Sample records for single rotor helicopter


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The article describes the method of calculation of the moments about the hinge axis of the main rotor hub from the action of aerodynamic and inertial forces generated on the blade. The assumptions were taken that the blades are absolutely rigid and have a rectangular shape in plan view. Flapping motion of blade is described accurately up to the first harmonic of the Fourier series, inductive speed is considered to be uniformly distributed over the rotor disk.The aerodynamic component of hinge moment is numerical integration of running forces on blade radius taking into account aerodynamic characteristics of the profiles received according to wind tunnel tests at different angles of attack and Mach numbers. The moment from elastic forces is determined for the main rotor hub with the lamellar torsion bar. On the basis of the hinge moments values data loads on rotorcraft rotating ring, arising at different azimuthal location of the rotating main rotor blades are calculated.The calculations executed on the example of Mi-34 helicopter main rotor have shown that average loads in one revolution in the channel of collective pitch control increase in a control path at flying speed. At the same time loads in the channel of longitudinal control make up to 80 % of loads in the channel of collective pitch control, and in the channel oflateral control - to 40 % that will well be coordinated with the provided data of flight tests.

  2. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise (United States)


    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  3. A comparative study and application of continuously variable transmission to a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter (United States)

    Hameer, Sameer

    Rotorcraft transmission design is limited by empirical weight trends that are proportional to the power/torque raised to the two-thirds coupled with the relative inexperience industry has with the employment of variable speed transmission to heavy lift helicopters of the order of 100,000 lbs gross weight and 30,000 installed horsepower. The advanced rotorcraft transmission program objectives are to reduce transmission weight by at least 25%, reduce sound pressure levels by at least 10 dB, have a 5000 hr mean time between removal, and also incorporate the use of split torque technology in rotorcraft drivetrains of the future. The major obstacle that challenges rotorcraft drivetrain design is the selection, design, and optimization of a variable speed transmission in the goal of achieving a 50% reduction in rotor speed and its ability to handle high torque with light weight gears, as opposed to using a two-speed transmission which has inherent structural problems and is highly unreliable due to the embodiment of the traction type transmission, complex clutch and brake system. This thesis selects a nontraction pericyclic continuously variable transmission (P-CVT) as the best approach for a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter. The objective is to target and overcome the above mentioned obstacle for drivetrain design. Overcoming this obstacle provides advancement in the state of the art of drivetrain design over existing planetary and split torque transmissions currently used in helicopters. The goal of the optimization process was to decrease weight, decrease noise, increase efficiency, and increase safety and reliability. The objective function utilized the minimization of the weight and the major constraint is the tooth bending stress of the facegears. The most important parameters of the optimization process are weight, maintainability, and reliability which are cross-functionally related to each other, and these parameters are related to the torques and

  4. Helicopter rotor noise investigation during ice accretion (United States)

    Cheng, Baofeng

    An investigation of helicopter rotor noise during ice accretion is conducted using experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods. This research is the acoustic part of a joint helicopter rotor icing physics, modeling, and detection project at The Pennsylvania State University Vertical Lift Research Center of Excellence (VLRCOE). The current research aims to provide acoustic insight and understanding of the rotor icing physics and investigate the feasibility of detecting rotor icing through noise measurements, especially at the early stage of ice accretion. All helicopter main rotor noise source mechanisms and their change during ice accretion are discussed. Changes of the thickness noise, steady loading noise, and especially the turbulent boundary layer - trailing edge (TBL-TE) noise due to ice accretion are identified and studied. The change of the discrete frequency noise (thickness noise and steady loading noise) due to ice accretion is calculated by using PSU-WOPWOP, an advanced rotorcraft acoustic prediction code. The change is noticeable, but too small to be used in icing detection. The small thickness noise change is due to the small volume of the accreted ice compared to that of the entire blade, although a large iced airfoil shape is used. For the loading noise calculation, two simplified methods are used to generate the loading on the rotor blades, which is the input for the loading noise calculation: 1) compact loading from blade element momentum theory, icing effects are considered by increasing the drag coefficient; and 2) pressure loading from the 2-D CFD simulation, icing effects are considered by using the iced airfoil shape. Comprehensive rotor broadband noise measurements are carried out on rotor blades with different roughness sizes and rotation speeds in two facilities: the Adverse Environment Rotor Test Stand (AERTS) facility at The Pennsylvania State University, and The University of Maryland Acoustic Chamber (UMAC). In both facilities the

  5. Modeling and simulation of coaxial helicopter rotor aerodynamics (United States)

    Gecgel, Murat

    A framework is developed for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of a series of helicopter rotor flowfields in hover and in forward flight. The methodology is based on the unsteady solutions of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations recast in a rotating frame of reference. The simulations are carried out by solving the developed mathematical model on hybrid meshes that aim to optimally exploit the benefits of both the structured and the unstructured grids around complex configurations. The computer code is prepared for parallel processing with distributed memory utilization in order to significantly reduce the computational time and the memory requirements. The developed model and the simulation methodology are validated for single-rotor-in-hover flowfields by comparing the present results with the published experimental data. The predictive merit of different turbulence models for complex helicopter aerodynamics are tested extensively. All but the kappa-o and LES results demonstrate acceptable agreement with the experimental data. It was deemed best to use the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model for the subsequent rotor flowfield computations. First, the flowfield around a single rotor in forward flight is simulated. These time---accurate computations help to analyze an adverse effect of increasing the forward flight speed. A dissymmetry of the lift on the advancing and the retreating blades is observed for six different advance ratios. Since the coaxial rotor is proposed to mitigate the dissymmetry, it is selected as the next logical step of the present investigation. The time---accurate simulations are successfully obtained for the flowfields generated by first a hovering then a forward-flying coaxial rotor. The results for the coaxial rotor in forward flight verify the aerodynamic balance proposed by the previously published advancing blade concept. The final set of analyses aims to investigate if the gap between the

  6. A Computational Tool for Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project proposes to develop a computational tool for helicopter rotor noise prediction based on hybrid Cartesian grid/gridless approach. The uniqueness of...

  7. Damping augmentation of helicopter rotors using magnetorheological dampers (United States)

    Zhao, Yongsheng

    This dissertation describes an investigation exploring the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers to augment the stability of helicopter rotors. Helicopters with advanced soft in-plane rotors are susceptible to ground resonance instabilities due to the coupling of the lightly damped rotor lag modes and fuselage modes. Traditional passive lag dampers, such as hydraulic or elastomeric dampers, can be used to alleviate these instabilities. However, these passive dampers suffer from the disadvantages that they produce large damper loads in forward flight conditions. These damper forces increase fatigue loads and reduce component life. Thus, it is desirable to have lag dampers controllable or adaptable, so that the damper can apply loads only when needed. MR fluid based dampers have recently been considered for helicopter lag damping augmentation because the forces generated by these dampers can be controlled by an applied magnetic field. In this dissertation, control schemes to integrate MR dampers with helicopters are developed and the influences of the MR dampers on rotorcraft ground resonance are studied. Specifically, the MR dampers are incorporated into the ground resonance model in two ways: using a linear equivalent viscous damping and using a nonlinear damper model. The feasibility of using MR dampers to stabilize ground resonance is studied. The open loop on-off control is utilized where MR dampers are turned on over RPM where ground resonance occurs, and turned off otherwise. To further explore the damping control ability of MR dampers, the nonlinear semi-active closed loop feedback control strategies are developed: feedback linearization control and sliding mode control. The performance of the two control strategies is evaluated using two examples: to stabilize an unstable rotor and to augment the stability of a marginally stable rotor. In addition, the robustness of the closed loop control strategies is studied using two cases: damper degradation and

  8. Deflection Shape Reconstructions of a Rotating Five-blade Helicopter Rotor from TLDV Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioretti, A.; Castellini, P.; Tomasini, E. P.; Di Maio, D.; Ewins, D. J.


    Helicopters are aircraft machines which are subjected to high level of vibrations, mainly due to spinning rotors. These are made of two or more blades attached by hinges to a central hub, which can make the dynamic behaviour difficult to study. However, they share some common dynamic properties with the ones expected in bladed discs, thereby the analytical modelling of rotors can be performed using some assumptions as the ones adopted for the bladed discs. This paper presents results of a vibrations study performed on a scaled helicopter rotor model which was rotating at a fix rotational speed and excited by an air jet. A simplified analytical model of that rotor was also produced to help the identifications of the vibration patterns measured using a single point tracking-SLDV measurement method.

  9. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling (United States)

    Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric


    A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.

  10. Data Input, Processing and Presentation. [helicopter rotor balance measurement (United States)

    Langer, H. J.


    The problems of data acquisition, processing and display are investigated in the case of a helicopter rotor balance. The types of sensors to be employed are discussed in addition to their placement and application in wind tunnel trials. Finally, the equipment for data processing, evaluation and storage are presented with a description of methods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šoštarić


    Full Text Available Autonomous outdoor quad-rotor helicopters increasingly attract the attention of potential researchers. Several structures and configurations have been developed to allow 3D movements. The quadrotor helicopter is made of a rigid cross frame equipped with four rotors. The autonomous quad-rotor architecture has been chosen for this research for its low dimension, good manoeuvrability, simple mechanics and payload capability. This article presents the modelling, control and navigation of an autonomous outdoor quad-rotor helicopter.

  12. A new approach to helicopter rotor blade research instrumentation (United States)

    Knight, V. H., Jr.


    A rotor-blade-mounted telemetry instrumentation system developed and used in flight tests by the NASA/Langley Research Center is described. The system uses high-speed digital techniques to acquire research data from miniature pressure transducers on advanced rotor airfoils which are flight tested using an AH-1G helicopter. The system employs microelectronic PCM multiplexer-digitizer stations located remotely on the blade and in a hub-mounted metal canister. The electronics contained in the canister digitizes up to 16 sensors, formats this data with serial PCM data from the remote stations, and transmits the data from the canister which is above the plane of the rotor. Data is transmitted over an RF link to the ground for real-time monitoring and to the helicopter fuselage for tape recording.

  13. Lift capability prediction for helicopter rotor blade-numerical evaluation (United States)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Luculescu, Doru


    The main objective of this paper is to describe the key physical features for modelling the unsteady aerodynamic effects found on helicopter rotor blade operating under nominally attached flow conditions away from stall. The unsteady effects were considered as phase differences between the forcing function and the aerodynamic response, being functions of the reduced frequency, the Mach number and the mode forcing. For a helicopter rotor, the reduced frequency at any blade element can't be exactly calculated but a first order approximation for the reduced frequency gives useful information about the degree of unsteadiness. The sources of unsteady effects were decomposed into perturbations to the local angle of attack and velocity field. The numerical calculus and graphics were made in FLUENT and MAPLE soft environments. This mathematical model is applicable for aerodynamic design of wind turbine rotor blades, hybrid energy systems optimization and aeroelastic analysis.

  14. Single rotor turbine engine (United States)

    Platts, David A.


    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  15. Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Flow (United States)

    Reich, David

    The rotor hub system is by far the largest contributor to helicopter parasite drag and a barrier to increasing helicopter forward-flight speed and range. Additionally, the hub sheds undesirable vibration- and instability-inducing unsteady flow over the empennage. The challenges associated with rotor hub flows are discussed, including bluff body drag, interactional aerodynamics, and the effect of the turbulent hub wake on the helicopter empennage. This study was conducted in three phases to quantify model-scale rotor hub flows in water tunnels at The Pennsylvania State University Applied research lab. The first phase investigated scaling and component interaction effects on a 1:17 scale rotor hub model in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Effects of Reynolds number, advance ratio, and hub geometry configuration on the drag and wake shed from the rotor hub were quantified using load cell measurements and particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The second phase focused on flow visualization and measurement on a rotor hub and rotor hub/pylon geometry in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Stereo PIV was conducted in a cross plane downstream of the hub and flow visualization was conducted using oil paint and fluorescent dye. The third phase concentrated on high accuracy load measurement and prediction up to full-scale Reynolds number on a 1:4.25 scale model in the 48-inch diameter water tunnel. Measurements include 6 degree of freedom loads on the hub and two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry in the wake. Finally, results and conclusions are discussed, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  16. Helicopter rotor induced velocities theory and experiment (United States)

    Berry, John D.; Hoad, Danny R.; Elliott, Joe W.; Althoff, Susan L.


    An investigation has been performed to assess methods used for rotor inflow modeling. A key element of this assessment has been the recent acquisition of high quality experimental measurements of inflow velocities taken in the proximity of a lifting rotor in forward flight. Widely used rotor performance predictive methods are based on blade element strip theory coupled with an inflow model. The inflow prediction models assessed in this paper include the uniform inflow based on momentum, a skewed disk model, and two methods based on a vortex wake structure.

  17. Stability Analysis of the Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter Configuration (United States)

    Floros, Matthew W.; Johnson, Wayne


    The stability and control of rotors at high advance ratio are considered. Teetering, articulated, gimbaled, and rigid hub types are considered for a compound helicopter (rotor and fixed wing). Stability predictions obtained using an analytical rigid flapping blade analysis, a rigid blade CAMRAD II model, and an elastic blade CAMRAD II model are compared. For the flapping blade analysis, the teetering rotor is the most stable, showing no instabilities up to an advance ratio of 3 and a Lock number of 18. A notional elastic blade model of a teetering rotor is unstable at an advance ratio of 1.5, independent of pitch frequency. Analysis of the trim controls and blade flapping shows that for small positive collective pitch, trim can be maintained without excessive control input or flapping angles.

  18. Performance Analysis of a Utility Helicopter with Standard and Advanced Rotors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Bousman, William G; Johnson, Wayne


    Flight test measurements of the performance of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter with both standard and advanced rotors are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II...

  19. Flap motion of helicopter rotors with novel, dynamic stall model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wei


    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear flapping equation for large inflow angles and flap angles is established by analyzing the aerodynamics of helicopter blade elements. In order to obtain a generalized flap equation, the Snel stall model was first applied to determine the lift coefficient of the helicopter rotor. A simulation experiment for specific airfoils was then conducted to verify the effectiveness of the Snel stall model as it applies to helicopters. Results show that the model requires no extraneous parameters compared to the traditional stall model and is highly accurate and practically applicable. Based on the model, the relationship between the flapping angle and the angle of attack was analyzed, as well as the advance ratio under the dynamic stall state.

  20. Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head (United States)

    Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.


    The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.

  1. Quad-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Helicopter Modelling & Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogianandh Naidoo


    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of the modelling and control of a quad-rotor helicopter and forms part of research involving the development of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to be used in search and rescue applications. Quad-rotor helicopters consist of two pairs of counter rotating rotors situated at the ends of a cross, symmetric about the centre of gravity, which coincides with the origin of the reference system used. These rotors provide the predominant aerodynamic forces which act on the rotorcraft, and are modelled using momentum theory as well as blade element theory. From this, one can determine the expected payload capacity and lift performance of the rotorcraft. The Euler-Lagrange method has been used to derive the defining equations of motion of the six degree-of-freedom system. The Lagrangian was obtained by modelling the kinetic and potential energy of the system and the external forces obtained from the aerodynamic analysis. Based on this model, a control strategy was developed using linear PD controllers. A numerical simulation was then conducted using MATLAB® Simulink®. First, the derived model was simulated to investigate the behaviour of the rotorcraft, and then a second investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the implemented control system. The results and findings of these investigations are then presented and discussed.

  2. Smart helicopter rotors optimization and piezoelectric vibration control

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan; Viswamurthy, Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan


    Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors’ optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibra...

  3. Aeromechanics of a High Speed Coaxial Helicopter Rotor (United States)

    Schmaus, Joseph Henry

    The current work seeks to understand the aeromechanics of lift offset coaxial rotors in high speeds. Future rotorcraft will need to travel significantly faster that modern rotorcraft do while maintaining hovering efficiency and low speed maneuverability. The lift offset coaxial rotor has been shown to have those capabilities. A majority of existing coaxial research is focused on hovering performance, and few studies examine the forward flight performance of a coaxial rotor with lift offset. There are even fewer studies of a single rotor with lift offset. The current study used comprehensive analysis and a new set of wind tunnel experiments to explore the aeromechanics of a lift offset coaxial rotor in high speed forward flight. The simulation was expanded from UMARC to simultaneously solve multiple rotors with coupled aerodynamics. It also had several modifications to improve the aerodynamics of the near-wake model in reverse flow and improve the modeling of blade passages. Existing coaxial hovering tests and flight test data from the XH-59A were used to validate the steady performance and blade loads of the comprehensive analysis. It was used to design the structural layout of the blades used in the wind tunnel experiment as well as the test envelope and testing procedure. The wind tunnel test of a model rotor developed by the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Maryland was performed in the Glenn L Martin Wind Tunnel. The test envelope included advance ratios 0.21-0.53, collectives 4°- 8°, and lift offsets 0%-20% for both rotors tested in isolation and as a coaxial system operating at 900 RPM. Rotating frame hub loads, pushrod loads, and pitch angle were recorded independently for each rotor. Additional studies were performed at 1200 RPM to isolate Reynold effects and with varying rotor-to-rotor phase to help quantify aerodynamic interactions. Lift offset fundamentally changes the lift distribution around the rotor disk, doing so increases the

  4. Quad-Rotor Helicopter Autonomous Navigation Based on Vanishing Point Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Wang


    Full Text Available Quad-rotor helicopter is becoming popular increasingly as they can well implement many flight missions in more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging itself and its surroundings. They are employed in many applications, from military operations to civilian tasks. Quad-rotor helicopter autonomous navigation based on the vanishing point fast estimation (VPFE algorithm using clustering principle is implemented in this paper. For images collected by the camera of quad-rotor helicopter, the system executes the process of preprocessing of image, deleting noise interference, edge extracting using Canny operator, and extracting straight lines by randomized hough transformation (RHT method. Then system obtains the position of vanishing point and regards it as destination point and finally controls the autonomous navigation of the quad-rotor helicopter by continuous modification according to the calculated navigation error. The experimental results show that the quad-rotor helicopter can implement the destination navigation well in the indoor environment.

  5. Parasite-Drag Measurements of Five Helicopter Rotor Hubs (United States)

    Churchill, Gary B.; Harrington, Robert D.


    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the parasite drag of five production-type helicopter rotor hubs. Some simple fairing arrangements were attempted in an effort to reduce the hub drag. The results indicate that, within the range of the tests, changes in angle of attack, hub rotational speed, and forward speed generally had only a small effect on the equivalent flat-plate area representing parasite drag. The drag coefficients of the basic hubs, based on projected hub frontal area, increased with hub area and varied from 0.5 to 0.76 for the hubs tested.

  6. Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic Design of a Rotor Blade for an Optimum Rotor Speed Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Xie


    Full Text Available The aerodynamic design of rotor blades is challenging, and is crucial for the development of helicopter technology. Previous aerodynamic optimizations that focused only on limited design points find it difficult to balance flight performance across the entire flight envelope. This study develops a global optimum envelope (GOE method for determining blade parameters—blade twist, taper ratio, tip sweep—for optimum rotor speed helicopters (ORS-helicopters, balancing performance improvements in hover and various freestream velocities. The GOE method implements aerodynamic blade design by a bi-level optimization, composed of a global optimization step and a secondary optimization step. Power loss as a measure of rotor performance is chosen as the objective function, referred to as direct power loss (DPL in this study. A rotorcraft comprehensive code for trim simulation with a prescribed wake method is developed. With the application of the GOE method, a DPL reduction of as high as 16.7% can be achieved in hover, and 24% at high freestream velocity.

  7. Contributions to the dynamics of helicopters with active rotor controls (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos A.

    This dissertation presents an aeromechanical closed loop stability and response analysis of a hingeless rotor helicopter with a Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) system for vibration reduction. The analysis includes the rigid body dynamics of the helicopter and blade flexibility. The gain matrix is assumed to be fixed and computed off-line. The discrete elements of the HHC control loop are rigorously modeled, including the presence of two different time scales in the loop. By also formulating the coupled rotor-fuselage dynamics in discrete form, the entire coupled helicopter-HHC system could be rigorously modeled as a discrete system. The effect of the periodicity of the equations of motion is rigorously taken into account by converting the system into an equivalent system with constant coefficients and identical stability properties using a time lifting technique. The most important conclusion of the present study is that the discrete elements in the HHC loop must be modeled in any HHC analysis. Not doing so is unconservative. For the helicopter configuration and HHC structure used in this study, an approximate continuous modeling of the HHC system indicates that the closed loop, coupled helicopter-HHC system remains stable for optimal feedback control configurations which the more rigorous discrete analysis shows can result in closed loop instabilities. The HHC gains must be reduced to account for the loss of gain margin brought about by the discrete elements. Other conclusions of the study are: (i) the HHC is effective in quickly reducing vibrations, at least at its design condition, although the time constants associated with the closed loop transient response indicate closed loop bandwidth to be 1 rad/sec on average, thus overlapping with FCS or pilot bandwidths, and raising the issue of potential interactions; (ii) a linearized model of helicopter dynamics is adequate for HHC design, as long as the periodicity of the system is correctly taken into account, i

  8. Some Effects of Varying the Damping in Pitch and Roll on the Flying Qualities of a Small Single-Rotor Helicopter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeder, John


    ... to nearly three times that amount. Longitudinal stability and control characteristics which were unsatisfactory with the device inoperative were improved by increasing the damping of the helicopter and were judged as satisfactory...

  9. General model and control of an n rotor helicopter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidea, Adriana-Gabriela; Brogaard, Rune Yding; Andersen, Nils Axel


    The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model ofa multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of SingleInput Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model andcontrollers were tested...

  10. Aeroelastic effects on stability and control of hingeless rotor helicopters (United States)

    Celi, Roberto


    The combined effect of torsional flexibility and offset of the aerodynamic center relative to the elastic axis on the stability and control of a hingeless rotor helicopter in forward flight is studied in this paper. The aeroelastic model of the blade is based on fully coupled flap-lag-torsion equations of motion, which include kinematic nonlinearities due to moderate deflections. The equations are discretized using a finite element Galerkin method in space, and a classical Galerkin method in time. The vehicle trim calculations are coupled to the blade aeroelastic response calculations. Quasilinearization is used to compute aeroelastic stability. Reducing torsional stiffness and moving the elastic axis ahead of the aerodynamic center strongly stabilizes the phugoid mode without reducing control sensitivity. Aeroelastic stability calculations must accompany flight dynamics calculations to prevent aeroelastic instabilities that might easily go undetected.

  11. An Experimental Investigation of Helicopter Rotor Hub Fairing Drag Characteristics (United States)

    Sung, D. Y.; Lance, M. B.; Young, L. A.; Stroub, R. H.


    A study was done in the NASA 14- by 22-Foot Wind Tunnel at Langley Research Center on the parasite drag of different helicopter rotor hub fairings and pylons. Parametric studies of hub-fairing camber and diameter were conducted. The effect of hub fairing/pylon clearance on hub fairing/pylon mutual interference drag was examined in detail. Force and moment data are presented in tabular and graphical forms. The results indicate that hub fairings with a circular-arc upper surface and a flat lower surface yield maximum hub drag reduction; and clearance between the hub fairing and pylon induces high mutual-interference drag and diminishes the drag-reduction benefit obtained using a hub fairing with a flat lower surface. Test data show that symmetrical hub fairings with circular-arc surfaces generate 74 percent more interference drag than do cambered hub fairings with flat lower surfaces, at moderate negative angle of attack.

  12. Advances in transitional flow modeling applications to helicopter rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Chunhua


    This book provides a comprehensive description of numerical methods and validation processes for predicting transitional flows based on the Langtry–Menter local correlation-based transition model, integrated with both one-equation Spalart–Allmaras (S–A) and two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models. A comparative study is presented to combine the respective merits of the two coupling methods in the context of predicting the boundary-layer transition phenomenon from fundamental benchmark flows to realistic helicopter rotors. The book will of interest to industrial practitioners working in aerodynamic design and the analysis of fixed-wing or rotary wing aircraft, while also offering advanced reading material for graduate students in the research areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), turbulence modeling and related fields.

  13. Dynamics Modeling and Control of a Quad-rotor Helicopter (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammed Raju

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a promising field of research due to the enormous potential for both military and civilian applications. This thesis focuses on increasing the autonomy of one type of rotary wing UAV; namely a Quad-rotor Helicopter. In this work a detailed mathematical model was introduced for simulation of the dynamics and control of this system. The dynamic model evolved from a simple set of equations, valid only for hovering, to a complex mathematical model with more realistic aerodynamic factors like thrust factor and drag factor. A simple yet precise tool was developed to measure these aerodynamic factors. An intelligent vision based control technique has been proposed for the critical, near-hovering flight of the vehicle. Finally, a platform was developed and a PD controller was implemented with inertial sensors in order to prepare the platform for implementing the vision-based control in the future.

  14. Flow Structures within a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven


    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The measurement suite included total hub drag and wake velocity measurements (LDV, PIV, stereo-PIV) at three downstream locations. The main objective was to understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the unsteady wake between the rotor hub and the nominal location of the empennage (tail). Initial analysis of the data revealed prominent two- and four-per-revolution fluid structures linked to geometric hub features persisting into the wake far-field. In addition, a six-per-revolution fluid structure was observed in the far-field, which is unexpected due to the lack of any hub feature with the corresponding symmetry. This suggests a nonlinear interaction is occurring within the wake to generate these structures. This presentation will provide an overview of the experimental data and analysis with particular emphasis on these six-per-revolution structures.

  15. General model and control of an n rotor helicopter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidea, A G; Brogaard, R Yding; Andersen, N A; Ravn, O


    The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model of a multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of Single Input Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model and controllers were tested experimentally on a quadcopter. Using the combined model and controllers, simple system simulation and control is possible, by replacing the physical values for the individual systems

  16. General model and control of an n rotor helicopter (United States)

    Sidea, A. G.; Yding Brogaard, R.; Andersen, N. A.; Ravn, O.


    The purpose of this study was to create a dynamic, nonlinear mathematical model of a multirotor that would be valid for different numbers of rotors. Furthermore, a set of Single Input Single Output (SISO) controllers were implemented for attitude control. Both model and controllers were tested experimentally on a quadcopter. Using the combined model and controllers, simple system simulation and control is possible, by replacing the physical values for the individual systems.

  17. Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Conventional and Coaxial Helicopter Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight (United States)


    Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 rotor aerodynamics, optimal aerodynamics, hover, compund helicopters REPORT... revitalized the ABC with updated technologies. The X2 TD, as described by Bagai [12] and shown in Figure 1.2, used a rigid coaxial rotor system with

  18. Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise (United States)

    Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.


    A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.




    The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on ...

  20. Helicopter Rotor Load Prediction Using a Geometrically Exact Beam with Multicomponent Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hyun-Ku; Viswamurthy, S.R.; Park, Sang Chul


    -blade/control-system aeroelastic analysis. The rotor blade analysis was in good agreement and validated by comparing with DYMORE. Numerical results were obtained for a four-bladed, small-scale, articulated rotor rotating in vacuum and in a wind tunnel to simulate forward-flight conditions and its aerodynamic effects. The complete......In this paper, an accurate structural dynamic analysis was developed for a helicopter rotor system including rotor control components, which was coupled to various aerodynamic and wake models in order to predict an aeroelastic response and the loads acting on the rotor. Its blade analysis was based...... on an intrinsic formulation of moving beams implemented in the time domain. The rotor control system was modeled as a combination of rigid and elastic components. A multicomponent analysis was then developed by coupling the beam finite element model with the rotor control system model to obtain a complete rotor...

  1. A Study of Complementary Filter Algorithm for Four-rotor Helicopters Attitude Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhe LU


    Full Text Available The focus of this study is on the attitude estimation of the four-rotor helicopter known as quadrotor. The choice of the algorithm is a complementary filter based on quaternions. For the four-rotor helicopter system has nonlinear, strong coupling, multi-variable features, it is difficult to obtain the accurate attitude values, and in order to solve this problem a quaternion-based complementary filter algorithm is applied. The Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU is used to estimate four-rotor helicopters attitudes. The traditional PID controller is used to control the four-rotor helicopter attitude. This system is implemented on a newly designed compact STM32 board. The board contains the STM32F103RBT6 chip, the attitude sensor MPU-6050 and hmc5883l, the wireless communication module nRF24L01. The hovering experiment results presented in this paper provide good evidences that the quaternion-based complementary filter algorithm can obtain accurate attitude values, it reduces the amount of computation system, and provides an algorithm for four-rotor helicopters attitude solver.

  2. Wind Tunnel Evaluation of a Model Helicopter Main-Rotor Blade With Slotted Airfoils at the Tip (United States)

    Noonan, Kevin W.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.


    Data for rotors using unconventional airfoils are of interest to permit an evaluation of this technology's capability to meet the U.S. Army's need for increased helicopter mission effectiveness and improved safety and survivability. Thus, an experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) to evaluate the effect of using slotted airfoils in the rotor blade tip region (85 to 100 percent radius) on rotor aerodynamic performance and loads. Four rotor configurations were tested in forward flight at advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.45 and in hover in-ground effect. The hover tip Mach number was 0.627, which is representative of a design point of 4000-ft geometric altitude and a temperature of 95 F. The baseline rotor configuration had a conventional single-element airfoil in the tip region. A second rotor configuration had a forward-slotted airfoil with a -6 deg slat, a third configuration had a forward-slotted airfoil with a -10 slat, and a fourth configuration had an aft-slotted airfoil with a 3 deg flap (trailing edge down). The results of this investigation indicate that the -6 deg slat configuration offers some performance and loads benefits over the other three configurations.

  3. Wind-Tunnel Survey of an Oscillating Flow Field for Application to Model Helicopter Rotor Testing (United States)

    Mirick, Paul H.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Yeager, William T., Jr.


    A survey was conducted of the flow field produced by the Airstream Oscillator System (AOS) in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The magnitude of a simulated gust field was measured at 15 locations in the plane of a typical model helicopter rotor when tested in the TDT using the Aeroelastic Rotor Experimental System (ARES) model. These measurements were made over a range of tunnel dynamic pressures typical of those used for an ARES test. The data indicate that the gust field produced by the AOS is non-uniform across the tunnel test section, but should be sufficient to excite a model rotor.

  4. Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.


    An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.

  5. Loads and Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Generic Model Helicopter Rotor Blades (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.


    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to acquire data for use in assessing the ability of current and future comprehensive analyses to predict helicopter rotating-system and fixed-system vibratory loads. The investigation was conducted with a generic model helicopter rotor system using blades with rectangular planform, no built-in twist, uniform radial distribution of mass and stiffnesses, and a NACA 0012 airfoil section. Rotor performance data, as well as mean and vibratory components of blade bending and torsion moments, fixed-system forces and moments, and pitch link loads were obtained at advance ratios up to 0.35 for various combinations of rotor shaft angle-of-attack and collective pitch. The data are presented without analysis.

  6. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction (United States)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.


    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  7. Optimal Aerodynamic Design of Conventional and Coaxial Helicopter Rotors in Hover and Forward Flight (United States)

    Giovanetti, Eli B.

    This dissertation investigates the optimal aerodynamic performance and design of conventional and coaxial helicopters in hover and forward flight using conventional and higher harmonic blade pitch control. First, we describe a method for determining the blade geometry, azimuthal blade pitch inputs, optimal shaft angle (rotor angle of attack), and division of propulsive and lifting forces among the components that minimize the total power for a given forward flight condition. The optimal design problem is cast as a variational statement that is discretized using a vortex lattice wake to model inviscid forces, combined with two-dimensional drag polars to model profile losses. The resulting nonlinear constrained optimization problem is solved via Newton iteration. We investigate the optimal design of a compound vehicle in forward flight comprised of a coaxial rotor system, a propeller, and optionally, a fixed wing. We show that higher harmonic control substantially reduces required power, and that both rotor and propeller efficiencies play an important role in determining the optimal shaft angle, which in turn affects the optimal design of each component. Second, we present a variational approach for determining the optimal (minimum power) torque-balanced coaxial hovering rotor using Blade Element Momentum Theory including swirl. We show that the optimal hovering coaxial rotor generates only a small percentage of its total thrust on the portion of the lower rotor operating in the upper rotor's contracted wake, resulting in an optimal design with very different upper and lower rotor twist and chord distributions. We also show that the swirl component of induced velocity has a relatively small effect on rotor performance at the disk loadings typical of helicopter rotors. Third, we describe a more refined model of the wake of a hovering conventional or coaxial rotor. We approximate the rotor or coaxial rotors as actuator disks (though not necessarily uniformly loaded

  8. Actuator Fault Estimation and Reconfiguration Control for the Quad-Rotor Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyang Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved reconfiguration control scheme via an H∞ fault observer and adaptive control is studied for the quad-rotor helicopter with actuator faults. The bilinear problem is eliminated by constructing fault compensation and control law reconfiguration in the adaptive controller. Fault estimation is achieved by designing the fault observer with an H∞ performance index, which is applied to evaluate the ‘locking in place’ fault of the actuator in a quad-rotor helicopter. By drawing the H∞ performance index into the adaptive fault observer, an asymptotically convergent estimated error can be attained and the burden of the adaptive controller is alleviated. Some simulation and experimental results confirm the availability of the reconfiguration control scheme.

  9. Aerodynamic analysis of potential use of flow control devices on helicopter rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, F; Doerffer, P; Szulc, O


    The interest in the application of flow control devices has been rising in the last years. Recently, several passive streamwise vortex generators have been analysed in a configuration of a curved wall nozzle within the framework of the UFAST project (Unsteady Effects of Shock Wave Induced Separation, 2005 – 2009). Experimental and numerical results proved that the technology is effective in delaying flow separation. The numerical investigation has been extended to helicopter rotor blades in hover and forward flight applying the FLOWer solver (RANS approach) implementing the chimera overlapping grids technique and high performance computing. CFD results for hover conditions confirm that the proposed passive control method reduces the flow separation increasing the thrust over power consumption. The paper presents the numerical validation for both states of flight and the possible implementation of RVGs on helicopter rotor blades.

  10. A simulation study of active feedback supression of dynamic response in helicopter rotor blades (United States)

    Kana, D. D.; Bessey, R. L.; Dodge, F. T.


    A parameter study is presented for active feedback control applied to a helicopter rotor blade during forward flight. The study was performed on an electromechanical apparatus which included a mechanical model rotor blade and electronic analog simulation of interaction between blade deflections and aerodynamic loading. Blade response parameters were obtained for simulated vortex impinging at the blade tip at one pulse per revolution, and for a pulse which traveled from the blade tip toward its root. Results show that the response in a 1 - 10-per-rev frequency band is diminished by the feedback action, but at the same time responses at frequencies above 10-per-rev become increasingly more prominent with increased feedback amplitude, and can even lead to instability at certain levels. It appears that the latter behavior results from limitations of the laboratory simulation apparatus, rather than genuine potential behavior for a prototype helicopter.

  11. Integrated optimization analyses of aerodynamic/stealth characteristics of helicopter rotor based on surrogate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiangwen


    Full Text Available Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, electromagnetic high-frequency method and surrogate model optimization techniques, an integration design method about aerodynamic/stealth has been established for helicopter rotor. The developed integration design method is composed of three modules: integrated grids generation (the moving-embedded grids for CFD solver and the blade grids for radar cross section (RCS solver are generated by solving Poisson equations and folding approach, aerodynamic/stealth solver (the aerodynamic characteristics are simulated by CFD method based upon Navier–Stokes equations and Spalart–Allmaras (S–A turbulence model, and the stealth characteristics are calculated by using a panel edge method combining the method of physical optics (PO, equivalent currents (MEC and quasi-stationary (MQS, and integrated optimization analysis (based upon the surrogate model optimization technique with full factorial design (FFD and radial basis function (RBF, an integrated optimization analyses on aerodynamic/stealth characteristics of rotor are conducted. Firstly, the scattering characteristics of the rotor with different blade-tip swept and twist angles have been carried out, then time–frequency domain grayscale with strong scattering regions of rotor have been given. Meanwhile, the effects of swept-tip and twist angles on the aerodynamic characteristic of rotor have been performed. Furthermore, by choosing suitable object function and constraint condition, the compromised design about swept and twist combinations of rotor with high aerodynamic performances and low scattering characteristics has been given at last.

  12. Kinetic analysis of elastomeric lag damper for helicopter rotors (United States)

    Liu, Yafang; Wang, Jidong; Tong, Yan


    The elastomeric lag dampers suppress the ground resonance and air resonance that play a significant role in the stability of the helicopter. In this paper, elastomeric lag damper which is made from silicone rubber is built. And a series of experiments are conducted on this elastomeric lag damper. The stress-strain curves of elastomeric lag dampers employed shear forces at different frequency are obtained. And a finite element model is established based on Burgers model. The result of simulation and tests shows that the simple, linear model will yield good predictions of damper energy dissipation and it is adequate for predicting the stress-strain hysteresis loop within the operating frequency and a small-amplitude oscillation.

  13. Modelling and robust control of an unmanned coaxial rotor helicopter with unstructured uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yan Dong


    Full Text Available A complete methodology for an unmanned coaxial rotor helicopter with unstructured uncertainties was proposed to achieve high-accuracy tracking performance from modelling to robust control. An integrative approach was introduced to systematically construct a whole dynamic model. The key parameters were selected carefully after iteratively being checked by empirical coefficients to decrease the budget and risk of programme. Moreover, a new control scheme is proposed to simultaneously incorporate six inputs to control six states based on the investment of singularity value responses and the general rule of relative gain array. Coprime factor uncertainty model is considered to represent a class of unstructured uncertainties, such as unmolded actuator dynamics and unpredicted interferences between two rotors. Furthermore, the H ∞ loop-shaping control was proposed to apply the control design of the coaxial rotor helicopter to manage complicated uncertainties and multivariable coupling. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller design in the step response of the closed loop. The stable closed-loop plant is achieved and the tolerant size of unstructured uncertainty is up to 36.09%. Good step responses and satisfied decoupling were also investigated in detail.

  14. Application of response surface techniques to helicopter rotor blade optimization procedure (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph Lynn; Walsh, Joanne L.; Young, Katherine C.


    In multidisciplinary optimization problems, response surface techniques can be used to replace the complex analyses that define the objective function and/or constraints with simple functions, typically polynomials. In this work a response surface is applied to the design optimization of a helicopter rotor blade. In previous work, this problem has been formulated with a multilevel approach. Here, the response surface takes advantage of this decomposition and is used to replace the lower level, a structural optimization of the blade. Problems that were encountered and important considerations in applying the response surface are discussed. Preliminary results are also presented that illustrate the benefits of using the response surface.

  15. Novel controller design demonstration for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor blades (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet; Nitzsche, Fred


    This paper presents an advanced controller design methodology for vibration alleviation of helicopter rotor sys- tems. Particularly, vibration alleviation in a forward ight regime where the rotor blades experience periodically varying aerodynamic loading was investigated. Controller synthesis was carried out under the time-periodic H2 and H∞ framework and the synthesis problem was solved based on both periodic Riccati and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulations. The closed-loop stability was analyzed using Floquet-Lyapunov theory, and the controller's performance was validated by closed-loop high-delity aeroelastic simulations. To validate the con- troller's performance an actively controlled trailing edge ap strategy was implemented. Computational cost was compared for both formulations.

  16. Navier-Stokes Simulation of a Heavy Lift Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter Configuration (United States)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Hallissy, Jim B.; Harris, Jerome; Noonan, Kevin W.; Wong, Oliver D.; Jones, Henry E.; Malovrh, Brendon D.; hide


    Time accurate numerical simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver OVERFLOW for a heavy lift, slowed-rotor, compound helicopter configuration, tested at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The primary purpose of these simulations is to provide support for the development of a large field of view Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) flow measurement technique supported by the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics program. These simulations provide a better understanding of the rotor and body wake flows and helped to define PIV measurement locations as well as requirements for validation of flow solver codes. The large field PIV system can measure the three-dimensional velocity flow field in a 0.914m by 1.83m plane. PIV measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the vertical tail section and are compared to simulation results. The simulations are also used to better understand the tunnel wall and body/rotor support effects by comparing simulations with and without tunnel floor/ceiling walls and supports. Comparisons are also made to the experimental force and moment data for the body and rotor.

  17. Aerodynamic analysis of helicopter rotors using a higher-order, free-wake method (United States)

    Choephel, Tenzin

    The wake has a strong influence on the aerodynamics of a helicopter rotor, and the accurate prediction of its geometry and the resulting induced velocity field is extremely important for rotorcraft aerodynamic analysis. In this thesis, a new higher-order, free-wake method for rotor aerodynamic analysis is presented. The method uses elements of distributed vorticity to model the lifting surfaces and the associated wake. The use of such higher-order spanwise elements ensures higher resolution compared to traditional filament-based free-wake analysis and does not require explicit vortex core modeling with a user-specified core size. Since the method uses a full-span, singularity-free, relaxed wake, it can resolve the effect of on-blade, partial-span devices. The free-wake method is validated in both hover and forward flight against measured data from well-documented experiments. In hover, the blade spanwise lift coefficients predicted by the free-wake analysis correlate well with the measured data from the classic Caradonna-Tung model rotor experiment. The figure of merit, which is a measure of rotor efficiency, predicted by the present method is compared to that from the experiments conducted by Knight and Hefner, and the correlations are found to be quite good given the level of fidelity of this method, which is based on potential flow theory. Rotor downwash, which is one of the most important considerations in rotor aerodynamic analysis, is predicted very well by the free-wake method when compared to measured data from a full-scale rotor test performed by Boatwright. These correlation studies provide a lot of promise as to the ability of the method in predicting the challenging aerodynamics of a helicopter rotor in hover. Validation studies are also performed to assess the accuracy of the free-wake analysis in predicting downwash distribution in forward flight. Comparison of numerical predictions with experimental data requires the rotor to be trimmed to the

  18. Wall interaction effects for a full-scale helicopter rotor in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel (United States)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.


    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. This wind tunnel test generated a unique and extensive data base covering a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and rotor thrust conditions from 0 to 100 knots. Three configurations were tested: (1) empty tunnel; (2) test stand body (fuselage) and support system; and (3) fuselage and support system with rotor installed. Empty tunnel wall pressure data are evaluated as a function of tunnel speed to understand the baseline characteristics. Aerodynamic interaction effects between the fuselage and the walls of the tunnel are investigated by comparing wall, ceiling, and floor pressures for various tunnel velocities and fuselage angles-of-attack. Aerodynamic interaction effects between the rotor and the walls of the tunnel are also investigated by comparing wall, ceiling, and floor pressures for various rotor shaft angles, rotor thrust conditions, and tunnel velocities. Empty tunnel wall pressure data show good repeatability and are not affected by tunnel speed. In addition, the tunnel wall pressure profiles are not affected by the presence of the fuselage apart from a pressure shift. Results do not indicate that the tunnel wall pressure profiles are affected by the presence of the rotor. Significant changes in the wall, ceiling, and floor pressure profiles occur with changing tunnel speeds for constant rotor thrust and shaft angle conditions. Significant changes were also observed when varying rotor thrust or rotor shaft angle-of-attack. Other results indicate that dynamic rotor loads and blade motion are influenced by the presence of the tunnel walls at very low tunnel velocity and, together with the wall pressure data, provide a good indication of flow breakdown.

  19. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control is designed for Twin Rotor unmanned helicopter in three-dimensional space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Moadeli


    Full Text Available In this paper, the system control design problem twin rotors helicopters Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV in three dimensional space Without uncertainty based on the dynamic adaptive control is studied. the adaptive Dynamic surface control approach complexity explosion problem in non-linear control step back or backstepping method [45] using the First-order filters removed. The first helicopter dynamic equations and functions are examined. Then, the Dynamic surface control techniques by compare non-linear control technique back stepping [45] is checked and the system is simulation by both techniques adaptive Dynamic surface control and nonlinear control back stepping method. The proposed adaptive dynamics surface nonlinear control method approach is able to guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are asymptotically stable for all initial conditions and you can also choose appropriate design parameters of the system output converges to a small neighborhood of origin ensured . Finally, simulation results are presented, showing the effectiveness of control methods are given.

  20. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations (United States)

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.


    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  1. Classification of defects in honeycomb composite structure of helicopter rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasko, M.; Svab, E.; Molnar, Gy.; Veres, I.


    The use of non-destructive testing methods to qualify the state of rotor blades with respect to their expected flight hours, with the aim to extend their lifetime without any risk of breakdown, is an important financial demand. In order to detect the possible defects in the composite structure of Mi-8 and Mi-24 type helicopter rotor blades used by the Hungarian Army, we have performed combined neutron- and X-ray radiography measurements at the Budapest Research Reactor. Several types of defects were detected, analysed and typified. Among the most frequent and important defects observed were cavities, holes and or cracks in the sealing elements on the interface of the honeycomb structure and the section boarders. Inhomogeneities of the resin materials (resin-rich or starved areas) at the core-honeycomb surfaces proved to be an other important point. Defects were detected at the adhesive filling, and water percolation was visualized at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections. Corrosion effects, and metal inclusions have also been detected

  2. Hovering Characteristics of a Rotor having an Airfoil Section Designed for Flying-Crane Type of Helicopter (United States)

    Shivers, James P.


    Results of an investigation, conducted on the Langley helicopter test tower, of a rotor having an NACA 632A015 airfoil thickness distribution in combination with an NACA 230 mean line are presented. Comparison with a previously reported test of a symmetrical rotor blade efficiency was substantially improved over a wide range of tip Mach numbers. The maximum mean lift coefficient was essentially unchanged from that obtained with uncambered blades. Some data showing the effect of a distributed type of leading-edge roughness are also included.

  3. Analysis of a Swashplate Mechanism of the Hingeless Rotor Hub with the Flybar in a Model Helicopter, Part II: Dynamics (United States)

    Sabaapour, Mohammad Reza; Zohoor, Hassan

    Swashplate mechanism is the steering control mechanism, used in most helicopters. It is a complex multi-loop closed kinematic chain which controls the angles of attack of the main rotor blades. In most new model helicopters, this mechanism is also equipped with the bell-hiller stabilizer bar (flybar), to improve the stability. The main purpose of this paper is the dynamic analysis of a swashplate mechanism, one of the latest architectures, used for hingeless rotor with the flybar. The underlying kinematics has been discussed in Part I. Thus, the detailed dynamic analysis of the whole mechanism and each part are presented here. The analyses are based on the parallel manipulators concept and the virtual work principle. Also an ADAMS rigid body dynamic model was developed to verify the results of the analytical model. In many simulated cases, the results matched.

  4. Analysis of a Swashplate Mechanism of the Hingeless Rotor Hub with the Flybar in a Model Helicopter, Part I: Kinematics (United States)

    Sabaapour, Mohammad Reza; Zohoor, Hassan

    Swashplate mechanism is the steering control mechanism used in most helicopters. It is a complex multi-loop closed kinematic chain which controls the angles of attack of the main rotor blades. In most new model helicopters, this mechanism is also equipped with the bell-hiller stabilizer bar (flybar), to improve the stability. This paper aimed at the kinematic analysis of one of the latest architectures of the swashplate mechanism, used for hingeless rotor with the flybar. Hence, the position analysis of each module and whole mechanism, based on parallel manipulators concept with more details involved than other works, was presented here. The kinematic model was further developed to obtain Jacobian matrices, velocity and acceleration analysis in detail. Finally, a particular example was conducted and compared with an ADAMS rigid body dynamic model, to verify the analytical model. In many simulated cases, the results matched.

  5. Vision based control of unmanned aerial vehicles with applications to an autonomous four-rotor helicopter, quadrotor (United States)

    Altug, Erdinc

    Our work proposes a vision-based stabilization and output tracking control method for a model helicopter. This is a part of our effort to produce a rotorcraft based autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Due to the desired maneuvering ability, a four-rotor helicopter has been chosen as the testbed. On previous research on flying vehicles, vision is usually used as a secondary sensor. Unlike previous research, our goal is to use visual feedback as the main sensor, which is not only responsible for detecting where the ground objects are but also for helicopter localization. A novel two-camera method has been introduced for estimating the full six degrees of freedom (DOF) pose of the helicopter. This two-camera system consists of a pan-tilt ground camera and an onboard camera. The pose estimation algorithm is compared through simulation to other methods, such as four-point, and stereo method and is shown to be less sensitive to feature detection errors. Helicopters are highly unstable flying vehicles; although this is good for agility, it makes the control harder. To build an autonomous helicopter, two methods of control are studied---one using a series of mode-based, feedback linearizing controllers and the other using a back-stepping control law. Various simulations with 2D and 3D models demonstrate the implementation of these controllers. We also show global convergence of the 3D quadrotor controller even with large calibration errors or presence of large errors on the image plane. Finally, we present initial flight experiments where the proposed pose estimation algorithm and non-linear control techniques have been implemented on a remote-controlled helicopter. The helicopter was restricted with a tether to vertical, yaw motions and limited x and y translations.

  6. Least square based sliding mode control for a quad-rotor helicopter and energy saving by chattering reduction (United States)

    Sumantri, Bambang; Uchiyama, Naoki; Sano, Shigenori


    In this paper, a new control structure for a quad-rotor helicopter that employs the least squares method is introduced. This proposed algorithm solves the overdetermined problem of the control input for the translational motion of a quad-rotor helicopter. The algorithm allows all six degrees of freedom to be considered to calculate the control input. The sliding mode controller is applied to achieve robust tracking and stabilization. A saturation function is designed around a boundary layer to reduce the chattering phenomenon that is a common problem in sliding mode control. In order to improve the tracking performance, an integral sliding surface is designed. An energy saving effect because of chattering reduction is also evaluated. First, the dynamics of the quad-rotor helicopter is derived by the Newton-Euler formulation for a rigid body. Second, a constant plus proportional reaching law is introduced to increase the reaching rate of the sliding mode controller. Global stability of the proposed control strategy is guaranteed based on the Lyapunov's stability theory. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control system are demonstrated experimentally under wind gusts, and are compared with a regular sliding mode controller, a proportional-differential controller, and a proportional-integral-differential controller.

  7. Improved Helicopter Rotor Performance Prediction through Loose and Tight CFD/CSD Coupling (United States)

    Ickes, Jacob C.

    Helicopters and other Vertical Take-Off or Landing (VTOL) vehicles exhibit an interesting combination of structural dynamic and aerodynamic phenomena which together drive the rotor performance. The combination of factors involved make simulating the rotor a challenging and multidisciplinary effort, and one which is still an active area of interest in the industry because of the money and time it could save during design. Modern tools allow the prediction of rotorcraft physics from first principles. Analysis of the rotor system with this level of accuracy provides the understanding necessary to improve its performance. There has historically been a divide between the comprehensive codes which perform aeroelastic rotor simulations using simplified aerodynamic models, and the very computationally intensive Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers. As computer resources become more available, efforts have been made to replace the simplified aerodynamics of the comprehensive codes with the more accurate results from a CFD code. The objective of this work is to perform aeroelastic rotorcraft analysis using first-principles simulations for both fluids and structural predictions using tools available at the University of Toledo. Two separate codes are coupled together in both loose coupling (data exchange on a periodic interval) and tight coupling (data exchange each time step) schemes. To allow the coupling to be carried out in a reliable and efficient way, a Fluid-Structure Interaction code was developed which automatically performs primary functions of loose and tight coupling procedures. Flow phenomena such as transonics, dynamic stall, locally reversed flow on a blade, and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) were simulated in this work. Results of the analysis show aerodynamic load improvement due to the inclusion of the CFD-based airloads in the structural dynamics analysis of the Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) code. Improvements came in the form


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The results of computational simulation of helicopter rotor's single blade flow, for which experimental (model test data are published, are represented in this article. The calculations were made in the universal software package of CFD modeling FloEFD, which was based on the solution of averaged equations' system of Navier-Stocks, as well as in the program software RC-VTOL using the vortex method. The obtained results are compared with experimental data and modeling results in the program software ANSYS Fluent (license of TsAGI Nr. 501024. The work shows satisfactory, and in some cases good calculation data reconciliation getting with different techniques including experimental.

  9. Comprehensive aeroelastic analysis of helicopter rotor with trailing-edge flap for primary control and vibration control (United States)

    Shen, Jinwei

    A comprehensive aeroelastic analytical model of helicopter rotors with trailing-edge flaps for primary and vibration controls has been developed. The derivation of system equations is based on Hamilton principles, and implemented with finite element method in space and time. The blade element consists of fifteen degrees of freedom representing blade flap, lag, torsional, and axial deformations. Three aerodynamic models of flapped airfoils were implemented in the present analysis, the unsteady Hariharan-Leishman model for trailing-edge flaps without aerodynamic balance, a quasi-steady Theodorsen theory for an aerodynamic balanced trailing-edge flap, and table lookup based on wind tunnel test data. The trailing-edge flap deflections may be modeled as a degree of freedom so that the actuator dynamics can be captured properly. The coupled trim procedures for swashplateless rotor are solved in either wind tunnel trim or free flight condition. A multicyclic controller is also implemented to calculate the flap control inputs for minimization of vibratory rotor hub loads. The coupled blade equations of motion are linearized by using small perturbations about a steady trimmed solution. The aeroelastic stability characteristics of trailing-edge flap rotors is then determined from an eigenanalysis of the homogeneous equations using Floquet method. The correlation studies of a typical bearingless rotor and an ultralight teetering rotor are respectively based on wind tunnel test data and simulations of another comprehensive analysis (CAMRAD II). Overall, good correlations are obtained. Parametric study identifies that the effect of actuator dynamics cannot be neglected, especially for a torsionally soft smart actuator system. Aeroelastic stability characteristics of a trailing-edge flap rotor system are shown to be sensitive to flap aerodynamic and mass balances. Key parameters of trailing-edge flap system for primary rotor control are identified as blade pitch index angle

  10. High order accurate and low dissipation method for unsteady compressible viscous flow computation on helicopter rotor in forward flight (United States)

    Xu, Li; Weng, Peifen


    An improved fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO-Z) scheme combined with the moving overset grid technique has been developed to compute unsteady compressible viscous flows on the helicopter rotor in forward flight. In order to enforce periodic rotation and pitching of the rotor and relative motion between rotor blades, the moving overset grid technique is extended, where a special judgement standard is presented near the odd surface of the blade grid during search donor cells by using the Inverse Map method. The WENO-Z scheme is adopted for reconstructing left and right state values with the Roe Riemann solver updating the inviscid fluxes and compared with the monotone upwind scheme for scalar conservation laws (MUSCL) and the classical WENO scheme. Since the WENO schemes require a six point stencil to build the fifth-order flux, the method of three layers of fringes for hole boundaries and artificial external boundaries is proposed to carry out flow information exchange between chimera grids. The time advance on the unsteady solution is performed by the full implicit dual time stepping method with Newton type LU-SGS subiteration, where the solutions of pseudo steady computation are as the initial fields of the unsteady flow computation. Numerical results on non-variable pitch rotor and periodic variable pitch rotor in forward flight reveal that the approach can effectively capture vortex wake with low dissipation and reach periodic solutions very soon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on the blade frequencies is made. It allows reducing the vibration from thrust. Research takes into account the main rotor including and excluding the blade flapping motion. The minimal vibrations regime is identified.Numerical study of variable loads caused by unsteady flow around the main rotor blades at high relative speeds of flight, which transmitted to the rotor hub, is made. The scheme of a thin lifting surface and the rotor vortex theory are used for simulation of the aerodynamic loads on blades. Non - uniform loads caused by the thrust, decomposed on the blade harmonic and its overtones. The largest values of deviation from the mean amplitude thrust are received. The analysis of variable loads with a traditional control system is made. Algorithms of higher harmonics individual blade control capable of reducing the thrust pulsation under the average value of thrust are developed.Numerical research shows that individual blade control of high harmonics reduces variable loads. The necessary change in the blade installation is about ± 0,2 degree that corresponds to the maximum displacement of the additional con- trol stick is about 1 mm.To receive the overall picture is necessary to consider all six components of forces and moments. Control law with own constants will obtained for each of them. It is supposed, that each of six individual blade control laws have an impact on other components. Thus, the problem reduces to the optimization issue. The

  12. Crack of a helicopter main rotor actuator attachment: failure analysis and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Allegrucci


    Full Text Available A Light Utility Helicopter (LUH, in the course of a training flight, leaving the ground during the taxi to take off, went into an uncontrolled rolling to the right; consequently the helicopter gradually laid down on the right side. The impact with the runway destroyed the rotating blades up to the hubs rotor. The accident investigation focused on main rotor oscillatory plate servo actuators . These components, directly linked to the cloche movements, regulate main rotor blades plane tilt and pitch. Following the preliminary examination, only front servo actuator attachment was found to be broken in two parts. In detail, the present paper deals with the fracture analysis results. The servo actuator attachment material is a 2014 Aluminum alloy extrudate, undergone to T651 heat treatment. Fracture surfaces were examined by optical and electronic microscopy in order to determine the main morphological features and consequently to trace the origin of failure mechanism and causes. The accordance with the specification requirements about alloy composition was verified by quantitative elementary analysis through inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP; furthermore, semi-quantitative elementary analysis was locally verified by Energy dispersion spectroscopy X ray (EDS_RX. Finally, the hydrogen content of the material was evaluated by the total hydrogen analysis. Microstructural and technological alloy characteristics were verified as well by using metallographic microscopy and hardness testing of the material.Macroscopic fracture surfaces evidences were characterized by the lack of any significant plastic deformations and by the presence of symmetry compared to the servo actuator axis. Microscopic fracture features of both the investigated surfaces were not coherent to the hypothesis of an impact of the main rotor to the soil. Further achieved evidences, such as grain boundary fracture propagation, the presence of corrosion products, were all in

  13. A state-space free-vortex hybrid wake model for helicopter rotors (United States)

    Wasileski, Bryan J.

    This paper presents the development of a new hybrid wake model merging two distinctly different modeling approaches into a single, more comprehensive solution. The objective of the work was to leverage the strengths of each individual wake model creating a more flexible and extensible solution that could be used across the entire flight envelope of a helicopter. The results of the work indicate that the two wakes models can be successfully merged. The results also show that hybrid wake provides a mechanism by which finite-state wake imparts a level of stability on the free wake solution allowing the free wake to provide consistent, repeatable results from hover through high speed forward flight. While the new hybrid wake includes the geometric distortion needed for predicting the off-axis control response, the new model, as configured in this work, shows no sign of improvement in this area.

  14. Development of Virtual Blade Model for Modelling Helicopter Rotor Downwash in OpenFOAM (United States)


    Georgia Tech rotor - airframe interaction wind tunnel experimental setup – reproduced from Reference 23... Rotor - Airframe Interaction Experimental Setup The wind tunnel experiment in Reference 20 involves placement of a simple fuselage body in a 2.3 m...Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) technique. Figure 5.1: Georgia Tech rotor - airframe interaction wind tunnel experimental setup – reproduced

  15. Theory/test correlation of helicopter rotor blade element airloads in the blade stall regime (United States)

    Bobo, C. J.


    The effects of stall on a rotor blade element in a three-dimensional rotating environment was investigated. The model rotor test provided blade element airloads and local boundary layer flow characteristics at the three-quarter blade radius position for a wide range of rotor operating conditions. A description of the test program and the test results are presented.

  16. Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Two Main-rotor Blade Designs for a Utility-Class Helicopter (United States)

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.


    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to evaluate an advanced main rotor designed for use on a utility class helicopter, specifically the U.S. Army UH-60A Blackhawk. This rotor design incorporated advanced twist, airfoil cross sections, and geometric planform. For evaluation purposes, the current UH-60A main rotor was also tested and is referred to as the baseline blade set. A total of four blade sets were tested. One set of both the baseline and the advanced rotors were dynamically scaled to represent a full scale helicopter rotor blade design. The remaining advanced and baseline blade sets were not dynamically scaled so as to isolate the effects of structural elasticity. The investigation was conducted in hover and at rotor advance ratios ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 at a range of nominal test medium densities from 0.00238 to 0.009 slugs/cu ft. This range of densities, coupled with varying rotor lift and propulsive force, allowed for the simulation of several vehicle gross weight and density altitude combinations. Performance data are presented for all blade sets without analysis; however, cross referencing of data with flight condition may be useful to the analyst for validating aeroelastic theories and design methodologies as well as for evaluating advanced design parameters.

  17. Improvement of Fast Binary Pressure-Sensitive Paint Technology for Helicopter Rotor Blade Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koulesh, V


    .... In addition the spatial homogeneity of the covering is investigated. The scheme of experiment in T-105 wind tunnel using the helicopter devices MVP-5 and MVP-8 is developed and the supporting optical system is designed...

  18. Symbolic generation of elastic rotor blade equations using a FORTRAN processor and numerical study on dynamic inflow effects on the stability of helicopter rotors (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.


    The process of performing an automated stability analysis for an elastic-bladed helicopter rotor is discussed. A symbolic manipulation program, written in FORTRAN, is used to aid in the derivation of the governing equations of motion for the rotor. The blades undergo coupled bending and torsional deformations. Two-dimensional quasi-steady aerodynamics below stall are used. Although reversed flow effects are neglected, unsteady effects, modeled as dynamic inflow are included. Using a Lagrangian approach, the governing equations are derived in generalized coordinates using the symbolic program. The program generates the steady and perturbed equations and writes into subroutines to be called by numerical routines. The symbolic program can operate on both expressions and matrices. For the case of hovering flight, the blade and dynamic inflow equations are converted to equations in a multiblade coordinate system by rearranging the coefficients of the equations. For the case of forward flight, the multiblade equations are obtained through the symbolic program. The final multiblade equations are capable of accommodating any number of elastic blade modes. The computer implementation of this procedure consists of three stages: (1) the symbolic derivation of equations; (2) the coding of the equations into subroutines; and (3) the numerical study after identifying mass, damping, and stiffness coefficients. Damping results are presented in hover and in forward flight with and without dynamic inflow effects for various rotor blade models, including rigid blade lag-flap, elastic flap-lag, flap-lag-torsion, and quasi-static torsion. Results from dynamic inflow effects which are obtained from a lift deficiency function for a quasi-static inflow model in hover are also presented.

  19. Performance of Swashplateless Ultralight Helicopter Rotor with Trailing-Edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Jinwei; Chopra, Inderjit; Johnson, Wayne


    .... The predictions show the swashplateless configuration achieves better performance than the conventional rotor, because of the reduction of parasite drag resulting from eliminating the swashplate mechanical system. The optimal selection of blade pitch index angle, flap location, length, and chord ratio reduces flap deflections and actuation requirements, with virtually no effect on rotor performance.

  20. A New Optimal Control Algorithm for Quad-rotor Helicopter with State Constraints via Sliding-mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a strategy of a new optimal sliding-mode control for flight control system with state constraints so that the system guarantees the optimal performance index. Besides, the strategy ensures strong robustness to the internal parametric uncertainty and the external disturbances. In order to have fast transient response speed as well as good tracking accuracy, the integral of the time multiplied by the absolute displacement tracking error is introduced as the performance index. By analyzing the state constraints which are specifically the velocity tracking error constraint and the acceleration tracking error constraint, and the performance index, the parameters of sliding-mode surface and control law are obtained. Finally, the authors conduct the semi physical simulation on Qball-X4 quad-rotor helicopter, showing the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  1. Procedural guide for modelling and analyzing the flight characteristics of a helicopter design using Flightlab


    McVaney, Gary P.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis presents one method for modelling and analyzing a helicopter design using Flightlab. Flightlab is a computer program that provides for engineering design, analysis and simulation of aircraft using non-linear dynamic modeling techniques. The procedure to model a single main rotor helicopter is outlined using the sample helicopter design in the book 'Helicopter Performance, Stability, and Control' by Ray Prouty. The analysis...

  2. Hummingbird wing efficacy depends on aspect ratio and compares with helicopter rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, J.W.; Quicazan Rubio, E.M.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Altshuler, D.L.; Lentink, D.


    Hummingbirds are the only birds that can sustain hovering. This unique flight behaviour comes, however, at high energetic cost. Based on helicopter and aeroplane design theory, we expect that hummingbird wing aspect ratio (AR), which ranges from about 3.0 to 4.5, determines aerodynamic efficacy.

  3. Loads and performance data from a wind-tunnel test of model articulated helicopter rotors with 2 different blade torsional stiffnesses (United States)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.


    A passive means of tailoring helicopter rotor blades to improve performance and reduce loads was evaluated. The parameters investigated were blade torsional stiffness, blade section camber, and distance between blade structural elastic axis and blade tip aerodynamic center. This offset was accomplished by sweeping the tip. The investigation was conducted at advance ratios of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40. Data are presented without analysis; however, cross referencing of performance data and harmonic loads data may be useful to the analyst for validating aeroelastic theories and design methodologies as well as for evaluating passive aeroelastic tailoring or rotor blade parameters.

  4. Rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronert, H.; Vetter, J.; Eckert, M.


    In the field of hollow high speed rotors there is an increasing demand for progressively higher speeds of safe operation. High speed operation causes support bearings to be carefully designed if the rotor speed is to pass safely through its critical speed of operation where intense vibration is experienced. Also the rotational speed is limited by the peripheral velocity and strength of the outside surface portion of the rotor. The invention proposes that elemental boron, which has great tensile strength and lightness be used to provide a major part of a hollow rotor so that increased operating speeds can be attained. Such a rotor is usable to provide a high speed centrifuge drum. (author)

  5. High-speed helicopter rotor noise - Shock waves as a potent source of sound (United States)

    Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang; Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.


    In this paper we discuss the problem of high speed rotor noise prediction. In particular, we propose that from the point of view of the acoustic analogy, shocks around rotating blades are sources of sound. We show that, although for a wing at uniform steady rectilinear motion with shocks the volume quadrupole and shock sources cancel in the far field to the order of 1/r, this cannot happen for rotating blades. In this case, some cancellation between volume quadrupoles and shock sources occurs, yet the remaining shock noise contribution is still potent. A formula for shock noise prediction is presented based on mapping the deformable shock surface to a time independent region. The resulting equation is similar to Formulation 1A of Langley. Shock noise prediction for a hovering model rotor for which experimental noise data exist is presented. The comparison of measured and predicted acoustic data shows good agreement.

  6. Stabilization and control of quad-rotor helicopter using a smartphone device (United States)

    Desai, Alok; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Chang, Yung-Ping


    In recent years, autonomous, micro-unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs), or more specifically hovering micro- UAVs, have proven suitable for many promising applications such as unknown environment exploration and search and rescue operations. The early versions of UAVs had no on-board control capabilities, and were difficult for manual control from a ground station. Many UAVs now are equipped with on-board control systems that reduce the amount of control required from the ground-station operator. However, the limitations on payload, power consumption and control without human interference remain the biggest challenges. This paper proposes to use a smartphone as the sole computational device to stabilize and control a quad-rotor. The goal is to use the readily available sensors in a smartphone such as the GPS, the accelerometer, the rate-gyros, and the camera to support vision-related tasks such as flight stabilization, estimation of the height above ground, target tracking, obstacle detection, and surveillance. We use a quad-rotor platform that has been built in the Robotic Vision Lab at Brigham Young University for our development and experiments. An Android smartphone is connected through the USB port to an external hardware that has a microprocessor and circuitries to generate pulse-width modulation signals to control the brushless servomotors on the quad-rotor. The high-resolution camera on the smartphone is used to detect and track features to maintain a desired altitude level. The vision algorithms implemented include template matching, Harris feature detector, RANSAC similarity-constrained homography, and color segmentation. Other sensors are used to control yaw, pitch, and roll of the quad-rotor. This smartphone-based system is able to stabilize and control micro-UAVs and is ideal for micro-UAVs that have size, weight, and power limitations.

  7. Reduced In-Plane, Low Frequency Helicopter Noise of an Active Flap Rotor (United States)

    Sim, Ben W.; Janakiram, Ram D.; Barbely, Natasha L.; Solis, Eduardo


    Results from a recent joint DARPA/Boeing/NASA/Army wind tunnel test demonstrated the ability to reduce in-plane, low frequency noise of the full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor using active flaps. Test data reported in this paper illustrated that acoustic energy in the first six blade-passing harmonics could be reduced by up to 6 decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition corresponding to advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active flap schedules that modified in-plane blade airloads on the advancing side of the rotor, in a manner, which generated counteracting acoustic pulses that partially offset the negative pressure peaks associated with in-plane, steady thickness noise. These favorable reduced-noise operating states are a strong function of the active flap actuation amplitude, frequency and phase. The associated noise reductions resulted in reduced aural detection distance by up to 18%, but incurred significant vibratory load penalties due to increased hub shear forces. Small reductions in rotor lift-to-drag ratios, of no more than 3%, were also measured

  8. Stability and control modelling. [helicopters in near hovering flight (United States)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.


    This paper discusses the influence of rotor dynamics and dynamic inflow on the stability and control characteristics of single rotor helicopters in near hovering flight. Body attitude and rate feedback gain limitations which arise due to rotor dynamics and dynamic inflow are discussed. It is shown that attitude feedback gain is limited primarily by body-flap coupling and rate gain is limited by the lag degrees of freedom. Dynamic inflow is shown to produce significant changes in the modes of motion.

  9. Analytical design of a high performance stability and control augmentation system for a hingeless rotor helicopter (United States)

    Miyajima, K.


    A stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) was designed based on a set of comprehensive performance criteria. Linear optimal control theory was applied to determine appropriate feedback gains for the stability augmentation system (SAS). The helicopter was represented by six-degree-of-freedom rigid body equations of motion and constant factors were used as weightings for state and control variables. The ratio of these factors was employed as a parameter for SAS analysis and values of the feedback gains were selected on this basis to satisfy three of the performance criteria for full and partial state feedback systems. A least squares design method was then applied to determine control augmentation system (CAS) cross feed gains to satisfy the remaining seven performance criteria. The SCAS gains were then evaluated by nine degree-of-freedom equations which include flapping motion and conclusions drawn concerning the necessity of including the pitch/regressing and roll/regressing modes in SCAS analyses.

  10. State Estimation of Main Rotor Flap and Lead-Lag Using Accelerometers and Laser Transducers on the RASCAL UH-60 Helicopter (United States)

    Fletcher, Jay W.; Chen, Robert T. N.; Strasilla, Eric; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)


    Modern rotorcraft flight control system designs which promise to yield high vehicle response bandwidth and good gust rejection can benefit from the use of rotor-state feedbacks. The measurement of main rotor blade motions is also desirable to validate and improve rotorcraft simulation models, to identify high-order linear flight dynamics models, to provide rotor system health monitoring; during flight test, and to provide for correlation with acoustic measurements from wind tunnel and flight tests. However, few attempts have been made to instrument a flight vehicle in this manner, and no previous system has had the robustness and accuracy required for these diverse applications. A rotor blade motion measurement and estimation system has been developed by NASA and the U.S. Army for use on the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) helicopter. RASCAL is a UH-60 Blackhawk which is being modified at Ames Research Center in a phased development program for use in flight dynamics and controls, navigation, airspace management, and rotorcraft human factors research. The aircraft will feature a full-authority, digital, fly-by-wire research flight control system; a coupled ring laser gyro, differential GPS based navigation system; a stereoscopic color wide field of view helmet, mounted display; programmable panel mounted displays; and advanced navigation sensors. The rotor blade motion system is currently installed for data acquisition only, but will be integrated with the research flight control system when it is installed later this year.

  11. Hover test of a full-scale hingeless helicopter rotor: Aeroelastic stability, performance and loads data. [wind tunnel tests (United States)

    Peterson, R. L.; Warmbrodt, W.


    A hover test of a full-scale, hingeless rotor system was conducted in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The rotor was tested on the Ames rotor test apparatus. Rotor aeroelastic stability, performance, and loads at various rotational speeds and thrust coefficients were investigated. The primary objective was to determine the inplane stability characteristics of the rotor system. Rotor inplane damping data were obtained for operation between 350 and 425 rpm (design speed), and for thurst coefficients between 0.0 and 0.12. The rotor was stable for all conditions tested. At constant rotor rotational speed, a minimum inplane dampling level was obtained at a thrust coefficient approximately = 0.02. At constant rotor lift, a minimum in rotor inplane damping was measured at 400 rpm.

  12. Computational Study of Flow Interactions in Coaxial Rotors (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.


    Although the first idea of coaxial rotors appeared more than 150 years ago, most helicopters have used single main-rotor/tail-rotor combination. Since reactive moments of coaxial rotors are canceled by contra-rotation, no tail rotor is required to counter the torque generated by the main rotor. Unlike the single main rotor design that distributes power to both main and tail rotors, all of the power for coaxial rotors is used for vertical thrust. Thus, no power is wasted for anti-torque or directional control. The saved power helps coaxial rotors reach a higher hover ceiling than single rotor helicopters. Another advantage of coaxial rotors is that the overall rotor diameter can be reduced for a given vehicle gross weight because each rotor provides a maximum contribution to vertical thrust to overcome vehicle weight. However, increased mechanical complexity of the hub has been one of the challenges for manufacturing coaxial rotorcraft. Only the Kamov Design Bureau of Russia had been notably successful in production of coaxial helicopters until Sikorsky built X2, an experimental compound helicopter. Recent developments in unmanned aircraft systems and high-speed rotorcraft have renewed interest in the coaxial configuration. Multi-rotors are frequently used for small electric unmanned rotorcraft partly due to mechanical simplicity. The use of multiple motors provides redundancy as well as cost-efficiency. The multi-rotor concept has rarely been used until recently because of its inherent stability and control problems. However, advances in inexpensive electronic flight control systems have opened the floodgates for small drones using multirotors. Coaxial rotors have started to appear in some multi-rotor configurations. Small coaxial rotors have often been designed using a hundred year old approach that is "sketch, build, fly, and iterate." In that approach, there is no systematic way to explore trade-offs or determine logical next steps. It is neither possible to

  13. Determination of the structural damping coefficients of six full-scale helicopter rotor blades of different materials and methods of construction (United States)

    Gibson, Frederick W


    Results of an experimental investigation of the structural damping of six full-scale helicopter rotor blades, made to determine the variation of structural damping with materials and methods of construction, are presented. The damping of the blades was determined for the first three flapwise bending modes, first chordwise bending mode, and first torsion mode. The contribution of structural damping to the total damping of the blades is discussed for several aerodynamic conditions in order to point out situations where structural damping is significant.

  14. Flexible performance design for the H∞ loop-shaping control based on the linear matrix inequality approach: Application to the coaxial rotor helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyan Dong


    Full Text Available This article introduces a new H ∞ loop-shaping control to decrease the complexity of the appropriate selection of the required performance for a coaxial rotor helicopter with unpredicted or unknown unstructured uncertainties. Uncertainty models are normally assumed that some knowledge of type is known. And to model a particular uncertainty as a separate model is necessary in the high-performance design of specified applications. But to model each particular uncertainty will increase the complexity of performance design for the extremely complex plant. H ∞ loop-shaping control provides a competitive and flexible choice to simultaneously represent a family of unpredicted and unconsidered unstructured uncertainty bounded by H ∞ norm. Many researches have been conducted to consider some aspects of this method, for example, the nominal stability, robustness to uncertainty, and implementation issues. However, to decrease the complexity of the appropriate selection of the required performance was not considered seriously. Therefore, a sufficient set of stable condition is derived using linear matrix inequality approach to provide the flexible performance design considering unpredicted and unknown unstructured uncertainties. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to stabilize the attitude subsystem of a reconstructed coaxial rotor helicopter. Simulations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the step response.

  15. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters) (United States)


    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  16. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise (United States)

    SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.


    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  17. Wind-tunnel evaluation of an advanced main-rotor blade design for a utility-class helicopter (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Mantay, Wayne R.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Cramer, Robert G., Jr.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.


    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to evaluate differences between an existing utility-class main-rotor blade and an advanced-design main-rotor blade. The two rotor blade designs were compared with regard to rotor performance oscillatory pitch-link loads, and 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads. Tests were conducted in hover and over a range of simulated full-scale gross weights and density altitude conditions at advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.40. Results indicate that the advanced blade design offers performance improvements over the baseline blade in both hover and forward flight. Pitch-link oscillatory loads for the baseline rotor were more sensitive to the test conditions than those of the advanced rotor. The 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system load produced by the advanced blade was larger than that produced by the baseline blade at all test conditions.

  18. Merenje vibracija i relevantnih parametara leta transportnog helikoptera Mi-8 sa revitalizovanim lopaticama nosećeg rotora / Vibration and flight data measurement on the transport helicopter Mi-8 with replaced main rotor blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Rakonjac


    Full Text Available Rad se odnosi na merenje parametara leta transportnog helikoptera ruske proizvodnje Mi-8 sa ugrađenim originalnim, kao i revitalizovanim - delimično kompozitnim lopaticama nosećeg rotora. Cilj merenja bio je dobijanje relevantnih podataka za ocenu kvaliteta revitalizovanih lopatica usled zamene lopatica nosećeg rotora. Prikazani su oprema, postupak i analiza rezultata merenja parametara leta i vibracija, uz poseban osvrt na probleme izazvane uticajem vibracija na mernu opremu. / This paper presents helicopter flight data acquisition made on the Russian helicopter Mi-8 with its original main rotor blades as well as with regenerated, partially composite ones. The purpose of the measurement was collecting data for flight quality of the main rotor composite blades changing the actual main rotor blades. This paper also presents equipment procedures and analysis of flight data and vitration measurements with special attention to problems caused by vibration influence on equipment.

  19. Charts for Estimating Tail-rotor Contribution to Helicopter Directional Stability and Control in Low-Speed Flight (United States)

    Amer, Kenneth B; Gessow, Alfred


    Theoretically derived charts and equations are presented by which tail-rotor design studies of directional trim and control response at low forward speed can be conveniently made. The charts can also be used to obtain the main-rotor stability derivatives of thrust with respect to collective pitch and angle of attack at low forward speeds. The use of the charts and equations for tail-rotor design studies is illustrated. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results are presented. The charts indicate, and flight tests confirm, that the region of vortex roughness which is familiar for the main rotor is also encountered by the tail rotor and that prolonged operation at the corresponding flight conditions would be difficult.

  20. Rotor Design for an Efficient Single-Phase Induction Motor for Refrigerator Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Ahn


    Full Text Available This article describes a rotor making technology for the production of high-efficiency single-phase induction motors (SPIMs to be used in refrigerator compressors. Rotors can have different aluminum fill factors according to the fabrication method. In order to examine the association between the fill factor and the efficiency of the rotor, we analyzed the distribution of magnetic flux density using the finite element method (FEM. Next, we made prototype rotors by conventional casting methods and by the proposed casting method and compared their fill factors. In addition, SPIMs were made using the rotors, and their efficiencies were measured using a dynamometer. Moreover, the SPIMs were put to use in a compressor, for testing, and for each SPIM the refrigerating capacity of the compressor was measured with a calorimeter. Based on the results of the FEM analysis of the magnetic flux density and the experiments, the reliability and validity of the proposed method were proven.

  1. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 6%-Scale Large Civil Tilt Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes (United States)


    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs... rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe...airframe models were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. This test entry represents the first

  2. Integrated Multivariate Health Monitoring System for Helicopters Main Rotor Drives: Development and Validation with In-Service Data (United States)


    Speed, Roll Angle, Pitch Angle, True Airspeed, Radio Altitude, Vertical Speed, Normal Acceleration, Density Altitude, Tail Rotor Torque, Main Rotor...Torque, Roll Rate, Pitch Rate, Yaw Rate, Longi- tudinal Acceleration. It has been hypothesised that the accelerometric measure- ments are in some extent...integrated control process in the following way: 10 ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE PROGNOSTICS AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SOCIETY 2014 432 ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF

  3. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Compound Helicopter (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne


    A design and aeromechanics investigation was conducted for a 100,000-lb compound helicopter with a single main rotor, which is to cruise at 250 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. Performance, stability, and control analyses were conducted with the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II. Wind tunnel test measurements of the performance of the H-34 and UH-1D rotors at high advance ratio were compared with calculations to assess the accuracy of the analysis for the design of a high speed helicopter. In general, good correlation was obtained with the increase of drag coefficients in the reverse flow region. An assessment of various design parameters (disk loading, blade loading, wing loading) on the performance of the compound helicopter was made. Performance optimization was conducted to find the optimum twist, collective, tip speed, and taper using the comprehensive analysis. Blade twist was an important parameter on the aircraft performance and most of the benefit of slowing the rotor occurred at the initial 20 to 30% reduction of rotor tip speed. No stability issues were observed with the current design and the control derivatives did not change much with speed, but did exhibit significant coupling.

  4. Optimum Design of a Compound Helicopter (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne


    A design and aeromechanics investigation was conducted for a 100,000-lb compound helicopter with a single main rotor, which is to cruise at 250 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. Performance, stability, and control analyses were conducted with the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II. Wind tunnel test measurements of the performance of the H-34 and UH-1D rotors at high advance ratio were compared with calculations to assess the accuracy of the analysis for the design of a high speed helicopter. In general, good correlation was obtained when an increase of drag coefficients in the reverse flow region was implemented. An assessment of various design parameters (disk loading, blade loading, wing loading) on the performance of the compound helicopter was conducted. Lower wing loading (larger wing area) and higher blade loading (smaller blade chord) increased aircraft lift-to-drag ratio. However, disk loading has a small influence on aircraft lift-to-drag ratio. A rotor parametric study showed that most of the benefit of slowing the rotor occurred at the initial 20 to 30% reduction of the advancing blade tip Mach number. No stability issues were observed with the current design. Control derivatives did not change significantly with speed, but the did exhibit significant coupling.

  5. Validation of the Rotorcraft Flight Simulation Program (C81) for Articulated Rotor Helicopters through Correlation with Flight Data (United States)


    interested in using the CB1 program AA should be aware of th detailed, and conside and to become familia associated manuals fo vide enough...Sikorsky Aircraft Division; NASA CR-132546, National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Langley Directo- rate, U.S. Array Air Mobility...HELICOPTER STABILITY DERIVATIVE EXTRACTION METHOD, VOLUME II, United Aircraft Corporation, £ikorsky Aircraft Division; NASA CR-132372, National

  6. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.


    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.

  7. Variable Speed Rotor System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...

  8. Study on Helicopter Antitorque Device Based on Cross-Flow Fan Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Siliang


    Full Text Available In order to improve low-altitude flight security of single-rotor helicopter, an experimental model of a helicopter antitorque device is developed for wind tunnel test. The model is based on the flow control technology of the cross-flow fan (CFF. Wind tunnel tests show that the model can produce side force. It is concluded that the influence of the CFF rotating speed, the rotor collective pitch, and the forward flight speed on the side force of the model is great. At the same time, the numerical simulation calculation method of the model has been established. Good agreement between experimental and numerical side force and power shows that results of numerical solution are reliable. Therefore, the results in actual helicopter obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD solution are acceptable. This proves that this antitorque device can be used for a helicopter.

  9. Ordered array of CoPc-vacancies filled with single-molecule rotors (United States)

    Xie, Zheng-Bo; Wang, Ya-Li; Tao, Min-Long; Sun, Kai; Tu, Yu-Bing; Yuan, Hong-Kuan; Wang, Jun-Zhong


    We report the highly ordered array of CoPc-vacancies and the single-molecule rotors inside the vacancies. When CoPc molecules are deposited on Cd(0001) at low-temperature, three types of molecular vacancies appeared randomly in the CoPc monolayer. Annealing the sample to higher temperature leads to the spontaneous phase separation and self-organized arrangement of the vacancies. Highly ordered arrays of two-molecule vacancies and single-molecule vacancies have been obtained. In particular, there is a rotating CoPc molecule inside each single-molecule vacancy, which constitutes the array of single-molecule rotors. These results provide a new routine to fabricate the nano-machines on a large scale.

  10. A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Coaxial Rotor Aerodynamic Research (United States)

    Coleman, Colin P.


    The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.

  11. Advanced Airfoils Boost Helicopter Performance (United States)


    Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell

  12. Rotor Performance at High Advance Ratio: Theory versus Test (United States)

    Harris, Franklin D.


    Five analytical tools have been used to study rotor performance at high advance ratio. One is representative of autogyro rotor theory in 1934 and four are representative of helicopter rotor theory in 2008. The five theories are measured against three sets of well documented, full-scale, isolated rotor performance experiments. The major finding of this study is that the decades spent by many rotorcraft theoreticians to improve prediction of basic rotor aerodynamic performance has paid off. This payoff, illustrated by comparing the CAMRAD II comprehensive code and Wheatley & Bailey theory to H-34 test data, shows that rational rotor lift to drag ratios are now predictable. The 1934 theory predicted L/D ratios as high as 15. CAMRAD II predictions compared well with H-34 test data having L/D ratios more on the order of 7 to 9. However, the detailed examination of the selected codes compared to H-34 test data indicates that not one of the codes can predict to engineering accuracy above an advance ratio of 0.62 the control positions and shaft angle of attack required for a given lift. There is no full-scale rotor performance data available for advance ratios above 1.0 and extrapolation of currently available data to advance ratios on the order of 2.0 is unreasonable despite the needs of future rotorcraft. Therefore, it is recommended that an overly strong full-scale rotor blade set be obtained and tested in a suitable wind tunnel to at least an advance ratio of 2.5. A tail rotor from a Sikorsky CH-53 or other large single rotor helicopter should be adequate for this exploratory experiment.

  13. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensorless Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Caruso


    Full Text Available It is usual to find single-phase induction motor (SPIM in several house, office, shopping, farm, and industry applications, which are become each time more sophisticated and requiring the development of efficient alternatives to improve the operational performance of this machine. Although the rotor flux and rotational speed are essential variables in order to optimize the operation of a SPIM, the use of conventional sensors to measure them is not a viable option. Thus, the adoption of sensorless strategies is the more reasonable proposal for these cases. This paper presents a rotor flux and rotational speed observer for sensorless applications involving SPIMs. Computer simulations and the experimental results are used to verify the performance of the proposed observer.

  14. Basic helicopter aerodynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seddon, John M; Newman, Simon


    .... Concentrating on the well-known Sikorsky configuration of single main rotor with tail rotor, the authors avoid the lengthy mathematical treatment of some textbooks, thereby making the material...

  15. Modeling helicopter blade dynamics using a modified Myklestad-Prohl transfer matrix method


    Cuesta, Juan D.


    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Rotor blade vibratory stresses are of utmost importance in helicopter design. A modified Myklestad-Prohl method for rotating beams has been coded to assist in preliminary helicopter rotor blade design. The rotor blade dynamics program is part of the Joint Army/Navy Rotorcraft Analysis and Design (JANRAD) program which was developed to aid in the preliminary design and analysis of helicopter rotor performance, stability and control, and ro...

  16. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Harmonic Noise Radiation: Theory and Experiment (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.


    The effects of ambient atmospheric conditions, air temperature and density, on rotor harmonic noise radiation are characterized using theoretical models and experimental measurements of helicopter noise collected at three different test sites at elevations ranging from sea level to 7000 ft above sea level. Significant changes in the thickness, loading, and blade-vortex interaction noise levels and radiation directions are observed across the different test sites for an AS350 helicopter flying at the same indicated airspeed and gross weight. However, the radiated noise is shown to scale with ambient pressure when the flight condition of the helicopter is defined in nondimensional terms. Although the effective tip Mach number is identified as the primary governing parameter for thickness noise, the nondimensional weight coefficient also impacts lower harmonic loading noise levels, which contribute strongly to low frequency harmonic noise radiation both in and out of the plane of the horizon. Strategies for maintaining the same nondimensional rotor operating condition under different ambient conditions are developed using an analytical model of single main rotor helicopter trim and confirmed using a CAMRAD II model of the AS350 helicopter. The ability of the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique to generalize noise measurements made under one set of ambient conditions to make accurate noise predictions under other ambient conditions is also validated.

  17. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle with application to hybrid heavy lift helicopter dynamics (United States)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.


    The Hybrid Heavy Lift Helicopter (HHLH) is a potential candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure. Four rotor systems are also attached to the supporting structure. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modeling the dynamics of this multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed and used to study the fundamental aeromechanical stability characteristics of this class of vehicles. The mechanism of coupling between the blades, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified and the effect of buoyancy ratio (buoyant lift/total weight) on the vehicle dynamics is studied. It is shown that dynamics effects have a major role in the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  18. Helicopter controllability


    Carico, Dean


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The concept of helicopter controllability is explained. A background study reviews helicopter development in the U.S. General helicopter configurations, linearized equations of motion, stability, and piloting requirements are discussed. Helicopter flight controls, handling qualities, and associated specification are reviewed. Analytical, simulation and flight test methods for evaluating helicopter automatic flight control systems ar...

  19. FEM analysis of an single stator dual PM rotors axial synchronous machine (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Popa, G. N.


    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors. The proposed topologies, the magneto-motive force analysis and quasi 3D-FEM analysis are the core of the paper.

  20. A Hybrid Flight Control for a Simulated Raptor-30 V2 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter?s model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode.

  1. Wind-tunnel investigation of the effects of blade tip geometry on the interaction of torsional loads and performance for an articulated helicopter rotor (United States)

    Yeager, W. T.; Mantay, W. R.


    The Langley transonic dynamics tunnel was used to determine the degree of correlation between rotor performance and the dynamic twist generated by changes in blade tip geometry using an articulated rotor with four different tip geometries at advance ratios of 0.20, 0.30 and 0.35. Based on the data obtained, it is concluded that: (1) there appears to be no strong correlation between blade torsion loads and rotor performance prediction; (2) for a given rotor task at each advance ratio investigated, both the azimuthal variation of torsional moment and the mean torsional moment at 81% radius are configuration dependent; (3) reducing the nose down twist on the advancing blade appears to be more important to forward flight performance than increasing the nose down twist on the retreating blade; (4) the rotor inflow model used was important in predicting the performance of the adaptive rotor; and (5) neither rigid blade solidity effects, inflow environment, nor blade torsion loads can be used alone to accurately predict active rotor performance.

  2. Performance and Vibratory Loads Data From a Wind-Tunnel Test of a Model Helicopter Main-Rotor Blade With a Paddle-Type Tip (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Noonan, Kevin W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.


    An investigation was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to obtain data to permit evaluation of paddle-type tip technology for possible use in future U.S. advanced rotor designs. Data was obtained for both a baseline main-rotor blade and a main-rotor blade with a paddle-type tip. The baseline and paddle-type tip blades were compared with regard to rotor performance, oscillatory pitch-link loads, and 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads. Data was obtained in hover and forward flight over a nominal range of advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.425. Results indicate that the paddle-type tip offers no performance improvements in either hover or forward flight. Pitch-link oscillatory loads for the paddle-type tip are higher than for the baseline blade, whereas 4-per-rev vertical fixed-system loads are generally lower.

  3. Gust-Tunnel Investigation of the Effect of a Sharp-Edge Gust on the Flapwise Blade Bending Moments of a Model Helicopter Rotor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maglieri, Domenic


    Preliminary investigations have been made in the Langley gust tunnel to determine the effects of a sharp-edge vertical gust on the blade flapwise vibratory bending moments of small model rotors having...

  4. Estimation of single plane unbalance parameters of a rotor-bearing system using Kalman filtering based force estimation technique (United States)

    Shrivastava, Akash; Mohanty, A. R.


    This paper proposes a model-based method to estimate single plane unbalance parameters (amplitude and phase angle) in a rotor using Kalman filter and recursive least square based input force estimation technique. Kalman filter based input force estimation technique requires state-space model and response measurements. A modified system equivalent reduction expansion process (SEREP) technique is employed to obtain a reduced-order model of the rotor system so that limited response measurements can be used. The method is demonstrated using numerical simulations on a rotor-disk-bearing system. Results are presented for different measurement sets including displacement, velocity, and rotational response. Effects of measurement noise level, filter parameters (process noise covariance and forgetting factor), and modeling error are also presented and it is observed that the unbalance parameter estimation is robust with respect to measurement noise.

  5. Single Stator Dual PM Rotor Synchronous Machine with two-frequency single-inverter control, for the propulsion of hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topor Marcel


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel brushless, single winding and single stator, dual PM rotor axial-air-gap machine capable to deliver independently torque at the two rotors by adequate dual vector control. The proposed topologies, the circuit model, controlled dynamics simulation and preliminary 3D FEM torque production on a case study constitute the core of the paper. The proposed dual mechanical port system should be instrumental in parallel (with planetary gears or series hybrid electric vehicles (HEV aiming at a more compact and efficient electric propulsion system solution.

  6. Drag reduction of a transport helicopter by application of an adjoint-based fuselage optimization chain and modification of the rotor head


    Wentrup, Marc; Khier, Walid; Zhang, Qinyin


    In this paper two approaches are investigated to reduce the parasite drag of a helicopter. The first approach is to optimize the surface of the fuselage back door. This is done by applying an automatic, adjoint-based optimization chain; developed by DLR for these purposes. This optimization chain combines the RANS-solver TAU with a solver for the discrete adjoint equation and a conjugate-gradient based optimization algorithm. The parameterization is done by Free Form Deformation. A descriptio...

  7. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal


    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  8. An Empirical Study of Overlapping Rotor Interference for a Small Unmanned Aircraft Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Brazinskas


    Full Text Available The majority of research into full-sized helicopter overlapping propulsion systems involves co-axial setups (fully overlapped. Partially overlapping rotor setups (tandem, multirotor have received less attention, and empirical data produced over the years is limited. The increase in demand for compact small unmanned aircraft has exposed the need for empirical investigations of overlapping propulsion systems at a small scale (Reynolds Number < 250,000. Rotor-to-rotor interference at the static state in various overlapping propulsion system configurations was empirically measured using off the shelf T-Motor 16 inch × 5.4 inch rotors. A purpose-built test rig was manufactured allowing various overlapping rotor configurations to be tested. First, single rotor data was gathered, then performance measurements were taken at different thrust and tip speeds on a range of overlap configurations. The studies were conducted in a system torque balance mode. Overlapping rotor performance was compared to an isolated dual rotor propulsion system revealing interference factors which were compared to the momentum theory. Tests revealed that in the co-axial torque-balanced propulsion system the upper rotor outperforms the lower rotor at axial separation ratios between 0.05 and 0.85. Additionally, in the same region, thrust sharing between the two rotors changed by 21%; the upper rotor produced more thrust than the lower rotor at all times. Peak performance was recorded as a 22% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was greater than 0.25. The performance of a co-axial torque-balanced system reached a 27% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was equal to 0.05. The co-axial system swirl recovery effect was recorded to have a 4% efficiency gain in the axial separation ratio region between 0.05 and 0.85. The smallest efficiency loss (3% was recorded when the rotor separation ratio was between 0.95 and 1 (axial separation ratio was kept at 0

  9. Experimental studies of the rotor flow downwash on the Stability of multi-rotor crafts in descent (United States)

    Veismann, Marcel; Dougherty, Christopher; Gharib, Morteza


    All rotorcrafts, including helicopters and multicopters, have the inherent problem of entering rotor downwash during vertical descent. As a result, the craft is subject to highly unsteady flow, called vortex ring state (VRS), which leads to a loss of lift and reduced stability. To date, experimental efforts to investigate this phenomenon have been largely limited to analysis of a single, fixed rotor mounted in a horizontal wind tunnel. Our current work aims to understand the interaction of multiple rotors in vertical descent by mounting a multi-rotor craft in a low speed, vertical wind tunnel. Experiments were performed with a fixed and rotationally free mounting; the latter allowing us to better capture the dynamics of a free flying drone. The effect of rotor separation on stability, generated thrust, and rotor wake interaction was characterized using force gauge data and PIV analysis for various descent velocities. The results obtained help us better understand fluid-craft interactions of drones in vertical descent and identify possible sources of instability. The presented material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  10. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition (United States)

    Dixon, P. G. C.


    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  11. Attitude Control of a Single Tilt Tri-Rotor UAV System: Dynamic Modeling and Each Channel's Nonlinear Controllers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juing-Shian Chiou


    Full Text Available This paper has implemented nonlinear control strategy for the single tilt tri-rotor aerial robot. Based on Newton-Euler’s laws, the linear and nonlinear mathematical models of tri-rotor UAVs are obtained. A numerical analysis using Newton-Raphson method is chosen for finding hovering equilibrium point. Back-stepping nonlinear controller design is based on constructing Lyapunov candidate function for closed-loop system. By imitating the linguistic logic of human thought, fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs are designed based on control rules and membership functions, which are much less rigid than the calculations computers generally perform. Effectiveness of the controllers design scheme is shown through nonlinear simulation model on each channel.

  12. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng


    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  13. The Use of Commercial Remote Sensing Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions (United States)


    landing. 4 Figure 2. Soil caught in rotor downwash, start of brownout (from Brownout California soil resource lab) . A second issue ...Sensing in Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions. September 2006 (Top Secret). Tan, Kim H., First Edition, Enviromental Soil Science Marcel

  14. 76 FR 20490 - Special Conditions: Eurocopter France Model AS350B Series, AS350D, and EC130 Helicopters... (United States)


    ... operation. These helicopter models are capable of carrying up to six passengers with one pilot, and have a... features include a 3- blade, fully articulated main rotor, an anti-torque tail rotor system, a skid landing...

  15. Design model for bending vibrations of single-stage tunnel fan rotor (United States)

    Krasyuk, AM; Kosykh, PV


    Using of one-mass model of tunnel fan rotor is justified for estimation calculation of the natural bending vibrations frequency during the design stage. It’s shown that the evaluative computation of the main axial tunnel fan at the early design stage yields the acceptable accuracy. It is shown that after completion of the design, the mass of the stepped-type shaft differs from the mass of the calculated uniform-diameter shaft no more than by 40%. Inclusion of this additional mass in the estimation calculation makes it possible to improve the calculation accuracy. The region of the dimensionless rotor design parameters at which the relative difference of frequency in the evaluative and verification calculations is not higher than 5 % is determined.

  16. Research on modeling of the agile satellite using a single gimbal magnetically suspended CMG and the disturbance feedforward compensation for rotors. (United States)

    Cui, Peiling; Yan, Ning


    The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced.

  17. Research on Modeling of the Agile Satellite Using a Single Gimbal Magnetically Suspended CMG and the Disturbance Feedforward Compensation for Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yan


    Full Text Available The magnetically suspended Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG has the advantages of long-life, micro-vibration and being non-lubricating, and is the ideal actuator for agile maneuver satellite attitude control. However, the stability of the rotor in magnetic bearing and the precision of the output torque of a magnetically suspended CMG are affected by the rapid maneuvers of satellites. In this paper, a dynamic model of the agile satellite including a magnetically suspended single gimbal control moment gyroscope is built and the equivalent disturbance torque effected on the rotor is obtained. The feedforward compensation control method is used to depress the disturbance on the rotor. Simulation results are given to show that the rotor displacement is obviously reduced.

  18. Linear Time Invariant Models for Integrated Flight and Rotor Control (United States)

    Olcer, Fahri Ersel


    Recent developments on individual blade control (IBC) and physics based reduced order models of various on-blade control (OBC) actuation concepts are opening up opportunities to explore innovative rotor control strategies for improved rotor aerodynamic performance, reduced vibration and BVI noise, and improved rotor stability, etc. Further, recent developments in computationally efficient algorithms for the extraction of Linear Time Invariant (LTI) models are providing a convenient framework for exploring integrated flight and rotor control, while accounting for the important couplings that exist between body and low frequency rotor response and high frequency rotor response. Formulation of linear time invariant (LTI) models of a nonlinear system about a periodic equilibrium using the harmonic domain representation of LTI model states has been studied in the literature. This thesis presents an alternative method and a computationally efficient scheme for implementation of the developed method for extraction of linear time invariant (LTI) models from a helicopter nonlinear model in forward flight. The fidelity of the extracted LTI models is evaluated using response comparisons between the extracted LTI models and the nonlinear model in both time and frequency domains. Moreover, the fidelity of stability properties is studied through the eigenvalue and eigenvector comparisons between LTI and LTP models by making use of the Floquet Transition Matrix. For time domain evaluations, individual blade control (IBC) and On-Blade Control (OBC) inputs that have been tried in the literature for vibration and noise control studies are used. For frequency domain evaluations, frequency sweep inputs are used to obtain frequency responses of fixed system hub loads to a single blade IBC input. The evaluation results demonstrate the fidelity of the extracted LTI models, and thus, establish the validity of the LTI model extraction process for use in integrated flight and rotor control

  19. A passive infrared ice detection technique for helicopter applications (United States)

    Dershowitz, Adam L.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.


    A technique has been developed, and successfully tested, to detect icing remotely on helicopter rotor blades. Using passive infrared (IR) thermometry it is possible to detect the warming caused by latent heat released as supercooled water freezes. During icing, the ice accretion region on the leading edge of the blade is found to be warmer than the uniced trailing edge resulting in a chordwise temperature profile characteristic of icing. Preliminary tests, using an IR Thermal video system, were conducted on a static model in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for a variety of wet (glaze) and dry (rime) ice conditions. A prototype detector system was built consisting of a single point IR pyrometer, and experiments were run on a small scale rotor model. Using this prototype detector, the characteristic chordwise temperature profiles were again observed for a range of icing conditions. Several signal processing methods were investigated, to allow automatic recognition of the icing signature. Additionally, several implementation issues were considered. Based on both the static and subscale rotor tests, where ice was successfully detected, the passive IR technique appears to be promising for rotor ice detection.

  20. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.


    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  1. 76 FR 76068 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... would require inspecting certain main rotor blades for debonding of the erosion protective shell. If the erosion protective shell is debonded, you would be required to replace the main rotor blade with an... helicopter where debonding was discovered on a main rotor blade erosion protective shell, and it was...

  2. Helicopter Anti-Torque System Using Strakes (United States)

    Kelley, H. L.; Wilson, J. C.; Phelps, A. E. (Inventor)


    A helicopter is disclosed with a system for controlling main-rotor torque which reduces the power and size requirements of conventional anti-torque means. The torque countering forces are generated by disrupting the main rotor downwash flowing around the fuselage. The downwash flow is separated from the fuselage surface by a strake positioned at a specified location on the fuselage. This location is determined by the particular helicopter wash pattern and fuselage configuration, generally being located between 20 deg before top dead center (TDC) and 80 deg from TDC on the fuselage side to which the main rotor blade approaches during rotation. The strake extends along the fuselage from the cabin section to the aft end and can be continuous or separated for aerodynamic surfaces such as a horizontal stabilizer.

  3. Development of helicopter attitude axes controlled hover flight without pilot assistance and vehicle crashes (United States)

    Simon, Miguel

    In this work, we show how to computerize a helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight without the assistance of a pilot and without ever crashing. We start by developing a helicopter research test bed system including all hardware, software, and means for testing and training the helicopter to fly by computer. We select a Remote Controlled helicopter with a 5 ft. diameter rotor and 2.2 hp engine. We equip the helicopter with a payload of sensors, computers, navigation and telemetry equipment, and batteries. We develop a differential GPS system with cm accuracy and a ground computerized navigation system for six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) free flight while tracking navigation commands. We design feedback control loops with yet-to-be-determined gains for the five control "knobs" available to a flying radio-controlled (RC) miniature helicopter: engine throttle, main rotor collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, and tail rotor collective pitch. We develop helicopter flight equations using fundamental dynamics, helicopter momentum theory and blade element theory. The helicopter flight equations include helicopter rotor equations of motions, helicopter rotor forces and moments, helicopter trim equations, helicopter stability derivatives, and a coupled fuselage-rotor helicopter 6-DoF model. The helicopter simulation also includes helicopter engine control equations, a helicopter aerodynamic model, and finally helicopter stability and control equations. The derivation of a set of non-linear equations of motion for the main rotor is a contribution of this thesis work. We design and build two special test stands for training and testing the helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight, starting with one axis at a time and progressing to multiple axes. The first test stand is built for teaching and testing controlled flight of elevation and yaw (i.e., directional control). The second test stand is built for teaching and

  4. Design, development, and testing of a mini solid state adaptive rotor (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Schliesman, Michael; Frye, Phillip


    The design principles, analytical models, construction methods and test results for a new type of solid state adaptive rotor (SSAR) are presented. A pair of directionally attached piezoelectric (DAP) torque-plates were fabricated and attached to the root of a 23.5' diameter helicopter rotor assembly. The DAP torque-plate tips were joined to a pair of graphite-epoxy servopaddles which were moved in pitch by the action of the torque-plates. The torque-plates were constructed from a single aluminum substrate and PZT-5H DAP elements mounted symmetrically at 45 degrees. Electrical signals were carried to the DAP torque-plates via a shielded brush and rotating contact assembly. A series of non-rotating static tests were conducted on the rotor, demonstrating servopaddle pitch deflections up to plus or minus 5.8 degrees and good correlation with classical laminated plate theory. Non rotating dynamic testing showed a system natural frequency in excess of 2.5/rev and good correlation with inertial models. Because the servopaddles were aeroelastically tailored to balance out propeller moments, deflection degradation with increasing rotor speed was barely noticeable up to plus or minus 1 degree pitch levels. However, as rotor speed increased, total servopaddle deflections in the rotating frame at 1600 rpm (full speed) were degraded, but still operated up to plus or minus 2.7 degrees in pitch. To conclude the study, the rotor was attached to a converted Kyosho Hyperfly electric helicopter. Flight tests demonstrated fundamental controllability. A system-level comparison showed that the SSAR Hyperfly experienced a 40% drop in flight control system weight, an 8% cut in total gross weight, a 26% decrease in parasite drag and a part count reduction from 94 components to 5.

  5. Optimized design and structural mechanics of a single-piece composite helicopter driveshaft (United States)

    Henry, Todd C.

    In rotorcraft driveline design, single-piece composite driveshafts have much potential for reducing driveline mass and complexity over multi-segmented metallic driveshafts. The singlepiece shaft concept is enabled by the relatively high fatigue strain capacity of fiber reinforced polymer composites over metals. Challenges for single-piece driveshaft design lie in addressing the self-heating behavior of the composite due to the material damping, as well as, whirling stability, torsional buckling stability, and composite strength. Increased composite temperature due to self-heating reduces the composite strength and is accounted for in this research. The laminate longitudinal stiffness ( Ex) and strength (Fx) are known to be heavily degraded by fiber undulation, however, both are not well understood in compression. The whirling stability (a function of longitudinal stiffness) and the composite strength are strongly influential in driveshaft optimization, and thus are investigated further through the testing of flat and filament wound composite specimens. The design of single-piece composite driveshafts, however, needs to consider many failure criteria, including hysteresis-induced overheating, whirl stability, torsional buckling stability, and material failure by overstress. The present investigation uses multi-objective optimization to investigate the design space which visually highlights design trades. Design variables included stacking sequence, number of laminas, and number of hanger bearings. The design goals were to minimize weight and maximize the lowest factor of safety by adaptively generating solutions to the multi-objective problem. Several design spaces were investigated by examining the effect of misalignment, ambient temperature, and constant power transmission on the optimized solution. Several materials of interest were modeled using experimentally determined elastic properties and novel temperature-dependent composite strength. Compared to the

  6. Helicopter stability and control modeling improvements and verification on two helicopters (United States)

    Schrage, D. P.; Peters, D. A.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Stumpf, W. F.; He, Chengjian


    A linearized model of helicopter flight dynamics is developed which includes the flapping, lead-lag, and dynamic inflow degrees of freedom (DOF). The model is a combination of analytical terms and numerically determined stability derivatives, and is used to investigate the importance of the rotor DOF to stability and control modeling. The results show that the rotor DOF can have a significant impact on some of the natural modes in a linear model. The flap and dynamic inflow DOF show the greatest influence. Flapping exhibits strong coupling to the body, dynamic inflow, and to lead-lag to a lesser extent. Dynamic inflow tends to damp the high-frequency flapping modes, and reduces the damping on coupled body-flap motion. Dynamic inflow also couples to the flapping motion to produce complex roots. With body-flap and lag regressing modes as exceptions, the results show essentially similar behavior for most modes of articulated and hingeless rotor helicopters.

  7. Optimal autorotational descent of a helicopter with control and state inequality constraints (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.


    A point-mass model of the OH-58A helicopter has been used to ascertain the autorotation profiles which minimize helicopter impact velocity while remaining within the bounds of the main rotor's collective pitch and angular speed. The optimal control strategies are comparable to those employed by pilots in autorotational landings. It is noted that a possibility exists for the reduction of the height-sink rate restriction zone of OH-58A helicopters, using optimal energy-management techniques.

  8. Helicopter Aeromechanics (United States)


    In the past, the helicopter industry has been less aggresive in rursuing the poten- tial benefits of large computers than the fixed-wing aircraft...blade dynamics which is the subject of another conference in this lecture series. The same program also predicts blade flapping behavior . The...edge show very similar azimuthal flight at 0.9R and !=900 (NASA flight tests), from behavior . Figure 51 shows that the sensor at 0.91c can be used as a

  9. A single term expression of ground band level energies of a soft rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.B.; Kavathekar, A.K.; Sharma, R.


    A single term expression in the form of a Power law with two unknown coefficients is proposed. It explains fairly well the energies of ground bands in even-even nuclei in the A = 150-200 region. The index ''b'' and the coefficient ''a'' in this expression are fairly constant independent of the level spin, below the back bending energy. Variation of average ''a'' and ''b'' with Z and N, and with the valence nucleon pair product N p N n is also illustrated and agrees with general expectations. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available This article is aimed at finding the causes of controllability variations of a helicopter while transporting sling load.The maximum angular acceleration taken by the helicopter at similar controller displacement at different flight speeds was taken as a quantity characteristic of controllability efficiency to study the load impact on the helicopter cont- rollability.This article offers research results obtained with the use of the НеliСargо software. This software has proven to be a great tool for integrated research of the impact of an underslung load on the parameters of a helicopter controllability, and allows carrying out an analysis of the impact of an underslung load on the parameters of controllability under its dyna- mic behavior.The performed computational experiments have shown that the helicopter maximum angular acceleration with an underslung load significantly rises, as compared to a helicopter without cargo or a helicopter carrying the same load inside the cargo compartment. The data obtained during computational experiments corresponds to the results of analytical computations, and is in line with the literature based on the experience of helicopter flight operations.The cause of the variation in the helicopter controllability parameters during transportation of an underslung load has been found, that is - the underslung load considerably increases the main rotor thrust, due to sling load, as compared to a helicopter without cargo. When compared to a helicopter carrying a load inside the cargo compartment, this increased efficiency is mainly attributed to the fact that a helicopter with an underslung load has lower rotational inertia, since the load is not inside the cargo compartment, but outside.The obtained results can be used to improve flight manuals and flight personnel training publications, which could play a significant part in ensuring flight safety and security, and increasing the operational efficiency of

  11. Nonlinear Feedforward Control for Wind Disturbance Rejection on Autonomous Helicopter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan


    This paper presents the design and verification of a model based nonlinear feedforward controller for wind disturbance rejection on autonomous helicopters. The feedforward control is based on a helicopter model that is derived using a number of carefully chosen simplifications to make it suitable...... for the purpose. The model is inverted for the calculation of rotor collective and cyclic pitch angles given the wind disturbance. The control strategy is then applied on a small helicopter in a controlled wind environment and flight tests demonstrates the effectiveness and advantage of the feedforward controller....

  12. Research requirements to reduce civil helicopter life cycle cost (United States)

    Blewitt, S. J.


    The problem of the high cost of helicopter development, production, operation, and maintenance is defined and the cost drivers are identified. Helicopter life cycle costs would decrease by about 17 percent if currently available technology were applied. With advanced technology, a reduction of about 30 percent in helicopter life cycle costs is projected. Technological and managerial deficiencies which contribute to high costs are examined, basic research and development projects which can reduce costs include methods for reduced fuel consumption; improved turbine engines; airframe and engine production methods; safety; rotor systems; and advanced transmission systems.

  13. Flight dynamics investigation of compound helicopter configurations


    Ferguson, Kevin; Thomson, Douglas


    Compounding has often been proposed as a method to increase the maximum speed of the helicopter. There are\\ud two common types of compounding known as wing and thrust compounding. Wing compounding offloads the\\ud rotor at high speeds delaying the onset of retreating blade stall, hence increasing the maximum achievable speed,\\ud whereas with thrust compounding, axial thrust provides additional propulsive force. There has been a resurgence\\ud of interest in the configuration due to the emergenc...

  14. Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) concept definition study (United States)

    Hughes, C. W.


    Studies were conducted by Hughes Helicopters, Inc. (HHI) for the Applied Technology Laboratory and Aeromechanics Laboratory, U.S. Army Research and Technology Laboratories (AVRADCOM) and the Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Results of predesign studies of advanced main rotor hubs, including bearingless designs, are presented in this report. In addition, the Government's rotor design goals and specifications were reviewed and evaluated. Hub concepts were designed and qualitatively evaluated in order to select the two most promising concepts for further development. Various flexure designs, control systems, and pitchcase designs were investigated during the initial phases of this study. The two designs selected for additional development were designated the V-strap and flat-strap cruciform hubs. These hubs were designed for a four bladed rotor and were sized for 18,400 pounds gross weight with the same diameter (62 feet) and solidity (23 inch chord) as the existing rotor on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA).

  15. 77 FR 42958 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 (all versions) and BO-105LS... tail rotor pitch link and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: This AD becomes... improperly swaged spherical bearing on the pitch link, which could result in loss of tail rotor control and...

  16. 75 FR 53857 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA330J Helicopters (United States)


    ... gearbox (MGB) oil cooling fan assembly (fan) rotor blade and the upper section of the guide vane bearing... feeler gauge cannot be inserted between the blade and the housing, this AD requires replacing the two fan... helicopters, which requires, within 10 hours TIS, inspecting for a gap between the MGB fan rotor blade and the...

  17. Coupled flight dynamics and CFD - demonstration for helicopters in shipborne environment


    Crozon, C.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G.N.


    The development of high-performance computing and computational fluid dynamics methods have evolved to the point where it is possible to simulate complete helicopter configurations with good accuracy. Computational fluid dynamics methods have also been applied to problems such as rotor/fuselage and main/tail rotor interactions, performance studies in hover and forward flight, rotor design, and so on. The GOAHEAD project is a good example of a coordinated effort to validate computational fluid...

  18. 77 FR 70360 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment of the... tail rotor drive shaft free-wheel cage, which caused a pilot to experience a heavy jerk in the yaw.... That NPRM proposed to require inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment...

  19. Conceptual engineering design studies of 1985-era commercial VTOL and STOL transports that utilize rotors (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Widdison, C. A.


    Conceptual design studies are summarized of tandem-rotor helicopter and tilt-rotor aircraft for a short haul transport mission in the 1985 time frame. Vertical takeoff designs of both configurations are discussed, and the impact of external noise criteria on the vehicle designs, performance, and costs are shown. A STOL design for the tilt-rotor configuration is reported, and the effect of removing the vertical takeoff design constraints on the design parameters, fuel economy, and operating cost is discussed.

  20. Hybrid magnetorheological fluid elastomeric lag dampers for helicopter stability augmentation (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.


    A laboratory demonstration of a hybrid magnetorheological fluid-elastomeric (MRFE) damper is investigated for adjustable or programmable lag mode damping in helicopters, so that damping requirements can be varied as a function of different flight conditions. The laboratory demonstration of this hybrid MRFE lag damper consists of a double lap shear elastomeric damper in parallel with two magnetorheological (MR) flow mode dampers. This is compared to a damper where only elastomeric materials are implemented, i.e., a double lap shear specimen. The relationship between the output force and the quasi-steady harmonic displacement input to a flow mode MR damper is exploited, where the output force can be adjusted as a function of applied magnetic field. Equivalent viscous damping is used to compare the damping characteristics of the hybrid damper to a conventional elastomeric damper under steady-state sinusoidal displacement excitation. To demonstrate feasibility, a hybrid MRFE damper test setup is designed, and single frequency (lag frequency or rotor in-plane bending frequency) and dual frequency (lag frequency and rotor frequency) tests are conducted under different magnetic fields. The hybrid MRFE damper exhibits amplitude-dependent damping behavior. However, with application of a magnetic field, the damping level is controlled to a specific damping level objective as a function of displacement amplitude. Similarly, under dual frequency conditions, damping degradation at the lag frequency, because of lag motion at the rotor frequency, can also be recovered by increasing magnetic field. A time-domain analysis is developed to study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper. Using rate-dependent elasto-slides, the amplitude-dependent behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper is accurately reconstructed using both constant and current-dependent (i.e. controllable) parameters. The analysis is physically motivated and can be applied to the elastomer and MR fluid

  1. Comprehensive Modeling and Analysis of Rotorcraft Variable Speed Propulsion System With Coupled Engine/Transmission/Rotor Dynamics (United States)

    DeSmidt, Hans A.; Smith, Edward C.; Bill, Robert C.; Wang, Kon-Well


    This project develops comprehensive modeling and simulation tools for analysis of variable rotor speed helicopter propulsion system dynamics. The Comprehensive Variable-Speed Rotorcraft Propulsion Modeling (CVSRPM) tool developed in this research is used to investigate coupled rotor/engine/fuel control/gearbox/shaft/clutch/flight control system dynamic interactions for several variable rotor speed mission scenarios. In this investigation, a prototypical two-speed Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) is proposed and designed to achieve 50 percent rotor speed variation. The comprehensive modeling tool developed in this study is utilized to analyze the two-speed shift response of both a conventional single rotor helicopter and a tiltrotor drive system. In the tiltrotor system, both a Parallel Shift Control (PSC) strategy and a Sequential Shift Control (SSC) strategy for constant and variable forward speed mission profiles are analyzed. Under the PSC strategy, selecting clutch shift-rate results in a design tradeoff between transient engine surge margins and clutch frictional power dissipation. In the case of SSC, clutch power dissipation is drastically reduced in exchange for the necessity to disengage one engine at a time which requires a multi-DCT drive system topology. In addition to comprehensive simulations, several sections are dedicated to detailed analysis of driveline subsystem components under variable speed operation. In particular an aeroelastic simulation of a stiff in-plane rotor using nonlinear quasi-steady blade element theory was conducted to investigate variable speed rotor dynamics. It was found that 2/rev and 4/rev flap and lag vibrations were significant during resonance crossings with 4/rev lagwise loads being directly transferred into drive-system torque disturbances. To capture the clutch engagement dynamics, a nonlinear stick-slip clutch torque model is developed. Also, a transient gas-turbine engine model based on first principles mean

  2. Some thoughts on the implementation of pilot night vision devices for helicopters (United States)

    Tucker, G. E.


    Night vision enhancement devices greatly expand the range and quality of services by extending night operational capabilities. Evolving military tactical concepts for helicopters survivability and battlefield effectiveness necessitate nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flying under both day and night conditions. From a pilot workload standpoint, flying a helicopter NOE in day VFR conditions with minimum clearance between rotors and obstacles is quite demanding. Doing the same job at night is several times more difficult. There are two general categories of night vision devices in operation in helicopter aviation: the Night Vision Goggles (NVG) and forward looking infrared (FLIR) system. The capabilities and limitations of those two devices are discussed.

  3. Development of an Attitude Sensor for a Cm-Sized Helicopter (United States)

    Sunada, Shigeru; Tokutake, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Kenta

    Our developed cm-sized helicopter is inclined with a large pitch angle by the nose down moment generated by the aft propeller when it goes forward and when it keeps its position against a wind. This is because the ratio of parasite drag to the gravitational force is larger for a smaller helicopter. And the horizontal component of aerodynamic force generated by the main rotors, which equals the parasite drag, should be larger. Then, a small and lightweight attitude sensor was newly developed to measure the large pitching angle of the helicopter and to control the rotational speed of the aft propeller. The principle is same as that of a solar sensor.

  4. Aeromechanics and Aeroacoustics Predictions of the Boeing-SMART Rotor Using Coupled-CFD/CSD Analyses (United States)

    Bain, Jeremy; Sim, Ben W.; Sankar, Lakshmi; Brentner, Ken


    This paper will highlight helicopter aeromechanics and aeroacoustics prediction capabilities developed by Georgia Institute of Technology, the Pennsylvania State University, and Northern Arizona University under the Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP) sponsored by the Tactical Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). First initiated in 2004, the goal of the HQP was to develop high fidelity, state-of-the-art computational tools for designing advanced helicopter rotors with reduced acoustic perceptibility and enhanced performance. A critical step towards achieving this objective is the development of rotorcraft prediction codes capable of assessing a wide range of helicopter configurations and operations for future rotorcraft designs. This includes novel next-generation rotor systems that incorporate innovative passive and/or active elements to meet future challenging military performance and survivability goals.

  5. 78 FR 7308 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters (United States)


    ... Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Helicopter Textron Canada (BHTC) Model 407 helicopters with certain tailboom assemblies installed. This... to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays...

  6. 77 FR 18970 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters (United States)


    ... Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 407 helicopters. This proposed AD is... through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket: You may examine the AD docket on the...

  7. Helicopter Non-Unique Trim Strategies for Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise Reduction (United States)


    amplitude from the full-scale UH-60A main rotor wind tunnel test (Ref. 10) by adjusting the tip vortex core size. Predictions from two analytical...angle on approach. Joint NASA/Army research programs, including wind tunnel and flight testing, have identified technologies that could offer...blade, however, is narrower and has a shorter radius than the S-92 helicopter. Instrumented UH-60/S-70 rotors have been the subject of numerous wind

  8. Dovetail Rotor Construction For Permanent-Magnet Motors (United States)

    Kintz, Lawrence J., Jr.; Puskas, William J.


    New way of mounting magnets in permanent-magnet, electronically commutated, brushless dc motors. Magnets wedge shaped, tapering toward center of rotor. Oppositely tapered pole pieces, electron-beam welded to rotor hub, retain magnets against centrifugal force generated by spinning rotor. To avoid excessively long electron-beam welds, pole pieces assembled in segments rather than single long bars.

  9. Boeing Smart Rotor Full-scale Wind Tunnel Test Data Report (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Hagerty, Brandon; Salazar, Denise


    A full-scale helicopter smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor test was conducted in the USAF National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames. The SMART rotor system is a five-bladed MD 902 bearingless rotor with active trailing-edge flaps. The flaps are actuated using piezoelectric actuators. Rotor performance, structural loads, and acoustic data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles of attack, thrust, and airspeeds. The primary test objective was to acquire unique validation data for the high-performance computing analyses developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP). Other research objectives included quantifying the ability of the on-blade flaps to achieve vibration reduction, rotor smoothing, and performance improvements. This data set of rotor performance and structural loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies with other full-scale rotor systems and for analytical validation of computer simulation models. The purpose of this final data report is to document a comprehensive, highquality data set that includes only data points where the flap was actively controlled and each of the five flaps behaved in a similar manner.

  10. Selected Problems Of Transmission Wear Of The Mi-24 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gębura Andrzej


    Full Text Available The hypothesis of mutual, destructive impact of the worn upper bearing of the WR-24 transmission on the Mi-24 helicopter's gearbox was stated. The Mi-24 is the only helicopter operated in Poland, in which the gearbox is mounted outside the main transmission – in the centre of the transmission shaft, between the main gearbox and the tail rotor. Damage to the gears in the gearbox of power generators is equivalent to termination of the tail rotor's drive. Such a termination immediately causes rotation of the body in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the main rotor. It is associated with the loss of lift and steering. It may lead to a disaster. Such an incident occurred in January 2011 in Afghanistan – both authors participated in its investigation. The authors, taking into account very good, almost legendary combat properties of the Mi-24, and their research of the specifics of wear and tear of the transmission elements, they think that, first, funds for development and implementation of the drive unit monitoring system should be made available specially for this helicopter. For this purpose, the authors propose to use the FAM-C method. It is characterised with significant ergonomics. Thank to this, multiple kinematic pairs can be observed simultaneously, and, therefore, the relationships between them as well.

  11. A bistable mechanism for chord extension morphing rotors (United States)

    Johnson, Terrence; Frecker, Mary; Gandhi, Farhan


    Research efforts have shown that helicopter rotor blade morphing is an effective means to improve flight performance. Previous example of rotor blade morphing include using smart-materials for trailing deflection and rotor blade twist and tip twist, the development of a comfortable airfoil using compliant mechanisms, the use of a Gurney flap for air-flow deflection and centrifugal force actuated device to increase the span of the blade. In this paper we explore the use of a bistable mechanism for rotor morphing, specifically, blade chord extension using a bistable arc. Increasing the chord of the rotor blade is expected to generate more lift-load and improve helicopter performance. Bistable or "snap through" mechanisms have multiple stable equilibrium states and are a novel way to achieve large actuation output stroke. Bistable mechanisms do not require energy input to maintain a stable equilibrium state as both states do not require locking. In this work, we introduce a methodology for the design of bistable arcs for chord morphing using the finite element analysis and pseudo-rigid body model, to study the effect of different arc types, applied loads and rigidity on arc performance.

  12. Methods for Expanding Rotary Wing Aircraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems to the Rotating Frame through Real-time Rotor Blade Kinematics Estimation (United States)

    Allred, Charles Jefferson

    Since the advent of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) in the early 1990's, there has been a steady decrease in the number of component failure related helicopter accidents. Additionally, measurable cost benefits due to improved maintenance practices based on HUMS data has led to a desire to expand HUMS from its traditional area of helicopter drive train monitoring. One of the areas of greatest interest for this expansion of HUMS is monitoring of the helicopter rotor head loads. Studies of rotor head load and blade motions have primarily focused on wind tunnel testing with technology which would not be applicable for production helicopter HUMS deployment, or measuring bending along the blade, rather than where it is attached to the rotor head and the location through which all the helicopter loads pass. This dissertation details research into finding methods for real time methods of estimating rotor blade motion which could be applied across helicopter fleets as an expansion of current HUMS technology. First, there is a brief exploration of supporting technologies which will be crucial in enabling the expansion of HUMS from the fuselage of helicopters to the rotor head: wireless data transmission and energy harvesting. A brief overview of the commercially available low power wireless technology selected for this research is presented. The development of a relatively high-powered energy harvester specific to the motion of helicopter rotor blades is presented and two different prototypes of the device are shown. Following the overview of supporting technologies, two novel methods of monitoring rotor blade motion in real time are developed. The first method employs linear displacement sensors embedded in the elastomer layers of a high-capacity laminate bearing of the type commonly used in fully articulated rotors throughout the helicopter industry. The configuration of these displacement sensors allows modeling of the sensing system as a robotic parallel

  13. Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)


    Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)

  14. Analytical investigation of rotor wake formation and geometry (United States)

    Miller, R.; Murman, E. M.


    A number of refinements in the computer code were worked out and tested. Three codes have been written to date. One program is for an isolated wing and is being used to compare with data for the vortex wake (Weston). The second code is for an isolated wing with a streamwise vortex passing above it. This program is being used to validate the computational procedure for incorporating the vortex into the Euler equation calculations. The third program is the hovering rotor code which is the overall objective of the research. The optimization calculations for a hovering helicopter rotor have been completed.

  15. Analysis of small-scale rotor hover performance data (United States)

    Kitaplioglu, Cahit


    Rotor hover-performance data from a 1/6-scale helicopter rotor are analyzed and the data sets compared for the effects of ambient wind, test stand configuration, differing test facilities, and scaling. The data are also compared to full scale hover data. The data exhibited high scatter, not entirely due to ambient wind conditions. Effects of download on the test stand proved to be the most significant influence on the measured data. Small-scale data correlated resonably well with full scale data; the correlation did not improve with Reynolds number corrections.

  16. 78 FR 48599 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    .... This AD requires inspecting for debonding of the erosion protective shell (abrasion strip) on the... during an inspection on a BO105 helicopter, debonding was found on the erosion protective shell of a main rotor blade, and investigation showed the debonding was caused by incorrect installation of the erosion...

  17. Technology for vertical flight. 5. Flight control and autopilot; Helicopter kogaku no kiso to oyo. 5. soju sochi to jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Y.; Yamada, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The paper explained a flight control of helicopter. Fundamental compositional elements of the flight control of helicopter are a pilot operating device, linkage, centering device/trimming gear, and actuator. The related device is an autopilot which is for controllability and reduction of work loads of pilot. In the fixed wing aircraft, the wing generating lift, engine giving thrust, and aileron/rudder/elevator in charge of control are playing each role. However, in helicopter, a rotor plays 3 roles: lift generation, going ahead, and control of fuselage. As to the control method, the control stick and pedal are operated in the fixed wing aircraft, and the cyclic stick and pedal are operated also in helicopter. In addition, another control stick, collective stick, is also operated. In this operation, lift of rotor increases/decreases to control the vertical movement of fuselage. (NEDO)

  18. Terfenol-D driven flaps for helicopter vibration reduction (United States)

    Fenn, Ralph C.; Downer, James R.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Ham, Norman D.


    The utility of helicopter aviation is limited by the high vibration levels caused by the interaction of each rotor blade with the wake of preceding blades. Existing full-blade actuation using a swashplate has various problems such as insufficient bandwidth, limitations in the number of harmonics controlled, high maintenance, and lack of spanwise lift variation. These problems are avoided by the proposed flap operated, individual blade control system, which uses magnetostrictive actuation technology. Terfenol-D actuation has many advantages over competing technologies such as hydraulic systems, electric motors, and piezoelectric elements. These benefits include all-electric operation, simplicity and reliability, low mass, low voltage, and insensitivity to centripetal acceleration. A blade mounted Terfenol-D actuator was developed for the high-weight-penalty helicopter application. The optimum coil to Terfenol-D volume ratio was derived that gives the highest mechanical power output for a small actuator envelope and mass. A fixed ability to dissipate coil resistive losses is assumed. The magnetostrictive actuation system will weigh less than 1% of gross vehicle weight, and use only 0.7% of cruise power. Other required subsystems of the vibration reduction system are available from commercial sources or are described in the literature. Helicopter vibration reduction greater than 90% is predicted because of superior actuator performance and individual blade control. This magnetostrictive actuator technology will also produce future helicopter systems having lower noise and higher performance. Such advances will significantly improve the utility and competitiveness of helicopters for civilian and military transportation.

  19. SMART Rotor Development and Wind-Tunnel Test (United States)

    Lau, Benton H.; Straub, Friedrich; Anand, V. R.; Birchette, Terry


    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California at Los Angeles, and University of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center, figure 1. The SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing-edge flap on each blade. The development effort included design, fabrication, and component testing of the rotor blades, the trailing-edge flaps, the piezoelectric actuators, the switching power amplifiers, the actuator control system, and the data/power system. Development of the smart rotor culminated in a whirl-tower hover test which demonstrated the functionality, robustness, and required authority of the active flap system. The eleven-week wind tunnel test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor noise analysis, and quantified the effects of open- and closed-loop active-flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness and the reliability of the flap actuation system were successfully demonstrated in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing. The data acquired and lessons learned will be instrumental in maturing this technology and transitioning it into production. The development effort, test hardware, wind-tunnel test program, and test results will be presented in the full paper.

  20. Preliminary investigation of the control of a gas-turbine engine for a helicopter / Richard P. Krebs (United States)

    Krebs, Richard P


    An analog investigation of the power plant for a gas-turbine powered helicopter indicates that currently proposed turbine-propeller engine controls are satisfactory for helicopter application. Power increases from one-half to full rated at altitudes from sea level to 15,000 feet could be made in less than 4 seconds with either the rotor or propellers absorbing the engine power.

  1. A wind-tunnel investigation of parameters affecting helicopter directional control at low speeds in ground effect (United States)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Young, W. H., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.


    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to measure the performance of several helicopter tail-rotor/fin configurations with regard to directional control problems encountered at low speeds in ground effect. Tests were conducted at wind azimuths of 0 deg to 360 deg in increments of 30 deg and 60 deg and at wind speeds from 0 to 35 knots. The results indicate that at certain combinations of wind speed and wind azimuth, large increases in adverse fin force require correspondingly large increases in the tail-rotor thrust, collective pitch, and power required to maintain yaw trim. Changing the tail-rotor direction of rotation to top blade aft for either a pusher tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing away from fin) or a tractor tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing against fin) will alleviate this problem. For a pusher tail rotor at 180 deg wind azimuth, increases in the fin/tail-rotor gap were not found to have any significant influence on the overall vehicle directional control capability. Changing the tail rotor to a higher position was found to improve tail-rotor performance for a fin-off configuration at a wind azimuth of 180 deg. A V-tail configuration with a pusher tail rotor with top blade aft direction of rotation was found to be the best configuration with regard to overall directional control capability.

  2. Open Rotor Development (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.


    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  3. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang L. Wang


    Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device

  4. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 2 (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R.; Alexander, H. R.


    Results of conceptual design studies of tilt rotor and tandem helicopter aircraft for a 200 nautical mile commercial short haul transport mission are presented. The trade study data used in selecting the design point aircraft and technology details necessary to support the design conclusions are included.

  5. Development of a snubber type magnetorheological fluid elastomeric lag damper for helicopter stability augmentation (United States)

    Ngatu, Grum T.

    Most advanced helicopter rotors are typically fitted with lag dampers, such as elastomeric or hybrid fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag dampers, which have lower parts counts, are lighter in weight, easier to maintain, and more reliable than conventional hydraulic dampers. However, the damping and stiffness properties of elastomeric and fluid elastomeric lag dampers are non-linear functions of lag/rev frequency, dynamic lag amplitude, and operating temperature. It has been shown that elastomeric damping and stiffness levels diminish markedly as amplitude of damper motion increases. Further, passive dampers tend to present severe damping losses as damper operating temperature increases either due to in-service self-heating or hot atmospheric conditions. Magnetorheological (MR) dampers have also been considered for application to helicopter rotor lag dampers to mitigate amplitude and frequency dependent damping behaviors. MR dampers present a controllable damping with little or no stiffness. Conventional MR dampers are similar in configuration to linear stroke hydraulic type dampers, which are heavier, occupy a larger space envelope, and are unidirectional. Hydraulic type dampers require dynamic seal to prevent leakage, and consequently, frequent inspections and maintenance are necessary to ensure the reliability of these dampers. Thus, to evaluate the potential of combining the simplicity and reliability of FE and smart MR technologies in augmenting helicopter lag mode stability, an adaptive magnetorheological fluid-elastomeric (MRFE) lag damper is developed in this thesis as a retrofit to an actual fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag damper. Consistent with the loading condition of a helicopter rotor system, single frequency (lag/rev) and dual frequency (lag/rev at 1/rev) sinusoidal loading were applied to the MRFE damper at varying temperature conditions. The complex modulus method was employed to linearly characterize and compare the performance of the MRFE damper with the

  6. Ultra-heavy vertical lift system: The Heli-Stat. [helicopter - airship combination for materials handling (United States)

    Piasecki, F. N.


    A hybrid VTOL airship which is combined with helicopters is evaluated. The static lift of the airship supports approximately the full empty weight of the entire assembly. The helicopter rotors furnish the lift to support the payload as well as the propulsion and control about all axes. Thus existing helicopters, with no new technology required, can be made to lift payloads of ten times the capacity of each one alone, and considerably more than that of any airship built so far. A vehicle is described which has a 75-ton payload, based on four existing CH-53D helicopters and an airship of 3,600,000 cu. ft. The method of interconnection is described along with discussion of control, instrumentation, drive system and critical design conditions. The vertical lift and positioning capabilities of this vehicle far exceed any other means available today, yet can be built with a minimum of risk, development cost and time.

  7. Implementation of a Helicopter Flight Simulator with Individual Blade Control (United States)

    Zinchiak, Andrew G.


    Nearly all modern helicopters are designed with a swashplate-based system for control of the main rotor blades. However, the swashplate-based approach does not provide the level of redundancy necessary to cope with abnormal actuator conditions. For example, if an actuator fails (becomes locked) on the main rotor, the cyclic inputs are consequently fixed and the helicopter may become stuck in a flight maneuver. This can obviously be seen as a catastrophic failure, and would likely lead to a crash. These types of failures can be overcome with the application of individual blade control (IBC). IBC is achieved using the blade pitch control method, which provides complete authority of the aerodynamic characteristics of each rotor blade at any given time by replacing the normally rigid pitch links between the swashplate and the pitch horn of the blade with hydraulic or electronic actuators. Thus, IBC can provide the redundancy necessary for subsystem failure accommodation. In this research effort, a simulation environment is developed to investigate the potential of the IBC main rotor configuration for fault-tolerant control. To examine the applications of IBC to failure scenarios and fault-tolerant controls, a conventional, swashplate-based linear model is first developed for hover and forward flight scenarios based on the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The linear modeling techniques for the swashplate-based helicopter are then adapted and expanded to include IBC. Using these modified techniques, an IBC based mathematical model of the UH-60 helicopter is developed for the purposes of simulation and analysis. The methodology can be used to model and implement a different aircraft if geometric, gravimetric, and general aerodynamic data are available. Without the kinetic restrictions of the swashplate, the IBC model effectively decouples the cyclic control inputs between different blades. Simulations of the IBC model prove that the primary control functions can be manually

  8. Hybrid magnetorheological fluid–elastomeric lag dampers for helicopter stability augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wei; Wereley, Norman M


    A laboratory demonstration of a hybrid magnetorheological fluid–elastomeric (MRFE) damper is investigated for adjustable or programmable lag mode damping in helicopters, so that damping requirements can be varied as a function of different flight conditions. The laboratory demonstration of this hybrid MRFE lag damper consists of a double lap shear elastomeric damper in parallel with two magnetorheological (MR) flow mode dampers. This is compared to a damper where only elastomeric materials are implemented, i.e., a double lap shear specimen. The relationship between the output force and the quasi-steady harmonic displacement input to a flow mode MR damper is exploited, where the output force can be adjusted as a function of applied magnetic field. Equivalent viscous damping is used to compare the damping characteristics of the hybrid damper to a conventional elastomeric damper under steady-state sinusoidal displacement excitation. To demonstrate feasibility, a hybrid MRFE damper test setup is designed, and single frequency (lag frequency or rotor in-plane bending frequency) and dual frequency (lag frequency and rotor frequency) tests are conducted under different magnetic fields. The hybrid MRFE damper exhibits amplitude-dependent damping behavior. However, with application of a magnetic field, the damping level is controlled to a specific damping level objective as a function of displacement amplitude. Similarly, under dual frequency conditions, damping degradation at the lag frequency, because of lag motion at the rotor frequency, can also be recovered by increasing magnetic field. A time-domain analysis is developed to study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper. Using rate-dependent elasto-slides, the amplitude-dependent behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper is accurately reconstructed using both constant and current-dependent (i.e. controllable) parameters. The analysis is physically motivated and can be applied to the elastomer and MR fluid

  9. Development of an aeroelastic methodology for surface morphing rotors (United States)

    Cook, James R.

    Helicopter performance capabilities are limited by maximum lift characteristics and vibratory loading. In high speed forward flight, dynamic stall and transonic flow greatly increase the amplitude of vibratory loads. Experiments and computational simulations alike have indicated that a variety of active rotor control devices are capable of reducing vibratory loads. For example, periodic blade twist and flap excitation have been optimized to reduce vibratory loads in various rotors. Airfoil geometry can also be modified in order to increase lift coefficient, delay stall, or weaken transonic effects. To explore the potential benefits of active controls, computational methods are being developed for aeroelastic rotor evaluation, including coupling between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) solvers. In many contemporary CFD/CSD coupling methods it is assumed that the airfoil is rigid to reduce the interface by single dimension. Some methods retain the conventional one-dimensional beam model while prescribing an airfoil shape to simulate active chord deformation. However, to simulate the actual response of a compliant airfoil it is necessary to include deformations that originate not only from control devices (such as piezoelectric actuators), but also inertial forces, elastic stresses, and aerodynamic pressures. An accurate representation of the physics requires an interaction with a more complete representation of loads and geometry. A CFD/CSD coupling methodology capable of communicating three-dimensional structural deformations and a distribution of aerodynamic forces over the wetted blade surface has not yet been developed. In this research an interface is created within the Fully Unstructured Navier-Stokes (FUN3D) solver that communicates aerodynamic forces on the blade surface to University of Michigan's Nonlinear Active Beam Solver (UM/NLABS -- referred to as NLABS in this thesis). Interface routines are developed for

  10. Wind Tunnel Test of the SMART Active Flap Rotor (United States)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Anand, Vaidyanthan R.; Birchette, Terrence S.; Lau, Benton H.


    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, DARPA, MIT, UCLA, and U. of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. The Boeing SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing edge flap on each blade. The eleven-week test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor at speeds up to 155 knots, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor aero-acoustic analysis, and quantified the effects of open and closed loop active flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness of the active flap control on noise and vibration was conclusively demonstrated. Results showed significant reductions up to 6dB in blade-vortex-interaction and in-plane noise, as well as reductions in vibratory hub loads up to 80%. Trailing-edge flap deflections were controlled within 0.1 degrees of the commanded value. The impact of the active flap on control power, rotor smoothing, and performance was also demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing.

  11. Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Drag Characteristics of an HU2K Helicopter Fuselage (United States)

    Scallion, William I.


    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the drag characteristics of the HU2K helicopter fuselage. The effects of body shape, engine operation, appendages, and leakage on the model drag were determined. The results of the tests showed that the largest single contribution to the parasite drag was that of the rotor hub installation which produced about 80 percent of the drag of the sealed and faired production body. Fairings on the rotor hub and blade retentions, or a cleaned-up hub and retentions, appeared to be the most effective single modifications tested. The total drag of all protuberances and air leakage also contributed a major part of the drag - an 83-percent increase over the drag of the sealed and faired production body. An additional increment of drag was caused by the basic shape of the fuselage - 19 percent more than the drag obtained when the fuselage shape was extensively refaired. Another sizable increment of drag was caused by the engine oil-cooler exit which gave a drag of 8 percent of that of the sealed and faired production body.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of bearingless rotors - Model development and experimental correlation of modes, response, trim and stability (United States)

    Jambunathan, V.; Murthy, V. R.


    A generic mathematical model that is capable of accurately modeling the multiple load path bearingless rotor blade is developed. A comprehensive, finite element based solution for the natural vibration of the rotor blade is developed. An iterative scheme based on harmonic balance is used to evaluate the nonlinear response of the rotor to control inputs and a Newton-Raphson procedure is employed to evaluate the trim of rotorcraft. Linearized perturbation model of the nonlinear system are presented. The model is validated by comparing with existing whirl tower, wind tunnel and flight test results of BMR/BO-105 helicopter. Frequencies of two bearingless rotor blades compare well with results from experiments. Nonlinear response and trim results are presented for the bearingless BMR/BO-105 rotor. Aeroelastic stability in forward flight, evaluated using floquet theory agrees with test data in general.

  13. Simultaneous Boundary-Layer Transition, Tip Vortex, and Blade Deformation Measurements of a Rotor in Hover (United States)

    Heineck, James; Schairer, Edward; Ramasamy, Manikandan; Roozeboom, Nettie


    This paper describes simultaneous optical measurements of a sub-scale helicopter rotor in the U.S. Army Hover Chamber at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements included thermal imaging of the rotor blades to detect boundary layer transition; retro-reflective background-oriented schlieren (RBOS) to visualize vortices; and stereo photogrammetry to measure displacements of the rotor blades, to compute spatial coordinates of the vortices from the RBOS data, and to map the thermal imaging data to a three-dimensional surface grid. The test also included an exploratory effort to measure flow near the rotor tip by tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo PIV)an effort that yielded valuable experience but little data. The thermal imaging was accomplished using an image-derotation method that allowed long integration times without image blur. By mapping the thermal image data to a surface grid it was possible to accurately locate transition in spatial coordinates along the length of the rotor blade.

  14. Analysis of the wind tunnel test of a tilt rotor power force model (United States)

    Marr, R. L.; Ford, D. G.; Ferguson, S. W.


    Two series of wind tunnel tests were made to determine performance, stability and control, and rotor wake interaction on the airframe, using a one-tenth scale powered force model of a tilt rotor aircraft. Testing covered hover (IGE/OCE), helicopter, conversion, and airplane flight configurations. Forces and moments were recorded for the model from predetermined trim attitudes. Control positions were adjusted to trim flight (one-g lift, pitching moment and drag zero) within the uncorrected test data balance accuracy. Pitch and yaw sweeps were made about the trim attitudes with the control held at the trimmed settings to determine the static stability characteristics. Tail on, tail off, rotors on, and rotors off configurations were testes to determine the rotor wake effects on the empennage. Results are presented and discussed.

  15. Development of a piezoelectric actuator for trailing-edge flap control of rotor blades (United States)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Ngo, Hieu T.; Anand, V.; Domzalski, David B.


    Piezoelectric actuator technology has now reached a level where macro-positioning applications in the context of smart structures can be considered. One application with high payoffs is vibration reduction, noise reduction, and performance improvements in helicopters. Integration of piezoelectric actuators in the rotor blade is attractive, since it attacks the problem at the source. The present paper covers the development of a piezoelectric actuator for trailing edge flap control on a 34-foot diameter helicopter main rotor. The design of an actuator using bi-axial stack columns, and its bench, shake, and spin testing are described. A series of enhancements lead to an improved version that, together with use of latest stack technology, meets the requirements. Next steps in this DARPA sponsored program are development of the actuator and full scale rotor system for wind tunnel testing in the NASA Ames 40 X 80 foot wind tunnel and flight testing on the MD Explorer.

  16. Design, construction and characterization of a flightworthy piezoelectric solid state adaptive rotor (United States)

    Barrett, Ron; Frye, Phillip; Schliesman, Michael


    The development of a new type of flightworthy adaptive rotor system is presented. By building upon earlier adaptive rotor work, a new miniature solid state adaptive rotor (SSAR) was built using directionally attached piezoelectric (DAP) torque-plates controlling Hiller servopaddles. These servopaddles change the rotor disk tilt and thereby induce changes in forces and moments for flight control. To demonstrate the concept, a 23.5 in diameter helicopter rotor was built using DAP servopaddles at the hub. The servopaddles were constructed from PZT-5H piezoceramic actuator sheets bonded symmetrically at 0964-1726/7/3/017/img1. An aluminum substrate and a high temperature cure was used to provide precompression. Analytical modeling was accomplished by laminated plate theory along with strip theory aerodynamics and inertial relations. Because propeller moments are proportional to servopaddle deflections at a fixed rotational speed, it was possible to cancel them out by balancing an aeroelastic coupling between the center of mass, aerodynamic center and elastic axis. Bench testing of the SSAR showed that the rotor system could produce static servopaddle deflections in excess of 0964-1726/7/3/017/img2 with good agreement between theory and experiment. With the spinning rotor, the servopaddles demonstrated dynamic capability in excess of 0964-1726/7/3/017/img3. As the rotor speed was increased, deviations between linear theory and experiment also increased. Nonetheless, the rotor still demonstrated 0964-1726/7/3/017/img4 servopaddle deflections at full rotor speed (1600 RPM). A detailed weight statement of the conventional and SSAR systems shows that the SSAR helicopter experienced a 40% reduction in flight control system weight, which resulted in an 8% cut in total aircraft gross weight, a 26% drop in parasite drag and a drop in flight control system part count from 94 components down to five.

  17. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) (United States)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.


    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  18. in Rotor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sperling


    Full Text Available Synchronous elimination as one of the possible methods of cancelling any harmful vibration resulting from the unbalance of rotary machines is considered. This method, introduced by Fesca and Thearle, involves the placement of unbalanced elements (e.g. ring, pendulum, ball balancers on the rotor axis, which can occupy any angular position in relation to the rotor. Under defined conditions in the postcritical frequency range, there is a spontaneous placement of the corection elements such that they balance the rotor unbalance. Hedaya and Sharp generalized this method by combining two force balancers to compensate the unbalanced moment as well as the unbalanced force of a rigid rotor.

  19. Fast Fourier transform analysis of rotor-bearing systems (United States)

    Choy, K. C.; Gunter, E. J.; Allaire, P. E.


    Nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is becoming increasingly important in the analysis of modern-day rotating machinery to model such phenomena as oil film whirl. This paper develops an analysis technique incorporating modal analysis and fast Fourier transform techniques to analyze rotors with residual shaft bow and realistic nonlinear bearings. The technique is demonstrated on single-mass and three-mass rotor examples. Comparisons of the theoretical results with experimental data give excellent agreement.

  20. Nonlinear State Estimation and Modeling of a Helicopter UAV (United States)

    Barczyk, Martin

    Experimentally-validated nonlinear flight control of a helicopter UAV has two necessary conditions: an estimate of the vehicle’s states from noisy multirate output measurements, and a nonlinear dynamics model with minimum complexity, physically controllable inputs and experimentally identified parameter values. This thesis addresses both these objectives for the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL)'s helicopter UAV project. A magnetometer-plus-GPS aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) for outdoor flight as well as an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) for indoor testing are designed, implemented and experimentally validated employing an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), using a novel calibration technique for the magnetometer aiding sensor added to remove the limitations of an earlier GPS-only aiding design. Next the recently-developed nonlinear observer design methodology of invariant observers is adapted to the aided INS and AHRS examples, employing a rotation matrix representation for the state manifold to obtain designs amenable to global stability analysis, obtaining a direct nonlinear design for gains of the AHRS observer, modifying the previously-proposed Invariant EKF systematic method for computing gains, and culminating in simulation and experimental validation of the observers. Lastly a nonlinear control-oriented model of the helicopter UAV is derived from first principles, using a rigid-body dynamics formulation augmented with models of the on-board subsystems: main rotor forces and blade flapping dynamics, the Bell-Hiller system and flybar flapping dynamics, tail rotor forces, tail gyro unit, engine and rotor speed, servo operation, fuselage drag, and tail stabilizer forces. The parameter values in the resulting models are identified experimentally. Using these the model is further simplified to be tractable for model-based control design.

  1. Model Predictive Control for a Small Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfu Du


    Full Text Available Kinematical and dynamical equations of a small scale unmanned helicoper are presented in the paper. Based on these equations a model predictive control (MPC method is proposed for controlling the helicopter. This novel method allows the direct accounting for the existing time delays which are used to model the dynamics of actuators and aerodynamics of the main rotor. Also the limits of the actuators are taken into the considerations during the controller design. The proposed control algorithm was verified in real flight experiments where good perfomance was shown in postion control mode.

  2. A flight dynamics investigation of compound helicopter configurations


    Ferguson, K.; Thomson, D.


    Compounding has often been proposed as a method to increase the maximum speed of the helicopter. There are two\\ud common types of compounding known as wing and thrust compounding. Wing compounding offloads the rotor at\\ud high speeds delaying the onset of retreating blade stall, hence increasing the maximum achieveable speed, whereas\\ud with thrust compounding, axial thrust provides additional propulsive force. The concept of compounding is not new\\ud but recently there has been a resurgence o...

  3. Design of a squeeze-film damper for a multi-mass flexible rotor (United States)

    Cunningham, R. E.; Fleming, D. P.; Gunter, E. J.


    A single mass flexible rotor analysis was used to optimize the stiffness and damping of a flexible support for a symmetric five-mass rotor. The flexible support attenuates the rotor motions and forces transmitted to the support bearings when the rotor operates through and above its first bending critical speed. An oil squeeze-film damper was designed based on short bearing lubrication theory. The damper design was verified by an unbalance response computer program. Rotor amplitudes were reduced by a factor of 16 and loads reduced by a factor of 36 compared with the same rotor on rigid bearing supports.

  4. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

  5. Helicopter collision avoidance and brown-out recovery with HELLAS (United States)

    Seidel, Christian; Schwartz, Ingo; Kielhorn, Peter


    EADS Germany is the world market leader in commercial and military Helicopter Laser Radar (HELLAS) Obstacle Warning Systems. The HELLAS-Warning System has been introduced into the market in 2000, is in service at German Federal Police and Royal Thai Air Force. HELLAS was also successfully evaluated by the Foreign Comparative Test Program (FCT) of the U.S. Army and other governmental agencies. Currently the successor system for military applications, HELLAS-Awareness, is in qualification phase. It will have extended sensor performance, enhanced real-time data processing capabilities and advanced human machine interface (HMI) features. Flight tests on NH90 helicopter have been successfully performed. Helicopter series integration is scheduled to begin from 2009. We will give an outline of the new sensor unit concerning detection technology and helicopter integration aspects. The system provides a widespread field of view with additional dynamic line of sight steering and a large detection range in combination with a high frame rate. We will show the HMI representations. This HELLAS system is the basis for a 3 dimensional see-and-remember-system for brown-out recovery. When landing in sandy or dusty areas the downwash of the helicopter rotor causes clouds of visually-restrictive material that can completely obstruct the pilot's outside reference, resulting in a complete loss of situational awareness and spatial orientation of the pilot which can end up in total loss of aircraft control and dangerous accidents. The brown-out recovery system presented here creates an augmented enhanced synthetic vision of the landing area with the surrounding which is based on HELLAS range image data as well as altimeter and inertial reference information.

  6. A review of ice accretion data from a model rotor icing test and comparison with theory (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.; Bond, Thomas H.


    An experiment was conducted by the Helicopter Icing Consortium (HIC) in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in which a 1/6 scale fuselage model of a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter with a generic rotor was subjected to a wide range of icing conditions. The HIC consists of members from NASA, Bell Helicopter, Boeing Helicopter, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters, Sikorsky Aircraft, and Texas A&M University. Data was taken in the form of rotor torque, internal force balance measurements, blade strain gage loading, and two dimensional ice shape tracings. A review of the ice shape data is performed with special attention given to repeatability and correctness of trends in terms of radial variation, rotational speed, icing time, temperature, liquid water content, and volumetric median droplet size. Moreover, an indepth comparison between the experimental data and the analysis of NASA's ice accretion code LEWICE is given. Finally, conclusions are shown as to the quality of the ice accretion data and the predictability of the data base as a whole. Recommendations are also given for improving data taking technique as well as potential future work.

  7. Helicopter Fatigue Design Guide (United States)


    Utility Tactical Troop Carrying Heavy Lift Air Force: Transport Search and Rescue The sheer scale of the costs of designing and developing a modern...torsion, the latter being related to piano wire and stainless steel 18.8. To my knowledge a 25 % improvement can be ob- tained by shot peening on actual...N testing is not in the test itself, but in the sheer number of tests to be conducted. A modern helicopter may have from 75 to 100 fatigue

  8. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation (United States)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.


    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  9. Performance results from a test of an S-76 rotor in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel (United States)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.; Johnson, Wayne


    A full-scale helicopter rotor wind tunnel test has been conducted which covers a wide range of rotor-shaft angles-of-attack and 0-100 kt thrust conditions. The hover performance data thus obtained were compared with the results of momentum theory calculations; forward flight rotor-performance data were compared with calculations from a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis. These comparisons suggest that hover testing at an outdoor facility in the absence of ground effect is required to make a final determination of the absolute accuracy of the wind tunnel hover data.

  10. Assessing inspection sensitivity as it relates to damage tolerance in composite rotor hubs (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk


    Increasing niche applications, growing international markets, and the emergence of advanced rotorcraft technology are expected to greatly increase the population of helicopters over the next decade. In terms of fuselage fatigue, helicopters show similar trends as fixed-wing aircraft. The highly unsteady loads experienced by rotating wings not only directly affect components in the dynamic systems but are also transferred to the fixed airframe structure. Expanded use of rotorcraft has focused attention on the use of new materials and the optimization of maintenance practices. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center (AANC) at Sandia National Labs has joined with Bell Helicopter andother agencies in the rotorcraft industry to evaluate nondestructive inspection (NDI) capabilities in light of the damage tolerance of assorted rotorcraft structure components. Currently, the program's emphasis is on composite rotor hubs. The rotorcraft industry is constantly evaluating new types of lightweight composite materials that not only enhance the safety and reliability of rotor components but also improve performance and extended operating life as well. Composite rotor hubs have led to the use of bearingless rotor systems that are less complex and require less maintenance than their predecessors. The test facility described in this paper allows the structural stability and damage tolerance of composite hubs to be evaluated using realistic flight load spectrums of centrifugal force and bending loads. NDI was integrated into the life-cycle fatigue tests in order to evaluate flaw detection sensitivity simultaneously wiht residual strength and general rotor hub peformance. This paper will describe the evolving use of damage tolerance analysis (DTA) to direct and improve rotorcraft maintenance along with the related use of nondestructive inspections to manage helicopter safety. OVeralll, the data from this project will provide information to improve the producibility, inspectability

  11. 78 FR 1730 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Helicopters (United States)


    ... 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with certain starter/generator power cable assemblies (power cable... 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with starter/generator power cable assemblies (power cable... assemblies using the parts contained in starter/generator kit P/N CT205-07-94-1, perform a continuity test...

  12. 77 FR 42421 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation... (AD) superseding an existing airworthiness directive for Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model... through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining The AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the...

  13. Main rotor six degree-of-freedom isolation system analysis (United States)

    Eastman, L. B.


    The design requirements of the system have been defined and an isolator concept satisfies these requirements identified. Primary design objectives for the isolation system are 90% attenuation of all NP main rotor shaft loads at a weight penalty less than or equal to 1% of design gross weight. The configuration is sized for a UH-60A BLACK HAWK helicopter and its performance, risk, and system integration were evaluated through a series of parametric studies. Preliminary design was carried forward to insure that the design is practical and that the details of the integration of the isolator into the helicopter system are considered. Alternate ground and flight test demonstration programs necessary to verify the proposed isolator design are defined.

  14. Comparison of Computed and Measured Vortex Evolution for a UH-60A Rotor in Forward Flight (United States)

    Ahmad, Jasim Uddin; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Kao, David L.


    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using the Navier-Stokes equations was performed to determine the evolutionary and dynamical characteristics of the vortex flowfield for a highly flexible aeroelastic UH-60A rotor in forward flight. The experimental wake data were acquired using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) during a test of the fullscale UH-60A rotor in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The PIV measurements were made in a stationary cross-flow plane at 90 deg rotor azimuth. The CFD simulation was performed using the OVERFLOW CFD solver loosely coupled with the rotorcraft comprehensive code CAMRAD II. Characteristics of vortices captured in the PIV plane from different blades are compared with CFD calculations. The blade airloads were calculated using two different turbulence models. A limited spatial, temporal, and CFD/comprehensive-code coupling sensitivity analysis was performed in order to verify the unsteady helicopter simulations with a moving rotor grid system.

  15. Control Law Design for Twin Rotor MIMO System with Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilyas


    Full Text Available Modeling of complex air vehicles is a challenging task due to high nonlinear behavior and significant coupling effect between rotors. Twin rotor multi-input multioutput system (TRMS is a laboratory setup designed for control experiments, which resembles a helicopter with unstable, nonlinear, and coupled dynamics. This paper focuses on the design and analysis of sliding mode control (SMC and backstepping controller for pitch and yaw angle control of main and tail rotor of the TRMS under parametric uncertainty. The proposed control strategy with SMC and backstepping achieves all mentioned limitations of TRMS. Result analysis of SMC and backstepping control schemes elucidates that backstepping provides efficient behavior with the parametric uncertainty for twin rotor system. Chattering and oscillating behaviors of SMC are removed with the backstepping control scheme considering the pitch and yaw angle for TRMS.

  16. Study of the Army Helicopter Design Hover Criterion Using Temperature and Pressure Altitude (United States)


    Words) Ambient temperature and altitude are used to determine design points for helicopters. In this paper, pressure altitude is used to...Ground Effect; Pressure Altitude, Design Points, ACMES: Advanced Climate Modeling and Environmental Simulations 1. Abstract Ambient temperature and...of ambient air. Both compressibility and air density determine the amount of work that a rotor has to accomplish in order to propel a rotorcraft

  17. Flight test of a digital controller used in a helicopter autoland system (United States)

    Downing, David R.; Bryant, Wayne H.


    This paper describes the flight test evaluation of an advanced digital helicopter flight control system. The controller was designed using an optimal control design procedure for a fully coupled lateral and longitudinal vehicle model. Explicit integrals of the guidance error were included to produce a type 1 characteristic. Gain scheduling was used to account for changes in the vehicle dynamics. The digital controller was exercised by combining it with state estimators, a trajectory generator, and a closed-loop guidance algorithm to form a helicopter autoland system. A CH-47 tandem rotor helicopter was equipped with sensors, on-board digital flight computers, and electrohydraulic actuators. The system was exercised by automatically flying straight-in descending decelerating trajectories typcial of VFR manual landing approaches. A description of the test-ground facilities, the flight hardware and software, and the velocity and position tracking performance is included.

  18. Generator rotor dovetail cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.


    In the presentation the dovetail control and recommended arrangements of the large steam turbine generators are described. The company General Electric established a complete package comprising working schedule of rotor control and solutions of the problems of the dovetail cracking of the large steam turbine generator rotors with long-term operation. A part of the article is also the recommended packet including more items. (author)

  19. A study of the effects of Rotating Frame Turbulence (RFT) on helicopter flight mechanics (United States)

    Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. B.; Gaonkar, G. H.


    The turbulence actually experienced by a helicopter blade-element significantly differs from the space-fixed free atmospheric turbulence. The turbulence in the rotor disk requires a rotationally sampled description in a rotating frame of reference. It is referred to as the rotating frame turbulence or RFT which exhibits a striking phenomenon. The RFT spectral density versus frequency shows high peak values at 1P,2P, or 3P, frequencies. The energy increase at these peaks is balanced by an energy decrease primarily at the lower-than-1P frequency range. Particularly for low altitude flight regimes of pure helicopters, such as the nap-of-the-earth maneuvers, the conventional space-fixed description of turbulence is not a good approximation, since the turbulence scale length can have values comparable to the rotor radius. Accordingly the flight mechanics characteristics with RFT description are compared with those based on the conventional space-fixed turbulence description. The results demonstrate that the RFT qualitatively and quantitatively affects the prediction of helicopter flight mechanics characteristics in turbulence. Such comparisons should play an important role in the new development of handling qualities specifications for helicopters.

  20. World helicopter market study (United States)

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.


    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  1. Helicopter Reliability Growth Evaluation (United States)


    a)A LO 44LA N4 r1i H-P 1)H CD 0 4 4J ~4J N4 N t40 4-) 1 P4 t41 0 0 0 u z 0 UN 0 010 ON r- UN 0 z 4-) o 0 N O LA 0 N- mA kID - Ln W r- 0 m 1 Y L rdO Ln...growth-c~urves. Reliability gkowth measuremenht define~d by RPM :is not sutbefor ’helicopter$. When.pgrh intensity is dha ~iged. to Alter the qrdwth ratd

  2. 76 FR 10489 - Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 407 Helicopter, Installation of... (United States)


    ... control functions, since this model helicopter has been certificated to meet the applicable requirements... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 27 Special Conditions: Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Model 407 Helicopter, Installation of a Hoh Aeronautics, Inc. Autopilot/ Stabilization Augmentation...

  3. Helicopter Icing Review. (United States)


    on the ground or could be injurious to per- sons on the ground. Ice on the rotor hub and fuselage may become critical in a flight transitioning from...0 uE -4- c -) U. c-j -- 0- CL) - lCA AC) O C-)) 41 4J 4- -C -I Q -. x 0 s- =U. A S (U C C -- () : -) -_ __ _r__ . -( ___ 4)a -)r ’ ) - 0 n - 1 3092

  4. Swashplateless Helicopter Experimental Investigation: Primary Control with Trailing Edge Flaps Actuated with Piezobenders (United States)

    Copp, Peter

    V/cm (limited by depoling). An undocumented phenomenon is found called bender relaxation where the benders lose over half of their initial DC stroke over time. While the bender stiffness is shown not to change with electric field, the DC stroke is significantly less than AC stroke. A two-bladed Mach-scale rotor is constructed with each blade containing 2 flaps each actuated by a single piezobender. Each flap is 26.5% chord and 14% span for a total of 28% span centered at 75% of the blade radius. Flap motion of greater than 10 degrees half peak-peak is obtained for all 4 flaps at 900 RPM on the hoverstand. So, the flaps show promise for the Mach-scale rotor speed of 2400 RPM. A PID loop is implemented for closed loop control of flap amplitude and mean position. On the hoverstand at 900 RPM, the swashplateless concept is demonstrated. The linear springs used to lower the torsional frequency are shown to have minimum friction during rotation. 1/rev blade pitching of +/-1 degree is achieved at a torsional frequency of 1.5/rev for each blade. At resonance, the blade pitching for each blade is greater than +/-4 degrees. Primary control is demonstrated by measuring hub forces and moments. At resonance state, the flaps in conjunction with the blade pitching provide +/-15 lbs of normal force at a mean lift of 15 lbs yielding +/-100% lift authority. Significant hub forces and moments are produced as well. For a production swashplateless helicopter, it may be prudent to eliminate the pitch links by reducing the blade structural stiffness. A novel wire sensor system network is proposed in order to measure blade elastic flap bending, lead-lag bending and torsion. The theory for measuring blade twist is rigorously derived. A blade is constructed with the wire sensor network and validated on the benchtop for blade elastic bending and twist. This work is a step forward in achieving a swashplateless rotor system. Not only would this reduce drag in high speed forward flight, but it would lead to

  5. Stability and control issues associated with lightly loaded rotors autorotating in high advance ratio flight (United States)

    Rigsby, James Michael

    Interest in high speed rotorcraft has directed attention toward the slowed-rotor, high advance ratio compound autogyro concept as evidenced by the current DARPA Heliplane project. The behavior of partially unloaded rotors, autorotating at high advance ratio is not well understood and numerous technical issues must be resolved before the vehicle can be realized. Autorotation in helicopters usually indicates an emergency loss of power. For the concept vehicle autorotation is the normal working state of the rotor. The necessity for a reduction in rotor speed with increasing flight speed results in high advance ratio operation where the retreating side of the rotor is dominated by the reverse flow region. Further, rotor speed changes also affect the rotor dynamics and the associated hub moments generated by cyclic flapping. The result is rotor characteristics that vary widely depending on advance ratio. In the present work, rotor behavior is characterized in terms of issues relevant to the control system conceptual design and the rotor impact on the intrinsic vehicle flight dynamics characteristics. A series of trim, stability, and control analyses, based on features inherent in the concept vehicle, are performed. Trends are identified through parametric variation of rotor operating conditions, augmented by inclusion of the sensitivities to blade mass and blade stiffness properties. In this research, non-linear models, including the rotor speed degree of freedom, were created and analyzed with FLIGHTLAB(TM) rotorcraft modeling software. Performance analysis for rotors trimmed to autorotate with zero average hub pitching and rolling moments indicates reduced rotor thrust is achieved primarily through rotor speed reduction at lower shaft incidence angle, and imposing hub moment trim constraints results in a thrust increment sign reversal with collective pitch angle above advance ratio mu ˜ 1.0. Swashplate control perturbations from trim indicate an increase in control

  6. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Test of an Unpowered High-Speed Stoppable Rotor Concept in Fixed-Wing Mode (United States)

    Lance, Michael B.; Sung, Daniel Y.; Stroub, Robert H.


    An experimental investigation of the M85, a High Speed Rotor Concept, was conducted at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Tunnel, assisted by NASA-Ames. An unpowered 1/5 scale model of the XH-59A helicopter fuselage with a large circular hub fairing, two rotor blades, and a shaft fairing was used as a baseline configuration. The M85 is a rotor wing hybrid aircraft design, and the model was tested with the rotor blade in the fixed wing mode. Assessments were made of the aerodynamic characteristics of various model rotor configurations. Variation in configurations were produced by changing the rotor blade sweep angle and the blade chord length. The most favorable M85 configuration tested included wide chord blades at 0 deg sweep, and it attained a system lift to drag ratio of 8.4.

  7. Development and tests of large nuclear turbo-generator welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombie, H.; Thiery, M.; Rotzinger, R.; Pelissou, C.; Tabacco, C.; Fernagut, V.


    Turbo-generators require large forgings for the rotor and it is a worldwide practice to manufacture turbo-generator rotor bodies as single piece forgings. Rotors for nuclear applications (4-pole rotors design, 1500/1800 rpm) require forgings of up to 2.0 m diameter and ultra large ingots with weight more than 500 tons. Nowadays only few forge masters can deliver such forgings in the world. Based on the large welding experience Alstom has gained over decades on steam and gas turbines and Alstom's multi piece shrunk turbo-generator rotors, it was suggested to manufacture 4-pole turbo-generator rotors by welding the shaft from aligned cylindrical forgings. Compared to turbine welded rotors, the shaft of a turbo-generator rotor presents differences linked to dimensions/weight, weld depth and electrical application. The manufacture of a 2 disc model allowed to prove through electrical and mechanical analysis the reliability of the concept as well as the reliability of the manufacturing processes through material tests, micro sections, electrical component tests, weld geometry, welding processes (TIG,SAW,...), weld inspection (Ultrasonic testing, radiographic inspection,...) weld heat treatments and machining. Then a full rotor able to replace a single forging rotor was manufactured in order to validate and prove to potential customers the validity of the welded rotor technology. During the first order from EDF of a welded 900 MW spare rotor, the procedure for the Non Destructive Test on a slotted rotor was developed upon EDF request in order to compare future Non Destructive Testing with the finger print of the new rotor. This complete rotor was delivered to EDF in January 2013. This rotor is in operation in a nuclear unit since November 2013. (authors)

  8. 77 FR 23638 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Incorporated Helicopters (United States)


    ..., environmental, energy, or federalism impacts that might result from adopting the proposals in this document. The...-121-9. These grips, installed on Model 205B, 210, and 212 helicopters, are currently unlimited in...

  9. Conceptual design studies of 1985 commercial VTOL transports that utilized rotors, Volume 1 (United States)

    Magee, J. P.; Clark, R. D.; Alexander, H. R.


    Results of conceptual design studies of commercial rotary wing transport aircraft for the 1985 time period are presented. Two aircraft configurations, a tandem helicopter and a tilt rotor, were designed for a 200 nautical mile short haul mission with an upper limit of 100 passengers. In addition to the baseline aircraft two further designs of each configuration are included to assess the impact of external noise design criteria on the aircraft size, weight, and cost.

  10. The Influence of Rotor Unbalance on Turbocharger Rotor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knotek Jiří


    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of an unbalance on turbocharger rotor dynamics. The structural model of the turbocharger rotor and the hydrodynamic model of the journal floating ring bearing are described and assembled in multibody dynamics software. Moreover, the paper presents various results describing rotor dynamics where the influence of an unbalance is discussed.

  11. 78 FR 9309 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc., Helicopters (United States)


    ... 600N helicopters with a NOTAR fan blade T-T strap part number (P/N) 500N5311-5 and MDHI Model MD900... fan blade tension-torsion strap (T-T strap), part number (P/N) 500N5311-5; and MDHI Model MD900.... (MDHI) Model 500N, 600N and MD900 helicopters to require determining the cure date for each NOTAR fan...

  12. Helicopter Gas Turbine Engine Performance Analysis : A Multivariable Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arush, Ilan; Pavel, M.D.


    Helicopter performance relies heavily on the available output power of the engine(s) installed. A simplistic single-variable analysis approach is often used within the flight-testing community to reduce raw flight-test data in order to predict the available output power under different atmospheric

  13. 78 FR 44422 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters (United States)


    ..., AS350C, AS350D, and AS350D1 helicopters with a single hydraulic system and a certain hydraulic pump drive installed. This AD requires inspecting the hydraulic pump drive pulley bearing (pulley bearing) for leaks... failure caused by seizure of the pulley bearing. These actions are intended to prevent hydraulic pump...

  14. Design of an oil squeeze film damper bearing for a multimass flexible-rotor bearing system (United States)

    Cunningham, R. E.; Gunter, E. J., Jr.; Fleming, D. P.


    A single-mass flexible-rotor analysis was used to optimize the stiffness and damping of a flexible support for a symmetric five-mass rotor. The flexible, damped support attenuates the amplitudes of motions and forces transmitted to the support bearings when the rotor operates through and above its first bending critical speed. An oil squeeze film damper was designed based on short bearing lubrication theory. The damper design was verified by an unbalance response computer program. Rotor amplitudes were reduced by a factor of 16 and loads reduced by a factor of 36 compared with the same rotor with rigid bearing supports.

  15. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots (United States)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS


    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  16. Performance analysis of a novel planetary speed increaser used in single-rotor wind turbines with counter-rotating electric generator (United States)

    Saulescu, R.; Neagoe, M.; Munteanu, O.; Cretescu, N.


    The paper presents a study on the kinematic and static performances of a new type of 1DOF (Degree Of Freedom) planetary speed increaser to be implemented in wind turbines, a transmission with three operating cases: a) one input and one output, b) one input and two outputs, in which the speed of the secondary output is equal to the input speed, and c) with one input and two outputs, where the secondary output speed is higher than the input speed. The proposed speed increaser contains two sun gears and a double satellite, allowing operation with an output connected to the fixed stator of a classic generator (case I) or with two counterrotating outputs that drive a counter-rotating generator (with a mobile stator). A new variant of planetary transmission capable of providing the speed increase of the generator stator and, thus, the increase of the relative speed between the generator rotor and stator is obtained by the parallel connection of the speed increaser with a planetary gear. The three conceptual variants of planetary transmission are analytically modelled and comparatively analysed based on a set of kinematic and static parameters. The proposed transmission has higher performances compared to the same transmission with one input and one output, the increase of the kinematic amplification ratio and efficiency being achieved simultaneously.

  17. Adaptation of the Neural Network Recognition System of the Helicopter on Its Acoustic Radiation to the Flight Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Hohlov


    Full Text Available The article concerns the adaptation of a neural tract that recognizes a helicopter from the aerodynamic and ground objects by its acoustic radiation to the helicopter flight speed. It uses non-centered informative signs-indications of estimating signal spectra, which correspond to the local extremes (maximums and minimums of the power spectrum of input signal and have the greatest information when differentiating the helicopter signals from those of tracked vehicles. The article gives justification to the principle of the neural network (NN adaptation and adaptation block structure, which solves problems of blade passage frequency estimation when capturing the object and track it when tracking a target, as well as forming a signal to control the resonant filter parameters of the selection block of informative signs. To create the discriminatory characteristics of the discriminator are used autoregressive statistical characteristics of the quadrature components of signal, obtained through the discrete Hilbert Converter (DGC that perforMathematical modeling of the tracking meter using the helicopter signals obtained in real conditions is performed. The article gives estimates of the tracking parameter when using a tracking meter with DGC by sequential records of realized acoustic noise of the helicopter. It also shows a block-diagram of the adaptive NN. The scientific novelty of the work is that providing the invariance of used informative sign, the counts of local extremes of power spectral density (PSD to changes in the helicopter flight speed is reached due to adding the NN structure and adaptation block, which is implemented as a meter to track the apparent passage frequency of the helicopter rotor blades using its relationship with a function of the autoregressive acoustic signal of the helicopter.Specialized literature proposes solutions based on the use of training classifiers with different parametric methods of spectral representations

  18. Fly-by-Wire versus Dual Mechanical Controls for the Advanced Scout Helicopter - Quantitative Comparison (United States)


    was considered as utilizing single-piston, integrated actuator packages (IAPs) with single or multiple electrohydraulic servovalves ( EHSVs ) for control ...USAAVRADCOM.TR6OD.1 ADA096089 FLY-BY-WIRE VERSUS DUAL MECHANICAL CONTROLS FOR THE ADVANCED SCOUT HELICOPTER - QUANTITATIVE COMPARISON F. Gtnn LEVEL...associated with application of advanced control technology (including fly-by-wire, fiber optics, and digital control laws) to an ASH-sized helicopter. The

  19. Flight validated high-order models of UAV helicopter dynamics in hover and forward flight using analytical and parameter identification techniques (United States)

    Bhandari, Subodh

    There has been a significant growth in the use of UAV helicopters for a multitude of military and civilian applications over the last few years. Due to these numerous applications, from crop dusting to remote sensing, UAV helicopters are now a major topic of interest within the aerospace community. The main research focus is on the development of automatic flight control systems (AFCS). The design of AFCS for these vehicles requires a mathematical model representing the dynamics of the vehicle. The mathematical model is developed either from first-principles, using the equations of motion of the vehicle, or from the flight data, using parameter identification techniques. The traditional six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DoF) dynamics model is not suitable for high-bandwidth control system design. Such models are valid only within the low- to mid-frequency range. The agility and high maneuverability of small-scale helicopters require a high-bandwidth control system for full authority autonomous performance. The design of a high-bandwidth control system in turn requires a high-fidelity simulation model that is able to capture the key dynamics of the helicopter. These dynamics include the rotor dynamics. This dissertation presents the development of a 14-degrees-of-freedom (14-DoF) state-space linear model for the KU Thunder Tiger Raptor 50 UAV helicopter from first-principles and from flight test data using a parameter identification technique for the hovering and forward flight conditions. The model includes rigid body, rotor regressive, rotor inflow, stabilizer bar, and rotor coning dynamics. The model is implemented within The MathWork's MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the high-order model is able to predict the helicopter's dynamics up to the frequency of 30 rad/sec. The main contributions of this dissertation are the development of a high-order simulation model for a small UAV helicopter from first-principles and the identification of a

  20. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.


    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  1. 77 FR 27116 - Safety Zone, Naval Helicopter Association Reunion Helicopter Demonstration, Elizabeth River... (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Naval Helicopter Association Reunion Helicopter Demonstration, Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Helicopter Association Reunion Helicopter Demonstration. This action is necessary to provide for the safety...

  2. 77 FR 5425 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters (United States)


    ... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 427 helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted..., except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket: You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http...

  3. Parametric Investigation of the Effect of Hub Pitching Moment on Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise of an Isolated Rotor (United States)

    Malpica, Carlos; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben


    At the most fundamental level, main rotor loading noise is caused by the harmonically-varying aerodynamic loads (acoustic pressures) exerted by the rotating blades on the air. Rotorcraft main rotor noise is therefore, in principle, a function of rotor control inputs, and thus the forces and moments required to achieve steady, or "trim", flight equilibrium. In certain flight conditions, the ensuing aerodynamic loading on the rotor(s) can result in highly obtrusive harmonic noise. The effect of the propulsive force, or X-force, on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise is well documented. This paper presents an acoustics parametric sensitivity analysis of the effect of varying rotor aerodynamic pitch hub trim moments on BVI noise radiated by an S-70 helicopter main rotor. Results show that changing the hub pitching moment for an isolated rotor, trimmed in nominal 80 knot, 6 and 12 deg descent, flight conditions, alters the miss distance between the blades and the vortex in ways that have varied and noticeable effects on the BVI radiated-noise directionality. Peak BVI noise level is however not significantly altered. The application of hub pitching moment allows the attitude of the fuselage to be controlled; for example, to compensate for the uncomfortable change in fuselage pitch attitude introduced by a fuselage-mounted X-force controller.

  4. Helicopter fuel burn modeling in AEDT. (United States)


    This report documents work done to enhance helicopter fuel consumption modeling in the Federal Aviation : Administrations Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Fuel consumption and flight performance data : were collected from helicopter flig...

  5. Wake Geometry Measurements and Analytical Calculations on a Small-Scale Rotor Model (United States)

    Ghee, Terence A.; Berry, John D.; Zori, Laith A. J.; Elliott, Joe W.


    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to quantify the rotor wake behind a scale model helicopter rotor in forward level flight at one thrust level. The rotor system in this test consisted of a four-bladed fully articulated hub with blades of rectangular planform and an NACA 0012 airfoil section. A laser light sheet, seeded with propylene glycol smoke, was used to visualize the vortex geometry in the flow in planes parallel and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Quantitative measurements of wake geometric proper- ties, such as vortex location, vertical skew angle, and vortex particle void radius, were obtained as well as convective velocities for blade tip vortices. Comparisons were made between experimental data and four computational method predictions of experimental tip vortex locations, vortex vertical skew angles, and wake geometries. The results of these comparisons highlight difficulties of accurate wake geometry predictions.

  6. Control of a Quadrotor Equipped with a Fixed-wing by Tilting Some of Four Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakamura


    Full Text Available Abstract—Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are beingexpected to be used for the vegetational observation and theinformation collection of disaster sites. Especially, rotorcraftstypified by helicopters are attractive, because they are able tohover and achieve vertical take-off and landing (VTOL.However, rotorcrafts have a disadvantage that it cannot have along-distance flight, because they fly by the thrust of upwarddirection. Aircrafts with tilt rotors are developed in order toovercome such disadvantages. Such aircrafts can be hovering andtake a VTOL and also a long-distance flight by changing theangle of the rotor. In this research, it is aimed at proposing aVTOL-type UAV with a fixed-wing and four tiltable rotors andcontrolling it.

  7. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, H.B.


    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified

  8. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  9. Vibration Suppression of a Helicopter Fuselage by Pendulum Absorbers : Rigid-Body Blades with Aerodynamic Excitation Force (United States)

    Nagasaka, Imao; Ishida, Yukio; Koyama, Takayuki; Fujimatsu, Naoki

    Currently, some kinds of helicopters use pendulum absorbers in order to reduce vibrations. Present pendulum absorbers are designed based on the antiresonance concept used in the linear theory. However, since the vibration amplitudes of the pendulum are not small, it is considered that the nonlinearity has influence on the vibration characteristics. Therefore, the best suppression cannot be attained by using the linear theory. In a helicopter, periodic forces act on the blades due to the influences of the air thrust. These periodic forces act on the blades with the frequency which is the integer multiple of the rotational speed of the rotor. Our previous study proposed a 2-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) model composed of a rotor blade and a pendulum absorber. The blade was considered as a rigid body and it was excited by giving a sinusoidal deflection at its end. The present paper proposes a 3DOF model that is more similar to the real helicopter, since the freedom of the fuselage is added and the periodic forces are applied to the blade by aerodynamic force. The vibration is analyzed considering the nonlinear characteristics. The resonance curves of rotor blades with pendulum absorbers are obtained analytically and experimentally. It is clarified that the most efficient condition is obtained when the natural frequency of the pendulum is a little bit different from the frequency of the external force. Various unique nonlinear characteristics, such as bifurcations, are also shown.

  10. Results of the 1986 NASA/FAA/DFVLR main rotor test entry in the German-Dutch wind tunnel (DNW) (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Martin, Ruth M.


    An acoustics test of a 40%-scale MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor was conducted in the Deutsch-Niederlandischer Windkanal (DNW). The research, directed by NASA Langley Research Center, concentrated on the generation and radiation of broadband noise and impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise over ranges of pertinent rotor operational envelopes. Both the broadband and BVI experimental phases are reviewed, along with highlights of major technical results. For the broadband portion, significant advancement is the demonstration of the accuracy of prediction methods being developed for broadband self noise, due to boundary layer turbulence. Another key result is the discovery of rotor blade-wake interaction (BWI) as an important contributor to mid frequency noise. Also the DNW data are used to determine for full scale helicopters the relative importance of the different discrete and broadband noise sources. For the BVI test portion, a comprehensive data base documents the BVI impulsive noise character and directionality as functions of rotor flight conditions. The directional mapping of BVI noise emitted from the advancing side as well as the retreating side of the rotor constitutes a major advancement in the understanding of this dominant discrete mechanism.

  11. Results of the 1986 NASA/FAA/DFVLR main rotor test entry in the German-Dutch wind tunnel (DNW) (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Martin, Ruth M.


    An acoustics test of a 40%-scale MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor was conducted in the Deutsch-Niederlandischer Windkanal (DNW). The research, directed by NASA Langley Research Center, concentrated on the generation and radiation of broadband noise and impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise over ranges of pertinent rotor operational envelopes. Both the broadband and BVI experimental phases are reviewed, along with highlights of major technical results. For the broadband portion, significant advancement is the demonstration of the accuracy of prediction methods being developed for broadband self noise, due to boundary layer turbulence. Another key result is the discovery of rotor blade-wake interaction (BWI) as an important contributor to mid frequency noise. Also the DNW data are used to determine for full scale helicopters the relative importance of the different discrete and broadband noise sources. For the BVI test portion, a comprehensive data base documents the BVI impulsive noise character and directionality as functions of rotor flight conditions. The directional mapping of BVI noise emitted from the advancing side as well as the retreating side of the rotor constitutes a major advancement in the understanding of this dominant discrete mechanism.

  12. A New Framework For Helicopter Vibration Suppression; Time-Periodic System Identification and Controller Design (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet

    In forward flight, helicopter rotor blades function within a highly complex aerodynamic environment that includes both near-blade and far-blade aerodynamic phenomena. These aerodynamic phenomena cause fluctuating aerodynamic loads on the rotor blades. These loads when coupled with the dynamic characteristics and elastic motion of the blade create excessive amount of vibration. These vibrations degrade helicopter performance, passenger comfort and contributes to high cost maintenance problems. In an effort to suppress helicopter vibration, recent studies have developed active control strategies using active pitch links, flaps, twist actuation and higher harmonic control of the swash plate. In active helicopter vibration control, designing a controller in a computationally efficient way requires accurate reduced-order models of complex helicopter aeroelasticity. In previous studies, controllers were designed using aeroelastic models that were obtained by coupling independently reduced aerodynamic and structural dynamic models. Unfortunately, these controllers could not satisfy stability and performance criteria when implemented in high-fidelity computer simulations or real-time experiments. In this thesis, we present a novel approach that provides accurate time-periodic reduced-order models and time-periodic H2 and H infinity controllers that satisfy the stability and performance criteria. Computational efficiency and the necessity of using the approach were validated by implementing an actively controlled flap strategy. In this proposed approach, the reduced-order models were directly identified from high-fidelity coupled aeroelastic analysis by using the time-periodic subspace identification method. Time-periodic H2 and Hinfinity controllers that update the control actuation at every time step were designed. The control synthesis problem was solved using Linear Matrix Inequality and periodic Riccati Equation based formulations, for which an in-house periodic

  13. Nonlinear Analysis of Squeeze Film Dampers Applied to Gas Turbine Helicopter Engines. (United States)


    squeeze film bearings have been designed for the Centritech rotor. These damper - bearings have... squeeze film damper bearings is presented. The method incorporates a finite-length correction factor which modifies the nonlinear forces obtained and application of a squeeze film damper for a single mass flexible rotor in journal bearings including before application and after

  14. Effect of advanced component technology on helicopter transmissions (United States)

    Lewicki, D. G.; Townsend, D. P.


    Experimental tests were performed on the NASA/Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) 500 hp advanced technology transmission (ATT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The ATT was a retrofit of the OH-58C helicopter 236 kW (317 hp) main rotor transmission, upgraded to 373 kW (500 hp), with a design goal of retaining long life with a minimum increase in cost, weight, and size. Vibration, strain, efficiency, deflection, and temperature experiments were performed and the results were compared to previous experiments on the OH-58A, OH-58C, and UH-60A transmissions. The high-contact-ratio gears and the cantilevered-mounted, flexible ring gear of the ATT reduced vibration compared to that of the OH-58C. The ATT flexible ring gear improved planetary load sharing compared to that of the rigid ring gear of the UH-60A transmission. The ATT mechanical efficiency was lower than that of the OH-58A transmission, probably due to the high-contact-ratio planetary gears.

  15. 77 FR 30232 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters (United States)


    ... that residual stresses induced during manufacturing may have contributed to the fatigue fracture of the... requires one work-hour at an average labor rate of $85 per hour, for a cost per helicopter of $85 and a... lever requires 10 work-hours at an average labor rate of $85 per hour and required parts will cost $12...

  16. 77 FR 35306 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron, Inc. (BHTI) Model 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with certain starter/generator power cable... replacing associated parts included in the starter/generator cable kit, P/N CT205-07-94-1. After the power... the power cable connections using a multimeter. This proposal is prompted by the determination that...

  17. Theoretical analysis of the flow around a Savonius rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouachria, Z.; Djoumati, D. [Batna Univ., Batna (Algeria). Laboratoire de Physique Energetique Appliquee; Djamel, H. [Batna Univ., Batna (Algeria). Dept. de Mecanique Energetique


    While Savonius rotors do not perform as well as Darrieus wind turbine rotors, Savonius rotors work in all wind directions, do not require a rudder, and are capable of operating at relatively low speeds. A discrete vortex method was used to analyze the complex flow around a Savonius rotor. Velocity and pressure fields obtained in the analysis were used to determine both mechanical and energetic rotor performance. Savonius rotor bi-blades were considered in relation to 4 free eddies, the leakage points of each blade, and the distribution of basic eddies along the blades. Each blade was divided into equal elementary arcs. Linear equations and Kelvin theorem were reduced to a single equation. Results showed good agreement with data obtained in previous experimental studies. The study demonstrated that vortice emissions were unbalanced. The resistant blade had 2 vortice emissions, while the driving blade had only a single vortex. The results of the study will be used to clarify the mechanical and aerodynamic functions as well as to determine the different values between the blades and the speed of the turbine's engine. 9 refs., 4 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Estupiñán P


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo resalta la importancia del balanceamiento de rotores como principal herramienta dentro de las tareas correctivas del mantenimiento predictivo, con el fin de que se reduzcan las vibraciones y sus efectos secundarios en las máquinas rotatorias. Se ha desarrollado un instrumento virtual para el balanceamiento dinámico de rotores, basado en un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD. El instrumento tiene incluidos todos los cálculos necesarios para balancear rotores en un plano y en dos planos, a partir de la medición de los datos de vibración, utilizando el procedimiento de los coeficientes de influencia o utilizando un procedimiento de medición sin fase. También se ha incluido un módulo para determinar la severidad vibratoria del rotor y un módulo de análisis de vibraciones, que incluye análisis espectral y de la forma de onda. Este instrumento virtual es una herramienta útil para el balanceamiento de rotores en laboratorio así como también en la industria.This article highlights the importance of rotor balancing like the most important corrective action included in a predictive maintenance program, whose main objective is reducing the vibrations level and its secondary effect in rotary machines. A virtual instrument, based in a data acquisition system has been developed for rotor balancing. With this instrument it is possible to balance rotors in a single or two-plane, using the influence coefficient method or a no phase method. Also the instrument includes a function to determine the vibration severity and a function of vibration analysis with spectral and waveform analysis included. This virtual instrument is useful for rotor balancing in the laboratory as well as in the industry.

  19. 78 FR 47531 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters (United States)


    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Helicopters, LLC; Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  20. Fundamental Understanding of Rotor Aeromechanics at High Advance Ratio Through Wind Tunnel Testing (United States)

    Berry, Benjamin

    The purpose of this research is to further the understanding of rotor aeromechanics at advance ratios (mu) beyond the maximum of 0.5 (ratio of forward airspeed to rotor tip speed) for conventional helicopters. High advance ratio rotors have applications in high speed compound helicopters. In addition to one or more conventional main rotors, these aircraft employ either thrust compounding (propellers), lift compounding (fixed-wings), or both. An articulated 4-bladed model rotor was constructed, instrumented, and tested up to a maximum advance ratio of mu=1.6 in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel at the University of Maryland. The data set includes steady and unsteady rotor hub forces and moments, blade structural loads, blade flapping angles, swashplate control angles, and unsteady blade pressures. A collective-thrust control reversal--where increasing collective pitch results in lower rotor thrust--was observed and is a unique phenomenon to the high advance ratio flight regime. The thrust reversal is explained in a physical manner as well as through an analytical formulation. The requirements for the occurrence of the thrust reversal are enumerated. The effects of rotor geometry design on the thrust reversal onset are explored through the formulation and compared to the measured data. Reverse-flow dynamic stall was observed to extend the the lifting capability of the edgewise rotor well beyond the expected static stall behavior of the airfoil sections. Through embedded unsteady blade surface pressure transducers, the normal force, pitching moment, and shed dynamic stall vortex time histories at a blade section in strong reverse flow were analyzed. Favorable comparisons with published 2-D pitching airfoil reverse flow dynamic stall data indicate that the 3-D stall environment can likely be predicted using models developed from such 2-D experiments. Vibratory hub loads were observed to increase with advance ratio. Maximum amplitude was observed near mu=1, with a

  1. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor concept definition study (United States)

    Carlson, R. G.; Beno, E. A.; Ulisnik, H. D.


    As part of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) Program a number of advanced rotor system designs were conceived and investigated. From these, several were chosen that best meet the started ITR goals with emphasis on stability, reduced weight and hub drag, simplicity, low head moment stiffness, and adequate strength and fatigue life. It was concluded that obtaining low hub moment stiffness was difficult when only the blade flexibility of bearingless rotor blades is considered, unacceptably low fatigue life being the primary problem. Achieving a moderate hub moment stiffness somewhat higher than state of the art articulated rotors in production today is possible within the fatigue life constraint. Alternatively, low stiffness is possible when additional rotor elements, besides the blades themselves, provide part of the rotor flexibility. Two primary designs evolved as best meeting the general ITR requirements that presently exist. An I shaped flexbeam with an external torque tube can satisfy the general goals but would have either higher stiffness or reduced fatigue life. The elastic gimbal rotor can achieve a better combination of low stiffness and high fatigue life but would be a somewhat heavier design and possibly exhibit a higher risk of aeromechanical instability.

  2. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koersel, A.C. van


    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  3. Internal rotor friction instability (United States)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.


    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  4. Flexible-Rotor Balancing Demonstration (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.


    Report describes method for balancing high-speed rotors at relatively low speeds and discusses demonstration of method on laboratory test rig. Method ensures rotor brought up to speeds well over 20,000 r/min smoothly, without excessive vibration amplitude at critical speeds or at operating speed.

  5. Rotor and wind turbine formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre


    The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...

  6. Formulation and validation of high-order linearized models of helicopter flight mechanics (United States)

    Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.


    A high-order linearized model of helicopter flight dynamics is extracted from a nonlinear time domain simulation. The model has 29 states that describe the fuselage rigid body degrees of freedom, the flap and lag dynamics in a nonrotating coordinate system, the inflow dynamics, the delayed entry of the horizontal tail into the main rotor wake, and, approximately, the blade torsion dynamics. The nonlinear simulation is obtained by extensively modifying the GENHEL computer program. The results indicate that the agreement between the linearized and the nonlinear model is good for small perturbations, and deteriorates for large amplitude maneuvers.

  7. High-order state space simulation models of helicopter flight mechanics (United States)

    Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.


    This paper describes the formulation and validation of a high-order linearized mathematical model of helicopter flight mechanics, which includes rotor flap and lag degrees of freedom as well as inflow dynamics. The model is extracted numerically from an existing nonlinear, blade element, real-time simulation model. Extensive modifications in the formulation and solution process of the nonlinear model, required for a theoetically rigorous linearization, are described in detail. The validation results show that the linearized model successfully captures the coupled rotor-fuselage dynamics in the frequency band most critical for the design of advanced flight control systems. Additional results quantify the extent to which the order of the model can be reduced without loss of fidelity.

  8. Full-scale S-76 rotor performance and loads at low speeds in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vol. 1 (United States)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.


    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. Rotor performance and loads data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and thrust conditions at tunnel speeds ranging from 0 to 100 kt. The primary objectives of this test were (1) to acquire forward flight rotor performance and loads data for comparison with analytical results; (2) to acquire S-76 forward flight rotor performance data in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel to compare with existing full-scale 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test data that were acquired in 1977; (3) to evaluate the acoustic capability of the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel for acquiring blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise in the low speed range and compare BVI noise with in-flight test data; and (4) to evaluate the capability of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test section as a hover facility. The secondary objectives were (1) to evaluate rotor inflow and wake effects (variations in tunnel speed, shaft angle, and thrust condition) on wind tunnel test section wall and floor pressures; (2) to establish the criteria for the definition of flow breakdown (condition where wall corrections are no longer valid) for this size rotor and wind tunnel cross-sectional area; and (3) to evaluate the wide-field shadowgraph technique for visualizing full-scale rotor wakes. This data base of rotor performance and loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies for full-scale, four-bladed, fully articulated rotor systems. Rotor performance and structural loads data are presented in this report.

  9. Control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor with contra-rotating rotors under unbalanced loads condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shuangyin; Luo, Derong; Huang, Shoudao


    This study presents an investigation into the control of an axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with contra-rotating rotors fed by a single inverter, which corresponds to two PMSM connected in series. In this study, the mathematic model of the PMSM with contra-rotating rotors...

  10. 77 FR 42459 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI) Helicopters (United States)


    ... 500N, 600N, and MD900 helicopters to require determining the cure date for each NOTAR fan blade tension..., DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday... 900R3442009-103, and P/N 900R6442009-103, measured from the manufacturer's cure date or the date the package...

  11. 76 FR 2607 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. (MDHI) Model MD900 Helicopters (United States)


    ... MDHI Model MD900 helicopters. That AD currently requires turning on both Vertical Stabilizer Control... Stability Augmentation System (YSAS) for the Model 500N and 600N helicopters and to the VSCS for the Model... also requires turning ON both VSCS switches to reduce pilot workload and to help control the helicopter...

  12. 78 FR 23688 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc. Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Inc. Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Inc. (BHT) Model 206A, 206B, and 206L helicopters. This proposed AD..., except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http...

  13. State of the art and prospectives of smart rotor control for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, T K; Kuik, G A M van


    The continued reduction in cost of energy of wind turbines, especially with the increasingly upscaling of the rotor, will require contribution from technology advances in many areas. Reducing loads on the rotor can offer great reduction to the total cost of wind turbines. With the increasing size of wind turbine blades, the need for more sophisticated load control techniques has induced the interest for locally distributed aerodynamic control systems with built-in intelligence on the blades. Such concepts are often named in popular terms 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This paper focuses on research regarding active rotor control and smart structures for load reduction. It presents an overview of available knowledge and future concepts on the application of active aerodynamic control and smart structures for wind turbine applications. The goal of the paper is to provide a perspective on the current status and future directions of the specific area of research. It comprises a novel attempt to summarize and analyze possible advanced control systems for future wind turbines. The overview builds on existing research on helicopter rotors and expands similar concepts for wind turbine applications, based on ongoing research in the field. Research work has been analyzed through UPWIND project's work package on Smart Rotor Blades and Rotor Control. First, the specifications of unsteady loads, the state of the art of modern control for load reduction and the need for more advanced and detailed active aerodynamic control are analyzed. Also, overview of available knowledge in application of active aerodynamic control on rotating blades, from helicopter research, is provided. Concepts, methods, and achieved results are presented. Furthermore, R and D so far and up-to-date ongoing progress of similar applications for wind turbines are presented. Feasibility studies for wind turbine applications, preliminary performance evaluation and novel computational and

  14. 14 CFR 27.1509 - Rotor speed. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 27.1509 Section 27.1509... Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be established... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the greater...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1509 - Rotor speed. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor speed. 29.1509 Section 29.1509....1509 Rotor speed. (a) Maximum power-off (autorotation). The maximum power-off rotor speed must be... minimum power-off rotor speed must be established so that it is not less than 105 percent of the greater...

  16. Modern rotor balancing - Emerging technologies (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Von Pragenau, G. L.


    Modern balancing methods for flexible and rigid rotors are explored. Rigid rotor balancing is performed at several hundred rpm, well below the first bending mode of the shaft. High speed balancing is necessary when the nominal rotational speed is higher than the first bending mode. Both methods introduce weights which will produce rotor responses at given speeds that will be exactly out of phase with the responses of an unbalanced rotor. Modal balancing seeks to add weights which will leave other rotor modes unaffected. Also, influence coefficients can be determined by trial and error addition of weights and recording of their effects on vibration at speeds of interest. The latter method is useful for balancing rotors at other than critical speeds and for performing unified balancing beginning with the first critical speed. Finally, low-speed flexible balancing permits low-speed tests and adjustments of rotor assemblies which will not be accessible when operating in their high-speed functional configuration. The method was developed for the high pressure liquid oxygen turbopumps for the Shuttle.

  17. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring and Helicopter Identification Using a Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve


    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing missile health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability, reduce life cycle costs, and increase system readiness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by a helicopter or other aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. Recording the duration of captive carry exposure during the missile’s service life can enable the implementation of predictive maintenance and resource management programs. Since the vibration imparted by each class of helicopter varies in frequency and amplitude, tracking the vibration exposure from each helicopter separately can help quantify the severity and harmonic content of the exposure. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the Hellfire II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the Hellfire II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode. To classify the vibration by class of helicopter, the CCHM analyzes the amplitude and frequency content of the vibration with the Goertzel algorithm to detect the presence of distinctive rotor harmonics. Cumulative usage data are accessible in theater from an external display; monthly usage histograms are accessible through an internal download connector. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to monitor captive carry identify and the class of helicopter, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  18. Design of fault tolerant control system for individual blade control helicopters (United States)

    Tamayo, Sergio

    This dissertation presents the development of a fault tolerant control scheme for helicopters fitted with individually controlled blades. This novel approach attempts to improve fault tolerant capabilities of helicopter control system by increasing control redundancy using additional actuators for individual blade input and software re-mixing to obtain nominal or close to nominal conditions under failure. An advanced interactive simulation environment has been developed including modeling of sensor failure, swashplate actuator failure, individual blade actuator failure, and blade delamination to support the design, testing, and evaluation of the control laws. This simulation environment is based on the blade element theory for the calculation of forces and moments generated by the main rotor. This discretized model allows for individual blade analysis, which in turn allows measuring the consequences of a stuck blade, or loss of the surface area of the blade itself, with respect to the dynamics of the whole helicopter. The control laws are based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation, which is a mix of linear and nonlinear methods that compensates for model inaccuracies due to linearization or failure. A stability analysis based on the Lyapunov function approach has shown that bounded tracking error is guaranteed, and under specific circumstances, global stability is guaranteed as well. An analysis over the degrees of freedom of the mechanical system and its impact over the helicopter handling qualities is also performed to measure the degree of redundancy achieved with the addition of individual blade actuators as compared to a classic swashplate helicopter configuration. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation, using reconfiguration of the individual blade control under failure have shown that this control architecture can potentially improve the survivability of the aircraft and reduce pilot workload under failure

  19. Effects of a trailing edge flap on the aerodynamics and acoustics of rotor blade-vortex interactions (United States)

    Charles, B. D.; Tadghighi, H.; Hassan, A. A.


    The use of a trailing edge flap on a helicopter rotor has been numerically simulated to determine if such a device can mitigate the acoustics of blade vortex interactions (BVI). The numerical procedure employs CAMRAD/JA, a lifting-line helicopter rotor trim code, in conjunction with RFS2, an unsteady transonic full-potential flow solver, and WOPWOP, an acoustic model based on Farassat's formulation 1A. The codes were modified to simulate trailing edge flap effects. The CAMRAD/JA code was used to compute the far wake inflow effects and the vortex wake trajectories and strengths which are utilized by RFS2 to predict the blade surface pressure variations. These pressures were then analyzed using WOPWOP to determine the high frequency acoustic response at several fixed observer locations below the rotor disk. Comparisons were made with different flap deflection amplitudes and rates to assess flap effects on BVI. Numerical experiments were carried out using a one-seventh scale AH-1G rotor system for flight conditions simulating BVI encountered during low speed descending flight with and without flaps. Predicted blade surface pressures and acoustic sound pressure levels obtained have shown good agreement with the baseline no-flap test data obtained in the DNW wind tunnel. Numerical results indicate that the use of flaps is beneficial in reducing BVI noise.

  20. Rotor blade assembly having internal loading features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloway, Daniel David


    Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.

  1. The Finite-Bladed Betz Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    The finite-bladed optimum Betz rotor is treated. It is first very recently that a complete description of this rotor has been derived. In the chapter, a full analytical solution to the Betz rotor problem will be given, and the results will be compared to other optimum rotor models, both with resp......The finite-bladed optimum Betz rotor is treated. It is first very recently that a complete description of this rotor has been derived. In the chapter, a full analytical solution to the Betz rotor problem will be given, and the results will be compared to other optimum rotor models, both...... with respect to performance and resulting rotor geometry. It is here shown that for tip speed ratios greater than three, all models result in the same geometry at the outer part of the rotor, whereas the inner part always is different, both with respect to plan form and with respect to twist distribution....

  2. A New Concept in Helicopter Communications Antennas (United States)

    Pogorzelski, R. J.


    We consider a five blade rotor and envision an array with one element mounted on each rotor blade. These elements may be dipoles or horizontal slots depending upon the desired polarization characteristics. For example, slots would provide vertical polarization on horizontal paths. The array is excited through a novel type of rotary joint located on the rotor shaft.

  3. Power harvesting in helicopter rotorblades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Pieter; de Boer, Andries; Loendersloot, Richard; van der Hoogt, Peter


    Current power harvesting research has focused on bending beams and determining power output under a given excitation. For the European CleanSky – Green Rotor Craft project a tool is being developed which optimizes the piezoelectric material and placement thereof for power harvesting. It focuses on

  4. Rotor Wake Vortex Definition: Initial Evaluation of 3-C PIV Results of the Hart-II Study (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; vanderWall, Berend; Richard, Hughes; Raffel, Markus; Beaumier, Philippe; Delrieux, Yves; Lim, Joon W.; Yu, Yung H.; Tung, Chee


    An initial evaluation is made of extensive three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the wake across a rotor disk plane. The model is a 40 percent scale BO-105 helicopter main rotor in forward flight simulation. This study is part of the HART II test program conducted in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW). Included are wake vortex field measurements over the advancing and retreating sides of the rotor operating at a typical descent landing condition important for impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. Also included are advancing side results for rotor angle variations from climb to steep descent. Using detailed PIV vector maps of the vortex fields, methods of extracting key vortex parameters are examined and a new method was developed and evaluated. An objective processing method, involving a center-of-vorticity criterion and a vorticity 'disk' integration, was used to determine vortex core size, strength, core velocity distribution characteristics, and unsteadiness. These parameters are mapped over the rotor disk and offer unique physical insight for these parameters of importance for rotor noise and vibration prediction.

  5. Quasi-static rotor morphing concepts for rotorcraft performance improvements (United States)

    Mistry, Mihir

    The current research is focused on two separate quasi-static rotor morphing concepts: Variable span and variable camber. Both concepts were analyzed from the perspective of the performance improvements they allow for, as well as their design requirements. The goal of this body of work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the benefits and implementation challenges of both systems. For the case of the variable span rotor concept, the effects on aircraft performance were evaluated for a UH-60A type aircraft. The parametric analysis included the performance effects of the rotor span and rotor speed variation, both individually as well as in combination. The design space considered the effect of three different gross weights (16000 lbs, 18300 lbs and 24000 lbs), for a window of +/-11% variation of the rotor speed and a range between +17% to --16% of radius variation (about the baseline) for a range of altitudes. The results of the analysis showed that variable span rotors by themselves are capable of reducing the power requirement of the helicopter by up to 20% for high altitude and gross weight conditions. However, when combined with rotor speed variation, it was possible to reduce the overall power required by the aircraft by up to 30%. Complimentary to the performance analysis, an analytical study of actuation concepts for a variable span rotor was also conducted. This study considered the design of two active actuation systems: Hydraulic pistons and threaded rods (jackscrews), and two passive systems which employed the use of an internal spring type restraining device. For all the configurations considered, it was determined that the design requirements could not be satisfied when considering the constraints defined. The performance improvements due to a variable camber system were evaluated for a BO-105 type rotor in hover. The design space considered included three different thrust levels (4800 lbs, 5500 lbs and 6400 lbs) for a range of altitudes and

  6. Flow-driven simulation on variation diameter of counter rotating wind turbines rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littik Y. Fredrika


    Full Text Available Wind turbines model in this paper developed from horizontal axis wind turbine propeller with single rotor (HAWT. This research aims to investigating the influence of front rotor diameter variation (D1 with rear rotor (D2 to the angular velocity optimal (ω and tip speed ratio (TSR on counter rotating wind turbines (CRWT. The method used transient 3D simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD to perform the aerodynamics characteristic of rotor wind turbines. The counter rotating wind turbines (CRWT is designed with front rotor diameter of 0.23 m and rear rotor diameter of 0.40 m. In this research, the wind velocity is 4.2 m/s and variation ratio between front rotor and rear rotor (D1/D2 are 0.65; 0.80; 1.20; 1.40; and 1.60 with axial distance (Z/D2 0.20 m. The result of this research indicated that the variation diameter on front rotor influence the aerodynamics performance of counter rotating wind turbines.

  7. Aerodynamic Characteristic Analysis of Multi-Rotors Using a Modified Free-Wake Method (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Yee, Kwanjung; Oh, Sejong

    Much research is in progress to develop a next-generation rotor system for various aircrafts, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with multi-rotor systems, such as coaxial and tandem rotors. Development and design of such systems requires accurate estimation of rotor performance. The most serious problem encountered during analysis is wake prediction, because wake-wake and wake-rotor interactions make the problem very complex. This study analyzes the aerodynamic characteristics based on the free-wake method, which is both efficient and effective for predicting wake. This code is modified to include the effect of complex planforms as well as thickness by using an unsteady 3D panel method. A time-marching free-wake model is implemented based on the source-doublet panel method that assigns panels to the surface and analyzes them. The numerical wake instability, the most critical problem for analysis, is resolved by adopting slow start-up and by including viscous effects. Also, the instability due to wake interference in tandem rotor analysis is resolved by configuring the initial shapes of the multi-rotor wake as that of a single rotor wake trajectory. The developed code is verified by comparing with previous experimental data for coaxial and tandem rotors.

  8. Critical speed analysis of rotors (United States)

    Cavicchi, R. H.


    General frequency equation is developed for both forward and backward precession of rigid rotors in undamped bearings on flexible foundations. As well as major critical speeds, nonsynchronous critical speeds that may result from bearing defects can be located.

  9. Robust Decentralized Nonlinear Control for a Twin Rotor MIMO System. (United States)

    Belmonte, Lidia María; Morales, Rafael; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Somolinos, José Andrés


    This article presents the design of a novel decentralized nonlinear multivariate control scheme for an underactuated, nonlinear and multivariate laboratory helicopter denominated the twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS). The TRMS is characterized by a coupling effect between rotor dynamics and the body of the model, which is due to the action-reaction principle originated in the acceleration and deceleration of the motor-propeller groups. The proposed controller is composed of two nested loops that are utilized to achieve stabilization and precise trajectory tracking tasks for the controlled position of the generalized coordinates of the TRMS. The nonlinear internal loop is used to control the electrical dynamics of the platform, and the nonlinear external loop allows the platform to be perfectly stabilized and positioned in space. Finally, we illustrate the theoretical control developments with a set of experiments in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear decentralized feedback controller, in which a comparative study with other controllers is performed, illustrating the excellent performance of the proposed robust decentralized control scheme in both stabilization and trajectory tracking tasks.

  10. Plan, execute, and discuss vibration measurements and correlations to evaluate a NASTRAN finite element model of the AH-64 helicopter airframe (United States)

    Ferg, D.; Foote, L.; Korkosz, G.; Straub, F.; Toossi, M.; Weisenburger, R.


    A ground vibration test was performed on the AH-64 (Apache) helicopter to determine the frequency response of the airframe. The structure was excited at both the main and tail rotor hubs, separately, and response measurements were taken at 102 locations throughout the fuselage structure. Frequency responses were compared and correlated with results from a NASTRAN finite element model of AH-64. In addition, natural frequencies and mode shapes were estimated from the frequency response data and were correlated with analytical results.

  11. Vibration response of misaligned rotors (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.


    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  12. Review and analysis of the DNW/Model 360 rotor acoustic data base (United States)

    Zinner, R. A.; Boxwell, D. A.; Spencer, R. H.


    A comprehensive model rotor aeroacoustic data base was collected in a large anechoic wind tunnel in 1986. Twenty-six microphones were positioned around the azimuth to collect acoustic data for approximately 150 different test conditions. A dynamically scaled, blade-pressure-instrumented model of the forward rotor of the BH360 helicopter simultaneously provided blade pressures for correlation with the acoustic data. High-speed impulsive noise, blade-vortex interaction noise, low-frequency noise, and broadband noise were all captured in this extensive data base. Trends are presentes for each noise source, with important parametric variations. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this data base and illustrate its potential for predictive code validation.

  13. Helicopter Noise And Noise Abatement Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović


    Full Text Available The helicopter generated noise at and around the airports islower than the noise generated by aeroplanes, since their numberof operations, i. e. the number of takeoffs and landings ismuch lower than the takeoffs and landings of the aeroplanes.Out of some hundred operations a day, helicopters participatewith approximately 15%, but the very impact of noise is by nomeans negligible, since the number of helicopter flights aboveurban areas is constantly increasing.This paper attempts to analyse this phenomenon and thetype of helicopter generated noise, its negative impacts, to explainthe flight procedures and the operative procedures duringtakeoff, landing and overflight of helicopters in operations inthe vicinity and outside airports, as well as the methods of measuringand determining the limit of noise [eve~ and the resultingproblems.

  14. 77 FR 44434 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Restricted Category Helicopters (United States)


    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc..., Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft..., Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft...

  15. Field Balancing of Magnetically Levitated Rotors without Trial Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang


    Full Text Available Unbalance in magnetically levitated rotor (MLR can cause undesirable synchronous vibrations and lead to the saturation of the magnetic actuator. Dynamic balancing is an important way to solve these problems. However, the traditional balancing methods, using rotor displacement to estimate a rotor’s unbalance, requiring several trial-runs, are neither precise nor efficient. This paper presents a new balancing method for an MLR without trial weights. In this method, the rotor is forced to rotate around its geometric axis. The coil currents of magnetic bearing, rather than rotor displacement, are employed to calculate the correction masses. This method provides two benefits when the MLR’s rotation axis coincides with the geometric axis: one is that unbalanced centrifugal force/torque equals the synchronous magnetic force/torque, and the other is that the magnetic force is proportional to the control current. These make calculation of the correction masses by measuring coil current with only a single start-up precise. An unbalance compensation control (UCC method, using a general band-pass filter (GPF to make the MLR spin around its geometric axis is also discussed. Experimental results show that the novel balancing method can remove more than 92.7% of the rotor unbalance and a balancing accuracy of 0.024 g mm kg−1 is achieved.

  16. Optimal Design and Acoustic Assessment of Low-Vibration Rotor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernardini


    Full Text Available An optimal procedure for the design of rotor blade that generates low vibratory hub loads in nonaxial flow conditions is presented and applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight, a condition where vibrations and noise become severe. Blade shape and structural properties are the design parameters to be identified within a binary genetic optimization algorithm under aeroelastic stability constraint. The process exploits an aeroelastic solver that is based on a nonlinear, beam-like model, suited for the analysis of arbitrary curved-elastic-axis blades, with the introduction of a surrogate wake inflow model for the analysis of sectional aerodynamic loads. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to identify low vibratory hub loads rotor blades as well as to assess the robustness of solution at off-design operating conditions. Further, the aeroacoustic assessment of the rotor configurations determined is carried out in order to examine the impact of low-vibration blade design on the emitted noise field.

  17. Validation of a mathematical model for Bell 427 Helicopter using parameter estimation techniques and flight test data (United States)

    Crisan, Emil Gabriel

    Certification requirements, optimization and minimum project costs, design of flight control laws and the implementation of flight simulators are among the principal applications of system identification in the aeronautical industry. This document examines the practical application of parameter estimation techniques to the problem of estimating helicopter stability and control derivatives from flight test data provided by Bell Helicopter Textron Canada. The purpose of this work is twofold: a time-domain application of the Output Error method using the Gauss-Newton algorithm and a frequency-domain identification method to obtain the aerodynamic and control derivatives of a helicopter. The adopted model for this study is a fully coupled, 6 degree of freedom (DoF) state space model. The technique used for rotorcraft identification in time-domain was the Maximum Likelihood Estimation method, embodied in a modified version of NASA's Maximum Likelihood Estimator program (MMLE3) obtained from the National Research Council (NRC). The frequency-domain system identification procedure is incorporated in a comprehensive package of user-oriented programs referred to as CIFERRTM. The coupled, 6 DoF model does not include the high frequency main rotor modes (flapping, lead-lag, twisting), yet it is capable of modeling rotorcraft dynamics fairly accurately as resulted from the model verification. The identification results demonstrate that MMLE3 is a powerful and effective tool for extracting reliable helicopter models from flight test data. The results obtained in frequency-domain approach demonstrated that CIFERRTM could achieve good results even on limited data.

  18. Trajectory tracking for two-degree of freedom helicopter system using a controller-disturbance observer integrated design. (United States)

    Zarei, Amin; Poutari, M Sedigh; Barakati, S Masoud


    Trajectory tracking control for helicopters, which are widely used in severe situations such as military and rescue missions, is a challenging field of research. In helicopter system, the stability problem and predefined trajectories tracking are main challenges, especially in the presence of external disturbances and dynamic model uncertainties. Hence, a robust control design is needed for tracking the desired references. There has been a lot of motivation for solving these problems with simpler methods and also reducing the couplings in the helicopter system to achieve better performance, as the presented paper attempts to fill these gaps. This paper focuses on designing control laws for two-degree of freedom helicopter system while assuring the closed-loop stability. A nonlinear disturbance observer-based control (NDOBC) is designed for attenuating the effects of exogenous disturbances. Trajectory tracking controller and nonlinear disturbance observer are formulated in the form of two linear matrix inequality (LMI) problems. The closed-loop system stability, including controller and observer, is investigated by Lyapunov theorem. The effectiveness of the proposed design for tracking the trajectories (vertical flight and pitch angle rotor blade) and disturbance estimation is verified by simulation results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On cup anemometer rotor aerodynamics. (United States)

    Pindado, Santiago; Pérez, Javier; Avila-Sanchez, Sergio


    The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups' front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer's performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal), tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups' center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor's cup.

  20. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer (United States)

    Shumate, II, Starling E.


    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  1. impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    This paper describes a method of' calculating the impedance of Rectangular and Trapezoidal rotor bars. An R-L parallel network is used to model each of the Rotor bars. A computer optimisation Algorithm is developed and from which the Rotor circuit parameters at several frequencies are estimated. The model solutions ...

  2. An evaluation of the use of a dynamic wake theory for edgewise rotors at high advance ratios (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.

    Dynamic wake theories are widely used in rotorcraft simulation codes and continue to be a valuable resource even though computationally heavy methods, such as vortex lattice methods and CFD, have become more accessible. As next-generation rotorcraft continue to push the boundaries of performance and maximum speed, it has become increasingly important to gauge the accuracy of rotorcraft simulation codes. For many helicopters, it is imperative that the rotor is slowed in the high-speed regime, causing a large portion of the rotor disk to be submerged in reverse flow. It is in these conditions that dynamic wake theories have not undergone a rigorous analysis. Fortunately, wind tunnel experiments have been performed at high advance ratios so that the validity of new simulation codes can be assessed. To test the predictions of a rotor aerodynamic model which utilizes a dynamic wake theory is the pursuit that motivates the following investigation. Detailed aerodynamic analysis of a slowed UH-60A rotor operating at mu = 0.80, 0.90, and 1.00 is provided. In addition, the results from this investigation are compared to experimental data and other computational validation studies which use hybrid CFD and free wake methods. Conclusions regarding slowed-rotor behavior at high advance ratios can be drawn based on this analysis.

  3. Helicopter Urban Navigation Training Using Virtual Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, George


    .... Navigation is a means to an end. Helicopter operations, being inherently expensive and unforgiving of mistakes, are prime candidates for such innovative training techniques as virtual (3-D) fly-throughs...

  4. Impact of flying qualities on mission effectiveness for helicopter air combat, volume 1 (United States)

    Harris, T. M.; Beerman, D. A.


    A computer simulation to investigate the impact of flying qualities on mission effectiveness is described. The objective of the study was to relate the effects of flying qualities, such as precision of flight path control and pilot workload, to the ability of a single Scout helicopter, or helicopter team, to accomplish a specified anti-armor mission successfully. The model of the actual engagement is a Monte Carlo simulation that has the capability to assess the effects of helicopter characteristics, numbers, tactics and weaponization on the force's ability to accomplish a specific mission against a specified threat as a function of realistic tactical factors. A key feature of this program is a simulation of micro-terrain features and their effects on detection, exposure, and masking for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight.

  5. Neural network-based optimal adaptive output feedback control of a helicopter UAV. (United States)

    Nodland, David; Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Jagannathan, Sarangapani


    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used for both military and civilian operations. Because the helicopter UAVs are underactuated nonlinear mechanical systems, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via an output feedback for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV, using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic and dynamic controllers and an NN observer. The online approximator-based dynamic controller learns the infinite-horizon Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation in continuous time and calculates the corresponding optimal control input by minimizing a cost function, forward-in-time, without using the value and policy iterations. Optimal tracking is accomplished by using a single NN utilized for the cost function approximation. The overall closed-loop system stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for trajectory tracking.

  6. Control-Oriented Modeling and System Identification for Nonlinear Trajectory Tracking Control of a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter (United States)

    Pourrezaei Khaligh, Sepehr

    Model-based control design of small-scale helicopters involves considerable challenges due to their nonlinear and underactuated dynamics with strong couplings between the different degrees-of-freedom (DOFs). Most nonlinear model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control approaches require the dynamic model of the system to be affine-in-control and fully actuated. Since the existing formulations for helicopter nonlinear dynamic model do not meet these requirements, these MIMO approaches cannot be applied for control of helicopters and control designs in the literature mostly use the linearized model of the helicopter dynamics around different trim conditions instead of directly using the nonlinear model. The purpose of this thesis is to derive the 6-DOF nonlinear model of the helicopter in an affine-in-control, non-iterative and square input-output formulation to enable many nonlinear control approaches, that require a control-affine and square model such as the sliding mode control (SMC), to be used for control design of small-scale helicopters. A combination of the first-principles approach and system identification is used to derive this model. To complete the nonlinear model of the helicopter required for the control design, the inverse kinematics of the actuating mechanisms of the main and tail rotors are also derived using an approach suitable for the real-time control applications. The parameters of the new control-oriented formulation are identified using a time-domain system identification strategy and the model is validated using flight test data. A robust sliding mode control (SMC) is then designed using the new formulation of the helicopter dynamics and its robustness to parameter uncertainties and wind disturbances is tested in simulations. Next, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testbed is designed to allow for the control implementation and gain tuning as well as testing the robustness of the controller to external disturbances in a controlled

  7. Performance and Environmental Assessment of an Advanced Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.


    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or "propfans," to transonic transport aircraft received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Unfortunately, after fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing this technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation s environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion. Because of the renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, the lack of publicly available up-to-date studies assessing its benefits, and NASA s focus on reducing fuel consumption, a preliminary aircraft system level study on open rotor propulsion was initiated to inform decisions concerning research in this area. New analysis processes were established to assess the characteristics of open rotor aircraft. These processes were then used to assess the performance, noise, and emissions characteristics of an advanced, single-aisle aircraft using open rotor propulsion. The results of this initial study indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reductions in fuel consumption and landing-takeoff cycle NOX emissions. Noise analysis of the study configuration indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin.

  8. 232Th, a rigid rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Y.; Varshney, A.K.; Gupta, D.K.


    We undertake the present work to treat 232 Th with a soft rotor formula used recently by C. Bihari et. al for γ-band and modified by J.B. Gupta et. al. It describes energy in terms of moment of inertia and softness parameter

  9. Topological dynamics in supramolecular rotors. (United States)

    Palma, Carlos-Andres; Björk, Jonas; Rao, Francesco; Kühne, Dirk; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V


    Artificial molecular switches, rotors, and machines are set to establish design rules and applications beyond their biological counterparts. Herein we exemplify the role of noncovalent interactions and transient rearrangements in the complex behavior of supramolecular rotors caged in a 2D metal-organic coordination network. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and molecular dynamics modeling of a supramolecular rotor with respective rotation rates matching with 0.2 kcal mol(-1) (9 meV) precision, identify key steps in collective rotation events and reconfigurations. We notably reveal that stereoisomerization of the chiral trimeric units entails topological isomerization whereas rotation occurs in a topology conserving, two-step asynchronous process. In supramolecular constructs, distinct displacements of subunits occur inducing a markedly lower rotation barrier as compared to synchronous mechanisms of rigid rotors. Moreover, the chemical environment can be instructed to control the system dynamics. Our observations allow for a definition of mechanical cooperativity based on a significant reduction of free energy barriers in supramolecules compared to rigid molecules.

  10. Dynamic Analysis of Composite Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Singh


    accounted for. Material damping is also taken into account. The layerwise theory is compared with conventionally used equivalent modulus beam theory. Some interesting case studies are presented. The effect of various parameters on dynamic behavior and stability of a composite rotor is presented.

  11. 78 FR 56148 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... service information identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l... holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the foreign authority's AD, the economic evaluation, any comments...

  12. 78 FR 34279 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays... holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the economic evaluation, any comments received, and...

  13. 78 FR 65206 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862....m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the foreign...

  14. 78 FR 65202 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone (450) 437-2862.... and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD, the...

  15. 78 FR 66252 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel... Operations Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket...

  16. 78 FR 23114 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... information identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir... Operations Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket...

  17. 78 FR 65200 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., contact Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4; telephone... Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains...

  18. 76 FR 66609 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model 407 and 427 Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada (Bell) Model 407 and 427 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION...., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. You may get the service information identified in this AD from Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue...

  19. 78 FR 41886 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... serial-numbered Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 206L, 206L-1, 206L-3, and 206L-4....m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket You may...

  20. Auralization of Tonal Rotor Noise Components of a Quadcopter Flyover (United States)

    Christian, Andrew W.; Boyd, David D.; Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Rizzi, Stephen A.


    The capabilities offered by small unmanned vertical lift aerial vehicles, for example, quadcopters, continue to captivate entrepreneurs across the private, public, and civil sectors. As this industry rapidly expands, the public will be exposed to these devices (and to the noise these devices generate) with increasing frequency and proximity. Accordingly, an assessment of the human response to these machines will be needed shortly by decision makers in many facets of this burgeoning industry, from hardware manufacturers all the way to government regulators. One factor of this response is that of the annoyance to the noise that is generated by these devices. This paper presents work currently being pursued by NASA toward this goal. First, physics-based (CFD) predictions are performed on a single isolated rotor typical of these devices. The result of these predictions are time records of the discrete tonal components of the rotor noise. These time records are calculated for a number of points that appear on a lattice of locations spread over the lower hemisphere of the rotor. The source noise is then generated by interpolating between these time records. The sound from four rotors are combined and simulated-propagation techniques are used to produce complete flyover auralizations.

  1. Differential equations of motion for combined flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion of twisted nonuniform rotor blades (United States)

    Houbolt, John C; Brooks, George W


    The differential equations of motion for the lateral and torsional deformations of twisted rotating beams are developed for application to helicopter rotor and propeller blades. No assumption is made regarding the coincidence of the neutral, elastic, and mass axes, and the generality is such that previous theories involving various simplifications are contained as subcases to the theory presented in this paper. Special attention is given the terms which are not included in previous theories. These terms are largely coupling-type terms associated with the centrifugal forces. Methods of solution of the equations of motion are indicated by selected examples.

  2. Examining the stability derivatives of a compound helicopter


    Ferguson, Kevin; Thomson, Douglas


    Some helicopter manufacturers are exploring the compound helicopter design as it could potentially satisfy the new emerging requirements placed on the next generation of rotorcraft. It is well understood that the main benefit of the compound helicopter is its ability to reach speeds that significantly surpass the conventional helicopter. However, it is possible that the introduction of compounding may lead to a vehicle with significantly different flight characteristics when compared to a con...

  3. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests (United States)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.


    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  4. High-Fidelity Computational Aerodynamics of Multi-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (United States)

    Ventura Diaz, Patricia; Yoon, Seokkwan


    High-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been carried out for several multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Three vehicles have been studied: the classic quadcopter DJI Phantom 3, an unconventional quadcopter specialized for forward flight, the SUI Endurance, and an innovative concept for Urban Air Mobility (UAM), the Elytron 4S UAV. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on overset grids using high-order accurate schemes, dual-time stepping, and a hybrid turbulence model. The DJI Phantom 3 is simulated with different rotors and with both a simplified airframe and the real airframe including landing gear and a camera. The effects of weather are studied for the DJI Phantom 3 quadcopter in hover. The SUI En- durance original design is compared in forward flight to a new configuration conceived by the authors, the hybrid configuration, which gives a large improvement in forward thrust. The Elytron 4S UAV is simulated in helicopter mode and in airplane mode. Understanding the complex flows in multi-rotor vehicles will help design quieter, safer, and more efficient future drones and UAM vehicles.

  5. 77 FR 30230 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland Helicopters (United States)


    ... Deutschland Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed. This... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters. EASA advises that during an acceptance test procedure of a...

  6. 77 FR 69556 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland Helicopters (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed... unsafe condition for the Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters. EASA advises that...

  7. Evolution of civil aeromedical helicopter aviation. (United States)

    Meier, D R; Samper, E R


    The rapid increase in the use of helicopters for hospital transport during the 1980s is the culmination of several hundred years of military medical innovation. Mass battefield casualties spurred both technologic and medical changes necessary for today's sophisticated helicopter systems in use worldwide, particularly in the United States. The Napoleonic Era and the American Civil War provided the framework for the evolution of today's state-of-the-art emergency medical techniques. The use of airplanes to evacuate the wounded eventually led to using helicopters for rescue missions in World War II. The combat experiences of the United States in Korea, the British in Malaya, and the French in Indochina proved that rotary-wing aircraft were invaluable in reducing battlefield death rates. Any skepticism about the efficacy of helicopter medical evacuation was erased during the Vietnam conflict. As an integral part of the modern battlefield, these specialized aircraft became a necessity. The observations and experience of American servicemen and medical personnel in Vietnam established the foundation for the acceptance of helicopter transport in modern hospital systems.

  8. A piloted simulator investigation of static stability and stability/control augmentation effects on helicopter handling qualities for instrument approach (United States)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Forrest, R. D.


    A ground simulator experiment was conducted on the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft at Ames Research Center to investigate the influence of several static stability and stability/control augmentation design parameters on helicopter flying qualities during terminal area operations in instrument conditions. Effects of light turbulence were included. Two levels of static stability in each rotational axis (pitch, roll, yaw) were examined for a hingeless rotor configuration. The variations in pitch and roll were: (1) stable and (2) neutral static stability; in yaw there were two stable levels. Four types of stability/control augmentation were also examined for the lower level of static stability in each axis. This latter investigation covered three helicopter rotor types: hingeless, articulated, and teetering. Four pilots performed a total of 105 evaluations of these parameters for a representative VOR instrument approach task. Pilot rating results indicate the acceptability of neutral static stability longitudinally and laterally and the need for pitch-roll attitude augmentation to achieve a satisfactory system.

  9. Experimental investigation of main rotor wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Robert


    Full Text Available In this work, experimental results of rotor wake in hover mode are presented. The experiments were carried out with a rotor rig model in the T-1K wind tunnel in Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute. The rotor consisted of four identical blades. The Q-criterion was used to identify tip vortices for a 2D case. The results were then compared with two different wake models.

  10. Experimental investigation of main rotor wake


    Stepanov Robert; Mikhailov Sergey


    In this work, experimental results of rotor wake in hover mode are presented. The experiments were carried out with a rotor rig model in the T-1K wind tunnel in Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute). The rotor consisted of four identical blades. The Q-criterion was used to identify tip vortices for a 2D case. The results were then compared with two different wake models.

  11. Optimization of wind turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Tor Anders


    The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest

  12. Simulation of Flow around Isolated Helicopter Fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garipov A.O.


    Full Text Available Low fuselage drag has always been a key target of helicopter manufacturers. Therefore, this paper focuses on CFD predictions of the drag of several components of a typical helicopter fuselage. In the first section of the paper, validation of the obtained CFD predictions is carried out using wind tunnel measurements. The measurements were carried out at the Kazan National Research Technical University n.a. A. Tupolev. The second section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of drag contributions of several components of the ANSAT helicopter prototype fuselage using the RANS approach. For this purpose, several configurations of fuselages are considered with different levels of complexity including exhausts and skids. Depending on the complexity of the considered configuration and CFD mesh both the multi-block structured HMB solver and the unstructured commercial tool Fluent are used. Finally, the effect of an actuator disk on the predicted drag is addressed.

  13. Minimum-complexity helicopter simulation math model (United States)

    Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.


    An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.

  14. Simulation of Flow around Isolated Helicopter Fuselage (United States)

    Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Romanova, E. V.; Garipov, A. O.; Nikolaev, E. I.; Barakos, G.


    Low fuselage drag has always been a key target of helicopter manufacturers. Therefore, this paper focuses on CFD predictions of the drag of several components of a typical helicopter fuselage. In the first section of the paper, validation of the obtained CFD predictions is carried out using wind tunnel measurements. The measurements were carried out at the Kazan National Research Technical University n.a. A. Tupolev. The second section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of drag contributions of several components of the ANSAT helicopter prototype fuselage using the RANS approach. For this purpose, several configurations of fuselages are considered with different levels of complexity including exhausts and skids. Depending on the complexity of the considered configuration and CFD mesh both the multi-block structured HMB solver and the unstructured commercial tool Fluent are used. Finally, the effect of an actuator disk on the predicted drag is addressed.

  15. A comprehensive plan for helicopter drag reduction (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Montana, P. S.


    Current helicopters have parasite drag levels 6 to 10 times as great as fixed wing aircraft. The commensurate poor cruise efficiency results in a substantial degradation of potential mission capability. The paper traces the origins of helicopter drag and shows that the problem (primarily due to bluff body flow separation) can be solved by the adoption of a comprehensive research and development plan. This plan, known as the Fuselage Design Methodology, comprises both nonaerodynamic and aerodynamic aspects. The aerodynamics are discussed in detail and experimental and analytical programs are described which will lead to a solution of the bluff body problem. Some recent results of work conducted at the Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) are presented to illustrate these programs. It is concluded that a 75-per cent reduction of helicopter drag is possible by the full implementation of the Fuselage Design Methodology.

  16. 3D Warping Actuation Driven Dynamic Camber Control Concept for Helicopter Rotor Blades, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a rotorcraft, optimized camber change not only reduces vibratory hub loads and noise but also increases available thrust and improved flight control augmentation....

  17. Neutron radiography and other NDE tests of main rotor helicopter blades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, FC


    Full Text Available the oil/water ingress. The lack of detection in early stages of corrosion with NRad is due to the ??masking?? effect of other sources of attenuation like paint, adhesive and foamcore. 4. Conclusion This paper shows that NRad and Shearography complement... the pieces together. The outside area of the thin Al layer is being painted. The areas of interest were the tip of the blade as well as the cuff to leading edge area. Figs. 1 (Areas nos. 3?4) and 2 (Areas nos. 5?6) are diagrams of the areas of investigation...

  18. Inspiring and Challenging Laboratory Exercise in Multivariable Control Theory – The Four-rotor Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag A. H. Samuelsen


    Full Text Available Engineering students in a module on multivariable control theory are given a laboratory exercise for developing their skills in practical implementation of control systems. This is done in an effort to create a more complete module that gives the students experiences in the practical sides of implementing control systems, while still being theoretically challenging and inspiring. Presenting students with this kind of real-life challenges like sub-optimal models, limited processing time and large degree of uncertainty, is a challenging task, partly due to the need of adapting the level of complexity to the student or group of students doing the exercise in order to keep them engaged throughout the exercise, and in part due to the university's need to reduce expenses related to the administration, supervision, and execution of laboratory exercises. The possibility of adapting the complexity of the exercise to each student's skill level is important, both through the design of the exercise and through the students choosing between different models. The eager student might be tempted by the better performing, but more complex models, while the struggling student can find satisfaction in stabilising the aircraft using the less complex models. The laboratory setup presented uses low-cost components, giving low investment and maintenance costs.

  19. A Review of Sparsity-Based Methods for Analysing Radar Returns from Helicopter Rotor Blades (United States)


    performance study of these algorithms in the particular problem of analysing backscatter signals from rotating blades. The report is organised as follows...provide further insight into the behaviour of the techniques. Here, the algorithms for MP, OMP, CGP, gOMP and ROMP terminate when 10 atoms are

  20. Energy from Swastika-Shaped Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch M. E.


    Full Text Available It is suggested here that a swastika-shaped rotor exposed to waves will rotate in the di- rection its arms are pointing (towards the arm-tips due to a sheltering effect. A formula is derived to predict the motion obtainable from swastika rotors of different sizes given the ocean wave height and phase speed and it is suggested that the rotor could provide a new, simpler method of wave energy generation. It is also proposed that the swastika rotor could generate energy on a smaller scale from sound waves and Brownian motion, and potentially the zero point field.

  1. Fault diagnosis of a Wind Turbine Rotor using a Multi-blade Coordinate Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    Fault diagnosis of a wind turbine rotor is considered. The faults considered are sensor faults and blades mounted with a pitch offset. A fault at a single blade will result in asymmetries in the rotor, which can be applied for fault diagnosis. The diagnosis is derived by using the multiblade...... coordinate (MBC) transformation also known as the Coleman transformation together with active fault diagnosis (AFD). This transforms the setup from rotating to fixed frame coordinates. The rotor speed acts as the auxiliary input for the active diagnosis. The applied method take the varying rotor speed...... into account. Operation at different mean wind speeds is examined and it is discussed how to exploit the findings acquired by the investigation of the various faults....

  2. Balancing High-Speed Rotors at Low Speed (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.


    Flexible balancing reduces vibrations at operating speeds. Highspeed rotors in turbomachines dynamically balanced at fraction of operating rotor speed. New method takes into account rotor flexible rather than rigid.

  3. Efficient fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes (United States)

    Chin, H.; Danai, K.; Lewicki, D. G.


    Application of a diagnostic system to a helicopter gearbox is presented. The diagnostic system is a nonparametric pattern classifier that uses a multi-valued influence matrix (MVIM) as its diagnostic model and benefits from a fast learning algorithm that enables it to estimate its diagnostic model from a small number of measurement-fault data. To test this diagnostic system, vibration measurements were collected from a helicopter gearbox test stand during accelerated fatigue tests and at various fault instances. The diagnostic results indicate that the MVIM system can accurately detect and diagnose various gearbox faults so long as they are included in training.

  4. Experimental study of helicopter fuselage drag


    Stepanov, Robert; Zherekov, Vladimir; Pakhov, Vladimir; Mikhailov, Sergey; Garipov, Aleksey; Yakubov, Walter; Barakos, George N.


    Experimental data are presented for the parasite drag of various helicopter fuselage components, such as skids, external fuel tanks, and tailplane. The experiments were conducted at the Kazan National Research Technical University (Kazan Aviation Institute) T-1K wind tunnel, investigating four versions of a fuselage similar to the Ansat helicopter. It was found that, for the range of pitch angles −10≤α≤10  deg−10≤α≤10  deg, the skids added 80% to the drag of the bare fuselage, whereas the tai...

  5. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.


    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  6. An experimental study of static and oscillating rotor blade sections in reverse flow (United States)

    Lind, Andrew Hume

    The rotorcraft community has a growing interest in the development of high-speed helicopters to replace outdated fleets. One barrier to the design of such helicopters is the lack of understanding of the aerodynamic behavior of retreating rotor blades in the reverse flow region. This work considers two fundamental models of this complex unsteady flow regime: static and oscillating (i.e., pitching) airfoils in reverse flow. Wind tunnel tests have been performed at the University of Maryland (UMD) and the United States Naval Academy (USNA). Four rotor blade sections are considered: two featuring a sharp geometric trailing edge (NACA 0012 and NACA 0024) and two featuring a blunt geometric trailing edge (ellipse and cambered ellipse). Static airfoil experiments were performed at angles of attack through 180 deg and Reynolds numbers up to one million, representative of the conditions found in the reverse flow region of a full-scale high-speed helicopter. Time-resolved velocity field measurements were used to identify three unsteady flow regimes: slender body vortex shedding, turbulent wake, and deep stall vortex shedding. Unsteady airloads were measured in these three regimes using unsteady pressure transducers. The magnitude of the unsteady airloads is high in the turbulent wake regime when the separated shear layer is close to the airfoil surface and in deep stall due to periodic vortex-induced flow. Oscillating airfoil experiments were performed on a NACA 0012 and cambered ellipse to investigate reverse flow dynamic stall characteristics by modeling cyclic pitching kinematics. The parameter space spanned three Reynolds numbers (165,000; 330,000; and 500,000), five reduced frequencies between 0.100 and 0.511, three mean pitch angles (5,10, and 15 deg), and two pitch amplitudes (5 deg and 10 deg). The sharp aerodynamic leading edge of the NACA 0012 airfoil forces flow separation resulting in deep dynamic stall. The number of associated vortex structures depends strongly

  7. Evaluation of an oil-debris monitoring device for use in helicopter transmissions (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; Blanchette, Donald M.; Biron, Gilles


    Experimental tests were performed on an OH-58A helicopter main-rotor transmission to evaluate an oil-debris monitoring device (ODMD). The tests were performed in the NASA 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Five endurance tests were run as part of a U.S. Navy/NASA/Army advanced lubricants program. The tests were run at 100 percent design speed, 117-percent design torque, and 121 C (250 F) oil inlet temperature. Each test lasted between 29 and 122 hr. The oils that were used conformed to MIL-L-23699 and DOD-L-85734 specifications. One test produced a massive sun-gear fatigue failure; another test produced a small spall on one sun-gear tooth; and a third test produced a catastrophic planet-bearing cage failure. The ODMD results were compared with oil spectroscopy results. The capability of the ODMD to detect transmission component failures was not demonstrated. Two of the five tests produced large amounts of debris. For these two tests, two separate ODMD sensors failed, possibly because of prolonged exposure to relatively high oil temperatures. One test produced a small amount of debris and was not detected by the ODMD or by oil spectroscopy. In general, the ODMD results matched the oil spectroscopy results. The ODMD results were extremely sensitive to oil temperature and flow rate.

  8. Evaluation of an oil-debris monitoring device for use in helicopter transmissions (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; Blanchette, Donald M.; Biron, Gilles


    Experimental tests were performed on an OH-58A helicopter main-rotor transmission to evaluate an oil-debris monitoring device (ODMD). The tests were performed in the NASA 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Five endurance tests were run as part of a U.S. Navy/NASA/Army advanced lubricants program. The tests were run at 100 percent design speed, 117-percent design torque, and 121 C (250 F) oil inlet temperature. Each test lasted between 29 and 122 hr. The oils that were used conformed to MIL-L-23699 and DOD-L-85734 specifications. One test produced a massive sun-gear fatigue failure; another test produced a small spall on one sun-gear tooth; and a third test produced a catastrophic planet-bearing cage failure. The ODMD results were compared with oil spectroscopy results. The capability of the ODMD to detect transmission component failures was not demonstrated. Two of the five tests produced large amounts of debris. For these two tests, two separate ODMD sensors failed, possibly because of prolonged exposure to relatively high oil temperatures. One test produced a small amount of debris and was not detected by the ODMD or by oil spectroscopy. In general, the ODMD results matched the oil spectroscopy results. The ODMD results were extremely sensitive to oil temperature and flow rate.

  9. Coaxial Compound Helicopter for Confined Urban Operations (United States)


    approach, performance calculations from a comprehensive analysis are correlated with wind tunnel or flight test data; then rotor performance is...climb or descent power for the aircraft) is obtained from the wind axis drag force and rotor velocity: ! Pp = "XV . The induced power is...speed. The induced and profile power cannot be measured separately in a wind tunnel or flight test, only the sum is available from ! P i + P o = P

  10. Application of hybrid methodology to rotors in steady and maneuvering flight (United States)

    Rajmohan, Nischint

    Helicopters are versatile flying machines that have capabilities that are unparalleled by fixed wing aircraft, such as operating in hover, performing vertical takeoff and landing on unprepared sites. This makes their use especially desirable in military and search-and-rescue operations. However, modern helicopters still suffer from high levels of noise and vibration caused by the physical phenomena occurring in the vicinity of the rotor blades. Therefore, improvement in rotorcraft design to reduce the noise and vibration levels requires understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, and accurate prediction capabilities of the resulting rotorcraft aeromechanics. The goal of this research is to study the aeromechanics of rotors in steady and maneuvering flight using hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology. The hybrid CFD methodology uses the Navier-Stokes equations to solve the flow near the blade surface but the effect of the far wake is computed through the wake model. The hybrid CFD methodology is computationally efficient and its wake modeling approach is nondissipative making it an attractive tool to study rotorcraft aeromechanics. Several enhancements were made to the CFD methodology and it was coupled to a Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) methodology to perform a trimmed aeroelastic analysis of a rotor in forward flight. The coupling analyses, both loose and tight were used to identify the key physical phenomena that affect rotors in different steady flight regimes. The modeling enhancements improved the airloads predictions for a variety of flight conditions. It was found that the tightly coupled method did not impact the loads significantly for steady flight conditions compared to the loosely coupled method. The coupling methodology was extended to maneuvering flight analysis by enhancing the computational and structural models to handle non-periodic flight conditions and vehicle motions in time accurate mode. The flight test

  11. Active structural acoustic control of helicopter interior multifrequency noise using input-output-based hybrid control (United States)

    Ma, Xunjun; Lu, Yang; Wang, Fengjiao


    This paper presents the recent advances in reduction of multifrequency noise inside helicopter cabin using an active structural acoustic control system, which is based on active gearbox struts technical approach. To attenuate the multifrequency gearbox vibrations and resulting noise, a new scheme of discrete model predictive sliding mode control has been proposed based on controlled auto-regressive moving average model. Its implementation only needs input/output data, hence a broader frequency range of controlled system is modelled and the burden on the state observer design is released. Furthermore, a new iteration form of the algorithm is designed, improving the developing efficiency and run speed. To verify the algorithm's effectiveness and self-adaptability, experiments of real-time active control are performed on a newly developed helicopter model system. The helicopter model can generate gear meshing vibration/noise similar to a real helicopter with specially designed gearbox and active struts. The algorithm's control abilities are sufficiently checked by single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output experiments via different feedback strategies progressively: (1) control gear meshing noise through attenuating vibrations at the key points on the transmission path, (2) directly control the gear meshing noise in the cabin using the actuators. Results confirm that the active control system is practical for cancelling multifrequency helicopter interior noise, which also weakens the frequency-modulation of the tones. For many cases, the attenuations of the measured noise exceed the level of 15 dB, with maximum reduction reaching 31 dB. Also, the control process is demonstrated to be smoother and faster.

  12. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor (United States)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.


    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  13. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Counter-Rotating Open Rotor (United States)

    Sree, David; Stephens, David B.


    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  14. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.


    This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...

  15. Assessment of noise level and noise propagation generated by light-lift helicopters in mountain natural environments. (United States)

    Grigolato, Stefano; Mologni, Omar; Proto, Andrea Rosario; Zimbalatti, Giuseppe; Cavalli, Raffaele


    The use of helicopter rises discussion about environmental noise propagation especially when it operates in proximity of environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) for an extended period because of its potential implications in wildlife behaviours. In order to support decisions on helicopter logging operation management in proximity of ESAs, this study focused on (i) analysing the noise spectrum of a light-lift helicopter during logging operations and on (ii) assessing the noise propagation in the surrounding environments. This study investigated a helicopter logging operation for wood fuel extraction in the eastern part of the Italian Alps. The potential disturbance area covered for the entire helicopter logging operation was evaluated by a specific GIS application according to hearing sensitivity of the most sensitive wildlife species in the study area (different strigiform species). The noise level at the ground appeared to be affected by the location regardless both the use of equivalent continuous sound pressures level dB(A) (LAeq) and the single-event level (SEL) noise metrics. The lowest values were recorded when the helicopter was flown over the sound meter level located under the forest canopy, while the highest was recorded when the helicopter was unhooking the loads at the landing. The GIS application highlighted the consistent of the exceeded noise area (weighted to strigiform hearing range and sensitivity) for the lower frequency bands (0.016-0.250 kHz). A more restricted exceeded noise area concerned instead the most sensitive frequency bands" for the strigiform (1-2 kHz). Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  16. Helicopter Propwash Dislodges Few Spruce Budworms (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings; Mark W. Houseweart; Mark W. Houseweart


    Propwash treatments from a low-flying Bell 47-G2 helicopter dislodged few spruce budworm larvae and pupae from host balsam-fir trees. After propwash treatments, both larval-pupal densities on branch samples and in drop-tray collections near the ground were not significantly different between treated and control plots. Significantly more larvae were found in the lower...

  17. Feasibility of Helicopter Support Seek Frost. (United States)


    DOO pet month plus $300-500 per flying hour. Due to the remoteness of the logistics nodes a backup helicopter would seem necessary at each node. The...into the copter’s RNAV of the ground equipment and all aircraft rolling down a moderate incline. This unit. (A DHC-8 Twin Otter also partici- have to

  18. Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations. (United States)

    Prophet, Wallace W.

    For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

  19. Multicenter observational prehospital resuscitation on helicopter study. (United States)

    Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E


    Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality

  20. Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data (United States)

    Envia, Edmane


    NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.

  1. Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines (United States)

    Hsu, John S.


    A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator

  2. Computational Analysis of Multi-Rotor Flows (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.


    Interactional aerodynamics of multi-rotor flows has been studied for a quadcopter representing a generic quad tilt-rotor aircraft in hover. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of the separation distances between rotors, and also fuselage and wings on the performance and efficiency of multirotor systems. Three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a spatially 5th order accurate scheme, dual-time stepping, and the Detached Eddy Simulation turbulence model. The results show that the separation distances as well as the wings have significant effects on the vertical forces of quadroror systems in hover. Understanding interactions in multi-rotor flows would help improve the design of next generation multi-rotor drones.

  3. Optimization of wind turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmkvist, Jonas


    A computer program for aerodynamic optimization of wind turbine rotors has been written in Fortran with the purpose to maximize the annual energy production. The constraints is the maximum power output from the turbine and maximum and minimum values on the design variables. The design of the rotor is described by the chord- and twist distribution. The chord- and twist distributions are described with Bezier splines which, with a few number of control points, are very flexible. The Bezier control points are the design variables which are optimized by the optimization program. The optimization method used in the program is the Method of Moving Asymptotes, MMA, suggested by Krister Svanberg at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. MMA is a stable method and it seems suitable for this application. It is also in general easy to implement constraints. It seems like there are many local maximum points and the variations in the annual energy production between the total maximum points are very small, so there are many solutions to choose between and finding the global maximum point can be a problem. The problem could possibly be avoided with smaller wind steps near the rated wind. In future versions of the optimization program the Reynolds number dependents of the aerodynamic coefficients should be taken into consideration. Constraints for the thrust and the aerodynamic noise should also be implemented in the program 8 refs, 8 figs, 13 tabs, 14 appendixes

  4. Sliding mode disturbance observer-based control of a twin rotor MIMO system. (United States)

    Rashad, Ramy; El-Badawy, Ayman; Aboudonia, Ahmed


    This work proposes a robust tracking controller for a helicopter laboratory setup known as the twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) using an integral sliding mode controller. To eliminate the discontinuity in the control signal, the controller is augmented by a sliding mode disturbance observer. The actuator dynamics is handled using a backstepping approach which is applicable due to the continuous chattering-free nature of the command signals generated using the disturbance observer based controller. To avoid the complexity of analytically differentiating the command signals, a first order sliding mode differentiator is used. Stability analysis of the closed loop system and the ultimate boundedness of the tracking error is proved using Lyapunov stability arguments. The proposed controller is validated by several simulation studies and is compared to other schemes in the literature. Experimental results using a hardware-in-the-loop system validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetorheological Fluid and Elastomeric Lag Damper for Helicopter Stability Augmentation (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.

    The feasibility of utilizing a composite magnetorheological fluid plus elastomeric (MRFE) damper is assessed. To emulate the loading conditions for a helicopter lag damper, the MRFE damper emulation was subjected to single frequency (lag/rev) and dual frequency (lag/rev and 1/rev) sinusoidal loading, and equivalent viscous damping was used to compare the MRFE damping characteristics with a conventional elastomeric damper. The preliminary MRFE damper showed nonlinear behavior: damping was reduced as displacement amplitude increased. Upon application of a magnetic field, the damping level was controlled according to a specific damping objective as a function of the excitation amplitude. Under dual frequency conditions, damping degradation at lag frequency due to 1/rev motion was also mitigated by magnetic field input to the MR damper.

  6. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Les P.; Mogaard, John Olav


    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  7. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, Les P.; Mogaard, John Olav


    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  8. Analysis of PM Magnetization Field Effects on the Unbalanced Magnetic Forces due to Rotor Eccentricity in BLDC Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdiuon-Rad


    Full Text Available This paper investigates both static and dynamic eccentricities in single phase brushless DC (BLDC motors and analyzes the effect of the PM magnetization field on unbalanced magnetic forces acting on the rotor. Three common types of PM magnetization field patterns including radial, parallel and sinusoidal magnetizations are considered. In both static and dynamic eccentricities, harmonic components of the unbalanced magnetic forces on the rotor are extracted and analyzed. Based on simulation results, the magnetization fields that produce the lowest and highest unbalanced magnetic forces are determined in rotor eccentricity conditions.

  9. Measurement and Modelling of Multicopter UAS Rotor Blades in Hover (United States)

    Nowicki, Nathalie


    Multicopters are becoming one of the more common and popular type of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) which have both civilian and military applications. One example being the concept of drone deliveries proposed by the distribution company Amazon [1]. The electrical propulsion is considered to have both faster and easier deliveries and also environmental benefits compared to other vehicles that still use fossil fuel. Other examples include surveillance and just simple entertainment. The reason behind their success is often said to be due to their small size, relatively low cost, simple structure and finally simple usage. With an increase in the UAS market comes challenges in terms of security, as both people and other aircrafts could be harmed if not used correctly. Therefore further studies and regulations are needed to ensure that future use of drones, especially in the civilian and public sectors, are safe and efficient. Thorough research has been done on full scale, man or cargo transporting, helicopters so that most parts of flight and performance are fairly well understood. Yet not much of it have been verified for small multicopters. Until today many studies and research projects have been done on the control systems, navigation and aerodynamics of multicopters. Many of the methods used today for building multicopters involve a process of trial an error of what will work well together, and once that is accomplished some structural analysis of the multicopter bodies might be done to verify that the product will be strong enough and have a decent aerodynamic performance. However, not much has been done on the research of the rotor blades, especially in terms of structural stress analyses and ways to ensure that the commonly used parts are indeed safe and follow safety measures. Some producers claim that their propellers indeed have been tested, but again that usually tends towards simple fluid dynamic analyses and even simpler stress analyses. There is no real

  10. A review of research in rotor loads (United States)

    Bousman, William G.; Mantay, Wayne R.


    The research accomplished in the area of rotor loads over the last 13 to 14 years is reviewed. The start of the period examined is defined by the 1973 AGARD Milan conference and the 1974 hypothetical rotor comparison. The major emphasis of the review is research performed by the U.S. Army and NASA at their laboratories and/or by the industry under government contract. For the purpose of this review, two main topics are addressed: rotor loads prediction and means of rotor loads reduction. A limited discussion of research in gust loads and maneuver loads is included. In the area of rotor loads predictions, the major problem areas are reviewed including dynamic stall, wake induced flows, blade tip effects, fuselage induced effects, blade structural modeling, hub impedance, and solution methods. It is concluded that the capability to predict rotor loads has not significantly improved in this time frame. Future progress will require more extensive correlation of measurements and predictions to better understand the causes of the problems, and a recognition that differences between theory and measurement have multiple sources, yet must be treated as a whole. There is a need for high-quality data to support future research in rotor loads, but the resulting data base must not be seen as an end in itself. It will be useful only if it is integrated into firm long-range plans for the use of the data.

  11. Wind Tunnel Measurements of the Wake of a Full-Scale UH-60A Rotor in Forward Flight (United States)

    Wadcock, Alan J.; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Schairer, Edward T.


    A full-scale UH-60A rotor was tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in May 2010. The test was designed to acquire a suite of measurements to validate state-of-the-art modeling tools. Measurements include blade airloads (from a single pressure-instrumented blade), blade structural loads (strain gages), rotor performance (rotor balance and torque measurements), blade deformation (stereo-photogrammetry), and rotor wake measurements (Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Retro-reflective Backward Oriented Schlieren (RBOS)). During the test, PIV measurements of flow field velocities were acquired in a stationary cross-flow plane located on the advancing side of the rotor disk at approximately 90 deg rotor azimuth. At each test condition, blade position relative to the measurement plane was varied. The region of interest (ROI) was 4-ft high by 14-ft wide and covered the outer half of the blade radius. Although PIV measurements were acquired in only one plane, much information can be gleaned by studying the rotor wake trajectory in this plane, especially when such measurements are augmented by blade airloads and RBOS data. This paper will provide a comparison between PIV and RBOS measurements of tip vortex position and vortex filament orientation for multiple rotor test conditions. Blade displacement measurements over the complete rotor disk will also be presented documenting blade-to-blade differences in tip-path-plane and providing additional information for correlation with PIV and RBOS measurements of tip vortex location. In addition, PIV measurements of tip vortex core diameter and strength will be presented. Vortex strength will be compared with measurements of maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade determined from pressure distributions obtained from 235 pressure sensors distributed over 9 radial stations.

  12. Apparatus and method for magnetically unloading a rotor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Seth Robert


    An apparatus and method for unloading a rotor bearing is described. The apparatus includes an electromagnet for levitating the rotor. In one embodiment, a sensor of the magnetic field near the electromagnet is used to control the current to levitate the rotor. In another embodiment, a method is provided that includes rotating the rotor, increasing the current to levitate the rotor and decrease the gap between electromagnet and rotor, and then reducing the current to levitate the rotor with a minimal amount of electric power to the electromagnet.

  13. LQR Based PID Controller Design for 3-DOF Helicopter System


    Santosh Kr. Choudhary


    In this article, LQR based PID controller design for 3DOF helicopter system is investigated. The 3-DOF helicopter system is a benchmark laboratory model having strongly nonlinear characteristics and unstable dynamics which make the control of such system a challenging task. This article first presents the mathematical model of the 3DOF helicopter system and then illustrates the basic idea and technical formulation for controller design. The paper explains the simple appro...

  14. Robust Adaptive Integral Backstepping Control of a 3-DOF Helicopter


    Zheng Fang; Weinan Gao; Lei Zhang


    Unmanned aerial vehicles have enormous potential applications in military and civil fields. A Quanser’s 3‐DOF helicopter is a simplified and benchmark experimental model for validating the effectiveness of various flight control algorithms. The attitude control of the 3‐DOF helicopter is a challenging task since the helicopter is an under‐actuated system with strong coupling and model uncertainty characteristics. In this paper, an adaptive integral backstepping algorithm is proposed to realiz...

  15. Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors (United States)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.


    Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.

  16. Flowfield Characteristics on a Retreating Rotor Blade (United States)


    fixed wing, and then as a rotor blade in a low-speed wind tunnel . Fixed-wing results from load measurements and flow visualization showed that the sharp...wing airloads (Figure 1.3) and tuft visualization, to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) under a blade held fixed as part of a rotor in a wind tunnel [43...were performed in the 2.13m×2.74m John Harper wind tunnel at our institution. The untwisted rectangular blade has a NACA 0013 planform. The rotor used

  17. Transport Phenomena in Zonal Centrifuge Rotors (United States)

    Hsu, H. W.


    An analysis is presented for the evaluation of velocity components and shear-stress distributions of fluid in zonal centrifuge rotors during acceleration. Analytical expressions for the distribution of tangential and radial velocity components and the tangential shear-stress and the radial shear-stress distributions of fluid are obtained for the transient case. Characteristics of each distribution for a typical density gradient liquid in a zonal centrifuge rotor are computed from the relations derived, and are presented as figures. An unusual phenomenon—the tangential velocity of the gradient exceeding the velocity of the rotor during a particular period of acceleration—is demonstrated. PMID:5678322

  18. H II control for model helicopter in hover (United States)

    Kim, Moo Seok; Kim, Joon Ki; Han, Jeong Yup; Park, Hong Bae; Kang, Soon Ju


    This paper presents mathematical model of six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) helicopter (ERGO50) in hover, and H II feedback controller which is a powerful technique for the MIMO system as a helicopter. Mathematical model of the helicopter is multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and linearized system which accommodates aerodynamics. H II controller based on optimal control theory is used in a myriad application and plays an important role as a valuable precursor to other advanced methods for future work, when we need to improve stability of the helicopter. We design linear-quadratic-gaussian controller as H II controller. Simulation results show good performance.

  19. 78 FR 40956 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland (Eurocopter) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland (Eurocopter) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-12-06 Eurocopter Deutschland (Eurocopter): Amendment 39-17484; Docket No. FAA...

  20. Helicopter mission optimization study. [portable computer technology for flight optimization (United States)

    Olson, J. R.


    The feasibility of using low-cost, portable computer technology to help a helicopter pilot optimize flight parameters to minimize fuel consumption and takeoff and landing noise was demonstrated. Eight separate computer programs were developed for use in the helicopter cockpit using a hand-held computer. The programs provide the helicopter pilot with the ability to calculate power required, minimum fuel consumption for both range and endurance, maximum speed and a minimum noise profile for both takeoff and landing. Each program is defined by a maximum of two magnetic cards. The helicopter pilot is required to key in the proper input parameter such as gross weight, outside air temperature or pressure altitude.

  1. Structural Dynamics, Stability, and Control of Helicopters (United States)

    Meirovitch, L.; Hale, A. L.


    The dynamic synthesis of gyroscopic structures consisting of point-connected substructures is investigated. The objective is to develop a mathematical model capable of an adequate simulation of the modal characteristics of a helicopter using a minimum number of degrees of freedom. The basic approach is to regard the helicopter structure as an assemblage of flexible substructures. The variational equations for the perturbed motion about certain equilibrium solutions are derived. The discretized variational equations can be conveniently exhibited in matrix form, and a great deal of information about the system modal characteristics can be extracted from the coefficient matrices. The derivation of the variational equations requires a monumental amount of algebraic operations. To automate this task a symbolic manipulation program on a digital computer is developed.

  2. A cable detection lidar system for helicopters (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist; Capbern, Alain; Defour, Martin; Fertala, Remi


    Helicopters in low-level flight are endangered by power lines or telephone wires, especially when flying at night and under poor visibility conditions. In order to prevent 'wire strike', Thomson has developed a lidar system consisting of a pulsed diode laser emitting in the near infrared region (lambda = 0.9 microns). The HOWARD (Helicopter Obstacle Warning and Detection) System utilizes a high repetition rate diode laser (PRE = 20 KHz) along with counter-rotating prisms for laser beam deflection with a total field of view of 30 degrees. This system was successfully field tested in 1991. HOWARD can detect one inch wires at ranges up to 200 meters. We are presently in the process of developing a flyable compact lidar system capable of detection ranges in the order of 400 meters.

  3. NASA/FAA helicopter simulator workshop (United States)

    Larsen, William E. (Editor); Randle, Robert J., Jr. (Editor); Bray, Richard S. (Editor); Zuk, John (Editor)


    A workshop was convened by the FAA and NASA for the purpose of providing a forum at which leading designers, manufacturers, and users of helicopter simulators could initiate and participate in a development process that would facilitate the formulation of qualification standards by the regulatory agency. Formal papers were presented, special topics were discussed in breakout sessions, and a draft FAA advisory circular defining specifications for helicopter simulators was presented and discussed. A working group of volunteers was formed to work with the National Simulator Program Office to develop a final version of the circular. The workshop attracted 90 individuals from a constituency of simulator manufacturers, training organizations, the military, civil regulators, research scientists, and five foreign countries.

  4. Optimal short range trajectories for helicopters (United States)

    Slater, G. L.; Erzberger, H.


    An optimal flight path algorithm using a simplified altitude state model and an apriori climb-cruise-descent flight profile has been developed and applied to determine minimum fuel and minimum cost trajectories for a helicopter flying a fixed range trajectory. The performance model is based on standard flight manual data and is such that on-line trajectory optimization is feasible with a relatively small computer. The results show that the optimal flight path and optimal cruise altitude can represent a 10 percent fuel saving on a minimum fuel trajectory. The optimal trajectories show considerable variability due to helicopter weight, ambient winds and the relative cost trade-off between time and fuel. In general, 'reasonable' variations from the optimal velocities and cruise altitudes do not significantly degrade the optimal cost.

  5. Modal dynamics of structures with bladed isotropic rotors and its complexity for 2-bladed rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig


    The modal dynamics of structures with bladed isotropic rotors is analyzed using Hill’s method. First, analytical derivation of the periodic system matrix shows that isotropic rotors with more than two blades can be represented by an exact Fourier series with 3/rev as the highest order. For 2-bladed...... problem is introduced. The corresponding periodic eigenvectors can be used to compute symmetric and anti-symmetric components of the 2-bladed rotor motion, and the additional forward and backward whirling components for rotors with more than two blades. Finally, the generic methods are used on a simple...

  6. Helicopter Transparent Enclosures. Volume 1. Design Handbook (United States)


    that govern whether or not a stationary object can be seeu are: Target size Target distance Background illumination Brightness contrast Atmospheric...Uliano, G. L., "Helicopter Disguise Evaluation," MASSTER Test No. 1029, Modern Army Selected Systems Test Evaluation and Review , Fort Hood, Tex., Oct...Clearance - A Review ," TR70122, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, England, July 1970. Matusovich, C., "Chemical Rain Repellents for Windshield

  7. Autonomous vertical autorotation for unmanned helicopters (United States)

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are considered the stepping stone for the integration of civil unmanned vehicles in the National Airspace System (NAS) because of their low cost and risk. Such systems are aimed at a variety of applications including search and rescue, surveillance, communications, traffic monitoring and inspection of buildings, power lines and bridges. Amidst these systems, small helicopters play an important role because of their capability to hold a position, to maneuver in tight spaces and to take off and land from virtually anywhere. Nevertheless civil adoption of such systems is minimal, mostly because of regulatory problems that in turn are due to safety concerns. This dissertation examines the risk to safety imposed by UAS in general and small helicopters in particular, focusing on accidents resulting in a ground impact. To improve the performance of small helicopters in this area, the use of autonomous autorotation is proposed. This research goes beyond previous work in the area of autonomous autorotation by developing an on-line, model-based, real-time controller that is capable of handling constraints and different cost functions. The approach selected is based on a non-linear model-predictive controller, that is augmented by a neural network to improve the speed of the non-linear optimization. The immediate benefit of this controller is that a class of failures that would otherwise result in an uncontrolled crash and possible injuries or fatalities can now be accommodated. Furthermore besides simply landing the helicopter, the controller is also capable of minimizing the risk of serious injury to people in the area. This is accomplished by minimizing the kinetic energy during the last phase of the descent. The presented research is designed to benefit the entire UAS community as well as the public, by allowing for safer UAS operations, which in turn also allow faster and less expensive integration of UAS in the NAS.

  8. Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasseau, V.


    We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)

  9. Open rotor noise impact on airport communities. (United States)


    The highly tonal noise spectra produced by Open Rotor (OR) engines differ greatly from the relatively : smooth, atonal noise spectra produced by typical Turbofan (TF) engines. Understanding the effects of : these spectral differences on received nois...

  10. Rotor hub vibration and blade loads reduction, and energy harvesting via embedded radial oscillator (United States)

    Austruy, Julien

    An embedded radial absorber is investigated to control helicopter rotor hub vibration and blade loads. The absorber is modeled as a discrete mass moving in the spanwise direction within the blade. The absorber is retained in place and tuned with a spring and a damper. The radial absorber couples with lead-lag dynamic through Coriolis forces. The embedded radial absorber coupled to the helicopter is analyzed with a comprehensive rotorcraft model. The blade is modeled as an elastic beam undergoing flap bending, lag bending and elastic torsion, and a radial degree of freedom is added for the absorber. The tuning of the embedded radial absorber to a frequency close to 3/rev with no damping is shown to reduce significantly (up to 86%) the 4/rev in-plane hub forces of a 4-bladed hingeless rotor similar to a MBB BO-105 in high speed flight. The simulation shows that the absorber modifies the in-plane blade root shears to synchronize them to cancel each other in the transmission from rotating frame to fixed frame. A design of an embedded radial absorber experiment for hub vibration control is presented and it is concluded that for such high tuning frequencies as 3/rev, it is feasible to use a regular coil spring to compensate for the steady centrifugal force. Large reduction of blade lag shear (85%) and lag bending moment (71%) is achieved by tuning the embedded radial absorber close to 1/rev (also shown for a BO-105 like helicopter in high speed flight). The absorber reduces the amplitude of the lag bending moment at 1/rev, thus reducing the blade lead-lag motion and reducing the blade drag shear and lag bending moment. Finally, the use of the embedded radial absorber is investigated as a source electrical power when combined with an electromagnetic circuit. A model of the electromagnetic system is developed and validated, and an evaluation of the amount of power harvestable for different configurations is presented. The maximum power harvested was calculated to be 133

  11. Spin stabilized magnetic levitation of horizontal rotors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Louis Anthony


    In this paper we present an analysis of a new configuration for achieving spin stabilized magnetic levitation. In the classical configuration, the rotor spins about a vertical axis; and the spin stabilizes the lateral instability of the top in the magnetic field. In this new configuration the rotor spins about a horizontal axis; and the spin stabilizes the axial instability of the top in the magnetic field.

  12. Inclusion Compound Based Approach to Arrays of Artificial Dipolar Molecular Rotors. A Surface Inclusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, K.; Comotti, A.; Bracco, S.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Sozzani, P.; Clark, N.A.; Price, J. C.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef


    Roč. 134, č. 24 (2012), s. 10122-10131 ISSN 0002-7863 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : controlled rotary motion * solid-state dynamics * aromatic nanochannels * NMR-spectroscopy * single-molecule Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.677, year: 2012

  13. Tris-o-phenylenedioxycyclotriphosphazene (TPP) Inclusion Compounds Containing a Dipolar Molecular Rotor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobr, L.; Zhao, K.; Shen, Y.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Rogers, C. T.; Michl, Josef


    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2014), s. 559-568 ISSN 1528-7483 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : aromatic nanochannels * single-molecule * dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.891, year: 2014

  14. Wing-vortex interaction: unraveling the flowfield of a hovering rotor (United States)

    Bhagwat, Mahendra J.; Caradonna, Francis X.; Ramasamy, Manikandan


    This paper focuses on one of the most prominent flow features of the hovering rotor wake, the close interaction of the tip vortex with a following blade. Such vortex interactions are fundamental determinants of rotor performance, loads, and noise. Yet, they are not completely understood, largely due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive experimental data. The present study aims to perform such comprehensive measurements, not on hovering helicopter rotors (which hugely magnifies test complexity) but using fixed-wing models in controlled wind tunnel tests. The experiments were designed to measure, in considerable detail, the aerodynamic loading resulting from a vortex interacting with a semi-span wing, as well as the wake resulting from that interaction. The goal of the present study is to answer fundamental questions such as (a) the influence of a vortex passing below a wing on the lift, drag, tip vortex, and the wake of that wing and (b) the strength of the forming tip vortex and its relation to the wing loading and/or the tip loading. This paper presents detailed wing surface pressure measurements that result from the interaction of the wing with an interacting vortex trailing from an upstream wing. The data show large lift distribution changes for a range of wing-vortex interactions including the effects of close encounter with the vortex core. Significant asymmetry in the vortex-induced lift loading was observed, with the increase in wing sectional lift outboard of the interacting vortex (closer to the tip) being much smaller than the corresponding decrease inboard of the vortex.

  15. Converting a C-130 Hercules into a Compound Helicopter: A Conceptual Design Study (United States)

    Kottapalli, Anjaney P.; Harris, Franklin D.


    . The performance of the Compound C-130 versus the C-130H shows a clear need for more powerful engines than are currently present on the C-130H. This would also adversely affect the Operating Empty Weight since a larger power plant requires more weight. However, one advantage that the Compound C-130 presents is the ability to hover and operate at low speeds in Helicopter Mode. While the C-130H is unable to travel at speeds lower than its stall speed, the Compound C-130 is able to hover using the main rotors. Thus, the Compound C-130 is able to operate independent of runways, let alone the condition of the nearest runway. Ultimately, the Compound C-130 is an effective aircraft in theaters requiring VTOL aircraft due to geographical considerations in terms or performance. Unfortunately, the weight penalty associated with converting the C-130H to a Compound C-130 suggests that further work in the area of the drive systems is required.

  16. The impact of the multi-gap seals on rotor dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Martsynkovskyy


    Full Text Available The research relevance of multi-slotted seals is of practical significance for increasing vibrationreliability of centrifugal pumps. This paper presents the model of a single-disk rotor with seals. The forced radial rotor vibrations are determined taking into account the linearized inertial, damping, gyroscopic, positional, and circulating forces operating on the impeller from the liquid flow side in the annular seals. A theoretical analysis was supplemented with a numerical example, the amplitude-frequency and phase characteristic are presented.

  17. Vision Aided State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders


    This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4 st...

  18. Hover flight control of helicopter using optimal control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper represents the optimal control theory and its application to the full scale helicopters. Generally the control of a helicopter is a hard task, because its system is very nonlinear, coupled and sensitive to the control inputs and external disturbances which might destabilize the system. As a result of these instabilities, it is essential to use a control process that helps to improve the systems performance, confirming stability and robustness. The main objective of this part is to develop a control system design technique using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR to stabilize the helicopter near hover flight. In order to achieve this objective, firstly, the nonlinear model of the helicopter is linearized using small disturbance theory. The linear optimal control theory is applied to the linearized state space model of the helicopter to design the LQR controller. To clarify robustness of the controller, the effects of external wind gusts and mass change are taken into concern. Wind gusts are taken as disturbances in all directions which are simulated as a sine wave. Many simulations were made to validate and verify the response of the linear controller of the helicopter. The results show that the use of an optimal control process as LQR is a good solution for MIMO helicopter system, achieving a good stabilization and refining the final behavior of the helicopter and handling the external wind gusts disturbances as shown in the different simulations.

  19. 78 FR 857 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ...-17302; AD 2012-26-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350BA helicopters with certain AERAZUR... information, the economic evaluation, any comments received, and other information. The street address for the...

  20. 78 FR 7641 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ...; AD 2013-01-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal... directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B3 and EC130B4 helicopters. This AD requires... this AD, any incorporated-by-reference service information, the economic evaluation, any comments...

  1. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes of the...

  2. 77 FR 7005 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-1 and C-2 helicopters. This proposed... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH: Docket No. FAA-2012-0101; Directorate Identifier 2010...

  3. 77 FR 32884 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) for Eurocopter Deutschland GMBH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-1 and C-2 helicopters. This AD requires... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-09-11 EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND...

  4. The Helicopter Parent (Part 2): International Arrivals and Departures (United States)

    Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim


    The phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported, yet the research literature is anemic on the topic. Based on interviews and focus groups involving 190 academic and student services professionals, this article continues by discussing the social, psychological, economic, and cultural factors that influence helicoptering; exploring…

  5. Sleep and Alertness in North Sea Helicopter Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Wilschut, E.S.; Valk, P.J.L.


    Introduction : Dutch North Sea helicopter operations are characterized by multiple sector flights to offshore platforms under difficult environmental conditions. In the context of a Ministry of Transport program to improve safety levels of helicopter operations, we assessed effects of pre-duty

  6. Adaptive Control System for Autonomous Helicopter Slung Load Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    This paper presents design and verification of an estimation and control system for a helicopter slung load system. The estimator provides position and velocity estimates of the slung load and is designed to augment existing navigation in autonomous helicopters. Sensor input is provided by a vision...

  7. Economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry.


    Conner, Alexander Nicholson


    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis discusses the economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry. Increased manufacturing and operating costs from noise abatement regulations on Sikorsky's S-75 helicopter are estimated. The effects on consumer utilization are also discussed. An appendix compares two independent research studies that used weight estimating relationships and cost estimating relationships to estimate...

  8. 77 FR 43734 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... intended to prevent failure of the emergency container assembly due to age and subsequent damage to the... container assembly due to age and subsequent damage to the helicopter. This condition could result in injury... AS350BA helicopters with certain AERAZUR emergency flotation gear container assemblies installed. This...

  9. Small-Scale Helicopter Automatic Autorotation : Modeling, Guidance, and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taamallah, S.


    Our research objective consists in developing a, model-based, automatic safety recovery system, for a small-scale helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in autorotation, i.e. an engine OFF flight condition, that safely flies and lands the helicopter to a pre-specified ground location. In pursuit

  10. Heat stress reduction of helicopter crew wearing a ventilated vest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reffeltrath, P.A.


    Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was

  11. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of rotor-assembled strand heat exchanger studied by uniform design experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei


    Full Text Available The uniform distribution and experimental design is employed to study the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of a heat exchanger, which consists of the rotor-assembled strands mounted in circular smooth tubes. The uniform distribution and experimental design parameters include multiple rotor parameters such as rotor diameters, rotor lead, and height of blade, with the aim of studying their influence on the PEC, that is, ( ( Nu z / Nu g / ( f g / f z 1 / 3 , which stands for the heat transfer and friction characteristics. The best matching schemes of rotor-assembled strand, which significantly improves PEC to 2.01, are given by the regression analysis of uniform distribution and experimental design table. The single-factor experiments are performed to compare a tube installed with different kinds of rotor-assembled strands with a smooth tube without any strands when the Reynolds number changes between 20,000 and 60,000. The experimental result is in good agreement with the result obtained by the regression analysis of uniform distribution and experimental design. It is shown that the rotor diameters play important role in the heat transfer, and the optimal PEC value is obtained under the case that the rotor diameter is 21 mm. The rotor lead also contributes to the improvement of heat transfer and its optimal value is 700 mm in this study. The Nusselt number, friction factor and PEC increase with the increase in blade height. It shows that the uniform distribution and experimental design is an efficient method to find out the optimal parameters.

  12. Rotor/stator unsteady calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, C.; Dejean, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches


    The flow prediction involves the use of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver N3S-NATUR. This compressible and turbulent finite volume / finite element code is able to perform multi-domain steady and now unsteady calculations through the external coupling module CALCIUM. The later is based on PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). The originality of the method is the use of this external coupling module in such a way that each domain is computed with its own N3S code. Of course, a turbomachinery stage flow is always unsteady because of the rotor. When dealing with steady computations, the principal assumption is that the flow is steady relative to each domain individually and that each domain can communicate via mixing planes. These planes introduce circumferential averaging of the flow properties but preserve quite general radial variations. For unsteady calculations, the same method is used but without any circumferential averaging. Here, two fixed and three rotating blades are taken into account which involves the use of five different N3S-NATUR codes (one code for one blade). Of course, in order to perform such a calculation without any hypothesis, all the blades have to be modelled. Actually, such a calculation is done for a turbine stage of 23 fixed and 37 rotating blades (VEGA 2 turbine). In order to perform such a calculation in a realistic time, 60 processors of a parallel architecture computer are used. (authors)

  13. Wind-Tunnel Evaluation of the Effect of Blade Nonstructural Mass Distribution on Helicopter Fixed-System Loads (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, Jr, William T.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilkie, W K.


    This report provides data obtained during a wind-tunnel test conducted to investigate parametrically the effect of blade nonstructural mass on helicopter fixed-system vibratory loads. The data were obtained with aeroelastically scaled model rotor blades that allowed for the addition of concentrated nonstructural masses at multiple locations along the blade radius. Testing was conducted for advance ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.35 for 10 blade-mass configurations. Three thrust levels were obtained at representative full-scale shaft angles for each blade-mass configuration. This report provides the fixed-system forces and moments measured during testing. The comprehensive database obtained is well-suited for use in correlation and development of advanced rotorcraft analyses.

  14. Electric Drive Control with Rotor Resistance and Rotor Speed Observers Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ben Regaya


    Full Text Available Many scientific researchers have proposed the control of the induction motor without speed sensor. These methods have the disadvantage that the variation of the rotor resistance causes an error of estimating the motor speed. Thus, simultaneous estimation of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is required. In this paper, a scheme for estimating simultaneously the rotor resistance and the rotor speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic has been developed. We present a method which is based on two adaptive observers using fuzzy logic without affecting each other and a simple algorithm in order to facilitate the determination of the optimal values of the controller gains. The control algorithm is proved by the simulation tests. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the two observers of the proposed method even in the case of variation of the rotor resistance.

  15. 75 FR 62639 - Air Ambulance and Commercial Helicopter Operations, Part 91 Helicopter Operations, and Part 135... (United States)


    ... Resource Management (CRM), CFIT, inadvertent flight into IMC, operational control, improved access to... issued Notice 8000.293, Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Operations, addressing CRM, adherence to... decision making, failure to maintain clearance of obstacles, inadequate planning, and improper execution of...

  16. 78 FR 4759 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... installed from the time the yoke had zero hours TIS. (iii) In accordance with the rate per hour categories... these yokes, and required operators to log additional hours against the retirement life of the yokes for Model 212 helicopters conducting more than four external load lifts per hour. Since the issuance of...

  17. 78 FR 37158 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the....m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the...

  18. 77 FR 64439 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice...'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining The AD Docket... Operations Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket...

  19. 78 FR 4762 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... ``Mail'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the... the Docket Operations Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays...

  20. 78 FR 37152 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the....m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the...

  1. 78 FR 34286 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays... holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the economic evaluation, any comments received, and...

  2. 78 FR 34282 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... holidays. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http://www.regulations..., except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the economic evaluation, any comments...

  3. 78 FR 34280 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ] ACTION..., except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at http... through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this proposed AD, the economic evaluation...

  4. 78 FR 34290 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters (United States)


    ... Textron Canada Limited (Bell) Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION...'' address between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Examining the AD Docket... Operations Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BEAZIT


    Full Text Available The researches in rotor theory, the increasing use of computers and the connection between design and manufacturing of rotors, have determined the revaluation and completion of classical rotor geometry. This paper presents practical applications of mathematical description of rotor geometry. A program has been created to describe the rotor geometry for arbitrary shape of the blade. The results can be imported by GAMBIT - a processor for geometry with modeling and mesh generations, to create a mesh needed in hydrodynamics analysis of rotor CFD. The results obtained are applicable in numerical methods and are functionally convenient for CAD/CAM systems.

  6. Stability of Rotor Systems: A Complex Modelling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob


    with the results of the classical approach using Rayleighquotients. Several rotor systems are tested: a simple Laval rotor, a Laval rotor with additional elasticity and damping in thr bearings, and a number of rotor systems with complex symmetric 4x4 randomly generated matrices.......A large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a complex matrix differential equation of secondorder. The angular velocity of the rotor plays the role of a parameter. We apply the Lyapunov matrix equation in a complex setting and prove two new stability results which are compared...

  7. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Rotors Using Hinged Structures and Rods (United States)

    Lu, Hongya; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping


    Light weight and high stiffness are key design factors in ensuring cost effectiveness and reliability of wind turbines, especially for the inboard region of the rotor blades. In this study, several novel designs were developed to improve the mechanical performance of the rotor. Experiments were performed on an isolated blade incorporating the new features of a hinged structure and rods. The results validated the effectiveness of these features at alleviating the root-bending moment of the blade under varying wind loads and enhancing the stiffness of the blade. A numerical investigation was carried out to further examine the bending moment distribution, shear and axial force, and rod tension of these novel rotor designs under uniform loads. Longitudinal geometrical variations of the blade were considered in the model. Results showed that two designs realized a favorable bending moment distribution and improved the modal frequencies of the edgewise modes: bisymmetrical rods on a single-hinged structure and interveined symmetrical rods on a cantilevered structure. However, these designs have different deformation mechanisms. In addition, the first group of edgewise modal frequencies of these two designs were improved compared with the traditional rotor design. Their potential values in the application to the design of a lightweight, high-stiffness, and reliable wind turbine rotor were discussed.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Performance and Loads of a Novel Dual Rotor Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Moghadassian


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the effects of the atmospheric boundary layer on the aerodynamic performance and loads of a novel dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT. Large eddy simulations are carried out with the turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL and in a uniform inflow. Two stability conditions corresponding to neutral and slightly stable atmospheres are investigated. The turbines are modeled using the actuator line method where the rotor blades are modeled as body forces. Comparisons are drawn between the DRWT and a comparable conventional single-rotor wind turbine (SRWT to assess changes in aerodynamic efficiency and loads, as well as wake mixing and momentum and kinetic energy entrainment into the turbine wake layer. The results show that the DRWT improves isolated turbine aerodynamic performance by about 5%–6%. The DRWT also enhances turbulent axial momentum entrainment by about 3.3 %. The highest entrainment is observed in the neutral stability case when the turbulence in the ABL is moderately high. Aerodynamic loads for the DRWT, measured as out-of-plane blade root bending moment, are marginally reduced. Spectral analyses of ABL cases show peaks in unsteady loads at the rotor passing frequency and its harmonics for both rotors of the DRWT.

  9. Parametric analyses for synthetic jet control on separation and stall over rotor airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoqing


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of synthetic jet control on separation and stall over rotor airfoils. The preconditioned and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations coupled with a k − ω shear stream transport turbulence model are employed to accomplish the flowfield simulation of rotor airfoils under jet control. Additionally, a velocity boundary condition modeled by a sinusoidal function is developed to fulfill the perturbation effect of periodic jets. The validity of the present CFD procedure is evaluated by the simulated results of an isolated synthetic jet and the jet control case for airfoil NACA0015. Then, parametric analyses are conducted specifically for an OA213 rotor airfoil to investigate the effects of jet parameters (forcing frequency, jet location and momentum coefficient, jet direction, and distribution of jet arrays on the control effect of the aerodynamic characteristics of a rotor airfoil. Preliminary results indicate that the efficiency of jet control can be improved with specific frequencies (the best lift-drag ratio at F+ = 2.0 and jet angles (40° or 75° when the jets are located near the separation point of the rotor airfoil. Furthermore, as a result of a suitable combination of jet arrays, the lift coefficient of the airfoil can be improved by nearly 100%, and the corresponding drag coefficient decreased by 26.5% in comparison with the single point control case.

  10. Definition and analytical evaluation of a power management system for tilt-rotor aircraft (United States)

    Morris, J. J.; Alexander, H. R.


    The paper reviews the special design criteria which apply to power management in a tilt-rotor aircraft. These include the need for accurate and fast control of rpm and thrust, while accounting for the dynamic interactions between rotor systems caused by cross-shafting and aircraft lateral/directional response. The power management system is also required to provide acceptable high speed sensitivity to longitudinal turbulence. It is shown that the criteria can best be met using a single governor adjusting the collective pitch by an amount proportional to a combination of the average rpm and the integral of the average rpm of the two rotors. This system is evaluated and compared with other candidate systems in hover and cruise flight.

  11. A new approach to the free wake problem for hovering rotors (United States)

    Bliss, D. B.; Wachspress, D. A.; Quackenbush, T. R.


    In the present approach to the hovering rotor free wake problem, an influence coefficient solution method is used to find that rotor wake solution which is steady in a reference frame that rotates with the blades; this scheme solves directly for the conditions of free wake equilibrium by a procedure that does not involve time-stepping and the associated use of numerical damping or special convergence methods. The solution method has been implemented in a hover wake computer program having a three-part wake model for the tip vortex. All three wake regions are represented by the new Basic Curved Vortex Elements. Sample hover calculations are presented for single blade and multiblade rotors.

  12. Detailed Aerodynamic Analysis of a Shrouded Tail Rotor Using an Unstructured Mesh Flow Solver (United States)

    Lee, Hee Dong; Kwon, Oh Joon

    The detailed aerodynamics of a shrouded tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using a parallel inviscid flow solver on unstructured meshes. The numerical method is based on a cell-centered finite-volume discretization and an implicit Gauss-Seidel time integration. The calculation was made for a single blade by imposing a periodic boundary condition between adjacent rotor blades. The grid periodicity was also imposed at the periodic boundary planes to avoid numerical inaccuracy resulting from solution interpolation. The results were compared with available experimental data and those from a disk vortex theory for validation. It was found that realistic three-dimensional modeling is important for the prediction of detailed aerodynamics of shrouded rotors including the tip clearance gap flow.

  13. Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution (United States)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.


    The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

  14. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan


    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  15. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations? (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone


    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  16. Smart rotor modeling aero-servo-elastic modeling of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps

    CERN Document Server

    Bergami, Leonardo


    A smart rotor is a wind turbine rotor that, through a combination of sensors, control units and actuators actively reduces the variation of the aerodynamic loads it has to withstand. Smart rotors feature?promising load alleviation potential and might provide the technological breakthrough required by the next generation of large wind turbine rotors.The book presents the aero-servo-elastic model of a smart rotor with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for active load alleviation and provides an insight on the rotor aerodynamic, structural and control modeling. A novel model for the unsteady aerodynam

  17. Modeling, State Estimation and Control of Unmanned Helicopters (United States)

    Lau, Tak Kit

    Unmanned helicopters hold both tremendous potential and challenges. Without risking the lives of human pilots, these vehicles exhibit agile movement and the ability to hover and hence open up a wide range of applications in the hazardous situations. Sparing human lives, however, comes at a stiff price for technology. Some of the key difficulties that arise in these challenges are: (i) There are unexplained cross-coupled responses between the control axes on the hingeless helicopters that have puzzled researchers for years. (ii) Most, if not all, navigation on the unmanned helicopters relies on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), which are susceptible to jamming. (iii) It is often necessary to accommodate the re-configurations of the payload or the actuators on the helicopters by repeatedly tuning an autopilot, and that requires intensive human supervision and/or system identification. For the dynamics modeling and analysis, we present a comprehensive review on the helicopter actuation and dynamics, and contributes toward a more complete understanding on the on-axis and off-axis dynamical responses on the helicopter. We focus on a commonly used modeling technique, namely the phase-lag treatment, and employ a first-principles modeling method to justify that (i) why that phase-lag technique is inaccurate, (ii) how we can analyze the helicopter actuation and dynamics more accurately. Moreover, these dynamics modeling and analysis reveal the hard-to-measure but crucial parameters on a helicopter model that require the constant identifications, and hence convey the reasoning of seeking a model-implicit method to solve the state estimation and control problems on the unmanned helicopters. For the state estimation, we present a robust localization method for the unmanned helicopter against the GNSS outage. This method infers position from the acceleration measurement from an inertial measurement unit (IMU). In the core of our method are techniques of the sensor

  18. A Comprehensive Review of Helicopter Noise Literature (United States)


    over a smdlI portion of Ilh, r’o1or di .r. This; Ialinfgr hch ~avior protduves hig~hly directionatl harmonic nofac and i- 1-1na. aaaon V oki,:w a*dI:.1...anrnultis roxbustor is tho Liest coinflgurrit on from an aeotus- * heal point (if viw.Strahl t t su-gests that a drop in comibustor flow turhule-ee...helicopters. Ana- lvtical method:s, on the other hand , require a great deal of detaihled design information to use and still require some empirical

  19. Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor (United States)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.


    One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.

  20. 75 FR 21523 - Airworthiness Standards; Rotor Overspeed Requirements (United States)


    ..., then the analytical tool must be calibrated to prior overspeed test results of a similar rotor. The tool must be calibrated for the same material, rotor geometry, stress level, and temperature range as...

  1. Calculation of Rotor Performance and Loads Under Stalled Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo


    Rotor behavior in stalled conditions is investigated using wind tunnel test data of a 1/10-scale CH-47B/C type rotor, which provides a set of test conditions extending from unstalled to light stall...

  2. Aircraft rotor blade with passive tuned tab (United States)

    Campbell, T. G. (Inventor)


    A structure for reducing vibratory airloading in a rotor blade with a leading edge and a trailing edge includes a cut out portion at the trailing edge. A substantially wedge shaped cross section, inertially deflectable tab, also with a leading edge and a trailing edge is pivotally mounted in the cut out portion. The trailing edge of the tab may move above and below the rotor blade. A torsion strap applies force against the tab when the trailing edge of the tab is above and below the rotor blade. A restraining member is slidably movable along the torsion strap to vary torsional biasing force supplied by the torsion bar to the tab. A plurality of movable weights positioned between plates vary a center of gravity of the tab. Skin of the tab is formed from unidirectional graphite and fiberglass layers. Sliders coupled with a pinned degree of freedom at rod eliminate bending of tab under edgewise blade deflection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit SARUHAN


    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief study of the information from the published literature and author's works regarding rotor-bearing systems analysis with respect to optimization. The main goal of this work is to motivate and give an idea to designers who are willing to deal with optimization of rotor-bearing sytems. The results obtained and presented in this study are to provide a comparison with numerical optimum design methods such as gradientbased method, and to show the potential of genetic algorithms in optimization of rotor-bearing systems. Genetic algorithms have been used as optimization problem solving techniques. They are parameter search procedures based on the idea of natural selection and genetics. These robust methods have increasingly recognized and applied in many applications.

  4. Active-Twist Rotor Control Applications for UAVs (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Wilkie, W. Keats


    The current state-of-the-art in active-twist rotor control is discussed using representative examples from analytical and experimental studies, and the application to rotary-wing UAVs is considered. Topics include vibration and noise reduction, rotor performance improvement, active blade tracking, stability augmentation, and rotor blade de-icing. A review of the current status of piezoelectric fiber composite actuator technology, the class of piezoelectric actuators implemented in active-twist rotor systems, is included.

  5. Backward whirl in a simple rotor supported on hydrodynamic bearings (United States)

    Subbiah, R.; Rhat, R. B.; Sankar, T. S.; Rao, J. S.


    The asymmetric nature of the fluid film stiffness and damping properties in rotors supported on fluid film bearings causes a forward or a backward whirl depending on the bearing parameters and the speed of the rotor. A rotor was designed to exhibit backward synchronous whirl. The rotor-bearing system exhibited split criticals, and a backward whirl was observed between the split criticals. The orbital diagrams show the whirl pattern.

  6. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Hall, R. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Colina, K. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center)


    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  7. Vibration amplitude rule study for rotor under large time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuan; Zuo Jianli; Duan Changcheng


    The rotor is an important part of the rotating machinery; its vibration performance is one of the important factors affecting the service life. This paper presents both theoretical analyses and experimental demonstrations of the vibration rule of the rotor under large time scales. The rule can be used for the service life estimation of the rotor. (authors)

  8. Fine tuning of molecular rotor function in photochemical molecular switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Wiel, Matthijs K. J.; Feringa, Ben L.


    Molecular switches are used as scaffolds for the construction of controlled molecular rotors. The internal position of the switching entity in the molecule controls the dynamic behaviour of the rotor moiety in the molecule. Six new molecular motors with o-xylyl rotor moieties were prepared on the

  9. Simulating effectiveness of helicopter evasive manoeuvres to RPG attack (United States)

    Anderson, D.; Thomson, D. G.


    The survivability of helicopters under attack by ground troops using rocket propelled grenades has been amply illustrated over the past decade. Given that an RPG is unguided and it is infeasible to cover helicopters in thick armour, existing optical countermeasures are ineffective - the solution is to compute an evasive manoeuvre. In this paper, an RPG/helicopter engagement model is presented. Manoeuvre profiles are defined in the missile approach warning sensor camera image plane using a local maximum acceleration vector. Required control inputs are then computed using inverse simulation techniques. Assessments of platform survivability to several engagement scenarios are presented.

  10. Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed-Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems (United States)


    150-lines slip ring, rotating torque sensors, brushless DC motors and controllers , miniature 6-component transducers, low capacity torque sensor, 3D...Endevco 2. Fabricast 150 lines slip ring 8256-0.0-150-60U 3. Brushless DC motors and Controllers 4. Load Sensors (RST-A10 rotating torque sensor...slip ring was custom designed by Fabricast as per the specifications for a total cost of $ 28,251. 3. BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS AND CONTROLLERS 3.1

  11. Fabrication and Testing of High-Speed Single-Rotor and Compound-Rotor Systems (United States)


    150-lines slip ring, rotating torque sensors, brushless DC motors and controllers , miniature 6-component transducers, low capacity torque sensor, 3D...Endevco 2. Fabricast 150 lines slip ring 8256-0.0-150-60U 3. Brushless DC motors and Controllers 4. Load Sensors (RST-A10 rotating torque sensor...slip ring was custom designed by Fabricast as per the specifications for a total cost of $ 28,251. 3. BRUSHLESS DC MOTORS AND CONTROLLERS 3.1

  12. Study of the influence of coating methods on lipid spheres manufactured on rotor fluidized bed process. (United States)

    Gauthier, Pascale; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Beyssac, Erick; Aiache, Jean-Marc


    Different previous works have shown that various kinds of spheres can be manufactured by rotor granulation in a 'single-pot process' using a lipid base: hydrogenated castor oil. This single-pot technology is based on wet granulation where all components are placed in the powder form in the rotor bowl; then, they are continuously suspended in a fluidized air, with a tangentially sprayed liquid solution. This process allows the granulation and manufacturing of sphere during the same time. Previous experiments have studied the influence of the formulation and the manufacturing process parameters on spheres in terms of feasibility and dissolution properties. Both the spraying time and the weight of liquid sprayed were found to be the most relevant parameters that govern the final quality of the sphere. Now, in a second part of the work, a first comparison is made with two different fluid bed methods: the tangential rotor spray and the Wurster bottom spray for coating the lipid spheres previously manufactured with the rotor tangential spray. The external aspect of the coated spheres manufactured has been evaluated with an electronic microscopy analysis and a study of dissolution properties of the active ingredient has been done by USP in vitro dissolution tests.

  13. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi


    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  14. Software integration for automated stability analysis and design optimization of a bearingless rotor blade (United States)

    Gunduz, Mustafa Emre

    Many government agencies and corporations around the world have found the unique capabilities of rotorcraft indispensable. Incorporating such capabilities into rotorcraft design poses extra challenges because it is a complicated multidisciplinary process. The concept of applying several disciplines to the design and optimization processes may not be new, but it does not currently seem to be widely accepted in industry. The reason for this might be the lack of well-known tools for realizing a complete multidisciplinary design and analysis of a product. This study aims to propose a method that enables engineers in some design disciplines to perform a fairly detailed analysis and optimization of a design using commercially available software as well as codes developed at Georgia Tech. The ultimate goal is when the system is set up properly, the CAD model of the design, including all subsystems, will be automatically updated as soon as a new part or assembly is added to the design; or it will be updated when an analysis and/or an optimization is performed and the geometry needs to be modified. Designers and engineers will be involved in only checking the latest design for errors or adding/removing features. Such a design process will take dramatically less time to complete; therefore, it should reduce development time and costs. The optimization method is demonstrated on an existing helicopter rotor originally designed in the 1960's. The rotor is already an effective design with novel features. However, application of the optimization principles together with high-speed computing resulted in an even better design. The objective function to be minimized is related to the vibrations of the rotor system under gusty wind conditions. The design parameters are all continuous variables. Optimization is performed in a number of steps. First, the most crucial design variables of the objective function are identified. With these variables, Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used

  15. PIV Flow Field Measurements of Hovering Rotors with Leading Edge Protuberances (United States)


    Journal of Aerospace Engineering Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures Paper AIAA-90-3008...Proceedings of the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit AIAA Journal Journal of the American Helicopter Society AIAA Journal AIAA Journal...Aerodynamics American Helicopter Society 64th Annual Forum Proceedings Journal of the American Helicopter Society AIAA Journal Journal of Fluid

  16. Method for repairing a steam turbine or generator rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.; Amos, D.R.


    A method is described for repairing low alloy steel steam turbine or generator rotors, the method comprising: a. machining mating attachments on a replacement end and a remaining portion of the original rotor; b. mating the replacement end and the original rotor; c. welding the replacement end to the original rotor by narrow-gap gas metal arc or submerged arc welding up to a depth of 1/2-2 inches from the rotor surface; d. gas tungsten arc welding the remaining 1/2-2 inches; e. boring out the mating attachment and at least the inside 1/4 inch of the welding; and f. inspecting the bore

  17. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian


    This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  18. Rotor Systems of Aircraft Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kamenický


    engine's both coaxial rotors, their supports (including their hydrodynamic dampers, and its casing as well. Besides the short description of the engine design peculiarities and of its calculating model, there is also a short description of the used method of calculations, with focus on its peculiarities as well. Finally, some results of calculations and conclusions that follow from them are presented.

  19. 14 CFR 33.34 - Turbocharger rotors. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbocharger rotors. 33.34 Section 33.34 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.34 Turbocharger...

  20. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...

  1. Prediction of aerodynamic performance for MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Zedong; Yang, Hua; Xu, Haoran


    The aerodynamic performance of the MEXICO (Model EXperiments In Controlled cOnditions) rotor at five tunnel wind speeds is predicted by making use of BEM and CFD methods, respectively, using commercial MATLAB and CFD software. Due to the pressure differences on both sides of the blade, the tip-fl...

  2. impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. The exact calculation of the impedance of induction machine rotor conductors at several operating frequencies are necessary if the dynamic behaviour of the machine is to give a good correlation between the simulated starting torque and current and the experimental results. This paper describes a method of'.

  3. Linear modeling of rotorcraft for stability analysis and preliminary design


    Wirth, Walter M.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis investigates linear state space modeling of single main rotor helicopters culminating in a computer program that can be used for 1) stability and control analysis for any single main rotor helicopter or 2) preliminary design of a helicopter. The trim solution for a flight condition is found, the aircraft is perturbed about the nominal point, and the stability and control derivatives are determined. State space models and ...

  4. Reporting Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Major Incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattah, Sabina; Johnsen, Anne Siri; Sollid, Stephen J M


    OBJECTIVE: Research on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in major incidents is predominately based on case descriptions reported in a heterogeneous fashion. Uniform data reported with a consensus-based template could facilitate the collection, analysis, and exchange of experiences...

  5. 78 FR 70202 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... France (Eurocopter) Model AS350B, BA, B1, B2, B3, D, AS355E, F, F1, F2, and N [[Page 70203

  6. 78 FR 54792 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters (United States)


    ..., associated with conditional revision RCe (10-04) or later'' into the RFM for helicopters equipped with screen... and ink changes as follows. Under paragraph 1, Altitude Limits, add the phrase: ``The minimum altitude...

  7. Robust Adaptive Integral Backstepping Control of a 3-DOF Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Fang


    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles have enormous potential applications in military and civil fields. A Quanser's 3-DOF helicopter is a simplified and benchmark experimental model for validating the effectiveness of various flight control algorithms. The attitude control of the 3-DOF helicopter is a challenging task since the helicopter is an under-actuated system with strong coupling and model uncertainty characteristics. In this paper, an adaptive integral backstepping algorithm is proposed to realize robust control of the 3-DOF helicopter. The proposed control algorithm can estimate model uncertainties online and improve the robustness of the control system. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs well in tracking and under model uncertainties.

  8. Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane, Helicopter, Airship (United States)


    The Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards (PTS) book has : been published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to : establish the standards for the instrument rating practical test for : airplanes, helicopters, and airships. FAA inspecto...

  9. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...

  10. 76 FR 41662 - Airworthiness Directives; MD Helicopters, Inc. Model MD900 Helicopters (United States)


    ...-18-51. That EAD was prompted by two reports of cracks detected in the lower hub near the flex beam... rotor lower hub assembly (lower hub) for a crack, and if you find a crack, before further flight... cracked lower hub, the existing AD requires reporting the finding to the Los Angeles Aircraft...

  11. Rotor Mass Eccentricity Vibration Compensation Control in Bearingless Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Yang


    Full Text Available In the process of motor rotation, the vibration caused by the rotor mass eccentricity seriously affects the dynamic characteristics and safety operation of system. So rotor mass eccentricity vibration compensation control on rotating machine has great significance, especially for the high speed bearing less induction motor (BIM. A rotor mass eccentricity compensation control strategy was presented to restrain the vibration of suspended rotor for BIM. Firstly, the suspension rotor dynamical model was deduced and unbalanced vibration mechanism was analyzed. Secondly, based on decoupling control between electromagnetic torque and radial force, the obtained vibration signal from the displacement sensor was put into the original radial force control system. Then, a feedforward compensator was set up to increase the same period component of the given radial force signal and enlarge the stiffness of the vibration signal. Finally, the compensation control of rotor vibration was realized by forcing the rotor shaft rotation around its geometric center. The simulation results show that the presented feedforward compensator can suppress the vibration of rotor under different speed and improve the precision of rotor suspension. The further experimental results also show that the control method can obviously reduce the peak-peak value of rotor radial displacement and effectively restrain rotor vibration.

  12. Disturbance Observer Based Control of Multirotor Helicopters Based on a Universal Model with Unstructured Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xie


    Full Text Available To handle different perspectives of unstructured uncertainties, two robust control techniques on the basis of a universal model are studied in this paper. Rather than building a model only applicable to a specific small-scale multirotor helicopter (MHeli, the paper proposes a modeling technique to develop a universal model-framework. Particularly, it is straightforward to apply the universal model to a certain MHeli because the contribution and allocation matrix is proposed in the model-framework. Based on the model uncertainties, the load perturbation of the rotor is the primary focus due to its indispensable importance in the tracking performance. In contrast to the common methods, it is proposed to take this unstructured uncertainty in that external disturbance and designs disturbance observer (DOB. In addition, a class of lead-compensator is specifically designed as for compensating phase lag induced by DOB. Compared with H∞ loop-shaping, greater robust tracking performance on rejecting load perturbation could be achieved as a tradeoff between robust stability and tracking performance which is successfully avoided with DOB-based control strategy.

  13. Evaluation of MEMS-Based Wireless Accelerometer Sensors in Detecting Gear Tooth Faults in Helicopter Transmissions (United States)

    Lewicki, David George; Lambert, Nicholas A.; Wagoner, Robert S.


    The diagnostics capability of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based rotating accelerometer sensors in detecting gear tooth crack failures in helicopter main-rotor transmissions was evaluated. MEMS sensors were installed on a pre-notched OH-58C spiral-bevel pinion gear. Endurance tests were performed and the gear was run to tooth fracture failure. Results from the MEMS sensor were compared to conventional accelerometers mounted on the transmission housing. Most of the four stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing and most of the CI's used gave indications of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS system performed well and lasted the entire test. All MEMS accelerometers gave an indication of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS systems performed as well, if not better, than the stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing with regards to gear tooth fault detection. For both the MEMS sensors and stationary sensors, the fault detection time was not much sooner than the actual tooth fracture time. The MEMS sensor spectrum data showed large first order shaft frequency sidebands due to the measurement rotating frame of reference. The method of constructing a pseudo tach signal from periodic characteristics of the vibration data was successful in deriving a TSA signal without an actual tach and proved as an effective way to improve fault detection for the MEMS.

  14. Rotor for a line start permanent magnet machine (United States)

    Melfi, Mike; Schiferl, Rich; Umans, Stephen


    A rotor comprises laminations with a plurality of rotor bar slots with an asymmetric arrangement about the rotor. The laminations also have magnet slots equiangularly spaced about the rotor. The magnet slots extend near to the rotor outer diameter and have permanent magnets disposed in the magnet slots creating magnetic poles. The magnet slots may be formed longer than the permanent magnets disposed in the magnets slots and define one or more magnet slot apertures. The permanent magnets define a number of poles and a pole pitch. The rotor bar slots are spaced from adjacent magnet slots by a distance that is at least 4% of the pole pitch. Conductive material is disposed in the rotor bar slots, and in some embodiments, may be disposed in the magnet slot apertures.

  15. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN


    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  16. Hover flight control of helicopter using optimal control theory




    This paper represents the optimal control theory and its application to the full scale helicopters. Generally the control of a helicopter is a hard task, because its system is very nonlinear, coupled and sensitive to the control inputs and external disturbances which might destabilize the system. As a result of these instabilities, it is essential to use a control process that helps to improve the systems performance, confirming stability and robustness. The main objective of this part is to ...

  17. Preliminary Application of a Helicopter Toy for Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Abdul


    Full Text Available This paper presents a result of an experimental study by using a helicopter toy for monitoring several environment parameters such as temperature, humidity, and air quality. A microcontroller board named Arduino was embedded in the helicopter. This board controlled various sensors. The data captured by the sensors was sent to the receiver by using a serial communication provided by a pair of XBee Pro.

  18. Idiopathic Syringomyelia in a Military Helicopter Pilot. (United States)

    Schiemer, Anthony


    A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical. Ultimately, the discovery of a lesion may have implications for flying status and operational capability. A 25-yr-old man working as a navy Seahawk helicopter pilot presented with episodes of right arm paraesthesia and pain between the scapulae. On at least one occasion, these symptoms woke him at night. Upon magnetic resonance imaging, dilatation of the central canal in a syrinx-like pattern in the lower cervical region was noted. Neurology review suggested the finding was persistent and unlikely to be responsible for his symptoms. No surgical input was recommended. His symptoms were attributed to mild cervical spondylosis, which resolved with ongoing physiotherapy, and he was returned to flying status. This case highlights several issues involved with the incidental finding of a syringomyelia. Surgical intervention has been known to worsen symptoms. Conversely, studies have identified minimal radiological progression in cases of idiopathic syringomyelia, with fewer individuals displaying neurological deterioration. For aircrew, potentially unnecessary neurosurgical intervention poses risks to a flying career and overall operational capability.Schiemer A. Idiopathic syringomyelia in a military helicopter pilot. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):962-965.

  19. Helicopter trimming and tracking control using direct neural dynamic programming. (United States)

    Enns, R; Si, Jennie


    This paper advances a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming control mechanism that can be applied to complex control problems such as helicopter flight control design. Based on direct neural dynamic programming (DNDP), an approximate dynamic programming methodology, the control system is tailored to learn to maneuver a helicopter. The paper consists of a comprehensive treatise of this DNDP-based tracking control framework and extensive simulation studies for an Apache helicopter. A trim network is developed and seamlessly integrated into the neural dynamic programming (NDP) controller as part of a baseline structure for controlling complex nonlinear systems such as a helicopter. Design robustness is addressed by performing simulations under various disturbance conditions. All designs are tested using FLYRT, a sophisticated industrial scale nonlinear validated model of the Apache helicopter. This is probably the first time that an approximate dynamic programming methodology has been systematically applied to, and evaluated on, a complex, continuous state, multiple-input multiple-output nonlinear system with uncertainty. Though illustrated for helicopters, the DNDP control system framework should be applicable to general purpose tracking control.

  20. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.


    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  1. Effects of perforation number of blade on aerodynamic performance of dual-rotor small axial flow fans (United States)

    Hu, Yongjun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Guoqi; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong


    Compared with single rotor small axial flow fans, dual-rotor small axial flow fans is better regarding the static characteristics. But the aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans is worse than that of single rotor small axial flow fans. In order to improve aerodynamic noise of dual-rotor small axial flow fans, the pre-stage blades with different perforation numbers are designed in this research. The RANS equations and the standard k-ɛ turbulence model as well as the FW-H noise model are used to simulate the flow field within the fan. Then, the aerodynamic performance of the fans with different perforation number is compared and analyzed. The results show that: (1) Compared to the prototype fan, the noise of fans with perforation blades is reduced. Additionally, the noise of the fans decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (2) The vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades of perforated fans is reduced. It is found that the vorticity value in the trailing edge of the pre-stage blades decreases with the increase of the number of perforations. (3) Compared to the prototype fan, the total pressure rising and efficiency of the fans with perforation blades drop slightly.

  2. Experimental Investigation of a Forward Swept Rotor in a Multistage Fan with Inlet Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspi R. Wadia


    Full Text Available Previous studies of transonic swept rotors in single stage fans have demonstrated the potential of significant improvements in both efficiency and stall margin with forward swept blading. This paper extends the assessment of the payoff derived from forward sweep to multistage configurations. The experimental investigation compare two builds of an advanced two-stage fan configuration tested alternately with a radial and a forward swept stage 1 blade. In the two-stage evaluations, the testing was extended to include the effect on inlet flow distortion. While the common second stage among the two builds prevented the overall fan from showing clean inlet performance and stability benefits with the forward swept rotor 1, this configuration did demonstrate superior front stage efficiency and tolerance to inlet distortion. Having obtained already low distortion sensitivity with the radial rotor 1 configuration relative to current production military fan standards, the sensitivity to inlet distortion was halved with the forward swept rotor 1 configuration. In the case of the 180-degree one-per-rev distortion pattern, the two-stage configuration was evaluated both with and without inlet guide vanes (IGVs. The presence of the inlet guide vanes had a profound impact in lowering the two-stage fan's sensitivity with inlet distortion.

  3. Studying the wake contraction of the flow-field of a rotor in hover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotov Filip


    flow-field of a rotor in hover and the net static thrust that is produced. The flow-field is induced by a series of vortex rings, modelling the near wake of the hovering rotor and a single semi-infinite vortex cylinder, accounting for the velocity deficit in the far wake. All three models are based on the vortex theory and differ in the choice of the numerical scheme for the estimation of the exact position of the vortex rings, emitted at the tips of the blades of the rotor. Thus, the numerical models perform a real-time simulation of the propagation of the vortex rings in the downwash. The first model uses an Euler-predictor scheme, while the second and third models use respectively first and second order predictor-corrector schemes. The aim of the study is to assess the rapidity and accuracy of each algorithm. For that purpose, the numerical results are compared with the experimental data, obtained from a wind tunnel test of the model rotor. The best results in terms of computational speed and accuracy are obtained with the use of Adams-Bashforth predictor-corrector scheme of second order.

  4. Final project report: High energy rotor development, test and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Under the auspices of the {open_quotes}Government/Industry Wind Technology Applications Project{close_quotes} [{open_quotes}Letter of Interest{close_quotes} (LOI) Number RC-1-11101], Flo Wind Corp. has successfully developed, tested, and delivered a high-energy rotor upgrade candidate for their 19-meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. The project included the demonstration of the innovative extended height-to-diameter ratio concept, the development of a continuous span single-piece composite blade, the demonstration of a continuous blade manufacturing technique, the utilization of the Sandia National Laboratories developed SNLA 2150 natural laminar flow airfoil and the reuse of existing wind turbine and wind power plant infrastructure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazit ALI


    Full Text Available The main problem of the hydrodynamics of cavitation implosion of a single bubble, consists inpressure and velocity fields determination, including the collapse velocity of the bubble wall. By analysis thetheoretic and experimental phenomenon it establish the implicit function which describes this phenomenon. Byapplication the  theorem for this implicit function it finds the criterion equation of phenomenon.Depending on operating condition various cavitation patterns can be observed on a body surface astravelling bubbles, attached sheet cavitation, shear cavitation or vortex cavitation. Leading edge attachedpartialcavitation is commonly encountered on rotor blades or on hydrofoil. It corresponds to the case for whichavapor cavity is attached in the vecinity of the leading edge and extends over a fraction of the foil surface. Itgenerally takes places at incidence angles for which a leading edge pressure peak occurs and reduced belowtheliquid vapor pressure. At the early phases of development, leading edge partial cavitation is steady.

  6. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren


    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  7. Asynchronous machine rotor speed estimation using a tabulated numerical approach (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Phuc; De Miras, Jérôme; Charara, Ali; Eltabach, Mario; Bonnet, Stéphane


    This paper proposes a new method to estimate the rotor speed of the asynchronous machine by looking at the estimation problem as a nonlinear optimal control problem. The behavior of the nonlinear plant model is approximated off-line as a prediction map using a numerical one-step time discretization obtained from simulations. At each time-step, the speed of the induction machine is selected satisfying the dynamic fitting problem between the plant output and the predicted output, leading the system to adopt its dynamical behavior. Thanks to the limitation of the prediction horizon to a single time-step, the execution time of the algorithm can be completely bounded. It can thus easily be implemented and embedded into a real-time system to observe the speed of the real induction motor. Simulation results show the performance and robustness of the proposed estimator.

  8. High resolution flow field prediction for tail rotor aeroacoustics (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.

    The prediction of tail rotor noise due to the impingement of the main rotor wake poses a significant challenge to current analysis methods in rotorcraft aeroacoustics. This paper describes the development of a new treatment of the tail rotor aerodynamic environment that permits highly accurate resolution of the incident flow field with modest computational effort relative to alternative models. The new approach incorporates an advanced full-span free wake model of the main rotor in a scheme which reconstructs high-resolution flow solutions from preliminary, computationally inexpensive simulations with coarse resolution. The heart of the approach is a novel method for using local velocity correction terms to capture the steep velocity gradients characteristic of the vortex-dominated incident flow. Sample calculations have been undertaken to examine the principal types of interactions between the tail rotor and the main rotor wake and to examine the performance of the new method. The results of these sample problems confirm the success of this approach in capturing the high-resolution flows necessary for analysis of rotor-wake/rotor interactions with dramatically reduced computational cost. Computations of radiated sound are also carried out that explore the role of various portions of the main rotor wake in generating tail rotor noise.

  9. Nonlinear analysis of a rub-impact rotor-bearing system with initial permanent rotor bow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyao; Jia, Jiuhong; Zhao, Mei [Shanghai Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory of Vibration, Shock and Noise, Shanghai (China)


    A general model of a rub-impact rotor-bearing system with initial permanent bow is set up and the corresponding governing motion equation is given. The nonlinear oil-film forces from the journal bearing are obtained under the short bearing theory. The rubbing model is assumed to consist of the radial elastic impact and the tangential Coulomb type of friction. Through numerical calculation, rotating speeds, initial permanent bow lengths and phase angles between the mass eccentricity direction and the rotor permanent bow direction are used as control parameters to investigate their effect on the rub-impact rotor-bearing system with the help of bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, Poincare maps, frequency spectrums and orbit maps. Complicated motions, such as periodic, quasi-periodic even chaotic vibrations, are observed. Under the influence of the initial permanent bow, different routes to chaos are found and the speed when the rub happens is changed greatly. Corresponding results can be used to diagnose the rub-impact fault in this kind of rotor systems and this study may contribute to a further understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of such a rub-impact rotor-bearing system with initial permanent bow. (orig.)

  10. The Impact Response of Composite Materials Involved in Helicopter Vulnerability Assessment: Literature Review - Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resnyansky, A. D


    ... (Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter) into service. The review examines more than five hundred recent publications on the impact response of composite and cellular materials which are constituents of modern air platforms, specifically, helicopters...

  11. 77 FR 49705 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopters. A page reference of the rotorcraft flight manual in the...

  12. Flight Test Identification and Simulation of a UH-60A Helicopter and Slung Load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cicolani, Luigi


    Helicopter slung-load operations are common in both military and civil contexts. Helicopters and loads are often qualified for these operations by means of flight tests, which can be expensive and time consuming...

  13. Dynamic rotor mode in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, Kim; Jacobsen, H.; Garde, J.


    measured neutron data and reveal that thermally activated spin canting gives rise to an unusual type of coherent magnetic precession mode. This "rotor" mode can be seen as a high-temperature version of superparamagnetism and is driven by exchange interactions between the two magnetic sublattices......We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence for an unusual mode of antiferromagnetic dynamics in nanoparticles. Elastic neutron scattering experiments on 8-nm particles of hematite display a loss of diffraction intensity with temperature, the intensity vanishing around 150 K....... The frequency of the rotor mode behaves in fair agreement with a simple analytical model, based on a high-temperature approximation of the generally accepted Hamiltonian of the system. The extracted model parameters, such as the magnetic interaction and the axial anisotropy, are in excellent agreement...

  14. Aerodynamic design of the National Rotor Testbed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A new wind turbine blade has been designed for the National Rotor Testbed (NRT) project and for future experiments at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility with a specific focus on scaled wakes. This report shows the aerodynamic design of new blades that can produce a wake that has similitude to utility scale blades despite the difference in size and location in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dimensionless quantities circulation, induction, thrust coefficient, and tip-speed-ratio were kept equal between rotor scales in region 2 of operation. The new NRT design matched the aerodynamic quantities of the most common wind turbine in the United States, the GE 1.5sle turbine with 37c model blades. The NRT blade design is presented along with its performance subject to the winds at SWiFT. The design requirements determined by the SWiFT experimental test campaign are shown to be met.

  15. Rotor with Flattened Exit Pressure Profile (United States)

    Baltas, Constantine (Inventor); Prasad, Dilip (Inventor); Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor)


    A rotor blade comprises an airfoil extending radially from a root section to a tip section and axially from a leading edge to a trailing edge, the leading and trailing edges defining a curvature therebetween. The curvature determines a relative exit angle at a relative span height between the root section and the tip section, based on an incident flow velocity at the leading edge of the airfoil and a rotational velocity at the relative span height. In operation of the rotor blade, the relative exit angle determines a substantially flat exit pressure ratio profile for relative span heights from 75% to 95%, wherein the exit pressure ratio profile is constant within a tolerance of 10% of a maximum value of the exit pressure ratio profile.

  16. Amplifying the helicopter drift in a conformal HMD (United States)

    Schmerwitz, Sven; Knabl, Patrizia M.; Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich


    Helicopter operations require a well-controlled and minimal lateral drift shortly before ground contact. Any lateral speed exceeding this small threshold can cause a dangerous momentum around the roll axis, which may cause a total roll over of the helicopter. As long as pilots can observe visual cues from the ground, they are able to easily control the helicopter drift. But whenever natural vision is reduced or even obscured, e.g. due to night, fog, or dust, this controllability diminishes. Therefore helicopter operators could benefit from some type of "drift indication" that mitigates the influence of a degraded visual environment. Generally humans derive ego motion by the perceived environmental object flow. The visual cues perceived are located close to the helicopter, therefore even small movements can be recognized. This fact was used to investigate a modified drift indication. To enhance the perception of ego motion in a conformal HMD symbol set the measured movement was used to generate a pattern motion in the forward field of view close or on the landing pad. The paper will discuss the method of amplified ego motion drift indication. Aspects concerning impact factors like visualization type, location, gain and more will be addressed. Further conclusions from previous studies, a high fidelity experiment and a part task experiment, will be provided. A part task study will be presented that compared different amplified drift indications against a predictor. 24 participants, 15 holding a fixed wing license and 4 helicopter pilots, had to perform a dual task on a virtual reality headset. A simplified control model was used to steer a "helicopter" down to a landing pad while acknowledging randomly placed characters.

  17. The Adaptive Neural Network Control of Quadrotor Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Yushenko


    Full Text Available The current steady-rising interest in using the unmanned multi-rotor aerial vehicles (UMAV designed to solve a wide range of tasks is, mainly, due to their simple design and high weight-carrying capacity as compared to classical helicopter options. Unfortunately, to solve a problem of multi-copter control is complicated because of essential nonlinearity and environmental perturbations. The most widely spread PID controllers and linear-quadratic regulators do not quite well cope with this task. The need arises for the prompt adjustment of PID controller coefficients in the course of operation or their complete re-tuning in cases of changing parameters of the control object.One of the control methods under changing conditions is the use of the sliding mode. This technology enables us to reach the stabilization and proper operation of the controlled system even under accidental external exposures and when there is a lack of the reasonably accurate mathematical model of the control object. The sliding principle is to ensure the system motion in the immediate vicinity of the sliding surface in the phase space. On the other hand, the sliding mode has some essential disadvantages. The most significant one is the high-frequency jitter of the system near the sliding surface. The sliding mode also implies the complete knowledge of the system dynamics. Various methods have been proposed to eliminate these drawbacks. For example, A.G. Aissaoui’s, H. Abid’s and M. Abid’s paper describes the application of fuzzy logic to control a drive and in Lon-Chen Hung’s and Hung-Yuan Chung’s paper an artificial neural network is used for the manipulator control.This paper presents a method of the quad-copter control with the aid of a neural network controller. This method enables us to control the system without a priori information on parameters of the dynamic model of the controlled object. The main neural network is a MIMO (“Multiple Input Multiple

  18. Spectral statistics in particles-rotor model and cranking model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Xian Rong; Zhao En Guang; Guo Lu


    Spectral statistics for six particles in single-j and two-j model coupled with a deformed core are studied in the frames of particles-rotor model and cranking shell model. The nearest-neighbor-distribution of energy levels and spectral rigidity are studied as a function of the spin or cranking frequency, respectively. The results of single-j shell are compared with those in two-j case. The system becomes more regular when single-j space (i sub 1 sub 3 sub / sub 2) is replaced by two-j shell (g sub 7 sub / sub 2 + d sub 5 sub / sub 2), although the basis size of the configuration space is unchanged. However, the degree of chaoticity of the system changes slightly when configuration space is enlarged by extending single-j shell (i sub 1 sub 3 sub / sub 2) to two-j shell (i sub 1 sub 3 sub / sub 2 + g sub 9 sub / sub 2). Nuclear chaotic behavior is studied when authors take a two-body interaction as delta force and pairing interaction, respectively

  19. A Magnetorheological Fluid Damper for Rotor Applications


    Forte, P.; Paternò, M.; Rustighi, E.


    Even though we are still far from industrial applications, in the last decade there has been increasing attention directed toward the employment of electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids in active bearings and active squeeze film dampers in rotordynamics. MR fluids react to magnetic fields undergoing reversible changes in their mechanical characteristics, viscosity, and stiffness in particular. In previous literature, some applications of ER fluids in rotor squeeze film da...

  20. SMART Rotor Development and Wind Tunnel Test (United States)


    data acquisition system into a pulse code modulated (PCM) serial data stream, and transmitted through one of the slip ring channels into the fixed...tare was taken before and after the test. The rotor was balanced and tracked using an Advanced Vibration Analyzer ( AVA ) and optical strobe. No...controls to alter blade airloads and generate an in-plane loading noise profile that would negate or reduce the thickness noise pulse [31]. Achieving