeld, Lisa R; Ganjei, J Kelly; Quadflieg, Norbert; Berrettini, Wade H

    2004-05-01

    Twin and family studies suggest that genetic variants contribute to the pathogenesis of bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN). The Price Foundation has supported an international, multisite study of families with these disorders to identify these genetic variations. The current study presents the clinical characteristics of this sample as well as a description of the study methodology. All probands met modified criteria for BN or bulimia nervosa with a history of AN (BAN) as defined in the 4th ed. of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). All affected relatives met DSM-IV criteria for BN, AN, BAN, or eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Probands and affected relatives were assessed diagnostically using both trained-rater and self-report assessments. DNA samples were collected from probands, affected relatives, and available biologic parents. Assessments were obtained from 163 BN probands and 165 BAN probands. Overall, there were 365 relative pairs available for linkage analysis. Of the affected relatives of BN probands, 62 were diagnosed as BN (34.8%), 49 as BAN (27.5%), 35 as AN (19.7%), and 32 as EDNOS (18.0%). For the relatives of BAN probands, 42 were diagnosed as BN (22.5%), 67 as BAN (35.8%), 48 as AN (25.7%), and 30 as EDNOS (16.0%). This study represents the largest genetic study of eating disorders to date. Clinical data indicate that although there are a large number of individuals with BN disorders, a range of eating pathology is represented in the sample, allowing for the examination of several different phenotypes in molecular genetic analyses. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 556-570, 2004.

  19. Np Analysis in IAT-Samples Containing <10 Microgram Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.; Raab, W.; Dashdondog, J.; Balsley, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the determination of neptunium to plutonium in safeguards samples containing less than 10 microgram Pu is presented. The chemical treatment and the optimized measurement conditions for gamma spectrometry are reported. This method is based on thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) after chemical treatment and separation and was validated with mixtures of U, Pu and Np certified reference materials and using the 237 Np standard addition method, followed by separation of the waste fraction and gamma spectrometric analysis. The highest sensitivity, precision and accuracy in the determination of the Np:Pu ratio at microgram levels of Pu is achieved by evaluating 241 Pu and 233 Pa after measuring the adsorbent with a well-type gamma detector 3 weeks after chemical treatment. The repeatability of determining the Np:Pu ratio is estimated to be 5%, the maximum uncertainty as determined from comparing the 4 measurement modes is within ± 10% for samples containing 3 μg Pu, while being within ± 20% for 0.4 μg Pu. (authors)

  20. Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; El-Shershaby, A.; Walley El-Dine, N.

    1996-01-01

    Two brazing alloy samples (C P 2 and C P 3 ) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10 1 1 n/cm 2 /s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10 1 2 n/cm 2 /s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab

  1. Determinants of renewable energy growth: A global sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Mariana; Ibikunle, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    We investigate factors influencing country-level renewable energy growth by applying FEVD and PCSE estimation methods in a unique sample analysis. With a longer time series (1990–2010) and a broader sample size of countries (including Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) than previous studies, our results reveal new insights. The results suggest that certain government-backed energy policies impede renewable energy investments, thus implying significant failures in policy design. These policies may be failing mainly because of uncertainty and the likelihood of discontinuity. Weak voluntary approaches are introduced in order to satisfy public demand for more sustainable investments and programmes; we find that these may have negative influences on the growth of renewables as well. The insight gained is consistent over the estimation methods employed. - Highlights: • Some public energy policies are shown to impede renewable energy investments; this implies failure in policy design. • Environmental concern is shown to drive renewables investment but energy security concerns do not seem to influence renewables investment. • Results suggest that countries are likely to reduce renewables commitments when under pressure to ensure energy supply. • Results seem to underscore the policy lobbying strength of the traditional energy mix industries

  2. Compressive sampling of polynomial chaos expansions: Convergence analysis and sampling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, Jerrad; Doostan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Sampling orthogonal polynomial bases via Monte Carlo is of interest for uncertainty quantification of models with random inputs, using Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions. It is known that bounding a probabilistic parameter, referred to as coherence, yields a bound on the number of samples necessary to identify coefficients in a sparse PC expansion via solution to an ℓ 1 -minimization problem. Utilizing results for orthogonal polynomials, we bound the coherence parameter for polynomials of Hermite and Legendre type under their respective natural sampling distribution. In both polynomial bases we identify an importance sampling distribution which yields a bound with weaker dependence on the order of the approximation. For more general orthonormal bases, we propose the coherence-optimal sampling: a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which directly uses the basis functions under consideration to achieve a statistical optimality among all sampling schemes with identical support. We demonstrate these different sampling strategies numerically in both high-order and high-dimensional, manufactured PC expansions. In addition, the quality of each sampling method is compared in the identification of solutions to two differential equations, one with a high-dimensional random input and the other with a high-order PC expansion. In both cases, the coherence-optimal sampling scheme leads to similar or considerably improved accuracy

  3. Single particle analysis with a 3600 light scattering photometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholdi, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 μm and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360 0 light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5 0 to 177.5 0 at phi = 0 0 and 180 0 is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3 0 in scattering angle on 6 0 centers around 360 0 . 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells

  4. Parallel single cell analysis on an integrated microfluidic platform for cell trapping, lysis and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, Severine; de Boer, Hans L.; Wijnperle, Daniël; Meuleman, W.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert; Kim, Tae Song; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Chung, Taek-Dong; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Choo, Jaebum; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2009-01-01

    We report here a novel and easily scalable microfluidic platform for the parallel analysis of hundreds of individual cells, with controlled single cell trapping, followed by their lysis and subsequent retrieval of the cellular content for on-chip analysis. The device consists of a main channel and

  5. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management

  6. Measuring word complexity in speech screening: single-word sampling to identify phonological delay/disorder in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn; Cohen, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Children's speech sound development is assessed by comparing speech production with the typical development of speech sounds based on a child's age and developmental profile. One widely used method of sampling is to elicit a single-word sample along with connected speech. Words produced spontaneously rather than imitated may give a more accurate indication of a child's speech development. A published word complexity measure can be used to score later-developing speech sounds and more complex word patterns. There is a need for a screening word list that is quick to administer and reliably differentiates children with typically developing speech from children with patterns of delayed/disordered speech. To identify a short word list based on word complexity that could be spontaneously named by most typically developing children aged 3;00-5;05 years. One hundred and five children aged between 3;00 and 5;05 years from three local authority nursery schools took part in the study. Items from a published speech assessment were modified and extended to include a range of phonemic targets in different word positions in 78 monosyllabic and polysyllabic words. The 78 words were ranked both by phonemic/phonetic complexity as measured by word complexity and by ease of spontaneous production. The ten most complex words (hereafter Triage 10) were named spontaneously by more than 90% of the children. There was no significant difference between the complexity measures for five identified age groups when the data were examined in 6-month groups. A qualitative analysis revealed eight children with profiles of phonological delay or disorder. When these children were considered separately, there was a statistically significant difference (p speech from those with delayed or disordered speech patterns. The Triage 10 words can be used as a screening tool for triage and general assessment and have the potential to monitor progress during intervention. Further testing is being undertaken to

  7. Bayesian analysis of inflation: Parameter estimation for single field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortonson, Michael J.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Future astrophysical data sets promise to strengthen constraints on models of inflation, and extracting these constraints requires methods and tools commensurate with the quality of the data. In this paper we describe ModeCode, a new, publicly available code that computes the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra for single-field inflationary models. ModeCode solves the inflationary mode equations numerically, avoiding the slow roll approximation. It is interfaced with CAMB and CosmoMC to compute cosmic microwave background angular power spectra and perform likelihood analysis and parameter estimation. ModeCode is easily extendable to additional models of inflation, and future updates will include Bayesian model comparison. Errors from ModeCode contribute negligibly to the error budget for analyses of data from Planck or other next generation experiments. We constrain representative single-field models (φ n with n=2/3, 1, 2, and 4, natural inflation, and 'hilltop' inflation) using current data, and provide forecasts for Planck. From current data, we obtain weak but nontrivial limits on the post-inflationary physics, which is a significant source of uncertainty in the predictions of inflationary models, while we find that Planck will dramatically improve these constraints. In particular, Planck will link the inflationary dynamics with the post-inflationary growth of the horizon, and thus begin to probe the ''primordial dark ages'' between TeV and grand unified theory scale energies.

  8. Insight and Evidence Motivating the Simplification of Dual-Analysis Hybrid Systems into Single-Analysis Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Diniz, F. L. R.; Takacs, L. L.; Suarez, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Many hybrid data assimilation systems currently used for NWP employ some form of dual-analysis system approach. Typically a hybrid variational analysis is responsible for creating initial conditions for high-resolution forecasts, and an ensemble analysis system is responsible for creating sample perturbations used to form the flow-dependent part of the background error covariance required in the hybrid analysis component. In many of these, the two analysis components employ different methodologies, e.g., variational and ensemble Kalman filter. In such cases, it is not uncommon to have observations treated rather differently between the two analyses components; recentering of the ensemble analysis around the hybrid analysis is used to compensated for such differences. Furthermore, in many cases, the hybrid variational high-resolution system implements some type of four-dimensional approach, whereas the underlying ensemble system relies on a three-dimensional approach, which again introduces discrepancies in the overall system. Connected to these is the expectation that one can reliably estimate observation impact on forecasts issued from hybrid analyses by using an ensemble approach based on the underlying ensemble strategy of dual-analysis systems. Just the realization that the ensemble analysis makes substantially different use of observations as compared to their hybrid counterpart should serve as enough evidence of the implausibility of such expectation. This presentation assembles numerous anecdotal evidence to illustrate the fact that hybrid dual-analysis systems must, at the very minimum, strive for consistent use of the observations in both analysis sub-components. Simpler than that, this work suggests that hybrid systems can reliably be constructed without the need to employ a dual-analysis approach. In practice, the idea of relying on a single analysis system is appealing from a cost-maintenance perspective. More generally, single-analysis systems avoid

  9. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present

  10. Renormalisation group analysis of single right-handed neutrino dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.; Nimai Singh, N.

    2000-01-01

    We perform a renormalisation group (RG) analysis of neutrino masses and mixing angles in the see-saw mechanism in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with three right-handed neutrinos, including the effects of the heavy neutrino thresholds. We focus on the case that one of the right-handed neutrinos provides the dominant contribution to the 23 block of the light Majorana matrix, causing its determinant to approximately vanish and giving an automatic neutrino mass hierarchy, so-called single right-handed neutrino dominance which may arise from a U(1) family symmetry. In these models radiative corrections can increase atmospheric and solar neutrino mixing by up to about 10% and 5%, respectively, and may help to achieve bi-maximal mixing. Significantly we find that the radiative corrections over the heavy neutrino threshold region are at least as important as those usually considered from the lightest right-handed neutrino down to low energies

  11. Robust stability analysis of adaptation algorithms for single perceptron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, S; Zak, S H

    1991-01-01

    The problem of robust stability and convergence of learning parameters of adaptation algorithms in a noisy environment for the single preceptron is addressed. The case in which the same input pattern is presented in the adaptation cycle is analyzed. The algorithm proposed is of the Widrow-Hoff type. It is concluded that this algorithm is robust. However, the weight vectors do not necessarily converge in the presence of measurement noise. A modified version of this algorithm in which the reduction factors are allowed to vary with time is proposed, and it is shown that this algorithm is robust and that the weight vectors converge in the presence of bounded noise. Only deterministic-type arguments are used in the analysis. An ultimate bound on the error in terms of a convex combination of the initial error and the bound on the noise is obtained.

  12. Single-cell phospho-protein analysis by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kenneth R; Danna, Erika A; Krutzik, Peter O; Nolan, Garry P

    2012-02-01

    This protocol describes methods for monitoring intracellular phosphorylation-dependent signaling events on a single-cell basis. This approach measures cell signaling by treating cells with exogenous stimuli, fixing cells with formaldehyde, permeabilizing with methanol, and then staining with phospho-specific antibodies. Thus, cell signaling states can be determined as a measure of how cells interact with their environment. This method has applications in clinical research as well as mechanistic studies of basic biology. In clinical research, diagnostic or drug efficacy information can be retrieved by discovering how a disease affects the ability of cells to respond to growth factors. Basic scientists can use this technique to analyze signaling events in cell lines and human or murine primary cells, including rare populations, like B1 cells or stem cells. This technique has broad applications bringing standard biochemical analysis into primary cells in order to garner valuable information about signaling events in physiologic settings. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Analysis of Organic Compounds in Mars Analog Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Buch, A.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Demick, J.; Glavin, D. P.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of organic compounds that might be preserved in rocks, ices, or sedimentary layers on Mars would be a significant step toward resolving the question of the habitability and potential for life on that planet. The fact that the Viking gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) did not detect organic compounds should not discourage further investigations since (a) an oxidizing environment in the near surface fines analyzed by Viking is likely to have destroyed many reduced carbon species; (b) there are classes of refractory or partially oxidized species such as carboxylic acids that would not have been detected by the Viking GCMS; and (c) the Viking landing sites are not representative of Mars overall. These factors motivate the development of advanced in situ analytical protocols to carry out a comprehensive survey of organic compounds in martian regolith, ices, and rocks. We combine pyrolysis GCMS for analysis of volatile species, chemical derivatization for transformation of less volatile organics, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) for analysis of elements and more refractory, higher-mass organics. To evaluate this approach and enable a comparison with other measurement techniques we analyze organics in Mars simulant samples.

  14. Analysis of boron containing biological samples by ICP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.F.; Johnson, D.A.; Messick, K.M.; Miller, D.L.; Propp, W.A.; Steele, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    An important aspect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is the determination of the biological distribution of the boron within an organism at some point in time after administration of a boron- containing species. Techniques include prompt gamma analysis, colorimetric techniques, and most recently, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques. In this paper, an ICP technique was used to determine the boron content in tissue and various biological fluid samples obtained from dogs have spontaneously-occurring brain tumors and to which had been administered the sodium salt of the sulfhydryl borane (B 12 H 11 SH)/sup 2/minus//. The spontaneous error model allowed tissue to be collected that had the same relative kinetics and disruptions of the blood brain barrier as found in human brain cancer. Many of these subjects also had peritumor edematous tissue that did not have a visibly detected alteration in the blood brain barrier. The large size of the dog allowed tissues to be collected for analysis that may be affected during irradiation

  15. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  16. Forensic analysis of a smuggled HEU sample interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Hutcheon, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999, at a border crossing between Bulgaria and Romania. A search of the suspect's vehicle uncovered a lead canister hidden in the car trunk. The initial examination of the contents by Bulgarian scientists indicated that the sample was indeed HEU, and subsequently arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. This report gives a summary of the results. The HEU sample was contained in a glass ampoule that was embedded in a yellow wax, and in turn the wax filled the inside of the cylindrical lead container. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Our general experimental approach has been previously described at meetings of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), but this case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The powder is extremely fine-grained (160 nm mean) and quite uniform in size. Most grains (95%) are equidimensional, with the remainder rod-or plate-shaped. The U is 72.7% U-235 with a high U-236 abundance of 12.1%. The sample is reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial U-235. Pu is present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the Pu-239 abundance is 82% with 240/239=0.12. Three fission products were detected at low levels, giving unambiguous evidence of fuel recycling. The total impurity content is about 600 ppmw (mostly S, Cl, Fe, and Br), which we interpret as indicating a batch processing operation because the

  17. A method for multiple sequential analyses of macrophage functions using a small single cell sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.F. Nascimento

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG induce the activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages can be characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites, generated via NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, respectively, and by the increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II. Multiple microassays have been developed to measure these parameters. Usually each assay requires 2-5 x 10(5 cells per well. In some experimental conditions the number of cells is the limiting factor for the phenotypic characterization of macrophages. Here we describe a method whereby this limitation can be circumvented. Using a single 96-well microassay and a very small number of peritoneal cells obtained from C3H/HePas mice, containing as little as <=2 x 10(5 macrophages per well, we determined sequentially the oxidative burst (H2O2, nitric oxide production and MHC II (IAk expression of BCG-activated macrophages. More specifically, with 100 µl of cell suspension it was possible to quantify H2O2 release and nitric oxide production after 1 and 48 h, respectively, and IAk expression after 48 h of cell culture. In addition, this microassay is easy to perform, highly reproducible and more economical.

  18. Guidance for establishment and implementation of a national sample management program in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. Therefore the NSMP's primary role is to coordinate and function as a central repository for information collected from the FSMPs. An additional role of the NSMP is to monitor trends in data collected from the FSMPs over time and across sites and laboratories. Tracking these trends will allow identification of potential problems in the sampling and analysis process

  19. Testing the accuracy of a Bayesian central-dose model for single-grain OSL, using known-age samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Combès, Benoit; Lahaye, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    remains a difficult task, given the typically considerable dispersion in equivalent dose values measured by OSL - and the numerous sources of such dispersion in measurements. Here, we present the study of 19 samples for which independent age control is available, and whose ages range from 2 to 46ka. Based......-grain OSL and reference ages is about twice as large for the standard approach (12%) as with the Bayesian model (7%). Statistical tests show that, based on our (limited) dataset, the difference between the two models seems to be significant for samples in the age range 4-46ka. Finally, the influence...... on multi-grain OSL age estimates, these samples are presumed to have been both well-bleached at burial, and unaffected by mixing after deposition. Two ways of estimating single-grain ages are then compared: the standard approach on the one hand, consisting of applying the Central Age Model to De values...

  20. Tank 241-U-105 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and two push mode core samples from tank 241-U-105 (U-105)

  1. Low aspect ratio micropores for single-particle and single-cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Mulero, Rafael; Ali, Jamel; Darvish, Armin; Kim, Min Jun

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes microparticle and bacterial translocation studies using low aspect ratio solid-state micropores. Micropores, 5 μm in diameter, were fabricated in 200 nm thick free-standing silicon nitride membranes, resulting in pores with an extremely low aspect ratio, nominally 0.04. For microparticle translocation experiments, sulfonated polystyrene microparticles and magnetic microbeads in size range of 1-4 μm were used. Using the microparticle translocation characteristics, we find that particle translocations result in a change only in the pore's geometrical resistance while the access resistance remains constant. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of our micropore to probe high-resolution shape information of translocating analytes using concatenated magnetic microspheres. Distinct current drop peaks were observed for each microsphere of the multibead architecture. For bacterial translocation experiments, nonflagellated Escherichia coli (strain HCB 5) and wild type flagellated Salmonella typhimurium (strain SJW1103) were used. Distinct current signatures for the two bacteria were obtained and this difference in translocation behavior was attributed to different surface protein distributions on the bacteria. Our findings may help in developing low aspect ratio pores for high-resolution microparticle characterization and single-cell analysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A Validated Task Analysis of the Single Pilot Operations Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Cynthia A.; Gore, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    The current day flight deck operational environment consists of a two-person Captain/First Officer crew. A concept of operations (ConOps) to reduce the commercial cockpit to a single pilot from the current two pilot crew is termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO). This concept has been under study by researchers in the Flight Deck Display Research Laboratory (FDDRL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ames (Johnson, Comerford, Lachter, Battiste, Feary, and Mogford, 2012) and researchers from Langley Research Centers (Schutte et al., 2007). Transitioning from a two pilot crew to a single pilot crew will undoubtedly require changes in operational procedures, crew coordination, use of automation, and in how the roles and responsibilities of the flight deck and ATC are conceptualized in order to maintain the high levels of safety expected of the US National Airspace System. These modifications will affect the roles and the subsequent tasks that are required of the various operators in the NextGen environment. The current report outlines the process taken to identify and document the tasks required by the crew according to a number of operational scenarios studied by the FDDRL between the years 2012-2014. A baseline task decomposition has been refined to represent the tasks consistent with a new set of entities, tasks, roles, and responsibilities being explored by the FDDRL as the move is made towards SPO. Information from Subject Matter Expert interviews, participation in FDDRL experimental design meetings, and study observation was used to populate and refine task sets that were developed as part of the SPO task analyses. The task analysis is based upon the proposed ConOps for the third FDDRL SPO study. This experiment possessed nine different entities operating in six scenarios using a variety of SPO-related automation and procedural activities required to guide safe and efficient aircraft operations. The task analysis presents the roles and

  3. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  4. The AlSi10Mg samples produced by selective laser melting: single track, densification, microstructure and mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Pei; Wei, Zhengying, E-mail: zywei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhen; Du, Jun; He, Yuyang; Li, Junfeng; Zhou, Yatong

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of AlSi10Mg molten pool was analyzed. • The SLM-processed sample with a relatively low surface roughness was obtained. • Effects of parameters on surface topography of scan track were investigated. • Effects of parameters on microstructure of parts were investigated. • Optimum processing parameters for AlSi10Mg SLM was obtained. - Abstract: This densification behavior and attendant microstructural characteristics of the selective laser melting (SLM) processed AlSi10Mg alloy affected by the processing parameters were systematically investigated. The samples with a single track were produced by SLM to study the influences of laser power and scanning speed on the surface morphologies of scan tracks. Additionally, the bulk samples were produced to investigate the influence of the laser power, scanning speed, and hatch spacing on the densification level and the resultant microstructure. The experimental results showed that the level of porosity of the SLM-processed samples was significantly governed by energy density of laser beam and the hatch spacing. The tensile properties of SLM-processed samples and the attendant fracture surface can be enhanced by decreasing the level of porosity. The microstructure of SLM-processed samples consists of supersaturated Al-rich cellular structure along with eutectic Al/Si situated at the cellular boundaries. The Si content in the cellular boundaries increases with increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed. The hardness of SLM-processed samples was significantly improved by this fine microstructure compared with the cast samples. Moreover, the hardness of SLM-processed samples at overlaps was lower than the hardness observed at track cores.

  5. On-line Automated Sample Preparation-Capillary Gas Chromatography for the Analysis of Plasma Samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, A.J.H.; van der Wagt, R.A.C.A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    An automated sample preparation module, (the automated sample preparation with extraction columns, ASPEC), was interfaced with a capillary gas chromatograph (GC) by means of an on-column interface. The system was optimised for the determination of the antidepressant trazodone in plasma. The clean-up

  6. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  7. Sequence-specific detection of different strains of LCMV in a single sample using tentacle probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lina S; Holechek, Susan A; Caplan, Michael R; Blattman, Joseph N

    2017-10-13

    Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cost-prohibitive. Rapid, cost-effective methods are needed for accurate measurement of virus diversity to understand virus evolution and can be useful for experimental systems. We have developed a novel molecular method for sequence-specific detection of RNA virus genetic variants called Tentacle Probes. The probes are modified molecular beacons that have dramatically improved false positive rates and specificity in routine qPCR. To validate this approach, we have designed Tentacle Probes for two different strains of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) that differ by only 3 nucleotide substitutions, the parental Armstrong and the more virulent Clone-13 strain. One of these mutations is a missense mutation in the receptor protein GP1 that leads to the Armstrong strain to cause an acute infection and Clone-13 to cause a chronic infection instead. The probes were designed using thermodynamic calculations for hybridization between target or non-target sequences and the probe. Using this approach, we were able to distinguish these two strains of LCMV individually by a single nucleotide mutation. The assay showed high reproducibility among different concentrations of viral cDNA, as well as high specificity and sensitivity, especially for the Clone-13 Tentacle Probe. Furthermore, in virus mixing experiments we were able to detect less than 10% of Clone-13 cDNA diluted in Armstrong cDNA. Thus, we have developed a fast, cost-effective approach for identifying Clone-13 strain in a mix of other LCMV strains.

  8. An in vitro tag-and-modify protein sample generation method for single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Kambiz M; Howe, Jesse; Jensen, Madeleine K; Wu, Peng; Cate, Jamie H D; Marqusee, Susan

    2017-09-22

    Biomolecular systems exhibit many dynamic and biologically relevant properties, such as conformational fluctuations, multistep catalysis, transient interactions, folding, and allosteric structural transitions. These properties are challenging to detect and engineer using standard ensemble-based techniques. To address this drawback, single-molecule methods offer a way to access conformational distributions, transient states, and asynchronous dynamics inaccessible to these standard techniques. Fluorescence-based single-molecule approaches are parallelizable and compatible with multiplexed detection; to date, however, they have remained limited to serial screens of small protein libraries. This stems from the current absence of methods for generating either individual dual-labeled protein samples at high throughputs or protein libraries compatible with multiplexed screening platforms. Here, we demonstrate that by combining purified and reconstituted in vitro translation, quantitative unnatural amino acid incorporation via AUG codon reassignment, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, we can overcome these challenges for target proteins that are, or can be, methionine-depleted. We present an in vitro parallelizable approach that does not require laborious target-specific purification to generate dual-labeled proteins and ribosome-nascent chain libraries suitable for single-molecule FRET-based conformational phenotyping. We demonstrate the power of this approach by tracking the effects of mutations, C-terminal extensions, and ribosomal tethering on the structure and stability of three protein model systems: barnase, spectrin, and T4 lysozyme. Importantly, dual-labeled ribosome-nascent chain libraries enable single-molecule co-localization of genotypes with phenotypes, are well suited for multiplexed single-molecule screening of protein libraries, and should enable the in vitro directed evolution of proteins with designer single-molecule conformational

  9. Indirect Electrochemical Analysis of Crocin in Phytochemical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electroanalytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of crocin in a sample of stigmas of saffron (Crocus sativus L.. Crocin is polarographically inactive. However, cysteine in 0.02 M NaCl, pH=5.2±0.01 produces a well defined wave/peak with E1/2/Ep= –0.47/–0.45 V vs. Ag/AgCl. On recording polarograms of a set of solution containing a fixed concentration of cysteine and varying concentrations of crocin under aforesaid experimental conditions a gradual decrease in peak height/diffusion current and a negative shift in peak potential was observed. Thus, indicating cysteine-crocin interaction. Amperometric titration indicated crocin to cysteine ratio of 1:2. The above amperometric titration procedure has been used to determine the concentration of crocin in a sample of saffron. Crystallization process was carried out for the extraction of crocin from dried powder of saffron stigmas. The crystallized crocin was identified by UV-Visible spectrophotometry(at 255 nm and 442 nm and the quantitative analysis by the developed amperometric method. The concentration of crocin in saffron was found to be 2.13% and purity of isolated crocin 96.81%. The percent recovery varied from 98.56–100.31% and RSD (n=5 of 2.17%.The validation of the proposed procedure for the quantitative assay of crocin was examined via an evaluation of the repeatability, recovery, selectivity and relative standard deviation.

  10. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, which...... indicates signal sampling points in time. Practical random sampling patterns are constrained by ADC characteristics and application requirements. In this paper, we introduce statistical methods which evaluate random sampling pattern generators with emphasis on practical applications. Furthermore, we propose...... a new random pattern generator which copes with strict practical limitations imposed on patterns, with possibly minimal loss in randomness of sampling. The proposed generator is compared with existing sampling pattern generators using the introduced statistical methods. It is shown that the proposed...

  11. Computer system for environmental sample analysis and data storage and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Fager, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-computer based environmental sample analysis and data storage system has been developed. The system is used for analytical data acquisition, computation, storage of analytical results, and tabulation of selected or derived results for data analysis, interpretation and reporting. This paper discussed the structure, performance and applications of the system

  12. Analysis of the Touch-And-Go Surface Sampling Concept for Comet Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.

  13. Kinetic analysis of single molecule FRET transitions without trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrangl, Lukas; Göhring, Janett; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2018-03-01

    Single molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a popular tool to study biological systems that undergo topological transitions on the nanometer scale. smFRET experiments typically require recording of long smFRET trajectories and subsequent statistical analysis to extract parameters such as the states' lifetimes. Alternatively, analysis of probability distributions exploits the shapes of smFRET distributions at well chosen exposure times and hence works without the acquisition of time traces. Here, we describe a variant that utilizes statistical tests to compare experimental datasets with Monte Carlo simulations. For a given model, parameters are varied to cover the full realistic parameter space. As output, the method yields p-values which quantify the likelihood for each parameter setting to be consistent with the experimental data. The method provides suitable results even if the actual lifetimes differ by an order of magnitude. We also demonstrated the robustness of the method to inaccurately determine input parameters. As proof of concept, the new method was applied to the determination of transition rate constants for Holliday junctions.

  14. Radioactive and electron microscope analysis of effluent monitor sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Effluent air sampling at nuclear power plant often leads to the question ''How representative is the sample of the effluent stream?'' Samples from radiation monitors are typically obtained at great distances from the sample nozzle because of high background concerns under postulated accidents. Sample line plateout during normal effluent sampling becomes the major concern. A US Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection raised a concern that monitors were not collecting representative samples per ANSI standard N13.1. A comprehensive 2-yr study at Beaver Valley was performed during normal effluent releases in two phases: 1) weekly charcoal and glass fiber filter samples were analyzed for radioactivity for 6 months, and 2) nuclepore membrane filter samples were analyzed by electron microscope for 4- and 6-h periods. A specially designed test nozzle was directly inserted into an effluent stream for comparison with the radiation monitor samples. Particle behavior characteristics can be determined during effluent releases using a simple test probe. While particle plateout was the major purpose of the study, other particle behavior characteristics were evident and equally as important. Particle travel through long sample lines can also lead to (a) agglomeration or the coagulation of smaller particles to form larger ones, (b) particle splitting or fracturing upon impact with the sample line interior walls, and (c) resuspension of large particles in sample lines

  15. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  16. Sampling quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces quality assurance guidance pertaining to the design and implementation of sampling procedures and processes for collecting environmental data for DOE's Office of EM (Environmental Restoration and Waste Management)

  17. Green approaches in sample preparation of bioanalytical samples prior to chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Olga; Bitas, Dimitrios; Samanidou, Victoria

    2017-02-01

    Sample preparation is considered to be the most challenging step of the analytical procedure, since it has an effect on the whole analytical methodology, therefore it contributes significantly to the greenness or lack of it of the entire process. The elimination of the sample treatment steps, pursuing at the same time the reduction of the amount of the sample, strong reductions in consumption of hazardous reagents and energy also maximizing safety for operators and environment, the avoidance of the use of big amount of organic solvents, form the basis for greening sample preparation and analytical methods. In the last decade, the development and utilization of greener and sustainable microextraction techniques is an alternative to classical sample preparation procedures. In this review, the main green microextraction techniques (solid phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, hollow-fiber liquid phase microextraction, dispersive liquid - liquid microextraction, etc.) will be presented, with special attention to bioanalytical applications of these environment-friendly sample preparation techniques which comply with the green analytical chemistry principles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of intraosseous blood samples using an EPOC point of care analyzer during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Crystal Ives; Darracq, Michael; Young, Megann

    2017-03-01

    In the early phases of resuscitation in a critically ill patient, especially those in cardiac arrest, intravenous (IV) access can be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous (IO) access is often used in these critical situations to allow medication administration. When no IV access is available, it is difficult to obtain blood for point of care analysis, yet this information can be crucial in directing the resuscitation. We hypothesized that IO samples may be used with a point of care device to obtain useful information when seconds really do matter. Patients presenting to the emergency department requiring resuscitation and IO placement were prospectively enrolled in a convenience sample. 17 patients were enrolled. IO and IV samples obtained within five minutes of one another were analyzed using separate EPOC® point of care analyzers. Analytes were compared using Bland Altman Plots and intraclass correlation coefficients. In this analysis of convenience sampled critically ill patients, the EPOC® point of care analyzer provided results from IO samples. IO and IV samples were most comparable for pH, bicarbonate, sodium and base excess, and potentially for lactic acid; single outliers for bicarbonate, sodium and base excess were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for sodium and reasonable for pH, pO2, bicarbonate, and glucose. Correlations for other variables measured by the EPOC® analyzer were not as robust. IO samples can be used with a bedside point of care analyzer to rapidly obtain certain laboratory information during resuscitations when IV access is difficult. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of IFR samples at ANL-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, D.L.; Sabau, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory analyzes a variety of samples submitted by the different research groups within IFR. This talk describes the analytical work on samples generated by the Plutonium Electrorefiner, Large Scale Electrorefiner and Waste Treatment Studies. The majority of these samples contain Transuranics and necessitate facilities that safely contain these radioisotopes. Details such as: sample receiving, dissolution techniques, chemical separations, Instrumentation used, reporting of results are discussed. The Importance of Interactions between customer and analytical personnel Is also demonstrated

  20. Analysis of IFR samples at ANL-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, D.L.; Sabau, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory analyzes a variety of samples submitted by the different research groups within IFR. This talk describes the analytical work on samples generated by the Plutonium Electrorefiner, Large Scale Electrorefiner and Waste Treatment Studies. The majority of these samples contain Transuranics and necessitate facilities that safely contain these radioisotopes. Details such as: sample receiving, dissolution techniques, chemical separations, Instrumentation used, reporting of results are discussed. The Importance of Interactions between customer and analytical personnel Is also demonstrated.

  1. An integrated sampling and analysis approach for improved biodiversity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWan, Amielle A; Zipkin, Elise F

    2010-05-01

    Successful biodiversity conservation requires high quality monitoring data and analyses to ensure scientifically defensible policy, legislation, and management. Although monitoring is a critical component in assessing population status and trends, many governmental and non-governmental organizations struggle to develop and implement effective sampling protocols and statistical analyses because of the magnitude and diversity of species in conservation concern. In this article we describe a practical and sophisticated data collection and analysis framework for developing a comprehensive wildlife monitoring program that includes multi-species inventory techniques and community-level hierarchical modeling. Compared to monitoring many species individually, the multi-species approach allows for improved estimates of individual species occurrences, including rare species, and an increased understanding of the aggregated response of a community to landscape and habitat heterogeneity. We demonstrate the benefits and practicality of this approach to address challenges associated with monitoring in the context of US state agencies that are legislatively required to monitor and protect species in greatest conservation need. We believe this approach will be useful to regional, national, and international organizations interested in assessing the status of both common and rare species.

  2. An integrated sampling and analysis approach for improved biodiversity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWan, Amielle A.; Zipkin, Elise F.

    2010-01-01

    Successful biodiversity conservation requires high quality monitoring data and analyses to ensure scientifically defensible policy, legislation, and management. Although monitoring is a critical component in assessing population status and trends, many governmental and non-governmental organizations struggle to develop and implement effective sampling protocols and statistical analyses because of the magnitude and diversity of species in conservation concern. In this article we describe a practical and sophisticated data collection and analysis framework for developing a comprehensive wildlife monitoring program that includes multi-species inventory techniques and community-level hierarchical modeling. Compared to monitoring many species individually, the multi-species approach allows for improved estimates of individual species occurrences, including rare species, and an increased understanding of the aggregated response of a community to landscape and habitat heterogeneity. We demonstrate the benefits and practicality of this approach to address challenges associated with monitoring in the context of US state agencies that are legislatively required to monitor and protect species in greatest conservation need. We believe this approach will be useful to regional, national, and international organizations interested in assessing the status of both common and rare species.

  3. Application of SIMS to the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Haruhiko

    2003-01-01

    As an example of surface analysis of environmental samples, SIMS was applied to airborne particulates, fish otoliths (a calcareous ear-stone) and biotites (a rock-forming aluminosilicate mineral). Airborne particulates deposited on leaf surface were analyzed directly by fast atom bombardment (FAB)-SIMS using an O 2 primary neutral beam. Some metal elements, such as Pb, of aerosol origin could be detected. Local areas of a thin section of an otolith were analyzed by FAB-SIMS. Line scans and images of secondary ions revealed seasonal periodicity in Sr, Na and K concentrations in the otolith that corresponded to the annual band structure. Surface alteration of acid-treated and naturally weathered biotites was studied by SIMS depth profiling using an O - primary ion. The depth profile of the acid-treated biotite showed the formation of an altered surface layer rich in Si. In contrast a thick altered surface layer was not observed and Al was held on the surface under natural weathering

  4. A simplified system for doing ICP analysis on radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1985-11-01

    Methods for setting up equipment to perform analyses on radioactive materials vary considerably from one site to another. Factors include the interests of the group involved, i.e., research vs service work; the type of building containing the lab; the arrangement of the lab for contamination control; previous experiences in operating similar equipment; the local interpretation of safety regulations; and the time and money available for the task. The Chemistry and Analysis group of the Westinghouse Hanford Company performs analytical chemistry in support of many Hanford programs. Samples analyzed cover a wide variety of materials with more than 50% involving radioactivity of one type or another. All of the laboratories in the building are connected to a common exhaust system with ductwork leading to the basement. Double HEPA filtration is provided with the first stage in the basement and the final stage done in the exhaust fan and filter building northwest of the main building. In addition, glove boxes are equipped with small HEPA filters on their outlet providing another stage of filtration. 6 figs

  5. Meteorological testing and analysis of sampling equipment for wet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.; Jobst, S.; Harder, C.

    1989-01-01

    11 rain collector types for wet deposition were subjected to a field test. Two of the nine types were identically constructed. The following measured values were analyzed: amount of rainfall, electrical conductivity, pH value, Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , NH 4 + , Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Fe, Pb, Cu, Cd. The analysis was restricted to rainfall. In a basic study structural and statistical analyses of precipitations were made in order to find out from which extent of intensity resp. rain volume per rainfall the precipitations are important for wet deposition. Some sensors required intensities of nearly 1 mm/h in order to recognize all rainfalls. In order to reach a better standardization of the measuring technique the funnel geometry should be standardized. The current technique is not suited for correctly registering the deposition which is connected with light and very light rainfall. It was found out in rinsing tests with diluted HNO 3 that considerable amounts of trace metals accumulate at funnel walls and in headers, although the collecting device had been subjected to a thorough acid purification before. For the determination of the wet deposition of the trace metals problems arise if the samples are filtered and the filters are not analyzed. In that case particle-bound metals which are suspended in raindrops will not be registered. After comparing the equipment some of the devices were improved in order to eliminate known sources of contamination. (orig./KW) [de

  6. Implementation guide for turbidity threshold sampling: principles, procedures, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads

    2009-01-01

    Turbidity Threshold Sampling uses real-time turbidity and river stage information to automatically collect water quality samples for estimating suspended sediment loads. The system uses a programmable data logger in conjunction with a stage measurement device, a turbidity sensor, and a pumping sampler. Specialized software enables the user to control the sampling...

  7. Improvement of microtome cutting process of carbon nanotube composite sample preparation for TEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayner, Sarah

    As research progresses towards nanoscale materials, there has become a need for a more efficient and effective way to obtain ultra-thin samples for imaging under transmission electron microscope (TEM) for atomic resolution analysis. There are various methods used to obtain thin samples (research is a continuous effort to study and improve the ultra-microtome cutting technique to provide an effective and reliable approach of obtaining an ultra-thin (25-50 nm) cross section of a CNT/polymer composite for high resolution TEM analysis. Improvements were achieved by studying the relationships between the chosen cutting parameters, sample characteristics and TEM image quality. From this information, a cutting protocol was established so that ultra-thin sample slices can be achieved by different microtome operators for high resolution TEM analysis. In addition, a custom tool was created to aid in the sample collection process. In this research, three composite samples were studied for both microtome cutting and TEM analysis: 1) Unidirectional (UD) IM7/BMI composite; 2) Single-layer CNT buckypaper (BP)/epoxy nanocomposite; 3) 3-layer CNT BP/BMI nanocomposite. The resultant TEM images revealed a clear microstructure consisting of amorphous resin and graphite crystalline packing. UD IM7/BMI composite TEM results did not reveal an interfacial region resulting in a need for even thinner sliced cross sections. TEM results for the single-layer CNT BP/epoxy nanocomposite revealed the alignment direction of the nanotubes and numerous stacks of CNT bundles. In addition, there was visible flattening of CNT packing into dumbbell shapes similar to results obtain by Alan Windle. TEM results for the 3-layer CNT BP/BMI nanocomposite revealed uniformly cut resin. However, when the diamond knife reached graphite crystalline regions, the nanotube either became deformed into a cone-like structure, was cut at a thicker thickness than the resin, or folded over onto itself. This is most likely

  8. Single-cell analysis of targeted transcriptome predicts drug sensitivity of single cells within human myeloma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, A K; Mukherjee, U K; Harding, T; Jang, J S; Stessman, H; Li, Y; Abyzov, A; Jen, J; Kumar, S; Rajkumar, V; Van Ness, B

    2016-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by significant genetic diversity at subclonal levels that have a defining role in the heterogeneity of tumor progression, clinical aggressiveness and drug sensitivity. Although genome profiling studies have demonstrated heterogeneity in subclonal architecture that may ultimately lead to relapse, a gene expression-based prediction program that can identify, distinguish and quantify drug response in sub-populations within a bulk population of myeloma cells is lacking. In this study, we performed targeted transcriptome analysis on 528 pre-treatment single cells from 11 myeloma cell lines and 418 single cells from 8 drug-naïve MM patients, followed by intensive bioinformatics and statistical analysis for prediction of proteasome inhibitor sensitivity in individual cells. Using our previously reported drug response gene expression profile signature at the single-cell level, we developed an R Statistical analysis package available at https://github.com/bvnlabSCATTome, SCATTome (single-cell analysis of targeted transcriptome), that restructures the data obtained from Fluidigm single-cell quantitative real-time-PCR analysis run, filters missing data, performs scaling of filtered data, builds classification models and predicts drug response of individual cells based on targeted transcriptome using an assortment of machine learning methods. Application of SCATT should contribute to clinically relevant analysis of intratumor heterogeneity, and better inform drug choices based on subclonal cellular responses.

  9. Exploring aphasic grammar. 1: A single case analysis of conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeke, Suzanne; Wilkinson, Ray; Maxim, Jane

    2003-03-01

    This paper uses the methodology and analytical findings of conversation analysis to investigate the notion that aphasic grammar may be understood at least partly in the context of the demands of turns at talk in conversation. An investigation of the conversation of an English-speaking person with aphasia reveals two distinct grammatical phenomena, and it is suggested that their use may be interactionally motivated by the need to take a relatively unproblematic turn at talk despite the constraints of non-fluent aphasia. The grammatical patterns that are revealed by this analysis look considerably different from those elicited by standard methods of data sampling. The possibility that interactional grammatical phenomena are not visible in the language data elicited by clinical assessments is raised. This question is addressed via an in-depth comparison of the same speaker's interactional and elicited grammar in a linked article. It is suggested that the tool of conversation analysis provides researchers with a new and fruitful approach to the study of grammatical abilities in aphasia.

  10. Compilation of PRF Canyon Floor Pan Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Jon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, Lawrence R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Garrett N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    On September 28, 2015, debris collected from the PRF (236-Z) canyon floor, Pan J, was observed to exhibit chemical reaction. The material had been transferred from the floor pan to a collection tray inside the canyon the previous Friday. Work in the canyon was stopped to allow Industrial Hygiene to perform monitoring of the material reaction. Canyon floor debris that had been sealed out was sequestered at the facility, a recovery plan was developed, and drum inspections were initiated to verify no additional reactions had occurred. On October 13, in-process drums containing other Pan J material were inspected and showed some indication of chemical reaction, limited to discoloration and degradation of inner plastic bags. All Pan J material was sealed back into the canyon and returned to collection trays. Based on the high airborne levels in the canyon during physical debris removal, ETGS (Encapsulation Technology Glycerin Solution) was used as a fogging/lock-down agent. On October 15, subject matter experts confirmed a reaction had occurred between nitrates (both Plutonium Nitrate and Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate (ANN) are present) in the Pan J material and the ETGS fixative used to lower airborne radioactivity levels during debris removal. Management stopped the use of fogging/lock-down agents containing glycerin on bulk materials, declared a Management Concern, and initiated the Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis determination process. Additional drum inspections and laboratory analysis of both reacted and unreacted material are planned. This report compiles the results of many different sample analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on samples collected from the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) floor pans by the CH2MHill’s Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Revision 1 added Appendix G that reports the results of the Gas Generation Rate and methodology. The scope of analyses requested by CHPRC includes the determination of

  11. Heterogeneity of Metazoan Cells and Beyond: To Integrative Analysis of Cellular Populations at Single-Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barteneva, Natasha S; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we review some of the recent advances in cellular heterogeneity and single-cell analysis methods. In modern research of cellular heterogeneity, there are four major approaches: analysis of pooled samples, single-cell analysis, high-throughput single-cell analysis, and lately integrated analysis of cellular population at a single-cell level. Recently developed high-throughput single-cell genetic analysis methods such as RNA-Seq require purification step and destruction of an analyzed cell often are providing a snapshot of the investigated cell without spatiotemporal context. Correlative analysis of multiparameter morphological, functional, and molecular information is important for differentiation of more uniform groups in the spectrum of different cell types. Simplified distributions (histograms and 2D plots) can underrepresent biologically significant subpopulations. Future directions may include the development of nondestructive methods for dissecting molecular events in intact cells, simultaneous correlative cellular analysis of phenotypic and molecular features by hybrid technologies such as imaging flow cytometry, and further progress in supervised and non-supervised statistical analysis algorithms.

  12. Proteomic challenges: sample preparation techniques for microgram-quantity protein analysis from biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Peter; Hummon, Amanda B

    2015-02-05

    Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower) and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed.

  13. Proteomic Challenges: Sample Preparation Techniques for Microgram-Quantity Protein Analysis from Biological Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Peter; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower) and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed. PMID:25664860

  14. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  15. Micromagnetic Cancer Cell Immobilization and Release for Real-Time Single Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Devina; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Claffey, Kevin P.; Hoshino, Kazunori

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interaction of live cells with macromolecules is crucial for designing efficient therapies. Considering the functional heterogeneity found in cancer cells, real-time single cell analysis is necessary to characterize responses. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a microfluidic channel with patterned micromagnets which can temporarily immobilize the cells during analysis and release them after measurements. The microchannel is composed of plain coverslip top and bottom panels to facilitate easy microscopic observation and undisturbed application of analytes to the cells. Cells labeled with functionalized magnetic beads were immobilized in the device with an efficiency of 90.8±3.6%. Since the micromagnets are made of soft magnetic material (Ni), they released cells when external magnetic field was turned off from the channel. This allows the reuse of the channel for a new sample. As a model drug analysis, the immobilized breast cancer cells (MCF7) were exposed to fluorescent lipid nanoparticles and association and dissociation were measured through fluorescence analysis. Two concentrations of nanoparticles, 0.06 μg/ml and 0.08 μg/ml were tested and time lapse images were recorded and analyzed. The microfluidic device was able to provide a microenvironment for sample analysis, making it an efficient platform for real-time analysis.

  16. Micromagnetic Cancer Cell Immobilization and Release for Real-Time Single Cell Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Devina; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States); Nieh, Mu-Ping [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Claffey, Kevin P. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 (United States); Hoshino, Kazunori, E-mail: hoshino@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interaction of live cells with macromolecules is crucial for designing efficient therapies. Considering the functional heterogeneity found in cancer cells, real-time single cell analysis is necessary to characterize responses. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a microfluidic channel with patterned micromagnets which can temporarily immobilize the cells during analysis and release them after measurements. The microchannel is composed of plain coverslip top and bottom panels to facilitate easy microscopic observation and undisturbed application of analytes to the cells. Cells labeled with functionalized magnetic beads were immobilized in the device with an efficiency of 90.8±3.6%. Since the micromagnets are made of soft magnetic material (Ni), they released cells when external magnetic field was turned off from the channel. This allows the reuse of the channel for a new sample. As a model drug analysis, the immobilized breast cancer cells (MCF7) were exposed to fluorescent lipid nanoparticles and association and dissociation were measured through fluorescence analysis. Two concentrations of nanoparticles, 0.06 µg/ml and 0.08 µg/ml were tested and time lapse images were recorded and analyzed. The microfluidic device was able to provide a microenvironment for sample analysis, making it an efficient platform for real-time analysis.

  17. A uHPLC-MS mathematical modeling approach to dry powder inhaler single agglomerate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Justin; Lena, John; Medendorp, Joseph; Ewing, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Demonstration of content uniformity (CU) is critical toward the successful development of dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Methods for unit dose CU determination for DPI products are well-established within the field of respiratory science. Recent advances in the area include a uHPLC-MS method for high-throughput uniformity analysis, which allows for a greater understanding of blending operations as the industry transitions to a quality-by-design approach to development. Further enhancements to this uHPLC-MS method now enable it to determine CU and sample weight at the single agglomerate level, which is roughly 50× smaller than a unit dose. When coupled with optical microscopy-based agglomerate sizing, the enhanced uHPLC-MS method can also predict the density and porosity of individual agglomerates. Expanding analytical capabilities to the single agglomerate level provides greater insights and confidence in the DPI manufacturing process.

  18. Analysis of bioethanol samples through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a total sample consumption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carlos; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2016-10-01

    Bioethanol real samples have been directly analyzed through ICP-MS by means of the so called High Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS). Because bioethanol samples may contain water, experiments have been carried out in order to determine the effect of ethanol concentration on the ICP-MS response. The ethanol content studied went from 0 to 50%, because higher alcohol concentrations led to carbon deposits on the ICP-MS interface. The spectrometer default spray chamber (double pass) equipped with a glass concentric pneumatic micronebulizer has been taken as the reference system. Two flow regimes have been evaluated: continuous sample aspiration at 25 μL min- 1 and 5 μL air-segmented sample injection. hTISIS temperature has been shown to be critical, in fact ICP-MS sensitivity increased with this variable up to 100-200 °C depending on the solution tested. Higher chamber temperatures led to either a drop in signal or a plateau. Compared with the reference system, the hTISIS improved the sensitivities by a factor included within the 4 to 8 range while average detection limits were 6 times lower for the latter device. Regarding the influence of the ethanol concentration on sensitivity, it has been observed that an increase in the temperature was not enough to eliminate the interferences. It was also necessary to modify the torch position with respect to the ICP-MS interface to overcome them. This fact was likely due to the different extent of ion plasma radial diffusion encountered as a function of the matrix when working at high chamber temperatures. When the torch was moved 1 mm plasma down axis, ethanolic and aqueous solutions provided statistically equal sensitivities. A preconcentration procedure has been applied in order to validate the methodology. It has been found that, under optimum conditions from the point of view of matrix effects, recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100%. Furthermore, analytical concentrations for real

  19. Single particle raster image analysis of diffusion for particle mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfils, M; Röding, M; Altskär, A; Schuster, E; Lorén, N; Särkkä, A; Rudemo, M

    2018-03-01

    Recently we complemented the raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) method of analysing raster images via estimation of the image correlation function with the method single particle raster image analysis (SPRIA). In SPRIA, individual particles are identified and the diffusion coefficient of each particle is estimated by a maximum likelihood method. In this paper, we extend the SPRIA method to analyse mixtures of particles with a finite set of diffusion coefficients in a homogeneous medium. In examples with simulated and experimental data with two and three different diffusion coefficients, we show that SPRIA gives accurate estimates of the diffusion coefficients and their proportions. A simple technique for finding the number of different diffusion coefficients is also suggested. Further, we study the use of RICS for mixtures with two different diffusion coefficents and investigate, by plotting level curves of the correlation function, how large the quotient between diffusion coefficients needs to be in order to allow discrimination between models with one and two diffusion coefficients. We also describe a minor correction (compared to published papers) of the RICS autocorrelation function. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Analysis of the Single Toggle Jaw Crusher Force Transmission Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Frank Oduori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to perform a static force analysis of the single toggle jaw crusher mechanism and to obtain the force transmission characteristics of the mechanism. In order to obtain force transmission metrics that are characteristic of the structure of the mechanism, such influences as friction, dead weight, and inertia are considered to be extraneous and neglected. Equations are obtained by considering the balance of forces at the moving joints and appropriately relating these to the input torque and the output torque. A mechanical advantage, the corresponding transmitted torque, and the variations thereof, during the cycle of motion of the mechanism, are obtained. The mechanical advantage that characterizes the mechanism is calculated as the mean value over the active crushing stroke of the mechanism. The force transmission characteristics can be used as criteria for the comparison of different jaw crusher mechanism designs in order to select the most suitable design for a given application. The equations obtained can also be used in estimating the forces sustained by the components of the mechanism.

  1. Neurodevelopment in newborns: a sample entropy analysis of electroencephalogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dandan; Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Yunfeng; Ding, Haishu; Zhou, Congle; Ye, Datian

    2009-01-01

    The present paper investigates the neural ontogeny of newborns in view of electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity during active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Sample entropy (SampEn) is applied to EEG recordings from 168 newborns with postmenstrual age (PMA) ranging from 25 to 60 weeks. The relationship between neurodevelopment and PMA is then explored according to the statistical analysis of the median and interquartile range of SampEn curves. It is found that SampEn of EEG during AS is higher than that during QS. SampEn increases during both AS and QS before about 42 weeks in PMA while it ceases its increase in QS and even decreases in AS after newborns reaching term age. A distinct decrease in the interquartile range of SampEn is found with increasing PMA (from 25 to about 50 weeks), followed by maintenance of low fluctuation in SampEn curves. The study in this paper sets the stage for exhaustive investigation of the SampEn of EEG during brain maturation in newborns. And it could be hoped that SampEn in sleep EEG might be a useful parameter against which delays and aberrations in brain maturation might be tested. The SampEn changes during brain maturation also offer functional clues about neurodevelopment, based on which further explorations could be done. The significance of this paper is the discovery of the decrease in EEG complexity after newborns reaching term. Although some potential neurophysiologic reasons are given, this new discovery might require more study to investigate. In addition, the fluctuation of EEG complexity is analyzed for the first time, which helps to understand the EEG maturation in neurodevelopment

  2. Ionic Liquid-Based Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for Benzodiazepine Analysis in Postmortem Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, Marieke; Dehaen, Wim; Tytgat, Jan; Cuypers, Eva

    2018-03-24

    Sample preparation is rapidly improving to fulfill the need for faster and more environmentally friendly alternatives. In this respect, ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) is an interesting technique. However, it has not yet been evaluated for the analysis of postmortem samples, which are frequently analyzed in forensic toxicology. This study investigates the applicability of IL-DLLME coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), for the analysis of benzodiazepines in postmortem blood of 11 forensic cases. The method was compared with a validated solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on 24 benzodiazepine measurements. Both methods gave comparable results, except for flurazepam and temazepam (>55% difference). A feasible explanation is high postmortem matrix variability that was not considered during IL-DLLME validation experiments. Another issue could be the use of a single nondeuterated SPE internal standard. Overall, IL-DLLME has proven its usability for the analysis of postmortem blood. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Ultra-sensitive trace element analysis of environmental samples using advanced TRXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, H.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis is a widely adopted technique for measuring elemental concentrations in a variety of sample species. The particular advantages compared to other methods are simplicity in instrumentation, rapidity of measurement and the high degree of automation attainable. In trace element analysis, however, the sensitivity of conventional x-ray fluorescence analysis is often insufficient. The paper describes a new type of energy-dispersive equipment which reveals ultimate performance with respect to detection limits and which thus considerably extends the applicability of XRF analysis. The essential feature of the system is the utilization of multiple total reflection (TR) of the exciting x-ray beam from polished quartz glass surfaces. Since the refractive index is slightly smaller than 1, total reflection occurs if the radiation strikes the surface at angles of less than 5'. The grazing incident beam from a fine-structure x-ray tube is twice reflected and follows a zigzag path before it is directed to the sample prepared as a thin film on the third quartz glass surface. The direct beam and scattered radiation are eliminated by diaphragms. In this way, a further reduction of the background in the fluorescence spectrum is achieved compared to a previously published version with single reflection of the exciting beam. The performance of the instrument leads to detection limits for aqueous solutions below 10 -11 g or 0.1 ppB, respectively, for at least 20 elements

  4. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  5. Single-layer centrifugation separates spermatozoa from diploid cells in epididymal samples from gray wolves, Canis lupus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Linde Forsberg, Catharina; Vilà, Carles; Morrell, Jane M

    2014-09-15

    Sperm samples may be used for assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., farmed or endangered species) or as a source of haploid DNA or sperm-specific RNA. When ejaculated spermatozoa are not available or are very difficult to obtain, as is the case for most wild endangered species, the epididymides of dead animals (e.g., animals that have been found dead, shot by hunters or poachers, or that that require euthanasia in zoological collections) can be used as a source of sperm. Such epididymal sperm samples are usually contaminated with cellular debris, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and sometimes also bacteria. These contaminants may be sources of reactive oxygen species that damage spermatozoa during freezing or contribute undesired genetic material from diploid cells. We used single-layer centrifugation through a colloid formulation, Androcoll-C, to successfully separate wolf epididymal spermatozoa from contaminating cells and cellular debris in epididymal samples harvested from carcasses. Such a procedure may potentially be applied to epididymal sperm samples from other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  7. Rescaled Range Analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: Finite Sample Properties and Confidence Intervals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    4/2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 236-250 ISSN 1802-4696 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : rescaled range analysis * detrended fluctuation analysis * Hurst exponent * long-range dependence Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/kristoufek-rescaled range analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis finite sample properties and confidence intervals.pdf

  8. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  9. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  10. Analysis of toxical element in the whitening cream cosmetic samples using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th Rina M; Sunarko

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been done to analyze of toxical elements that is not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. These samples have been randomly selected from the cosmetic market. The samples were irradiated at thermal neutron flux of 10 13 3n.cm -2 s -1 in the irradiation facility of rabbit system in the RSG-GAS reactor Serpong. Counting of irradiated samples have been done by a high resolution HPGe detector couple to multichannel analyzer. Data have been analyzed by GENIE 2000. The sample have been qualitatively determined up to 19 elements. These elements are: As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Rb, Th, IV, and Zn. The result of qualitative analysis showed that the toxical elements present in the samples are Hg, As, Cr and Sb with the following concentration ranges in μg/g 25.2-65.1, 1.0-6.3, 30.5-89.1 and 2.9-5.3, respectively and these element not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. Besides that, the others elements have been detected in the samples are Br, Fe, Zn, Sc and Co, with concentration ranges, 13.1-36.4, 65.6-159.3, 0.79-77.1, 0.5-19.5, and 6.8-31.7 μg/g, respectively, in the sample whitening cream cosmetic. (author)

  11. The method of Sample Management in Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory-Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisabeth-Ratnawati

    2005-01-01

    In the testing laboratory used by neutron activation analysis method, sample preparation is the main factor and it can't be neglect. The error in the sample preparation can give result with lower accuracy. In this article is explained the scheme of sample preparation i.e sample receive administration, the separate of sample, fluid and solid sample preparation, sample grouping, irradiation, sample counting and holding the sample post irradiation. If the management of samples were good application based on Standard Operation Procedure, therefore each samples has good traceability. To optimize the management of samples is needed the trained and skilled personal and good facility. (author)

  12. Expression analysis of multiple myeloma CD138 negative progenitor cells using single molecule microarray readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Jaroslaw; Schnidar, Harald; Muresan, Leila; Regl, Gerhard; Frischauf, Annemarie; Aberger, Fritz; Schütz, Gerhard J.; Hesse, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive bioanalytical microarray assay that enables the analysis of small genomic sample material. By combining an optimized cDNA purification step with single molecule cDNA detection on the microarray, the platform has improved sensitivity compared to conventional systems, allowing amplification-free determination of expression profiles with as little as 600 ng total RNA. Total RNA from cells was reverse transcribed into fluorescently labeled cDNA and purified employing a precipitation method that minimizes loss of cDNA material. The microarray was scanned on a fluorescence chip-reader with single molecule sensitivity. Using the newly developed platform we were able to analyze the RNA expression profile of a subpopulation of rare multiple myeloma CD138 negative progenitor (MM CD138neg) cells. The high-sensitivity microarray approach led to the identification of a set of 20 genes differentially expressed in MM CD138neg cells. Our work demonstrates the applicability of a straight-forward single-molecule DNA array technology to current topics of molecular and cellular cancer research, which are otherwise difficult to address due to the limited amount of sample material. PMID:23416329

  13. Analysis of ergosterol in single kernel and ground grain by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhong; Steffenson, Brian J; Mirocha, Chester J

    2006-06-14

    A method for analyzing ergosterol in a single kernel and ground barley and wheat was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples were saponified in methanolic KOH. Ergosterol was extracted by "one step" hexane extraction and subsequently silylated by N-trimethylsilylimidazole/trimethylchlorosilane (TMSI/TMCS) reagent at room temperature. The recoveries of ergosterol from ground barley were 96.6, 97.1, 97.1, 88.5, and 90.3% at the levels of 0.2, 1, 5, 10, and 20 microg/g (ppm), respectively. The recoveries from a single kernel were between 93.0 and 95.9%. The precision (coefficient of variance) of the method was in the range 0.8-12.3%. The method detection limit (MDL) and the method quantification limit (MQL) were 18.5 and 55.6 ng/g (ppb), respectively. The ergosterol analysis method developed can be used to handle 80 samples daily by one person, making it suitable for screening cereal cultivars for resistance to fungal infection. The ability for detecting low levels of ergosterol in a single kernel provides a tool to investigate early fungal invasion and to study mechanisms of resistance to fungal diseases.

  14. A Comprehensive Guide for Performing Sample Preparation and Top-Down Protein Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Padula

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies for the global analysis of proteins in a sample, or proteome analysis, have been available since 1975 when Patrick O′Farrell published the first paper describing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE. This technique allowed the resolution of single protein isoforms, or proteoforms, into single ‘spots’ in a polyacrylamide gel, allowing the quantitation of changes in a proteoform′s abundance to ascertain changes in an organism′s phenotype when conditions change. In pursuit of the comprehensive profiling of the proteome, significant advances in technology have made the identification and quantitation of intact proteoforms from complex mixtures of proteins more routine, allowing analysis of the proteome from the ‘Top-Down’. However, the number of proteoforms detected by Top-Down methodologies such as 2D-PAGE or mass spectrometry has not significantly increased since O’Farrell’s paper when compared to Bottom-Up, peptide-centric techniques. This article explores and explains the numerous methodologies and technologies available to analyse the proteome from the Top-Down with a strong emphasis on the necessity to analyse intact proteoforms as a better indicator of changes in biology and phenotype. We arrive at the conclusion that the complete and comprehensive profiling of an organism′s proteome is still, at present, beyond our reach but the continuing evolution of protein fractionation techniques and mass spectrometry brings comprehensive Top-Down proteome profiling closer.

  15. Atypical antipsychotics: trends in analysis and sample preparation of various biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragou, Domniki; Dotsika, Spyridoula; Sarafidou, Parthena; Samanidou, Victoria; Njau, Samuel; Kovatsi, Leda

    2012-05-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are increasingly popular and increasingly prescribed. In some countries, they can even be obtained over-the-counter, without a prescription, making their abuse quite easy. Although atypical antipsychotics are thought to be safer than typical antipsychotics, they still have severe side effects. Intoxications are not rare and some of them have a fatal outcome. Drug interactions involving atypical antipsychotics complicate patient management in clinical settings and the determination of the cause of death in fatalities. In view of the above, analytical strategies that can efficiently isolate atypical antipsychotics from a variety of biological samples and quantify them accurately, sensitively and reliably, are of utmost importance both for the clinical, as well as for the forensic toxicologist. In this review, we will present and discuss novel analytical strategies that have been developed from 2004 to the present day for the determination of atypical antipsychotics in various biological samples.

  16. [Detection of Coxiella burnetii in dairy cattle bulk tank milk and single tank milk samples by confirmatory testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Angela; Andres, Tatjana; Werner, Ralf; Wehr, Roswitha; Fröhlich, Andreas; Conraths, Franz J; Henning, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by the pathogen Coxiella (C.) burnetii. A wide range of animal species is susceptible to this intracellular bacterium with great importance in ruminants. Human infections occur mainly by airborne transmission. C burnetii was detected in animal products such as raw milk, raw-milk cheese and butter prepared from raw milk as well as in the meat of infected animals. In cattle milk, the pathogen was detected up to 13 months after calving. The risk of human foodborne C. Burnetii infection is still considered to be low, but cannot be completely ruled out and remains under discussion. The aim of this study was to compare different laboratory diagnostic methods for C. burnetii in milk sample. The bulk tank and individual milk samples were sent and studied at the National Reference Laboratory for Q-fever in the context of confirmatory laboratory testing after clinical suspicion or retesting of previously antibody detection was in the analysis of 888 individual milk samples a match of 93.3% (Cohen-kappa). A total of 173 bulk milk samples and 2,807 individual milk samples from bovine herds for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies were tested against the pathogen. The pathogen was detected in 62.5% of the bulk milk samples and up to 60% in individual milk samples. The highest proportion of positive bulk milks was determined as 68.3% in 2012. In individual milk samples, the highest proportion of seropositive samples was 62.2%.

  17. Sample handling of clinical specimens for ultratrace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.

    1987-01-01

    Some simple logistics to an improved sample handling of clinical specimens are presented. This comprises clean room conditions, clean laboratory ware, ultra-pure reagents and good analytical practice. Sample handling procedures for blood, urine, soft tissues and pharmaceuticals are briefly discussed. (author) 26 refs

  18. 15N sample preparation for mass spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1973-01-01

    Technics for preparing 15 N samples to be analised is presented. Dumas method and oxidation by sodium hypobromite method are described in order to get the appropriate sample. Method to calculate 15 N ratio from mass spectrometry dates is also discussed [pt

  19. 40 CFR 86.140-94 - Exhaust sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure during zero and span (and background bag reading) must be exactly the same as that used during... test. Background samples are collected in sample bags and analyzed as in paragraphs (b)(4) (i) or (ii... procedure results in negative NMHCwm values (as may occur with high methane fractions), any negative NMHCwm...

  20. 105-F and DR Phase 1 Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    This SAP presents the rationale and strategy for characterization of specific rooms within the 105-F and 105-DR reactor buildings. Figures 1-1 and 1-2 identify the rooms that are the subject of this SAP. These rooms are to be decontaminated and demolished as an initial step (Phase 1 ) in the Interim Safe Storage process for these reactors. Section 1.0 presents the background and sites history for the reactor buildings and summarizes the data quality objective process, which provides the logical basis for this SAP. Preliminary surveys indicate that little radiochemical contamination is present. Section 2.0 presents the quality assurance project plan, which includes a project management structure, sampling methods and quality control, and oversight of the sampling process. Section 2.2.1 summarizes the sampling methods, reflecting the radiological and chemical sampling designs presented in Tables 1-17 and 1-18. Section 3.0 presents the Field Sampling Plan for Phase 1. The sampling design is broken into two stages. Stage 1 will verify the list of radioactive constituents of concern and generate the isotopic distribution. The objectives of Stage 2 are to estimate the radionuclide inventories of room debris, quantify chemical contamination, and survey room contents for potential salvage or recycle. Table 3-1 presents the sampling activities to be performed in Stage 1. Tables 1-17 and 1-18 identify samples to be collected in Stage 2. Stage 2 will consist primarily of survey data collection, with fixed laboratory samples to be collected in areas showing visible stains. Quality control sampling requirements are presented in Table 3-2

  1. Determination of the thermal neutron absorption cross section for rock samples by a single measurement of the time decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynicka, E.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for the determination of the thermal neutron macroscopic mass absorption cross section for rock samples is presented. The standard deviation of the final results is discussed in detail. A big advantage of the presented method is that the calibration curves have been found using the results obtained for a variety of natural rock samples of different stratigraphies and lithologies measured by Czubek's methods. An important part of the paper is a through analysis of the standard deviation of the final result. (author). 13 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub...... and radish data. The misclassification rates at optimal sample size were 8%, 6% and 7% for cabbage and 3%, 3% and 2% for radish respectively for random method (averaged for 10 iterations), DUPLEX and CADEX algorithms. This was similar to the misclassification rate of 6% and 2% for cabbage and radish obtained...

  3. Selecting Sample Preparation Workflows for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Patient Samples with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Valladares, Maria; Aasebø, Elise; Selheim, Frode; Berven, Frode S; Bruserud, Øystein

    2016-08-22

    Global mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) biomarkers represent a powerful strategy to identify and confirm proteins and their phosphorylated modifications that could be applied in diagnosis and prognosis, as a support for individual treatment regimens and selection of patients for bone marrow transplant. MS-based studies require optimal and reproducible workflows that allow a satisfactory coverage of the proteome and its modifications. Preparation of samples for global MS analysis is a crucial step and it usually requires method testing, tuning and optimization. Different proteomic workflows that have been used to prepare AML patient samples for global MS analysis usually include a standard protein in-solution digestion procedure with a urea-based lysis buffer. The enrichment of phosphopeptides from AML patient samples has previously been carried out either with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC). We have recently tested several methods of sample preparation for MS analysis of the AML proteome and phosphoproteome and introduced filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) as a superior methodology for the sensitive and reproducible generation of peptides from patient samples. FASP-prepared peptides can be further fractionated or IMAC-enriched for proteome or phosphoproteome analyses. Herein, we will review both in-solution and FASP-based sample preparation workflows and encourage the use of the latter for the highest protein and phosphorylation coverage and reproducibility.

  4. Selecting Sample Preparation Workflows for Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Patient Samples with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez-Valladares

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML biomarkers represent a powerful strategy to identify and confirm proteins and their phosphorylated modifications that could be applied in diagnosis and prognosis, as a support for individual treatment regimens and selection of patients for bone marrow transplant. MS-based studies require optimal and reproducible workflows that allow a satisfactory coverage of the proteome and its modifications. Preparation of samples for global MS analysis is a crucial step and it usually requires method testing, tuning and optimization. Different proteomic workflows that have been used to prepare AML patient samples for global MS analysis usually include a standard protein in-solution digestion procedure with a urea-based lysis buffer. The enrichment of phosphopeptides from AML patient samples has previously been carried out either with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC or metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC. We have recently tested several methods of sample preparation for MS analysis of the AML proteome and phosphoproteome and introduced filter-aided sample preparation (FASP as a superior methodology for the sensitive and reproducible generation of peptides from patient samples. FASP-prepared peptides can be further fractionated or IMAC-enriched for proteome or phosphoproteome analyses. Herein, we will review both in-solution and FASP-based sample preparation workflows and encourage the use of the latter for the highest protein and phosphorylation coverage and reproducibility.

  5. Design and Analysis of Single-Cell Sequencing Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Dominic; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in single-cell sequencing hold great potential for exploring biological systems with unprecedented resolution. Sequencing the genome of individual cells can reveal somatic mutations and allows the investigation of clonal dynamics. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing can elucidate

  6. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schreier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  7. Reproducibility of NMR analysis of urine samples: impact of sample preparation, storage conditions, and animal health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  8. Forensic identification of trunk mat by trace element analysis of single fiber with laser ablation ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroma, Yuki; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko

    2010-01-01

    The application of LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to the chemical characterization of single trunk mat fibers made of PET was investigated in order to establish a forensic analytical method for the discrimination of samples of different origins. The analytical conditions of LA-ICP-MS equipped with a 213 nm Nd : YAG laser were optimized to analyze trace elements, such as Cu, Sb, and Ba at ppm levels. A total of 31 samples produced by 7 car manufactures in Japan were used for analysis. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Co, Cu, Ge, Nb, Sb, Ta, and Pb were successfully measured from a single fiber sample with a diameter of ca. 20 μm. It was possible to discriminate all 31 samples based on the analytical results of a single fiber by LA-ICP-MS combined with those of FT-IR and SEM-EDS. LA-ICP-MS has good analytical sensitivity, and requires a much shorter preparation time and a smaller sample size than any other conventional element analysis methods. This paper demonstrates for the first time that this method is practically useful as a powerful tool for the forensic identification of a single trunk mat fiber. (author)

  9. BOBA FRET: bootstrap-based analysis of single-molecule FRET data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian L B König

    Full Text Available Time-binned single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET experiments with surface-tethered nucleic acids or proteins permit to follow folding and catalysis of single molecules in real-time. Due to the intrinsically low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in smFRET time traces, research over the past years has focused on the development of new methods to extract discrete states (conformations from noisy data. However, limited observation time typically leads to pronounced cross-sample variability, i.e., single molecules display differences in the relative population of states and the corresponding conversion rates. Quantification of cross-sample variability is necessary to perform statistical testing in order to assess whether changes observed in response to an experimental parameter (metal ion concentration, the presence of a ligand, etc. are significant. However, such hypothesis testing has been disregarded to date, precluding robust biological interpretation. Here, we address this problem by a bootstrap-based approach to estimate the experimental variability. Simulated time traces are presented to assess the robustness of the algorithm in conjunction with approaches commonly used in thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of time-binned smFRET data. Furthermore, a pair of functionally important sequences derived from the self-cleaving group II intron Sc.ai5γ (d3'EBS1/IBS1 is used as a model system. Through statistical hypothesis testing, divalent metal ions are shown to have a statistically significant effect on both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of their interaction. The Matlab source code used for analysis (bootstrap-based analysis of smFRET data, BOBA FRET, as well as a graphical user interface, is available via http://www.aci.uzh.ch/rna/.

  10. Extremely Isolated Galaxies I. Sample and Simulation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Spector, O.; Brosch, N.

    2016-01-01

    We have selected a sample of extremely isolated galaxies (EIGs) from the local Universe ($\\mbox{z} < 0.024$), using a simple isolation criterion: having no known neighbours closer than $300\\,{\\rm km\\,s}^{-1}$ ($3\\,h^{-1}\\,\\mbox{Mpc}$) in the three-dimensional redshift space $(\\alpha,\\delta,\\mbox{z})$. The sample is unique both in its level of isolation and in the fact that it utilizes HI redshifts from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA). We analysed the EIG sample using cosmologica...

  11. Analysis of Sampled Noise in Switched Current Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Herald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur

    1997-01-01

    The understanding of noise in analog sampled data systems is vital for the design of high resolution circuitry. In this paper a general description of sampled and held noise is presented. The noise calculations are verified by measurements on an analog delay line implemented using switched current...... (SI) technique. Based on the knowledge about sampled and held noise a high resolution/low power third order Sigma-Delta modulator is designed in SI technique. The measured performance of the designed Sigma-Delta modulator corresponds well with the expected performance....

  12. Development of a novel method for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Asami, Mari; Akiba, Michihiro

    2012-06-01

    A novel method, electronegative membrane-vortex (EMV) method, was developed for simultaneous concentration of viruses and protozoa from a single water sample. Viruses and protozoa in a water sample were mixed with a cation solution and adsorbed on an electronegative membrane. Concentrated virus and protozoa samples were obtained as supernatant and pellet fractions, respectively, by vigorous vortex mixing of the membrane and centrifugation of the eluted material. The highest recovery efficiencies of model microbes from river water and tap water by this EMV method were obtained using a mixed cellulose ester membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μm (Millipore) as the electronegative membrane and MgCl(2) as the cation solution. The recovery was 27.7-86.5% for poliovirus, 25.7-68.3% for coliphage Qβ, 28.0-60.0% for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 35.0-53.0% for Giardia cysts. The EMV method detected successfully indigenous viruses and protozoa in wastewater and river water samples from the Kofu basin, Japan, showing an overall positive rate of 100% (43/43) for human adenovirus, 79% (34/43) for norovirus GI, 65% (28/43) for norovirus GII, 23% (10/43) for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 60% (26/43) for Giardia cysts. By direct DNA sequencing, a total of four genotypes (AI, AII, B, and G) of Giardia intestinalis were identified in the water samples, indicating that the river water was contaminated with feces from various mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. B-Cell waste classification sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOBART, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the methods used to collect and analyze samples to obtain data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the 324 Facility B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream

  14. Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Mixed Alphavirus RNA Sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Netolitzky, Donald

    1998-01-01

    .... Each primer set amplified a cDNA fragment of the expected theoretical size of 264 bp as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis suggesting the presence of HJ and WEE nucleic acid in the mixed sample...

  15. Power budget analysis of dual/single feeder fiber WDMPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Waqas A.; Khan, Yousaf; Qamar, Affaq; Khan, Jehanzeb; Khan, Noaman Ahmed

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates how to reduce the cost of wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDMPON) by comparing the transmission performance of bidirectional single feeder fiber and dual feeder fiber. Comparison is performed on the basis of power budgeting and cost of both arrangements. Simulation results using Optisystem show that the performance of a single feeder fiber is almost equivalent to that of a dual feeder fiber. Therefore, the single feeder fiber WDM-PON can efficiently replace the dual feeder fiber WDM-PON with the minimum deterioration in system performance and reduction in cost.

  16. Sampling with poling-based flux balance analysis: optimal versus sub-optimal flux space analysis of Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Michael; de Atauri, Pedro; Vlysidis, Anestis; Cascante, Marta; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos

    2015-02-18

    Flux balance analysis is traditionally implemented to identify the maximum theoretical flux for some specified reaction and a single distribution of flux values for all the reactions present which achieve this maximum value. However it is well known that the uncertainty in reaction networks due to branches, cycles and experimental errors results in a large number of combinations of internal reaction fluxes which can achieve the same optimal flux value. In this work, we have modified the applied linear objective of flux balance analysis to include a poling penalty function, which pushes each new set of reaction fluxes away from previous solutions generated. Repeated poling-based flux balance analysis generates a sample of different solutions (a characteristic set), which represents all the possible functionality of the reaction network. Compared to existing sampling methods, for the purpose of generating a relatively "small" characteristic set, our new method is shown to obtain a higher coverage than competing methods under most conditions. The influence of the linear objective function on the sampling (the linear bias) constrains optimisation results to a subspace of optimal solutions all producing the same maximal fluxes. Visualisation of reaction fluxes plotted against each other in 2 dimensions with and without the linear bias indicates the existence of correlations between fluxes. This method of sampling is applied to the organism Actinobacillus succinogenes for the production of succinic acid from glycerol. A new method of sampling for the generation of different flux distributions (sets of individual fluxes satisfying constraints on the steady-state mass balances of intermediates) has been developed using a relatively simple modification of flux balance analysis to include a poling penalty function inside the resulting optimisation objective function. This new methodology can achieve a high coverage of the possible flux space and can be used with and without

  17. Analysis of multiple mass spectrometry images from different Phaseolus vulgaris samples by multivariate curve resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedia, Carmen; Tauler, Romà; Jaumot, Joaquim

    2017-12-01

    A new procedure based on the simultaneous analysis of multiple mass spectrometry images using multivariate curve resolution is presented in this work. Advantages of the application of the proposed approach are shown for three cases of plant studies demonstrating its potential usefulness in metabolomics studies, particularly in lipidomics. In the first dataset, a three stage germination time course process of green bean seeds is presented. The second example is a dose-response study where the stem bases of a non-exposed plant are compared to those of plants exposed to increasing concentrations of the pesticide chlorpyrifos. Finally, the third study is the simultaneous analysis of several sequential transversal and longitudinal cuts of the same green bean plant stem segment. The analysis of these three examples required the comprehensive adaptation of different chemometric methodologies including data compression by selection of the regions of interest (ROI strategy), appropriate data normalization and baseline correction, all of them before MCR-ALS simultaneous image analysis of multiple samples and post processing of the achieved results. MCR-ALS resolved components provided spatial information about the changes in the spatial composition and distribution of the different lipids on the surface of the investigated samples. These results enabled the identification of single lipids and the clustering of those lipids that behaved similarly in the different images simultaneously analyzed. The proposed strategy for MSI analysis represents a step forward in the simultaneous analysis of multiple sets of images providing an improved recovery of both spatial and structural information in environmental and biomedical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical issues for design and analysis of single-arm multi-stage phase II cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. In spite of the fast progress in design and analysis methods, single-arm two-stage design is still the most popular for phase II cancer clinical trials. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage single arm phase II trials, Simon's method has been the standards for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm two-stage phase II trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of needle trap micro-extraction and automatic alveolar sampling for point-of-care breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Rösner, Lisa; Hein, Dietmar; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2013-04-01

    Needle trap devices (NTDs) have shown many advantages such as improved detection limits, reduced sampling time and volume, improved stability, and reproducibility if compared with other techniques used in breath analysis such as solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Effects of sampling flow (2-30 ml/min) and volume (10-100 ml) were investigated in dry gas standards containing hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and aromatic compounds and in humid breath samples. NTDs contained (single-bed) polymer packing and (triple-bed) combinations of divinylbenzene/Carbopack X/Carboxen 1000. Substances were desorbed from the NTDs by means of thermal expansion and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An automated CO2-controlled sampling device for direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care was developed and tested in pilot experiments. Adsorption efficiency for small volatile organic compounds decreased and breakthrough increased when sampling was done with polymer needles from a water-saturated matrix (breath) instead from dry gas. Humidity did not affect analysis with triple-bed NTDs. These NTDs showed only small dependencies on sampling flow and low breakthrough from 1-5 %. The new sampling device was able to control crucial parameters such as sampling flow and volume. With triple-bed NTDs, substance amounts increased linearly with increasing sample volume when alveolar breath was pre-concentrated automatically. When compared with manual sampling, automatic sampling showed comparable or better results. Thorough control of sampling and adequate choice of adsorption material is mandatory for application of needle trap micro-extraction in vivo. The new CO2-controlled sampling device allows direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care without the need of any additional sampling, storage, or pre-concentration steps.

  20. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of samples of less than 'infinite thickness': Difficulties and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.p [Institute of Chemistry, Silesian University, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2009-11-15

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry due to its nondestructive nature is widely applied in analysis of single layers and multiple layer films (e.g. semiconductors, electrooptic and solar cell devices, coatings, corrosion and paint layers), individual particles (airborne, fly ash, gunshot residue particles, etc.), art and archeological objects (manuscripts, paintings, icons) and many others. Quantitative analysis of these materials, frequently classified as samples of less than infinite thickness (thin or intermediate-thickness samples), required applying adequate matrix correction methods taking into account complex dependence of analyte fluorescent radiation intensity on full matrix composition and sample thickness. In this article, the matrix correction methods including fundamental parameters, Monte Carlo simulations, influence coefficients algorithms and methods based on X-ray transmission measurements are reviewed. The difficulties in the analysis of single layer and multiple layer films and the accuracy of fundamental parameter methods in simultaneous determination of their thickness and composition are discussed. The quantitative analysis of individual particles and inhomogeneous and/or complex structure materials using fundamental parameter and Monte Carlo simulation methods in micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are also reviewed. Some references are devoted to the analysis of light matrix samples, e.g. geological, environmental and biological samples, in which undetectable low-Z elements are present (so-called 'dark matrix') using backscattered fundamental parameter methods. Since the samples of less than infinite thickness are partially transparent for X-ray beams, the transmission measurements present possibilities that are unattainable for bulk samples. Thus, the emission-transmission method and also new instruments allowing measurements of the primary X-ray beam transmitted through the sample together with measurements of X