Sample records for single rotating standard

  1. Factor Rotation and Standard Errors in Exploratory Factor Analysis (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.


    In this article, we report a surprising phenomenon: Oblique CF-varimax and oblique CF-quartimax rotation produced similar point estimates for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations but different standard error estimates in an empirical example. Influences of factor rotation on asymptotic standard errors are investigated using a numerical…

  2. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.


    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  3. Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) in biophysical studies (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Ha, Ji Won; Augspurger, Ashley E.; Chen, Kuangcai; Zhu, Shaobin; Fang, Ning


    The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport.The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Three supplementary movies and an experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02254d

  4. Functional and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation after single-tendon rotator cuff reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H B; Gelineck, J; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole


    The aim of this study was to investigate tendon integrity after surgical repair of single-tendon rotator cuff lesions. In 31 patients, 31 single-tendon repairs were evaluated. Thirty-one patients were available for clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. A standard...... series of MR images was obtained for each. The results of functional assessment were scored according to the system of Constant. According to MRI evaluation, 21 (68%) patients had an intact or thinned rotator cuff and 10 (32%) had recurrence of a full-thickness cuff defect at follow-up. Patients...... with an intact or thinned rotator cuff had a median Constant score of 75.5 points; patients with a full-thickness cuff defect had a median score of 62 points. There was no correlation between tendon integrity on postoperative MR images and functional outcome. Patients with intact or thinned cuffs did not have...

  5. Debris Evaluation after Root Canal Shaping with Rotating and Reciprocating Single-File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dagna


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the root canal dentine surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM after shaping with two reciprocating single-file NiTi systems and two rotating single-file NiTi systems, in order to verify the presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules along the walls of each sample; Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into four groups and shaped with OneShape (OS, F6 SkyTaper (F6, WaveOne (WO and Reciproc and irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Root canal walls were analyzed by SEM at a standard magnification of 2500×. The presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules at the coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were estimated using a five-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05; The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for debris score showed significant differences among the NiTi systems (P < 0.05. The Mann-Whitney test confirmed that reciprocating systems presented significantly higher score values than rotating files. The same results were assessed considering the smear layer scores. ANOVA confirmed that the apical third of the canal maintained a higher quantity of debris and smear layer after preparation of all the samples; Single-use NiTi systems used in continuous rotation appeared to be more effective than reciprocating instruments in leaving clean walls. The reciprocating systems produced more debris and smear layer than rotating instruments.

  6. Safety and efficacy of dual-axis rotational coronary angiography vs. standard coronary angiography. (United States)

    Klein, Andrew J; Garcia, Joel A; Hudson, Paul A; Kim, Michael S; Messenger, John C; Casserly, Ivan P; Wink, Onno; Hattler, Brack; Tsai, Thomas T; Chen, S Y James; Hansgen, Adam; Carroll, John D


    To determine the safety and efficacy of dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) by directly comparing it to standard coronary angiography (SA). Standard coronary angiography (SA) requires numerous fixed static images of the coronary tree and has multiple well-documented limitations. Dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) is a new rotational acquisition technique that entails simultaneous LAO/RAO and cranial/caudal gantry movement. This technological advancement obtains numerous unique images of the left or right coronary tree with a single coronary injection. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of DARCA as well as determine DARCA's adequacy for CAD screening and assessment. Thirty patients underwent SA following by DARCA. Contrast volume, radiation dose (DAP) and procedural time were recorded for each method to assess safety. For DARCA acquisitions, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), symptoms and any arrhythmias were recorded. All angiograms were reviewed for CAD screening adequacy by two independent invasive cardiologists. Compared to SA, use of DARCA was associated with a 51% reduction in contrast, 35% less radiation exposure, and 18% shorter procedural time. Both independent reviewers noted DARCA to be at least equivalent to SA with respect to the ability to screen for CAD. DARCA represents a new angiographic technique which is equivalent in terms of image quality and is associated with less contrast use, radiation exposure, and procedural time than SA. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Study of a Microfluidic Chip Integrating Single Cell Trap and 3D Stable Rotation Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Huang


    Full Text Available Single cell manipulation technology has been widely applied in biological fields, such as cell injection/enucleation, cell physiological measurement, and cell imaging. Recently, a biochip platform with a novel configuration of electrodes for cell 3D rotation has been successfully developed by generating rotating electric fields. However, the rotation platform still has two major shortcomings that need to be improved. The primary problem is that there is no on-chip module to facilitate the placement of a single cell into the rotation chamber, which causes very low efficiency in experiment to manually pipette single 10-micron-scale cells into rotation position. Secondly, the cell in the chamber may suffer from unstable rotation, which includes gravity-induced sinking down to the chamber bottom or electric-force-induced on-plane movement. To solve the two problems, in this paper we propose a new microfluidic chip with manipulation capabilities of single cell trap and single cell 3D stable rotation, both on one chip. The new microfluidic chip consists of two parts. The top capture part is based on the least flow resistance principle and is used to capture a single cell and to transport it to the rotation chamber. The bottom rotation part is based on dielectrophoresis (DEP and is used to 3D rotate the single cell in the rotation chamber with enhanced stability. The two parts are aligned and bonded together to form closed channels for microfluidic handling. Using COMSOL simulation and preliminary experiments, we have verified, in principle, the concept of on-chip single cell traps and 3D stable rotation, and identified key parameters for chip structures, microfluidic handling, and electrode configurations. The work has laid a solid foundation for on-going chip fabrication and experiment validation.

  8. Ultra-thin, single-layer polarization rotator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, T. V.; Truong, V. V., E-mail: Truong.Vo-Van@Concordia.Ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Do, P. A.; Haché, A. [Département de Physique et d’Astronomie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9 (Canada)


    We demonstrate light polarization control over a broad spectral range by a uniform layer of vanadium dioxide as it undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal. Changes in refractive indices create unequal phase shifts on s- and p-polarization components of incident light, and rotation of linear polarization shows intensity modulation by a factor of 10{sup 3} when transmitted through polarizers. This makes possible polarization rotation devices as thin as 50 nm that would be activated thermally, optically or electrically.

  9. Standard sonography and arthrosonography in the study of rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dalati, Ghassan; Martone, Enrico; Caffarri, Sabrina; Fusaro, Michele; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Castellarin, Gianluca; Ricci, Matteo; Vecchini, Eugenio


    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasonography, integrating standard ultrasound and arthrosonography after injecting a saline solution into the glenohumeral cavity in cases of suspected rotator cuff tears. Materials and methods. We respectively examinated 40 patients awaiting shoulder arthroscopy for suspected or diagnosed tears of the rotator cuff. A radiologist, unaware of the pre-operative diagnosis, performed an ultrasound scan on all the patients before and after the injection of saline solution into the glenohumeral cavity. The parameters considered were presence or absence of a rotator cuff injury; type of injury according to Snyder and its extent along the longitudinal and transverse planes; presence or absence of effusion into the articular cavity; subacromial/subdeltoid bursal distension. All the patients underwent arthroscopy either the same day of the day after the ultrasound examination. Results. Standard sonography showed 26 complete rotator cuff tears (type C according to Snyder), 2 partial tears (type B according to Snyder) and 12 intact rotator cuffs. Arthrosonography detected 31 complete rotator cuff tears (type C according to Snyder), 1 partial tear (type B according to Snyder) and 8 intact rotator cuffs. Arthroscopy identified 32 complete rotator cuff tears (type C according to Snyder), 1 partial tear (type B according to Snyder) and 8 intact rotator cuffs. Analysis of the results shows that, taking arthroscopy as the gold standard, the sensitivity of normal sonography is 81.2%, whereas that of arthosonography is 96.8% (p [it

  10. Ultra-thin, single-layer polarization rotator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Son


    Full Text Available We demonstrate light polarization control over a broad spectral range by a uniform layer of vanadium dioxide as it undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal. Changes in refractive indices create unequal phase shifts on s- and p-polarization components of incident light, and rotation of linear polarization shows intensity modulation by a factor of 103 when transmitted through polarizers. This makes possible polarization rotation devices as thin as 50 nm that would be activated thermally, optically or electrically.

  11. Rotation of a single molecule within a supramolecular bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimzewski, J.K.; Joachim, C.; Schlittler, R.R.


    Experimental visualization and verification of a single-molecule rotor operating within a supramolecular bearing is reported. Using a scanning tunneling microscope, single molecules were observed to exist in one of two spatially defined states Laterally separated by 0.26 nanometers. One...

  12. A rotator for single-crystal neutron diffraction at high pressure. (United States)

    Fang, J; Bull, C L; Hamidov, H; Loveday, J S; Gutmann, M J; Nelmes, R J; Kamenev, K V


    We present a modified Paris-Edinburgh press which allows rotation of the anvils and the sample under applied load. The device is designed to overcome the problem of having large segments of reciprocal space obscured by the tie rods of the press during single-crystal neutron-scattering experiments. The modified press features custom designed hydraulic bearings and provides controls for precision rotation and positioning. The advantages of using the device for increasing the number of measurable reflections are illustrated with the results of neutron-diffraction experiments on a single crystal of germanium rotated under a load of 70 tonnes.

  13. Standard test method for liquid impingement erosion using rotating apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers tests in which solid specimens are eroded or otherwise damaged by repeated discrete impacts of liquid drops or jets. Among the collateral forms of damage considered are degradation of optical properties of window materials, and penetration, separation, or destruction of coatings. The objective of the tests may be to determine the resistance to erosion or other damage of the materials or coatings under test, or to investigate the damage mechanisms and the effect of test variables. Because of the specialized nature of these tests and the desire in many cases to simulate to some degree the expected service environment, the specification of a standard apparatus is not deemed practicable. This test method gives guidance in setting up a test, and specifies test and analysis procedures and reporting requirements that can be followed even with quite widely differing materials, test facilities, and test conditions. It also provides a standardized scale of erosion resistance numbers applicab...

  14. RETRACTED: Quantum key distribution without sharing reference frame using single photon rotational-invariant subspace (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Xu; Liu, Rui-Feng; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hong-Rong; Gao, Hong; Li, Fu-Li


    We report an experimental proposal of quantum key distribution without sharing reference frame by using single photon rotational-invariant subspace. The rotational-invariant subspace is achieved by taking advantage of photon's spin-orbital composite states. Our scheme is simple and can be developed as a compact QKD system under current technology. Earth-to-satellite QKD is an emerging scenario that will benefit from our protocol.

  15. Simultaneous SU(2) rotations on multiple quantum dot exciton qubits using a single shaped pulse (United States)

    Mathew, Reuble; Yang, Hong Yi Shi; Hall, Kimberley C.


    Recent experimental demonstration of a parallel (π ,2 π ) single qubit rotation on excitons in two distant quantum dots [Nano Lett. 13, 4666 (2013), 10.1021/nl4018176] is extended in numerical simulations to the design of pulses for more general quantum state control, demonstrating the feasibility of full SU(2) rotations of each exciton qubit. Our results show that simultaneous high-fidelity quantum control is achievable within the experimentally accessible parameter space for commercial Fourier-domain pulse shaping systems. The identification of a threshold of distinguishability for the two quantum dots (QDs) for achieving high-fidelity parallel rotations, corresponding to a difference in transition energies of ˜0.25 meV , points to the possibility of controlling more than 10 QDs with a single shaped optical pulse.

  16. Principles and biophysical applications of single particle super-localization and rotational tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    While conventional Single Particle Tracking (SPT) techniques acquire 2D or 3D trajectories of particle probes, we have developed Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) techniques to extract orientation and rotational information. Combined with DIC microscopy, the SPORT technique has been applied in biophysical studies, including membrane diffusion and intracellular transport. The rotational dynamics of nanoparticle vectors on live cell membranes was recorded and its influence on the fate of these nanoparticle vectors was elucidated. The rotational motions of gold nanorods with various surface modifiers were tracked continuously at a temporal resolution of 5 ms under a DIC microscope. We found that the rotational behaviors of gold nanorod vectors are strongly related to their surface charge, specific surface functional groups, and the availability of receptors on cell membranes. The study of rotational Brownian motion of nanoparticles on cell membranes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug delivery and provide guidance in designing surface modification strategies for drug delivery vectors under various circumstances. To characterize the rotation mode of surface functionalized gold nanorods on cell membranes, the SPORT technique is combined with the correlation analysis of the bright and dark DIC intensities. The unique capabilities of visualizing and understanding rotational motions of functionalized nanoparticles on live cell membranes allow us to correlate rotational and translational dynamics in unprecedented detail and provide new insights for complex membrane processes, including electrostatic interactions, ligand-receptor binding, and lateral (confined and hopping) diffusion of membrane receptors. Surface-functionalized nanoparticles interact with the membrane in fundamentally different ways and exhibit distinct rotational modes. The early events of particle-membrane approach and attachment are directly visualized

  17. PI and repetitive control for single phase inverter based on virtual rotating coordinate system (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Tong, Yibin; Jiang, Jiuchun; Liang, Jiangang


    Microgrid technology developed rapidly and nonlinear loads were connected increasingly. A new control strategy was proposed for single phase inverter when connected nonlinear loads under island condition. PI and repetitive compound controller was realized under synchronous rotating coordinate system and acquired high quality sinusoidal voltage output without voltage spike when loads step changed. Validity and correctness were verified by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink.

  18. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Observing pure effects of counter-rotating terms without ultrastrong coupling: A single photon can simultaneously excite two qubits (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco


    The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.

  20. Proposal for a rotating analyser single crystal spectrometer at a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geick, R.; Tietze, H.


    We propose a new type of crystal analyser time-of-flight spectrometer for elastic and inelastic single crystal measurements at a pulsed neutron source. Using a nonuniformly rotating analyser, a flexibility of the spectrometer is achieved intermediate between that of the crystal analyser time-of-flight spectrometers like MAX and Constant-Q and the triple axis spectrometer. In detail, we discuss constant-(h/2π)ω and constant-(Q/vertical strokeQvertical stroke) scans for our spectrometer and the nonuniform rotation of the analyser necessary for these special scans. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of Three Methods for Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion in Adults: Standard, Lateral and Rotational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor


    Full Text Available Determination of an optimal Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA insertion technique is of great importance as unsuccessful prolonged insertion and multiple attempts are associated with adverse respiratory effects and trauma. The purpose of this study was to compare the ease of insertion of LMA using the standard approach with lateral and rotational techniques. 150 adult patients undergoing general anesthesia using LMA were randomized into one of the three mentioned techniques: standard, rotational and lateral. The time for LMA insertion, number of LMA insertion attempts and LMA insertion success rate were noted for all patients. Demographic characteristic of patients between three groups did not have significant difference. Patients irritation and time for LMA insertion was significantly less in lateral technique (P

  2. Computing tools for implementing standards for single-case designs. (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ting; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Chen, Ming-E


    In the single-case design (SCD) literature, five sets of standards have been formulated and distinguished: design standards, assessment standards, analysis standards, reporting standards, and research synthesis standards. This article reviews computing tools that can assist researchers and practitioners in meeting the analysis standards recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures and Standards Handbook-the WWC standards. These tools consist of specialized web-based calculators or downloadable software for SCD data, and algorithms or programs written in Excel, SAS procedures, SPSS commands/Macros, or the R programming language. We aligned these tools with the WWC standards and evaluated them for accuracy and treatment of missing data, using two published data sets. All tools were tested to be accurate. When missing data were present, most tools either gave an error message or conducted analysis based on the available data. Only one program used a single imputation method. This article concludes with suggestions for an inclusive computing tool or environment, additional research on the treatment of missing data, and reasonable and flexible interpretations of the WWC standards. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Astigmatic single photon emission computed tomography imaging with a displaced center of rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Smith, M.F.; Stone, C.D.; Jaszczak, R.J.


    A filtered backprojection algorithm is developed for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with an astigmatic collimator having a displaced center of rotation. The astigmatic collimator has two perpendicular focal lines, one that is parallel to the axis of rotation of the gamma camera and one that is perpendicular to this axis. Using SPECT simulations of projection data from a hot rod phantom and point source arrays, it is found that a lack of incorporation of the mechanical shift in the reconstruction algorithm causes errors and artifacts in reconstructed SPECT images. The collimator and acquisition parameters in the astigmatic reconstruction formula, which include focal lengths, radius of rotation, and mechanical shifts, are often partly unknown and can be determined using the projections of a point source at various projection angles. The accurate determination of these parameters by a least squares fitting technique using projection data from numerically simulated SPECT acquisitions is studied. These studies show that the accuracy of parameter determination is improved as the distance between the point source and the axis of rotation of the gamma camera is increased. The focal length to the focal line perpendicular to the axis of rotation is determined more accurately than the focal length to the focal line parallel to this axis. copyright 1998 American Association of Physicists in Medicine

  4. Partnership on Rotational ViscoElastic Test Standardization (PROVETS): evidence-based guidelines on rotational viscoelastic assays in veterinary medicine. (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Brainard, Benjamin; de Laforcade, Armelle M; Flatland, Bente; Hanel, Rita; McMichael, Maureen; Wiinberg, Bo


    To systematically examine the evidence relating to the performance of rotational viscoelastic testing in companion animals, to develop assay guidelines, and to identify knowledge gaps. Multiple questions were considered within 5 parent domains, specifically system comparability, sample handling, assay activation and test protocol, definitions and data reporting, and nonstandard assays. Standardized, systematic evaluation of the literature was performed. Relevant articles were categorized according to level of evidence and assessed for quality. Consensus was developed regarding conclusions for application of concepts to clinical practice. Academic and referral veterinary medical centers. Databases searched included Medline, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux abstracts, and Google Scholar. Worksheets were prepared evaluating 28 questions across the 5 domains and generating 84 assay guidelines. Evidence-based guidelines for the performance of thromboelastography in companion animals were generated through this process. Some of these guidelines are well supported while others will benefit from additional evidence. Many knowledge gaps were identified and future work should be directed to address these gaps and to objectively evaluate the impact of these guidelines on assay comparability within and between centers. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  5. Single-Molecule Rotational Switch on a Dangling Bond Dimer Bearing. (United States)

    Godlewski, Szymon; Kawai, Hiroyo; Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafał; Echavarren, Antonio M; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek; Saeys, Mark


    One of the key challenges in the construction of atomic-scale circuits and molecular machines is to design molecular rotors and switches by controlling the linear or rotational movement of a molecule while preserving its intrinsic electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate both the continuous rotational switching and the controlled step-by-step single switching of a trinaphthylene molecule adsorbed on a dangling bond dimer created on a hydrogen-passivated Ge(001):H surface. The molecular switch is on-surface assembled when the covalent bonds between the molecule and the dangling bond dimer are controllably broken, and the molecule is attached to the dimer by long-range van der Waals interactions. In this configuration, the molecule retains its intrinsic electronic properties, as confirmed by combined scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements, density functional theory calculations, and advanced STM image calculations. Continuous switching of the molecule is initiated by vibronic excitations when the electrons are tunneling through the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital state of the molecule. The switching path is a combination of a sliding and rotation motion over the dangling bond dimer pivot. By carefully selecting the STM conditions, control over discrete single switching events is also achieved. Combined with the ability to create dangling bond dimers with atomic precision, the controlled rotational molecular switch is expected to be a crucial building block for more complex surface atomic-scale devices.

  6. Trapping, manipulation and rapid rotation of NBD-C8 fluorescent single microcrystals in optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GALAUP, Jean-Pierre; RODRIGUEZ-OTAZO, Mariela; AUGIER-CALDERIN, Angel; LAMERE; Jean-Francois; FERY-FORGUES, Suzanne


    We have built an optical tweezers experiment based on an inverted microscope to trap and manipulate single crystals of micro or sub-micrometer size made from fluorescent molecules of 4-octylamino-7-nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD-C8). These single crystals have parallelepiped shapes and exhibit birefringence properties evidenced through optical experiments between crossed polarizers in a polarizing microscope. The crystals are uniaxial with their optical axis oriented along their largest dimension. Trapped in the optical trap, the organic micro-crystals are oriented in such a way that their long axis is along the direction of the beam propagation, and their short axis follows the direction of the linear polarization. Therefore, with linearly polarized light, simply rotating the light polarization can orient the crystal. When using circularly or only elliptically polarized light, the crystal can spontaneously rotate and reach rotation speed of several hundreds of turns per second. A surprising result has been observed: when the incident power is growing up, the rotation speed increases to reach a maximum value and then decreases even when the power is still growing up. Moreover, this evolution is irreversible. Different possible explanations can be considered. The development of a 3D control of the crystals by dynamical holography using liquid crystal spatial modulators will be presented and discussed on the basis of the most recent results obtained. (Author)

  7. Large rotating magnetocaloric effect in ErAlO3 single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Zhang


    Full Text Available Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of ErAlO3 single crystal were investigated. Magnetization of ErAlO3 shows obvious anisotropy when magnetic field is applied along the a, b and c axes, which leads to large anisotropic magnetic entropy change. In particular, large rotating field entropy change from the b to c axis within the bc plane is obtained and reaches 9.7 J/kg K at 14 K in a field of 5 T. This suggests the possibility of using ErAlO3 single crystal for magnetic refrigerators by rotating its magnetization vector rather than moving it in and out of the magnet.

  8. Antisolar differential rotation with surface lithium enrichment on the single K-giant V1192 Orionis (United States)

    Kővári, Zs.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T. A.; Oláh, K.; Kriskovics, L.; Kővári, E.; Kovács, O.; Vida, K.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.


    Context. Stars with about 1-2 solar masses at the red giant branch (RGB) represent an intriguing period of stellar evolution, I.e. when the convective envelope interacts with the fast-rotating core. During these mixing episodes freshly synthesized lithium can come up to the stellar surface along with high angular momentum material. This high angular momentum may alter the surface rotation pattern. Aims: The single rapidly rotating K-giant V1192 Ori is revisited to determine its surface differential rotation, lithium abundance, and basic stellar properties such as a precise rotation period. The aim is to independently verify the antisolar differential rotation of the star and possibly find a connection to the surface lithium abundance. Methods: We applied time-series Doppler imaging to a new multi-epoch data set. Altogether we reconstructed 11 Doppler images from spectroscopic data collected with the STELLA robotic telescope between 2007-2016. We used our inversion code iMap to reconstruct all stellar surface maps. We extracted the differential rotation from these images by tracing systematic spot migration as a function of stellar latitude from consecutive image cross-correlations. Results: The position of V1192 Ori in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram suggests that the star is in the helium core-burning phase just leaving the RGB bump. We measure A(Li)NLTE = 1.27, I.e. a value close to the anticipated transition value of 1.5 from Li-normal to Li-rich giants. Doppler images reveal extended dark areas arranged quasi-evenly along an equatorial belt. No cool polar spot is found during the investigated epoch. Spot displacements clearly suggest antisolar surface differential rotation with α = - 0.11 ± 0.02 shear coefficient. Conclusions: The surface Li enrichment and the peculiar surface rotation pattern may indicate a common origin. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic observatory in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  9. Single port intra-gastric full thickness resection: Using "Rotation and Revolution Single Instrument Tie (RRSIT)". (United States)

    Kim, Ho Goon; Ryu, Seong Yeob; Kim, Dong Yi


    Recently, minimize incisions has led to a reduction in the number of ports, and has led to transumbilical single-port surgery. We evaluated the treatment result of single-port, intragastric, full thickness resections for gastric SMTs. In addition, we introduce a novel intracorporeal knot tying method. From August 2010 to March 2011, five patients underwent single-port intragastric, full thickness gastric wedge resections. After performing a gastrostomy, a single port was inserted into the stomach. After full thickness resection, the defect in the gastric wall was sutured by full thickness interrupted suture and a new knot tying technique. The mean operative time was 129 ± 21.0 min and the mean mass size was 3.0±0.6 cm. There were two very low-risk GISTs, 2 leiomyomas, and 1 carcinoid. The post-operative course was uneventful in all patients. The mean hospital stay was 7.2±1.2 days. Single-port intra-gastric full thickness resection with novel intracorporeal knot tying method is feasible and safe. novel intracorporeal knot tying method is a very useful knot tying method. We expect the application of novel intracorporeal knot tying method to be diverse and broad.

  10. Laryngeal mask airway insertion in children: comparison between rotational, lateral and standard technique. (United States)

    Ghai, Babita; Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Wig, Jyotsna


    The purpose of the study was to compare the success and ease of insertion of three techniques of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion; the standard Brain technique, a lateral technique with cuff partially inflated and a rotational technique with cuff partially inflated. One hundred and sixty-eight ASA I and II children aged 6 months to 6 years undergoing short elective surgical procedures lasting 40-60 min were included in the study. A standard anesthesia protocol was followed for all patients. Patients were randomly allocated into one of the three groups i.e. standard (S), rotational (R) and lateral (L). The primary outcome measure of the study was success rate at the first attempt using three techniques of LMA insertion. Secondary outcomes measures studied were overall success rate, time before successful LMA insertion, complications and maneuvers used to relieve airway obstruction. Successful insertion at the first attempt was significantly higher in group R (96%) compared with group L (84%) and group S (80%) (P = 0.03). Overall success rate (i.e. successful insertion with two attempts) was 100% for group R, 93% for group L and 87% for group S (P = 0.03). Time for successful insertion was significantly lower in group R compared with group L and S (P insertion and lowest incidence of complications and could be the technique of first choice for LMA insertion in pediatric patients.

  11. Dustiness test of nanopowders using a standard rotating drum with a modified sampling train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Wu, Chien-Hsien; Leu, Ming-Long; Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Ko, Fu-Hsiang


    The standard rotating drum tester was used to determine the dustiness of two nanopowders, nano-TiO 2 and fine ZnO, in standard 1-min tests. Then, the sampling train was modified to determine the number and mass distributions of the generated particles in the respirable size range using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Multi-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in the 30-min tests. It was found that very few particles below 100 nm were generated and the released rate of particles decreased with increasing rotation time for both nanopowders in the 30-min tests. Due to the fluffy structure of the released TiO 2 agglomerated particles, the mass distributions measured by the MOUDI showed large differences with those determined by the APS assuming the apparent bulk densities of the powders. The differences were small for the ZnO agglomerates, which were more compact than the TiO 2 agglomerates.

  12. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of cementite pseudo single crystal fabricated under a rotating magnetic field (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sukeyoshi; Terai, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Takashi; Sato, Kazunori; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ito, Mikio; Yonemura, Mitsuharu


    We have fabricated a pseudo single crystal of cementite under a rotating magnetic field and investigated its easy and hard axes of magnetization, and determined its magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. The obtained results are as follows: the hard and easy axes of cementite are the a- and c-axes of the orthorhombic structure with the space group Pnma, respectively. The hard axis observed experimentally was in good agreement with that obtained by an ab initio calculation; however, such consistency was not observed for the easy axis. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy was determined as 334 ± 20 kJ/m3 at 5 K.

  13. Magnetoexcitons and Faraday rotation in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons (United States)

    Have, Jonas; Pedersen, Thomas G.


    The magneto-optical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is studied theoretically, including excitonic effects. Both diagonal and nondiagonal response functions are obtained and employed to compute Faraday rotation spectra. For single-walled CNTs in a parallel field, the results show field-dependent splitting of the exciton absorption peaks caused by brightening a dark exciton state. Similarly, for GNRs in a perpendicular magnetic field, we observe a field-dependent shift of the exciton peaks and the emergence of an absorption peak above the energy gap. Results show that excitonic effects play a significant role in the optical response of both materials, particularly for the off-diagonal tensor elements.

  14. Comparison of functional results of two fixation systems using single-row suturing of rotator cuff. (United States)

    Muniesa-Herrero, M P; Torres-Campos, A; Urgel-Granados, A; Blanco-Llorca, J A; Floría-Arnal, L J; Roncal-Boj, J C; Castro-Sauras, A


    Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff disorders is a technically demanding but successful procedure. Many anchor and suture alternatives are now available. The choice of the implant by the surgeon is less important than the configuration of the suture used to fix the tendon, however it is necessary to know if there are differences in the results, using each one of them. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there are differences between the knotted and non-knotted implant in terms of functional and satisfaction results. A retrospective study was carried out on 83 patients operated between 2010 and 2014 in our center using 2anchoring systems with and without knotting (39 versus 44 patients respectively), with single row in complete rupture of the rotator cuff. At the end of the follow-up, an average score was obtained on the Constant scale of 74.6 points. 98% of the patients considered the result of the surgery satisfactory. Statistically, there were no significant differences between the 2groups in terms of functionality, satisfaction or reincorporation to activities. The functional results of the single-row cuff suture are satisfactory, although biomechanical studies show advantages in favor of sutures that reproduce a transoseo system. It our series of patients the presence of knotting does not show per se a significant functional difference being both superimposable techniques in absolute values of functionality and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristic rotational behaviors of rod-shaped cargo revealed by automated five-dimensional single particle tracking. (United States)

    Chen, Kuangcai; Gu, Yan; Sun, Wei; Bin Dong; Wang, Gufeng; Fan, Xinxin; Xia, Tian; Fang, Ning


    We report an automated single particle tracking technique for tracking the x, y, z coordinates, azimuthal and elevation angles of anisotropic plasmonic gold nanorod probes in live cells. These five spatial coordinates are collectively referred to as 5D. This method overcomes a long-standing challenge in distinguishing rotational motions from translational motions in the z-axis in differential interference contrast microscopy to result in full disclosure of nanoscale motions with high accuracy. Transferrin-coated endocytic gold nanorod cargoes initially undergo active rotational diffusion and display characteristic rotational motions on the membrane. Then as the cargoes being enclosed in clathrin-coated pits, they slow down the active rotation and experience a quiet period before they restore active rotational diffusion after fission and eventually being transported away from the original entry spots. Finally, the 3D trajectories and the accompanying rotational motions of the cargoes are resolved accurately to render the intracellular transport process in live cells.Distinguishing rotational motions from translational motions in the z-axis has been a long-standing challenge. Here the authors develop a five-dimensional single particle tracking method to detect rotational behaviors of nanocargos during clathrin-mediated endocytosis and intracellular transport.

  16. Characterization of single grain by observing magnetic ejection and rotation in microgravity (United States)

    Uyeda, Chiaki

    A simple and nondestructive method to perform material identification on a single particle is desired in various fields of material science that is concerned with nano-sized particles. We propose a method of identification based on magnetization data, which is obtained from field-induced translation and rotation in microgravity [1]. Material identification is possible from magnetization data because an intrinsic value of susceptibility and anisotropy is assigned to every material according to a data book that compiles the published values [2]. Preliminary ob-servation on free translational motion due to repulsive field-gradient force was reported for mm-sized crystal of corundum [1] and other oxides. Rotational oscillation was observed for various diamagnetic single-crystals in homogeneous field [2]. In order to examine the capability of the above-mentioned material characterization, translation and rotation motion was observed for sub-millimeter-sized quartz, calcite and forsterite in microgravity condition (MGLAB, Japan, duration: 4.5s). It is expected from motional equations that the 2 motions are independent to mass of particles, In a given field distribution, acceleration of translation is expected to be uniquely determined from intrinsic susceptibility of sample. The above properties are exam-ined in the present work by varying experimental parameters. It is noted that observation of the above two motions in microgravity serve as a useful method to detect magnetization of single small particles, be cause the system is free of both sample holder and mass measure-ment. It is expected that magnetization can be measured on a isolated small sample down to nano-level, in condition that motion of the sample is observable. For both susceptibility and anisotropy, range of observed values using microgravity cover the range of compiled published values [2]. Hence material identification is possible for solid material in general. Diamagnetic magnetization and its

  17. Gradient ROtating Outer Volume Excitation (GROOVE): A Novel Method for Single-Shot 2-D OVS (United States)

    Powell, Nathaniel J.; Jang, Albert; Park, Jang-Yeon; Valette, Julien; Garwood, Michael; Marjańska, Małgorzata


    Purpose A new outer volume suppression (OVS) technique is introduced that uses a single pulse and rotating gradients to accomplish frequency-swept excitation. This new technique, which is called Gradient ROtating Outer Volume Excitation (GROOVE), produces a circular or elliptical suppression band rather than suppressing the entire outer volume. Methods Theoretical and k-space descriptions of GROOVE are provided. The properties of GROOVE were investigated with simulations, phantom, and human experiments performed using a 4 T horizontal bore magnet equipped with a TEM coil. Results Similar suppression performance was obtained in phantom and human brain using GROOVE with circular and elliptical shapes. Simulations indicate that GROOVE requires less SAR and time than traditional OVS schemes, but traditional schemes provide a sharper transition zone and less residual signal. Conclusion GROOVE represents a new way of performing OVS in which spins are excited temporally in space on a trajectory which can be tailored to fit the shape of the suppression region. In addition, GROOVE is capable of suppressing tailored regions of space with more flexibility and in a shorter period of time than conventional methods. GROOVE provides a fast, low SAR alternative to conventional OVS methods in some applications (e.g., scalp suppression). PMID:24478130

  18. Femtosecond single electron bunch generation by rotating longitudinal bunch phase space in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Kondoh, T.; Kan, K.; Kozawa, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.


    A femtosecond (fs) electron bunching was observed in a photoinjector with a magnetic compressor by rotating the bunch in longitudinal phase space. The bunch length was obtained by measuring Cherenkov radiation of the electron beam with a femtosecond streak camera technique. A single electron bunch with rms bunch length of 98 fs was observed for a 32 MeV electron beam at a charge of 0.17 nC. The relative energy spread and the normalized transverse emittance of the electron beam were 0.2% and 3.8 mm-mrad, respectively. The effect of space charge on the bunch compression was investigated experimentally for charges from 0.17 to 1.25 nC. The dependences of the relative energy spread and the normalized beam transverse emittance on the bunch charge were measured

  19. Strong coupling between a single nitrogen-vacancy spin and the rotational mode of diamonds levitating in an ion trap (United States)

    Delord, T.; Nicolas, L.; Chassagneux, Y.; Hétet, G.


    A scheme for strong coupling between a single atomic spin and the rotational mode of levitating nanoparticles is proposed. The idea is based on spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in aspherical nanodiamonds levitating in an ion trap. We show that the asymmetry of the diamond induces a rotational confinement in the ion trap. Using a weak homogeneous magnetic field and a strong microwave driving we then demonstrate that the spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center can be strongly coupled to the rotational mode of the diamond.

  20. Timing Solution and Single-pulse Properties for Eight Rotating Radio Transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, B.-Y.; McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy West Virginia University Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Boyles, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy West Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Palliyaguru, N. [Physics and Astronomy Department Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States)


    Rotating radio transients (RRATs), loosely defined as objects that are discovered through only their single pulses, are sporadic pulsars that have a wide range of emission properties. For many of them, we must measure their periods and determine timing solutions relying on the timing of their individual pulses, while some of the less sporadic RRATs can be timed by using folding techniques as we do for other pulsars. Here, based on Parkes and Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations, we introduce our results on eight RRATs including their timing-derived rotation parameters, positions, and dispersion measures (DMs), along with a comparison of the spin-down properties of RRATs and normal pulsars. Using data for 24 RRATs, we find that their period derivatives are generally larger than those of normal pulsars, independent of any intrinsic correlation with period, indicating that RRATs’ highly sporadic emission may be associated with intrinsically larger magnetic fields. We carry out Lomb–Scargle tests to search for periodicities in RRATs’ pulse detection times with long timescales. Periodicities are detected for all targets, with significant candidates of roughly 3.4 hr for PSR J1623−0841 and 0.7 hr for PSR J1839−0141. We also analyze their single-pulse amplitude distributions, finding that log-normal distributions provide the best fits, as is the case for most pulsars. However, several RRATs exhibit power-law tails, as seen for pulsars emitting giant pulses. This, along with consideration of the selection effects against the detection of weak pulses, imply that RRAT pulses generally represent the tail of a normal intensity distribution.

  1. Timing Solution and Single-pulse Properties for Eight Rotating Radio Transients (United States)

    Cui, B.-Y.; Boyles, J.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Palliyaguru, N.


    Rotating radio transients (RRATs), loosely defined as objects that are discovered through only their single pulses, are sporadic pulsars that have a wide range of emission properties. For many of them, we must measure their periods and determine timing solutions relying on the timing of their individual pulses, while some of the less sporadic RRATs can be timed by using folding techniques as we do for other pulsars. Here, based on Parkes and Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations, we introduce our results on eight RRATs including their timing-derived rotation parameters, positions, and dispersion measures (DMs), along with a comparison of the spin-down properties of RRATs and normal pulsars. Using data for 24 RRATs, we find that their period derivatives are generally larger than those of normal pulsars, independent of any intrinsic correlation with period, indicating that RRATs’ highly sporadic emission may be associated with intrinsically larger magnetic fields. We carry out Lomb-Scargle tests to search for periodicities in RRATs’ pulse detection times with long timescales. Periodicities are detected for all targets, with significant candidates of roughly 3.4 hr for PSR J1623-0841 and 0.7 hr for PSR J1839-0141. We also analyze their single-pulse amplitude distributions, finding that log-normal distributions provide the best fits, as is the case for most pulsars. However, several RRATs exhibit power-law tails, as seen for pulsars emitting giant pulses. This, along with consideration of the selection effects against the detection of weak pulses, imply that RRAT pulses generally represent the tail of a normal intensity distribution.

  2. Theory of single-molecule controlled rotation experiments, predictions, tests, and comparison with stalling experiments in F1-ATPase. (United States)

    Volkán-Kacsó, Sándor; Marcus, Rudolph A


    A recently proposed chemomechanical group transfer theory of rotary biomolecular motors is applied to treat single-molecule controlled rotation experiments. In these experiments, single-molecule fluorescence is used to measure the binding and release rate constants of nucleotides by monitoring the occupancy of binding sites. It is shown how missed events of nucleotide binding and release in these experiments can be corrected using theory, with F 1 -ATP synthase as an example. The missed events are significant when the reverse rate is very fast. Using the theory the actual rate constants in the controlled rotation experiments and the corrections are predicted from independent data, including other single-molecule rotation and ensemble biochemical experiments. The effective torsional elastic constant is found to depend on the binding/releasing nucleotide, and it is smaller for ADP than for ATP. There is a good agreement, with no adjustable parameters, between the theoretical and experimental results of controlled rotation experiments and stalling experiments, for the range of angles where the data overlap. This agreement is perhaps all the more surprising because it occurs even though the binding and release of fluorescent nucleotides is monitored at single-site occupancy concentrations, whereas the stalling and free rotation experiments have multiple-site occupancy.

  3. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Crop rotations in maintaining organic matter levels in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli


    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in the framework of EFFICOND project, with the aim of evaluating the environmental effectiveness of GAEC (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions standards with particular focus to the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM levels through the appropriate crop rotation. The study analyzed the effect of crop rotation on the build-up of soil organic matter in three different areas of Italy, located in the North (Lodi, Centre (Fagna, Firenze and South (Foggia of Italy, characterized by different climate, soil, and cropping systems. In the two experiments conducted in the South of Italy, in a dry Mediterranean climate, the stock of C was kept steady in most of the rotations compared with the monoculture of durum wheat. In such environment, with very dry and hot summers, introducing a year of fallow seems to improve SOM content, but these data need further investigation. In the Centre of Italy (Fagna, with less extreme climate than in Foggia, the effect of rotation compared to the monoculture of maize is negligible, but investigation on the soil organic matter composition, showed that in the rotation the SOM appeared to be more stable and, in the long term, probably more resistant to degradation. Eventually, experiments conducted in the North of Italy, showed that the monoculture, despite the application of FYM (Farm Yard Manure or semi-liquid manure, led to a decrease of SOM. To an increase of the rotation complexity, corresponded an increase in the stock of C in soil. Summarizing, results showed that crop rotation could guarantee the maintenance of SOM level, given that the input of C to the soil is maintained at a good level or, in other word, that productivity of the system is high. Other practices such as conservation tillage, appropriate management of residues, and manure application could enhance the positive effect of rotations. Moreover, preliminary investigation of soil microbial diversity, suggests the

  4. Validity of single term energy expression for ground state rotational band of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, J.B.


    Full text: There are large numbers of empirical studies of gs band of even-even nuclei in various mass regions. The Bohr-Mottelson's energy expression is E(I) = AX + BX 2 +CX 3 +... where X = I(I+1). The anharmonic vibrator energy expression is: E(I) = al + bl 2 + cl 3 SF model with energy expression: E(I)= pX + qI + rXI... where the terms represents the rotational, vibrational and R-V interaction energy, respectively. The validity f the various energy expressions with two terms had been tested by Sharma for light, medium and heavy mass regions using R I s. R 4 plots (where, spin I=6, 8, 10, 12), which are parameter independent. It was also noted, that of the goodness of energy expression can be judged with the minimum input of energies (i.e. only 2 parameters) and predictability's of the model p to high spins. Recently, Gupta et. al proposed a single term energy expression (SSTE) which was applied for rare earth region. This proposed power law reflected the unity of rotation - vibration in a different way and was successful in explaining the structure of gs-band. It will be useful for test the single term energy expression for light and heavy mass region. The single term expression for energy of ground state band can be written as: E I =axI b , where the index b and the coefficient a are the constant for the band. The values of b+1 and a 1 are as follows: b 1 =log(R 1 )/log(I/2) and a 1 =E I /I b ... The following results were gained: 1) The sharp variation in the value of index b at given spin will be an indication of the change in the shape of the nucleus; 2) The value of E I /I b is fairly constant with spin below back-bending, which reflects the stability of shape with spin; 3) This proposed power law is successful in explaining the structure of gs-band of nuclei

  5. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegner Alexander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operative positions of the hip rotation center in 25 and 68 patients who underwent artificial hip replacements in our department in 2007 using cemented or cementless cup fixation, respectively, with digital radiographic image analysis. Results The mean horizontal and vertical distances between the rotation center and the acetabular teardrop were compared in radiographic images taken pre- and post-operatively. The mean horizontal difference was −2.63 mm (range: -11.00 mm to 10.46 mm, standard deviation 4.23 mm for patients who underwent cementless fixation, and −2.84 mm (range: -10.87 to 5.30 mm, standard deviation 4.59 mm for patients who underwent cemented fixation. The mean vertical difference was 0.60 mm (range: -20.15 mm to 10.00 mm, standard deviation 3.93 mm and 0.41 mm (range: -9.26 mm to 6.54 mm, standard deviation 3.58 mm for the cementless and cemented fixation groups, respectively. The two fixation techniques had no significant difference on the position of the hip rotation center in the 93 patients in this study. Conclusions The hip rotation center was similarly restored using either the cemented or cementless fixation techniques in this patient cohort, indicating that the fixation technique itself does not interfere with the position of the center of rotation. To completely answer this question further studies with more patients are needed.

  6. Genome-wide association study for rotator cuff tears identifies two significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Granger, Erin K; Farnham, James M; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Teerlink, Craig C


    The precise etiology of rotator cuff disease is unknown, but prior evidence suggests a role for genetic factors. Limited data exist identifying specific genes associated with rotator cuff tearing. The purpose of this study was to identify specific genes or genetic variants associated with rotator cuff tearing by a genome-wide association study with an independent set of rotator cuff tear cases. A set of 311 full-thickness rotator cuff tear cases genotyped on the Illumina 5M single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform were used in a genome-wide association study with 2641 genetically matched white population controls available from the Illumina iControls database. Tests of association were performed with GEMMA software at 257,558 SNPs that compose the intersection of Illumina SNP platforms and that passed general quality control metrics. SNPs were considered significant if P development of rotator cuff tearing. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using the rotating cylinder electrode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications in defined flow conditions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Multi-resonance effects within a single chirp in broadband rotational spectroscopy: The rapid adiabatic passage regime for benzonitrile (United States)

    Schmitz, David; Alvin Shubert, V.; Betz, Thomas; Schnell, Melanie


    We report here pronounced, stepwise multi-resonance excitations in benzonitrile arising from a single 1 μs broadband 2-8.3 GHz microwave chirp, observed with our new chirped-pulse broadband rotational spectrometer, COMPACT. Such multi-resonance excitations significantly alter the relative intensity patterns and are a strong indication that, for the given experimental conditions and using benzonitrile as a polar test molecule (μA = 4.5152 D), the rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) regime for strong coupling must be applied. This finding is contrary to previous discussions of chirped-pulse rotational spectroscopy, where the linear fast passage regime of weak coupling has been assumed.

  9. Subunit rotation in a single FoF1-ATP synthase in a living bacterium monitored by FRET (United States)

    Seyfert, K.; Oosaka, T.; Yaginuma, H.; Ernst, S.; Noji, H.; Iino, R.; Börsch, M.


    FoF1-ATP synthase is the ubiquitous membrane-bound enzyme in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria which provides the 'chemical energy currency' adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for cellular processes. In Escherichia coli ATP synthesis is driven by a proton motive force (PMF) comprising a proton concentration difference ΔpH plus an electric potential ΔΨ across the lipid membrane. Single-molecule in vitro experiments have confirmed that proton-driven subunit rotation within FoF1-ATP synthase is associated with ATP synthesis. Based on intramolecular distance measurements by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) the kinetics of subunit rotation and the step sizes of the different rotor parts have been unraveled. However, these experiments were accomplished in the presence of a PMF consisting of a maximum ΔpH ~ 4 and an unknown ΔΨ. In contrast, in living bacteria the maximum ΔpH across the plasma membrane is likely 0.75, and ΔΨ has been measured between -80 and -140 mV. Thus the problem of in vivo catalytic turnover rates, or the in vivo rotational speed in single FoF1-ATP synthases, respectively, has to be solved. In addition, the absolute number of functional enzymes in a single bacterium required to maintain the high ATP levels has to be determined. We report our progress of measuring subunit rotation in single FoF1-ATP synthases in vitro and in vivo, which was enabled by a new labeling approach for single-molecule FRET measurements.

  10. Simplified modelling and analysis of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a single cracked edge (United States)

    Yashar, Ahmed; Ferguson, Neil; Ghandchi-Tehrani, Maryam


    The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the flapwise and chordwise vibrations of a rotating cracked Euler-Bernoulli beam are investigated using a simplified method. This approach is based on obtaining the lateral deflection of the cracked rotating beam by subtracting the potential energy of a rotating massless spring, which represents the crack, from the total potential energy of the intact rotating beam. With this new method, it is assumed that the admissible function which satisfies the geometric boundary conditions of an intact beam is valid even in the presence of a crack. Furthermore, the centrifugal stiffness due to rotation is considered as an additional stiffness, which is obtained from the rotational speed and the geometry of the beam. Finally, the Rayleigh-Ritz method is utilised to solve the eigenvalue problem. The validity of the results is confirmed at different rotational speeds, crack depth and location by comparison with solid and beam finite element model simulations. Furthermore, the mode shapes are compared with those obtained from finite element models using a Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC).

  11. Comparison of a safety strategy using transradial access and dual-axis rotational coronary angiography with transfemoral access and standard coronary angiography. (United States)

    Yasar, Ayse S; Perino, Alexander C; Dattilo, Philip B; Casserly, Ivan P; Carroll, John D; Messenger, John C


    We sought to investigate the radiation exposure and contrast utilization associated with using a strategy of transradial access and rotational angiography (radial-DARCA) compared to the traditional approach of transfemoral access and standard angiography (femoral-SA). There is an increased focus on optimizing patient safety during cardiac catheterization procedures. Professional guidelines have highlighted physician responsibility to minimize radiation doses and contrast volume. Dual axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) is the most recently investigated type of rotational angiography. This new technique permits complete visualization of the left or right coronary tree with a single injection, and is felt to reduce contrast and radiation exposure. A total of 56 consecutive patients who underwent radial-DARCA were identified. From the same time period, an age- and gender-matched group of 61 patients who had femoral-SA were selected for comparison. Total volume of contrast agent used, fluoroscopy time, and 2 measures of radiation dose (dose area product and air kerma) were recorded for each group. Mean contrast agent use and patient radiation exposure of the radial-DARCA group were significantly less than that of the femoral-SA group. There was no significant difference in fluoroscopy time between the 2 groups. Physicians can successfully employ an innovative safety strategy of transradial access combined with DARCA that is feasible and is associated with lower radiation doses and contrast volume than femoral artery access and traditional coronary angiography approach. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Single leg jumping neuromuscular control is improved following whole body, long-axis rotational training. (United States)

    Nyland, John; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M


    Improved lower extremity neuromuscular control during sports may decrease injury risk. This prospective study evaluated progressive resistance, whole body, long-axis rotational training on the Ground Force 360 device. Our hypothesis was that device training would improve lower extremity neuromuscular control based on previous reports of kinematic, ground reaction force (GRF) or electromyographic (EMG) evidence of safer or more efficient dynamic knee stability during jumping. Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either training (Group 1) or control (Group 2) groups. Using a pre-test, post-test study design data were collected from three SLVJ trials. Unpaired t-tests with adjustments for multiple comparisons were used to evaluate group mean change differences (P≤0.05/25≤0.002). During propulsion Group 1 standardized EMG amplitude mean change differences for gluteus maximus (-21.8% vs. +17.4%), gluteus medius (-28.6% vs. +15.0%), rectus femoris (-27.1% vs. +11.2%), vastus medialis (-20.2% vs. +9.1%), and medial hamstrings (-38.3% vs. +30.3%) differed from Group 2. During landing Group 1 standardized EMG amplitude mean change differences for gluteus maximus (-32.9% vs. +11.1%) and rectus femoris (-33.3% vs. +29.0%) also differed from Group 2. Group 1 peak propulsion vertical GRF (+0.24N/kg vs. -0.46N/kg) and landing GRF stabilization timing (-0.68 vs. +0.05s) mean change differences differed from Group 2. Group 1 mean hip (-16.3 vs. +7.8°/s) and knee (-21.4 vs. +18.5°/s) flexion velocity mean change differences also differed from Group 2. Improved lower extremity neuromuscular efficiency, increased peak propulsive vertical GRF, decreased mean hip and knee flexion velocities during landing, and earlier landing stabilization timing in the training group suggests improved lower extremity neuromuscular control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EPR dosimetry of whole deciduous tooth using a constant rotation goniometer and background subtraction with a dentine standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.


    We report here a rapid method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of dental enamel which will allow screening of whole deciduous teeth of children following a nuclear accident. The technique requires virtually no sample preparation and is capable of measuring doses of less than 100 mGy. Teeth may be scanned for threshold dose levels without the need for added calibration doses and those of particular interest may be more accurately examined using the additive dose method. The success of the technique lies in the elimination of anisotropic effects by rotation of spectra from the empty cavity and a standard background tooth. Normalization using in- cavity Mn++ standards is also employed

  14. Direct Vertebral Rotation Versus Single Concave Rod Rotation: Low-dose Intraoperative Computed Tomography Evaluation of Spine Derotation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery. (United States)

    Pankowski, Rafal; Roclawski, Marek; Ceynowa, Marcin; Mikulicz, Marcin; Mazurek, Tomasz; Kloc, Wojciech


    A comparative clinical study of two main corrective manoeuvres in scoliosis surgery. To compare the effectiveness of two main corrective manoeuvres: single concave rod rotation (SCRR) and direct vertebral rotation (DVR) in regard to apical vertebral rotation (AVR) and rib hump correction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. It remains unclear whether SCRR manoeuvre alone causes apical vertebral derotation (AVD) and rib hump correction. Although the influence of DVR on AVD and rib hump change has been described, it has been evaluated mainly with indirect methods. This is the first study to evaluate separately the derotational effectiveness of these two manoeuvres during the low-dose intraoperative computed tomography (ICT). A study group consisted of 38 AIS patients treated by posterior scoliosis surgery (PSS) with all pedicle screw constructs. All examined patients had dow-dose ICT evaluation (before correction, after SCRR, and after DVR). We found SCRR ineffective - mean postcorrectional AVR increased insignificantly 1.5° (16.1% worsening) P = 0.170. On the contrary, an average postcorrectional AVR after DVR decreased significantly mean 3.1° (33.3% improvement) P = 0.049. Precorrectional rib hump angle was 19.3°, after SCRR 15°, and after DVR 12.3°. It was found that despite the lack of true derotation after SCRR there was a significant 22.3% decrease of the rib hump P = 0.043. Although the rib hump decreased significantly 36.3% after DVR as well P = 0.023. There was also significant difference between a rib hump angle after SCRR and DVR (P = 0.049). SCRR does not lead to AVD. The true spinal derotation is possible only when DVR systems are used. The decrease of rib hump is achieved after both SCRR and DVR, but the improvement is significantly better after DVR. 3.

  15. Advanced Propfan Engine Technology (APET) definition study, single and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism design (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.


    Single-rotation propfan-powered regional transport aircraft were studied to identify key technology development issues and programs. The need for improved thrust specific fuel consumption to reduce fuel burned and aircraft direct operating cost is the dominant factor. Typical cycle trends for minimizing fuel consumption are reviewed, and two 10,000 shp class engine configurations for propfan propulsion systems for the 1990's are presented. Recommended engine configurations are both three-spool design with dual spool compressors and free power turbines. The benefits of these new propulsion system concepts were evaluated using an advanced airframe, and results are compared for single-rotation propfan and turbofan advanced technology propulsion systems. The single-rotation gearbox is compared to a similar design with current technology to establish the benefits of the advanced gearbox technology. The conceptual design of the advanced pitch change mechanism identified a high pressure hydraulic system that is superior to the other contenders and completely external to the gearboxes.

  16. The coherent interlayer resistance of a single, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, K. M. Masum, E-mail:; Sylvia, Somaia S.; Neupane, Mahesh; Lake, Roger K., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521-0204 (United States); Ge, Supeng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521-0204 (United States)


    The coherent, interlayer resistance of a misoriented, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite is determined for a variety of misorientation angles. The quantum-resistance of the ideal AB stack is on the order of 1 to 10 mΩ μm{sup 2}. For small rotation angles, the coherent interlayer resistance exponentially approaches the ideal quantum resistance at energies away from the charge neutrality point. Over a range of intermediate angles, the resistance increases exponentially with cell size for minimum size unit cells. Larger cell sizes, of similar angles, may not follow this trend. The energy dependence of the interlayer transmission is described.

  17. The coherent interlayer resistance of a single, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, K. M. Masum; Sylvia, Somaia S.; Neupane, Mahesh; Lake, Roger K.; Ge, Supeng


    The coherent, interlayer resistance of a misoriented, rotated interface between two stacks of AB graphite is determined for a variety of misorientation angles. The quantum-resistance of the ideal AB stack is on the order of 1 to 10 mΩ μm 2 . For small rotation angles, the coherent interlayer resistance exponentially approaches the ideal quantum resistance at energies away from the charge neutrality point. Over a range of intermediate angles, the resistance increases exponentially with cell size for minimum size unit cells. Larger cell sizes, of similar angles, may not follow this trend. The energy dependence of the interlayer transmission is described

  18. Development and applications of single particle orientation and rotational tracking in dynamic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuangcai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The goal of this study is to help with future data analysis and experiment designs in rotational dynamics research using DIC-based SPORT technique. Most of the current studies using DIC-based SPORT techniques are technical demonstrations. Understanding the mechanisms behind the observed rotational behaviors of the imaging probes should be the focus of the future SPORT studies. More efforts are still needed in the development of new imaging probes, particle tracking methods, instrumentations, and advanced data analysis methods to further extend the potential of DIC-based SPORT technique.

  19. Creation of single-photon entangled states around rotating black holes (United States)

    Racorean, Ovidiu


    Recently, numerical simulations showed that X-ray photons emitted by accretion disks acquire rotation of polarization angle and orbital angular momentum due to strong gravitational field in the vicinity of the rotating black holes. Based on these two degrees of freedom we construct a bipartite two-level quantum system of the accretion disks photons. To characterize the quantum states of this composite system we consider linear entropy for the reduced density matrix of polarization with the intention to exploit its direct relation with the photons degree of polarization. Accordingly, the minimum degree of polarization of X-ray radiation located in the transition region of the accretion disk indicates a high value of the linear entropy for the photons emitted on this region, inferring a high degree of entanglement in the composite system. We emphasize that for an extreme rotating black hole in the thermal state, the photons with energies at the thermal peak are maximally entangled in polarization and orbital angular momentum, leading to the creation of all four Bell states. Detection and measurement of quantum information encoded in photons emitted in the accretion disk around rotating black holes may be performed by actual quantum information technology.

  20. The transverse colon cancer with the reversed rotation of the midgut treated with single incision laparoscopic colectomy. (United States)

    Hirano, Yasumitsu; Hattori, Masakazu; Fujita, Manami; Nishida, Youji; Douden, Kenji; Hashizume, Yasuo


    Reversed rotation of the midgut is a rare type of intestinal malrotation. Moreover, synchronous colon cancer has rarely been reported. Preliminary experience with single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC) for colon cancer with reversed rotation of the midgut is reported. An 82-year-old woman was admitted because of a fecal occult blood. A colonoscopy revealed transverse colon cancer. An air-barium contrast enema showed the right-sided sigmoid colon and the left-sided cecum. A computed tomography revealed that the duodenum and the transverse colon were situated at the ventral side of the superior mesenteric artery, and a preoperative diagnosis of suspicion of reversed rotation of the midgut was made. First, a lap protector was inserted through a 4.0 cm transumbilical incision. Four 5 mm ports were placed in the lap protector. On the observation of laparoscopy, the cecum and the ascending colon were not fixed with the retroperitoneum and situated on the left, and the sigmoid colon was situated on the right. We successfully mobilized the transverse colon using a single-incision laparoscopic approach. Resection was achieved following extracorporealization, and the anastomosis was performed extracorporeally using staplers. The patient was discharged on the thirteenth postoperative day. Postoperative follow-up did not reveal any umbilical wound complications. SILC for colon cancer associated with malrotation of the midgut is feasible and a promising alternative method because of its less invasiveness and its adaptability to the malrotation without extending the skin incision.

  1. Effects of foot rotation positions on knee valgus during single-leg drop landing: Implications for ACL injury risk reduction. (United States)

    Teng, P S P; Kong, P W; Leong, K F


    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when athletes land in high risk positions such as knee valgus. The position of the foot at landing may influence the transmission of forces from the ankle to the knee. Using an experimental approach to manipulate foot rotation positions, this study aimed to provide new insights on how knee valgus during single-leg landing may be influenced by foot positions. Eleven male recreational basketball players performed single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm high platform in three foot rotation positions (toe-in, toe-forward and toe-out) at initial contact. A motion capture system and a force plate were used to measure lower extremity kinematics and kinetics. Knee valgus angles at initial contact (KVA) and maximum knee valgus moments (KVM), which were known risk factors associated with ACL injury, were measured. A one-way repeated measures Analysis of Variance was conducted (α=0.05) to compare among the three foot positions. Foot rotation positions were found to have a significant effect on KVA (p<0.001, η 2 =0.66) but the difference between conditions (about 1°) was small and not clinically meaningful. There was a significant effect of foot position on KVM (p<0.001, η 2 =0.55), with increased moment observed in the toe-out position as compared to toe-forward (p=0.012) or toe-in positions (p=0.002). When landing with one leg, athletes should avoid extreme toe-out foot rotation positions to minimise undesirable knee valgus loading associated with non-contact ACL injury risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Zirconia crowns - the new standard for single-visit dentistry? (United States)

    Wiedhahn, Klaus; Fritzsche, Günter; Wiedhahn, Claudine; Schenk, Olaf


    Zirconia crowns combine the advantages of metal restorations, such as minimally invasive tooth preparation and ease of cementation, with those of full ceramic crowns, such as low thermal conductivity and tooth color. With the introduction of a high-speed sintering procedure, it is possible to produce and cement zirconia crowns and small monolithic bridges in a Cerec Single Visit procedure. This new procedure is compared to established chairside methods.

  3. Large-Scale Single Particle and Cell Trapping based on Rotating Electric Field Induced-Charge Electroosmosis. (United States)

    Wu, Yupan; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Hou, Likai; Jiang, Hongyuan


    We propose a simple, inexpensive microfluidic chip for large-scale trapping of single particles and cells based on induced-charge electroosmosis in a rotating electric field (ROT-ICEO). A central floating electrode array, was placed in the center of the gap between four driving electrodes with a quadrature configuration and used to immobilize single particles or cells. Cells were trapped on the electrode array by the interaction between ROT-ICEO flow and buoyancy flow. We experimentally optimized the efficiency of trapping single particles by investigating important parameters like particle or cell density and electric potential. Experimental and numerical results showed good agreement. The operation of the chip was verified by trapping single polystyrene (PS) microspheres with diameters of 5 and 20 μm and single yeast cells. The highest single particle occupancy of 73% was obtained using a floating electrode array with a diameter of 20 μm with an amplitude voltage of 5 V and frequency of 10 kHz for PS microbeads with a 5-μm diameter and density of 800 particles/μL. The ROT-ICEO flow could hold cells against fluid flows with a rate of less than 0.45 μL/min. This novel, simple, robust method to trap single cells has enormous potential in genetic and metabolic engineering.

  4. Effect of the compressive stress on both polarization rotation and phase transitions in PMN-30%PT single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the dependence of both the electromechanical effect and the electrostriction on the compressive stress in PMN-30%PT single crystal on the basis of single domain polarization rotation model. In the model, the electroelastic energy induced by the compressive stress is taken into account. The results have demonstrated that the compressive stress can lead to a significant change in the initial polarization state in the crystal. The reason lies in the stress induced anisotropy which is the coupling between the compressive stress and the electrostrictive coefficients. Thus, the initial polarization state in single crystal is determined by the combination of both electrocrystalline anisotropy and the stress induced anisotropy. The compressive stress along the [100] axis can make the polarization in the crystal be perpendicular to the stress direction, and make it difficult to be polarized to the saturation. This model is useful for better understanding both the polarization rotation and electromechanical effect in ferroelectric crystals with the compressive stress present.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the premises for the application of the standard direct cost calculation method in industry, the standard single cost calculation method, the stages of standard cost calculation per product and the calculation methods of standards per product. It also briefly underlines the possibilities of cost calculation and monitoring of deviation of the costs of raw materials and other materials as compared to the pre-established standard costs.

  6. Single-port retroperitoneal renal biopsy using standard urological instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra


    Full Text Available Objective To describe the surgical technique and initial experience with a single-port retroperitoneal renal biopsy (SPRRB. Materials and Methods Between January and April 2013, five children underwent SPRRB in our hospital. A single 1.5 cm incision was performed under the 12th rib at mid-axillary line, and an 11 mm trocar was inserted. A nephroscope was used to identify the kidney and dissect the perirenal fat. After lower pole exposure, a laparoscopic biopsy forceps was introduced through the nephroscope working channel to collect a renal tissue sample. Results SPRRB was successfully performed in five children. The mean operative time was 32 minutes, and mean estimated blood loss was less than 10 mL. The hospital stay of all patients was two days because they were discharged in the second postoperative day, after remaining at strict bed rest for 24 hours after the procedure. The average number of glomeruli present in the specimen was 31. Conclusion SPRRB is a simple, safe and reliable alternative to open and videolaparoscopic approaches to surgical renal biopsy.

  7. Standard enthalpies of formation of 2-aminobenzothiazoles in the crystalline phase by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarillo, E. Adriana; Mentado, Juan; Flores, Henoc; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M.


    Highlights: • Rotating bomb calorimeter was used for combustion experiments. • Benzothiazole derivatives were studied by combustion experiments. • The standard molar enthalpies of combustion in solid phase were determined. • The enthalpies of formation in the solid phase were derived. • Experimental and predicted values were used to determine gaseous formation enthalpies. - Abstract: The standard molar enthalpies of combustion of 2-aminobenzothiazole (2AB), 2-amino-4-methyl-benzothiazole (2A4MB), and 2-amino-6-methyl-benzothiazole (2A6MB) were determined in the crystalline phase at T = 298.15 K using a rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter. The molar energies of combustion of these compounds were found to be: (−4273.6 ± 0.9), (−4896.9 ± 1.1), and (−4906.9 ± 1.2) kJ · mol −1 , respectively. From these values, the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the solid phase were obtained as: (59.55 ± 1.28), (2.71 ± 1.50), and (13.53 ± 1.53) kJ · mol −1 , respectively. The enthalpies of formation in the gas phase were determined using the experimental enthalpies of formation in the solid phase and predicted values of the enthalpies of sublimation. Additionally, the enthalpies of formation in the gas phase were calculated by means of the Gausian-4 theory, using several gas-phase working reactions, and were compared with those found using the predicted enthalpies of sublimation

  8. Radiative-transfer models for explosions from rotating and non-rotating single WC stars. Implications for SN 1998bw and LGRB/SNe (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; John Hillier, D.; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli


    Using 1D, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and time-dependent radiative transfer simulations, we study the ejecta properties required to match the early- and late-time photometric and spectroscopic properties of supernovae (SNe) associated with long-duration γ-ray bursts (LGRBs). Matching the short rise time, narrow light curve peak and extremely broad spectral lines of SN 1998bw requires a model with ≲3 M⊙ ejecta but a high explosion energy of a few 1052 erg and 0.5 M⊙ of 56Ni. The relatively high luminosity, presence of narrow spectral lines of intermediate mass elements, and low ionisation at the nebular stage, however, are matched with a more standard C-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) star explosion, an ejecta of ≳10 M⊙, an explosion energy ≳1051 erg, and only 0.1 M⊙ of 56Ni. As the two models are mutually exclusive, the breaking of spherical symmetry is essential to match the early- and late-time photometric and spectroscopic properties of SN 1998bw. This conclusion confirms the notion that the ejecta of SN 1998bw is highly aspherical on large scales. More generally, with asphericity, the energetics and 56Ni masses of LGRB/SNe are reduced and their ejecta masses are increased, favouring a massive fast-rotating Wolf-Rayet star progenitor. Contrary to persisting claims in favour of the proto-magnetar model for LGRB/SNe, such progenitor/ejecta properties are compatible with collapsar formation. Ejecta properties of LGRB/SNe inferred from 1D radiative-transfer modelling are fundamentally flawed.

  9. Magnetization distribution of single-particle states and 2/sup +/ rotational states from muonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Backe, H; Engfer, R; Kankeleit, E; Link, R; Michaelsen, R; Petitjean, C; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Schröder, W U; Vuilleumier, J L; Walter, H K; Zehnder, A


    The lowest states in muonic atoms are rather sensitive to the spatial distribution of the nuclear magnetization density, and several results were deduced from the broadening of the muonic 2p/sub 1/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ and 3d/sub 3/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transitions. By measuring low energetic transitions such as the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition or nuclear gamma -transitions, it is possible to resolve the magnetic hyperfine splittings. The magnetic hf splitting of the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ transition in mu /sup 115/In and of the 3/2/sup +/-1/2/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transitions in mu /sup 203/Tl at 279 keV, and in mu /sup 205/Tl at 204 keV, have been resolved. For the 2/sup +/-0/sup +/ nuclear gamma -transition in mu /sup 190,192/Os at 187 keV and 206 keV, respectively, the magnetic hf splitting of the 2/sup +/ rotational levels and the intensities of the hf components were determined from a nearly resolved doublet splitting. (7 refs).

  10. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation. (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N


    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For

  11. Gradient rotating outer volume excitation (GROOVE): A novel method for single-shot two-dimensional outer volume suppression. (United States)

    Powell, Nathaniel J; Jang, Albert; Park, Jang-Yeon; Valette, Julien; Garwood, Michael; Marjańska, Małgorzata


    To introduce a new outer volume suppression (OVS) technique that uses a single pulse and rotating gradients to accomplish frequency-swept excitation. This new technique, which is called gradient rotating outer volume excitation (GROOVE), produces a circular or elliptical suppression band rather than suppressing the entire outer volume. Theoretical and k-space descriptions of GROOVE are provided. The properties of GROOVE were investigated with simulations, phantom, and human experiments performed using a 4T horizontal bore magnet equipped with a TEM coil. Similar suppression performance was obtained in phantom and human brain using GROOVE with circular and elliptical shapes. Simulations indicate that GROOVE requires less SAR and time than traditional OVS schemes, but traditional schemes provide a sharper transition zone and less residual signal. GROOVE represents a new way of performing OVS in which spins are excited temporally in space on a trajectory that can be tailored to fit the shape of the suppression region. In addition, GROOVE is capable of suppressing tailored regions of space with more flexibility and in a shorter period of time than conventional methods. GROOVE provides a fast, low SAR alternative to conventional OVS methods in some applications (e.g., scalp suppression). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karami, M.A.; Gersbach, M.; Charbon, E.


    A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 90nm standard CMOS process is reported. The detector comprises an octagonal multiplication region and a guard ring to prevent premature edge breakdown using exclusively standard layers. The proposed structure is the result of a systematic study

  13. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results. (United States)

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Savarese, Eugenio; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario A; Masala, Salvatore; Simonetti, Giovanni


    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense. The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no difference in clinical outcomes. We think that

  14. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudisco Cosimo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA, showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. Methods The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST scores, surgical time and implant expense. Results The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant

  15. Single-molecule detection of chaperonin dynamics through polarization rotation modulation of CdSe QD luminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Toshiro; Oda, Masaru; Araki, Daisuke; Miyashita, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Koudai; Arita, Mayuno; Yohda, Masafumi


    We report our recent trials examining the single-molecule three-dimensional (3D) detection of protein conformational dynamics at room temperature. Using molecular chaperones as model proteins and cadmium selenide (CdSe) semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as nanometer-scale probes, we monitored the temporal evolution of ATP-induced conformation changes with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy imaging technique in buffer solutions. The two-dimensional (2D) degenerate nature of the emission dipoles of the QDs, due to the uniaxial wurtzite crystal structure, made it possible to capture the 3D orientation using a polarization modulation technique in real time. The temporal resolution was half the period of analyzer rotation. Although still insufficient, the obtained signals suggest possible 3D detection of specific motions, which supports the two-step conformational changes triggered by ATP attachment. - Highlights: • We report our recent trials examining the single-molecule three-dimensional (3D) detection of protein conformational dynamics at room temperature. • Using molecular chaperones as model proteins and cadmium selenide (CdSe) semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) as nanometer-scale probes, we monitored the temporal evolution of ATP-induced conformation changes with a total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy imaging technique in buffer solutions. • The two-dimensional (2D) degenerate nature of the emission dipoles of the QDs, due to the uniaxial wurtzite crystal structure, made it possible to capture the 3D orientation using a polarization modulation technique in real time. • The temporal resolution was half the period of analyzer rotation. • Although still insufficient, the obtained signals suggest possible 3D detection of specific motions, which supports the two-step conformational changes triggered by ATP attachment

  16. Randomized study on the safety and efficacy of dual-axis rotational versus standard coronary angiography in. (United States)

    Liu, Hui-liang; Jin, Zhi-geng; Yang, Sheng-li; Luo, Jian-ping; Ma, Dong-xing; Liu, Ying; Han, Wei


    Dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) was developed as an innovative adaptation of rotational angiography (RA), but it requires a longer coronary injection compared to standard coronary angiography (SA). As the body of the average Chinese patient is smaller than that of most western patients, with the same contrast injection time, the risk of complications from the contrast agent is increased in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical safety and efficacy of DARCA in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Chinese population by directly comparing it to SA. Two hundred Chinese patients were randomized to either the SA group (n = 100) or DARCA group (n = 100). Contrast utilization, radiation exposure and procedure time were recorded for each modalities. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) pre and post injection symptoms and any arrhythmias were recorded. Compared to the SA group, there was a 42% reduction in contrast utilization, 55% reduction in radiation exposure and a 31% shorter procedure time in the DARCA group. In both groups, there were slight declines in the systolic BP values in the left coronary artery (LCA) post injection (P < 0.01). Moreover, post injection HRs for the LCA were also reduced in the DARCA group (P < 0.01). But all of these changes were small, transient and without clinical importance. Only one patient (1%) in the DARCA group had an attack of ventricular tachycardia immediately post injection and it resolved by itself during LCA angiography. No arrhythmias occurred in the SA group. DARCA is a safe, efficient, and clinically comparable alternative to SA in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in the Chinese population with less contrast utilized, which is less radiation exposure and a shorter procedure time than SA.

  17. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  18. Eccentric versus conventional exercise therapy in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized, single blinded, clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejaco, B.; Habets, B.; Loon, C.J.M. van; Grinsven, S. van; Cingel, R.E. van


    PURPOSE: To investigate the effectiveness of isolated eccentric versus conventional exercise therapy in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, diagnosed by an orthopaedic surgeon, were included and randomly allocated to an isolated

  19. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokler, B.V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)


    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term `standard` entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities.

  20. A single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters - not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, B.V.


    This article is a review of arguments against the use of a single standard for in-place testing of DOE HEPA filters. The author feels that the term 'standard' entails mandatory compliance. Additionally, the author feels that the variety of DOE HEPA systems requiring in-place testing is such that the guidance for testing must be written in a permissive fashion, allowing options and alternatives. With this in mind, it is not possible to write a single document entailing mandatory compliance for all DOE facilities

  1. Computer-assisted and patient-specific 3-D planning and evaluation of a single-cut rotational osteotomy for complex long-bone deformities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbe, J. G. G.; Pré, K. J. du; Kloen, P.; Blankevoort, L.; Streekstra, G. J.


    Malunion after long bone fracture results in an incorrect position of the distal bone segment. This misalignment may lead to reduced function of the limb, early osteoarthritis and chronic pain. An established treatment option is a corrective osteotomy. For complex malunions, a single-cut rotational

  2. Single-frequency pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser at 2 µm with nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation (United States)

    Wang, Xiong; Lv, Haibin; Zhou, Pu; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Liu, Zejin


    We present a single-frequency (SF) pulsed fiber laser at 2 µm based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a thulium-doped fiber laser. The effective feedback of the fiber laser is quite weak to induce pulse operation. Nonlinear polarization rotation and active phase modulation are employed to compress the pulse width and stabilize the pulse train. This SF pulsed Brillouin-thulium fiber laser (BTFL) can generate a stable pulse train with a repetition rate of ˜310 kHz and a pulse width of ˜200 ns. The repetition rate of the pulse train can be adjusted by controlling the cavity length, and the pulse width can be tuned between 200 and 500 ns. The central wavelength locates at 1971.58 nm with an optical signal-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB, and the linewidth is about 6 MHz. This is the first demonstration of the SF pulsed BTFL as far as we know.

  3. Whole body, long-axis rotational training improves lower extremity neuromuscular control during single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization. (United States)

    Nyland, John; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M


    Poor neuromuscular control during sports activities is associated with non-contact lower extremity injuries. This study evaluated the efficacy of progressive resistance, whole body, long-axis rotational training to improve lower extremity neuromuscular control during a single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization. Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either Training or Control groups. Electromyographic, ground reaction force, and kinematic data were collected from three pre-test, post-test trials. Independent sample t-tests with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons were used to compare group mean change differences (P≤0.05/21≤0.0023). Training group gluteus maximus and gluteus medius neuromuscular efficiency improved 35.7% and 31.7%, respectively. Training group composite vertical-anteroposterior-mediolateral ground reaction force stabilization timing occurred 1.35s earlier. Training group knee flexion angle at landing increased by 3.5°. Training group time period between the initial two peak frontal plane knee displacements following landing increased by 0.17s. Training group peak hip and knee flexion velocity were 21.2°/s and 20.1°/s slower, respectively. Time period between the initial two peak frontal plane knee displacements following landing and peak hip flexion velocity mean change differences displayed a strong relationship in the Training group (r(2)=0.77, P=0.0001) suggesting improved dynamic frontal plane knee control as peak hip flexion velocity decreased. This study identified electromyographic, kinematic, and ground reaction force evidence that device training improved lower extremity neuromuscular control during single leg lateral drop landing and stabilization. Further studies with other populations are indicated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PIV and Rotational Raman-Based Temperature Measurements for CFD Validation in a Single Injector Cooling Flow (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Locke, Randy J.


    Film cooling is used in a wide variety of engineering applications for protection of surfaces from hot or combusting gases. The design of more efficient thin film cooling geometries/configurations could be facilitated by an ability to accurately model and predict the effectiveness of current designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions. Hence, a benchmark set of flow field property data were obtained for use in assessing current CFD capabilities and for development of better turbulence models. Both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and spontaneous rotational Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy were used to acquire high quality, spatially-resolved measurements of the mean velocity, turbulence intensity and also the mean temperature and normalized root mean square (rms) temperatures in a single injector cooling flow arrangement. In addition to flowfield measurements, thermocouple measurements on the plate surface enabled estimates of the film effectiveness. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 68.07 mm square nozzle blowing heated air over a range of temperatures and Mach numbers, across a 30.48cm long plate equipped with a single injector cooling hole. In addition, both centerline streamwise 2-component PIV and cross-stream 3-component Stereo PIV data at 15 axial stations were collected in the same flows. The velocity and temperature data were then compared against Wind-US CFD code predictions for the same flow conditions. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA's development and assessment of turbulence models for heated flows.

  5. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.


    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  6. Characterization of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in Standard 140-nm SOI CMOS Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Sun, P.; Charbon, E.


    We report on the characterization of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in standard 140-nm silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. As a methodology for SPAD optimization, a test structure array, called SPAD farm, was realized with several

  7. Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Wendt, Oliver; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick


    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was…

  8. 32 CFR Attachment B to Subpart B... - Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard B-Single Scope Background Investigation (SSBI) B Attachment B to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ADJUDICATIVE GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION...

  9. Experimental Q-dependence of the rotational J = 0-to-1 transition of molecular hydrogen adsorbed in single-wall carbon nanotube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, P.A.; Giannasi, A.; Ross, D.K.; Zoppi, M.; Sauvajol, J.L.; Stride, J.


    Inelastic neutron scattering spectra of para-Hydrogen adsorbed in single-wall carbon nanotubes have been measured at 20 K, at different surface loadings, and at a set of kinematic trajectories. These show the presence of at least two different adsorption sites in the nanotube bundle. Only a weak hindrance to rotation is observed on the more adsorptive site which is preferentially occupied at low H 2 concentrations while a completely free rotation was found at the second and weaker site where the determined centre-of-mass dynamics suggests H 2 -H 2 distances similar to those on the graphite surface and in the bulk solid

  10. Simulation of V/G During Φ450 mm Czochralski Grown Silicon Single Crystal Growth Under the Different Crystal and Crucible Rotation Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan X J


    Full Text Available For discovering the principle of processing parameter combination for the stable growth and better wafer quality of Φ450 mm Czochralski grown silicon single crystal (shortly called Cz silicon crystal, the effects of crystal rotation rate and crucible one on the V/G ratio were simulated by using CGSim software. The results show that their effect laws on the V/G ratio for Φ450 mm Cz silicon crystal growth are some different from that for Φ200 mm Cz silicon one, and the effects of crucible rotation rate are relatively smaller than that of crystal one and its increasing only makes the demarcation point between two regions with different V/G ratio variations outward move along radial direction, and it promotes the wafer quality to weaken crystal rotation rate and strengthen crucible one.

  11. Touch sensitivity with sterile standard surgical gloves and single-use protective gloves. (United States)

    Tiefenthaler, W; Gimpl, S; Wechselberger, G; Benzer, A


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate touch sensitivity and static two-point discrimination of the dominant index and middle finger in 20 anaesthetists wearing no gloves, single-use protective gloves or sterile standard surgical gloves. Semmes-Weinstein filaments were used to measure cutaneous pressure thresholds, and a Two-Point-Discriminator to estimate static two-point discrimination. Wearing gloves significantly reduced touch sensitivity (p gloves. The results of our study suggest that the additional cost of sterile standard surgical gloves can not be justified in terms of touch sensitivity.

  12. Predicting a single HIV drug resistance measure from three international interpretation gold standards. (United States)

    Yashik, Singh; Maurice, Mars


    To investigate the possibility of combining the interpretation of three gold standard interpretation algorithms using weighted heuristics in order to produce a single resistance measure. The outputs of HIVdb, Rega, ANRS were combined to obtain a single resistance profile using the equally weighted voting algorithm, accuracy based weighing voting algorithm and the Bayesian based weighted voting algorithm techniques. The Bayesian based voting combination increased the accuracy of the resistance profile prediction compared to phenotype, from 58% to 69%. The equal weighted voting algorithm and the accuracy based algorithm both increased the prediction accuracy to 60%. From the result obtained it is evident that combining the gold standard interpretation algorithms may increase the predictive ability of the individual interpretation algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fixation method does not affect restoration of rotation center in hip replacements: A single-site retrospective study


    Wegner, Alexander; Kauther, Max Daniel; Landgraeber, Stefan; von Knoch, Marius


    Abstract Background Aseptic loosening is one of the greatest problems in hip replacement surgery. The rotation center of the hip is believed to influence the longevity of fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of cemented and cementless cup fixation techniques on the position of the center of rotation because cemented cup fixation requires the removal of more bone for solid fixation than the cementless technique. Methods We retrospectively compared pre- and post-operativ...

  14. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.


    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  15. Studies on the concentration dependence of specific rotation of Alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) aqueous solutions and growth of α-LM single crystals (United States)

    Vinodhini, K.; Divya Bharathi, R.; Srinivasan, K.


    Lactose is an optically active substance. As it is one of the reducing sugars, exhibits mutarotation in solution when it dissolves in any solvent. In solution, lactose exists in two isomeric forms, alpha-Lactose (α-L) and beta-lactose (β-L) through the mutarotation reaction. Mutarotation produces a dynamic equilibrium between two isomers in a solution and kinetics of this process determines the growth rate of alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) crystals. Since no data were available on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C, the initial experiments were carried out on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C. The specific rotations of the solutions were decreased with increasing time through the mutarotation reaction. The initial and final (equilibrium) specific rotations of the solutions were determined by using automatic digital polarimeter. The compositions of α and β-L in all prepared solutions were calculated from initial and final optical rotations by the method of Sharp and Doob. The composition of α-L decreased whereas, the composition of β-L increased in solutions with increasing concentration of α-LM at 33 °C. Experimental results revealed that this method could be easily and safely employed to study the dependence of specific rotation of solutions on their concentration. The effect of β-lactose on the morphology of nucleated α-LM single crystals has been studied at different experimental conditions.

  16. Eccentric versus conventional exercise therapy in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomized, single blinded, clinical trial. (United States)

    Dejaco, Beate; Habets, Bas; van Loon, Corné; van Grinsven, Susan; van Cingel, Robert


    To investigate the effectiveness of isolated eccentric versus conventional exercise therapy in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Thirty-six patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, diagnosed by an orthopaedic surgeon, were included and randomly allocated to an isolated eccentric exercise (EE) group (n = 20, mean age = 50.2 ± 10.8 years) or a conventional exercise (CG) group (n = 16, mean age = 48.6 ± 12.3 years). Both groups fulfilled a 12-week daily home-based exercise programme and received a total amount of nine treatment sessions. The Constant Murley score was used to evaluate both objective (e.g. range of motion and strength) and subjective measures (e.g. pain and activities of daily living). A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain during daily activities. As secondary outcomes, shoulder range of motion and isometric abduction strength in 45° in the scapular plane were evaluated. All measurements were taken at baseline, at 6, 12 and 26 weeks. After 26 weeks, both groups showed a significant increase in the Constant Murley score and a significant decrease in VAS scores. No difference was found between the groups, for any of the evaluated outcome measures. A 12-week-isolated eccentric training programme of the rotator cuff is beneficial for shoulder function and pain after 26 weeks in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. However, it is no more beneficial than a conventional exercise programme for the rotator cuff and scapular muscles. Based on the results, clinicians should take into account that performing two eccentric exercises twice a day is as effective as performing six concentric/eccentric exercises once a day in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy.

  17. Single- vs. double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a new aspect of knee assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation. (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Szuba, Łukasz; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Kentel, Maciej


    Few studies have compared single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the knee joint during activities involving change-of-direction maneuvers and knee rotation. This study examined whether the type of ACLR contributes to postphysiotherapy outcomes, with an emphasis on knee function assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation. Fifteen male patients after SB ACLR and 15 male patients after DB ACLR took part in the same physiotherapy program. Twenty-four weeks after ACLR, both groups underwent anterior laxity measurement, pivot shift tests, range of movement and joint circumference measurements, subjective assessment of pain and stability levels in the knee joint, peak torque measurement of the muscles rotating the tibia toward the femur, and a run test with maximal speed and change-of-direction maneuvers. Comparative analysis did not show any differences between the results of anterior tibial translation, pivot shift test, range of movement and joint circumference, and subjective assessment of pain and knee joint stability levels. No differences were noted between the groups in peak torque values obtained from the muscles responsible for internal and external tibial rotation or results of the run test. The data obtained from this study can be used by research teams to monitor and compare the effectiveness of various study protocols involving surgical and physiotherapy treatment. The data are especially useful when combined with the clinical assessment of patients who would like to return to sport.

  18. Effects of local microwave diathermy on shoulder pain and function in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy in comparison to subacromial corticosteroid injections: a single-blind randomized trial. (United States)

    Rabini, Alessia; Piazzini, Diana B; Bertolini, Carlo; Deriu, Laura; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Santagada, Domenico A; Sgadari, Antonio; Bernabei, Roberto; Fabbriciani, Carlo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Milano, Giuseppe


    Single-blind randomized clinical trial, with a follow-up of 24 weeks. To determine the effects of hyperthermia via localized microwave diathermy on pain and disability in comparison to subacromial corticosteroid injections in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Hyperthermia improves symptoms and function in several painful musculoskeletal disorders. However, the effects of microwave diathermy in rotator cuff tendinopathy have not yet been established. Ninety-two patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy and pain lasting for at least 3 months were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Hospital, Rome, Italy. Participants were randomly allocated to either local microwave diathermy or subacromial corticosteroids. The primary outcome measure was the short form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (QuickDASH). Secondary outcome measures were the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score and a visual analog scale for pain assessment. At the end of treatment and at follow-up, both treatment groups experienced improvements in all outcome measures relative to baseline values. Changes over time in QuickDASH, Constant-Murley, and visual analog scale scores were not different between treatment arms. In patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, the effects of localized microwave diathermy on disability, shoulder function, and pain are equivalent to those elicited by subacromial corticosteroid injections.

  19. Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments: Technical considerations and surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsun Ho


    Conclusion: Our results clearly demonstrate that LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy can be performed safely and effectively using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments.

  20. 10-bit rapid single flux quantum digital-to-analog converter for ac voltage standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, M; Hirayama, F


    Digital-to-analog (D/A) converters based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) technology are under development for ac voltage standard applications. We present design and test results on a prototype 10-bit version integrated on a single chip. The 10-bit chip includes over 6000 Josephson junctions and consumes a bias current exceeding 1 A. To reduce the effects of the high bias current on circuit operation, a custom design method was employed in part and large circuit blocks were divided into smaller ones. The 10-bit chips were fabricated and tested at low speed. The test results suggested that our design approach could manage large bias currents on the order of 1 A per chip

  1. Rotating bending fatigue property of the Ni3Al-based single crystal superalloy IC6SX at 900°C (United States)

    Jiang, Liwu; Li, Shusuo; Han, Yafang


    The high cycle fatigue behavior of a Ni3Al base single crystal superalloy IC6SX has been investigated at 900°C in this work. The specimens used for the fatigue tests were prepared by screw selection crystal method in a directional solidification furnace. The rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out at 900°Cin air, the stress ratio of R(σmax/σmin) was -1, and the rotating speed of the fatigue tests was 6500r/min(108Hz). The stress-fatigue cycle life (S-Nf) curve was obtained based on the fatigue tests, and the fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been found that the median fatigue strength is 457.5MPa and the safety fatigue strength is 413.93MPa. And the fatigue fracture was composed of three different characteristic regions.

  2. A compounded rare-earth iron garnet single crystal exhibiting stable Faraday rotation against wavelength and temperature variation in the 1.55 μm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.C.; Huang, M.; Li Miao


    The Bi, Tb and Yb partially substituted iron garnet bulk single crystals of Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 were grown by using Bi 2 O 3 /B 2 O 3 as flux and accelerated crucible rotation technique for single-crystal growth. Faraday rotation (FR) spectra showed that the specific FR of the (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 )Fe 5 O 12 crystal under magnetic field at saturation was measured to be about -1617 o /cm at λ=1.55 μm, Faraday rotation wavelength coefficient (FWC, 0.009%/nm) in the wavelength range of 1.50-1.62 μm and Faraday rotation temperature coefficient (FTC, 3.92x10 -5 /K) at λ=1.55 μm were even smaller than that of YIG. It is proven that through combining two types of Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets with opposite FWC and FTC signs, the compound rare-earth iron garnets with low FWC and FTC may be obtained due to the compensation effect. The saturation magnetization of (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 ) Fe 5 O 12 crystal is 0.48x10 6 A/M and is also much smaller than that of YIG. We have found empirically that there is a simple relationship between the FR θ f (x) and Bi content x for Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 , which is given by θ f (x)=(-2759x+400) o /cm

  3. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.


    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  4. Triple-Loaded Single-Row Versus Suture-Bridge Double-Row Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair With Platelet-Rich Plasma Fibrin Membrane: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Barber, F Alan


    To compare the structural healing and clinical outcomes of triple-loaded single-row with suture-bridging double-row repairs of full-thickness rotator cuff tendons when both repair constructs are augmented with platelet-rich plasma fibrin membrane. A prospective, randomized, consecutive series of patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears no greater than 3 cm in anteroposterior length were treated with a triple-loaded single-row (20) or suture-bridging double-row (20) repair augmented with platelet-rich plasma fibrin membrane. The primary outcome measure was cuff integrity by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 12 months postoperatively. Secondary clinical outcome measures were American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Rowe, Simple Shoulder Test, Constant, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores. The mean MRI interval was 12.6 months (range, 12-17 months). A total of 3 of 20 single-row repairs and 3 of 20 double-row repairs (15%) had tears at follow-up MRI. The single-row group had re-tears in 1 single tendon repair and 2 double tendon repairs. All 3 tears failed at the original attachment site (Cho type 1). In the double-row group, re-tears were found in 3 double tendon repairs. All 3 tears failed medial to the medial row near the musculotendinous junction (Cho type 2). All clinical outcome measures were significantly improved from the preoperative level (P plasma fibrin membrane. No difference could be demonstrated between these repairs on clinical outcome scores. I, Prospective randomized study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of single pulsed-field magnetization of Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductor with a split type of armature coil for rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, E; Matsuzaki, H; Kimura, Y; Ohtani, I; Ogata, H; Izumi, M; Nonaka, Y; Murakami, M; Ida, T; Sugimoto, H; Miki, M; Kitano, M


    We employed a Gd-bulk HTS as rotating field magnet poles aiming for a smaller and lighter axial-gap-type motor. The bulk was inserted in the split-type armature pulsed copper coils and cooled down to 77 K under zero field. Employing the bulk magnet to HTS rotating machinery, the number of pulsed field magnetizations should be reduced for practical use. Thereby, a single pulsed current was applied to the pulsed copper coils to magnetize the bulk. The trapped field distribution and transient flux behaviour strongly depend on the radial dimension of the armature coil with a vortex-type winding. On decreasing the diameter of the pulsed copper armature coil, the distribution of the trapped flux density on the surface of the bulk becomes close to a conical shape. In contrast to the use of a solenoid, the application of vortex-type armature coils to magnetization of Gd-bulk HTS shows a quick intervention of the external magnetic flux into the centre of the bulk. The magnetization to the bulk HTS of the vortex-type copper coils with an optimum radius is useful and may be an effective technique for applied bulk HTS for rotating machines such as motors and/or generators

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang


    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  7. FCNC Bs and Λb transitions: Standard model versus a single universal extra dimension scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, P.; De Fazio, F.; Ferrandes, R.; Pham, T. N.


    We study the flavor changing neutral current B s →φγ, φνν and Λ b →Λγ, Λνν transitions in the standard model and in a scenario with a single universal extra dimension. In particular, we focus on the present knowledge of the hadronic uncertainties and on possible improvements. We discuss how the measurements of these modes can be used to constrain the new parameter involved in the extra-dimensional scenario, the radius R of the extra dimension, completing the information available from B-factories. The rates of these b→s induced decays are within the reach of new experiments, such as LHCb.

  8. Molecular equilibrium structures from experimental rotational constants and calculated vibration-rotation interaction constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, F; Jorgensen, P; Olsen, Jeppe


    A detailed study is carried out of the accuracy of molecular equilibrium geometries obtained from least-squares fits involving experimental rotational constants B(0) and sums of ab initio vibration-rotation interaction constants alpha(r)(B). The vibration-rotation interaction constants have been...... calculated for 18 single-configuration dominated molecules containing hydrogen and first-row atoms at various standard levels of ab initio theory. Comparisons with the experimental data and tests for the internal consistency of the calculations show that the equilibrium structures generated using Hartree......-Fock vibration-rotation interaction constants have an accuracy similar to that obtained by a direct minimization of the CCSD(T) energy. The most accurate vibration-rotation interaction constants are those calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ level. The equilibrium bond distances determined from these interaction...

  9. Shear and foundation effects on crack root rotation and mode-mixity in moment- and force-loaded single cantilever beam sandwich specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Carlsson, Leif A.; Berggreen, Christian


    Foundation effects play a crucial role in sandwich fracture specimens with a soft core. Accurate estimation of deformationcharacteristics at the crack front is vital in understanding compliance, energy release rate and mode-mixity infracture test specimens. Beam on elastic foundation analysis...... beam specimen (in contrast to themoment-loaded case), it was found that the crack length normalized energy release rate and the mode-mixity phaseangle increase strongly as the crack length decreases, a result of increased dominance of shear loading....... of moment- and force-loaded single cantilever beam sandwichfracture specimens is presented here. In addition, finite element analysis of the single cantilever beam specimen isconducted to determine displacements, rotations, energy release rate and mode-mixity. Based on finite element analysis,a foundation...

  10. Muon spin rotation study of magnetism and superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhard, C.; Wang, C. N.; Nuccio, L.


    Using muon spin rotation (μSR) we investigated the magnetic and superconducting properties of a series of Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2 single crystals with 0 ≤x ≤0.15. Our study details how the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed upon Co substitution and how it coexists with superconductivity. In the nonsu......Using muon spin rotation (μSR) we investigated the magnetic and superconducting properties of a series of Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2 single crystals with 0 ≤x ≤0.15. Our study details how the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed upon Co substitution and how it coexists with superconductivity...... caused by the randomly distributed Co atoms. A different kind of magnetic order that was also previously identified [C. Bernhard et al., New J. Phys. 11, 055050 (2009)] occurs at 0.055 magnetic order develops here only in parts of the sample volume...... and it seems to cooperate with superconductivity since its onset temperature coincides with Tc. Even in the strongly overdoped regime at x = 0.11, where the static magnetic order has disappeared, we find that the low-energy spin fluctuations are anomalously enhanced below Tc. These findings point toward...

  11. 32 CFR Attachment C to Subpart B... - Standard C-Single Scope Background Investigation Periodic Reinvestigation (SSBI-PR) (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard C-Single Scope Background Investigation Periodic Reinvestigation (SSBI-PR) C Attachment C to Subpart B of Part 147 National Defense Department of... Reinvestigation (SSBI-PR) (a) Applicability. Standard C applies to reinvestigation for; (1) Access to TOP SECRET...

  12. Percutaneous peripheral rotational ablation using the Rotablator: immediate and mid term results. Single center experience concerning 146 lesions treated. (United States)

    Henry, M; Amor, M; Ethevenot, G; Henry, I


    In order to assess the role of percutaneous peripheral rotational ablation using Rotablator (PPRA), 95 symptomatic patients (58 M, 37 F, m. age: 77 +/- 1 y) (r: 50-90 y) having 146 peripheral vascular lesions (PVL) were treated by PPRA. 59% were below the knee and 41% above. The runoff status (n of distal leg art. involved) was as follows: 3:52 pts, 2:23 pts, 1:14 pts, 0:6 pts. The femoral lesions were significantly longer than those at other sites (5.27 +/- 0.43 vs 2.97 +/- 0.3 cm) (p Pop) than in distal leg lesions (10/86.). RESULTS. After PPRA alone (99 PVL) the stenosis % decreased from 81 +/- 0.75 to 18 +/- 1.1. The residual stenosis was greater at femoral (26 +/- 2.3%) than at distal leg level (16 +/- 1.2%) (p or = 4 mths, 74 pts representing 115 treated PVL underwent an angiography control (2 deaths, 2 lost for follow-up). 87 lesions (76%) showed no restenosis and 28 lesions (34%) showed restenosis of 83 +/- 2.4% (r: 50-100%). The restenosis rate was higher in femoral (12/21: 36%) than in distal (15/58: 21%) or popliteal arteries (1/8: 12%). Restenosis was more frequent for PVL > or = 7 cm (67% vs 16%) (p or = 6.7 cm would be a limitation for PPRA. CONCLUSIONS. In our experience Percutaneous Peripheral Rotational Ablation has taken a pre-eminent position in the treatment of distal leg arteries. Our results lead us to broaden its indications to complex vascular lesions. The possibility of runoff treatment should allow an improvement in the long-term patency of PTA and bypass grafts.

  13. Standard Test Method for Isotopic Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride by Single-Standard Gas Source Multiple Collector Mass Spectrometer Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method is applicable to the isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) with 235U concentrations less than or equal to 5 % and 234U, 236U concentrations of 0.0002 to 0.1 %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable to the analysis of the entire range of 235U isotopic compositions providing that adequate Certified Reference Materials (CRMs or traceable standards) are available. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Comparison of standard PCR/cloning to single genome sequencing for analysis of HIV-1 populations. (United States)

    Jordan, Michael R; Kearney, Mary; Palmer, Sarah; Shao, Wei; Maldarelli, Frank; Coakley, Eoin P; Chappey, Colombe; Wanke, Christine; Coffin, John M


    To compare standard PCR/cloning and single genome sequencing (SGS) in their ability to reflect actual intra-patient polymorphism of HIV-1 populations, a total of 530 HIV-1 pro-pol sequences obtained by both sequencing techniques from a set of 17 ART naïve patient specimens was analyzed. For each specimen, 12 and 15 sequences, on average, were characterized by the two techniques. Using phylogenetic analysis, tests for panmixia and entropy, and Bland-Altman plots, no difference in population structure or genetic diversity was shown in 14 of the 17 subjects. Evidence of sampling bias by the presence of subsets of identical sequences was found by either method. Overall, the study shows that neither method was more biased than the other, and providing that an adequate number of PCR templates is analyzed, and that the bulk sequencing captures the diversity of the viral population, either method is likely to provide a similar measure of population diversity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying Z-axis gyro drift and scale factor error using azimuth measurement in fiber optic gyroscope single-axis rotation inertial navigation system (United States)

    Wang, Lingcao; Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Gao, Jiaxin


    In the fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) single-axis rotation inertial navigation system (SRINS), the Z-axis gyro drift (ɛz) dramatically limits its navigation precision and the Z-axis gyro scale factor error (δK) can cause greater navigation error because of the rotation process compared with the strap-down inertial navigation system. Hence, identification and compensation for the ɛz and δK are important in SRINS. An approach based on the azimuth error model of open-loop algorithm is proposed. This approach considers azimuth angle as a measurement and uses a least recursive square algorithm for identifying the ɛz and δK. Compared with the traditional method, which takes velocity and position errors as measurements, the time required for identifying ɛz with the proposed method is only approximately 10 min, while the traditional method requires 6 h to 12 h. Experimental results from an SRINS with FOGs demonstrate that the accuracy of identifying the ɛz reaches 0.002°/h and that of the δK reaches 8 ppm in 10 min. The positioning accuracy of the SRINS improves greatly after the identification and compensation.

  16. Characterization and comparison of three microfabrication methods to generate out-of-plane microvortices for single cell rotation and 3D imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Rishabh M; Myers, Jakrey R; Sreenivasulu, Manoj; Teller, Wacey; Vela, Juan; Houkal, Jeff; Chao, Shih-Hui; Johnson, Roger H; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Wang, Hong; Meldrum, Deirdre R


    This paper presents three different microfabrication technologies for manufacturing out-of-plane, flat-bottomed, undercut trapezoidal structures for generating a fluidic microscale vortex (microvortex). The first method is based on anisotropic silicon etching and a ‘sandwich’ UV polymer casting assembly; the second method uses a backside diffuser photolithography technique; and the third method features a tilted backside photolithography technique. We discuss the advantages, limitations, and utility of each technique. We further demonstrate that the microvortex generated in the resultant undercut trapezoidal structures can be used to rotate biological microparticles, e.g. single, live cells for multiperspective, high resolution 3D imaging using computed tomography, and angularly resolved confocal imaging. (paper)

  17. dSPACE real time implementation of fuzzy PID position controller for vertical rotating single link arm robot using four-quadrant BLDC drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ramasamy


    Full Text Available Automation has been growing in recent years for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity. Multiple robotic arms are used to handle materials for lifting in flexible directions. The vertical rotation of a 360 degree single arm is considered in this research on a position servo drive with brushless DC motor. The load torque of an arm varies depending upon the angular displacement due to gravity, so it requires four-quadrant operation of the drive with a robust feedback controller. This paper deals with the design and performance comparison of a conventional PID feedback controller with a fuzzy-based PID controller and suggests the most suitable controller. The design was implemented in real time through the dSPACE DS1104 controller environment to verify the dynamic behaviors of the arm.

  18. A self-managed single exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial (the SELF study). (United States)

    Littlewood, Chris; Bateman, Marcus; Brown, Kim; Bury, Julie; Mawson, Sue; May, Stephen; Walters, Stephen J


    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a self-managed single exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy treatment for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Multi-centre pragmatic unblinded parallel group randomised controlled trial. UK National Health Service. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy. The intervention was a programme of self-managed exercise prescribed by a physiotherapist in relation to the most symptomatic shoulder movement. The control group received usual physiotherapy treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Shoulder Pain & Disability Index (SPADI) at three months. Secondary outcomes included the SPADI at six and twelve months. A total of 86 patients (self-managed loaded exercise n=42; usual physiotherapy n=44) were randomised. Twenty-six patients were excluded from the analysis because of lack of primary outcome data at the 3 months follow-up, leaving 60 (n=27; n=33) patients for intention to treat analysis. For the primary outcome, the mean SPADI score at three months was 32.4 (SD 20.2) for the self-managed group, and 30.7 (SD 19.7) for the usual physiotherapy treatment group; mean difference adjusted for baseline score: 3.2 (95% Confidence interval -6.0 to +12.4 P = 0.49).By six and twelve months there remained no significant difference between the groups. This study does not provide sufficient evidence of superiority of one intervention over the other in the short-, mid- or long-term and hence a self-management programme based around a single exercise appears comparable to usual physiotherapy treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak


    Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  20. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft (United States)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.


    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  1. Rotational seismology (United States)

    Lee, William H K.


    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  2. Measurement of reading speed with standardized texts: a comparison of single sentences and paragraphs. (United States)

    Altpeter, Elke Karin; Marx, Tobias; Nguyen, Nhung Xuan; Naumann, Aline; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne


    We examined the influence of text length (single sentence versus a paragraph of several sentences) on the repeatability of reading speed measurements in normal-sighted subjects. We compared reading speeds for the German versions of the Radner charts (single sentences of 14 words each) and the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) charts (paragraphs, on average 132 words) in 30 normal-sighted elderly subjects aged 51-81 years (mean 64.5 years ± 7.2 SD). Three texts each of both lengths were read aloud in random order. The influence of text length (single sentence or paragraph) and text sample (each single text) on reading speed was calculated by a regression model and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean reading speed (words per minute) showed no significant difference for single sentences (170 wpm ± 33 SD) and paragraphs (167 wpm ±31 SD). Differences in reading speeds within one type of reading material were higher between single sentences than between paragraphs. Correlation coefficients between speeds were higher for paragraphs (r = 0.96-0.98) than for single sentences (r = 0.69-0.78). Variations between reading speeds for three texts of each length were markedly lower for paragraphs than for single sentences: (median, interquartile range [IQR]): 6.7, IQR 13.9; 3.0, IQR 8.3; -2.0, IQR 9.7 versus -8.8, IQR 29.6; 15.6, IQR 29.4; 22.7, IQR 19.4, respectively. Since reading speeds assessed with paragraphs show lower variance among texts than those for single sentences, they are better suited for repeated measurements, especially for long-term monitoring of the course of reading performance and for assessing effects of interventions in subjects with reading disorders.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguru Fujii


    Full Text Available Internal tibial rotation with the knee close to full extension combined with valgus collapse during drop landing generally results in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal rotation of the knee and muscle activity from internal and external rotator muscles, and between the internal rotation of knee and externally applied loads on the knee during landing in collegiate basketball players. Our hypothesis was that the activity of biceps femoris muscle would be an important factor reducing internal knee rotation during landing. The subjects were 10 collegiate basketball students: 5 females and 5 males. The subjects performed a single-leg drop landing from a 25-cm height. Femoral and tibial kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the knee angular motions were determined. Ground reaction forces and muscle activation patterns (lateral hamstring and medial hamstring were simultaneously measured and computed. Results indicated that lower peak internal tibial rotation angle at the time of landing was associated with greater lateral hamstring activity (r = -0.623, p < 0.001. When gender was considered, the statistically significant correlation remained only in females. There was no association between the peak internal tibial rotation angle and the knee internal rotation moment. Control of muscle activity in the lateral to medial hamstring would be an important factor in generating sufficient force to inhibit excessive internal rotation during landing. Strengthening the biceps femoris might mitigate the higher incidence of non-contact ACL injury in female athletes

  4. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  5. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.


    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  6. Dual-Axis Rotational Angiography is Safe and Feasible to Detect Coronary Allograft Vasculopathy in Pediatric Heart Transplant Patients: A Single-Center Experience. (United States)

    Rios, Rodrigo; Loomba, Rohit S; Foerster, Susan R; Pelech, Andrew N; Gudausky, Todd M


    Coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is the leading cause of graft failure in pediatric heart transplant recipients, also adding to mortality in this patient population. Coronary angiography is routinely performed to screen for CAV, with conventional single-plane or bi-plane angiography being utilized. Dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (RA) has been described, mostly in the adult population, and may offer reduction in radiation dose and contrast volume. Experience with this in the pediatric population is limited. This study describes a single-institution experience with RA for screening for CAV in pediatric patients. The catheterization database at our institution was used to identify pediatric heart transplant recipients having undergone RA to screen for CAV. Procedural data including radiation dose, fluoroscopy time, contrast volume, and procedure time were collected for each catheterization. The number of instances in which RA was not successful, ECG changes were present, and CAV was detected were also collected for each catheterization. A total of 97 patients underwent 345 catheterizations utilizing RA. Median radiation dose-area product per kilogram was found to be 341.7 (mGy cm(2)/kg), total air kerma was 126.8 (mGy), procedure time was 69 min, fluoroscopy time was 9.9 min, and contrast volume was 13 ml. A total of 17 (2 %) coronary artery injections out of 690 could not be successfully imaged using RA. A total of 14 patients had CAV noted at any point, 10 of whom had progressive CAV. Electrocardiographic changes were documented in a total of 10 (3 %) RA catheterizations. Procedural characteristics did not differ between serial catheterizations. RA is safe and feasible for CAV screening in pediatric heart transplant recipients while offering coronary imaging in multiple planes compared to conventional angiography.

  7. Draft forces prediction model for standard single tines by using principles of soil mechanics and soil profile evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Khalid Ahmed Al-Neama


    Full Text Available This paper explains a model to predict the draft force acting on varying standard single tines by using principles of soil mechanics and soil profile evaluation. Draft force (Fd measurements were made with four standard single tines comprising Heavy Duty, Double Heart, Double Heart with Wings and Duck Foot. Tine widths were 6.5, 13.5, 45 and 40 cm, respectively. The test was conducted in a soil bin with sandy loam soil. The effects of forward speeds and working depths on draft forces were investigated under controlled lab conditions. Results were evaluated based on a prediction model. A good correlation between measured and predicted Fd values for all tines with an average absolute variation less than 15 % was found.

  8. External and internal standards in the single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) measurement of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.D.; Clutter, W.E.; Cryer, P.E.


    In plasma from normal humans (n = 9, 35 samples) and from patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 12, 24 samples) single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations calculated from external standard curves constructed in a normal plasma pool were identical to those calculated from internal standards added to an aliquot of each plasma sample. In plasma from patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis (n = 34, 109 samples), competitive catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitory activity resulted in a systematic error when external standards in a normal plasma pool were used, as reported previously; values so calculated averaged 21% (+/- 12%, SD) lower than those calculated from internal standards. However, when external standard curves were constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure and used to calculate that patient's values, or in a renal failure plasma pool and used to calculate all renal failure values, norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations were not significantly different from those calculated from internal standards. We conclude: (1) External standard curves constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine in plasma from that patient; further, external standards in a renal failure plasma pool can be used for assays in patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis. (2) Major COMT inhibitory activity is not present commonly if samples from patients with renal failure are excluded. Thus, it would appear that external standard curves constructed in normal plasma can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine precisely in samples from persons who do not have renal failure

  9. Still no single gold standard for using cementless femoral stems routinely in total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Moskal, MD


    Conclusions: Using evidence-based data should be better guidance in selecting the most reliable implants for THA. Although cementless femoral fixation for THA has evolved to the “new standard,” it has not been proven to be the “gold standard” for all patients.

  10. An Investigation of Single- and Dual-Rotation Propellers at Positive and Negative Thrust, and in Combination with an NACA 1-series D-Type Cowling at Mach Numbers up to 0.84 (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert M; Samonds, Robert I; Walker, John H


    An investigation has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the NACA 4-(5)(05)-041 four-blade, single-relation propeller and the NACA 4-(5)(05)-037 six- and eight-blade, dual-rotation propellers in combination with various spinners and NACA d-type spinner-cowling combinations at Mach numbers up to 0.84. Propeller force characteristics, local velocity distributions in the propeller planes, inlet pressure recoveries, and static-pressure distributions on the cowling surfaces were measured for a wide range of blade angles, advance ratios, and inlet-velocity ratios. Included are data showing: (a) the effect of extended cylindrical spinners on the characteristics of the single-rotation propeller, (b) the effect of variation of the difference in blade angle setting between the front and rear components of the dual-rotation propellers, (c) the negative- and static-thrust characteristics of the propellers with 1 series spinners, and (d) the effects of ideal- and platform-type propeller-spinner junctures on the pressure-recovery characteristics of the single-rotation propeller-spinner-cowling combination.

  11. A comparative study of standard versus laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. (United States)

    Tai, Huai-Ching; Lin, Chia-Da; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chueh, Shih-Chieh Jeff; Tsai, Yao-Chou; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei


    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been around since the 1990s. A novel surgical approach known as laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been developed to reduce the port-related morbidities and improve the cosmetic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery, including totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the LESS TEP technique for inguinal hernia repair and compare the outcomes with the standard TEP approach. Between January and May 2009, 54 consecutive healthy patients (48 men and 6 women) underwent LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair at our institute. All procedures were performed using our homemade single port for simultaneous passage of the laparoscope and instruments. The perioperative data, including patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hernia characteristics, operative time, complications, length of hospital stay, return to normal activity, pain score, and cosmetic result, were prospectively collected. All LESS TEP procedures were completed successfully without conversion to standard laparoscopic or open surgery. A total of 98 LESS TEP hernia repairs were performed in 54 patients and compared with 152 standard TEP operations. The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the standard TEP series (61.8 ± 26.0 vs. 70.9 ± 23.8 min, p = 0.04). Other perioperative parameters, including the length of hospital stay, time until return to full activity, complication rate, pain score, and cosmetic result, were all comparable between the two techniques. Our short-term experience with LESS TEP inguinal hernia repair has shown that in experienced hands, inguinal hernia repair via the LESS TEP technique is as safe as the standard TEP technique. However, based on our evidence, we currently believe that the LESS TEP technique is not an efficacious surgical alternative to the standard TEP technique for inguinal hernias.

  12. Reaction of single-standard DNA with hydroxyl radical generated by iron(II)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigodich, R.V.; Martin, C.T.


    This study demonstrates that the reaction of Fe(II)-EDTA and hydrogen peroxide with the single-stranded nucleic acids d(pT) 70 and a 29-base sequence containing a mixture of bases results in substantial damage which is not directly detected by gel electrophoresis. Cleavage of the DNA sugar backbone is enhanced significantly after the samples are incubated at 90 degree C in the presence of piperidine. The latter reaction is used in traditional Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing to detect base damage, and the current results are consistent with reaction of the hydroxyl radical with the bases in single-stranded DNA (although reaction with sugar may also produce adducts that are uncleaved but labile to cleavage by piperidine). We the authors propose that hydroxyl radicals may react preferentially with the nucleic acid bases in ssDNA and that reaction of the sugars in dsDNA is dominant because the bases are sequestered within the double helix. These results have implications both for the study of single-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites and for the interpretation of experiments using the hydroxyl radical to probe DNA structure or to footprint double-stranded DNA binding protein binding sites

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Congestion Control Based on Standard Particle Swarm Optimization and Single Neuron PID. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xueying; Xia, Riting; Qian, Zhihong


    Aiming at the problem of network congestion caused by the large number of data transmissions in wireless routing nodes of wireless sensor network (WSN), this paper puts forward an algorithm based on standard particle swarm⁻neural PID congestion control (PNPID). Firstly, PID control theory was applied to the queue management of wireless sensor nodes. Then, the self-learning and self-organizing ability of neurons was used to achieve online adjustment of weights to adjust the proportion, integral and differential parameters of the PID controller. Finally, the standard particle swarm optimization to neural PID (NPID) algorithm of initial values of proportion, integral and differential parameters and neuron learning rates were used for online optimization. This paper describes experiments and simulations which show that the PNPID algorithm effectively stabilized queue length near the expected value. At the same time, network performance, such as throughput and packet loss rate, was greatly improved, which alleviated network congestion and improved network QoS.

  14. Guideline adherence to chemotherapy administration safety standards: a survey on nurses in a single institute


    Kim, Kidong; Lee, Hee Sook; Kim, Younha; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young


    Objective Little is known about the guideline adherence of nurses to chemotherapy administration guidelines. We determined the guideline adherence of nurses to the Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and the relationship between demographic characteristics and guideline adherence. Methods Survey sheets containing two questions on demographic characteristics and 16 questions on the guideline adherence of nurses regarding chemotherapy administration were distributed to all in-patient d...

  15. The Method of Eichhorn with Non-Standard Projections for a Single Plate (United States)

    Cardona, O.; Corona-Galindo, M.


    RESUMEN. Se desarrollan las expresiones para el metodo de Eichhorn en astrometria para proyecciones diferentes a la estandar. El se usa para obtener las coordenadas esfericas de estrellas en placas astron6micas cuando las variables contienen errores. ABSTRACT. We develop the expressions for the Eichhorn's Method in astrometry for non-standard projections. The method is used to obtain spherical coordinates of stars in astronomical plates, when all the variables have errors. Key words: ASTROMETRY

  16. The evolution of IRRR nuclear standards from the single failure criterion and their impact on system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.H.


    One of the first industry standards developed in the United States to meet regulatory agency criteria for the design and installation of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems was prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., abbreviated IEEE. This was IEEE Std. 279, first issued in 1968. It was subsequently revised and reissued as IEEE Std. 279-1971 ''IEEE Standard: Criteria for Protection Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations''. Not only has the implementation of this standard had a tremendous impact on nuclear power plant design in the United States, it has been the base document from which subsequent IEEE nuclear standards have been developed. Three major concepts which are addressed by IEEE 279, and which have had a major impact upon control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants are the following : 1) Single failure criterion. 2) Equipment qualification. 3) Channel independence. Each of these concepts has resulted in the development of subsequent IEEE Nuclear Standards. The impact of some of these on control and instrumentation systems are discussed. (author)

  17. Rotating Wavepackets (United States)

    Lekner, John


    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  18. The rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb


    The mean particle volume can be stereologically estimated using the nucleator principle. In the present paper, we discuss another principle for estimating mean particle volume, namely the rotator. The vertical rotator has already been previously described and is supplemented in the present paper ...

  19. Rotational elasticity (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri


    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint

  20. Outcome of a standardized technique of preputial preservation surgery for phimosis: A single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Pal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathological phimosis or preputial stenosis is a distressing problem in children leading to recurrent balanoposthitis, ballooning of prepuce, and rarely back pressure changes in the urinary tract. Circumcision has been the standard of care for such situations, although recently, various alternatives to circumcision have been reported in the literature. Most of these techniques are often complex and are met with poor acceptance. Moreover, besides personal preferences (in Hindus, advantages of preputial preservation is increasingly being realized recently. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in which a simple standardized technique of preputioplasty (dorsal slit was used in 40 pediatric preputial stenosis cases. The outcome of this procedure including cosmesis and parental satisfaction was evaluated. Results: The average duration of this procedure was from 10 to 25 min with no intraoperative complications. The cosmetic outcome was good in 62.5%, satisfactory in 30%, and poor in 7.5% of cases. All of the boys had retractable prepuce with no functional problems. There was 100% parental satisfaction. None of the patients required a redo procedure or circumcision. Conclusion: A dorsal slit of adequate length i.e.; 1/3 rd the length from the corona to the tip leads to a satisfactory cosmetic outcome in more than 92% of cases. Preputioplasty is a safe and simple alternative to more radical procedure of circumcision.

  1. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg. (United States)

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo


    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction.

  2. Wormholes immersed in rotating matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hoffmann


    Full Text Available We demonstrate that rotating matter sets the throat of an Ellis wormhole into rotation, allowing for wormholes which possess full reflection symmetry with respect to the two asymptotically flat spacetime regions. We analyze the properties of this new type of rotating wormholes and show that the wormhole geometry can change from a single throat to a double throat configuration. We further discuss the ergoregions and the lightring structure of these wormholes.

  3. Wormholes immersed in rotating matter (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Ioannidou, Theodora; Kahlen, Sarah; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta


    We demonstrate that rotating matter sets the throat of an Ellis wormhole into rotation, allowing for wormholes which possess full reflection symmetry with respect to the two asymptotically flat spacetime regions. We analyze the properties of this new type of rotating wormholes and show that the wormhole geometry can change from a single throat to a double throat configuration. We further discuss the ergoregions and the lightring structure of these wormholes.

  4. Wormholes immersed in rotating matter


    Hoffmann, Christian; Ioannidou, Theodora; Kahlen, Sarah; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta


    We demonstrate that rotating matter sets the throat of an Ellis wormhole into rotation, allowing for wormholes which possess full reflection symmetry with respect to the two asymptotically flat spacetime regions. We analyze the properties of this new type of rotating wormholes and show that the wormhole geometry can change from a single throat to a double throat configuration. We further discuss the ergoregions and the lightring structure of these wormholes.

  5. Guideline adherence to chemotherapy administration safety standards: a survey on nurses in a single institute. (United States)

    Kim, Kidong; Lee, Hee Sook; Kim, Younha; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Ryu, Sang-Young


    Little is known about the guideline adherence of nurses to chemotherapy administration guidelines. We determined the guideline adherence of nurses to the Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and the relationship between demographic characteristics and guideline adherence. Survey sheets containing two questions on demographic characteristics and 16 questions on the guideline adherence of nurses regarding chemotherapy administration were distributed to all in-patient departments in our hospital in which chemotherapy was performed. All clinical nurses in the department were recommended to respond. Of 202 nurses, 123 responses were collected (61% response rate). The guideline adherence rate was >70% for 15 of 16 questions, but 55% of respondents indicated that there was no competency monitoring for nurses. Nurses with >7 years of clinical nursing experience felt more competent in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) than nurses with guideline adherence rate of nurses with respect to chemotherapy administration was high, with the exception of the absence of a competency monitoring for nurses. A significant number of nurses with <7 years of clinical nursing experience felt incompetent in performing CPR.

  6. Single cycle to failure in bending of three standard and five locking plates and plate constructs. (United States)

    Blake, C A; Boudrieau, R J; Torrance, B S; Tacvorian, E K; Cabassu, J B; Gaudette, G R; Kowaleski, M P


    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of standard and locking plates in bending. We hypothesised that titanium (Ti) constructs would have the greatest deformation and that String of Pearl (SOP) constructs would have the greatest strength and stiffness, and would behave differently compared to plates alone. Dynamic compression plates (DCP), stainless steel (SS) limited contact (LC)-DCP®, Ti LC-DCP, locking compression plates (LCP), 10 mm and 11 mm advanced locking plate system (ALPS 10 / 11), SOP and Fixin plates were evaluated individually and as constructs applied to a validated bone model simulating a bridging osteosynthesis. Bending stiffness and strength were compared using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey, and unpaired t-test (p <0.05). The SOP plates had significantly greater stiffness than all other plates; Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin plates had significantly lower stiffness than all other plates. The SOP constructs had the highest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only the Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin constructs. The ALPS 10 constructs had the lowest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only ALPS 11 and SOP constructs. Comparison of bending structural stiffness of plates versus constructs showed a significant difference in all plate pairs except for the DCP and ALPS 10. Due to differing plate construct properties inherent to these diverse implant systems, identical approaches to fracture management and plate application cannot be applied.

  7. Bidirectional optical rotation of cells (United States)

    Wu, Jiyi; Zhang, Weina; Li, Juan


    Precise and controlled rotation manipulation of cells is extremely important in biological applications and biomedical studies. Particularly, bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells is a challenge for cell tomography and analysis. In this paper, we report an optical method that is capable of bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells. By launching a laser beam at 980 nm into dual-beam tapered fibers, a single or multiple cells in solutions can be trapped and rotated bidirectionally under the action of optical forces. Moreover, the rotational behavior can be controlled by altering the relative distance between the two fibers and the input optical power. Experimental results were interpreted by numerical simulations.

  8. Bidirectional optical rotation of cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyi Wu


    Full Text Available Precise and controlled rotation manipulation of cells is extremely important in biological applications and biomedical studies. Particularly, bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells is a challenge for cell tomography and analysis. In this paper, we report an optical method that is capable of bidirectional rotation manipulation of a single or multiple cells. By launching a laser beam at 980 nm into dual-beam tapered fibers, a single or multiple cells in solutions can be trapped and rotated bidirectionally under the action of optical forces. Moreover, the rotational behavior can be controlled by altering the relative distance between the two fibers and the input optical power. Experimental results were interpreted by numerical simulations.

  9. Comparing three CPR feedback devices and standard BLS in a single rescuer scenario: a randomised simulation study. (United States)

    Zapletal, Bernhard; Greif, Robert; Stumpf, Dominik; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Frantal, Sophie; Haugk, Moritz; Ruetzler, Kurt; Schlimp, Christoph; Fischer, Henrik


    Efficiently performed basic life support (BLS) after cardiac arrest is proven to be effective. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is strenuous and rescuers' performance declines rapidly over time. Audio-visual feedback devices reporting CPR quality may prevent this decline. We aimed to investigate the effect of various CPR feedback devices on CPR quality. In this open, prospective, randomised, controlled trial we compared three CPR feedback devices (PocketCPR, CPRmeter, iPhone app PocketCPR) with standard BLS without feedback in a simulated scenario. 240 trained medical students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8min. Effective compression (compressions with correct depth, pressure point and sufficient decompression) as well as compression rate, flow time fraction and ventilation parameters were compared between the four groups. Study participants using the PocketCPR performed 17±19% effective compressions compared to 32±28% with CPRmeter, 25±27% with the iPhone app PocketCPR, and 35±30% applying standard BLS (PocketCPR vs. CPRmeter p=0.007, PocketCPR vs. standard BLS p=0.001, others: ns). PocketCPR and CPRmeter prevented a decline in effective compression over time, but overall performance in the PocketCPR group was considerably inferior to standard BLS. Compression depth and rate were within the range recommended in the guidelines in all groups. While we found differences between the investigated CPR feedback devices, overall BLS quality was suboptimal in all groups. Surprisingly, effective compression was not improved by any CPR feedback device compared to standard BLS. All feedback devices caused substantial delay in starting CPR, which may worsen outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation" (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie


    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  11. On steady rotations of a rigid body bearing a single-axis powered gyroscope whose precession axis is parallel to a principal plane of inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amel'kin, N. I.

    The set of steady motions of the system named in the title is represented parametrically via the gyro gimbal rotation angle for an arbitrary position of the gimbal axis. We study the set of steady motions for a system in which the gyro gimbal axis is parallel to a principal plane of inertia as well

  12. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.


    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  13. Optical frequency comb generation for DWDM transmission over 25- to 50-km standard single-mode fiber (United States)

    Ullah, Rahat; Bo, Liu; Yaya, Mao; Ullah, Sibghat; Khan, Muhammad Saad; Tian, Feng; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ibrar; Xiangjun, Xin


    Dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) transmission equal to 1.2 Tbps over 25 to 50 km across standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) in the C band is performed based on an optical frequency comb generator. Sixty-one flattened optical frequency tones were realized with 30-GHz frequency spacing, high side-mode suppression ratio over 35 dB, and minimum amplitude difference was realized using amplitude modulator for first time in cascade mode with two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) where all the modulators were tailored by RF signals. 20×61 Gbps DWDM-based differential quadrature phase shift keying modulated signals were successfully transmitted over SSMF and analyze its transmission capability for range of 25 to 50 km with acceptable power penalties and bit error rates.

  14. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  15. Electro-opto-mechanical radio-frequency oscillator driven by guided acoustic waves in standard single-mode fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef London


    Full Text Available An opto-electronic radio-frequency oscillator that is based on forward scattering by the guided acoustic modes of a standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. An optical pump wave is used to stimulate narrowband, resonant guided acoustic modes, which introduce phase modulation to a co-propagating optical probe wave. The phase modulation is converted to an intensity signal at the output of a Sagnac interferometer loop. The intensity waveform is detected, amplified, and driven back to modulate the optical pump. Oscillations are achieved at a frequency of 319 MHz, which matches the resonance of the acoustic mode that provides the largest phase modulation of the probe wave. Oscillations at the frequencies of competing acoustic modes are suppressed by at least 40 dB. The linewidth of the acoustic resonance is sufficiently narrow to provide oscillations at a single longitudinal mode of the hybrid cavity. Competing longitudinal modes are suppressed by at least 38 dB as well. Unlike other opto-electronic oscillators, no radio-frequency filtering is required within the hybrid cavity. The frequency of oscillations is entirely determined by the fiber opto-mechanics.

  16. Study on the annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. 1st Report. Stability for translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom systems; Kanjo sukimaryu reiki shindo ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Heishin oyobi kaiten 1 jiyudokei no anteise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.W. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kaneko, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hayama, S. [Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama (Japan)


    This study reports the stability of annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. The pressure distribution of fluid between a fixed outer cylinder and a vibrating inner cylinder was obtained in the case of a translationally and rotationally coupled motion of the inner cylinder. The unsteady fluid force acting on the inner cylinder in the case of translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom vibrations was then expressed in terms proportional to the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. Then the critical flow rate (at which stability was lost) was determined for an annular leakage-flow-induced vibration. Finally, the stability was investigated theoretically. It is known that instability will occur in the case of a divergent passage, but the critical flow rate depends on the passage increment in a limited range: the eccentricity of the passage and the pressure loss factor at the inlet of the passage lower the stability. (author)

  17. Single-port one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathicotomy for severe hyperhidrosis: prospective analysis of a standardized approach (United States)


    Background Primary palmar and/or axillary focal hyperhidrosis is a frequent disorder characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs, often leading to a substantial impairment of quality of life. Over the years several minimally invasive surgical treatments have been described, however results vary, and due to a lack of uniform surgical approach, technique and nomenclature are often difficult to compare. In this prospective study we sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of our standardized technique of single-port, one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathicotomy. Methods On a prospective basis a hundred consecutive patients with severe or intolerable primary hyperhidrosis underwent one-stage bilateral single-port thoracoscopic sympathicotomy. Primary outcome was measured in pre- vs. post-operative Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale scores. Location and extend of compensatory hyperhidrosis, and satisfaction with the procedure were registered. Results A significant reduction in mean Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale score (3.69 ± 0.47 preoperatively vs. 1.06 ± 0.34 postoperatively) (p 80% reduction in sweat production was achieved. Compensatory hyperhidrosis was seen in 27 patients (27%). It was rated as mild by 21 patients (78%) and as moderate by 6 (22%) of these patients. No severe compensatory hyperhidrosis was reported. Major complications, such as intraoperative bleeding, infections, and Horner’s syndrome were not observed. Conclusions Highly selective sympathicotomy at well-defined levels with a one-stage bilateral single-port transaxillary thoracoscopic approach is a save procedure, with excellent and reproducible immediate results in the treatment of primary palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:24279511

  18. Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS) for Prophylactic Salpingo-oophorectomy Improves Cosmetic Satisfaction Compared to Standard Laparoscopy. (United States)

    Miailhe, Gregoire; Dauchy, Sarah; Bentivegna, Enrica; Gouy, Sebastien; Charles, Cecile; Delaloge, Suzette; Morice, Philippe; Uzan, Catherine


    Less invasive prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) may diminish the general consequences of surgery for BRCA mutation carriers. The objective of the present study was to compare the psychological impact and satisfaction following minimal-invasive laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) versus that observed with the standard procedure. This prospective longitudinal study was proposed to all consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory PBSO between January 2012 and January 2014 at our Center. The psychological impact and esthetic satisfaction were prospectively studied. Patients rated their satisfaction using the 4-grade Likert scale. Their emotional state and postoperative pain were explored respectively with validated questionnaires (IES-R, PANAS) and the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS). Operative outcomes were also analyzed. Twenty patients underwent LESS PBSO and 10 patients had the standard laparoscopic (SL) PBSO. The mean satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the LESS group one month and six months after surgery. Both groups reported a reduction of intrusive thoughts and negative affects after surgery. Postoperative pain and operative outcomes were similar. A significant improvement of cosmetic satisfaction after LESS compared to SL could help patients accept PBSO. The emotional impact of PBSO is not modified by ambulatory LESS. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 "Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation" and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli


    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO was evaluated the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 “Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation” and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers who support or not the cross-compliance regime. The monitoring was performed in nine experimental farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Were also evaluated the soil organic matter and some yield parameters, in a cereal monocropping (treatment counterfactual and a two-year rotation cereal-legume or forage (treatment factual. The two-years application of the standard “crop rotations” has produced contrasting results with regards to the storage of soil organic matter through crop rotation and these were not sufficient to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of treatment in any of the farms considered in monitoring, only in those farms subjected to more years of monitoring was recorded only a slight effect of the standard as a trend. The variations of organic matter in soils in response to changes in the culture technique or in the management of the soil may have long lag times and two years of time are not sufficient to demonstrate the dynamics of SOM associated with the treatment, also in consideration of the large inter annual variability recorded in different monitored sites.

  20. Quantification of early fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles: comparison of multi-echo Dixon with single-voxel MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agten, Christoph A.; Rosskopf, Andrea B.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Balgrist University Hospital, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Gerber, Christian [Balgrist University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)


    To evaluate quantification of early fatty infiltration in supraspinatus muscles with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a T2*-corrected multi-echo 3D-gradient-echo Dixon-based sequence (multi-echo Dixon) and compare it to proton-MR-spectroscopy. Sixty subjects (mean age 46 years, 41 men) with good supraspinatus muscle quality on 1.5 T MR imaging were included. Fat percentage (FP) in the supraspinatus muscle was quantified using a multi-echo Dixon compared to single-voxel MR spectroscopy as reference standard. In 18 subjects the multi-echo Dixon was repeated to assess test-retest reliability. Measurements based on multi-echo Dixon were performed by two independent readers by placing regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the supraspinatus muscle corresponding to the MR-spectroscopy voxel. Intraclass and concordance correlation coefficients (ICC/CCC) were used for statistical analysis. Test-retest reliability was substantial for reader 1 (ICC = 0.757) and almost perfect for reader 2 (ICC = 0.873). Inter-reader reliability for multi-echo Dixon was almost perfect (ICC = 0.893, P <.0005). Mean FP in all 60 subjects with multi-echo Dixon was 3.5 ± 1.6 for reader 1, 3.7 ± 1.8 for reader 2, and 2.8 ± 1.4 with MR spectroscopy. Correlation between multi-echo Dixon and MR spectroscopy was moderate (CCC = 0.641). The multi-echo Dixon sequence is a reliable method and comparable to MR-spectroscopy for quantification of low levels of fatty infiltration in the supraspinatus muscle. (orig.)

  1. Interaction of z component of magnetic field between two samples of GO material in the round rotational single sheet tester (RRSST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorican, Viktor; Hamler, Anton; Jesenik, Marko; Stumberger, Bojan; Trlep, Mladen


    The magnetic properties of two grain-oriented (GO) samples of the same grade were measured under alternating and rotational magnetic flux conditions. Two samples were measured separately and then together in different arrangement to each other. The interaction of magnetic field between two samples were measured by using a coil, which was placed in between. The results show that the H z component influence measured magnetic properties in the x-y plane

  2. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  3. Optical illusions induced by rotating medium (United States)

    Zang, XiaoFei; Huang, PengCheng; Zhu, YiMing


    Different from the traditional single-function electromagnetic wave rotators (rotate the electromagnetic wavefronts), we propose that rotating medium can be extended to optical illusions such as breaking the diffraction limit and overlapping illusion. Furthermore, the homogeneous but anisotropic rotating medium is simplified by homogeneous and isotropic positive-index materials according to the effective medium theory, which is helpful for future device fabrication. Finite element simulations for the two-dimensional case are performed to demonstrate these properties.

  4. Muon spin rotation study of magnetism and superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 single crystals


    Bernhard, C.; Wang, C. N.; Nuccio, L.; Schulz, L.; Zaharko, O.; Larsen, Jacob; Aristizabal, C.; Willis, M.; Drew, A. J.; Varma, G. D.; Wolf, T.; Niedermayer, Ch.


    Using muon spin rotation (μSR) we investigated the magnetic and superconducting properties of a series of Ba(Fe1−xCox)2As2 single crystals with 0 ≤x ≤0.15. Our study details how the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed upon Co substitution and how it coexists with superconductivity. In the nonsuperconducting samples at 0

  5. The Usability Analysis of Different Standard Single-Mode Optical Fibers and Its Installation Methods for the Interferometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Cubik


    Full Text Available With optical fibers we are able to measure a variety of physical quantities. Optical fiber sensors sensitive to the change of the light phase, so-called interferometers referred in this article are one of the most sensitive sensors. Because we are able to detect phase changes with extreme precision, these sensors are thus suitable for demanding applications, where cost is not the main requirement. We have used the Mach-Zehnder configuration. The paper deals with the usage of different types of standard single-mode optical fibers in the civil engineering as an integrated acoustic sensor. Further experiments are focused on the different types of fiber installation methods, such as placement in the mounting foam, into the polystyrene or attachment onto the wooden surface and their effect on the measurements. Through the repeated measurements of harmonic frequencies were obtained information about the usable frequency range and sensitivity of the particular arrangement. Measurement was performed for both cases, where the specific type of fiber or specifically installed fiber was used as the measurement or as the reference. The final evaluation is based both on the experience gained during measurements and also using the statistical calculations.

  6. A retrospective wound review of standard four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is there need for single-port laparoscopic surgery? (United States)

    Monkhouse, S J W; Court, E L; Beard, L A; Bunni, J; Burgess, P


    This study was designed to assess the satisfaction or otherwise of a proportion of the U.K. population who have undergone standard four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy within the past 18 months. The results should indicate whether there is potential demand for a new, improved approach to surgery. Patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between October 2008 and October 2009 in two geographically separated general hospitals were identified from hospital databases. Notes were reviewed to confirm the technique and lack of conversion to an open procedure. Those who had immediate complications were excluded. A telephone questionnaire was conducted to answer questions related to long-term cosmetic and general satisfaction of the current procedure. Of the patients surveyed, 93% were happy or extremely happy with the current procedure, 48% experienced some wound-related issues (pain, infection), and 65% of those were at the umbilicus (a possible reflection of location and retrieval site for gallbladder). Cosmesis was rated less important than hospital cleanliness and experience of the surgeon. Overall satisfaction was high with the existing technique. The high rate of umbilical wound problems is an issue that will not be eradicated by introduction of single-port laparoscopic surgery.

  7. Task performance in standard laparoscopy in comparison with single-incision laparoscopy in a modified skills trainer. (United States)

    Wright, Andrew S; Khandelwal, Saurabh


    Single-incision laparoscopy (SIL) is similar to conventional laparoscopic surgery (LAP), but carries specific technical challenges due to lack of triangulation, reduced dexterity, conflicts due to inline instrumentation, and impaired visualization. This study was designed to evaluate technical skill performance of SIL versus LAP surgery in a simulated environment. We developed a modified laparoscopic skills trainer for SIL based upon the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) model. This includes a standard laparoscopic tower for visualization, allowing replication of the conflicts between scope and instruments. It also has a modified trainer box allowing use of different access devices and instruments for SIL. Sixteen subjects at different levels of training (novice through expert) completed four FLS tasks with standard LAP techniques. They then practiced the same tasks using SIL technique until they reached a steady state of performance. The first and last SIL trials were recorded. Baseline SIL peg transfer was worse than FLS (254 ± 157 s vs 99 ± 27, p < 0.0002). Final SIL time was still significantly worse than FLS (173 ± 130, p < 0.02). FLS, baseline SIL, and final SIL circle cutting were not significantly different (p = 0.058). Final SIL loop ligation was significantly faster than FLS (48 ± 19 vs 70 ± 42, p < 0.05). FLS suturing was faster than SIL suturing (281 ± 188 vs. 526 ± 105, p < 0.01). There was substantial dropout due to frustration with SIL, and only two surgeons were able to successfully complete SIL suturing. There are technical challenges with SIL that vary depending on task. Peg transfer and suturing were significantly impaired in SIL, while circle cutting was not significantly affected, and ligating loop was faster with SIL than LAP. These challenges may impact clinical outcomes of SIL and should influence training in SIL as well as future product development.

  8. Rotational scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.; Amplatz, K.


    With rotational scanography contrast and resolution of X-ray images are improved. The technique bases on the principle of a narrow X-ray passing along an object, thus exposing the whole film. The X-ray is limited by a primary shield next to the X-ray tube. A second shield between object and film prevents that scattered rays spoil the film. The X-ray tube is turned around a horizontal axis, whilst the shield is shifted so that the irradiation intensity remains constant and the smallest projected focal size is obtained. This technique permits to enlarge the X-ray images by 3 or 6 times its size. Thus, films up to a length of 96 cm can be exposed. Main advantages of rotary scanography are reduced exposure to radiation of patient and applicant, improved contrast and resolution of the X-ray image, and a larger play of exposure for the X-ray technique. Disadvantages are a longer exposure time and the consequently increased demands on X-ray generator and treatment head. When a multi-slit shield is used, the patient must be cooperative in order to prevent movement artifacts. This imaging technique is highly sensitive to artifacts, particularly if the tube voltage provides large fluctuations. Supplementary units are necessary. The significance of the rotational scanography is that it permits the reduction of the radiation dose, whilst contrast and resolution of the images are improved. This can be illustrated by X-ray images of a CT-phantom and of pelvic, hand and gastrointenstinal phantoms. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Performance analysis of a novel planetary speed increaser used in single-rotor wind turbines with counter-rotating electric generator (United States)

    Saulescu, R.; Neagoe, M.; Munteanu, O.; Cretescu, N.


    The paper presents a study on the kinematic and static performances of a new type of 1DOF (Degree Of Freedom) planetary speed increaser to be implemented in wind turbines, a transmission with three operating cases: a) one input and one output, b) one input and two outputs, in which the speed of the secondary output is equal to the input speed, and c) with one input and two outputs, where the secondary output speed is higher than the input speed. The proposed speed increaser contains two sun gears and a double satellite, allowing operation with an output connected to the fixed stator of a classic generator (case I) or with two counterrotating outputs that drive a counter-rotating generator (with a mobile stator). A new variant of planetary transmission capable of providing the speed increase of the generator stator and, thus, the increase of the relative speed between the generator rotor and stator is obtained by the parallel connection of the speed increaser with a planetary gear. The three conceptual variants of planetary transmission are analytically modelled and comparatively analysed based on a set of kinematic and static parameters. The proposed transmission has higher performances compared to the same transmission with one input and one output, the increase of the kinematic amplification ratio and efficiency being achieved simultaneously.

  10. Mental Rotation: Cross-Task Training and Generalization (United States)

    Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M.; Dubrowski, Adam


    It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test…

  11. Measurement of the steady surface pressure distribution on a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan blade at Mach numbers from 0.03 to 0.78 (United States)

    Bushnell, Peter


    The aerodynamic pressure distribution was determined on a rotating Prop-Fan blade at the S1-MA wind tunnel facility operated by the Office National D'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiale (ONERA) in Modane, France. The pressure distributions were measured at thirteen radial stations on a single rotation Large Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP/SR7) blade, for a sequence of operating conditions including inflow Mach numbers ranging from 0.03 to 0.78. Pressure distributions for more than one power coefficient and/or advanced ratio setting were measured for most of the inflow Mach numbers investigated. Due to facility power limitations the Prop-Fan test installation was a two bladed version of the eight design configuration. The power coefficient range investigated was therefore selected to cover typical power loading per blade conditions which occur within the Prop-Fan operating envelope. The experimental results provide an extensive source of information on the aerodynamic behavior of the swept Prop-Fan blade, including details which were elusive to current computational models and do not appear in the two-dimensional airfoil data.

  12. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  13. An alternative standard for Trolox-equivalent antioxidant-capacity estimation based on thiol antioxidants. Comparative 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] decolorization and rotational viscometry study regarding hyaluronan degradation. (United States)

    Hrabárová, Eva; Valachová, Katarína; Rapta, Peter; Soltés, Ladislav


    Comparison of the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of three thiol compounds, D-penicillamine, reduced L-glutathione, and 1,4-dithioerythritol, expressed as a radical-scavenging capacity based on the two independent methods, namely a decolorization 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay and a rotational viscometry, is reported. Particular concern was focused on the testing of potential free-radical scavenging effects of thiols against hyaluronan degradation, induced by hydroxyl radicals. A promising, solvent-independent, antioxidative function of 1,4-dithioerythritol, comparable to that of a standard compound, Trolox(®), was confirmed by the 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay. The new potential antioxidant 1,4-dithioerythritol exhibited very good solubility in a variety of solvents (e.g., H(2)O, EtOH, and DMSO) and could be widely accepted and used as an effective antioxidant standard instead of a routinely used Trolox(®) on 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] assay.

  14. Intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 administered by high single-dose infusions or standard medical care for the treatment of fatigue in women after postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Charlotte; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Norgaard, Astrid


    randomised controlled studies have compared the clinical efficacy and safety of standard medical care with intravenous administration of iron supplementation after postpartum haemorrhage.The primary objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of an intravenous high single-dose of iron isomaltoside...... medical care. Healthy parturients with a singleton pregnancy will be included within 48 hours after delivery.Participants will complete structured questionnaires that focus on several dimensions of fatigue and mental health (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale...... Inventory. The primary objective will be considered to have been met if an intravenous high single dose of iron isomaltoside 1000 is shown to be superior to standard medical care in women after postpartum haemorrhage regarding physical fatigue.For claiming superiority, we set the minimal clinically relevant...

  15. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating cavitation,...

  16. A standardized treatment regimen for patients with severe haemophilia A undergoing orthopaedic or trauma surgery: a single centre experience. (United States)

    Hart, Christina; Heindl, Bernhard; Spannagl, Michael; Lison, Susanne


    Recommendations on the administration of clotting factor concentrates in patients with severe haemophilia undergoing surgery are usually determined by monitoring target clotting factor levels. In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients with severe haemophilia A who underwent major orthopaedic or trauma surgery. We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and the safety of a standardized medical treatment procedure. Further on, we wanted to assess whether our standardized treatment regimen enables surgical procedures in certain situations in which measuring clotting factor VIII (FVIII) activity is not available. We created a standardized medical treatment procedure that included a medical protocol and close cooperation with the Haemophilic Treatment Centre. Thirteen surgical procedures in nine patients were examined. The feasibility and safety of this standardized treatment concept were assessed by identifying perioperative complications and by means of a questionnaire. Depending on the surgery, the amount of FVIII administered within the first 10 days ranged between 653 and 1027 units/kg body weight. No allogeneic blood transfusion was required. The measurement of FVIII activity was performed repeatedly in five patients. In all patients activated partial thromboplastin time monitoring was performed during the hospital stays. The surgeons and patients were satisfied with our treatment concept and adhered to the medical regimen protocol. By means of a detailed, standardized medical protocol and by ensuring close cooperation between the patient, the surgeons and the Haemophilic Treatment Centre, we could show that elective and emergency operations can be safely performed even in situations in which FVIII activity could not be monitored.

  17. Rotation, activity, and lithium abundance in cool binary stars (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Weber, M.; Granzer, T.; Järvinen, S.


    We have used two robotic telescopes to obtain time-series high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy and V I and/or by photometry for a sample of 60 active stars, mostly binaries. Orbital solutions are presented for 26 double-lined systems and for 19 single-lined systems, seven of them for the first time but all of them with unprecedented phase coverage and accuracy. Eighteen systems turned out to be single stars. The total of 6609 {R=55 000} échelle spectra are also used to systematically determine effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, rotational velocities, lithium abundances and absolute Hα-core fluxes as a function of time. The photometry is used to infer unspotted brightness, {V-I} and/or b-y colors, spot-induced brightness amplitudes and precise rotation periods. An extra 22 radial-velocity standard stars were monitored throughout the science observations and yield a new barycentric zero point for our STELLA/SES robotic system. Our data are complemented by literature data and are used to determine rotation-temperature-activity relations for active binary components. We also relate lithium abundance to rotation and surface temperature. We find that 74 % of all known rapidly-rotating active binary stars are synchronized and in circular orbits but 26 % (61 systems) are rotating asynchronously of which half have {P_rot>P_orb} and {e>0}. Because rotational synchronization is predicted to occur before orbital circularization active binaries should undergo an extra spin-down besides tidal dissipation. We suspect this to be due to a magnetically channeled wind with its subsequent braking torque. We find a steep increase of rotation period with decreasing effective temperature for active stars, P_rot ∝ T_eff-7, for both single and binaries, main sequence and evolved. For inactive, single giants with {P_rot>100} d, the relation is much weaker, {P_rot ∝ T_eff-1.12}. Our data also indicate a period-activity relation for Hα of the form {R_Hα ∝ P

  18. Standardized reporting of adverse events after microvascular decompression of cranial nerves; a population-based single-institution consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Gulati, Sasha; Unsgård, Geirmund


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies of adverse events occurring within 30 days after microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery using a standardized report form of adverse events. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 98 adult patients (≥16 years) treated with MVD between 1 January 199...

  19. 14 CFR 33.74 - Continued rotation. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continued rotation. 33.74 Section 33.74 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.74 Continued rotation. If...

  20. Alignment of single-case design (SCD) research with individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with the what Works Clearinghouse standards for SCD research. (United States)

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S Natasha


    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies available in the peer-reviewed, published literature. The analysis yielded four studies that met the WWC standards for design quality, of which two demonstrated moderate to strong evidence for efficacy of the studied intervention. Results of this review are discussed in light of the benefits and the challenges to applying the WWC design standards to research with DHH individuals and other diverse, low-incidence populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Increasing cDNA yields from single-cell quantities of mRNA in standard laboratory reverse transcriptase reactions using acoustic microstreaming. (United States)

    Boon, Wah Chin; Petkovic-Duran, Karolina; Zhu, Yonggang; Manasseh, Richard; Horne, Malcolm K; Aumann, Tim D


    Correlating gene expression with cell behavior is ideally done at the single-cell level. However, this is not easily achieved because the small amount of labile mRNA present in a single cell (1-5% of 1-50 pg total RNA, or 0.01-2.5 pg mRNA, per cell) mostly degrades before it can be reverse transcribed into a stable cDNA copy. For example, using standard laboratory reagents and hardware, only a small number of genes can be qualitatively assessed per cell. One way to increase the efficiency of standard laboratory reverse transcriptase (RT) reactions (i.e. standard reagents in microliter volumes) comprising single-cell amounts of mRNA would be to more rapidly mix the reagents so the mRNA can be converted to cDNA before it degrades. However this is not trivial because at microliter scales liquid flow is laminar, i.e. currently available methods of mixing (i.e. shaking, vortexing and trituration) fail to produce sufficient chaotic motion to effectively mix reagents. To solve this problem, micro-scale mixing techniques have to be used. A number of microfluidic-based mixing technologies have been developed which successfully increase RT reaction yields. However, microfluidics technologies require specialized hardware that is relatively expensive and not yet widely available. A cheaper, more convenient solution is desirable. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate how application of a novel "micromixing" technique to standard laboratory RT reactions comprising single-cell quantities of mRNA significantly increases their cDNA yields. We find cDNA yields increase by approximately 10-100-fold, which enables: greater numbers of genes to be analyzed per cell; more quantitative analysis of gene expression; and better detection of low-abundance genes in single cells. The micromixing is based on acoustic microstreaming, a phenomenon where sound waves propagating around a small obstacle create a mean flow near the obstacle. We have developed an acoustic microstreaming

  2. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of five genetically modified rice events using a single standard reference molecule. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui-Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong


    One novel standard reference plasmid, namely pUC-RICE5, was constructed as a positive control and calibrator for event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) rice (Bt63, Kemingdao1, Kefeng6, Kefeng8, and LLRice62). pUC-RICE5 contained fragments of a rice-specific endogenous reference gene (sucrose phosphate synthase) as well as the five GM rice events. An existing qualitative PCR assay approach was modified using pUC-RICE5 to create a quantitative method with limits of detection correlating to approximately 1-10 copies of rice haploid genomes. In this quantitative PCR assay, the square regression coefficients ranged from 0.993 to 1.000. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation values for repeatability ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 and 0.10% to 0.67%, respectively. The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) validated the method and the results suggest it could be used routinely to identify five GM rice events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Capacity for Visual Features in Mental Rotation. (United States)

    Xu, Yangqing; Franconeri, Steven L


    Although mental rotation is a core component of scientific reasoning, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. For instance, how much visual information can someone rotate at once? We asked participants to rotate a simple multipart shape, requiring them to maintain attachments between features and moving parts. The capacity of this aspect of mental rotation was strikingly low: Only one feature could remain attached to one part. Behavioral and eye-tracking data showed that this single feature remained "glued" via a singular focus of attention, typically on the object's top. We argue that the architecture of the human visual system is not suited for keeping multiple features attached to multiple parts during mental rotation. Such measurement of capacity limits may prove to be a critical step in dissecting the suite of visuospatial tools involved in mental rotation, leading to insights for improvement of pedagogy in science-education contexts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Simultaneous determination of multiple sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products with one single reference standard. (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Jing; An, Yue-Wei; Hu, Guang; Yin, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min


    Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs) has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo), isozedoarondiol (Isoz), aerugidiol (Aeru), (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox), curcumenone (Curc), neocurdione (Neoc), germacrone (Germ) and furanodiene (Fura). Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131-1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  5. Analysis and meta-analysis of single-case designs with a standardized mean difference statistic: a primer and applications. (United States)

    Shadish, William R; Hedges, Larry V; Pustejovsky, James E


    This article presents a d-statistic for single-case designs that is in the same metric as the d-statistic used in between-subjects designs such as randomized experiments and offers some reasons why such a statistic would be useful in SCD research. The d has a formal statistical development, is accompanied by appropriate power analyses, and can be estimated using user-friendly SPSS macros. We discuss both advantages and disadvantages of d compared to other approaches such as previous d-statistics, overlap statistics, and multilevel modeling. It requires at least three cases for computation and assumes normally distributed outcomes and stationarity, assumptions that are discussed in some detail. We also show how to test these assumptions. The core of the article then demonstrates in depth how to compute d for one study, including estimation of the autocorrelation and the ratio of between case variance to total variance (between case plus within case variance), how to compute power using a macro, and how to use the d to conduct a meta-analysis of studies using single-case designs in the free program R, including syntax in an appendix. This syntax includes how to read data, compute fixed and random effect average effect sizes, prepare a forest plot and a cumulative meta-analysis, estimate various influence statistics to identify studies contributing to heterogeneity and effect size, and do various kinds of publication bias analyses. This d may prove useful for both the analysis and meta-analysis of data from SCDs. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment]. (United States)

    Pollmächer, T


    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  7. CP violation, single lepton polarization asymmetry, and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l+l- decay in the four-generation standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiry, V.; Shirkhanghah, N.; Zeynali, K.


    In this paper we present a study of CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry in B→K*l + l - decay within the four-generation standard model. Taking |V t ' s *V t ' b |=0.01, 0.02, 0.03 with phase {60 deg. -120 deg.}, which is consistent with the b→sl + l - rate and the Bs mixing parameter Δm Bs , we find that CP asymmetry, single lepton polarization asymmetry and polarized CP asymmetry are sensitive to the existence of the fourth generation. This can serve as an indirect method to search for new physics effects, in particular, to search for the fourth-generation quarks(t ' ,b ' ) via their indirect manifestations in loop diagrams.

  8. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  9. Keeping It in Three Dimensions: Measuring the Development of Mental Rotation in Children with the Rotated Colour Cube Test (RCCT) (United States)

    Lutke, Nikolay; Lange-Kuttner, Christiane


    This study introduces the new Rotated Colour Cube Test (RCCT) as a measure of object identification and mental rotation using single 3D colour cube images in a matching-to-sample procedure. One hundred 7- to 11-year-old children were tested with aligned or rotated cube models, distracters and targets. While different orientations of distracters…

  10. Muon spin rotation in solids (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.


    The muon spin rotation (MuSR) technique is used to probe the microscopic electron density in materials. High temperature MuSR and magnetization measurements in nickel are in progress to allow an unambiguous determination of the muon impurity interaction and the impurity induced change in local spin density. The first results on uniaxial stress induced frequency shifts in an Fe single crystal are also reported.

  11. Undetected residual cement on standard or individualized all-ceramic abutments with cemented zirconia single crowns - a prospective randomized pilot trial. (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Eiffler, Constantin; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Stober, Thomas; Rammelsberg, Peter


    To assess the frequency and amount of residual cement after attachment of monolithic zirconia crowns to standard and individualized ceramic abutments. Twenty patients (mean age 58.9 years at inclusion in the study; 30% male) were randomized to receive either a standard or an individualized abutment on a bone-level implant. Monolithic zirconia single crowns were attached to abutments by use of permanent glass-ionomer cement. Crowns were fabricated with an occlusal hole to enable unscrewing of the abutment-crown complex. Immediately after cementation, superstructures were removed and both the peri-implant soft tissue and the abutment-crown complex were photographed in a standardized manner, to detect residual cement. Photographs were analyzed using Corel Photo Paint X7, and residual cement-to-total abutment and residual cement-to-peri-implant soft tissue area ratios were calculated. Residual cement was observed for 9 of 10 (90%) individualized abutments, compared with 4 of 10 (40%) standard abutments (OR = 13.5, P = 0.049). Twenty-seven of 40 (68%) individualized abutment surfaces were affected, compared with 12 of 40 (30%) standard abutment surfaces. The probability of observing residual cement was approximately five times higher for the surfaces of individualized abutments than for those of standard abutments (P = 0.005). The mean amount of sulcus surface covered by cement was 1.17% (SD 2.85) for the individualized abutments and 3.78% (SD 7.40) for the standard abutments. The position of the margin significantly affected the amount of residual cement. Both individualized and standard all-ceramic abutments result in small amounts of subgingival residual cement on abutment and sulcus surfaces. However, use of individualized abutments does not guarantee complete avoidance of undetected cement rests. Undetected residual cement might be avoided by use of all-ceramic abutments with visible abutment shoulders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  12. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus


    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  13. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong


    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  14. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos


    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  15. Visualizing molecular unidirectional rotation (United States)

    Lin, Kang; Song, Qiying; Gong, Xiaochun; Ji, Qinying; Pan, Haifeng; Ding, Jingxin; Zeng, Heping; Wu, Jian


    We directly visualize the spatiotemporal evolution of a unidirectional rotating molecular rotational wave packet. Excited by two time-delayed polarization-skewed ultrashort laser pulses, the cigar- or disk-shaped rotational wave packet is impulsively kicked to unidirectionally rotate as a quantum rotor which afterwards disperses and exhibits field-free revivals. The rich dynamics can be coherently controlled by varying the timing or polarization of the excitation laser pulses. The numerical simulations very well reproduce the experimental observations and intuitively revivify the thoroughgoing evolution of the molecular rotational wave packet of unidirectional spin.

  16. Laboratory rotational spectrum of singly 13C-substituted dimethyl ether up to 1.5 THz and interstellar detection of 13CH_3O12CH_3 - a fruitful interplay between laboratory work and inter (United States)

    Koerber, M.; Bisschop, S.; Endres, C.; Lewen, F.; Schlemmer, S.


    Dimethyl ether (CH_3OCH_3) is found in high abundance in star forming regions. However, the interstellar formation process of dimethyl ether still remains unclear up to now. In current gas-grain models gas-phase synthesis via self-methylation of methanol evaporating from grains is discussed in contrast to the surface reaction of CH_3 with successively hydrogenated CO (Garrod & Herbst 2006). An observational test for the formation mechanism has been proposed by Charnley et al. (2004) making use of the 13C fractionation into CO at low temperatures on grains: Comparing the 12C/13C ratio of molecules to the 12CO/13CO ratio allows to distinguish between formation from CO on cold grains and pure gas-phase formation routes. The isotopic ratio of species like dimethyl ether thus can be used as a tracer of the chemical evolution of the observed region. Due to its two methyl groups undergoing large amplitude motions and a relatively strong dipole moment of μ = 1.302 D it shows a strong and dense complex spectrum all over the terahertz region relevant for Herschel and ALMA observations. Accurate transition frequencies are needed to interpret the astronomical spectra. For the main isotopologue extensive data are now available (Endres et al. 2009). However, due to the greatly improved sensitivity of the new observatories isotopic species of abundant molecules like dimethyl ether are appearing in the spectra as well. In this work we present laboratory measurements of singly 13C-substituted dimethyl ether (13CH_3O12CH_3) up to 1.5 THz. More than 1700 transitions of 13CH_3O12CH_3 with rotational quantum numbers up to J = 53 and K = 25 have been analyzed. Based on the laboratory measurements singly 13C-substituted dimethyl ether has been detected for the first time in the spectrum of G327.3-0.6 (Bisschop et al. in prep.) and a preliminary value for the 12C/13C abundance ratio has been determined.

  17. Environmental Stress Testing of the Single Sample Cylinder: A Proven Consensus Standard for Internal Gas Analysis (IGA) or Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) (United States)

    Schuessler, Philipp WH


    In August 2008, Schuessler Consulting was contracted by NASA GSFC in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) program to perform two separate studies on moisture laden air in a stainless steel cylinder that had been designed to become a consensus standard for Test Method 1018. This Test Method was originally released for hybrids under Mil. Std. 883 but was quickly utilized on other microelectronic devices under the auspice of Mil. Std. 750. The cylinder had subsequently been fabricated for the 750 community. It was back-filled with moist air and subsequently analyzed over a period of time under a previous NASA contract. It had been shown that moisture in the 4000 - 5000 ppm range could be analyzed rather precisely with a mass spectrometer, commonly referred to as a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). The scope of this study was to ascertain if the composition and precision varied as a function of thermal shock at sub-zero temperatures and whether there was consensus when the standard was submitted to other RGA units. It was demonstrated and published that the consensus standard would yield precise RGA data for moisture within +/- 1% when optimized for a given RGA unit. It has been subsequently shown in this study at Oneida Research Services, that sub-zero storage did not affect that precision when a well-defined protocol for the analysis was followed. The consensus standard was taken to a second facility for analysis where it was found that moisture adsorption on the transfer lines caused precision to drop to +/- 12%. The Single Sample Cylinder (SSC) is a one liter stainless steel cylinder with associated sampling valves and has considerable weight and volume. But this considerable size allows for approximately 300 gas samples of the same composition to be delivered to any RGA unit. Lastly, a smaller cylinder, approximately 75 cc, of a second consensus standard was fabricated and tested with a different mix of fixed gases where moisture was kept in the

  18. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting (United States)

    McCollum, Gin


    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  19. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  20. Validation of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing assay with 49 SNPs for forensic genetic testing in a laboratory accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Morling, Niels


    cases and 33 twin cases were typed at least twice for the 49 SNPs. All electropherograms were analysed independently by two expert analysts prior to approval. Based on these results, detailed guidelines for analysis of the SBE products were developed. With these guidelines, the peak height ratio...... of a heterozygous allele call or the signal to noise ratio of a homozygous allele call is compared with previously obtained ratios. A laboratory protocol for analysis of SBE products was developed where allele calls with unusual ratios were highlighted to facilitate the analysis of difficult allele calls......A multiplex assay with 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for human identification was validated for forensic genetic casework and accredited according to the ISO 17025 standard. The multiplex assay was based on the SNPforID 52plex SNP assay [J.J. Sanchez, C. Phillips, C...

  1. Optimization of a DPP-BOTDA sensor with 25 cm spatial resolution over 60 km standard single-mode fiber using Simplex codes and optical pre-amplification. (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo A; Taki, Mohammad; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio


    Sub-meter distributed optical fiber sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis with differential pulse-width pairs (DPP-BOTDA) is combined with the use of optical pre-amplification and pulse coding. In order to provide significant measurement SNR enhancement and to avoid distortions in the Brillouin gain spectrum due to acoustic-wave pre-excitation, the pulse width and duty cycle of Simplex coding based on return-to-zero pulses are optimized through simulations. In addition, the use of linear optical pre-amplification increases the receiver sensitivity and the overall dynamic range of DPP-BOTDA measurements. Experimental results demonstrate for first time a spatial resolution of ~25 cm over a 60 km standard single-mode fiber (equivalent to ~240 k discrete sensing points) with temperature resolution of 1.2°C and strain resolution of 24 με.

  2. On the potential of seismic rotational motion measurements for extraterrestrial seismology (United States)

    Schmelzbach, Cedric; Sollberger, David; Khan, Amir; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Van Renterghem, Cederic; Robertsson, Johan


    Classically, seismological recordings consist of measurements of translational ground motion only. However, in addition to three vector components of translation there are three components of rotation to consider, leading to six degrees of freedom. Of particular interest is thereby the fact that measuring rotational motion means isolating shear (S) waves. Recording the rotational motion requires dedicated rotational sensors. Alternatively, since the rotational motion is given by the curl of the vectorial displacements, the rotational motion around the two horizontal axes can be computed from the horizontal spatial gradients of vertical translational recordings if standard translational seismometers are placed in an areal array at the free surface. This follows from the zero stress free surface condition. Combining rotational and translational motion measurements opens up new ways of analyzing seismic data, such as facilitating much improved arrival identification and wavefield separation (e.g., P-/S-wave separation), and local slowness (arrival direction and velocity) determination. Such combined measurements maximize the seismic information content that a single six-component station or a small station array can provide, and are of particular interest for sparse or single-station measurements such as in extraterrestrial seismology. We demonstrate the value of the analysis of combined translational and rotational recordings by re-evaluating data from the Apollo 17 lunar seismic profiling experiment (LSPE). The LSPE setup consisted of four vertical-component geophones arranged in a star-like geometry. This areal receiver layout enables computing the horizontal spatial gradients by spatial finite differencing of the vertical-component data for two perpendicular directions and, hence, the estimation of rotational motion around two horizontal axes. Specifically, the recorded seismic waveform data originated from eight explosive packages as well as from continuously

  3. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill


    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  4. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food. (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J


    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Signal-to-Crosstalk Ratio Variations due to Four-Wave Mixing in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems Implemented with Standard Single-Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Eser KARLIK


    Full Text Available In this paper, variation of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio (SXR due to effects of four-wave mixing (FWM has been analyzed on center channels of 5-, 7-, 9-channel dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM systems implemented with G.652 standard single-mode fibers (SSMFs for 12.5 GHz, 25 GHz, 50 GHz and 100 GHz equal channel spacing values. Center channels on such systems are the most severely impacted channels by FWM. Therefore, results obtained are the worst-case values for the DWDM system performance and important for system design. Simulations have been performed for systems using three different commercially available SMFs having different design parameter values for chromatic dispersion, dispersion slope, nonlinearity coefficient and attenuation coefficient which are all in the scope of the G.652 Recommendation of Telecommunication Standardization Sector of International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T for SSMFs. In those simulations, under the impact of FWM, variation of SXR with variations in input powers, channel spacings and link lengths have been observed. Simulation results display the combined effect of the optical fiber and system design parameters on FWM performance of DWDM systems and give important clues for not only long-haul but also access network implementations of DWDM systems.

  6. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E


    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  7. Gravitational lensing by rotating wormholes (United States)

    Jusufi, Kimet; Ã-vgün, Ali


    In this paper the deflection angle of light by a rotating Teo wormhole spacetime is calculated in the weak limit approximation. We mainly focus on the weak deflection angle by revealing the gravitational lensing as a partially global topological effect. We apply the Gauss-Bonnet theorem (GBT) to the optical geometry osculating the Teo-Randers wormhole optical geometry to calculate the deflection angle. Furthermore we find the same result using the standard geodesic method. We have found that the deflection angle can be written as a sum of two terms, namely the first term is proportional to the throat of the wormhole and depends entirely on the geometry, while the second term is proportional to the spin angular momentum parameter of the wormhole. A direct observation using lensing can shed light and potentially test the nature of rotating wormholes by comparing with the black holes systems.

  8. [A new kinematics method of determing elbow rotation axis and evaluation of its feasibility]. (United States)

    Han, W; Song, J; Wang, G Z; Ding, H; Li, G S; Gong, M Q; Jiang, X Y; Wang, M Y


    To study a new positioning method of elbow external fixation rotation axis, and to evaluate its feasibility. Four normal adult volunteers and six Sawbone elbow models were brought into this experiment. The kinematic data of five elbow flexion were collected respectively by optical positioning system. The rotation axes of the elbow joints were fitted by the least square method. The kinematic data and fitting results were visually displayed. According to the fitting results, the average moving planes and rotation axes were calculated. Thus, the rotation axes of new kinematic methods were obtained. By using standard clinical methods, the entrance and exit points of rotation axes of six Sawbone elbow models were located under X-ray. And The kirschner wires were placed as the representatives of rotation axes using traditional positioning methods. Then, the entrance point deviation, the exit point deviation and the angle deviation of two kinds of located rotation axes were compared. As to the four volunteers, the indicators represented circular degree and coplanarity of elbow flexion movement trajectory of each volunteer were both about 1 mm. All the distance deviations of the moving axes to the average moving rotation axes of the five volunteers were less than 3 mm. All the angle deviations of the moving axes to the average moving rotation axes of the five volunteers were less than 5°. As to the six Sawbone models, the average entrance point deviations, the average exit point deviations and the average angle deviations of two different rotation axes determined by two kinds of located methods were respectively 1.697 2 mm, 1.838 3 mm and 1.321 7°. All the deviations were very small. They were all in an acceptable range of clinical practice. The values that represent circular degree and coplanarity of volunteer's elbow single curvature movement trajectory are very small. The result shows that the elbow single curvature movement can be regarded as the approximate fixed

  9. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard


    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...

  10. Units of rotational information (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping


    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  11. Deconstructing Mental Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Axel


    A random walk model of the classical mental rotation task is explored in two experiments. By assuming that a mental rotation is repeated until sufficient evidence for a match/mismatch is obtained, the model accounts for the approximately linearly increasing reaction times (RTs) on positive trials...

  12. A 64 single photon avalanche diode array in 0.18 µm CMOS standard technology with versatile quenching circuit for quick prototyping (United States)

    Uhring, Wilfried; Le Normand, Jean-Pierre; Zint, Virginie; Dumas, Norbert; Dadouche, Foudil; Malasse, Imane; Scholz, Jeremy


    Several works have demonstrated the successfully integration of Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode in a standard CMOS circuit for the last 10 years. These devices offer an exceptional temporal resolution as well as a very good optical sensitivity. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict the expected performances of such a device. Indeed, for a similar structure of SPAD, some parameter values can differ by two orders of magnitude from a technology to another. We proposed here a procedure to identify in just one or two runs the optimal structure of SPAD available for a given technology. A circuit with an array of 64 SPAD has been realized in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS image sensor process. It encompasses an array of 8 different structures of SPAD reproduced in 8 diameters in the range from 5 μm up to 40 μm. According to the SPAD structures, efficient shallow trench insulator and/or P-Well guard ring are used for preventing edge breakdown. Low dark count rate of about 100 Hz are expected thanks to the use of buried n-well layer and a high resistivity substrate. Each photodiode is embedded in a pixel which includes a versatile quenching circuitry and an analog output of its cathode voltage. The quenching system is configurable in four operation modes; the SPAD is disabled, the quenching is completely passive, the reset of the photodiode is active and the quenching is fully active. The architecture of the array makes possible the characterization of every single photodiode individually. The parameters to be measured for a SPAD are the breakdown avalanche voltage, the dark count rate, the dead time, the timing jitter, the photon detection probability and the after-pulsing rate.

  13. The rotating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, G.; Treder, H.J.


    For a long time the question whether the universe rotates or not is discussed. Aspects of Huygens, Newton, Mach and other important historical scientists in this field are reported. The investigations of the mathematician Kurt Groedel in order to prove the rotation of the universe are illustrated. Kurt Groedel has shown that Einstein's gravitational equations of general relativity theory and the cosmological postulate of global homogeneity of cosmic matter (that is the Copernical principle) are not contradictionary to a rotating universe. Abberation measurements, position determination by means of radiointerferometry and methods for the determination of the rotation of the universe from the isotropy of the background radiation are presented. From these experiments it can be concluded that the universe seems not to rotate as already Einstein expected

  14. Rotation sensor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.


    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops is comprised of a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal

  15. Rotating stars in relativity. (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos


    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  16. One single standard substance for the simultaneous determination of 17 triterpenes in Ganoderma lingzhi and its related species using high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jingsong; Han, Wei; Liu, Yanfang; Feng, Jie; Tang, Chuanhong; Feng, Na; Tang, Qingjiu


    Due to the difficulty and high cost for the preparation of triterpenes, one single standard for the simultaneous determination of multi-components (SSDMC) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an advanced solution for multi-component analysis. Experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of SSDMC for the analysis of Ganoderma triterpenes, with external standard method (ESM) compared, and the samples of Ganoderma were classified by the content of Ganoderma triterpenes. The analysis was performed by using a Fortis Speed Core-C18 column (150mm×4.6mm I.D., 2.6μm) at gradient elution of 0.01% glacial acetic acid-water (V/V) and acetonitrile with diode array detection (252nm), at a flow rate of 1mL/min. The results showed that all calibration curves had good linearity (r 2 >0.9999) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ were lower than 2.52ng and 6.43ng, respectively. The RSD for intra-day and inter-day of the seventeen analytes were less than 3.12% at three levels, and the recoveries were 91.4-103.0%. The contents of other 16 triterpenes were determined with ganoderic acid A by SSDMC, which showed that there were few differences compared with the results obtained by ESM. Moreover, the classification of 25 different species and strains of Ganoderma by using the content of triterpenes intuitively reflected the distinction among Ganoderma. In summary, the developed method could be readily utilized as a method of quality evaluation for Ganoderma triterpenes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Rotator cuff tear: A detailed update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Pandey


    Full Text Available Rotator cuff tear has been a known entity for orthopaedic surgeons for more than two hundred years. Although the exact pathogenesis is controversial, a combination of intrinsic factors proposed by Codman and extrinsic factors theorized by Neer is likely responsible for most rotator cuff tears. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears, but the emergence of ultrasound has revolutionized the diagnostic capability. Even though mini-open rotator cuff repair is still commonly performed, and results are comparable to arthroscopic repair, all-arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear is now fast becoming a standard care for rotator cuff repair. Appropriate knowledge of pathology and healing pattern of cuff, strong and biological repair techniques, better suture anchors, and gradual rehabilitation of postcuff repair have led to good to excellent outcome after repair. As the healing of degenerative cuff tear remains unpredictable, the role of biological agents such as platelet-rich plasma and stem cells for postcuff repair augmentation is still under evaluation. The role of scaffolds in massive cuff tear is also being probed.

  18. Rotational Laser Cooling of MgH+ Ions and Rotational Rate Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Staanum, Peter; Højbjerre, Klaus

    A method of laser cooling vibrationally and translationally cold trapped MgH+ ions to the rotational ground state using optical pumping was recently demonstrated in our group [1]. This method relies on the 293 K blackbody radiation to redistribute population among the rotational states, while...... exciting a single rovibrational transition within the X1Σ+ electronic ground state for optical pumping into the rovibrational ground state. To model the expected rotational state distributions after the application of the laser beam, one has to know the various rotational transitions rates in the present...... blackbody radiation field. To undertake such modelling, we will carry out measurements of a series of transition rates between rotational states in the vibronic ground state at room temperature. The measurements will be performed by the same Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Dissociation (REMPD) process used...

  19. Preliminary results of capecitabine metronomic chemotherapy in operable triple-negative breast cancer after standard adjuvant therapy – A single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Shawky


    Conclusion: One year of capecitabine metronomic therapy preceded by standard adjuvant chemotherapy, is active and well-tolerated in TNBC patients previously treated with standard adjuvant chemotherapy.

  20. Generalization of stochastic visuomotor rotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo L Fernandes

    Full Text Available Generalization studies examine the influence of perturbations imposed on one movement onto other movements. The strength of generalization is traditionally interpreted as a reflection of the similarity of the underlying neural representations. Uncertainty fundamentally affects both sensory integration and learning and is at the heart of many theories of neural representation. However, little is known about how uncertainty, resulting from variability in the environment, affects generalization curves. Here we extend standard movement generalization experiments to ask how uncertainty affects the generalization of visuomotor rotations. We find that although uncertainty affects how fast subjects learn, the perturbation generalizes independently of uncertainty.

  1. Suggested notation conventions for rotational seismology (United States)

    Evans, J.R.


    We note substantial inconsistency among authors discussing rotational motions observed with inertial seismic sensors (and much more so in the broader topic of rotational phenomena). Working from physics and other precedents, we propose standard terminology and a preferred reference frame for inertial sensors (Fig. 1) that may be consistently used in discussions of both finite and infinitesimal observed rotational and translational motions in seismology and earthquake engineering. The scope of this article is limited to observations because there are significant differences in the analysis of finite and infinitesimal rotations, though such discussions should remain compatible with those presented here where possible. We recommend the general use of the notation conventions presented in this tutorial, and we recommend that any deviations or alternatives be explicitly defined.

  2. Shore and bar cross-shore migration, rotation, and breathing processes at an embayed beach (United States)

    Blossier, B.; Bryan, K. R.; Daly, C. J.; Winter, C.


    A principal component analysis (PCA) is used to decompose data on the coupled morphodynamics of the shoreline and nearshore sandbar of a typical single-barred embayed beach (Tairua Beach, New Zealand). Dynamic patterns are classified into simultaneous modes, where the bar and shoreline move at the same time, and nonsimultaneous modes, where the shore moves independently from the bar, and vice versa. Two simultaneous modes accounting for 65% of the variance of the shoreline and barline dominate the system. One mode describes inverse shoreline and sandbar cross-shore migrations (alongshore averaged), occurring with simultaneous rotations in the same direction. The other mode accounts for migration in the same direction accompanied by variations of the barline curvature (similar to "breathing modes" previously described in embayed beach shoreline modeling studies). Two nonsimultaneous modes of lesser importance account separately for independent shoreline and barline rotations (10 to 15% of the variance explained). A PCA applied to the shore and sandbar behaviors modeled by four standard equilibrium models simulating shore and sandbar cross-shore migrations and rotations show that these are interrelated because of a correlation between wave energy and direction. Shore and bar rotations are coupled partially because the shape of the bay induces a correlation of their respective drivers, the wave angle of incidence and the alongshore gradient of wave energy. However, this correlation depends on the wave energy. This, in combination with different shore and sandbar response times (quantified using the models), also explains the independent rotations reflected by the nonsimultaneous modes.

  3. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Estades-Rubio


    Full Text Available Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren–Lawrence Grade II and III and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane® and Group II with HA (Go-ON®. Patient’s evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  4. Knee Viscosupplementation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis between Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid in a Single Injection versus Five Injections of Standard Hyaluronic Acid. (United States)

    Estades-Rubio, Francisco J; Reyes-Martín, Alvaro; Morales-Marcos, Victor; García-Piriz, Mercedes; García-Vera, Juan J; Perán, Macarena; Marchal, Juan A; Montañez-Heredia, Elvira


    Given the wide difference in price per vial between various presentations of hyaluronic acid, this study seeks to compare the effectiveness and treatment cost of stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in a single injection with standard preparations of hyaluronic acid (HA) in five injections in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Fifty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade II and III) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score greater than 7, with a homogeneous distribution of age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease, were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group I was treated with NASHA (Durolane ® ) and Group II with HA (Go-ON ® ). Patient's evolution was followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 26th week after treatment. A statistically significant improvement in WOMAC score was observed for patients treated with NASHA versus those who received HA at Week 26. In addition, the need for analgesia was significantly reduced at Week 26 in the NASHA-treated group. Finally, the economic analysis showed an increased cost of overall treatment with HA injections. Our data support the use of the NASHA class of products in the treatment of knee OA.

  5. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Zhang


    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz. Keywords: SSDMC, Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz, Quality control, HCA, PCA

  6. Microseismic sources of rotational type (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; He, Junxian


    Traditionally the sources of seismic and microseismic events are related to shear fractures. The analysis of the seismic moment tensors of the sources associated with rock fracturing and hydraulic fracturing in the laboratory experiments and in-situ reveals that while there exist tensile and compressive sources, the shear sources prevail. The appearance of multiple shear sources, accompanied rock fracturing contradicts the results of the direct experiments suggesting that the rock as well as other materials not exhibiting clear plastic flow fail in tension. This contradiction is conventionally resolved by assuming the presence of multiple pre-existing shear fractures (faults or microfaults) whose sudden sliding provides microseismic events of shear type. We consider alternative mechanisms associated with bending of links between rotating particles and fragments of geomaterial and bending of bridges connecting opposite sides of hydraulic fractures. In both cases the fracturing is caused by the action of moments (or moment stresses) leading to bending, while at microscale the failure is associated with tensile microstresses leading to formation of tensile microcracks. In other words, at microscale the moment-related failure is failure in tension, as routinely observed in materials even in compression. It is easy to demonstrate that from a distance the sources of rotational type are equivalent to a standard double couple, similar to the one associated with shear fracturing. In other words what is currently interpreted as shear microseismic sources can in fact be rotational sources. This calls for new methods of detecting and interpreting microseismic sources; some possible methods are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lyakhovetskiy


    Full Text Available Subject of Study.The subject of research is the information structure of objects internal representations and operations over them, used by man to solve the problem of mental rotation of figures. To analyze this informational structure we considered not only classical dependencies of the correct answers on the angle of rotation, but also the other dependencies obtained recently in cognitive psychology. Method.The language of technical computing Matlab R2010b was used for developing information model of the mental rotation of figures. Such model parameters as the number of bits in the internal representation, an error probability in a single bit, discrete rotation angle, comparison threshold, and the degree of difference during rotation can be changed. Main Results.The model reproduces qualitatively such psychological dependencies as the linear increase of time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for identical figures, "flat" dependence of the time of correct answers and the number of errors on the angle of rotation for mirror-like figures. The simulation results suggest that mental rotation is an iterative process of finding a match between the two figures, each step of which can lead to a significant distortion of the internal representation of the stored objects. Matching is carried out within the internal representations that have no high invariance to rotation angle. Practical Significance.The results may be useful for understanding the role of learning (including the learning with a teacher in the development of effective information representation and operations on them in artificial intelligence systems.

  8. Rotational stability of femoral osteosynthesis in femoral fractures - navigated measurements. (United States)

    Citak, Mustafa; Kendoff, Daniel; Gardner, Michael J; Oszwald, Markus; O'Loughlin, Padhraig F; Olivier, Lucien C; Krettek, Christian; Hüfner, Tobias; Citak, Musa


    Rotational malalignment after intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures is common, and symptoms occur when malrotation reaches 15 degrees . Intraoperative measurement of rotation remains difficult, and multiple techniques have been described to address this. Regardless of the method used, rotational toggling may occur between the interlocking screws and the screw holes. We hypothesized that a clinically significant amount of rotation may occur with standard statically locked intramedullary nails. Mid-shaft diaphyseal fractures were created in 24 cadaveric femurs. Specimens were divided into 4 groups, and were stabilized with a statically locked intramedullary nail, a dynamically locked intramedullary nail, a compression plate, and a locking plate. Six additional femurs were kept intact as a control group. Specimens were mounted in a custom holding jig, which stabilized the constructs proximally and allowed free rotation distally. A computer navigation system was applied, and the femoral anteversion was measured. 4 N-m of internal and external torque was applied, and the change in version was measured. The statically locked nails rotated 14.2 degrees , and the dynamically locked group rotated 15.7 degrees . Both intramedullary nail groups showed significantly greater rotation than the plated groups. The compression plate specimens rotated 6.5 degrees on average, and the locked plate group rotated 3.8 degrees . Intramedullary femoral nailing with static or dynamic interlocking allows 15 degrees of rotation of the femur around the nail under physiologic load. This may exacerbate intraoperative errors in determining and setting rotation. Angular stable plates or nails may minimize this problem.

  9. Rotatable seal assembly. [Patent application; rotating targets (United States)

    Logan, C.M.; Garibaldi, J.L.


    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  10. Short Rotation Coppice in Austria - Management and Producticivity (United States)

    Hochbichler, E.; Hofmann, H.; Bellos, N.; Zeitlinger, C.; Liebhard, P.


    In Austria energy wood production in short rotation coppice systems (SRC) becomes increasingly important to meet the demands of the growing bio-energy sector. In order to successfully develop the SRC market, the achievement of high and constant yields in SRC management is just as important as a reliable harvesting technology, which facilitates the production of high quality wood chips. Yield models and site-specific knowledge about productivity are needed with respect to clones, site factors and management alternatives. Therefore in the years 2007 and 2008 experimental plots (Marchfeld; 16 poplar clones and 19 willow clones) and a network of demonstration plots (different regions in Lower Austria; 7 poplar clones, 4 willow clones) were established. Single shoot surveys and biomass functions in combination with stand inventories form the general basis for estimating yield and productivity. They also help to optimize yield and rotation length by taking the maximum harvestable tree diameter into account, which is determined by harvesting techniques. For optimizing the yield estimation of SRC stands, preliminary clone specific yield functions for poplar and willow clones were developed. These specific yield functions were based on common yield estimation functions with respect to the newly used clones (e.g. faster growth, lower wood density), using a regression analytical approach. Standard stand surveys were carried out in autumn 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. We were able to show a high variety in biomass production of poplar and willow clones on the specific site. For the first and second rotation cycle the mean productivity of poplar clones was within a range of 4 - 12 t/y/ha and for willow clones within a range of 3 - 17 t/y/ha. These results were compared with the productivity of older experimental plots in Austria. Based on the preliminary results of productivity of poplar and willow clones for various site factors and management alternatives (planting design

  11. Rotating relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.


    Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.

  12. A rotating quantum vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.

  13. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus


    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... to a non-linear manifold and re-normalization or orthogonalization must be applied to obtain proper rotations. These latter steps have been viewed as ad hoc corrections for the errors introduced by assuming a vector space. The article shows that the two approximative methods can be derived from natural...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation....

  14. Measurement of Unsteady Blade Surface Pressure on a Single Rotation Large Scale Advanced Prop-fan with Angular and Wake Inflow at Mach Numbers from 0.02 to 0.70 (United States)

    Bushnell, P.; Gruber, M.; Parzych, D.


    Unsteady blade surface pressure data for the Large-Scale Advanced Prop-Fan (LAP) blade operation with angular inflow, wake inflow and uniform flow over a range of inflow Mach numbers of 0.02 to 0.70 is provided. The data are presented as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency. Also presented is a brief discussion of the unsteady blade response observed at takeoff and cruise conditions with angular and wake inflow.

  15. Robot Grasps Rotating Object (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.


    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  16. Rotating universe models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozini, A.V.


    A review is made of some properties of the rotating Universe models. Godel's model is identified as a generalized filted model. Some properties of new solutions of the Einstein's equations, which are rotating non-stationary Universe models, are presented and analyzed. These models have the Godel's model as a particular case. Non-stationary cosmological models are found which are a generalization of the Godel's metrics in an analogous way in which Friedmann is to the Einstein's model. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee


    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  18. Passive RFID Rotation Dimension Reduction via Aggregation (United States)

    Matthews, Eric

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) has applications in object identification, position, and orientation tracking. RFID technology can be applied in hospitals for patient and equipment tracking, stores and warehouses for product tracking, robots for self-localisation, tracking hazardous materials, or locating any other desired object. Efficient and accurate algorithms that perform localisation are required to extract meaningful data beyond simple identification. A Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is the strength of a received radio frequency signal used to localise passive and active RFID tags. Many factors affect RSSI such as reflections, tag rotation in 3D space, and obstacles blocking line-of-sight. LANDMARC is a statistical method for estimating tag location based on a target tag's similarity to surrounding reference tags. LANDMARC does not take into account the rotation of the target tag. By either aggregating multiple reference tag positions at various rotations, or by determining a rotation value for a newly read tag, we can perform an expected value calculation based on a comparison to the k-most similar training samples via an algorithm called K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) more accurately. By choosing the average as the aggregation function, we improve the relative accuracy of single-rotation LANDMARC localisation by 10%, and any-rotation localisation by 20%.

  19. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.


    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  20. Rotational Seismology: AGU Session, Working Group, and Website (United States)

    Lee, William H.K.; Igel, Heiner; Todorovska, Maria I.; Evans, John R.


    Introduction Although effects of rotational motions due to earthquakes have long been observed (e. g., Mallet, 1862), nevertheless Richter (1958, p. 213) stated that: 'Perfectly general motion would also involve rotations about three perpendicular axes, and three more instruments for these. Theory indicates, and observation confirms, that such rotations are negligible.' However, Richter provided no references for this claim. Seismology is based primarily on the observation and modeling of three-component translational ground motions. Nevertheless, theoretical seismologists (e.g., Aki and Richards, 1980, 2002) have argued for decades that the rotational part of ground motions should also be recorded. It is well known that standard seismometers are quite sensitive to rotations and therefore subject to rotation-induced errors. The paucity of observations of rotational motions is mainly the result of a lack, until recently, of affordable rotational sensors of sufficient resolution. Nevertheless, in the past decade, a number of authors have reported direct observations of rotational motions and rotations inferred from rigid-body rotations in short baseline accelerometer arrays, creating a burgeoning library of rotational data. For example, ring laser gyros in Germany and New Zealand have led to the first significant and consistent observations of rotational motions from distant earthquakes (Igel et al., 2005, 2007). A monograph on Earthquake Source Asymmetry, Structural Media and Rotation Effects was published recently as well by Teisseyre et al. (2006). Measurement of rotational motions has implications for: (1) recovering the complete ground-displacement history from seismometer recordings; (2) further constraining earthquake rupture properties; (3) extracting information about subsurface properties; and (4) providing additional ground motion information to earthquake engineers for seismic design. A special session on Rotational Motions in Seismology was convened by H

  1. Fluid flow and heat transfer in rotating porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Vadasz, Peter


    This Book concentrates the available knowledge on rotating fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media in one single reference. Dr. Vadasz develops the fundamental theory of rotating flow and heat transfer in porous media and introduces systematic classification and identification of the relevant problems. An initial distinction between rotating flows in isothermal heterogeneous porous systems and natural convection in homogeneous non-­‐isothermal porous systems provides the two major classes of problems to be considered. A few examples of solutions to selected problems are presented, highlighting the significant impact of rotation on the flow in porous media.

  2. Simultaneous Realization of Wavelength Conversion, 2R Regeneration, and All-Optical Multiple Logic Gates with OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR Functions Based on Self-Polarization Rotation in a Single SOA: An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Said


    Full Text Available We highlight the feasibility of experimental implementation of both inverted and noninverted wavelength conversion, 2R regeneration, and all-optical logic functions, such as OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR optical gates by exploiting the self-polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA device without changing the setup configuration. Switching between each optical function is done by only adjusting the input optical power level. In order to allow optimum control and preserve the polarization state of the injected and collected signals, the polarimetric measures have been carried out in free space.

  3. Rotating positron tomographs revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, D.; Defrise, M.; Geissbuhler, A.


    We have compared the performance of a PET scanner comprising two rotating arrays of detectors with that of the more conventional stationary-ring design. The same total number of detectors was used in each, and neither scanner had septa. For brain imaging, we find that the noise-equivalent count rate is greater for the rotating arrays by a factor of two. Rotating arrays have a sensitivity profile that peaks in the centre of the field of view, both axially and transaxially. In the transaxial plane, this effect offsets to a certain extent the decrease in the number of photons detected towards the centre of the brain due to self-absorption. We have also compared the performance of a rotating scanner to that of a full-ring scanner with the same number of rings. We find that a full-ring scanner with an axial extent of 16.2 cm (24 rings) is a factor of 3.5 more sensitive than a rotating scanner with 40% of the detectors and the same axial extent. (Author)

  4. Risk matrix model for rotating equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassan Rano Khan


    Full Text Available Different industries have various residual risk levels for their rotating equipment. Accordingly the occurrence rate of the failures and associated failure consequences categories are different. Thus, a generalized risk matrix model is developed in this study which can fit various available risk matrix standards. This generalized risk matrix will be helpful to develop new risk matrix, to fit the required risk assessment scenario for rotating equipment. Power generation system was taken as case study. It was observed that eight subsystems were under risk. Only vibration monitor system was under high risk category, while remaining seven subsystems were under serious and medium risk categories.

  5. Rotator cuff impingement syndrome: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, G.J.; Obermann, W.R.; Rozing, P.M.; Bloem, J.L.


    This paper summarizes the authors' experience using MR as a diagnostic tool in evaluating the rotator cuff empingement syndrome. Twenty patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff impingement syndrome were prospectively evaluated using standard radiography, double-contrast arthrography and MR imaging. MR is capable of demonstrating cuff abnormalities due to impingement. The most important findings is an area of abnormal signal intensity on both relatively T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images. Surgery confirmed that these areas corresponded with inflamed degenerative supraspinatus tendon. Cuff changes can be depicted with MR in patients with arthrographically and radiographically normal shoulders

  6. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel


    further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes......The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  7. Coalescence of rotating black holes on Eguchi-Hanson space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Ken; Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Tomizawa, Shinya


    We obtain new charged rotating multi-black hole solutions on the Eguchi-Hanson space in the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell system with a Chern-Simons term and a positive cosmological constant. In the two-black holes case, these solutions describe the coalescence of two rotating black holes with the horizon topologies of S 3 into a single rotating black hole with the horizon topology of the lens space L(2;1)=S 3 /Z 2 . We discuss the differences in the horizon areas between our solutions and the two-centered Klemm-Sabra solutions which describe the coalescence of two rotating black holes with the horizon topologies of S 3 into a single rotating black hole with the horizon topology of S 3

  8. Rotational discontinuities and the structure of the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.W.; Lee, L.C.


    Symmetric and asymmetric rotational discontinuities are studied by means of a one-dimensional computer simulation and by single-particle trajectory calculations. The numerical simulations show the symmetric rotation to be stable for both ion and electron senses of rotation with a thickness of the order of a few ion gyroradii when the rotation angle of the tangential field is 180 0 or less. Larger rotation angles tend to be unstable. In an expansive discontinuity, when the magnetic field on the downstream side of the discontinuity is larger, an expanding transition layer separating the high-field from a low-field region develops on the downstream side, and a symmetric rotational discontinuity forms at the upstream edge. The implication of these results for magnetopause structure and energy flow through the magnetopause is described

  9. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas


    crop growth simulation models to predict yields in crop rotations at five sites across Europe under minimal calibration. Crop rotations encompassed 301 seasons of ten crop types common to European agriculture and a diverse set of treatments (irrigation, fertilisation, CO2 concentration, soil types...... accurately than main crops (cereals). The majority of models performed better for the treatments of increased CO2 and nitrogen fertilisation than for irrigation and soil-related treatments. The yield simulation of the multi-model ensemble reduced the error compared to single-model simulations. The low degree...... representation of crop rotations, further research is required to synthesise existing knowledge of the physiology of intermediate crops and of carry-over effects from the preceding to the following crop, and to implement/improve the modelling of processes that condition these effects....

  10. Semiclassical approach to giant resonances of rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.


    Quadrupole and isovector dipole resonances of rotating nuclei are investigated in the frame-work of Vlasov equations transformed to a rotating system of reference, which are based on the time-dependent Hartree-method for schematic forces. The parameter free model of the self-consistent vibrating harmonic oscillator potential for the quadrupole mode is extended to a coupling to rotation, which also includes large-amplitude behaviour. A generalization to an exactly solvable two-liquid model describing the isovector mode is established; for rotating nuclei Hilton's explicit result for the eigenfrequencies is obtained. The advantage of using the concept of the classical kinetic momentum in a rotating system also in quantum-mechanical descriptions is demonstrated. It completes the standard transformation of density matrices by a time-odd part realized in a phase-factor and permits a more direct interpretation of rotation effects in terms of the classical forces of inertia. (author)

  11. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah T.; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael


    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990 to 2007 in the US alone (Ref. 1). As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a nonrotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various non-rotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the prestress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in

  12. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients (United States)

    Menard, Scott


    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  13. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolić, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian


    In this paper we combine two powerful methods of symmetric cryptanalysis: rotational cryptanalysis and the rebound attack. Rotational cryptanalysis was designed for the analysis of bit-oriented designs like ARX (Addition-Rotation-XOR) schemes. It has been applied to several hash functions and block...... ciphers, including the new standard SHA-3 (Keccak). The rebound attack is a start-from-the-middle approach for finding differential paths and conforming pairs in byte-oriented designs like Substitution-Permutation networks and AES. We apply our new compositional attack to the reduced version of the hash...... function Skein, a finalist of the SHA-3 competition. Our attack penetrates more than two thirds of the Skein core—the cipher Threefish, and made the designers to change the submission in order to prevent it. The rebound part of our attack has been significantly enhanced to deliver results on the largest...

  14. Different strategies do not moderate primary motor cortex involvement in mental rotation: a TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeneke Susan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regions of the dorsal visual stream are known to play an essential role during the process of mental rotation. The functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1 in mental rotation is however less clear. It has been suggested that the strategy used to mentally rotate objects determines M1 involvement. Based on the strategy hypothesis that distinguishes between an internal and an external strategy, our study was designed to specifically test the relation between strategy and M1 activity. Methods Twenty-two subjects were asked to participate in a standard mental rotation task. We used specific picture stimuli that were supposed to trigger either the internal (e.g. pictures of hands or tools or the external strategy (e.g. pictures of houses or abstract figures. The strategy hypothesis predicts an involvement of M1 only in case of stimuli triggering the internal strategy (imagine grasping and rotating the object by oneself. Single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS was employed to quantify M1 activity during task performance by measuring Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs at the right hand muscle. Results Contrary to the strategy hypothesis, we found no interaction between stimulus category and corticospinal excitability. Instead, corticospinal excitability was generally increased compared with a resting baseline although subjects indicated more frequent use of the external strategy for all object categories. Conclusion This finding suggests that M1 involvement is not exclusively linked with the use of the internal strategy but rather directly with the process of mental rotation. Alternatively, our results might support the hypothesis that M1 is active due to a 'spill-over' effect from adjacent brain regions.

  15. Different strategies do not moderate primary motor cortex involvement in mental rotation: a TMS study. (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Koeneke, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz


    Regions of the dorsal visual stream are known to play an essential role during the process of mental rotation. The functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in mental rotation is however less clear. It has been suggested that the strategy used to mentally rotate objects determines M1 involvement. Based on the strategy hypothesis that distinguishes between an internal and an external strategy, our study was designed to specifically test the relation between strategy and M1 activity. Twenty-two subjects were asked to participate in a standard mental rotation task. We used specific picture stimuli that were supposed to trigger either the internal (e.g. pictures of hands or tools) or the external strategy (e.g. pictures of houses or abstract figures). The strategy hypothesis predicts an involvement of M1 only in case of stimuli triggering the internal strategy (imagine grasping and rotating the object by oneself). Single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was employed to quantify M1 activity during task performance by measuring Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) at the right hand muscle. Contrary to the strategy hypothesis, we found no interaction between stimulus category and corticospinal excitability. Instead, corticospinal excitability was generally increased compared with a resting baseline although subjects indicated more frequent use of the external strategy for all object categories. This finding suggests that M1 involvement is not exclusively linked with the use of the internal strategy but rather directly with the process of mental rotation. Alternatively, our results might support the hypothesis that M1 is active due to a 'spill-over' effect from adjacent brain regions.

  16. Physician in Triage Versus Rotational Patient Assignment. (United States)

    Traub, Stephen J; Bartley, Adam C; Smith, Vernon D; Didehban, Roshanak; Lipinski, Christopher A; Saghafian, Soroush


    Physician in triage and rotational patient assignment are different front-end processes that are designed to improve patient flow, but there are little or no data comparing them. To compare physician in triage with rotational patient assignment with respect to multiple emergency department (ED) operational metrics. Design-Retrospective cohort review. Patients-Patients seen on 23 days on which we utilized a physician in triage with those patients seen on 23 matched days when we utilized rotational patient assignment. There were 1,869 visits during physician in triage and 1,906 visits during rotational patient assignment. In a simple comparison, rotational patient assignment was associated with a lower median length of stay (LOS) than physician in triage (219 min vs. 233 min; difference of 14 min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5-27 min). In a multivariate linear regression incorporating multiple confounders, there was a nonsignificant reduction in the geometric mean LOS in rotational patient assignment vs. physician in triage (204 min vs. 217 min; reduction of 6.25%; 95% CI -3.6% to 15.2%). There were no significant differences between groups for left before being seen, left subsequent to being seen, early (within 72 h) returns, early returns with admission, or complaint ratio. In a single-site study, there were no statistically significant differences in important ED operational metrics between a physician in triage model and a rotational patient assignment model after adjusting for confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rotator Cuff Injuries. (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  18. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, P.; Froyland, J.


    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  19. Rotating turbine blade pyrometer (United States)

    Buchele, D. R.; Lesco, D. J.


    Non-contacting pyrometer system optically measures surface temperature distribution on rotating turbine blade, comprising line-by-line scan via fiber optic probe. Each scan line output is converted to digital signals, temporarily stored in buffer memory, and then processed in minicomputer for display as temperature.

  20. Can planetary nebulae rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.


    It is shown that the inclination of spectral lines observed in a number of planetary nebulae when the spectrograph slit is placed along the major axis, which is presently ascribed to nonuniform expansion of the shells, actually may be due to rotation of the nebulae about their minor axes, as Campbell and Moore have suggested in their reports. It is assumed that the rotation of the central star (or, if the core is a binary system, circular motions of gas along quasi-Keplerian orbits) serves as the source of the original rotation of a protoplanetary nebula. The mechanism providing for strengthening of the original rotation in the process of expansion of the shell is the tangential pressure of L/sub α/ radiation due to the anisotropic properties of the medium and radiation field. The dynamic effect produced by them is evidently greatest in the epoch when the optical depth of the nebula in the L/sub c/ continuum becomes on the order of unity in the course of its expansion

  1. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker (United States)

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.


    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  2. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan


    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  3. Midplane Faraday Rotation: A densitometer for BPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.


    The density in a high field, high density tokamak such as BPX can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 μm laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n e (R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel version about the center line of the tokamak. For BPX operated at full field and density, the rotation angle would be quite large -- about 75 degrees per pass. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 ''fringe,'' the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that BPX would be well served even at low densities by a Midplane Faraday Rotation densitometer of ∼64 channels. Both TFTR and PBX-M would be suitable test beds for the BPX system

  4. Single-dose fluconazole versus standard 2-week therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamza, O.J.M.; Matee, M.I.N.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Moshi, M.J.; Simon, E.N.; Mugusi, F.; Mikx, F.H.M.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Verweij, P.E.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der


    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because of convenience, cost, and reluctance to complicate antiretroviral treatment regimens, single-dose fluconazole may be a favorable regimen for

  5. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch


    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  6. Chaotic Rotation of a Towed Elliptical Cylinder


    Weymouth, G D


    In this paper I consider the self-excited rotation of an elliptical cylinder towed in a viscous fluid as a canonical model of nonlinear fluid structure interactions with possible applications in the design of sensors and energy extraction devices. First, the self-excited ellipse system is shown to be analogous to the forced bistable oscillators studied in classic chaos theory. A single variable, the distance between the pivot and the centroid, governs the system bifurcation into bi-stability....

  7. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan


    it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form...

  8. Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten

    the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...... with the horizontal extent of many other parts of the Danish inland waters implies that the dynamics of these should also be discussed in terms of rotational effects....

  9. Asteroid rotation. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.; Young, J.W.


    The results from the year 1979 of an ongoing program of asteroid photometry at Table Mountain Observatory are presented. The results for 53 asteroids are summarized in a table, showing the number, name, opposition date, taxonomic class, diameter, absolute magnitude, mean absolute magnitude at zero phase angle and values of the absolute magnitude and linear phase coefficient derived from it, the rotation period in hours, peak-to-peak amplitude of variation, difference between mean and maximum brightness, and reliability index. Another table presents data on aspect and comparison stars, including brightness and distance data. Reliable rotation periods are reported for 22 asteroids for which no previous values are known. For seven asteroids, periods are reported which are revisions of previously reported values

  10. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail:; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail:; Mata, Santiago, E-mail:; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  11. Muon spin rotation studies (United States)


    The bulk of the muon spin rotation research work centered around the development of the muon spin rotation facility at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The collimation system was both designed and fabricated at Virginia State University. This improved collimation system, plus improvements in detectors and electronics enabled the acquisition of spectra free of background out to 15 microseconds. There were two runs at Brookhaven in 1984, one run was devoted primarily to beam development and the other run allowed several successful experiments to be performed. The effect of uniaxial strain on an Fe(Si) crystal at elevated temperature (360K) was measured and the results are incorporated herein. A complete analysis of Fe pulling data taken earlier is included.

  12. Rotations in Stability Operations (United States)


    forces to the protected population .” An “ overwhelming presence” was essential to the initial success in Haiti and an “inadequate” number of troops was...stability operations until they achieve the endstate rather than rotating them allows the military to use overwhelming presence, successfully handle...must deploy a force that provides an overwhelming presence in the area of operations with the mission to achieve the endstate. 14. SUBJECT

  13. Rotating clusters in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauling, L.; Robinson, A.B.


    Values of R, the radius of rotation of the rotating cluster, are calculated from the energy of the lowest 2 + level of even-even nuclei with the assumption that the cluster consists of p 2 or n 2 respectively, for N or P magic, and of a helion (α) for N or P differing from a magic number by +-2. The values as a function of A show a zigzag course, which is correlated with the polyspheron structure of the nuclei. If the mantle is not overcrowded the cluster glides over the surface of the mantle and the value of R increases by one spheron diameter, about 3.2 fm. At certain values of N a change in structure of the nucleus occurs, with increase in radius of the core by half a spheron diameter, permitting the cluster to drop back into the mantle, with decrease in R by half a spheron diameter. In the lanthanon region of permanent prolate deformation the rotating cluster is a polyhelion, containing the number of helions permitted by the difference between Z or N and the nearest magic number, and in the actinon region it contains all the nucleons beyond 208 Pb, with maximum p 10 n 16 . An explanation is given of the difference between these regions. (author)

  14. Snakes and spin rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.


    The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10 -4 will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs

  15. Coordinate-Free Rotation Operator. (United States)

    Leubner, C.


    Suggests the use of a coordinate-free rotation operator for the teaching of rotations in Euclidean three space because of its twofold didactic advantage. Illustrates the potentialities of the coordinate-free rotation operator approach by a number of examples. (Author/GA)

  16. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.


    Disclosed is a bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing. 19 claims, 3 figures

  17. Improved formulation for Faraday rotation characterization (United States)

    Tioh, Jin-Wei; Weber, Robert J.; Mina, Mani


    The analysis of complex structures consisting of fibers, films, birefringent, and magnetic materials is greatly aided by the availability of an analysis structure. Jones calculus is typically utilized in the course of such analyses. However, standard Jones calculus does not account for the effect of reflections. An improved formulation for the characterization of Faraday rotation that alleviates this shortcoming is reported here and is integral for the proper analysis of devices employing magneto-optic effects.

  18. Cross-sectional and longitudinal construct validity of two rotator cuff disease-specific outcome measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osnabrugge Varda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease-specific Quality Of Life (QOL measures are devised to assess the impact of a specific disease across a spectrum of important domains of life. The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal construct validity (sensitivity to change of two rotator cuff disease-specific measures, the Rotator Cuff-Quality Of Life (RC-QOL and the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC index, in relation to one another and to other joint and limb specific measures in the same population of the patients suffering from rotator cuff pathology. Methods Participants enrolled were consecutive patients who received physical therapy for management of impingement syndrome or received treatment following rotator cuff repair, acromioplasty or decompression surgeries. All subjects received physical therapy treatment and completed four outcome measures at 3 single points (initial, interim, and final. Cross-sectional convergent validity was assessed at each of the 3 time-points by correlating the WORC and RC-QOL's scores to each other and to two alternative scales; a joint-specific scale, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES standardized shoulder assessment form and a limb-specific measure, the Upper Extremity Functional Index (UEFI. Non-parametric statistics (Spearman's rho and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests examined the construct validity. The standardized response mean (SRM was used to examine sensitivity to change. Results Forty-one participants entered the study and their scores were compared at 3 cross sectional single points. The correlation coefficients among the 4 measures varied from 0.60 to 0.91. Correlation between corresponding domains of the WORC and RC-QOL varied from 0.45 to 0.85. The known group validity was not significantly different among individual sub-scores and total scores. The final SRMs were (1.42, (1.43, (1.44, and (1.54 for the ASES, RCQOL, WORC, and UEFI respectively. Conclusion The WORC and


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    During the summer of 2002, eight superconducting helical spin rotators were installed into RHIC in order to control the polarization directions independently at the STAR and PHENIX experiments. Without the rotators, the orientation of polarization at the interaction points would only be vertical. With four rotators around each of the two experiments, we can rotate either or both beams from vertical into the horizontal plane through the interaction region and then back to vertical on the other side. This allows independent control for each beam with vertical, longitudinal, or radial polarization at the experiment. In this paper, we present results from the first run using the new spin rotators at PHENIX

  20. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server


    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  1. Is There a Cosmetic Advantage to Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgical Techniques Over Standard Laparoscopic Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (United States)

    Evans, Luke; Manley, Kate


    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery represents an evolution of minimally invasive techniques, but has been a controversial development. A cosmetic advantage is stated by many authors, but has not been found to be universally present or even of considerable importance by patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that there is a cosmetic advantage of the technique regardless of the operation type. The treatment effect in terms of cosmetic improvement is of the order of 0.63.

  2. Unusual Slowly Rotating Brown Dwarfs Discovered through Precision Spitzer Photometry (United States)

    Heinze, Aren; Metchev, S.


    Many brown dwarfs exhibit low-amplitude rotationally modulated variability due to photospheric inhomogeneities caused by condensate clouds in their atmospheres. The Spitzer Space Telescope 'Weather on Other Worlds' (WoW) project has monitored 44 brown dwarfs at unprecedented photometric precision from space. We present one of several important new results from WoW: the discovery of brown dwarfs with unexpectedly slow rotation periods. While most brown dwarfs have periods of 2-12 hours, we have identified two with well-constrained periods of 13±1 and >20 hours, respectively, and 2 others that show more tentative evidence of longer than 20-hour periods. By serving as almost non-rotating standards, these objects will allow more accurate calibration of spectroscopic measurements of brown dwarfs' projected rotational velocities. The existence of such slowly-rotating objects also constrains models of brown dwarf formation and angular momentum evolution.

  3. Visualization of Thomas–Wigner Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Beyerle


    Full Text Available It is well known that a sequence of two non-collinear Lorentz boosts (pure Lorentz transformations does not correspond to a Lorentz boost, but involves a spatial rotation, the Wigner or Thomas–Wigner rotation. We visualize the interrelation between this rotation and the relativity of distant simultaneity by moving a Born-rigid object on a closed trajectory in several steps of uniform proper acceleration. Born-rigidity implies that the stern of the boosted object accelerates faster than its bow. It is shown that at least five boost steps are required to return the object’s center to its starting position, if in each step the center is assumed to accelerate uniformly and for the same proper time duration. With these assumptions, the Thomas–Wigner rotation angle depends on a single parameter only. Furthermore, it is illustrated that accelerated motion implies the formation of a “frame boundary”. The boundaries associated with the five boosts constitute a natural barrier and ensure the object’s finite size.

  4. Ultrasensitive magnetometers based on rotational magnetic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Svec, P. Sr.


    Three new types of fluxgate magnetometers are presented in this paper, able to monitor the three components of the ambient field, all of them based on the principle of rotational excitation field. The first type is based on Yttrium- Iron Garnet (YIG) single crystal film, magnetized with rotational field on its plane, where the 2 nd , 4 th and 6 th harmonics offer the three components of the ambient field with sensitivity better than 1 pT at 0.2 Hz, its size being 25 cm 3 . The second type is based on permalloy film, where the rotational excitation field on its plane offers change of magnetoresistance with sensitivity better than 10 pT at 1 Hz, uncertainty of 1 ppm and size ∼ 8 cm 3 . The third type, is based on amorphous film, where the rotation field mode offer sensitivity better than 100 pT at 1 Hz, uncertainty of 10 ppm and size ∼ 10 mm 3 . (authors)

  5. Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.


    Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d≥6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.

  6. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René


    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  7. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.


    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  8. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul


    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  9. Comparison of dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (XPERSWING) versus conventional technique in routine practice. (United States)

    Gómez-Menchero, Antonio E; Díaz, José F; Sánchez-González, Carlos; Cardenal, Rosa; Sanghvi, Amit B; Roa-Garrido, Jessica; Rodríguez-López, José L


    Coronary angiography is the gold standard for the study of coronary artery disease. This technique requires several orthogonal projections. Rotational angiography is a new technique which involves pre-set rotation of the X-ray tube around the patient and allows visualization of each coronary artery in different views, using a single contrast injection. The purpose of this study was to compare conventional coronary angiography (A) vs rotational angiography (B), focusing on radiation dose, amount of contrast administered, and total procedure time for both diagnostic and therapeutic percutaneous coronary interventions. Prospective study of 104 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography who were randomized to one of these techniques. We found a significant reduction in the amount of contrast administered (A vs B, 93.1 [41.7] vs 50.9 [14.7] mL; Protational angiography arm. However, when only the last 50 patients were analyzed, we found no difference in procedure time between the groups, probably related to the learning curve of the operators. Angioplasty was performed in 29 patients in group A and 28 patients in group B. Contrast reduction was maintained in the rotational angiography group compared to the conventional technique (A vs B, 335.1 [192.1] vs 238.5 [114.4] mL; P=.02). The rotational angiography technique leads to a significant decrease in radiation exposure and contrast dose administered for diagnostic procedures when compared to conventional coronary angiography. In patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention, contrast reduction remains significant. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Rotational Spectrum of Propargyl Alcohol Dimer (United States)

    Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E.


    Propargyl alcohol is a molecule of interest to astrophysics as well as combustion studies. Rotational-tunneling spectra of propargyl alcohol monomer is well known and shows that the molecule exists in gauche form. Recently we reported microwave spectra of Ar...propargyl alcohol complex. Propargyl alcochol exists in gauche form in the complex as well. In this study we have recorded pure rotational spectra of propargyl alcohol dimer between 4-13 GHz range.A total of 47 transitions, 24 a-type, 16 b-type and 7 c-type, have been observed and fitted with semi rigid rotor asymmetric top hamiltonian. The fitted rotational constants are: A = 2321.83323(47) MHz, B = 1150.47726(24) MHz and C = 1124.89000(20) MHz. The standard deviation for the fit is 2.5 kHz. The experimental rotational constants are very close to the structure predicted by ab-initio calculations in which two gauche-propargyl alcohol moieties are in three point contact stabilized by O-H...O, O-H...pi and C-H...pi interactions. Few transitions for duterated isotopologues of the dimer have also been observed and search for the remaining transitions is in progress. Details will be presented in the talk. E. Hirota,J. Mol. Spectrosc. 26 (1968) 335-350. J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234 (2005) 149-156. D. Mani, E. Arunan, ChemPhysChem 14 (2013) 754-763.

  11. Tumor response and toxicity after single high-dose versus standard five-day divided-dose dactinomycin in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. (United States)

    Carli, M; Pastore, G; Perilongo, G; Grotto, P; De Bernardi, B; Ceci, A; Di Tullio, M; Madon, E; Pianca, C; Paolucci, G


    This report deals with a randomized prospective multicentric clinical trial in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) conducted to evaluate the toxicity and the effectiveness of dactinomycin (ACT-D) administered as high, single doses v five-day, divided doses administered in combination with vincristine (VCR) and cyclophosphamide (CYC). Fifty-five group III evaluable patients (pts) less than 15 years of age with tumor size greater than 5 cm in diameter, without high-risk features of CNS involvement, and 15 group IV RMS pts were randomized to receive VAC as primary chemotherapy (CT): VCR, 1.5 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) days 1 and 8; CYC, 275 mg/m2 IV days 1 through 5; and ACT-D, 0.45 mg/m2 IV days 1 through 5 every 28 days for three cycles (33 pts), or VAC-M: CYC, 150 mg/m2 intramuscularly (IM) days 1 through 7; VCR, 2.0 mg/m2 IV day 8; and ACT-D, 1.7 mg/m2 IV day 8 every 21 days for four cycles (37 pts). Major responses (complete plus partial responses [PR]) were obtained in 67% of the VAC pts and in 70% of the VAC-M pts. Toxic effects were low, and no increased toxicity was observed in pts treated with high, single-dose ACT-D. These results confirm the effectiveness and feasibility of single, high doses of ACT-D with the advantage of requiring less pt hospitalization.

  12. Rotational Spectrum of Saccharine (United States)

    Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.


    A significant step forward in the structure-activity relationships of sweeteners was the assignment of the AH-B moiety in sweeteners by Shallenberger and Acree. They proposed that all sweeteners contain an AH-B moiety, known as glucophore, in which A and B are electronegative atoms separated by a distance between 2.5 to 4 Å. H is a hydrogen atom attached to one of the electronegative atom by a covalent bond. For saccharine, one of the oldest artificial sweeteners widely used in food and drinks, two possible B moieties exist ,the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfoxide oxygen atom although there is a consensus of opinion among scientists over the assignment of AH-B moieties to HN-SO. In the present work, the solid of saccharine (m.p. 220°C) has been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and its rotational spectrum has been analyzed by broadband CP-FTMW and narrowband MB-FTMW Fourier transform microwave techniques. The detailed structural information extracted from the rotational constants and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants provided enough information to ascribe the glucophore's AH and B sites of saccharine. R. S. Shallenberger, T. E. Acree. Nature 216, 480-482 Nov 1967. R. S. Shallenberger. Taste Chemistry; Blackie Academic & Professional, London, (1993).

  13. Laparoendoscopic single-site gastric bands versus standard multiport gastric bands: a comparison of technical learning curve measured by surgical time. (United States)

    Gawart, Matthew; Dupitron, Sabine; Lutfi, Rami


    We aimed to evaluate our learning curve comparing surgical time of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) banding with multiport laparoscopy. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data comparing our first 48 LESS bands with our first 50 multiport laparoscopic bands at our institution. We then compared the first 24 LESS bands with the last 24 bands. The average body mass index for the LESS group was significantly lower than for the laparoscopic group (43.19 vs 48.3; P < .0001). The surgical time was much faster toward the second half of our experience performing the LESS procedure (85.34 vs 68.8; P = .0055). LESS banding took significantly longer than our early traditional laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (76.85 vs 64.4; P = .0015). We conclude that in experienced hands, single-incision banding is feasible and safe to perform. Long-term data are needed to prove that LESS banding is as good a surgery as traditional laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy, Safety, and Preparation of Standardized Parenteral Nutrition Regimens: Three-Chamber Bags vs Compounded Monobags-A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Single-Blind Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Yu, Jianchun; Wu, Guohao; Tang, Yun; Ye, Yingjiang; Zhang, Zhongtao


    Parenteral nutrition (PN) covering the need for carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids can either be compounded from single nutrients or purchased as an industrially manufactured ready-to-use regimen. This study compares a commercially available 3-chamber bag (study group) with a conventionally compounded monobag regarding nutrition efficacy, safety, and regimen preparation time. This prospective, randomized, single-blind study was conducted at 5 Chinese hospitals from October 2010-October 2011. Postsurgical patients requiring PN for at least 6 days were randomly assigned to receive the study or control regimen. Plasma concentrations of prealbumin and C-reactive protein (CRP), regimen preparation time, length of hospital stay (LOS), 30-day mortality, safety laboratory parameters, and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. In total, 240 patients (121 vs 119 in study and control groups) participated in this study. Changes in prealbumin concentrations during nutrition support (Δ Prealb(StudyGroup) = 2.65 mg/dL, P values were comparable. Regimen preparation time was significantly reduced in the study group by the use of 3-chamber bags (t (StudyGroup) = 4.90 ± 4.41 minutes vs t (ControlGroup) = 12.13 ± 5.62 minutes, P bag was comparable to the compounded regimen and safe in use. Time savings during regimen preparation indicates that use of 3-chamber bags simplifies the process of regimen preparation.

  15. Assessment and characterization of in situ rotator cuff biomechanics (United States)

    Trent, Erika A.; Bailey, Lane; Mefleh, Fuad N.; Raikar, Vipul P.; Shanley, Ellen; Thigpen, Charles A.; Dean, Delphine; Kwartowitz, David M.


    Rotator cuff disease is a degenerative disorder that is a common, costly, and often debilitating, ranging in severity from partial thickness tear, which may cause pain, to total rupture, leading to loss in function. Currently, clinical diagnosis and determination of disease extent relies primarily on subjective assessment of pain, range of motion, and possibly X-ray or ultrasound images. The final treatment plan however is at the discretion of the clinician, who often bases their decision on personal experiences, and not quantitative standards. The use of ultrasound for the assessment of tissue biomechanics is established, such as in ultrasound elastography, where soft tissue biomechanics are measured. Few studies have investigated the use of ultrasound elastography in the characterization of musculoskeletal biomechanics. To assess tissue biomechanics we have developed a device, which measures the force applied to the underlying musculotendentious tissue while simultaneously obtaining the related ultrasound images. In this work, the musculotendinous region of the infraspinatus of twenty asymptomatic male organized baseball players was examined to access the variability in tissue properties within a single patient and across a normal population. Elastic moduli at percent strains less than 15 were significantly different than those above 15 percent strain within the normal population. No significant difference in tissue properties was demonstrated within a single patient. This analysis demonstrated elastic moduli are variable across individuals and incidence. Therefore threshold elastic moduli will likely be a function of variation in local-tissue moduli as opposed to a specific global value.

  16. Ultrasound of the rotator cuff with MRI and anatomic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Maresch, Bas J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, Willy Brandtlaan 10, 6710 HN Ede (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Jager, Gerrit J. [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Nieuwstraat 34, 5211 NL ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Blickman, Johan G. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 18, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Holsbeeck, Marnix T. van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 W Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution ultrasound (US) are frequently used for the detection of rotator cuff tears. The diagnostic yield of US is influenced by several factors as technique, knowledge of the imaging characteristics of anatomic and pathologic findings and of pitfalls. The purpose of this article is to illustrates that the standardized high-resolution US examination of the shoulder covers the entire rotator cuff and correlates with MR imaging and anatomic sections.

  17. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong


    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  18. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jun


    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  19. Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal femoral angle measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward


    Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right...... femora at five degree intervals from 10° external rotation to 10° internal rotation. Using freely available software, a-LDFA measurements were made using two different a-PFA by a single observer on one occasion. Results: Mean a-LDFA was significantly greater at 10° external rotation than at any other...... rotation. The response of individual femora to rotation was unpredictable, although fairly stable within ±5° of zero rotation. Mean a-LDFA for the two a-PFA methods differed by 1.5°, but were otherwise similarly affected by femoral rotation. Clinical significance: If zero femoral elevation can be achieved...

  20. Determination of blood leukocyte concentration with constant volume acquisition on a flow cytometer is comparable to individualized single platform testing with beads as internal reference standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susan; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen


    Flow cytometers have a constant flow rate. This enables flow cytometers to measure leukocyte concentrations in a determined volume by acquiring data at a fixed rate over a fixed time and is called constant volume acquisition (CVA). The volume aspirated by a FACS Calibur flow cytometer in 4 min...... at a high rate has a median of 163 microl (IQR 156-170) with TruCount tubes. Leukocyte concentrations of 26 healthy volunteers were measured twice on up to four occasions with a Bürker-Türk chamber, by single platform technology (SPT) with TruCount tubes and on the same data set using CVA. Total leukocyte...... concentrations determined by CVA correlated better with measurements in a Bürker-Türk (BT) chamber than with SPT. Concentrations determined with CVA were 1.86% higher than with BT whereas SPT data were 5.35% higher than BT (pconcentrations

  1. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V.


    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells. PMID:24445418

  2. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium (United States)

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.


    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  3. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.


    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  4. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of YKL-40 and Its Comparison with Mammalian Chitinase mRNAs in Normal Human Tissues Using a Single Standard DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Ohno


    Full Text Available YKL-40 (YKL for the first three N-terminal residues of a 40 kDa protein belongs to a group of human chitinase-like proteins (CLPs, which are similar to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. YKL-40 mRNA and its protein levels have been reported elevated in multiple disorders including asthma, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Here, we quantified the YKL-40 mRNA levels and compared them with chitinases and housekeeping genes in normal human tissues. To establish the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR system for evaluation of relative YKL-40 mRNA levels, we constructed a human standard DNA molecule by ligating cDNAs of YKL-40, two mammalian chitinases and two housekeeping genes in a one-to-one ratio. We generated cDNAs from various normal human tissues and analyzed the YKL-40 mRNA expression levels using a qPCR system with the standard DNA. We found that YKL-40 mRNA is present widely in human tissues while its expression patterns exhibit clear tissue specificity. Highest YKL-40 mRNA levels were detected in the liver, followed by kidney, trachea and lung. The levels of YKL-40 mRNA in the kidney and liver were more than 100-times higher than those of chitotriosidase mRNA. Our study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the relative expression levels of YKL-40 mRNA versus mammalian chitinases in normal human tissues.

  5. Isotope separation by rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoli, C.


    A steady-state model of a fully ionized plasma column in a concentric cylindrical electrodes structures is proposed to study the plasma separation properties of its singly ionized ionic species, composed of two isotopes of the element. In this model (a one-fluid model) rotation is imparted to the plasma column through the J (vector) x B (vector) interaction. Radial pressure balance is mainly between the radial component of the J (vector) x B (vector) force and the pressure gradient plus centrifugal force and the azimutal component of the J (vector) x B (vector) force is balanced purely by viscous force. A pressure tensor 31 describes the viscoys effect and the heat balance provides an equation for temperature. A uranium gas with is two main isotopes (U 235 and U 238 ) was used for the ionic component of the plasma. The computing code to solve the resulting, system of equations in tems of density, temperature, and velocity as functions of the radial independent variable was set up to yield solutions satisfying null velocity conditions on both boundaries (inner and outer electrodes). (M.A.F.) [pt

  6. Earth's variable rotation (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.


    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  7. The Rapidly Rotating Sun (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.


    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  8. Rotations, quaternions, and double groups

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Simon L


    This self-contained text presents a consistent description of the geometric and quaternionic treatment of rotation operators, employing methods that lead to a rigorous formulation and offering complete solutions to many illustrative problems.Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, the book begins with chapters covering the fundamentals of symmetries, matrices, and groups, and it presents a primer on rotations and rotation matrices. Subsequent chapters explore rotations and angular momentum, tensor bases, the bilinear transformation, projective representations, and the g

  9. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  10. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in crop plants by the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a calibration based on a single level standard addition in the sample. (United States)

    Viera, Mariela S; Rizzetti, Tiele M; de Souza, Maiara P; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato


    In this study, a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, optimized by a 2 3 full factorial design, was developed for the determination of 72 pesticides in plant parts of carrot, corn, melon, rice, soy, silage, tobacco, cassava, lettuce and wheat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Considering the complexity of these matrices and the need of use calibration in matrix, a new calibration approach based on single level standard addition in the sample (SLSAS) was proposed in this work and compared with the matrix-matched calibration (MMC), the procedural standard calibration (PSC) and the diluted standard addition calibration (DSAC). All approaches presented satisfactory validation parameters with recoveries from 70 to 120% and relative standard deviations≤20%. SLSAS was the most practical from the evaluated approaches and proved to be an effective way of calibration. Method limit of detection were between 4.8 and 48μgkg -1 and limit of quantification were from 16 to 160μgkg -1 . Method application to different kinds of plants found residues of 20 pesticides that were quantified with z-scores values≤2 in comparison with other calibration approaches. The proposed QuEChERS method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis and using an easy and effective calibration procedure presented satisfactory results for pesticide residues determination in different crop plants and is a good alternative for routine analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Marginal Peri-implant Bone-Level Short-Length Implants Compared with Standard Implants Supporting Single Crowns in a Controlled Clinical Trial: 12-Month Follow-up. (United States)

    Mendoza-Azpur, Gerardo; Lau, Miguel; Valdivia, Erick; Rojas, Jorge; Muñoz, Henry; Nevins, Myron

    In oral rehabilitation, crown-to-root ratio is accepted as an indicator of bone loss, and this concept was transferred to implants. Recent studies have indicated that there is no significant difference between short and standard implants. The aim of this study was to compare marginal bone-level alteration through radiographic evaluation and clinical parameters between short and standard implants supporting single crowns. This prospective clinical trial study included 82 systemically healthy, nonsmoking subjects. Patients were divided into two groups: one group for short dental implants measuring 5.5 or 7 mm, and one group for standard dental implants measuring 10 or 12 mm, in accordance with the individual needs of the patient. A clinical dental history was taken for each subject, including model casts, dental radiography, and cone beam computed tomography. A periapical analysis was also performed using ImageJ computer software to establish the initial bone measurement and periapical bone loss. A statistically significant difference was found in favor of the standard-length implants after 12 months, with greater gingival recession around the implant; however, bone loss in the short implants did not exceed 0.53 mm. The treatment with 5.5- to 7-mm-length implants is as reliable as treatment with 10- or 12-mm implants. Peri-implant bone loss is minimal, and therefore use of short implants can be recommended as treatment for the restoration of partially edentulous patients without the need for splinted crowns.

  12. Opioid prescribing patterns after Mohs micrographic surgery and standard excision: a survey of American Society for Dermatologic Surgery members and a chart review at a single institution. (United States)

    Harris, Kalynne; Calder, Scott; Larsen, Brooke; Duffy, Keith; Bowen, Glen; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam; Hadley, Michael; Endo, Justin


    Little is known about postoperative opioid prescribing patterns among dermatologic surgeons. To better understand postoperative opioid prescribing patterns among dermatologic surgeons in the United States. Two-part analysis consisting of a retrospective chart review of 233 dermatologic surgery patients at a single institution and an e-mail survey of American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) members. (1) Retrospective review: 35% (82/233) of the patients received an opioid prescription. Larger defect size, repair of the defect, perioral and nasal site, and surgeon A or B performing surgery predicted opioid prescription. (2) E-mail survey: 556 ASDS members practicing within the United States responded. Sixty-four percent (357/556) reported prescribing opioids after ≤10% of cases. Surgeons younger than 55 years old, male surgeons, and surgeons in the southern and western United States were more likely to prescribe opioids after >10% of cases. Seventy-six percent (397/520) believed patients used ≤50% of the opioid pills prescribed. The retrospective review suggests that opioid prescribing is predicted by characteristics of the surgery (i.e., size, defect repair type, and anatomic location) and characteristics of the surgeon (i.e., age, sex, and practice location) with significant heterogeneity in prescribing habits. The national survey results raise the possibility that patients might not take all prescribed opioid pills after dermatologic surgery. Further investigation is warranted to determine how patients are actually using prescription pain pills to balance pain control with patient safety.

  13. On the preparation of as-produced and purified single-walled carbon nanotube samples for standardized X-ray diffraction characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, Rula M.; Rivero, Iris V.; Spearman, Shayla S.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.


    The aim of this research was to specify proper sample conditioning for acquiring representative X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles for single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples. In doing so, a specimen preparation method for quantitative XRD characterization of as-produced and purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples has been identified. Series of powder XRD profiles were collected at different temperatures, states, and points of time to establish appropriate conditions for acquiring XRD profiles without inducing much change to the specimen. It was concluded that heating in the 300-450 deg. C range for 20 minutes, preferably vacuum-assisted, and then sealing the sample is an appropriate XRD specimen preparation technique for purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples, while raw samples do not require preconditioning for characterization. - Graphical Abstract: A sample preparation method for XRD characterization of as-produced and purified arc-discharge SWCNT samples is identified. The preparation technique seeks to acquire representative XRD profiles without inducing changes to the samples. Purified samples required 20 minutes of heating at (300-450)deg. C, while raw samples did not require preconditioning for characterization. Highlights: → Purification routines may induce adsorption onto the SWCNT samples. → Heating a SWCNT sample may result in material loss, desorption, and SWCNTs closing. → Raw arc-discharge samples do not require preparation for XRD characterization. → Heating is appropriate specimen preparation for purified and heat-treated samples. → XRD data fitting is required for structural analysis of SWCNT bundles.

  14. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard


    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  15. Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunlong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Yang, Wenjun [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)


    Purpose: To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process.Methods: A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D{sub 90} for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and {sup 192}Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D{sub 2cc} of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β= 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively.Results: For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes/fraction (min/fx) assuming a 10 Ci{sup 192}Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D{sub 90} was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D{sub 90} of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min/fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min/fx more. If an additional 20 min/fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D{sub 90} above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively

  16. Comparison of mobility and user satisfaction between a microprocessor knee and a standard prosthetic knee: a summary of seven single-subject trials. (United States)

    Howard, Charla L; Wallace, Chris; Perry, Bonnie; Stokic, Dobrivoje S


    Insufficient evidence of the benefits provided by costlier microprocessor knees (MPKs) over nonmicroprocessor knees (NMPKs) often causes concern when considering MPK prescription. Thus, more studies are needed to demonstrate differences between MPKs and NMPKs and define sensitive outcomes to guide MPK prescription. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of switching from NMPK to MPK on measures of mobility and preference. Seven long-term NMPK users (all men, ages 50-84, 3-64 years postamputation) participated in this study, which use a single-subject design (ABA or BAB; A=NMPK, B=MPK). Mobility was assessed with the Amputee Mobility Predictor, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), L-Test, 6-Min Walk Test (6MWT) with Physiological Cost Index, and self-selected normal and very fast gait speeds. The preference between NMPK and MPK was evaluated by the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ) and the visual analog scale. Mobility improved with the MPK in six of seven participants, which was most often captured with BBS (median: +6 points) and 6MWT (median: +63 m). These improvements typically exceeded minimal clinically important difference or minimal detectable change thresholds. Most participants scored the MPK higher on the PEQ (median: +20 points) and six of seven expressed a global preference toward MPK. In the BAB group, the Amputee Mobility Predictor and BBS correlated with perception of change on several PEQ domains (Ρ≥0.59). In conclusion, MPKs may provide better outcomes and user satisfaction, particularly in those with lower mobility function. BBS and 6MWT were found to be the most sensitive measures to capture changes in mobility while using MPK for several weeks.

  17. Rotational motions from the 2016, Central Italy seismic sequence, as observed by an underground ring laser gyroscope (United States)

    Simonelli, Andreino; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Di Virgilio, Angela; Maccioni, Enrico; De Luca, Gaetano; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner


    We present analyses of rotational and translational ground motions from earthquakes recorded during October-November, 2016, in association with the Central Italy seismic-sequence. We use co-located measurements of the vertical ground rotation rate from a large ring laser gyroscope (RLG), and the three components of ground velocity from a broadband seismometer. Both instruments are positioned in a deep underground environment, within the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). We collected dozen of events spanning the 3.5-5.9 Magnitude range, and epicentral distances between 40 km and 80 km. This data set constitutes an unprecedented observation of the vertical rotational motions associated with an intense seismic sequence at local distance. In theory - assuming plane wave propagation - the ratio between the vertical rotation rate and the transverse acceleration permits, in a single station approach, the estimation of apparent phase velocity in the case of SH arrivals or real phase velocity in the case of Love surface waves. This is a standard approach for the analysis of earthquakes at teleseismic distances, and the results reported by the literature are compatible with the expected phase velocities from the PREM model. Here we extend the application of the same approach to local events, thus exploring higher frequency ranges and larger rotation rate amplitudes. We use a novel approach to joint rotation/acceleration analysis based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Wavelet coherence (WTC) is used as a filter for identifying those regions of the time-period plane where the rotation rate and transverse acceleration signals exhibit significant coherence. This allows retrieving estimates of phase velocities over the period range spanned by correlated arrivals. Coherency among ground rotation and translation is also observed throughout the coda of the P-wave arrival, an observation which is interpreted in

  18. Rotation of the planet mercury. (United States)

    Jefferys, W H


    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  19. Optical isolation by Faraday rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Takeshi; Matsushima, Isao; Nemoto, Fusashi; Yano, Masaaki


    Three Faraday rotators designed as optical isolators in a high power glass laser system are described. The spatial fluctuation of applied magnetic field is less than 1% throughout the Faraday glass rod. The Faraday rotators transmit more than 80% of the forward-going laser light and reject more than 96% of the backward-going light. (author)

  20. Vortex suppression in the wake of counter rotating cylinders (United States)

    Dewey, Peter; Smits, Alexander J.


    Digital particle image velocimetry is used to study the flow past a pair of counter rotating cylinders placed side-by-side normal to the freestream flow direction. The Reynolds numbers based on cylinder diameter is varied from 100 to 200 and gap-to-diameter ratios of 1, 3 and 5 are considered. An unsteady wake consisting of a pair of von K'arm'an vortex streets is present in the flow field when the cylinders are rotated below a critical value. Above this critical value, counter rotation of the cylinders suppresses vortex formation. The critical rotational speed varies only slightly with Reynolds number but exhibits a strong dependence on the gap-to-diameter ratio. As the gap-to-diameter ratio increases, the critical rotational speed approaches values expected to suppress vortex formation for a single rotating cylinder, indicating that the wakes of the cylinder pair have more interaction for small gap-to-diameter ratios. At sufficiently high rotational speeds the streamlines around the cylinder pair resemble a doublet potential flow. The experiments were inspired by the computations performed by Andy Chan and Antony Jameson at Stanford University.

  1. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  2. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke


    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  3. Magnetospheric structure of rotation powered pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arons, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA) California Univ., Livermore, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)


    I survey recent theoretical work on the structure of the magnetospheres of rotation powered pulsars, within the observational constraints set by their observed spindown, their ability to power synchrotron nebulae and their ability to produce beamed collective radio emission, while putting only a small fraction of their energy into incoherent X- and gamma radiation. I find no single theory has yet given a consistent description of the magnetosphere, but I conclude that models based on a dense outflow of pairs from the polar caps, permeated by a lower density flow of heavy ions, are the most promising avenue for future research. 106 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxi Chen


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP, dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the dual 2-blade SRPs configuration or 4-blade SRP configuration under the same advance ratio, and the CRP configuration also gains the highest efficiency whether under the situation of providing the same trust or absorbing the same power. It concludes that, for a stratospheric airship, the CRP configuration is better than the multiple SRPs configuration or a multi-blade SRP one.

  5. The Størmer problem for an aligned rotator (United States)

    Epp, V.; Pervukhina, O. N.


    The effective potential energy of the particles in the field of rotating uniformly magnetized celestial body is investigated. The axis of rotation coincides with the axis of the magnetic field. Electromagnetic field of the body is composed of a dipole magnetic and quadrupole electric fields. The geometry of the trapping regions is studied as a function of the magnetic field magnitude and the rotation speed of the body. Examples of the potential energy topology for different values of these parameters are given. The main difference from the classical Størmer problem is that the single toroidal trapping region predicted by Størmer is divided into equatorial and off-equatorial trapping regions. Applicability of the idealized model of a rotating uniformly magnetized sphere with a vacuum magnetosphere to real celestial bodies is discussed.

  6. Magnetostrophic Rotating Magnetoconvection (United States)

    King, Eric; Aurnou, Jonathan


    Planetary magnetic fields are generated by turbulent convection within their vast interior liquid metal cores. Although direct observation is not possible, this liquid metal circulation is thought to be dominated by the controlling influences of Coriolis and Lorentz forces. Theory famously predicts that local-scale convection naturally settles into the so-called magnetostrophic state, where the Coriolis and Lorentz forces partially cancel, and convection is optimally efficient. To date, no laboratory experiments have reached the magnetostrophic regime in turbulent liquid metal convection. Furthermore, computational dynamo simulations have as yet failed to produce a globally magnetostrophic dynamo, which has led some to question the existence of the magnetostrophic state. Here, we present results from the first turbulent magnetostrophic rotating magnetoconvection experiments using the liquid metal gallium. We find that turbulent convection in the magnetostrophic regime is, in fact, maximally efficient. The experimental results clarify these previously disparate results, suggesting that the fluid dynamics saturate in magnetostrophic balance within turbulent liquid metal, planetary cores. The authors thank the NSF Geophysics Program for financial support.

  7. Rotating quantum Gaussian packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V V


    We study two-dimensional quantum Gaussian packets with a fixed value of mean angular momentum. This value is the sum of two independent parts: the ‘external’ momentum related to the motion of the packet center and the ‘internal’ momentum due to quantum fluctuations. The packets minimizing the mean energy of an isotropic oscillator with the fixed mean angular momentum are found. They exist for ‘co-rotating’ external and internal motions, and they have nonzero correlation coefficients between coordinates and momenta, together with some (moderate) amount of quadrature squeezing. Variances of angular momentum and energy are calculated, too. Differences in the behavior of ‘co-rotating’ and ‘anti-rotating’ packets are shown. The time evolution of rotating Gaussian packets is analyzed, including the cases of a charge in a homogeneous magnetic field and a free particle. In the latter case, the effect of initial shrinking of packets with big enough coordinate-momentum correlation coefficients (followed by the well known expansion) is discovered. This happens due to a competition of ‘focusing’ and ‘de-focusing’ in the orthogonal directions. (paper)

  8. Rotational Twin Paradox (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin


    Two twins settle on a massive spherical planet at a train station S. Let's consider that each twin has an accompanying clock, and the two clocks are synchronized. One twin T1 remains in the train station, while the other twin T2 travels at a uniform high speed with the train around the planet (on the big circle of the planet) until he gets back to the same train station S. Assume the planet is not rotating. Since the planet is massive, we can consider that on a very small part on its surface the train rail road is linear, so the train is in a linear uniform motion. The larger is the planet's radius the more the rail road approaches a linear trajectory. Because the GPS clocks are alleged to be built on the Theory of Relativity, one can consider the twin T2 train's circular trajectory alike the satellite's orbit. In addition, the gravitation is the same for the reference frames of T1 and T2. Each twin sees the other twin as traveling, therefore each twin finds the other one has aged slower than him. Thus herein we have a relativistic symmetry. When T2 returns to train station S, he finds out that he is younger than T1 (therefore asymmetry). Thus, one gets a contradiction between symmetry and asymmetry.

  9. A single-centre evaluation of two new anti-Mullerian hormone assays and comparison with the current clinical standard assay. (United States)

    Welsh, Paul; Smith, Karen; Nelson, Scott M


    .0%, P Gen II assay and may be suitable for clinical and epidemiological use. Enhanced sensitivity of the Ansh Labs picoAMH assay enables measurement of low AMH concentrations. These results re-emphasize the need for an AMH international standard. Ansh Labs provided kits for this study free of charge. The manufacturer played no part in conducting assays or data analysis. S.M.N. has received speaker's fees and participated in advisory boards for Beckman Coulter, Merck Serono, MSD and Ferring regarding AMH. P.W. is supported by British Heart Foundation fellowship FS/12/62/29889. We declare no other financial relationship or competing interests.

  10. Examining Rotational Ground Motion Induced by Tornados (United States)

    Kessler, Elijah; Dunn, Robert


    Ring lasers are well known for their ability to detect rotation and to serve as replacements for mechanical gyroscopes. The sensitivity of large ring lasers to various forms of ground motion is less familiar. Since ring lasers preferentially measure rotational ground motion and a standard seismograph is designed to measure translational and vertical ground motion, each device responds to different aspects of ground movement. Therefore, the two instruments will be used to explore responses to microseisms, earthquake generated shear waves, and in particular tornado generated ground movement. On April 27, 2014 an EF4 tornado devastated Vilonia, AR a small town ~ 21 km from the Hendrix College ring laser. The proximity of the tornado's path to the ring laser interferometer and to a seismograph located in Vilonia provided the opportunity to examine the response of these instruments to tornadic generated ground motion. Our measurements suggest tornadic weather systems can produce both rotational and lateral ground motion. This contention is supported by an after the fact damage survey which found that the tornado flattened a forest in which trees were uprooted and laid down in a pair of converging arcs with the centerline pointed in the direction of the tornado's path.

  11. Intense focused ultrasound stimulation of the rotator cuff: evaluation of the source of pain in rotator cuff tears and tendinopathy. (United States)

    Gellhorn, Alfred C; Gillenwater, Cody; Mourad, Pierre D


    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the ability of individual 0.1-s long pulses of intense focused ultrasound (iFU) emitted with a carrier frequency of 2 MHz to evoke diagnostic sensations when applied to patients whose shoulders have rotator cuff tears or tendinopathy. Patients were adults with painful shoulders and clinical and imaging findings consistent with rotator cuff disease. iFU stimulation of the shoulder was performed using B-mode ultrasound coupled with a focused ultrasound transducer that allowed image-guided delivery of precisely localized pulses of energy to different anatomic areas around the rotator cuff. The main outcome measure was iFU spatial average-temporal average intensity (I_SATA), and location required to elicit sensation. In control patients, iFU produced no sensation throughout the range of stimulation intensities (≤2000 W/cm(2) I_SATA). In patients with rotator cuff disease, iFU was able to induce sensation in the tendons of the rotator cuff, the subacromial bursa, and the subchondral bone in patients with chronic shoulder pain and rotator cuff disease, with an average ± standard deviation intensity equaling 680 ± 281 W/cm(2) I_SATA. This result suggests a primary role for these tissues in the pathogenesis of shoulder pain related to rotator cuff tendinopathy. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wave-driven rotation and mass separation in rotating magnetic mirrors (United States)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.

    Axisymmetric mirrors are attractive for fusion because of their simplicity, high plasma pressure at a given magnetic pressure, and steady state operation. Their subclass, rotating mirrors, are particularly interesting because they have increased parallel confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and a natural heating mechanism. This thesis finds and explores an unusual effect in supersonically rotating plasmas: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. Extending the alpha channeling concept to rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field is a particularly simple way to achieve the latter effect. In the rotating frame, this perturbation is seen as a wave near the alpha particle cyclotron harmonic, and can break the azimuthal symmetry and magnetic moment conservation without changing the particles total energy. The particle may exit if it reduces its kinetic energy and becomes more trapped if it gains kinetic energy, leading to a steady state current that maintains the field. Simulations of single particles in rotating mirrors show that a stationary wave can extract enough energy from alpha particles for a reactor to be self-sustaining. In the same way, rotation can be produced in non-fusion plasmas. Waves are identified to produce rotation in plasma centrifuges, which separate isotopes based on their mass difference. Finally, a new high throughput mass filter which is well suited to separating nuclear waste is presented. The new filter, the magnetic centrifugal mass filter (MCMF), has well confined output streams and less potential for nuclear proliferation than competing technologies. To assess the usefulness of the

  13. Toroidal rotation studies in KSTAR (United States)

    Lee, S. G.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; KSTAR Team


    Investigation of the toroidal rotation is one of the most important topics for the magnetically confined fusion plasma researches since it is essential for the stabilization of resistive wall modes and its shear plays an important role to improve plasma confinement by suppressing turbulent transport. The most advantage of KSTAR tokamak for toroidal rotation studies is that it equips two main diagnostics including the high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and charge exchange spectroscopy (CES). Simultaneous core toroidal rotation and ion temperature measurements of different impurity species from the XICS and CES have shown in reasonable agreement with various plasma discharges in KSTAR. It has been observed that the toroidal rotation in KSTAR is faster than that of other tokamak devices with similar machine size and momentum input. This may due to an intrinsically low toroidal field ripple and error field of the KSTAR device. A strong braking of the toroidal rotation by the n = 1 non-resonant magnetic perturbations (NRMPs) also indicates these low toroidal field ripple and error field. Recently, it has been found that n = 2 NRMPs can also damp the toroidal rotation in KSTAR. The detail toroidal rotation studies will be presented. Work supported by the Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under the KSTAR project.

  14. Rotational discontinuities in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.


    The kinetic structure of rotational discontinuities (RDs) in anisotropic plasmas with T perpendicular /T parallel > 1 is investigated by using a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. To form the RD, a new approach is used where the plasma is injected from one boundary and reflected from the other, resulting in the generation of a traveling fast shock and an RD. Unlike the previously used methods, no a priori assumptions are made regarding the initial structure (i.e. width or sense of rotation) of the rotational discontinuity. The results show that across the RD both the magnetic field strength and direction, as well as the plasma density change. Given that such a change can also be associated with an intermediate shock, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to confirm that the observed structures are indeed RDs. It is found that the thickness of RDs is a few ion inertial lengths and is independent of the rotation angle. Also, the preferred sense of rotation is in the electron sense; however, RDs with a rotation angle larger than 180 degree are found to be unstable, changing their rotation to a stable ion sense

  15. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)


    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  16. Single curved fiber sedimentation under gravity (United States)

    Xiaoying Rong; Dewei Qi; Junyong Zhu


    Dynamics of single curved fiber sedimentation under the gravity are simulated by using lattice Boltzmann method. The results of migration and rotation of the curved fiber at different Reynolds numbers are reported. The results show that the rotation and migration processes are sensitive to the curvature of the fiber.

  17. Rotational spectra and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wollrab, James E


    Physical Chemistry, A Series of Monographs: Rotational Spectra and Molecular Structure covers the energy levels and rotational transitions. This book is divided into nine chapters that evaluate the rigid asymmetric top molecules and the nuclear spin statistics for asymmetric tops. Some of the topics covered in the book are the asymmetric rotor functions; rotational transition intensities; classes of molecules; nuclear spin statistics for linear molecules and symmetric tops; and classical appearance of centrifugal and coriolis forces. Other chapters deal with the energy levels and effects of ce

  18. On the Rotating and Oscillating strings in $(AdS_3\\times S^3)_{\\varkappa}$

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Aritra


    We study rigidly rotating strings in the $\\varkappa$-deformed $AdS_3 \\times S^3$ background. We find out two classes of solutions corresponding to the giant magnon and single spike solutions of the string rotating is two $S^2_{\\varkappa}$ subspace of rotations reduced along two different isometries. We verify that the dispersion relations reduce to the well known relation in the $\\varkappa\\rightarrow 0$ limit. We further study some oscillating string solutions in the $S^3_{\\varkappa}$ subspace.

  19. Initial results of shoulder MRI in external rotation after primary shoulder dislocation and after immobilization in external rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennekamp, W.; Nicolas, V.; Gekle, C.; Seybold, D.


    Purpose: A change in the strategy for treating primary anterior traumatic dislocation of the shoulder has occurred. To date, brief fixation of internal rotation via a Gilchrist bandage has been used. Depending on the patient's age, a redislocation is seen in up to 90% of cases. This is due to healing of the internally rotated labrum-ligament tear in an incorrect position. In the case of external rotation of the humerus, better repositioning of the labrum ligament complex is achieved. Using MRI of the shoulder in external rotation, the extent of the improved labrum-ligament adjustment can be documented, and the indication of immobilization of the shoulder in external rotation can be derived. The aim of this investigation is to describe the degree of position changing of the labrum-ligament tear in internal and external rotation. Materials and Methods: 10 patients (9 male, 1 female, mean age 30.4 years, range 15-43 years) with a primary anterior dislocation of the shoulder without hyper laxity of the contra lateral side and labrum-ligament lesion substantiated by MRI were investigated using a standard shoulder MRI protocol (PD-TSE axial fs, PD-TSE coronar fs, T2-TSE sagittal, T1-TSE coronar) by an axial PD-TSE sequence in internal and external rotation. The dislocation and separation of the anterior labrum-ligament complex were measured. The shoulders were immobilized in 10 external rotation for 3 weeks. After 6 weeks a shoulder MRI in internal rotation was performed. Results: In all patients there was a significantly better position of the labrum-ligament complex of the inferior rim in external rotation, because of the tension of the ventral capsule and the subscapular muscle. In the initial investigation, the separation of the labrum-ligament complex in internal rotation was 0.44±0.27 mm and the dislocation was 0.45±0.33 mm. In external rotation the separation was 0.01±0.19 mm and the dislocation was -0.08±0.28 mm. After 6 weeks of immobilization in 10 external

  20. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.


    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  1. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain


    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  2. An Exercise in Rotational Motion. (United States)

    Mahoney, Brother James


    Describes an advanced high school physics experiment demonstrating rotational kinematics and dynamics, using simple equipment such as empty coffee cans, inclined planes, meter sticks, and a large 10-second demonstration timer. (CS)

  3. Redesigning the rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Henoc; Mentado, Juan; Amador, Patricia; Torres, Luis Alfonso; Campos, Myriam; Rojas, Aaron


    In order to obtain reliable data of the standard enthalpy of combustion of compounds containing sulfur or halogen atoms, a new calorimetric rotating-bomb system has been set up. Around a platinum lining Parr 1004 C combustion bomb, an isoperibolic calorimeter has been designed, constructed and tested. The calorimeter was calibrated by using standard benzoic acid and the resulting equivalent in energy was ε(calor)=(14321.2+/-2.4)J.K -1 . Combustion measurements using thianthrene were made in order to verify the accuracy of the device, leading to the value of Δ c u o =-(33462.9+/-5.7)J.g -1 , in agreement with the recommended one

  4. Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer (RSS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiedron, P; Schlemmer, J; Klassen, M


    The rotating shawdowband spectroradiometer (RSS) implements the same automated shadowbanding technique used by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), and so it too provides spectrally-resolved, direct-normal, diffuse-horizontal, and total-horizontal irradiances, and can be calibrated in situ via Langley regression. The irradiance spectra are measured simultaneously at all spectral elements (pixels) in 360-nm to 1050-nm range.

  5. Dynamics of granular flows down rotating semi-cylindrical chutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirsath, S.S.; Padding, J.T; Clercx, H.J.H.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Han, Yongshen; Ge, Wei; Wang, Junwu; Wang, Limin; Liu, Xinhua


    The behavior of spherical particles flowing down a three-dimensional chute, inclined at fixed angle, is commonly simulated by a discrete element method (DEM). DEM is nowadays a standard tool for numerical studies of e.g. gas-solid fluidized beds. We have modified DEM for the simulation of rotating

  6. A Circular Statistical Method for Extracting Rotation Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We propose a new method for the extraction of Rotation Measures from spectral polarization data. The method is based on maximum likelihood analysis and takes into account the circular nature of the polarization data. The method is unbiased and statistically more efficient than the standard 2 procedure.

  7. Control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor with contra-rotating rotors under unbalanced loads condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shuangyin; Luo, Derong; Huang, Shoudao


    This study presents an investigation into the control of an axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with contra-rotating rotors fed by a single inverter, which corresponds to two PMSM connected in series. In this study, the mathematic model of the PMSM with contra-rotating rotors...

  8. A high-precision mechanical absolute-rotation sensor. (United States)

    Venkateswara, Krishna; Hagedorn, Charles A; Turner, Matthew D; Arp, Trevor; Gundlach, Jens H


    We have developed a mechanical absolute-rotation sensor capable of resolving ground rotation angle of less than 1 nrad/√Hz above 30 mHz and 0.2 nrad/√Hz above 100 mHz about a single horizontal axis. The device consists of a meter-scale beam balance, suspended by a pair of flexures, with a resonance frequency of 10.8 mHz. The center of mass is located 3 μm above the pivot, giving an excellent horizontal displacement rejection of better than 3 × 10(-5) rad/m. The angle of the beam is read out optically using a high-sensitivity autocollimator. We have also built a tiltmeter with better than 1 nrad/√Hz sensitivity above 30 mHz. Co-located measurements using the two instruments allowed us to distinguish between background rotation signal at low frequencies and intrinsic instrument noise. The rotation sensor is useful for rotational seismology and for rejecting background rotation signal from seismometers in experiments demanding high levels of seismic isolation, such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory.

  9. Meridional flow and differential rotation by gravity darkening in fast rotating solar-type stars (United States)

    Rüdiger, G.; Küker, M.


    An explanation is presented for the rather strong total surface differential rotation of the observed very young solar-type stars like AB Dor and PZ Tel. Due to its rapid rotation, a non-uniform energy flux leaves the stellar core so that the outer convection zone is non-uniformly heated from below. Due to this ``gravity darkening'' of the equator, a meridional flow is created flowing equatorwards at the surface and thus accelerating the equatorial rotation. The effect linearly grows with the normalized pole-equator difference, epsilon , of the heat-flux at the bottom of the convection zone. A rotation rate of about 9 h leads to epsilon =0.1 for a solar-type star. In this case the resulting equator-pole differences of the angular velocity at the stellar surface, delta Omega , varies from unobservable 0.005 day-1 to the (desired) value of 0.03 day-1 when the dimensionless diffusivity factors cnu and cchi vary between 1 and 0.1 (standard value cnu =~ cchi =~ 0.3, see Table \\ref{tab1}). In all cases the related temperature differences between pole and equator at the surface are unobservably small. The (clockwise) meridional circulation which we obtain flows opposite to the (counterclockwise) circulation appearing as a byproduct in the Lambda -theory of the non-uniform rotation in outer convection zones. The consequences of this situation for those dynamo theories of stellar activity are discussed that work with the meridional circulation as the dominant magnetic-advection effect in latitude to produce the solar-like form of the butterfly diagram.

  10. Standardization and the European Standards Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Orviska


    Full Text Available Standardization is a relatively neglected aspect of the EU regulatory process and yet it is fundamental to that process and arguably has recently been the key vehicle in making the single market an economic reality. Yet the key standardization bodies in the EU, the ESOs, are scarcely known to the public and seldom discussed in the literature. In this article we redress this imbalance, arguing that standardization and integration are closely related concepts. We also argue that the ESOs have developed a degree of autonomy in expanding the boundaries of standardization and even in developing their own links with the rest of the world. Recent proposals put forward by the European Commission can be seen as an attempt to reduce that autonomy. These proposals emphasize the speed of, and stakeholder involvement in, standards production, which we further suggest are somewhat conflicting aims.

  11. Gender-Specific Effects of Artificially Induced Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah


    Men outperform women in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) by about one standard deviation. The present study replicated a gender belief account [Moe, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions! Effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369-377.] for (part of) this effect. A sample of 300…

  12. Rotating crystal pulse shaper for use on a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Carlile, C.J.


    A pulse shortening device is described for use on pulsed thermal neutron sources. The device employs rotating single crystals and has applications in the design of high resolution cold neutron spectrometers

  13. Impact of Axial Component Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty on Lower Limb Rotational Alignment: An In Vitro Study. (United States)

    Maderbacher, Guenther; Baier, Clemens; Springorum, Hans-Robert; Maderbacher, Hermann; Birkenbach, Anne-Maria; Benditz, Achim; Grifka, Joachim; Keshmiri, Armin


    Correct rotational implant alignment is associated with increased postoperative function and implant survival in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Due to conformity between tibial and femoral implants, particularly in full extension, we assumed a mutual interference of femoral and tibial component rotations. We, therefore, hypothesized that different rotational alignments of the tibial or femoral components change the rotational postures between the tibia and femur after TKA. In 10 healthy knees of whole body cadavers, TKA was performed. Both femoral and tibial components were implanted in different internal (6 degrees) and external (3 and 6 degrees) rotational alignments. Consequential osseous rotational changes between the tibia and the femur were measured in full extension using a commercial computer navigation device. External rotation of the femoral component resulted in significant external rotation of the tibia, while external rotation of the tibial component caused a significant internal rotation of the tibia. The opposite applied to femoral and tibial component internal rotations. Therefore, largest changes of the osseous tibiofemoral rotational postures were found by the combination of 6 degrees femoral component internal and 6 degrees tibial component external rotations (mean 11.2 degrees, standard deviation 5.0, p  alignment significantly affects lower limb rotational alignment. However, its clinical impact on forefoot progression, Q-angle, the patella, collateral, and cruciate ligaments, and surrounding soft tissues has to be clarified in further clinical and biomechanical studies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Coronary lesions quantification with dual-axis rotational coronary angiography. (United States)

    Unzué Vallejo, Leire; Delcán Domínguez, Juan Luis; Alegría Barrero, Ana; Medina Peralta, Juan; Rodríguez Rodrigo, Francisco José; Rodríguez-López, Jose Luis


    Coronary angiography (CA) has been the gold standard technique for studying coronary artery disease. It is based on the analysis of bidimensional orthogonal projections that may not be optimal to estimate determinate coronary segments. Rotational angiography "Xperswing" (DARCA) is a new technique that allows the visualization of the coronary arteries from multiple views, with a single contrast injection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the coronary lesions quantification with DARCA. Quantitative coronary analysis of significant coronary stenosis (>50%) was performed. Every lesion was measured in two different projections: the "optimal projection", obtained by DARCA and defined by the operator as the one with a better lesion qualification, and the "standard projection", corresponding to the usual projection closer to the optimal one in obliquity and angulation. Measures were performed twice and by two independent operators. Intra- and inter-observer correlation was estimated by Kappa index and variables were compared with t Student test (SPSS 14.0). 205 lesions in 147 patients were analyzed. Kappa coefficient intra-observer was 0.80 and 0.86 respectively with an inter-observer correlation index of 0.72. Lesion length and maximal diameter of the vessel were significantly greater in the group of RA. In the segments analysis, calculated length was longer for the first diagonal branch, first marginal obtuse artery, middle circumflex, middle and distal RCA and posterior descending artery, with greater reference diameters for proximal LAD and distal RCA. There were no significant differences for coronary stenosis grade. RA XperSwing provides a better visualization of coronary arteries improving lesions characterization, with longer measured lesions length and greater vessel diameters, especially in coronary segments with more angulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glenohumeral internal rotation measurements differ depending on stabilization techniques. (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E; Reinold, Michael M; Macrina, Leonard C; Porterfield, Ron; Devine, Kathleen M; Suarez, Kim; Andrews, James R


    The loss of glenohumeral internal rotation range of motion in overhead athletes has been well documented in the literature. Several different methods of assessing this measurement have been described, making comparison between the results of studies difficult. Significant differences in the amount of internal rotation range of motion exist when using different methods of stabilization. Descriptive laboratory study. THREE TECHNIQUES WERE USED BILATERALLY IN RANDOM FASHION TO MEASURE GLENOHUMERAL INTERNAL ROTATION RANGE OF MOTION: stabilization of the humeral head, stabilization of the scapula, and visual inspection without stabilization. An initial study on 20 asymptomatic participants was performed to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability for each measurement technique. Once complete, measurements were performed on 39 asymptomatic professional baseball players to determine if a difference existed in measurement techniques and if there was a significant side-to-side difference. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used. While interrater reliability was fair between all 3 methods, scapular stabilization provided the best intrarater reliability. A statistically significant difference was observed between all 3 methods (P < .001). Internal rotation was significantly less in the dominant shoulder than in the nondominant shoulder (P < .001). Differences in internal rotation range of motion measurements exist when using different methods. The scapula stabilization method displayed the highest intrarater reproducibility and should be considered when evaluating internal rotation passive range of motion of the glenohumeral joint. A standardized method of measuring internal rotation range of motion is required to accurately compare physical examinations of patients. The authors recommend the use of the scapula stabilization method to assess internal rotation range of motion by allowing normal glenohumeral arthrokinematics while stabilizing the

  16. Orientation dependence of the stress rupture properties of Nickel-base superalloy single crystals (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.


    The influence of orientation of the stress rupture behavior of Mar-M247 single crystals was studied. Stress rupture tests were performed at 724 MPa and 774 C where the effect of anisotropy is prominent. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals was rationalized on the basis of the Schmid factors for the operative slip systems and the lattice rotations which the crystals underwent during deformation. The stress rupture lives were found to be greatly influenced by the lattice rotations required to produce intersecting slip, because steady-state creep does not begin until after the onset of intersecting slip. Crystals which required large rotations to become oriented for intersecting slip exhibited a large primary creep strain, a large effective stress level at the onset of steady-state creep, and consequently a short stress rupture life. A unified analysis was attained for the stress rupture behavior of the Mar-M247 single crystals tested in this study at 774 C and that of the Mar-M200 single crystals tested in a prior study at 760 C. In this analysis, the standard 001-011-111 stereographic triangle was divided into several regions of crystallographic orientation which were rank ordered according to stress rupture life for this temperature regime. This plot indicates that those crystals having orientations within about 25 deg of the 001 exhibited significantly longer lives when their orientations were closer to the 001-011 boundary of the stereographic triangle than to the 001-111 boundary.

  17. Rotating optical cavity experiment testing Lorentz invariance at the 10-17 level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S.; Senger, A.; Moehle, K.; Nagel, M.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Peters, A.


    We present an improved laboratory test of Lorentz invariance in electrodynamics by testing the isotropy of the speed of light. Our measurement compares the resonance frequencies of two orthogonal optical resonators that are implemented in a single block of fused silica and are rotated continuously on a precision air bearing turntable. An analysis of data recorded over the course of one year sets a limit on an anisotropy of the speed of light of Δc/c∼1x10 -17 . This constitutes the most accurate laboratory test of the isotropy of c to date and allows to constrain parameters of a Lorentz violating extension of the standard model of particle physics down to a level of 10 -17 .

  18. Refueling system with small diameter rotatable plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.


    This patent describes a liquid-metal fastbreeder nuclear reactor comprising a reactor pressure vessel and closure head therefor, a reactor core barrel disposed within the reactor vessel and enclosing a reactor core having therein a large number of closely spaced fuel assemblies, and the reactor core barrel and the reactor core having an approximately concentric circular cross-sectional configuration with a geometric center in predetermined location within the reactor vessel. The improved refueling system described here comprises: a large controllably rotatable plug means comprising the substantial portion of the closure head, a reactor upper internals structure mounted from the large rotatable plug means. The large rotatable plug means has an approximately circular configuration which approximates the cross-sectional configuration of the reactor core barrel with a center of rotation positioned a first predetermined distance from the geometric center of the reactor core barrel so that the large rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the reactor core barrel; a small controllably rotatable plug means affixed to the large rotatable plug means and rotatable with respect thereto. The small rotatable plug means has a center of rotation which is offset a second predetermined distance from the rotational center of the large rotatable plug means so that the small rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the large rotatable plug means

  19. Rotational memory effect of a multimode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amitonova, Lyubov V.; Mosk, Allard P.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.


    We demonstrate the rotational memory effect in a multimode fiber. Rotating the incident wavefront around the fiber core axis leads to a rotation of the resulting pattern of the fiber output without significant changes in the resulting speckle pattern. The rotational memory effect can be exploited

  20. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.


    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  1. A technique to capture, analyze, and quantify anterior teeth rotations for application in court cases involving tooth marks. (United States)

    Bernitz, Herman; van Heerden, Willie F P; Solheim, Tore; Owen, Johanna H


    Anterior teeth within the human dentition have a specific numerical rotation value. Bite marks show an array of angled indentations, abrasions, microlacerations, and contusions. These marks generally represent the incisal surfaces of the suspect's dentition reflecting the rotation values of the teeth in the dental arch. This study described a method for capturing and analyzing anterior dental rotations. The rotations of individual anterior teeth within the study population were categorized as common, uncommon, and very uncommon according to Allen's classification. In the absence of a large number of incisal patterns present in a bite mark, a single but heavily weighted tooth rotation could be of equal discriminatory potential to several common rotation values. No prevalence studies quantifying individual tooth rotations are available. The measurement of each individual tooth rotation together with its individual discrimination potential will enhance the evaluation of the concordant features observed in bite marks.

  2. Discriminating the role of rotation and its gradient in determining ion stiffness mitigation in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baiocchi, B.; Mantica, P.; Giroud, C.


    the ion stiffness level. Enhanced toroidal field ripple (up to 1.5%) and external resonant magnetic fields are the two mechanisms used to try and decouple the rotation value from its gradient. In addition, shots with reversed toroidal field and plasma current, yielding counter-current neutral beam...... injection, were compared with standard co-injection cases. These tools also allowed varying the rotation independently of the injected power. Shots with high rotation gradient are found to maintain their low stiffness level even when the absolute value of the rotation was significantly reduced. Conversely...

  3. Rotating concentric homogeneous turbulence centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, W.C.


    A gas centrifuge and a method are described for the separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures, particularly for the enrichment of uranium by the evaporative, concurrent-flow and countercurrent-flow principles using Taylor circular Couette motion. Gaseous isotopes either alone or mixed with a carrier gas, more particularly uranium isotopes in mixture with uranium hexafluoride carrier gas, are fed to a rotor assembly of a gas centrifuge which comprises two concentric cylinders which may be rotated at the same or at different angular velocities and in the same or opposite directions to create centrifugal forces sufficient to diffuse the heavier fraction of the gas mixture to the periphery of the assembly and the lighter fraction towards the axial portion of the assembly. The rotor comprises an inner, perforate, rotatable cylinder and an outer, continuous, smooth-walled, rotatable cylinder concentric with the inner cylinder and defining an annulus therebetween. 14 claims, 5 figures

  4. Instabilities in coaxial rotating jets (United States)

    Ivanic, Tanja; Foucault, Eric; Pecheux, Jean; Gilard, Virginie


    The aim of this study is the characterization of the cylindrical mixing layer resulting from the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. The experimental part of this study was performed in a cylindrical water tunnel, permitting an independent rotation of two coaxial jets. The rotations are generated by means of 2×36 blades localized in two swirling chambers. As expected, the evolution of the main instability modes presents certain differences compared to the plane-mixing-layer case. Experimental results obtained by tomography showed the existence of vortex rings and streamwise vortex pairs in the near field region. This method also permitted the observation of the evolution and interaction of different modes. PIV velocity measurements realized in the meridian plans and the plans perpendicular to the jet axis show that rotation distorts the typical top-hat axial velocity profile. The transition of the axial velocity profile from jet-like into wake-like is also observed.

  5. Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror (United States)

    Li, Steven


    A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.

  6. Rotated balance in humans due to repetitive rotational movement (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Madera Milla, J.; López Diaz De Durana, A.; Cordente Martínez, C. A.; Rodríguez Romo, G.; Sillero Quintana, M.; Sampedro Molinuevo, J.


    We show how asymmetries in the movement patterns during the process of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet stance can be modeled by a set of coupled vector fields for the derivative with respect to time of the angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. In our model, which is an adaption of the model of Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004), the critical curve, defining the set of maximum angles one can lean to and still correct to regain balance, can be rotated and skewed so as to model the effects of a repetitive training of a rotational movement pattern. For the purposes of our study a rotation and a skew matrix is applied to the critical curve of the model. We present here a linear stability analysis of the modified model, as well as a fit of the model to experimental data of two characteristic "asymmetric" elite athletes and to a "symmetric" elite athlete for comparison. The new adapted model has many uses not just in sport but also in rehabilitation, as many work place injuries are caused by excessive repetition of unaligned and rotational movement patterns.

  7. Strongly interacting matter under rotation (United States)

    Jiang, Yin; Lin, Zi-Wei; Huang, Xu-Guang; Liao, Jinfeng


    The vorticity-driven effects are systematically studied in various aspects. With AMPT the distributions of vorticity has been investigated in heavy ion collisions with different collision parameters. Taking the rotational polarization effect into account a generic condensate suppression mechanism is discussed and quantitatively studied with NJL model. And in chiral restored phase the chiral vortical effects would generate a new collective mode, i.e. the chiral vortical wave. Using the rotating quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions as a concrete example, we show the formation of induced flavor quadrupole in QGP and estimate the elliptic flow splitting effect for Λ baryons.

  8. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.H.


    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  9. Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence (United States)

    Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)


    The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the

  10. Strongly interacting matter under rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yin


    Full Text Available The vorticity-driven effects are systematically studied in various aspects. With AMPT the distributions of vorticity has been investigated in heavy ion collisions with different collision parameters. Taking the rotational polarization effect into account a generic condensate suppression mechanism is discussed and quantitatively studied with NJL model. And in chiral restored phase the chiral vortical effects would generate a new collective mode, i.e. the chiral vortical wave. Using the rotating quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions as a concrete example, we show the formation of induced flavor quadrupole in QGP and estimate the elliptic flow splitting effect for Λ baryons.

  11. A simple method for accurate rotational positioning of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Aunan, Eirik; Østergaard, Daniel; Meland, Arn; Dalheim, Ketil; Sandvik, Leiv


    Background and purpose - There are many techniques for placing the femoral component in correct rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but only a few have been tested against the supposed gold standard, rotation determined by postoperative computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the accuracy and variability of a new method, the clinical rotational axis (CRA) method, and assessed the association between the CRA and knee function. Patients and methods - The CRA is a line derived from clinical judgement of information from the surgical transepicondylar axis, the anteroposterior axis, and the posterior condylar line. The CRA was used to guide the rotational positioning of the femoral component in 80 knees (46 female). At 3 years follow-up, the rotation of the femoral component was compared with the CT-derived surgical transepicondylar axis (CTsTEA) by 3 observers. Functional outcome was assessed with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and patient satisfaction (VAS). Results - The mean (95% CI) rotational deviation of the femoral component from the CTsTEA was 0.2° (-0.15°-0.55°). The standard deviation (95% CI) was 1.58° (1.36°-1.85°) and the range was from 3.7° internal rotation to 3.7° external rotation. No statistically significant association was found between femoral component rotation and KOOS, OKS, or VAS. Interpretation - The CRA method was found to be accurate with a low grade of variability.

  12. External Aerodynamics Simulations in a Rotating Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Cariglino


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a tool integrated in the UNS3D code, proprietary of Alenia Aermacchi, for the simulation of external aerodynamic flow in a rotating reference frame, with the main objective of predicting propeller-aircraft integration effects. The equations in a rotating frame of reference have been formulated in terms of the absolute velocity components; in this way, the artificial dissipation needed for convergence is lessened, as the Coriolis source term is only introduced in the momentum equation. An Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress turbulence model is used. The first assessment of effectiveness of this method is made computing stability derivatives of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Finally, steady Navier-Stokes and Euler simulations of a four-blade single-rotating propeller are presented, demonstrating the efficiency of the chosen approach in terms of computational cost.

  13. High spin rotations of nuclei with the harmonic oscillator potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerkaski, M.; Szymanski, Z.


    Calculations of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum have been performed recently. They are based on the liquid drop model of a nucleus and/or on the assumption of the single particle shell structure of the nucleonic motion. The calculations are usually complicated and involve long computer codes. In this article we shall discuss general trends in fast rotating nuclei in the approximation of the harmonic oscillator potential. We shall see that using the Bohr Mottelson simplified version of the rigorous solution of Valatin one can perform a rather simple analysis of the rotational bands, structure of the yrast line, moments of inertia etc. in the rotating nucleus. While the precision fit to experimental data in actual nuclei is not the purpose of this paper, one can still hope to reach some general understanding within the model of the simple relations resulting in nuclei at high spin. (author)

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Iodine Image of Dual-energy Computed Tomography at Rest: Comparison With 99mTc-Tetrofosmin Stress-rest Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging as the Reference Standard. (United States)

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Toyama, Takuji; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Seki, Ryotaro; Saito, Yuichiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Minoru; Arai, Masashi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Kurabayashi, Masahiko


    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) can be used for visual determination of iodine distribution in the myocardium (iodine image); however, the accuracy and reproducibility of the process remains debatable. Because of the low contrast-to-noise ratio of CT, we hypothesized that quantitative measurement may be more accurate for detecting myocardial ischemia. In this study, we evaluated our quantitative method by comparing it with visual analysis using Tc-tetrofosmin (TF) stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) as the reference standard. Forty-three patients who had a significant stenosis on cardiac rest DECT and had received Tc-TF stress-rest SPECT MPI within 1 month were retrospectively analyzed. The regions of interest were set on iodine images in accordance with the American Heart Association (AHA) 17-segment model (a total of 731 segments). The regions of interest values were divided by the amount of iodine (mg) per unit weight (kg) and defined as perfusion value (perfusion value analysis). All segments were also visually analyzed and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed to identify the superior analysis. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that perfusion value analysis is significantly superior to visual analysis [the area under the curve: 0.921 (95% confidence interval, 0.860-0.981) versus 0.685 (95% confidence interval, 0.580-0.791), respectively, PQuantitative analysis of the iodine image of rest DECT, called perfusion value analysis, is more accurate than visual analysis when compared with Tc-TF SPECT MPI as the reference standard.

  15. A novel method of measuring spatial rotation angle using MEMS tilt sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jian’an; Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Leping; Wu, Hao


    This paper presents a novel method of measuring spatial rotation angle with a dual-axis micro-electro-mechanical systems tilt sensor. When the sensor is randomly mounted on the surface of the rotating object, there are three unpredictable and unknown mounting position parameters: α , the sensor’s swing angle on the measuring plane; β , the angle between the rotation axis and the horizontal plane; and γ , the angle between the measuring plane and the rotation axis. Thus, the sensor’s spatial rotation model is established to describe the relationship between the measuring axis, rotation axis, and horizontal plane, and the corresponding analytical equations are derived. Furthermore, to eliminate the deviation caused by the uncertain direction of the rotation axis, an extra perpendicularly mounted, single-axis tilt sensor is combined with the dual-axis tilt sensor, forming a three-axis tilt sensor. Then, by measuring the sensors’ three tilts and solving the model’s equations, the object’s spatial rotation angle is obtained. Finally, experimental results show that the developed tilt sensor is capable of measuring spatial rotation angle in the range of  ±180° with an accuracy of 0.2° if the angle between the rotation axis and the horizontal plane is less than 75°. (paper)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, M.; Berger, E.; Reiners, A.


    We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the Very Large Array. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. As part of the survey we discovered radio emission from three new objects, 2MASS J 0518113 – 310153 (M6.5), 2MASS J 0952219 – 192431 (M7), and 2MASS J 1314203 + 132001 (M7), and made an additional detection of LP 349-25 (M8). Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at L rad /L bol ≈ 10 –7.5 above vsin i ≈ 5 km s –1 , similar to the relation in Hα and X-rays. However, at spectral types ∼> M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases significantly regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 ) exhibit 'super-saturation' in X-rays and Hα, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsin i ∼> 20 km s –1 have a higher radio detection fraction by about a factor of three compared to objects with vsin i ∼ –1 . When measured in terms of the Rossby number (Ro), the radio activity-rotation relation follows a single trend and with no apparent saturation from G to L dwarfs and down to Ro ∼ 10 –3 ; in X-rays and Hα there is clear saturation at Ro ∼ rad /R 2 * ) as a function of Ro. The continued role of rotation in the overall level of radio activity and in the fraction of active sources, and the single trend of L rad /L bol and L rad /R 2 * as a function of Ro from G to L dwarfs, indicates that rotation effects are important in regulating the topology or strength of magnetic fields in at least some fully convective dwarfs. The fact that

  17. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.


    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  18. Optimal Statistical Operations for 3-Dimensional Rotational Data: Geometric Interpretations and Application to Prosthesis Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Stavdahl


    Full Text Available Rotational data in the form of measured three-dimensional rotations or orientations arise naturally in many fields of science, including biomechanics, orthopaedics and robotics. The cyclic topology of rotation spaces calls for special care and considerations when performing statistical analysis of rotational data. Relevant theory has been developed during the last three decades, and has become a standard tool in some areas. In relation to the study of human kinematics and motion however, these concepts have hardly been put to use. This paper gives an introduction to the intricacies of three-dimensional rotations, and provides a thorough geometric interpretation of several approaches to averaging rotational data A set of novel, simple operators is presented. Simulations and a prosthetics-related real-world example involving wrist kinematics illuminate important aspects of the results. Finally generalizations and related subjects for further research are suggested.

  19. The Effect of Improved Sub-Daily Earth Rotation Models on Global GPS Data Processing (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Choi, K. K.


    Throughout the various International GNSS Service (IGS) products, strong periodic signals have been observed around the 14 day period. This signal is clearly visible in all IGS time-series such as those related to orbit ephemerides, Earth rotation parameters (ERP) and ground station coordinates. Recent studies show that errors in the sub-daily Earth rotation models are the main factors that induce such noise. Current IGS orbit processing standards adopted the IERS 2010 convention and its sub-daily Earth rotation model. Since the IERS convention had published, recent advances in the VLBI analysis have made contributions to update the sub-daily Earth rotation models. We have compared several proposed sub-daily Earth rotation models and show the effect of using those models on orbit ephemeris, Earth rotation parameters and ground station coordinates generated by the NGS global GPS data processing strategy.

  20. ITS Standards Advisory : Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) (United States)


    ITS Standards Advisories provide the transportation community with information and guidance on key activities related to ITS standards, with each Advisory focusing on a single ITS application and its corresponding standards. This advisory focuses on ...

  1. Optofluidic laser scanner based on a rotating liquid prism. (United States)

    Kopp, Daniel; Lehmann, Lukas; Zappe, Hans


    We demonstrate an electrowetting-actuated optofluidic system based on a rotatable liquid prism implemented as a two-dimensional laser scanner. The system is fabricated through a novel technology using a patterned flexible polymeric foil on which a high density of electrodes is structured and which is subsequently inserted into a cylindrical housing. The resulting radial electrode array is used for electrowetting actuation of two fluids filled into the cylinder, which allows a controllable tilt and orientation of the planar liquid interface and thus represents a tunable rotating prism. Finite element simulations and subsequent experimental verification show that this highly planar and precisely positionable liquid/liquid interface may be actuated to a deflection angle of ±6.4°, with a standard deviation of ±0.18°, and rotated 360° about the vertical axis. Power consumption is limited to several microwatts, and switching times of several hundred milliseconds were determined.

  2. Flexoelectric rotation of polarization in ferroelectric thin films. (United States)

    Catalan, G; Lubk, A; Vlooswijk, A H G; Snoeck, E; Magen, C; Janssens, A; Rispens, G; Rijnders, G; Blank, D H A; Noheda, B


    Strain engineering enables modification of the properties of thin films using the stress from the substrates on which they are grown. Strain may be relaxed, however, and this can also modify the properties thanks to the coupling between strain gradient and polarization known as flexoelectricity. Here we have studied the strain distribution inside epitaxial films of the archetypal ferroelectric PbTiO(3), where the mismatch with the substrate is relaxed through the formation of domains (twins). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal an intricate strain distribution, with gradients in both the vertical and, unexpectedly, the horizontal direction. These gradients generate a horizontal flexoelectricity that forces the spontaneous polarization to rotate away from the normal. Polar rotations are a characteristic of compositionally engineered morphotropic phase boundary ferroelectrics with high piezoelectricity; flexoelectricity provides an alternative route for generating such rotations in standard ferroelectrics using purely physical means.

  3. Fire resistance of single pitched-roof steel portal frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ferrán Gozálvez


    Full Text Available The standard procedure of structural fire design is based on the simplified analysis of single members. This method leads to conservative results in the case of structures able to redistribution of forces. The failure mechanism affecting both life safety and fire propagation is unknown. This work proposes a methodology for the advanced fire calculation of single pitched-roof portal frame for an agroindustrial building according to the Spanish Specifications with the structural software SAP2000. A non-linear dynamic and plastic, geometric (P-Delta and large-displacements calculation method has been developed. The different failure mechanisms and their influence are studied in terms of fire time resistance, human hazard and good safety. Also, parametric analyses were conducted: load level, rotational stiffness of the base and finally, support fire protection.

  4. Rotation in a gravitational billiard (United States)

    Peraza-Mues, G. G.; Carvente, Osvaldo; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    Gravitational billiards composed of a viscoelastic frictional disk bouncing on a vibrating wedge have been studied previously, but only from the point of view of their translational behavior. In this work, the average rotational velocity of the disk is studied under various circumstances. First, an experimental realization is briefly presented, which shows sustained rotation when the wedge is tilted. Next, this phenomenon is scrutinized in close detail using a precise numerical implementation of frictional forces. We show that the bouncing disk acquires a spontaneous rotational velocity whenever the wedge angle is not bisected by the direction of gravity. Our molecular dynamics (MD) results are well reproduced by event-driven (ED) simulations. When the wedge aperture angle θW>π/2, the average tangential velocity Rω¯ of the disk scales with the typical wedge vibration velocity vb, and is in general a nonmonotonic function of the overall tilt angle θT of the wedge. The present work focuses on wedges with θW=2π/3, which are relevant for the problem of spontaneous rotation in vibrated disk packings. This study makes part of the PhD Thesis of G. G. Peraza-Mues.

  5. Rotational diffusion in dense suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, M. H. J.; Frenkel, D.; Lowe, C.P.


    We have computed the rotational diffusion coefficient for a suspension of hard spheres. We find excellent agreement with experimental results over a density range up to, and including, the colloidal crystal. However, we find that theories derived to second order in the volume fraction overestimate

  6. Ultrasonography of the Rotator Cuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yong Cheol [Samsung Medica Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The ultrasonography (US) is an important modality in evaluating shoulder disease. It is accurate in diagnosing the various shoulder diseases including tendinosis, calcific tendinitis, and subacromial bursitis as well as rotator cuff tears. This article presents a pictorial review of US anatomy of the shoulder, the technical aspects of shoulder US, major types of shoulder pathology, and interventional procedure under US guidance

  7. Ultrasonography of the Rotator Cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Cheol


    The ultrasonography (US) is an important modality in evaluating shoulder disease. It is accurate in diagnosing the various shoulder diseases including tendinosis, calcific tendinitis, and subacromial bursitis as well as rotator cuff tears. This article presents a pictorial review of US anatomy of the shoulder, the technical aspects of shoulder US, major types of shoulder pathology, and interventional procedure under US guidance

  8. Visual and Haptic Mental Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shioiri


    Full Text Available It is well known that visual information can be retained in several types of memory systems. Haptic information can also be retained in a memory because we can repeat a hand movement. There may be a common memory system for vision and action. On the one hand, it may be convenient to have a common system for acting with visual information. On the other hand, different modalities may have their own memory and use retained information without transforming specific to the modality. We compared memory properties of visual and haptic information. There is a phenomenon known as mental rotation, which is possibly unique to visual representation. The mental rotation is a phenomenon where reaction time increases with the angle of visual target (eg,, a letter to identify. The phenomenon is explained by the difference in time to rotate the representation of the target in the visual sytem. In this study, we compared the effect of stimulus angle on visual and haptic shape identification (two-line shapes were used. We found that a typical effect of mental rotation for the visual stimulus. However, no such effect was found for the haptic stimulus. This difference cannot be explained by the modality differences in response because similar difference was found even when haptical response was used for visual representation and visual response was used for haptic representation. These results indicate that there are independent systems for visual and haptic representations.

  9. A rotating arc plasma invertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusch, M.F.; Jayaram, K.


    A device is described for the inversion of direct current to alternating current. The main feature is the use of a rotating plasma arc in crossed electric and magnetic fields as a switch. This device may provide an economic alternative to other inversion methods in some circumstances

  10. Holder for rotating glass body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolleck, F.W.


    A device is provided for holding and centering a rotating glass body such as a rod or tube. The device includes a tubular tip holder which may be held in a lathe chuck. The device can utilize a variety of centering tips each adapted for a particular configuration, such as a glass O-ring joint or semi-ball joint

  11. Rotational disorder in lithium borohydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remhof, Arndt; Yan, Yigang; Embs, Jan Peter; Sakai, Victoria Garcia; Nale, Angeloclaudio; de Jongh, Petra; Lodziana, Zbigniew; Zuettel, Andreas


    LiBH4 has been discussed as a promising hydrogen storage material and as a solid-state electrolyte in lithiumion batteries. It contains 18.5 wt% hydrogen and undergoes a structural phase transition at 381K which is associated with a large increase in rotational disorder of the [BH4](-) anion and the

  12. Transport due to rotational pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, S. M.; O'Neil, T. M.


    An effect which we call rotational pumping (by analogy with magnetic pumping) causes cross-field transport in nonneutral plasmas when the end confinement potentials are non-axisymmetric. Because the Debye length is small the asymmetries are screened out within the plasma, but cause the surface of the plasma to distort. As a flux tube of plasma undergoes ExB drift rotation about the center of the column, the length of the tube oscillates about some mean value and the P parallel dV work produces a corresponding oscillation in T parallel. In turn the collisional relaxation of T parallel toward T perpendicular produces a slow disspiation of electrostatic energy into heat and a consequent radial expansion (cross-field transport) of the plasma. Detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have been made for the case where the asymmetry is produced by displacing the column off-axis, that is, by creating an m=1 diocotron mode (see paper by Cluggish and Driscoll in these proceedings). The theory is generalized to include time dependent asymmetries. For the case where the asymmetry is a traveling wave that rotates faster than the ExB drift rotation of the plasma the particle flux is directed radially inward

  13. Complications of intertrochanteric rotational osteotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Weissman, B.N.; Sosman, J.L.; Drew, M.


    Intertrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy is a recently developed surgical procedure to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head. We reviewed the radiographic findings in four cases to acquaint radiologists with the usual appearance of the procedure and to assess surgical complications. In all cases, immediate postoperative radiographs showed rotation of the necrotic portion of the femoral head anteriorly so that it was no longer weight-bearing. Clinical and radiologic follow-up ranged from 12 to 30 months. In this time, three patients developed complications, including nonunion of the osteotomy, further osteonecrosis with collapse of the femoral head, and worsening pain in the absence of progressive radiologic change. Radiology provides an important means of assessing rotational osteotomy, particularly in demonstrating sufficient rotation of the femoral head to assure nonweight-bearing by diseased bone. Also, surgical complications such as nonunion and hardware loosening may be identified. Nevertheless, the patient may deteriorate clinically even in the absence of radiologic demonstration of disease pregression, and the absence of radiographic change does not assure a successful surgical outcome.

  14. Complications of intertrochanteric rotational osteotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Weissman, B.N.; Sosman, J.L.; Drew, M.


    Intertrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy is a recently developed surgical procedure to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head. We reviewed the radiographic findings in four cases to acquaint radiologists with the usual appearance of the procedure and to assess surgical complications. In all cases, immediate postoperative radiographs showed rotation of the necrotic portion of the femoral head anteriorly so that it was no longer weight-bearing. Clinical and radiologic follow-up ranged from 12 to 30 months. In this time, three patients developed complications, including nonunion of the osteotomy, further osteonecrosis with collapse of the femoral head, and worsening pain in the absence of progressive radiologic change. Radiology provides an important means of assessing rotational osteotomy, particularly in demonstrating sufficient rotation of the femoral head to assure nonweight-bearing by diseased bone. Also, surgical complications such as nonunion and hardware loosening may be identified. Nevertheless, the patient may deteriorate clinically even in the absence of radiologic demonstration of disease pregression, and the absence of radiographic change does not assure a successful surgical outcome. (orig.)

  15. Effect of once-daily, modified-release hydrocortisone versus standard glucocorticoid therapy on metabolism and innate immunity in patients with adrenal insufficiency (DREAM): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Isidori, Andrea M; Venneri, Mary Anna; Graziadio, Chiara; Simeoli, Chiara; Fiore, Daniela; Hasenmajer, Valeria; Sbardella, Emilia; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pozza, Carlotta; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Morrone, Stefania; Santoni, Angela; Naro, Fabio; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario; Lenzi, Andrea


    Conventional treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency involves administration of glucocorticoids multiple times a day and has been associated with weight gain and metabolic impairment. The optimal glucocorticoid replacement therapy for these patients is highly debated because of the scarcity of evidence from randomised trials. We aimed to establish whether the timing and pharmacokinetics of glucocorticoid replacement therapy affect the metabolism and immune system of patients with adrenal insufficiency. We did a single-blind randomised controlled trial at two reference university hospitals in Italy. Eligible patients (aged 18-80 years) with adrenal insufficiency were on conventional glucocorticoid therapy and had been stable for at least 3 months before enrolment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated random sequence stratified by type of adrenal insufficiency and BMI to continue conventional glucocorticoid therapy (standard treatment group) or to switch to an equivalent dose of once-daily, modified-release oral hydrocortisone (switch treatment group). Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was bodyweight change from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes included immune cell profiles, susceptibility to infections, and quality of life. Efficacy analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. This trial is registered with, NCT02277587. Between March 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016, 89 patients with adrenal insufficiency were randomly assigned to continue standard glucocorticoid therapy (n=43) or to switch to once-daily, modified-release hydrocortisone (n=46). At 24 weeks, bodyweight reduction was superior in patients in the once-daily hydrocortisone group compared with those in the standard treatment group (-2·1 kg [95% CI -4·0 to -0·3] vs 1·9 kg [-0·1 to 3·9]; treatment difference -4·0 kg, 95% CI -6·9 to -1·1; p=0·008). Additionally

  16. Air-structure coupling features analysis of mining contra-rotating axial flow fan cascade (United States)

    Chen, Q. G.; Sun, W.; Li, F.; Zhang, Y. J.


    The interaction between contra-rotating axial flow fan blade and working gas has been studied by means of establishing air-structure coupling control equation and combining Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational solid mechanics (CSM). Based on the single flow channel model, the Finite Volume Method was used to make the field discrete. Additionally, the SIMPLE algorithm, the Standard k-ε model and the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian dynamic grids technology were utilized to get the airflow motion by solving the discrete governing equations. At the same time, the Finite Element Method was used to make the field discrete to solve dynamic response characteristics of blade. Based on weak coupling method, data exchange from the fluid solver and the solid solver was processed on the coupling interface. Then interpolation was used to obtain the coupling characteristics. The results showed that the blade's maximum amplitude was on the tip of the last-stage blade and aerodynamic force signal could reflect the blade working conditions to some extent. By analyzing the flow regime in contra-rotating axial flow fan, it could be found that the vortex core region was mainly in the blade surface, the hub and the blade clearance. In those regions, the turbulence intensity was very high. The last-stage blade's operating life is shorter than that of the pre-stage blade due to the fatigue fracture occurs much more easily on the last-stage blade which bears more stress.

  17. Alternative Gravity Rotation Curves for the LITTLE THINGS Survey (United States)

    O’Brien, James G.; Chiarelli, Thomas L.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian; Moss, Robert; Chaykov, Spasen


    Galactic rotation curves have proven to be the testing ground for dark matter bounds in spiral galaxies of all morphologies. Dwarf galaxies serve as an increasingly interesting case of rotation curve dynamics due to their typically rising rotation curve as opposed to the flattening curve of large spirals. Dwarf galaxies usually vary in galactic structure and mostly terminate at small radial distances. This, coupled with the fact that Cold Dark Matter theories struggle with the universality of galactic rotation curves, allow for exclusive features of alternative gravitational models to be analyzed. Recently, The H I Nearby Galactic Survey (THINGS) has been extended to include a sample of 25 dwarf galaxies now known as the LITTLE THINGS Survey. Here, we show an application of alternative gravitational models to the LITTLE THINGS survey, specifically focusing on conformal gravity (CG) and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). In this work, we provide an analysis and discussion of the rotation curve predictions of each theory to the sample. Furthermore, we show how these two alternative gravitational models account for the recently observed universal trends in centripetal accelerations in spiral galaxies. This work highlights the similarities and differences of the predictions of the two theories in dwarf galaxies. The sample is not large or diverse enough to strongly favor a single theory, but we posit that both CG and MOND can provide an accurate description of the galactic dynamics in the LITTLE THINGS sample without the need for dark matter.

  18. macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars (United States)

    Kipping, David M.


    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

  19. The Complete Molecular Geometry of Salicyl Aldehyde from Rotational Spectroscopy (United States)

    Dorosh, O.; Bialkowska-Jaworska, E.; Kisiel, Z.; Pszczolkowski, L.; Kanska, M.; Krygowski, T. M.; Maeder, H.


    Salicyl aldehyde is a well known planar molecule containing an internal hydrogen bond. In preparing the publication of our previous report of the study of its rotational spectrum we have taken the opportunity to update the structure determination of this molecule to the complete r_e^{SE} geometry. The molecule contains 15 atoms and we have used supersonic expansion FTMW spectroscopy to obtain rotational constants for a total 26 different isotopic species, including all singly substitued species relative to the parent molecule. The ^{13}C and ^{18}O substitutions were measured in natural abundance, while deuterium substitutions were carried out synthetically. The r_e^{SE} determination requires the calculation of vibration-rotation changes in rotational constants from an ab initio anharmonic force field, which necessitates some compromises in the level of calculation for a molecule of the size of salicyl aldehyde. For this reason we studied the five lowest vibrationally excited states, by using the combination of room-temperature mm-wave spectroscopy and waveguide Fourier transform cm-wave spectroscopy. The experimental excited state rotational constants were then used to calibrate the anharmonic force field calculation. The resulting r_e^{SE} geometry is compared with other types of geometry determination possible from this data, with emphasis on the effect of the near zero principal coordinate of the important C_2 atom. Z.Kisiel et al., 61^{st} OSU Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, The Ohio State University, Ohio 2006, RI-12.

  20. Midplane Faraday rotation: A densitometer for large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.


    The density in a large tokamak such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), or any of the proposed future US machines, can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 μm laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n e (R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel inversion about the center line of the tokamak. For a large machine, operated at a full field of 30 T m and a density of 2x10 20 /m 3 , the rotation angle would be quite large-about 60 degree for two passes. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 ''fringe,'' the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that ITER, or any large tokamak, existing or proposed, would be well served even at low densities by a midplane Faraday rotation densitometer of ∼64 channels

  1. Integrated polymer polarization rotator based on tilted laser ablation (United States)

    Poulopoulos, Giannis; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Missinne, Jeroen; Bosman, Erwin; Van Steenberge, Geert; Apostolopoulos, Dimitrios; Avramopoulos, Hercules


    The ubiquitous need for compact, low-cost and mass production photonic devices, for next generation photonic enabled applications, necessitates the development of integrated components exhibiting functionalities that are, to date, carried out by free space elements or standard fiber equipment. The polarization rotator is a typical example of such tendency, as it is a crucial part of the PBS operation of future transceiver modules that leverage polarization multiplexing schemes for increasing the optical network capacity. Up to now, a variety of integrated polarization rotating concepts has been proposed and reported, relying, mainly, on special waveguide crossection configurations for achieving the rotation. Nevertheless, most of those concepts employ SiPh or III-V integration platforms, significantly increasing the fabrication complexity required for customizing the waveguide crossection, which in turn leads to either prohibitively increased cost or compromised quality and performance. In this manuscript we demonstrate the extensive design of a low-cost integrated polymer polarization rotator employing a right-trapezoidal waveguide interfaced to standard square polymer waveguides. First the crossection of the waveguide is defined by calculating and analyzing the components of the hybrid modes excited in the waveguide structure, using a Finite Difference mode solver. Mode overlaps between the fundamental polymer mode and each hybrid mode reveal the optimum lateral offset between the square polymer and the trapezoidal waveguide that ensures both minimum interface loss and maximized polarization rotation performance. The required trapezoidal waveguide length is obtained through EigenMode Expansion (EME) propagation simulations, while more than 95% maximum theoretical conversion efficiency is reported over the entire C-band, resulting to more than 13dB polarization extinction ratio. The polarization rotator design relies on the development of angled polymer waveguide

  2. Prediction of mandibular rotation: an empirical test of clinician performance. (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; West, E E


    An experiment was conducted in an attempt to determine empirically how effective a number of expert clinicians were at differentiating "backward rotators" from "forward rotators" on the basis of head-film information which might reasonably have been available to them prior to instituting treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion. As a result of a previously reported ongoing study, pre- and posttreatment head films were available for 188 patients treated in the mixed dentition for the correction of Class II malocclusion and for 50 untreated Class II subjects. These subjects were divided into 14 groups (average size of group, 17; range, 6 to 23) solely on the basis of type of treatment and the clinician from whose clinic the records had originated. From within each group, we selected the two or three subjects who had exhibited the most extreme backward rotation and the two or three subjects who had exhibited the most extreme forward rotation of the mandible during the interval between films. The sole criterion for classification was magnitude of change in the mandibular plane angle of Downs between the pre- and posttreatment films of each patient. The resulting sample contained 32 backward-rotator subjects and 32 forward-rotator subjects. Five expert judges (mean clinical experience, 28 years) were asked to identify the backward-rotator subjects by examination of the pretreatment films. The findings may be summarized as follows: (1) No judge performed significantly better than chance. (2) There was strong evidence that the judges used a shared, though relatively ineffective, set of rules in making their discriminations between forward and backward rotators. (3) Statistical analysis of the predictive power of a set of standard cephalometric measurements which had previously been made for this set of subjects indicated that the numerical data also failed to identify potential backward rotators at a rate significantly better than chance. We infer from these

  3. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Peter A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Conn, Kathleen G. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 (United States); Mallory, Clelia W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Mallory, Frank B. [Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 (United States); Rheingold, Arnold L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Rotkina, Lolita [Regional Nanotechnology Facility, Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter, University of Pennsylvania, 3231 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6202 (United States); Wang, Xianlong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology, 4 North Jianshe Rd., 2nd Section, Chengdu 610054 (China)


    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ mol{sup −1} range.

  4. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.


    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  5. Structure of molecules and internal rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Mizushima, San-Ichiro


    Structure of Molecules and Internal Rotation reviews early studies on dihalogenoethanes. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 8 chapters that evaluate the Raman effect in ethane derivatives, the energy difference between rotational isomers, and the infrared absorption of ethane derivatives. Some of the topics covered in the book are the potential barrier to internal rotation; nature of the hindering potential; entropy difference between the rotational isomers; internal rotation in butane, pentane, and hexane; and internal rotation in long chain n-paraffins. Other chapters deal wi

  6. Magneto-rotational instability in differentially rotating liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lakhin, V.P.; Serebrennikov, K.S.


    We study the stability of Couette flow between two cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field in local WKB approximation. We find the analytical expression of the critical angular velocity minimized over the wave number and the imposed magnetic field as a function of the measure of deviation of the rotation law from the Rayleigh line. The result found is in a good agreement with the previously known numerical results based on the global analysis. We perform a minimization of the critical Reynolds number over the wave number at fixed magnetic field both analytically and numerically. We show that a compromise between resistive suppression of magneto-rotational instability at weak magnetic field and the increase of the critical Reynolds number with the increase of magnetic field is possible. It takes place at moderate values of magnetic field of order 3x10 2 gauss giving the critical Reynolds number of order 4x10 4

  7. Nonclassical rotational inertia for a supersolid under rotation


    Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Jerrard, Robert L.


    As proposed by Leggett [4], the supersolidity of a crystal is characterized by the Non Classical Rotational Inertia (NCRI) property. Using a model of quantum crystal introduced by Josserand, Pomeau and Rica [5], we prove that NCRI occurs. This is done by analyzing the ground state of the aforementioned model, which is related to a sphere packing problem, and then deriving a theoretical formula for the inertia momentum. We infer a lower estimate for the NCRI fraction, which is a landmark of su...

  8. A randomized clinical trial comparing plaque removal efficacy of an oscillating-rotating power toothbrush to a manual toothbrush by multiple examiners. (United States)

    Kurtz, B; Reise, M; Klukowska, M; Grender, J M; Timm, H; Sigusch, B W


    To determine whether multiple examiners can demonstrate consistent plaque removal advantages for an oscillating-rotating power toothbrush versus a manual toothbrush. This was a replicate-use, single brushing, examiner-blind, randomized, two-treatment, four-period crossover clinical trial involving four examiners. Subjects were randomized to one of four treatment sequences involving two toothbrushes: an oscillating-rotating power toothbrush or a manual toothbrush. At each of the four visits, subjects arrived having abstained from oral hygiene for 24 h prior, and brushed with their assigned toothbrush and a marketed fluoride dentifrice under supervision unaided by a mirror. Plaque was assessed by each examiner using the Turesky-Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at each study period before and after brushing. Data was analysed separately for each examiner using the analysis of covariance for crossover design. Ninety-five subjects between the ages of 18 and 70 met the entrance criteria and were enrolled in the study. Eighty-seven subjects completed all four periods of the study. Both brushes delivered a significant plaque reduction when compared to baseline. Significant treatment differences were observed for all four examiners - ranging from 0.10 to 0.16 - in favor of the oscillating-rotating brush (P toothbrush removed significantly more plaque after a single brushing than the standard manual toothbrush. Both brushes were well tolerated. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils


    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  10. Evaluation of the clinical and aesthetic outcomes of Straumann(®) Standard Plus implants supported single crowns placed in non-augmented healed sites in the anterior maxilla: a 5-8 years retrospective study. (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Shi, Jun-Yu; Uemura, Naoya; Arai, Korenori; Lai, Hong-Chang


    To evaluate the long-term aesthetic outcome of the single crowns supported by soft tissue level implants placed in healed sites in the anterior maxilla region via the pink aesthetic score (PES) and the white aesthetic score (WES). According to the inclusion criteria, patients who had received a single Straumann(®) Standard Plus implant in the anterior maxilla at the Shanghai 9th People's Hospital between 2005 and 2008 were invited for a re-examination based on a number of inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Clinical, radiographic and aesthetic outcomes (PES/WES) were assessed during their revisit at 5-8 years after crown placement. Forty-five patients were enrolled in the study. All 45 implants were successfully integrated and most of the implants did not show signs of peri-implant disease at the time of the assessment. The marginal bone resorption was 1.10 ± 0.92 mm. The mean total PES was 8.48 ± 2.62 at the baseline, 9.57 ± 2.37 at the 6-10 months revisit and 9.01 ± 2.45 at the 5-8 years follow-up. The scores of the mesial and distal papillae increased significantly between the baseline and 6-10 months follow-up, this improvement remained stable at the 5-8 years follow-up. The scores of soft tissue level, colour of the soft tissue, soft tissue texture and the alveolar process decreased significantly between the 6-10 months and 5-8 years revisits. The mean WES was 7.83 ± 1.60 at the baseline and 7.72 ± 1.43 at the 5-8 years revisit. There was no significant difference of the WES between the baseline and 5-8 years revisit. The possibility of spontaneous papillae regeneration after implant treatment and the long-term stability of the regenerated papillae were confirmed. However, recession of the facial soft tissue has been found. The incidence of the recession at thin biotype sites tended to be higher. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Aerospike Nozzle for Rotating Detonation Engine Application (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a graduate MS research thesis on improving the efficiency of rotating detonation engines by using aerospike nozzle technologies. A rotating...

  12. Transformation of Real Spherical Harmonics under Rotations (United States)

    Romanowski, Z.; Krukowski, St.; Jalbout, A. F.


    The algorithm rotating the real spherical harmonics is presented. The convenient and ready to use formulae for l = 0, 1, 2, 3 are listed. The rotation in R3 space is determined by the rotation axis and the rotation angle; the Euler angles are not used. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. (i) Express the real spherical harmonics as the linear combination of canonical polynomials. (ii) Rotate the canonical polynomials. (iii) Express the rotated canonical polynomials as the linear combination of real spherical harmonics. Since the three step procedure can be treated as a superposition of rotations, the searched rotation matrix for real spherical harmonics is a product of three matrices. The explicit formulae of matrix elements are given for l = 0, 1, 2, 3, what corresponds to s, p, d, f atomic orbitals.

  13. SEG Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Bob


    Significant advancements in the development of sensors to enable rotational seismic measurements have been achieved. Prototypes are available now to support experiments that help validate the utility of rotational seismic measurements.

  14. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes


    Myung, Yun Soo


    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  15. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.


    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e 2 ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a E ), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a E , it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a E . We find that the extremal value a E is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  16. Rotation sensing with trapped ions (United States)

    Campbell, W. C.; Hamilton, P.


    We present a protocol for rotation measurement via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry using trapped ions. The ion trap based interferometer encloses a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without contrast loss. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb-Dicke regime, Doppler laser cooling should be sufficient to reach a sensitivity of { S }=1.4× {10}-6 {{rad}} {{{s}}}-1 {{{H}}{{z}}}-1/2. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Wes Campbell was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  17. Understand rotating isothermal collapses yet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohline, J.E.


    A scalar virial equation is used to describe the dynamic properties of equilibrium gas clouds, taking into account the relative effects of surface pressure, rotation, self gravity and internal isothermal pressure. Details concerning the internal structure of the clouds are ignored in order to obtain a globalized analytical expression. The obtained solution to the equation is found to agree with the surface-pressure-dominated model of Stahler (1983), and the rotation-dominated model of Hayashi, Narita, and Miyama (1982). On the basis of the analytical expression of virial equilibrium in the clouds, some of the limiting properties of isothermal clouds are described, and a realistic starting model for cloud collapse is proposed. 18 references

  18. Alignment of suprathermally rotating grains (United States)

    Lazarian, A.


    It is shown that mechanical alignment can be efficient for suprathermally rotating grains, provided that they drift with supersonic velocities. Such a drift should be widely spread due to both Alfvenic waves and ambipolar diffusion. Moreover, if suprathermal rotation is caused by grain interaction with a radiative flux, it is shown that mechanical alignment may be present even in the absence of supersonic drift. This means that the range of applicability of mechanical alignment is wider than generally accepted and that it can rival the paramagnetic one. We also study the latter mechanism and re-examine the interplay between poisoning of active sites and desorption of molecules blocking the access to the active sites of H_2 formation, in order to explain the observed poor alignment of small grains and good alignment of large grains. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of alignment, we briefly discuss the alignment by radiation fluxes and by grain magnetic moments.

  19. Tidal variations of earth rotation (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.


    The periodic variations of the earths' rotation resulting from the tidal deformation of the earth by the sun and moon were rederived including terms with amplitudes of 0.002 millisec and greater. The series applies to the mantle, crust, and oceans which rotate together for characteristic tidal periods; the scaling parameter is the ratio of the fraction of the Love number producing tidal variations in the moment of inertia of the coupled mantle and oceans (k) to the dimensionless polar moment of inertia of the coupled moments (C). The lunar laser ranging data shows that k/C at monthly and fortnightly frequencies equals 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 0.99 + or - 0.20 as compared to the theoretical value of 0.94 + or - 0.04.

  20. Secular stability of rotating stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, J.N.; Friedman, J.L.; Durisen, R.H.


    In this work, we calculate the secular stability limits of rotating polytropes to nonaxisymmetric perturbations of low m. We consider polytropic indices ranging from 1 to 3 and several angular momentum distributions. Results are most conveniently presented in terms of the t-parameter, defined as the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the absolute value of the gravitational energy of the fluid. Previous work on polytropes considered only the m = 2 mode, which is unstable for values of the t-parameter greater than 0.14 +- 0.01 for the n values n = 1.5 and 3 and the angular momentum distributions tested (see Durisen and Imamura 1981). The GRR secular stability limit of the m = 2 mode for the Maclaurin spheroids (n = O) was determined by Chandrasekhar (1970). GRR stability limits of higher m modes for the Maclaurin spheroids were located approximately by Comins (1979a,b) and more precisely by Friedman (1983)

  1. Accelerating and rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J B; Podolsky, J


    An exact solution of Einstein's equations which represents a pair of accelerating and rotating black holes (a generalized form of the spinning C-metric) is presented. The starting point is a form of the Plebanski-Demianski metric which, in addition to the usual parameters, explicitly includes parameters which describe the acceleration and angular velocity of the sources. This is transformed to a form which explicitly contains the known special cases for either rotating or accelerating black holes. Electromagnetic charges and a NUT parameter are included, the relation between the NUT parameter l and the Plebanski-Demianski parameter n is given, and the physical meaning of all parameters is clarified. The possibility of finding an accelerating NUT solution is also discussed

  2. Active media under rotational forcing (United States)

    Pérez-Villar, Vicente; Porteiro, Jose L. F.; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.


    The bubble-free Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction has been used to study the effects of centrifugal forces on autowave propagation. The reaction parameters were chosen such that the system oscillates naturally creating target waves. In the present study, the system was forced to rotate with a constant velocity around a central axis. In studying the effects of such a forcing on the system, we focused on target dynamics. The system reacts to this forcing in different ways, the most spectacular being a dramatic increase in the period of the target, the effect growing stronger as we move away from the center of rotation. A numerical study was carried out using the two-variable Oregonator model, modified to include convective effects through the diffusion coefficient. The numerical results showed a good qualitative agreement with those of the experiments.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Florido, E.; Battaner, E.


    Recent observations of the rotation curve of M31 show a rise of the outer part that cannot be understood in terms of standard dark matter models or perturbations of the galactic disk by M31's satellites. Here, we propose an explanation of this dynamical feature based on the influence of the magnetic field within the thin disk. We have considered standard mass models for the luminous mass distribution, a Navarro-Frenk-White model to describe the dark halo, and we have added up the contribution to the rotation curve of a magnetic field in the disk, which is described by an axisymmetric pattern. Our conclusion is that a significant improvement of the fit in the outer part is obtained when magnetic effects are considered. The best-fit solution requires an amplitude of ∼4 μG with a weak radial dependence between 10 and 38 kpc.

  4. Perceptual strategies of pigeons to detect a rotational centre--a hint for star compass learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Alert

    Full Text Available Birds can rely on a variety of cues for orientation during migration and homing. Celestial rotation provides the key information for the development of a functioning star and/or sun compass. This celestial compass seems to be the primary reference for calibrating the other orientation systems including the magnetic compass. Thus, detection of the celestial rotational axis is crucial for bird orientation. Here, we use operant conditioning to demonstrate that homing pigeons can principally learn to detect a rotational centre in a rotating dot pattern and we examine their behavioural response strategies in a series of experiments. Initially, most pigeons applied a strategy based on local stimulus information such as movement characteristics of single dots. One pigeon seemed to immediately ignore eccentric stationary dots. After special training, all pigeons could shift their attention to more global cues, which implies that pigeons can learn the concept of a rotational axis. In our experiments, the ability to precisely locate the rotational centre was strongly dependent on the rotational velocity of the dot pattern and it crashed at velocities that were still much faster than natural celestial rotation. We therefore suggest that the axis of the very slow, natural, celestial rotation could be perceived by birds through the movement itself, but that a time-delayed pattern comparison should also be considered as a very likely alternative strategy.

  5. TERA for Rotating Equipment Selection


    Khan, Raja S. R.


    This thesis looks at creating a multidisciplinary simulation tool for rotating plant equipment selection, specifically gas turbines, for the liquefaction of natural gas (LNG). This is a collaborative project between Shell Global Solutions and Cranfield University in the UK. The TERA LNG tool uses a Techno-economic, Environmental and Risk Analysis (TERA) approach in order to satisfy the multidisciplinary nature of the investigation. The benefits of the tool are to act as an aid ...

  6. Muon spin rotation in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladisch, M.; Orth, H.; Putlitz, G. zu; Wahl, W.; Wigand, M.; Herlach, D.; Seeger, A.; Metz, H.; Teichler, H.


    By means of the muon spin rotation technique (μ + SR), the temperature dependence of the magnetic field inside the normal-conducting domains of high-purity tantalum crystals in the intermediate state has been measured in the temperature range 2.36 K + SR. Possible applications of these findings to the study of long-range diffusion of positive muons at low temperatures are indicated. (Auth.)

  7. Rotation of a Moonless Earth (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.


    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  8. Operating characteristics of rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, M.; Gardner, N.C.


    Vapor-liquid contacting in high gravitational fields offers prospects for significant reductions in the physical size, capital, and operating costs of packed towers. Pressure drops, power requirements, mass transfer coefficients and liquid residence time distributions are reported for a rotating bed separator. The beds studied were rigid, foamed aluminum, with specific surface areas ranging from 650 to 3000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 2}. Gravitational fields were varied from 50 to 300g.

  9. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume. (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz


    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.

  10. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery using colon-lifting technique for colorectal cancer: a matched case-control comparison with standard multiport laparoscopic surgery in terms of short-term results and access instrument cost. (United States)

    Fujii, Shoichi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Jun; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Shigeru; Tatsumi, Kenji; Suwa, Hirokazu; Kunisaki, Chikara; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Endo, Itaru


    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has been used for colorectal cancer as a minimally invasive procedure. However, there are still difficulties concerning effective triangulation and countertraction. The study's purpose was to clarify the usefulness of the colon-lifting technique (CLT) in SILS for colorectal cancer. SILS was performed for cancer (cT2N0 or less) of the right-sided colon (near the ileocecum), sigmoid, or rectosigmoid. The SILS™ Port was used for transumbilical access. A suture string was inserted through the abdominal wall and passed through the mesocolon. The colon was retracted anteriorly and fixed to the abdominal wall. The main mesenteric vessels were placed under tension. Lymph node dissection was performed by medial approach. Short-term surgical outcomes and access port costs were compared between SILS (using CLT) and the standard multiport technique (MPT). The two groups were case-matched by propensity scoring. Analyzed variables included preoperative Dukes stage and tumor location. From June 2009 to April 2011, 27 patients underwent SILS, and from April 2005 to April 2011, 85 patients underwent MPT. Propensity scoring generated 23 matched patients per group for SILS versus MPT comparisons. There were no significant differences in operating time, blood loss, early complications, postoperative analgesic frequency, or length of hospital stay. One MPT patient was converted to open surgery (4.5%); no SILS patients were converted. There were no significant differences in the length of distal cut margin and the number of harvested lymph nodes, except incision length (SILS vs. MPT: 33 vs. 55 mm, P Japanese yen, P CLT was safe and effective in providing radical treatment of cT2N0 cancer in the right-sided colon, sigmoid, or rectosigmoid. SILS was advantageous with respect to cosmesis and lower cost of access instruments.

  11. Gravity controlled anti-reverse rotation device (United States)

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wetherill, Todd M.


    A gravity assisted anti-reverse rotation device for preventing reverse rotation of pumps and the like. A horizontally mounted pawl is disposed to mesh with a fixed ratchet preventing reverse rotation when the pawl is advanced into intercourse with the ratchet by a vertically mounted lever having a lumped mass. Gravitation action on the lumped mass urges the pawl into mesh with the ratchet, while centrifugal force on the lumped mass during forward, allowed rotation retracts the pawl away from the ratchet.

  12. Engineering Aspects of Single- and Twin-screw Extrusion-cooking of Biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilichem, D.J. van; Stolp, W.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.


    A survey is given of the properties of single- and twin-screw extruders. The influence on the design of the different leakage gaps existing in co-rotating, counter-rotating, self-wiping, twin-screw extruders and single-screw equipment is discussed. The mixing effects in single- and twin-screw

  13. Developing an Asteroid Rotational Theory (United States)

    Geis, Gena; Williams, Miguel; Linder, Tyler; Pakey, Donald


    The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical asteroid rotational theory from first principles. Starting at first principles provides a firm foundation for computer simulations which can be used to analyze multiple variables at once such as size, rotation period, tensile strength, and density. The initial theory will be presented along with early models of applying the theory to the asteroid population. Early results confirm previous work by Pravec et al. (2002) that show the majority of the asteroids larger than 200m have negligible tensile strength and have spin rates close to their critical breakup point. Additionally, results show that an object with zero tensile strength has a maximum rotational rate determined by the object’s density, not size. Therefore, an iron asteroid with a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would have a minimum spin period of 1.16h if the only forces were gravitational and centrifugal. The short-term goal is to include material forces in the simulations to determine what tensile strength will allow the high spin rates of asteroids smaller than 150m.

  14. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V


    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  15. From Newton's bucket to rotating polygons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, B.; Linnartz, E. C.; Vested, Malene Louise Hovgaard


    and move from a rigidly rotating 'Newton's bucket' flow to one where bottom and cylinder wall are rotating oppositely and the surface is strongly turbulent but flat on average. Between those two extremes, we find polygonal states for which the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken. We investigate...

  16. Rotating Polygons on a Fluid Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Jansson, Thomas; Haspang, Martin

    The free surface of a rotating fluid will, due to the centrifugal force, be pressed radially outward. If the fluid rotates as a rigid body in a cylindrical container the surface will assume a parabolic shape. If, however, the flow is driven by rotating the bottom plate, the axial symmetry can break...

  17. Investigation of antimagnetic rotation in 100Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.; Garg, U.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Frauendorf, S.; Kharraja, B.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.


    High spin states have been studied in the nucleus 100 Pd with the aim of investigating the novel phenomenon of ''antimagnetic rotation.'' A cascade of four ''rotational-band-like'' transitions is proposed as corresponding to antimagnetic rotation, based on the observed spectroscopic properties and a comparison with calculations in the configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky formalism

  18. On the Energy of Rotating Gravitational Waves


    Mashhoon, Bahram; McClune, James C.; Chavez, Enrique; Quevedo, Hernando


    A class of solutions of the gravitational field equations describing vacuum spacetimes outside rotating cylindrical sources is presented. A subclass of these solutions corresponds to the exterior gravitational fields of rotating cylindrical systems that emit gravitational radiation. The properties of these rotating gravitational wave spacetimes are investigated. In particular, we discuss the energy density of these waves using the gravitational stress-energy tensor.

  19. Manual Training of Mental Rotation in Children (United States)

    Wiedenbauer, Gunnar; Jansen-Osmann, Petra


    When deciding whether two stimuli rotated in space are identical or mirror reversed, subjects employ mental rotation to solve the task. In children mental rotation can be trained by extensive repetition of the task, but the improvement seems to rely on the retrieval of previously learned stimuli. We assumed that due to the close relation between…

  20. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality (United States)

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.


    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  1. Measuring Stellar Rotation Periods with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. B.; Gizon, L.; Schunker, H.


    We measure rotation periods for 12151 stars in the Kepler field, based on photometric variability caused by stellar activity. Our analysis returns stable rotation periods over at least six out of eight quarters of Kepler data. This large sample of stars enables us to study rotation periods...

  2. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis? (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.


    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  3. Todo Alumno: Un Manual de Recursos de PEER sobre Educacion Basada en Normas y Alumnos con Discapacidades (Every Single Student: A PEER Resource Manual on Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities). (United States)

    Landau, Julia K., Ed.; Romano, Carolyn A., Ed.; Vohs, Janet R., Ed.

    This manual in Spanish covers thirteen different topics relevant to the education of students with disabilities in the era of educational reform and standards-based education. Sections include: (1) "Raising Standards of Learning: Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities" (Janet R. Vohs, Julia K. Landau, and Carolyn…

  4. Reliability of Isometric and Eccentric Isokinetic Shoulder External Rotation. (United States)

    Papotto, Brianna M; Rice, Thomas; Malone, Terry; Butterfield, Timothy; Uhl, Tim L


    Shoulder external rotators are challenged eccentrically throughout the deceleration phase of throwing, which is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs, as well as identifying deficits, reliable and responsive measures of isometric and eccentric shoulder external rotation are necessary. Previously, isometric measures have primarily tested a single position, and eccentric measures have not been found to have high reliability. To examine the between-days reliability of multiple-angle isometric and dynamic eccentric isokinetic testing of shoulder external rotation. Repeated measures. 10 healthy subjects (age 30 ± 12 y, height 166 ± 13 cm, mass 72 ± 10 kg). Average isometric peak torque of shoulder external rotation at 7 angles was measured. From these values, the angle of isometric peak torque was calculated. Dynamic eccentric average peak torque, average total work, and average angle of peak torque were measured. Between-days reliability was high for average peak torque during isometric contractions at all angles (ICC ≥ .85), as it was for dynamic eccentric average peak torque (ICC ≥ .97). The estimated angle of isometric peak torque (ICC ≤ .65) was not highly reliable between days. The average angle of peak torque from the eccentric testing produced inconsistent results. Average total work of dynamic eccentric shoulder external rotation was found to be highly reliable between days (ICC ≥ .97). Aspects of force such as peak torque and total work in isometric and eccentric testing of the shoulder external-rotator muscles can be measured reliably between days and used to objectively evaluate shoulder strength and identify changes when they occur. Angle measurements of peak torque could provide insight into the mechanical properties of the posterior shoulder muscles but were found to be inconsistent between days.

  5. A comparison between dual axis rotational coronary angiography and conventional coronary angiography. (United States)

    Grech, Marvin; Debono, Joseph; Xuereb, Robert G; Fenech, Albert; Grech, Victor


    Coronary angiography remains the gold standard for the investigation of coronary artery disease, and is carried out in multiple, predefined stationary views, at different angulations around the patient, for both left and right coronary arteries. Dual axis rotational coronary angiography (DARA) is an alternative technique wherein the c-arm rotates around the patient in a preprogrammed single acquisition, exposing the entire coronary artery at different angulations. The DARA system has been recently installed in the Cardiac Catheterisation Suite at Mater Dei Hospital, Malta, where a monoplane and a biplane machine are available. This study was carried out in order to compare DARA with conventional single and biplane coronary imaging, with respect to radiation dose, contrast loads, and procedure time. This study was carried out over the period from September to December 2010. Four hundred sixty-three patients were studied. Patients referred for the investigation of native coronary anatomy, for whatever indication, were consented and included, and randomly assigned to one of four groups depending on which machine and modality was used: monoplane conventional, monoplane DARA, biplane conventional, and biplane DARA. DARA was statistically significantly superior in dose area product, fluoroscopy time, amount of contrast used, and procedure time. These reductions ranged between 12 (contrast used) and 71% (procedure time). The advantages of such systems are obvious to both patient and healthcare provider, and DARA may prove to be an important and useful tool in the refinement of diagnostic coronary angiography by reducing patient contrast and radiation doses and reducing procedure time. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rotational joint assembly and method for constructing the same (United States)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)


    A rotational joint assembly and a method for constructing a rotational joint assembly are provided. The rotational joint assembly includes a first rotational component, a second rotational component coupled to the first rotational component such that the second rotational component is rotatable relative to the first rotational component in first and second rotational directions about an axis, and a flexure member, being deflectable in first and second deflection directions, coupled to at least one of the first and second rotational components such that when the second rotational component is rotated relative to the first rotational component in each of the first and second rotational directions about the axis, the flexure member is deflected in the first deflection direction and exerts a force on the second rotational component opposing the rotation.

  7. Rotational parameters using linearized theory of rotational states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, N.


    The problem of collective rotational parameters is studied using a new expansion of the good angular momentum states Vertical BarPsi/sub J/> and linearization procedure. It is shown that the approximation correctly reproduces Skyrme's formula. The approximation is applied to parametrize the value of the matrix element Vertical BarVertical Bar. The agreement with the values deduced from experimental data on the nuclei 1 /sub 64//sup 56/Gd/sub 92/ and 1 /sub 70//sup 76/Yb/sub 106/ is fairly good.

  8. Temperature dependent heterogeneous rotational correlation in lipids. (United States)

    Dadashvand, Neda; Othon, Christina M


    Lipid structures exhibit complex and highly dynamic lateral structure; and changes in lipid density and fluidity are believed to play an essential role in membrane targeting and function. The dynamic structure of liquids on the molecular scale can exhibit complex transient density fluctuations. Here the lateral heterogeneity of lipid dynamics is explored in free standing lipid monolayers. As the temperature is lowered the probes exhibit increasingly broad and heterogeneous rotational correlation. This increase in heterogeneity appears to exhibit a critical onset, similar to those observed for glass forming fluids. We explore heterogeneous relaxation in in a single constituent lipid monolayer of 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine  by measuring the rotational diffusion of a fluorescent probe (1-palmitoyl-2-[1]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), which is embedded in the lipid monolayer at low labeling density. Dynamic distributions are measured using wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. The observed relaxation exhibits a narrow, liquid-like distribution at high temperatures (τ ∼ 2.4 ns), consistent with previous experimental measures (Dadashvand et al 2014 Struct. Dyn. 1 054701, Loura and Ramalho 2007 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1768 467-478). However, as the temperature is quenched, the distribution broadens, and we observe the appearance of a long relaxation population (τ ∼ 16.5 ns). This supports the heterogeneity observed for lipids at high packing densities, and demonstrates that the nanoscale diffusion and reorganization in lipid structures can be significantly complex, even in the simplest amorphous architectures. Dynamical heterogeneity of this form can have a significant impact on the organization, permeability and energetics of lipid membrane structures.

  9. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan


    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  10. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan


    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has......International e-Customs is going through a standardization process. Driven by the need to increase control in the trade process to address security challenges stemming from threats of terrorists, diseases, and counterfeit products, and to lower the administrative burdens on traders to stay...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  11. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal


    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  12. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen


    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  13. Friction, Free Axes of Rotation and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kazachkov


    Full Text Available Friction forces acting on rotators may promote their alignment and therefore eliminate degrees of freedom in their movement. The alignment of rotators by friction force was shown by experiments performed with different spinners, demonstrating how friction generates negentropy in a system of rotators. A gas of rigid rotators influenced by friction force is considered. The orientational negentropy generated by a friction force was estimated with the Sackur-Tetrode equation. The minimal change in total entropy of a system of rotators, corresponding to their eventual alignment, decreases with temperature. The reported effect may be of primary importance for the phase equilibrium and motion of ubiquitous colloidal and granular systems.

  14. Visual perception of axes of head rotation (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.


    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  15. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng


    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  16. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, V M [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University St, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)


    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Meszaros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly

  17. Effects of Constant Time Delay Procedure on the Halliwick's Method of Swimming Rotation Skills for Children with Autism (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Konukman, Ferman; Birkan, Binyamin; Ozen, Arzu; Yanardag, Mehmet; Camursoy, Ilhan


    Effects of a constant time delay procedure on the Halliwick's method of swimming rotation skills (i.e., vertical and lateral rotation) for children with autism were investigated. A single subject multiple baseline model across behaviors with probe conditions was used. Participants were three boys, 8-9 years old. Data were collected over a 10-week…

  18. On the stability of rotational discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, P.; Scholer, M.


    The stability of symmetric rotational discontinuities in which the magnetic field rotates by 180 degree is investigated by means of a one-dimensional self-consistent hybrid code. Rotational discontinuities with an angle Θ > 45 degree between the discontinuity normal direction and the upstream magnetic field are found to be relatively stable. The discontinuity normal is in the x direction and the initial magnetic field has finite y component only in the transition region. In the case of the ion (left-handed) sense of rotation of the tangential magnetic field, the transition region does not broaden with time. In the case of the electron (right-handed) sense of rotation, a damped wavetrain builds up in the B y component downstream of the rotational discontinuity and the discontinuity broadens with time. Rotational discontinuities with smaller angles, Θ, are unstable. Examples for a rotational discontinuity with Θ = 30 degree and the electron sense of rotation as well as a rotational discontinuity with Θ = 15 degree and the ion sense of rotation show that these discontinuities into waves. These waves travel approximately with Alfven velocity in the upstream direction and are therefore phase standing in the simulation system. The magnetic hodograms of these disintegrated discontinuities are S-shaped. The upstream portion of the hodogram is always right-handed; the downstream portion is always left-handed

  19. Staff rotation: implications for occupational therapy. (United States)

    Taylor, A; Andriuk, M L; Langlois, P; Provost, E


    Occupational therapy departments of tertiary care hospitals can provide staff with opportunities to gain diverse clinical experience if they rotate through the various services such as surgery, medicine, geriatrics, plastic surgery and orthopaedics. The system of rotation offers both advantages and disadvantages for the staff and the institution. The Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, a large university teaching hospital, had traditionally offered staff the opportunity to rotate. Changes in staffing and their needs however, resulted in rotation becoming an important issue within the department. This article presents the pros and the cons of rotation and non-rotation systems as identified by therapists and administrators across Canada. Staff rotation was found to have an effect on job satisfaction and a therapist's career orientation. Given these findings, administrators may want to reconsider the role of the generalist and specialist in their facilities.

  20. Rotational inertia and multimodal heaviness perception. (United States)

    Streit, Matthew; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A


    Perceived heaviness of wielded objects has been shown to be a function of the objects' rotational inertia--the objects' resistance to rotational acceleration. Studies have also demonstrated that if virtual objects rotate faster than the actual wielded object (i.e., a rotational gain is applied to virtual object motion), the wielded object is perceived as systematically lighter. The present research determined whether combining those inertial and visual manipulations would influence heaviness perception in a manner consistent with an inertial model of multimodal heaviness perception. Rotational inertia and optical rotational gain of wielded objects were manipulated to specify inertia multimodally. Both visual and haptic manipulations significantly influenced perceived heaviness. The results suggest that rotational inertia is detected multimodally and that multimodal heaviness perception conforms to an inertial model.

  1. Numerical studies of plasma rotation in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Lilin; Yan Longwen; Zhang Jinhua; Hong Wenyu


    In order to study and verify the mechanism of tokamak plasma rotation, representative standard neoclassical and its extended theory models of plasma rotation are chosen for programming ROTATE CODE. The new formula of parabola with two indexes is adopted for fitting and smoothing closely the curves of experiment data. The toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities of main ions and impurity ions are studied numerically under conventional operation parameter in the HL-1M tokamak. Computational results visually predict the radial profiles of rotation velocities and reasonably consistent with experimental results measured by Mach probe in the edge region. These provide theory basis for designing accuracy of optical spectrometer and are useful for laying out experiment scheme and analyzing experiment data


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, S. T.; Agüeros, M. A. [Columbia University, Department of Astronomy, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Western Washington University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Cargile, P. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Barclay, T.; Cody, A.; Howell, S. B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kopytova, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    As the closest open cluster to the Sun, the Hyades is an important benchmark for many stellar properties, but its members are also scattered widely over the sky. Previous studies of stellar rotation in the Hyades relied on targeted observations of single stars or data from shallower all-sky variability surveys. The re-purposed Kepler mission, K2 , is the first opportunity to measure rotation periods ( P {sub rot}) for many Hyads simultaneously while also being sensitive to fully convective M dwarf members. We analyze K2 data for 65 Hyads and present P {sub rot} values for 48. Thirty-seven of these are new measurements, including the first P {sub rot} measurements for fully convective Hyads. For 9 of the 11 stars with P {sub rot} in the literature and this work, the measurements are consistent; we attribute the two discrepant cases to spot evolution. Nearly all stars with masses ≲0.3 M {sub ⊙} are rapidly rotating, indicating a change in rotation properties at the boundary to full convection. When confirmed and candidate binaries are removed from the mass–period plane, only three rapid rotators with masses ≳0.3 M {sub ⊙} remain. This is in contrast to previous results showing that the single-valued mass–period sequence for ≈600 Myr old stars ends at ≈0.65 M {sub ⊙} when binaries are included. We also find that models of rotational evolution predict faster rotation than is actually observed at ≈600 Myr for stars ≲0.9 M {sub ⊙}. The dearth of single rapid rotators more massive than ≈0.3 M {sub ⊙} indicates that magnetic braking is more efficient than previously thought, and that age–rotation studies must account for multiplicity.

  3. Dispersed single-phase-step Michelson interferometer for Doppler imaging using sunlight. (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian


    A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510-570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is ~12 m/s, with some channels reaching ~5 m/s.

  4. Analysis of the Anisotropic Magnetocaloric Effect in RMn2O5 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Balli


    Full Text Available Thanks to the strong magnetic anisotropy shown by the multiferroic RMn2O5 (R = magnetic rare earth compounds, a large adiabatic temperature change can be induced (around 10 K by rotating them in constant magnetic fields instead of the standard magnetization-demagnetization method. Particularly, the TbMn2O5 single crystal reveals a giant rotating magnetocaloric effect (RMCE under relatively low constant magnetic fields reachable by permanent magnets. On the other hand, the nature of R3+ ions strongly affects their RMCEs. For example, the maximum rotating adiabatic temperature change exhibited by TbMn2O5 is more than five times larger than that presented by HoMn2O5 in a constant magnetic field of 2 T. In this paper, we mainly focus on the physics behind the RMCE shown by RMn2O5 multiferroics. We particularly demonstrate that the rare earth size could play a crucial role in determining the magnetic order, and accordingly, the rotating magnetocaloric properties of RMn2O5 compounds through the modulation of exchange interactions via lattice distortions. This is a scenario that seems to be supported by Raman scattering measurements.

  5. Rotational dependence of Fermi-type resonance interactions in molecules (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir M.; Smirnov, M. A.


    In Pasadena, (Milliken Lab., USA, 1930) F. Rossetti has observed in Raman spectrum of carbon-dioxide molecule the full symmetric vibration of carbon dioxide appeared as the group of four near lying lines instead of the waited single line. The true interpretation of this enigmatic effect (in that time) was given by E. Fermi -- accidental degeneration of the first excited state of the full symmetric vibration in carbon dioxide. It was the first example of the event observed later in various organic molecules. This event was named as resonance Fermi. The rotational dependence of Fermi type resonance interactions in quasirigid molecules in dominant approximation can be selected in an expansion of the effective vibration-rotation Hamiltonian Hvib- roteff by the operator H(g)(Fermi) equals H30 plus (Sigma) nH3n(g). Let us consider in detail the problem of the construction of the effective vibration-rotational Hamiltonian HVR yields Heff from the point of view of various ordering schemes (grouping) of the vibrational-rotational interactions with sequential analysis of the choice of the convenient grouping adequate to the spectroscopic problem.

  6. Protostellar formation in rotation interstellar clouds. III. Nonaxisymmetric collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.


    A full three spatial-dimension gravitational hydrodynamics code has been used to follow the collapse of isothermal rotating clouds subjected to various nonaxialy symmetric perturbations (NAP). An initially axially symmetric cloud collapsed to form a ring which then fragmented into a binary protostellar system. A low thermal energy cloud with a large bar-shaped NAP collapsed and fragmented directly into a binary; higher thermal energy clouds damp out such NAPs while higher rotational rotational energy clouds produce binaries with wider separations. Fragmentation into single and binary systems has been seen. The tidal effects of other nearby protostellar clouds are shown to have an important effect upon the collapse and should not be neglected. The three-dimensional calculations indicate that isothermal interstellar clouds may fragment (with or without passing through a transitory ring phase) into protostellar objects while still in the isothermal regime. The fragments obtained have masses and specific spin angular momenta roughly a 10th that of the original cloud. Interstellar clouds and their fragments may pass through successive collapse phases with fragmentation and reduction of spin angular momentum (by conversion to orbital angular momentum and preferential accretion of low angular momentum matter) terminating in the formation of pre--main-sequence stars with the observed pre--main-sequence rotation rates

  7. High-Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Molecular Rotary Motor (United States)

    Domingos, Sergio R.; Cnossen, Arjen; Perez, Cristobal; Buma, Wybren Jan; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Schnell, Melanie


    To develop synthetic molecular motors and machinery that can mimic their biological counterparts has become a stimulating quest in modern synthetic chemistry. Gas phase studies of these simpler synthetic model systems provide the necessary isolated conditions that facilitate the elucidation of their structural intricacies. We report the first high-resolution rotational study of a synthetic molecular rotary motor based on chiral overcrowded alkenes using chirp-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants were determined based on a fit using more than two hundred rotational transitions spanning 5≤J≤21 in the 2-4 GHz frequency range. Despite the lack of polar groups, the rotor's asymmetry produces strong a- and b-type rotational transitions arising from a single predominant conformer. Evidence for fragmentation of the rotor allows for unambiguous identification of the isolated rotor components. The experimental spectroscopic parameters of the rotor are compared and discussed against current high-level ab initio and density functional theory methods. Vicario et al. Chem. Commun., 5910-5912 (2005) Brown et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79, 053103 (2008)

  8. Rotating safety drum nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.T.


    A gas cooled nuclear fission reactor employing spherical fuel elements which are held in a critical assembly configuration by centrifugal forces. This is accomplished by inserting the spherical fuel elements in a rotating drum of a shape suitable to ensure that a nuclear critical configuration of the total entity of fuel elements can only be achieved if the centrifugal forces are present. This has the effect that in case of a loss of load, a loss of coolant or other adverse occurrences, the critical part of the reactor will disassemble itself, by gravitational forces exclusively, into a non-critical configuration


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.


    We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v

  10. The rotation of spiral galaxies. (United States)

    Rubin, V C


    There is accumulating evidence that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is nonluminous and is clumped, halo-like, around individual galaxies. The gravitational force of this dark matter is presumed to be responsible for the high rotational velocities of stars and gas in the disks of spiral galaxie. At present, the form of the dark matter is unknown. Possible candidates span a range in mass of 10(70), from non-zero-mass neutrinos to massive black holes.

  11. Nondestructive testing bench without rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdijon, J.


    On-line testing by ultrasonics in combination with eddy currents represents a large saving in time and equipment since the tube to be checked only needs to pass once quickly and without rotation. The answer to this problem is to use encircling transducers, which means that the mirror interposed to detect transverse defects must be conical while that used to detect longitudinal defects is helically shaped. A cell combining these two mirrors with an eddy current coil to test thin small-diameter tubes is described. The first trial year shows that defects are detected independently of their position, with a sensitivity at least equal to that of conventional systems [fr

  12. Optical wheel-rotation sensor (United States)

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick A.; Forman, Peter; Deeter, Merritt N.


    We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor being developed for anti-lock braking systems. The basis of the sensor is the magneto-optic detection of the magnetic fields generated by a wheel of alternating magnetized magnets fixed to a wheel of the automobile. Highly sensitive iron garnet crystals serve as the magneto-optic sensing elements. For films with perpendicularly- magnetized domains, the domain structure produces diffraction which is magnetic-field dependent. Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of magneto-optic magnetic field sensors requiring no polarization elements or lenses.

  13. Microscopic approaches to nuclear rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, W.Y.


    The Skyrme formula for the nuclear moment of inertia, which was first derived from a variational principle, can also be deduced from the presumption of rotational bands and intrinsic states. In the present work a formula complementary to the Skyrme formula is first developed using the same technique and approximations. A statistial interpretation indicates that this new formula and the usual Skyrme formula provide reasonable upper and lower bounds for the true inertial parameter. A third formula is then developed which yields values between these bounds. It is concluded that the third Skyrme formula gives superior results. (author)

  14. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria


    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  15. Parallel computation of rotating flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Lars Kristian; Barker, Vincent A.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    This paper deals with the simulation of 3‐D rotating flows based on the velocity‐vorticity formulation of the Navier‐Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations are discretized by a finite difference method. The solution is advanced to a new time level by a two‐step process...... is that of solving a singular, large, sparse, over‐determined linear system of equations, and the iterative method CGLS is applied for this purpose. We discuss some of the mathematical and numerical aspects of this procedure and report on the performance of our software on a wide range of parallel computers. Darbe...

  16. A Rotating-Bears Optical Dipole Trap for Cold Aatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, N.; Ozeri, R.; Khaykovich, L.; Davidson, N.


    In the last few years, several optical dipole traps for cold atoms were demonstrated and used to study cold atomic collisions, long atomic coherence times and quantum collective effects. Blue-detuned dipole traps, where repulsive light forces confines atoms mostly in dark, offer long storage, and photon-scattering times, combined with strong confinement forces. Unfortunately, such blue-detuned dipole traps involve complicated light intensity distributions that require either multiple laser beams or complicated phase elements. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel configuration for a single-beam blue-detuned dipole trap, which enables larger trapping volume, and fast temporal changes in the trap size and shape. Our trap consists of a tightly-focused laser beam which is rapidly rotated (with rotation frequency up to 400 khz) with two orthogonal acousto optical scanners. For very high rotation frequencies the atoms feel a time-averaged static dipole potential. Therefore, when the radius of rotation is larger than the beam size, a dark volume which is completely surrounded by light is obtained around the focal region. By changing the rotation radius and the trapping laser intensity and detuning, the trap dimensions and oscillation frequency could be changed over a large parameter range. In particular trap diameters were changed between 50 to 220 microns and trap length was changed between 3.5 to 16 mm. ∼10 6 atoms were loaded into the rotating-beam dipole trap from a magneto optical trap. The density of the trapped atoms was 4x10 10 atoms/cm 3 ,their temperature was -6 pK. and the trap (1/e) lifetime was 0.65 sec, limited by collisions with background atoms. When the rotation frequency was decreased below the oscillation frequency of the atoms in the trap, the trap became unstable, and a sharp reduction of the trap lifetime was observed, in agreement with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we demonstrated adiabatic compression of atoms in the trap by decreasing

  17. A review of rotating gantries for heavy charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Yoshihisa


    Although advantages of rotating gantries for heavy charged particle therapy are clear to anyone, a first proton rotating gantry was firstly installed and used at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC), USA, in 1991. This is due to large magnetic rigidity required to bend such an energetic beam having enough range in patient. Up to now, only proton rotating gantries have been manufactured and used since proton has a relatively small magnetic rigidity due to Z/A=1. However, even such proton gantries have a diameter of about 10-11 m and weigh about 100-200 tons. There are a number of types of proton rotating gantries. The one is an isocentric gantry. The other is an eccentric gantry in which the irradiation point moves with the gantry rotation. The example of such an eccentric gantry is the compact gantry installed at Paul Sherrer Institute in Switzerland. The isocentric gantries can be classified into two categories. The one is a standard large-throw gantry which has only one bending plane. The other is a cork-screw gantry which has two orthogonal bending planes. The standard long-throw gantries are installed and used at University of Tsukuba, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center in Japan and at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)/Northeast Proton Therapy Center (NPTC). The cork-screw gantries have been used at LLUMC. Gantry design is affected by the beam delivery method. In present double scattering systems or beam wobbling systems, the beam is spread out and shaped in the straight section after the last bending magnet of the gantry beam optical system. The required length of the straight section is about 3.0 m. If a beam-scanning magnet is integrated in the gantry optical system and placed before the last bending magnet as in the case at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), shortening of the straight section is possible. Now researchers at Gesellschaft Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Germany are designing a heavy ion gantry for the

  18. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Conrozier


    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA. Methods The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of H Anox-M-XL (4.4 mL, viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL + mannitol (35 mg/mL, in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0–50 and WOMAC total (0–240 and patient's global assessment (PGA. Patient's self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0–3 and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Results Mean (SD age was 60.7 (13.9 years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0. Kellgren–Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8 and 89.9 (42.8, respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were –8.2 (8.9 and –38.4 (35.6, respectively, at month 6 ( P = 0.001. PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0 to 3.0 (2.2 ( P = 0.006. Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. Conclusion Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data.

  19. The SIMS trial: adjustable anchored single-incision mini-slings versus standard tension-free midurethral slings in the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence. A study protocol for a pragmatic, multicentre, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed; MacLennan, Graeme; Kilonzo, Mary; Assassa, R Phil; McCormick, Kirsty; Davidson, Tracey; McDonald, Alison; N’Dow, James; Wardle, Judith; Norrie, John


    Introduction Single-incision mini-slings (SIMS) represent the third generation of midurethral slings. They have been developed with the aim of offering a true ambulatory procedure for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with reduced morbidity and earlier recovery while maintaining similar efficacy to standard midurethral slings (SMUS). The aim of this study is to determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adjustable anchored SIMS compared with tension-free SMUS in the surgical management of female SUI, with 3-year follow-up. Methods and analysis A pragmatic, multicentre, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. Primary outcome measure The primary outcome measure is the patient-reported success rate measured by the Patient Global Impression of Improvement at 12 months. The primary economic outcome will be incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year gained at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures The secondary outcomes measures include adverse events, objective success rates, impact on other lower urinary tract symptoms, health-related quality of life profile and sexual function, and reoperation rates for SUI. Secondary economic outcomes include National Health Service and patient primary and secondary care resource use and costs, incremental cost-effectiveness and incremental net benefit. Statistical analysis The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be by intention-to-treat and also a per-protocol analysis. Results will be displayed as estimates and 95% CIs. CIs around observed differences will then be compared with the prespecified non-inferiority margin. Secondary outcomes will be analysed similarly. Ethics and dissemination The North of Scotland Research Ethics Committee has approved this study (13/NS/0143). The dissemination plans include HTA monograph, presentation at international scientific meetings and publications in high-impact, open-access journals. The results will be included in the updates of the National

  20. Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, PB 58051-970 (Brazil)


    Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.

  1. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.


    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  2. Molecular Viscosity Sensors with Two Rotators for Optimizing the Fluorescence Intensity-Contrast Trade-Off. (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Chul; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Heo, Jeongyun; Jeong, Chan-Uk; Lee, Gyeong-Hui; Kim, Sehoon; Yoon, Woojin; Yun, Hoseop; Park, Sung O; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Park, Sung-Ha; Kwon, O-Pil


    A series of fluorescent molecular rotors obtained by introducing two rotational groups ("rotators"), which exhibit different rotational and electron-donating abilities, are discussed. Whereas the control molecular rotor, PH, includes a single rotator (the widely used phenyl group), the PO molecular rotors consist of two rotators (a phenyl group and an alkoxy group), which exhibit simultaneous strongly electron-donating and easy rotational abilities. Compared with the control rotor PH, PO molecular rotors exhibited one order of magnitude higher quantum yield (fluorescence intensity) and simultaneously exhibited significantly higher fluorescence contrast. These properties are directly related to the strong electron-donating ability and low energy barrier of rotation of the alkoxy group, as confirmed by dynamic fluorescence experiments and quantum chemical calculations. The PO molecular rotors exhibited two fluorescence relaxation pathways, whereas the PH molecular rotor exhibited a single fluorescence relaxation pathway. Cellular fluorescence imaging with PO molecular rotors for mapping cellular viscosity was successfully demonstrated. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Design of Multilevel Sequential Rotation Feeding Networks Used for Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixin Chen


    Full Text Available Sequential rotation feeding networks can significantly improve performance of the circularly polarized microstrip antenna array. In this paper, single, double, and multiple series-parallel sequential rotation feeding networks are examined. Compared with conventional parallel feeding structures, these multilevel feeding techniques present reduction of loss, increase of bandwidth, and improvement of radiation pattern and polarization purity. By using corner-truncated square patch as the array element and adopting appropriate level of sequential rotation series-parallel feeding structures as feeding networks, microstrip arrays can generate excellent circular polarization (CP over a relatively wide frequency band. They can find wide applications in phased array radar and satellite communication systems.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The stability of the resistive-wall mode (RWM) in DIII-D plasmas above the conventional pressure limit, where toroidal plasma rotation in the order of a few percent of the Alfven velocity is sufficient to stabilize the n=1 RWM, has been probed using the technique of active MHD spectroscopy at frequencies of a few Hertz. The measured frequency spectrum of the plasma response to externally applied rotating resonant magnetic fields is well described by a single mode approach and provides an absolute measurement of the damping rate and the natural mode rotation frequency of the stable RWM

  5. Formulation of the rotational transformation of wave fields and their application to digital holography. (United States)

    Matsushima, Kyoji


    Rotational transformation based on coordinate rotation in Fourier space is a useful technique for simulating wave field propagation between nonparallel planes. This technique is characterized by fast computation because the transformation only requires executing a fast Fourier transform twice and a single interpolation. It is proved that the formula of the rotational transformation mathematically satisfies the Helmholtz equation. Moreover, to verify the formulation and its usefulness in wave optics, it is also demonstrated that the transformation makes it possible to reconstruct an image on arbitrarily tilted planes from a wave field captured experimentally by using digital holography.

  6. Regional wall thickening in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in a Japanese population: effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo


    Gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of myocardium by 99m Tc and 201 Tl is used extensively to measure quantitative cardiac functional parameters. However, factors affecting normal values for myocardial functional parameters and population-specific standards have not yet been established. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates on resting myocardial wall thickening (WT) and to develop a Japanese standard of normal values for WT. Data from a total of 202 patients with low possibility of having cardiac problems were collected from nine hospitals throughout Japan. Patients were divided into five groups according to study protocol, and WT was evaluated according to the 17-segment and four-region (basal, mid and apical regions and the apex) polar map distribution. WT was generally higher in women than in men irrespective of the use of radiotracers, rotation angles or frame rates, and the difference was highly significant in the mid and apical regions. In any protocol used, resting myocardial thickening in the apex was higher than in the mid and apical regions, and thickening was lowest in the basal region, suggesting heterogeneous regional myocardial thickening (%) in normal subjects. Different rotation angles showed no significant change on WT, but different frame rates and tracers showed significant WT change in both sexes. Percent thickening of the myocardium was significantly higher in imaging by 99m Tc-labelled tracers than in 201 Tl. Sex, radiotracers and frame rates had a significant effect on myocardial thickening, and the importance of population-specific standards should be emphasized. A normal database can serve as a standard for gated SPECT evaluation of myocardial thickening in a Japanese population and might be applicable to Asian populations having a similar physique. (orig.)

  7. Neovascularization prevalence in the supraspinatus of patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. (United States)

    Kardouni, Joseph R; Seitz, Amee L; Walsworth, Matthew K; Michener, Lori A


    A high prevalence of neovascularity in lower extremity tendinopathies has been reported. Neovascularity in those with rotator cuff tendinopathy exclusively has not been examined. The objective was to determine the prevalence of neovascularization in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy compared with asymptomatic controls. Single-blind cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Participants (n = 40; age = 44.9 years, 23-62 years; 20 females) with rotator cuff tendinopathy (n = 20) but without full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and asymptomatic controls that were age, gender, and hand dominance matched (n = 20) to the patients. The participants laying in supine had their shoulder positioned in internal rotation and extension. Ultrasound images were collected of the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursae in the transverse and longitudinal planes using a linear transducer in color Doppler mode. Images were assessed for neovascularization by 2 trained raters who were blinded to group (rotator cuff tendinopathy or asymptomatic group). No statistically significant difference in neovascularization was identified between participants with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy (χ = 0.13, df = 1, P = 0.72). Neovascularization was identified in 6 of 20 patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy (30%) and 5 of 20 asymptomatic control participants (25%). The authors found no differences in neovascularization rate in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy (30%) and asymptomatic controls (25%). The study indicates that neovascularization is not related to presence of symptomatic tendinopathy in those with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Neovascularization may not be a relevant sonographic finding to aid the clinical assessment of those with rotator cuff tendinopathy.

  8. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.


    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.


    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  10. Ring wormholes via duality rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Gibbons


    Full Text Available We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy–Voorhees–Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than −c4/4G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.

  11. Rotational disorder in lithium borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remhof Arndt


    Full Text Available LiBH4 has been discussed as a promising hydrogen storage material and as a solid-state electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries. It contains 18.5 wt% hydrogen and undergoes a structural phase transition at 381 K which is associated with a large increase in rotational disorder of the [BH4]− anion and the increase of [Li]+ conductivity by three orders of magnitude. We investigated the [BH4]− anion dynamic in bulk LiBH4, in LiBH4-LiI solid solutions and in nano-confined LiBH4 by quasielastic neutron scattering, complemented by DFT calculations. In all cases the H-dynamics is dominated by thermally activated rotational jumps of the [BH4]− anion in the terahertz range. The addition of LiI as well as nano-confinement favours the disordered high temperature phase and lowers the phase transition below room temperatures. The results are discussed on the basis of first principles calculations and in relation to ionic conductivity of [Li]+.

  12. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    KAUST Repository

    Giese, Andrew


    © 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.

  13. A stable high-speed rotational transmission system based on nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Kun; Yin, Hang; Wei, Ning; Chen, Zhen; Shi, Jiao


    A stable rotational transmission system is designed with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based motor and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs)-based bearing. The system response is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the rotating motor can actuate the rotation of the inner tube in bearing because of the attraction between the two adjacent coaxial ends of motor and rotor (the inner tube in bearing). To have a stable nanostructure, each carbon atom on the adjacent ends of motor and rotor is bonded with a hydrogen atom. To obtain a stable high-speed rotational transmission system, both an armchair and a zigzag model are used in MD simulation. In each model, the motor with different diameters and rotational speeds is employed to examine the rotational transmission of corresponding DWCNTs. It is demonstrated that the long range van der Waals interaction between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor leads to a stable configuration of the adjacent ends, and further leads to a stable rotation of rotor when driven by a high-speed motor. As compared with the armchair model, the rotor in the zigzag model could reach a stable rotation mode much easier

  14. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Rollo, Massimo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Piano, Mariangela [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Re, Thomas J. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Cipriani, Maria C. [Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Colosimo, Cesare [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:


    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  15. Pressure Monitoring Using Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS (United States)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Danehy, Paul M.


    We investigate the feasibility of gas-phase pressure measurements at kHz-rates using fs/ps rotational CARS. Femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses impulsively prepare a rotational Raman coherence, which is then probed by a high-energy 6-ps pulse introduced at a time delay from the Raman preparation. Rotational CARS spectra were recorded in N2 contained in a room-temperature gas cell for pressures from 0.1 to 3 atm and probe delays ranging from 10-330 ps. Using published self-broadened collisional linewidth data for N2, both the spectrally integrated coherence decay rate and the spectrally resolved decay were investigated as means for detecting pressure. Shot-averaged and single-laser-shot spectra were interrogated for pressure and the accuracy and precision as a function of probe delay and cell pressure are discussed. Single-shot measurement accuracies were within 0.1 to 6.5% when compared to a transducer values, while the precision was generally between 1% and 6% of measured pressure for probe delays of 200 ps or more, and better than 2% as the delay approached 300 ps. A byproduct of the pressure measurement is an independent but simultaneous measurement of the gas temperature.

  16. Geometric Phase Of The Faraday Rotation Of Electromagnetic Waves In Magnetized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin


    The geometric phase of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in nonuniform magnetized plasmas is studied theoretically. The variation of the propagation direction of circularly polarized waves results in a geometric phase, which also contributes to the Faraday rotation, in addition to the standard dynamical phase. The origin and properties of the geometric phase is investigated. The in uence of the geometric phase to plasma diagnostics using Faraday rotation is also discussed as an application of the theory.

  17. Androgens and eye movements in women and men during a test of mental rotation ability


    Alexander, Gerianne M.; Son, Troy


    Eye movements were monitored in 16 women and 20 men during completion of a standard diagram-based test of mental rotation ability to provide measures of cognitive function not requiring conscious, decisional processes. Overall, women and men allocated visual attention during task performance in very similar, systematic ways. However, consistent with previous suggestions that sex differences in attentional processes during completion of the mental rotation task may exist, eye movements in men ...

  18. Predicting rotator cuff tears using data mining and Bayesian likelihood ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yi Lu

    Full Text Available Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone.In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree and a statistical method (logistic regression to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into "tear" and "no tear" groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models.Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear.Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears.

  19. Option selection in whole-body rotation movements in gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas HEINEN


    Full Text Available Abstract When a gymnast performs a somersault, the linear and angular momentum along with a particular control of inertia during the flight phase constrain the possibilities for action. Given the complexity and dynamic nature of the human moving system, one could argue that there exist a particular amount of stable coordination states when performing somersaults. The goal of this study was to explore the manifold of movement options and coordination states along with their differentiating parameters for a single somersault in gymnastics based on a simple mathematical model reflecting gymnast’s rotation behavior during the flight phase. Biomechanical parameters determining rotation behavior during a somersault were systematically varied with regard to a particular set of biomechanical constraints defining a successful somersault performance. Batch simulations revealed that from 10229760 simulation cycles only 655346 (approximately 6.41% led to successful somersault performance. A subsequent analysis of the movement option landscape for the optimum angular momentum revealed ten coordination states for a single somersault that could be clearly distinguished based on the simulation parameters. Taken the results together, it becomes apparent that it may be most advisable to perform a single somersault with a larger moment of inertia when achieving the tucked position, a longer duration to achieve the tucked position, a longer duration of staying tucked, and an intermediate moment of inertia during landing. This strategy comprises the largest amount of movement options associated with an upright landing and thus the highest probability of success when performing a single somersault.

  20. In touch with mental rotation: interactions between mental and tactile rotations and motor responses. (United States)

    Lohmann, Johannes; Rolke, Bettina; Butz, Martin V


    Although several process models have described the cognitive processing stages that are involved in mentally rotating objects, the exact nature of the rotation process itself remains elusive. According to embodied cognition, cognitive functions are deeply grounded in the sensorimotor system. We thus hypothesized that modal rotation perceptions should influence mental rotations. We conducted two studies in which participants had to judge if a rotated letter was visually presented canonically or mirrored. Concurrently, participants had to judge if a tactile rotation on their palm changed direction during the trial. The results show that tactile rotations can systematically influence mental rotation performance in that same rotations are favored. In addition, the results show that mental rotations produce a response compatibility effect: clockwise mental rotations facilitate responses to the right, while counterclockwise mental rotations facilitate responses to the left. We conclude that the execution of mental rotations activates cognitive mechanisms that are also used to perceive rotations in different modalities and that are associated with directional motor control processes.