Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Shuto, Nobuaki; Terazaki, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Shigetoshi; Ishigami, Minoru; Yogo, Katsunori; Hayakawa, Kazushige
We aimed to analyze risk factors for incidents occurring during the practice of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single Japanese center. Treatment data for EBRT from June 2014 to March 2017 were collected. Data from incident reports submitted during this period were reviewed. Near-miss cases were not included. Risk factors for incidents, including patient characteristics and treatment-related factors, were explored using uni- and multivariate analyses. Factors contributing to each incident were also retrospectively categorized according to the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). A total of 2887 patients were treated during the study period, and 26 incidents occurred (0.90% per patient). Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were identified as risk factors for incidents by univariate analysis. Only previous history of radiotherapy was detected as a risk factor in multivariate analysis. Identified categories of contributing factors were human behavior (50.0%), communication (40.6%), and technical (9.4%). The incident rate of EBRT was 0.90% per patient in our institution. Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were detected as risk factors for incidents. Human behavior and communication errors were identified as contributing factors for most incidents. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu Mei O
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in risk factors of fall accidents among older people, and whether these factors differ between single and recurrent fallers. A total of 4,426 individuals aged ≥65 years from two large-scale health surveys provided data. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors and to determine the risk model for falling and recurrent falling in men and women separately. Three major risk factors for falling regardless of gender or fall history are fear of falling, limitations in activities of daily living (ADL, and age ≥75 years. Fear of falling remains one of the common modifiable risk factors. Among those without a fall history, the use of sedatives or tranquilizers increases the risk of falling. Regarding gender differences, ADL limitations and fear of falling appear to be stronger fall risk factors for men than for women. Among women, alcohol use and educational level are significant risk factors for falling, while loneliness is associated with recurrent falling. Men with fear of falling or ADL limitations are at higher risk to have a recurrent fall accident than women with these conditions. Having a visual impairment or living with someone is associated with recurrent falling among men. Our findings emphasize the importance of multifactorial fall interventions, taking into account a variety of subgroup characteristics such as gender and fall history.
This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…
Hunter, Joshua G; Gross, Jonathan M; Dahl, Jason D; Amsdell, Simon L; Gorczyca, John T
Acute septic arthritis in a native joint may require more than one surgical debridement to eradicate the infection. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of failure of a single surgical debridement for acute septic arthritis, to identify risk factors for failure of a single debridement, and to develop a prognostic probability algorithm to predict failure of a single surgical debridement for acute septic arthritis in adults. We collected initial laboratory and medical comorbidity data of 128 adults (132 native joints) with acute septic arthritis who underwent at least one surgical debridement at our institution between 2000 and 2011. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for failure of a single surgical debridement. Stepwise variable selection was used to develop a prediction model and identify probabilities of failure of a single surgical debridement. Of the 128 patients (132 affected joints) who underwent surgical debridement for acute septic arthritis, forty-nine (38%) of the patients (fifty joints) experienced failure of a single debridement and required at least two debridements (range, two to four debridements). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial isolate (in sixty, or 45%, of the 132 joints). Logistic regression analysis identified five independent clinical predictors for failure of a single surgical debridement: a history of inflammatory arthropathy (odds ratio [OR], 7.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 22.6; p 85.0 x 10(9) cells/L (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.8 to 17.7; p = 0.002), S. aureus as the bacterial isolate (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.9; p = 0.002), and a history of diabetes (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.2; p = 0.04). Most (62%) of the septic joints were managed effectively with a single surgical debridement. Adults with a history of inflammatory arthropathy, involvement of a large joint, a synovial-fluid nucleated cell count of >85.0 x 10(9) cells/L, an infection with S. aureus
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Discrepancies exist in the reported prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT, and its clinical characteristics and sites of occurrence need to be elucidated. The risk factors for PVT are also poorly understood. This single centre study was undertaken to determine the clinical characteristics, sites of occurrence, and risk factors associated with PVT in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: Hospitalized cirrhotic patients (N = 162 were segregated into the PVT and non-PVT groups. Indices possibly associated with PVT were measured and PVT was detected by both Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomography portal angiography. The portal vein diameter and flow velocity and splenic thickness were measured by ultrasonography. Results: PVT was found in 40 patients (24.7%; in 34 PVT patients (85%, the liver cirrhosis resulted from hepatitis B virus infections. Most (90% patients were Child-Pugh classes B and C, with similar distribution between the groups. PVT was seen in 20 patients in the portal and superior mesenteric veins; ascites, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and jaundice were common findings in PVT patients. Haemoglobin levels and blood platelet counts (BPCs were significantly lower and splenic thickness was greater in PVT than in non-PVT patients (P<0.01. There was a significant positive correlation between BPCs and platelet aggregation rates (R = 0.533, P<0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: The occurrence of PVT was 24.7 per cent, primarily in post-hepatitis B liver cirrhosis patients. PVT occurred mainly in the portal vein trunk and superior mesenteric vein. Different PVT sites may account for the differing clinical presentations. The lower levels of haemoglobin and BPCs as well as splenic thickening were associated with PVT. Splenic thickening may be a risk factor for PVT.
Rotermann, Ina; Logoteta, Jana; Falta, Janine; Wegner, Philip; Jung, Olaf; Dütschke, Peter; Scheewe, Jens; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Hansen, Jan Hinnerk
Complex neonatal surgery is considered a risk factor for neuro-developmental impairment in single-ventricle patients. Neuro-developmental outcome was compared between preschool-aged Fontan patients who underwent a Norwood procedure and single-ventricle patients not requiring neonatal surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Verbal, performance and full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) were evaluated with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Cognitive functions were assessed with the German 'Kognitiver Entwicklungstest für das Kindergartenalter' (KET-KID). Risk factors for impaired neuro-development were evaluated. Neuro-developmental assessment was completed in 95 patients (Norwood: n = 69; non-Norwood: n = 26). Median (interquartile range) IQ and KET-KID scores were in the normal range. Except for verbal KET-KID, scores did not differ between Norwood and non-Norwood patients (verbal IQ: 98 (86-105) vs 93 (85-102), P = 0.312; performance IQ: 91 (86-100) vs 96 (86-100), P = 0.932; full-scale IQ: 93 (86-101) vs 89 (84-98), P = 0.314; KET-KID verbal: 48 (17-72) vs 25 (2-54), P = 0.020; KET-KID non-verbal: 33 (18-62) vs 45 (15-54), P = 0.771; KET-KID global: 42 (14-65) vs 28 (6-63), P = 0.208). Full-scale IQ was below average (<85 points) in 14 (20%) Norwood and 9 (35%) non-Norwood cases (P = 0.181). Global KET-KID was below average (<16th percentile) in 19 (28%) and 10 (38%) patients (P = 0.326). Smaller head circumference z-score and complications before neonatal surgery were independently associated with lower scores. Neuro-developmental outcome of preschool-aged Fontan patients was in the normal range. The Norwood procedure was not a risk factor for neuro-developmental impairment. Preoperative condition and patient-related factors were more important determinants than variables related to surgical palliation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for
Henao-Martínez, Andrés F; Gross, Lilyana; Mcnair, Bryan; McCollister, Bruce; DeSanto, Kristen; Montoya, Jose G; Shapiro, Leland; Beckham, J David
Cryptococcal meningitis carries a high mortality. Further understanding of immune suppression factors associated with neuroinvasive infection will improve risk stratification and enhance early diagnosis and treatment with antifungal therapy. The aim of the study was to corroborate established or find novel clinical predictors for cryptococcal meningitis. We performed a matched case-control study of Cryptococcus infection in immunocompromised patients with or without cryptococcal meningitis. Data of all patients with a diagnosis of cryptococcal disease were collected at University of Colorado Hospital between 2000 and 2015 (n = 51). Thirty patients were diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. We built a logistic regression model for risk factors associated with cryptococcal meningitis. The single-predictor univariate model found that a positive blood culture, positive serum cryptococcal antigen, current malignancy, and headaches were significantly associated with cryptococcal meningitis (p = 0.02). In the adjusted multivariate model, central nervous system disease was significantly associated with a diagnosis of HIV infection (OR 24.45, 95 % CI 1.62-350.37; p = 0.022) and a positive serum cryptococcal antigen test (OR 42.92, 95 % CI 3.26-555.55; p = 0.0055). In patients with HIV infection or a positive serum cryptococcal antigen, the pretest probability of neuroinvasive Cryptococcus infection is increased and an aggressive diagnostic evaluation should be conducted to exclude infection and consider empiric therapy.
Henao-Martínez, Andrés F.; Gross, Lilyana; Mcnair, Bryan; McCollister, Bruce; DeSanto, Kristen; Montoya, Jose G.; Shapiro, Leland; Beckham, J. David
Cryptococcal meningitis carries a high mortality. Further understanding of immune suppression factors associated with neuroinvasive infection will improve risk stratification and enhance early diagnosis and treatment with antifungal therapy. The aim of the study was to corroborate established or find novel clinical predictors for cryptococcal meningitis. We performed a matched case-control study of Cryptococcus infection in immunocompromised patients with or without cryptococcal meningitis. All patients with a diagnosis of cryptococcal disease were collected at University of Colorado Hospital between 2000 and 2015 (n=51). Thirty patients were diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. We built a logistic regression model for risk factors associated with cryptococcal meningitis. The single predictor univariate model found that a positive blood culture, positive serum cryptococcal antigen, current malignancy, and headaches were significantly associated with cryptococcal meningitis (p= 0.02). In the adjusted multivariate model, central nervous system disease was significantly associated with a diagnosis of HIV infection (OR: 24.45, 95% CI: 1.62 – 350.37; p=0.022) and a positive serum cryptococcal antigen test (OR: 42.92, 95% CI: 3.26 – 555.55; p=0.0055). In patients with HIV infection or a positive serum cryptococcal antigen, the pre-test probability of neuroinvasive Cryptococcus infection is increased and an aggressive diagnostic evaluation should be conducted to exclude infection and consider empiric therapy. PMID:27502502
Ashwal, Eran; Melamed, Nir; Hiersch, Liran; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Peled, Yoav
We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for retained placenta immediately after vaginal delivery in a single, university-affiliated tertiary center. A case-control study. Women who delivered vaginally and diagnosed with suspected retained placenta were compared to control group of women with spontaneous vaginal delivery with spontaneous non-complicated placental separation between the years 2007 and 2012. Eligibility was limited to singleton fetuses in vertex presentation with no history of more than one cesarean section, stillbirth or major fetal anomaly. Overall, 33,925 women delivered vaginally, of them, 491 (1.4%) underwent revision of uterine cavity due to suspected retained placenta. Women with retained placenta were characterized by a higher rate of previous cesarean section (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.23-2.36), previous abortions, lower parity (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.91), lower gestational age at delivery. Hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios and labor and delivery interventions as induction of labor (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59), neuro-axial analgesia (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.00) and vacuum delivery (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.48-2.41) were independently associated with uterine revision for retained placenta. Risk factors for manual revision due to retained placenta can be recognized. This data should be taken into consideration in the assessment of women immediately after delivery.
Deborah M. Whitley
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.
Whitley, Deborah M.
Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities. PMID:26448744
Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.
This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)
Conclusion: We conclude and strongly emphasize that lipoprotein (a elevation is one of the important genetic risk factors, which might prove a major risk indicator, as valuable as other mutation screening tests performed by molecular genetics [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 285-290
Scharte, Marion; Bolte, Gabriele
Adverse effects of single parenthood on children's health have been reported before. Socio-economic difficulties are discussed as mediating factors. As child health also depends on environmental conditions, we investigated the impact of environmental exposures and socio-economic factors on differences in health outcomes of children with single mothers vs. couple families. Data on 17,218 pre-school children (47% female) from three cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-07 in Germany were analysed. Health and exposure assessment were primarily based on parental report. Effects of socio-economic indicators (maternal education, household income) and environmental factors (traffic load at the place of residence, perceived environmental quality) on associations of four health outcomes (parent-reported health status, asthma, overweight, psychological problems) with single parenthood were determined by logistic regression analyses. Children with single mothers showed an increased risk regarding parent-reported poor health status [boys: odds ratio (OR) 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.82), girls: 1.73 (1.28-2.33)], psychological problems [boys: 1.90 (1.38-2.61), girls: 1.58 (1.03-2.42)], overweight [only boys: OR 1.23 (1.01-1.50) and asthma [only girls: OR 1.90 (1.15-3.15)]. Adjusting for socio-economic factors attenuated the strength of the association of family type with child health. Although environmental factors were associated with most health outcomes investigated and children of single mothers were more often exposed, these environmental factors did not alter the differences between children with single mothers and couple families. The increased health risks of children from single-mother families vs. couple families are partly explained by socio-economic factors, but not by the environmental exposures studied.
Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H
We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharef W. Sharef
Full Text Available Objectives: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC is one of the most challenging complications of prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN in neonates. There is a lack of research investigating its incidence in newborn infants in Oman and the Arab region. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the incidence of PNAC and its risk factors in Omani neonates. Methods: This retrospective study took place between January and April 2014. All neonates who received PN for ≥14 days during a four-year period (June 2009 to May 2013 at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Results: A total of 1,857 neonates were admitted to the NICU over the study period and 135 neonates (7.3% received PN for ≥14 days. Determining the incidence of PNAC was only possible in 97 neonates; of these, 38 (39% had PNAC. The main risk factors associated with PNAC were duration of PN, duration of enteral starvation, gastrointestinal surgeries, blood transfusions and sepsis. Neonates with PNAC had a slightly higher incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in comparison to those without PNAC. Conclusion: This study found a PNAC incidence of 39% in Omani neonates. There were several significant risk factors for PNAC in Omani neonates; however, after logistic regression analysis, only total PN duration remained statistically significant. Preventive strategies should be implemented in NICUs so as to avoid future chronic liver disease in this population.
Ilhan, Gülşah; Verit Atmaca, Fatma Ferda; Kaya, Abdurrahman; Ergin, Ahmet Hasan; Gökmen Karasu, Ayşe Filiz; Turfan, Mehtap
To determine the prevalence of wound infection following cesarean delivery, risk factors, common bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity. The study population consisted of 5787 cesarean deliveries. All of the patients received 2 g doses of cephazolin perioperatively for antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients with wound infection who had two doses of 1 g cephazolin postoperatively and who were continued on oral preparations of 500 mg of cephuroxime twice daily for 5 days after hospital discharge were included in Group A. Patients with wound infection whose postoperative antibiotics and antibiotics after discharge were omitted were included in Group B. Patient related variables, gestational age, co-morbidities, cesarean section indications, neonatal intensive care requirements were assessed. Risk factors were evaluated according to the type of the procedure (elective or emergent) and administered antibiotic protocol. The incidence of wound infection following cesarean section was 0,37% in elective operations and 5,4% in emergency cases. On the other hand, wound infection rate was found to be 1,35% in antibiotic receiving group (Group A) and 1,12% in the group not receiving antibiotics (Group B). Increased rate of wound infections were remarkable in emergency cases and postoperative antibiotics did not have a major impact in reducing the rate of wound infection following cesarean section. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Feng; Hou, Hong-Tao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing-Tao; Shen, Yong
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) following single-lever anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical degenerative diseases.From January 2000 to December 2010, a total of 582 patients with cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy who had undergone single-lever ACDF surgery in the authors' institution were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who had a revision surgery for symptomatic ASD were selected for this study. The authors analyzed the incidence for ASD after single-lever ACDF. And univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors of ASD.Among the 582 patients, 36 patients received subsequent surgical management for ASD after initial single-lever ACDF for an overall prevalence of 6.2%. The average onset time of ASD was 8.5 (2-15) years. The univariate analysis showed that there were no significant differences in sex, duration of disease, BMI, DM, smoking, operative levels, and follow-up period (P > .05) between the 2 groups with and without ASD. There were statistically significant differences in age at the time of operation (χ = 4.361, P = .037), and developmental canal stenosis (χ = 4.181, P = .041) between patients with and without ASD. The variables of age at the time of operation and developmental canal stenosis were included in a logistic regression model. The logistic regression analysis revealed that age at the time of operation ≤50 years (P = .045, OR = 3.015, 95% CI = 1.024-8.882) and developmental canal stenosis (P = .042, OR = 2.797, 95% CI = 1.039-7.527) were the risk factors for ASD after single-lever ACDF.In the present study, the incidence of symptomatic ASD after single-lever ACDF was 6.2%. And the age at the time of operation ≤50 years and developmental canal stenosis were the risk factors for ASD. The patients ≤50 years old at the time of operation
Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition
Al-Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.
Previous studies regarding the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy(LC) in men have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted thisprospective study to test the hypothesis that the outcome of LC is worse inmen than women. Between 1997 and 2002, a total of 391 consecutive LCs wereperformed by a single surgeon at King Fahd Hospital of the University. Wecollected and analyzed data including age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2),the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, mode of admission(elective or emergency), indication for LC (chronic or acute) cholecystitis[AC]), comorbid disease, previous abdominal surgery, conversion to opencholecystectomy, complications, operation time and length of postoperativehospital stay. Bivariate analysis showed that both genders were matched forage, ASA class and mode of admission. The incidence of AC (P=0.003) andcomobrid disease (P=0.031) were significantly higher in men. Women weresignificantly more obese than men (P<0.001) and had a higher incidence ofprevious abdominal surgery (P=0.017). There were no statistical differencesbetween genders with regards to rate of conversion (P=0.372) andcomplications (P=0.647) and operation time (P=0.063). The postoperative staywas significantly longer in men than women (P=0.001). Logistic regressionanalysis showed that male gender was not an independent predictor ofconversion (Odds ratio [or] = 0.37 and P=0.43) or complications (OR=0.42,P=0.42). Linear regression analysis showed that male gender was not anindependent predictor of the operation time, but was associated with a longerpostoperative stay (P=0.02). Male gender is not an independent risk factorfor satisfactory outcome of LC in the experience of a single surgeon. (author)
Vyas, Hari Gopal; Kumar, Anup; Bhandari, Vimal; Kumar, Niraj; Jain, Abhinav; Kumar, Rohit
Introduction: Fournier's gangrene is an aggressive disease with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors associated with mortality among patients of Fournier's gangrene. Materials and Methods: Between May 2011 and September 2012, all patients of Fournier's gangrene treated at our center were included in the study. All patients underwent emergency surgical debridement and received broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Their baseline characteristics, treatment, and follow-up data were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 30 patients were included in the study. Of these, six patients (20%) died during the treatment. Age Fournier gangrene severity index (FGSI) score Fournier's gangrene, increased age, total leukocyte count, extent of the area involved, septic shock at admission, VAS score, and FGSI score at admission have a significant association with mortality. PMID:24082432
Rinke, Sven; Lange, Katharina; Roediger, Matthias; Gersdorff, Nikolaus
This practice-based study evaluated the clinical performance and risk factors for biological and technical complications with conventionally luted zirconia crowns. Sixty-eight patients (39 female) with a total of 323 restorations placed on 219 vital teeth, 69 endodontically treated teeth (ETT), and 41 implants (incisors, 96; premolars, 89; molars, 138; observational period, 79.7 ± 14.2 months) underwent a clinical follow-up examination and were included in the study. Time-dependent survival (in situ), success (event free), and veneering ceramic fracture (VCF) rates were calculated and analyzed relative to the following risk factors: smoking status, location of the crown, and type of abutment. Fifty-three complete failures were recorded. A significant influence of the abutment type on survival could be detected (p = 0.033): ETT demonstrated a significantly (p = 0.029) lower 7-year survival rate (73.8%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.600-0.876) than crowns placed on implants (90.0%, 95% CI 0.814-0.990). The success rate of the crowns was significantly influenced by the location of the restoration (p = 0.0058). A total of 75.6% (95% CI 0.648-0.864) of the anterior crowns remained event free, compared to 50.4% (95% CI 0.388-0.621) of the molar crowns. Furthermore, the location of the crowns affected the VCF rate (p = 0.018, event-free anterior teeth 95.2% (95% CI 0.880-1), event-free molars 80.9% (95% CI 0.706-0.913)). Survival and success rates were significantly influenced by the type of abutment and the location of the restoration. More complete failures should be expected for crowns placed on ETT, while crowns on molars demonstrated more biological and technical complications than anterior zirconia crowns.
Kabbani, Mohamed S; Ismail, Sameh R; Fatima, Anis; Shafi, Rehana; Idris, Julinar A; Mehmood, Akhter; Singh, Reetam K; Elbarabry, Mahmoud; Hijazi, Omar; Hussein, Mohamed A
Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) increases hospitalization, cost and morbidity. In this cohort study, we aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, etiology and outcomes of UTIs in post-operative cardiac children. To this end, we studied all post-operative patients admitted to the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2012, and we divided the patients into two groups: the UTI (UTI group) and the non-UTI (control group). We compared both groups for multiple peri-operative risk factors. We included 413 children in this study. Of these, 29 (7%) had UTIs after cardiac surgery (UTI group), and 384 (93%) were free from UTIs (control group). All UTI cases were catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). A total of 1578 urinary catheter days were assessed in this study, with a CAUTI density rate of 18 per 1000 catheter days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for CAUTI development: duration of urinary catheter placement (purinary tract (CAKUT) (purinary catheter, the presence of CAKUT, and the presence of syndromes comprised the main risk factors for CAUTI. Gram-negative organisms were the main causes for CAUTI, and one-third of them found to be resistant in this single-center study. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk. SERMS may cause side effects , such as hot flashes , so they are not often used for prevention of cancer. See the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information. Finasteride has been ...
... prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk factors ... do smoke, quit. Controlling your cholesterol through diet, exercise, and medicines . Controlling high blood pressure through diet, ...
Full Text Available Single-stranded oligonucleotides (ON comprise a promising therapeutic platform that enables selective modulation of currently undruggable targets. The development of novel ON drug candidates has demonstrated excellent efficacy, but in certain cases also some safety liabilities were reported. Among them are events of thrombocytopenia, which have recently been evident in late stage trials with ON drugs. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and the risk for ON candidates causing such events cannot be sufficiently assessed pre-clinically. We investigated potential thrombocytopenia risk factors of ONs and implemented a set of in vitro assays to assess these risks. Our findings support previous observations that phosphorothioate (PS-ONs can bind to platelet proteins such as platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI and activate human platelets in vitro to various extents. We also show that these PS-ONs can bind to platelet factor 4 (PF4. Binding to platelet proteins and subsequent activation correlates with ON length and connected to this, the number of PS in the backbone of the molecule. Moreover, we demonstrate that locked nucleic acid (LNA ribosyl modifications in the wings of the PS-ONs strongly suppress binding to GPVI and PF4, paralleled by markedly reduced platelet activation. In addition, we provide evidence that PS-ONs do not directly affect hematopoietic cell differentiation in culture but at higher concentrations show a pro-inflammatory potential, which might contribute to platelet activation. Overall, our data confirm that certain molecular attributes of ONs are associated with a higher risk for thrombocytopenia. We propose that applying the in vitro assays discussed here during the lead optimization phase may aid in deprioritizing ONs with a potential to induce thrombocytopenia.
Inoue, Hiroshi K; Sato, Hiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Noda, Shin-ei; Seto, Ken-ichi; Torikai, Kota; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Nakano, Takashi
A single-institutional prospective study of optimal hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy for large brain metastases with high risk factors was performed based on the risk prediction of radiation-related complications. Eighty-eight patients with large brain metastases ≥10 cm 3 in critical areas treated from January 2010 to February 2014 using the CyberKnife were evaluated. The optimal dose and number of fractions were determined based on the surrounding brain volume circumscribed with a single dose equivalent (SDE) of 14 Gy (V14) to be less than 7 cm 3 for individual lesions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. As a result of optimal treatment, 92 tumors ranging from 10 to 74.6 cm 3 (median, 16.2 cm 3 ) in volume were treated with a median prescribed isodose of 57% and a median fraction number of five. In order to compare the results according to the tumor volume, the tumors were divided into the following three groups: 1) 10–19.9 cm 3 , 2) 20–29.9 cm 3 and 3) ≥30 cm 3 . The lesions were treated with a median prescribed isodose of 57%, 56% and 55%, respectively, and the median fraction number was five in all three groups. However, all tumors ≥20 cm 3 were treated with ≥ five fractions. The median SDE of the maximum dose in the three groups was 47.2 Gy, 48.5 Gy and 46.5 Gy, respectively. Local tumor control was obtained in 90.2% of the patients, and the median survival was nine months, with a median follow-up period of seven months (range, 3-41 months). There were no significant differences in the survival rates among the three groups. Six tumors exhibited marginal recurrence 7-36 months after treatment. Ten patients developed symptomatic brain edema or recurrence of pre-existing edema, seven of whom required osmo-steroid therapy. No patients developed radiation necrosis requiring surgical resection. Our findings demonstrate that the administration of optimal hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy based on the dose-volume prediction
... are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still ... Scientists are working diligently to understand what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does ...
Conclusions: Aged patients, large tumor, lower tumor location and conversion were risk factors in performing laparoscopic TME for locally advanced rectal cancer. Patients with these characteristics should be carefully considered before undergoing laparoscopic total mesorectal excision.
Gunaldi, Meral; Duman, Berna Bozkurt; Afsar, Cigdem Usul; Paydas, Semra; Erkisi, Melek; Kara, I Oguz; Sahin, Berksoy
Trastuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody used to treat human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer, with recognized associated cardiotoxicity. In this retrospective observational study, we investigated associated cardiotoxicity on clinical outcomes using trastuzumab in women referred to our clinic. The study was made up of 111 women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing breast cancer who received trastuzumab in the Medical Oncology Department, between 2010 and 2013. A > 10% reduction of the baseline fraction of the left ventricular ejection fraction was observed in 18 (16.21%) women. Two individuals (1.8%) suffered from symptomatic heart failure, seven women showed cardiac symptoms and nine women showed asymptomatic decline of left ventricular ejection fraction. Risk factors for cardiotoxicity in the group included: postmenopausal status (p = 0.01), hypertension (p = 0.002), obesity (p = 0.0001), previously diagnosed coronary artery disease (p = 0.0001) and smoking (p = 0.03). The aforementioned factors pose a risk for cardiotoxicity. We found postmenopausal status, hypertension, obesity, previous coronary artery disease and smoking to be associated with an increased risk of cardiac dysfunction in women using trastuzumab. While administering trastuzumab to women who have these conditions, one must be aware of the risk of cardiotoxicity of trastuzumab. © The Author(s) 2015.
Liu, Xueyou; Xu, Jianguo; Mao, Ke; Wang, Mengmeng; Ren, Peng; Lei, Ding; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Wenjing; Mao, Boyong; Zhou, Dong; Li, Jinmei; Hong, Zhen; Yan, Bo; An, Dongmei; Liu, Ling; Chen, Jiani; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Heng
To evaluate the potential risk factors associated with seizure recurrence in different periods after epilepsy surgery. A total of 303 patients with refractory epilepsy after epilepsy surgery were included. The Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were performed to calculate the comparison of survival curves between groups and identify the risk factors associated with seizure recurrence in different periods after surgery. The significant predictors of seizure recurrence were determined, including duration of epilepsy (P = 0.018), seizure types (P = 0.009), magnetic resonance imaging findings (P = 0.007), intracranial electroencephalographic recordings (P = 0.002), sides of epileptogenic zone (P = 0.025), and types of surgery (P = 0.002). Moreover, the significant predictors of seizure recurrence within 12 months after surgery were also included, such as gender (P = 0.007), duration of epilepsy (P = 0.013), intracranial electroencephalographic recordings (P = 0.003), and types of surgery (P 36 months after surgery. We reconfirmed the well-known risk factors associated with seizure recurrence and also identified the controversial variables. In addition, we found that the risk factors associated with seizure recurrence were different in different periods after epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP is a safe and reliable treatment for tumors in the body and tail of the pancreas. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF is a common complication of pancreatic surgery. Despite improvement in mortality, the rate of POPF still remains high and unsolved. To identify risk factors for POPF after laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy, clinicopathological variables on 120 patients who underwent LDP with stapler closure were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for POPF. The rate of overall and clinically significant POPF was 30.8% and13.3%, respectively. Higher BMI (≥25kg/m2 (p-value = 0.025 and longer operative time (p-value = 0.021 were associated with overall POPF but not clinically significant POPF. Soft parenchymal texture was significantly associated with both overall (p-value = 0.012 and clinically significant POPF (p-value = 0.000. In multivariable analyses, parenchymal texture (OR, 2.933, P-value = 0.011 and operative time (OR, 1.008, P-value = 0.022 were risk factors for overall POPF. Parenchymal texture was an independent predictive factor for clinically significant POPF (OR, 7.400, P-value = 0.001.
... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ... risk factors are unique to women. These include: Menopause Use of hormonal birth control (certain types of combination pills, patches, ...
... Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of getting ... disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do to ...
Garcia-Tejedor, Amparo; Maiques-Montesinos, Vicente; Diago-Almela, Vicente José; Pereda-Perez, Antonio; Alberola-Cuñat, Vicente; López-Hontangas, José Luís; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Perales, Alfredo
The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors on the perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). A retrospective cohort study with 711 infants born to 710 HCV-infected mothers was conducted at the Hospital La Fe, in Valencia, Spain, from 1986 to 2011. As potential risk factors for transmission we analyzed: maternal age, mode of acquisition of HCV infection, HIV co-infection, antiretroviral treatment against HIV, CD4 cell count, HIV and HCV viral load, liver enzyme levels during pregnancy, smoking habit, gestational age, intrapartum invasive procedures, length of rupture of membranes, length of labor, mode of delivery, episiotomy, birth weight, newborn gender and type of feeding. Overall perinatal HCV transmission rate was 2.4%. The significant risk factors related with HCV transmission were maternal virus load >615copies/mL (OR 9.3 [95% CI 1.11-78.72]), intrapartum invasive procedures (OR 10.1 [95% CI 2.6-39.02]) and episiotomy (OR 4.2 [95% CI 1.2-14.16]). HIV co-infection and newborn female were near significance (p=0.081 and 0.075, respectively). Invasive procedures as fetal scalp blood sampling or internal electrode and episiotomy increase vertical transmission of HCV, especially in patients with positive HCV RNA virus load at delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metsemakers, W-J; Handojo, K; Reynders, P; Sermon, A; Vanderschot, P; Nijs, S
Despite modern advances in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures, complications including nonunion, malunion, and infection remain relatively frequent. A better understanding of these injuries and its complications could lead to prevention rather than treatment strategies. A retrospective study was performed to identify risk factors for deep infection and compromised fracture healing after intramedullary nailing (IMN) of tibial shaft fractures. Between January 2000 and January 2012, 480 consecutive patients with 486 tibial shaft fractures were enrolled in the study. Statistical analysis was performed to determine predictors of deep infection and compromised fracture healing. Compromised fracture healing was subdivided in delayed union and nonunion. The following independent variables were selected for analysis: age, sex, smoking, obesity, diabetes, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification, polytrauma, fracture type, open fractures, Gustilo type, primary external fixation (EF), time to nailing (TTN) and reaming. As primary statistical evaluation we performed a univariate analysis, followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Univariate regression analysis revealed similar risk factors for delayed union and nonunion, including fracture type, open fractures and Gustilo type. Factors affecting the occurrence of deep infection in this model were primary EF, a prolonged TTN, open fractures and Gustilo type. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed polytrauma as the single risk factor for nonunion. With respect to delayed union, no risk factors could be identified. In the same statistical model, deep infection was correlated with primary EF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of poor outcome after IMN of tibial shaft fractures. The univariate regression analysis showed that the nature of complications after tibial shaft nailing could be multifactorial. This was not confirmed in a multiple logistic regression model, which
Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Okura, Tomohiro; Nakagaichi, Masaki; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Sakai, Tomoaki; Kitazumi, Suguru; Rantanen, Taina
Decreased fitness of the lower extremities is a potentially modifiable fall risk factor. This study aimed to compare two exercise programs--square-stepping exercise (SSE), which is a low-cost indoor program, and walking--for improving the fitness of the lower extremities. We randomly allocated 68 community-dwelling older adults (age 65-74 years) to either the SSE or walking group (W group). During the 12-week regimen, the SSE group participated in 70-minute exercise sessions conducted twice a week at a local health center, and the W group participated in outdoor supervised walking sessions conducted weekly. The W group was instructed to increase the number of daily steps. Prior to and after the program, we obtained information on 11 physical performance tests for known fall risk factors and 3 self-reported scales. The fall incidence was followed-up for 8 months. At 12 weeks postregimen, significant differences were observed between the two exercise groups with respect to leg power (1 item), balance (2 items), agility (2 items), reaction time (2 items), and a self-reported scale (1 item); the SSE group demonstrated a marked improvement in the above-mentioned items with Group x Time interactions. Significant time effects were observed in the tests involving chair stands, functional reach, and standing up from a lying-down position without Group x Time interactions. During the follow-up period, the fall rates per person-year in the SSE and W groups were 23.4% and 33.3%, respectively (p =.31). Although further studies are required, SSE is apparently more effective than walking in reducing fall risk factors, and it appears that it may be recommended as a health promotion exercise in older adults.
Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a common complication of pregnancy which has become a main health concern around the world due to its negative consequences. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of progesterone therapy in the prevention of preterm labor in women with single risk factor. Search strategy: A PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE, SID, Magiran and Google Scholar search (date last searched April 2016 without any time, language and location restriction was done. Inclusion criteria: All randomized clinical trials of singleton pregnancies with single risk factor (prior preterm labor without short cervical length or short cervical length without prior preterm labor which were randomized to progesterone and control groups were included in our meta-analysis. Primary outcome: Our primary outcome was gestational age at delivery. Results: 13 studies (1259 subjects and 2653 control women were included in the meta-analysis. Using random effect model showed that mean gestational age at delivery of progesterone group is 0.74 (0.41-1.06 month longer than that of control group with CI=95% which is significant statically. Conclusions: Progesterone therapy is an effective intervention for the prevention of preterm labor in women with single risk factor.
Caton, Carol L M; Dominguez, Boanerges; Schanzer, Bella; Hasin, Deborah S; Shrout, Patrick E; Felix, Alan; McQuistion, Hunter; Opler, Lewis A; Hsu, Eustace
We examined risk factors for long-term homelessness among newly homeless men and women who were admitted to New York City shelters in 2001 and 2002. Interviews were conducted with 377 study participants upon entry into the shelter and at 6-month intervals for 18 months. Standardized assessments of psychiatric diagnosis, symptoms, and coping skills; social and family history; and service use were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to examine the association between baseline assessments and duration of homelessness. Eighty-one percent of participants returned to community housing during the follow-up period; the median duration of homelessness was 190 days. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a shorter duration of homelessness was associated with younger age, current or recent employment, earned income, good coping skills, adequate family support, absence of a substance abuse treatment history, and absence of an arrest history. Cox regression showed that older age group Phomelessness. Identification of risk factors for long-term homelessness can guide efforts to reduce lengths of stay in homeless shelters and to develop new preventive interventions.
Tadec, Laurent; Talarmin, Jean-Philippe; Gastinne, Thomas; Bretonnière, Cédric; Miegeville, Michel; Le Pape, Patrice; Morio, Florent
Candidemia remains a major cause of disease worldwide and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a retrospective study of candidemia at Nantes Hospital, France, between 2004 and 2010. A total of 191 episodes (n = 188 patients) were reviewed. Incidence, demographics, risk factors, antifungal management, species identification, in vitro susceptibility and 12 weeks survival were analysed. Global incidence of candidemia was 0.37‰ admissions. Higher incidences were observed in haematology (6.65‰) and intensive care units (2‰). Central venous catheter and antibiotic exposure were the most frequent risk factors (77% and 76% respectively). Candida albicans was the predominant species (51.8%) followed by C. parapsilosis (14.5%), C. glabrata (9.8%), C. tropicalis (9.8%) and C. krusei (4.1%). However, species distribution differed significantly between medical units with frequency of C. tropicalis being higher in haematology compared to other medical units. Fluconazole and caspofungin were the main antifungals given as first-line therapy. Although not significant, 12 weeks mortality rate was 30.9%, being higher for C. tropicalis (44.4%) than for C. parapsilosis (16%). Acquired azole or echinocandin resistance was noted in some isolates, underlining the need for systematic antifungal susceptibility testing in patients with candidemia. These epidemiological findings will be of interest for antifungal stewardship at our hospital. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Purpose: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE have emerged and disseminated widely causing a variety of infections. In India, the carriage of CRE in hospitalised patients has not been well-studied. Therefore, we conducted the present study to observe gut carriage rate of CRE in patients admitted to our tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 232 faecal swabs collected from consecutive stool samples from admitted patients were inoculated on ChromID extended spectrum β-lactamase plates and members of Enterobacteriaceae family were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility as per the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction for blaVIM, blaKPC, blaIMPand blaNDM-1 genes was performed. CRE was identified if the isolates showed resistance to either imipenem or meropenem or showed the presence of resistant genes. Risk factors of patients with or without CRE colonisation were also analysed. Results: A total of 232 faecal swabs yielded 252 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, of which 49 isolates from 42 patients showed the presence of CRE (occurrence 42/232; 18.1%; 27 isolates from 22 patients carried blaNDM-1, whereas 20 isolates from 17 patients possessed blaVIMgene. No isolate was positive for blaKPCand blaIMPgenes. The CRE was common in both intensive care units (38.4% and wards (46% which may reflect the excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in both these settings. The CRE was also found to have a significantly higher antimicrobial resistance as compared to non-CRE isolates. The logistic regression analysis of significance showed the presence of any indwelling device (P = 0.049 and nasogastric tube (P = 0.043 as independent risk factors for acquiring gut colonisation. Conclusions: The study is the first from India to show high CRE carriage in patients admitted to a tertiary care centre and emphasises the need of strict antimicrobial stewardship implementation in hospitals to prevent dissemination of
Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.
Swoboda, Christine M; Miller, Carla K; Wills, Celia E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 4-month telephone-based goal-setting and decision support intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A randomized pretest-posttest control group design was employed. Overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 75 years with T2DM and ≥1 additional CVD risk factor were provided with individualized CVD risk information. At baseline and each biweekly telephone call, the multiple-goal group self-selected both diet- and physical activity-related goals, the single goal group set a single goal, and the control group received information about community health resources. Dietary intake was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire, physical activity via questionnaire, and A1C and blood lipids via fasting fingerstick sample. Between-group differences for clinical (ie, A1C, blood pressure, and blood lipids), physical activity, and dietary variables were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, analysis of variance, and t tests. From pre- to postintervention, the single-goal group demonstrated significant improvement in systolic blood pressure and intake of servings of fruits, vegetables, and refined grains (all P < .05). The multiple-goal group reported significant reduction in percent energy from total, saturated, monounsaturated, and trans fat intake and significant increase in leisure time walking (all P < .05). A multiple-goal approach over 4 months can improve dietary and physical activity outcomes, while a single-goal approach may facilitate improvement in one behavioral domain. Additional research is needed to evaluate maintenance of the achieved changes. © 2016 The Author(s).
Lee, Young-Seok; Kim, Young-Baeg; Park, Seung-Won
Retrospective cohort study. To investigate and analyze the preoperative risk factors affecting subsidence after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to reduce subsidence. Subsidence after ACDF may be caused by various risk factors, although the related information is scarce. Seventy-eight patients who underwent single-level ACDF between 2005 and 2011 were included. Patients were categorized into the subsidence (n = 26) and nonsubsidence groups (n = 52). Preoperative factors such as age, sex, operative level, bone mineral density, cervical alignment, segmental sagittal angle, and anterior/posterior disc height were assessed. The use of plates and the anterior/posterior disc height gap were examined as perioperative factors. The clinical outcome was assessed using a visual analogue scale for neck and arm pain. Subsidence occurred in 26 (33.3%) of 78 patients. A significant difference was found in clinical outcomes between the subsidence and nonsubsidence groups (P subsidence group. The mean time to subsidence was 4.8 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed that cervical alignment (P = 0.017), age (P = 0.022), and use of plates (P = 0.041) affected subsidence. In patients who received a stand-alone cage, the risk of subsidence was significantly greater in the kyphotic angle group than in the lordotic angle group (odds ratio = 13.56; P subsidence are cervical alignment, age, and use of plates. Our data suggest that surgeons should consider the kyphotic curvature and/or age when deciding on the use of plates.
Verhulst, F C; Versluis-den Bieman, H O; Balmus, N C
Modern reproductive techniques and alternative family structures (with single or homosexual parents and adoption situations) raise questions about the consequences for the growing children involved. Genetic links appear to be less important for the functioning of a family than a strong wish for parenthood; parents who have become parents only through great efforts display a better quality of parenthood than average natural parents. Characteristics of the parent/parents, such as paedagogic qualities, and the quality of the parent-child relationship appear more important than the type of family. Published results of research reveal no reason why lesbian families should be judged differently from heterosexual ones as family types for the raising of children. The main negative factor for the functioning of the child growing up in a single-parent family is the marriage conflicts that have led to the single-parent situation; being raised by a single parent in itself has no adverse effect. Raising adopted children from other countries makes far greater demands on the adoptive parents than parents of biological children have to meet. The raising of a foreign adopted child by a single parent entails additional risks for the child's development. Data on the development of children in alternative family structures frequently concern exceptionally competent parents, which may have biased the findings.
Sato, Go; Sekine, Kazunori; Matsuda, Kazunori; Takeda, Noriaki
The findings suggest that in patients with posterior semicircular canal (PSCC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (P-BPPV), head trauma and prolonged bedrest, but not inner ear disease, are risk factors for poor outcome of a single Epley maneuver and persistent residual positional vertigo. We first examined the efficacy of a single Epley maneuver and then assessed the time course in remission of residual positional vertigo in patients with idiopathic P-BPPV and secondary P-BPPV. A total of 157 patients with idiopathic P-BPPV and 40 patients with secondary P-BPPV (secondary to head trauma in 8 patients, to prolonged bedrest in 14 patients, and to inner ear disease in 18 patients) were treated with a single Epley maneuver. The negative rates of the Dix-Hallpike test on day 7 after a single Epley maneuver in both patients with P-BPPV secondary to head trauma (25%) and those with prolonged bedrest (36%) were significantly lower than that (73%) in patients with idiopathic P-BPPV. Additionally, the remission of residual positional vertigo in the former groups of patients was significantly delayed in comparison with that of the latter group. However, there were no significant differences in the efficacy of a single Epley maneuver and persistent residual positional vertigo between idiopathic P-BPPV and P-BPPV secondary to inner ear disease.
Full Text Available We obtain a result that relates the risk-neutral jump size of interest rates with yield curve data. This function is unobservable; therefore, this result opens a way to estimate the jump size directly from data in the markets together with the risk-neutral drift and jump intensity estimations. Then, we investigate the finite sample performance of this approach with a test problem. Moreover, we analyze the effect of estimating the risk-neutral jump size instead of assuming that it is artificially absorbed by the jump intensity, as usual in the interest rate literature. Finally, an application to US Treasury Bill data is also illustrated.
Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.
A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de
The Volpe Center has used three sources of datathe Federal Railroad Administrations required accident reports, locomotive video, and U.S. Census datato investigate common risk factors for railroad trespassing incidents, the leading cause of ...
Conclusion: Patients who developed short-term complications seemed to be at risk of long-term complications. Therefore, to minimize long-term morbidities in CDH survivors, the prevention of short-term complications might be important.
Conclusions: BPP had a high case-fatality rate in this group of adult patients with no association to resistant isolates, and a low immunization record. Three independent factors were related to death and the prognostic yield of different severity scores was low.
Arnold, Robert W
In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
O'Leary, Patrick T; Bridwell, Keith H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Good, Christopher R; Pichelmann, Mark A; Buchowski, Jacob M; Kim, Yongjung J; Flynn, Jennifer
Retrospective review with matched-cohort analysis performed at a single institution. To determine risk factors and outcomes for acute fractures at the proximal aspect of long pedicle screw constructs. Acute fractures at the top of long segmental pedicle screw constructs (FPSC) can be catastrophic. Substantial surgical increase in lordosis may precipitate this problem. In relation to a matched cohort, we postulated that age, body mass index (BMI), and significant correction of lumbar lordosis would increase risk of FPSC and patients with FPSC would have lesser improvements in outcomes. Thirteen patients who sustained FPSC between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. During this time, 264 patients aged 40 or older had a spinal fusion from the thoracic spine to the sacrum using an all-pedicle screw construct. A cohort of 31 of these patients without FPSC but with all pedicle screw constructs was matched for diagnosis of positive sagittal imbalance, gender, preoperative C7 sagittal plumb, and number of levels fused. There was a significant difference in age (P = 0.02) and BMI (P = 0.006) between the matched groups. There was no significant difference in preoperative/postoperative C7 plumb or change in lumbar lordosis between groups. Acute neurological deficit developed in 2 patients; both patients improved substantially after revision surgery. Nine patients underwent proximal extension of the fusion. For 7 of the 13 FPSC patients with bone mineral density data (BMD) available, average T score was-1.73; -0.58 for the matched group (10/31 with bone mineral density data) (P = 0.02). Factors that increased the risk of FPSC included obesity and older age. Osteopenia increased the risk as evidenced by BMD (based on 17 patients) and the older age of these patients. There was no statistical difference in clinical improvement between groups based on ODI, but the FPSC group did demonstrate a smaller improvement in ODI score than the matched cohort.
Semb, Olof; Strömsten, Lotta M J; Sundbom, Elisabet; Fransson, Per; Henningsson, Mikael
To increase understanding of post-victimization symptom development, the present study investigated the role of shame- and guilt-proneness and event-related shame and guilt as potential risk factors. 35 individuals (M age = 31.7 yr.; 48.5% women), recently victimized by a single event of severe violent crime, were assessed regarding shame- and guilt-proneness, event-related shame and guilt, and post-victimization symptoms. The mediating role of event-related shame was investigated with structural equation modeling (SEM), using bootstrapping. The guilt measures were unrelated to each other and to post-victimization symptoms. The shame measures were highly intercorrelated and were both positively correlated to more severe post-victimization symptom levels. Event-related shame as mediator between shame-proneness and post-victimization symptoms was demonstrated by prevalent significant indirect effects. Both shame measures are potent risk factors for distress after victimization, whereby part of the effect of shame-proneness on post-victimization symptoms is explained by event-related shame.
Sherafati, Faranak; Homaie-Rad, Enayatollah; Afkar, Abolhassan; Gholampoor-Sigaroodi, Ramin; Sirusbakht, Soheil
To investigate the differences in death after receiving emergency services in traffic accidents between urban and rural regions, and decompose factors of the gap in Langerood, Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Langrood, Northern Iran during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. The hospital data of traffic crashes were used. Data contained those patients who survived at the scene of accident. Injury severity score, time to admission, age, gender, season of crash and type of collision were variables used in this study. Oaxaca decomposition technique was used to show the amount of inequity. In addition, three regression models were used to show the reason of inequity. Overall 1520 patients with road traffic accidents were admitted to our center during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 35.45 ± 17.9 years, and there were 1158 (76.1 %) men among the victims. Motorbike accidents accounted for 869 (57.1%) injuries and 833 (54.8 %) accidents occurred in rural regions. The in-hospital mortality rate was 60 (3.9%). The results of this study showed that 95% of inequity came from factors used in this study and 2.04% disadvantages were for rural crashes. Severity of crash and time to admission had relationship with death, while the effects of time to admission was higher in rural region and severity of the accident had more effect on mortality in urban regions in comparison with rural ones. The high rate of fatal accidents could be decreased by deleting the gap of access to health care services between urban and rural regions. This study suggested that more efforts of health system are needed to reduce the gap.
Villarinho, Eduardo Aydos; Triches, Diego Fernandes; Alonso, Fernando Rizzo; Mezzomo, Luis André Mendonça; Teixeira, Eduardo Rolim; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami Arai
The use of short implants is still not a consensus for challenging clinical situations, such as unfavorable crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio. This prospective study evaluated the rates of prosthetic complications and implant failure, the mean marginal bone loss of 6-mm dental implants with single crowns in posterior regions and the potential risk factors. Forty-six dental implants, 6-mm long and 4.1-mm wide, were placed in the posterior region in 20 patients. Patients were clinically and radiographically examined after the restoration with single crowns and on a yearly basis. Potential risk factors (arch, bruxism, maximum bite force, anatomical and clinical C/I ratios, and occlusal table area) were analyzed according to the following outcomes: implant survival, bone loss, and prosthetic complications. The mean follow-up time was 45 ± 9 (16-57) months. There was no early loss of implants. After prosthetic loading, 4 implants were lost (2 in the mandible and 2 in the maxilla; 91.3% survival), and there were 13 prosthetic complications (28.3%), yielding a 65.2% success rate. The frailty term showed a 95% greater chance of loss in the mandible than the maxilla. Mean peri-implant bone loss was of 0.2 ± 0.4 mm, 0.1 ± 0.2 mm, 0.1 ± 0.3 mm, and 0.2 ± 0.4 mm in the first, second, third, and fourth years, respectively, with a mean cumulative loss of 0.3 ± 0.5 mm at 48 months. In the multilevel model, the effects of the clinical C/I ratio and time were significant for bone loss (P implants supporting single crowns performed well, but the mandible shows a higher risk of failure. The time and clinical C/I ratio are predictors for bone loss. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Dyslipidemia has been implicated in various musculoskeletal diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Evidence is emerging that there might be a pathogenic interaction among inflammation, dyslipidemia, and adipokines. We prospectively investigated the association of cumulative lipid levels with radiographic progression of RA. RA patients (n=242 underwent plasma cholesterol assessment at four visits. Disease activity parameters and X-rays of the hands and feet were also serially monitored in these patients. The cumulative inflammatory burden and lipid levels were estimated by time-integrated values. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were determined by ELISA. When patients were divided into three groups according to time-integrated lipid levels, as expected, patients with LDL cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels in the third tertile had persistently higher ESR and CRP levels. In parallel, a more rapid radiographic progression over two years was observed in patients with higher LDL cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels. In multivariate analysis, time-integrated LDL cholesterol was independently associated with radiographic progression. Particularly, the risk of radiographic progression was 5.6-fold in a subgroup with both LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the third tertile. Moreover, LDL cholesterol synergistically increased the adjusted probability of radiographic progression in patients with high serum leptin levels but not in those without. These results demonstrate that LDL cholesterolemia is a novel serum marker that can be used to predict radiographic progression of RA, which seems to be related to circulatory leptin levels. We suggest that personalized and more aggressive anti-rheumatic therapy is required for dyslipidemic subgroups in RA patients.
Brouwers, M.M.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roelofs, L.A.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Gier, R.P.E. de; Roeleveld, N.
Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were
Nishina, Makoto; Yanagi, Hidetaka; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Endoh, Masayuki; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Takagi, Atsushi
Common outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis include catheter removal and transition to hemodialysis (HD). According to recent data, the incidence of PD-related peritonitis in Japan is not low, and peritonitis is the most common cause of withdrawal from PD. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of PD-related peritonitis at the Outpatient Nephrology Clinic of Tokai University Hospital (hereafter "the Clinic") and to examine causative bacteria and the risk factors related to the development of peritonitis. We investigated all PD-related peritonitis episodes of 192 PD patients who visited the Clinic during the period from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2011 and established the incidence of PD-related peritonitis, along with culture-negative peritonitis rates. Regarding the risk factors that are associated with the development of peritonitis, we examined patient backgrounds, whether an automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) device was used, and which type of connection system was employed. The incidence of peritonitis was one episode per 64.5 patient-months, and the culture-negative peritonitis rate was 16.4 %. Of the cultured bacterial isolates 71.3 % were Gram-positive cocci, including 25.0 % of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 13.2 % of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and 6.6 % of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Gram-negative rods were 19.1 %. Risk factors associated with the development of peritonitis included age at the start of PD [odds ratio 1.042, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.016-1.069, p value = 0.001], diabetes mellitus nephropathy (DMN) (odds ratio 22.003, 95 % CI 2.101-230.452, p value = 0.010), and the use of a sterile tubing welder device (STWD) (odds ratio 2.399, 95 % CI 1.043-5.521, p value = 0.040). Regarding the situation of peritonitis at a single center during the 10-year period of this study, risk factors associated with the development of peritonitis
Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R
Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females.
Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli
Full Text Available Objective. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. Materials/Methods. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Results. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Conclusions. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.
Prenatal diagnosis and risk factors for preoperative death in neonates with single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction: screening data from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial(∗).
Atz, Andrew M; Travison, Thomas G; Williams, Ismee A; Pearson, Gail D; Laussen, Peter C; Mahle, William T; Cook, Amanda L; Kirsh, Joel A; Sklansky, Mark; Khaikin, Svetlana; Goldberg, Caren; Frommelt, Michele; Krawczeski, Catherine; Puchalski, Michael D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Baffa, Jeanne M; Rychik, Jack; Ohye, Richard G
The purpose of this analysis was to assess preoperative risk factors before the first-stage Norwood procedure in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single-ventricle lesions and to evaluate practice patterns in prenatal diagnosis, as well as the role of prenatal diagnosis in outcome. Data from all live births with morphologic single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction screened for the Pediatric Heart Network's Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial were used to investigate prenatal diagnosis and preoperative risk factors. Demographics, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis status, presence of major extracardiac congenital abnormalities, and preoperative mortality rates were recorded. Of 906 infants, 677 (75%) had prenatal diagnosis, 15% were preterm (<37 weeks' gestation), and 16% were low birth weight (<2500 g). Rates of prenatal diagnosis varied by study site (59% to 85%, P < .0001). Major extracardiac congenital abnormalities were less prevalent in those born after prenatal diagnosis (6% vs 10%, P = .03). There were 26 (3%) deaths before Norwood palliation; preoperative mortality did not differ by prenatal diagnosis status (P = .49). In multiple logistic regression models, preterm birth (P = .02), major extracardiac congenital abnormalities (P < .0001), and obstructed pulmonary venous return (P = .02) were independently associated with preoperative mortality. Prenatal diagnosis occurred in 75%. Preoperative death was independently associated with preterm birth, obstructed pulmonary venous return, and major extracardiac congenital abnormalities. Adjusted for gestational age and the presence of obstructed pulmonary venous return, the estimated odds of preoperative mortality were 10 times greater for subjects with a major extracardiac congenital abnormality. Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L
In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be
Sherrod, Brandon A.; Arynchyna, Anastasia A.; Johnston, James M.; Rozzelle, Curtis J.; Blount, Jeffrey P.; Oakes, W. Jerry; Rocque, Brandon G.
operation (OR 1.843, 95% CI 1.011–3.360, p = 0.046), spine procedures (OR 1.673, 95% CI 1.036–2.702, p = 0.035), acquired CNS abnormality (OR 1.620, 95% CI 1.085–2.420, p = 0.018), and female sex (OR 1.475, 95% CI 1.062–2.049, p = 0.021). The only COA factor independently associated with SSI in the COA database included clean-contaminated wound classification (OR 3.887, 95% CI 1.354–11.153, p = 0.012), with public insurance (OR 1.966, 95% CI 0.957–4.041, p = 0.066) and spine procedures (OR 1.982, 95% CI 0.955–4.114, p = 0.066) approaching significance. Both NSQIP-P and COA multivariate model C-statistics were > 0.7. Conclusions NSQIP-P SSI rates, but not risk factors, were similar to data from a single center. PMID:28186476
Sherrod, Brandon A; Arynchyna, Anastasia A; Johnston, James M; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry; Rocque, Brandon G
.843, 95% CI 1.011-3.360, p = 0.046), spine procedures (OR 1.673, 95% CI 1.036-2.702, p = 0.035), acquired CNS abnormality (OR 1.620, 95% CI 1.085-2.420, p = 0.018), and female sex (OR 1.475, 95% CI 1.062-2.049, p = 0.021). The only COA factor independently associated with SSI in the COA database included clean-contaminated wound classification (OR 3.887, 95% CI 1.354-11.153, p = 0.012), with public insurance (OR 1.966, 95% CI 0.957-4.041, p = 0.066) and spine procedures (OR 1.982, 95% CI 0.955-4.114, p = 0.066) approaching significance. Both NSQIP-P and COA multivariate model C-statistics were > 0.7. CONCLUSIONS The NSQIP-P SSI rates, but not risk factors, were similar to data from a single center.
Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.
Chen, Zi-Li; He, Rui-Zhi; Peng, Qian; Guo, Ke-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qiong; Yuan, Hui-Hua; Liu, Jian-Xin
Neonatal asphyxia is the third leading cause of neonatal death and main cause of long-term neurodevelopmental handicap throughout the world. Prevention is more important than treatment. Most previous reports are limited to retrospective investigations of the relationships between some prenatal risk factors and low Apgar scores. This study was designed to prospectively investigate the relationship between prenatal risk factors and neonatal asphyxia and the influence of single or multiple risk factors on the incidence of neonatal asphyxia, and examine significant risk factors for neonatal asphyxia. From April 2002 through October 2004, a total of 10 376 live-born newborns were enrolled. Forty-six prenatal risk factors were investigated. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed based on the following four items: 1. 1-min Apgar score asphyxia was analyzed. The significant risk factors were screened by single logistic regression analysis and forward stepwise conditional multiple logistic regression analysis, with enrolled threshold alphaor=0.10 and pasphyxia occurred in 117 cases (1.13%) out of the 8 530 cases. In the 1 846 cases without risk factors, none had asphyxia (x2=25.6, pasphyxia increased with increasing numbers of risk factors, from 0.23% in newborns with one risk factor to 14.29% in newborns who had nine risk factors (r=0.96, pasphyxia by systematically examining prenatal risk factors and giving interventions for the newborns with risk factors, especially those with the above significant risk factors or with multiple risk factors. Proper cesareon section according to indications might be helpful to decrease the incidence of birth asphyxia.
Yang, Alyssa J; Gromoske, Andrea N; Olson, Melissa A; Chaffin, Jeffrey G
The purpose is to examine the relation of social risk factors, and the cumulative burden of social risk factors, on parent-reported dental health and dental care-seeking behavior. National Survey of Children's Health data (2011-2012) were analyzed for US children by Title V Block Grant regions. Multivariate logistic regressions were estimated for ten social risk factors, as well as a cumulative risk index, to find any associations with poor condition of teeth, presence of dental caries, and no dental care visits. Almost all of the risk factors were significantly associated with poor condition of teeth and presence of dental caries for the US. Models associating no dental care visits suggested that low family income (OR 1.58), poor maternal mental health (OR 1.54), high school education or less (OR 1.34), and multi-racial/other race (OR 1.18) were significant factors for the US. Regional variation existed for those risk factors and their association with the outcomes, but income, education, and poor maternal mental health consistently played a significant role in adverse outcomes. The cumulative risk index was strongly related to poor oral health outcomes, with a weaker relationship to dental care utilization. US children experiencing certain social risk factors, such as low family income, high school education or less, and poor maternal mental health, are likely to be at greater risk for poor dental health and low levels of dental-care seeking behavior. Children experiencing multiple social risks are at greater risk for poor oral outcomes than children who experience fewer social risks. An approach that involves the social determinants of health is needed to address these issues.
Corcione, Silvia; Angilletta, Roberto; Raviolo, Stefania; Filippini, Claudia; Fossati, Lucina; Di Perri, Giovanni; Cavallo, Rossana; De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe
The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) and of bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by Candida spp., ESBL-E-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CP-Kp) is associated with high mortality. We conducted a single centre retrospective study on patients admitted to Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy, from January 2013 to April 2015 with CDI or BSI caused by Candida, ESBL-E or CP-Kp. For each patient demographic, clinical and microbiological data were collected. Aims of this study were to describe epidemiology and to evaluate risk factors for in-hospital mortality in this group of patients. Seven hundred-eighty six cases were analyzed: 398 CDI, 137 candidemia, 125 ESBL-E BSI and 126 CP-Kp BSI. CDI, candidemia and ESBL-E BSI were more frequently reported in internal medicine wards (IMW), whilst CP-Kp were more described in intensive care unit (ICU). Sixty-six percent of patients had a previous hospitalization and the majority of patients had several medical comorbidities. In-hospital death occurred in 23.4%. Independent risk factors for mortality were antibiotic therapy before hospital admission, cardiovascular diseases, neutropenia, urinary catheter, total parenteral nutrition, SIRS and higher creatinine levels at diagnosis. Previous abdominal surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, higher serum albumin levels at the admission and fever at diagnosis were significantly associated with survival. Our data showed that CDI, ESBL-E BSI and candidemia are more frequent in frail patients, admitted to IMW, with chronic comorbidities and broad exposure to antibiotic therapies, with the exception for CP-Kp BSI, still more common in the ICU. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V
Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
... Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...
It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer
Torres, Antonio; Rubio, Miguel A; Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés
Obesity and its associated comorbidities entail a significantly increased cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, approaching obesity control must include among its aims the reduction of the associated comorbidities and the higher cardiovascular mortality risk and not only weight loss. Many observational studies indicate that bariatric surgery (BS) is associated with a better long-term survival than standard care. Furthermore, in general, these epidemiological studies included patients who underwent gastric bypass (GB), not biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch (BPD/DS), so the potential additional benefit of this latter technique remains unknown. In this regard, in theory, derivative techniques are usually associated to a higher rate of long-term improvement of metabolic comorbidities, so their potential impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality could be even greater than what has been published up to date. In 2007, our group proposed a simplification of the bariatric technique based on the duodenal switch, which we termed "single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy" or SADI-S. In this review, and 10 years later, we describe some of the main results of those patients who underwent this procedure, specifically regarding their outcome on metabolic comorbidities and cardiovascular risk. Considering the findings presented in this review, in which a significant improvement of all metabolic comorbidities was observed, we may confidently suggest that SADI-S seems comparable to a BPD/DS procedure in the mid-term outcome. After all, the SADI-S procedure was conceived as a simplified version of the BPD/DS technique and not necessarily intended to maximize the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, which is already sufficiently optimal. In this regard, in our experience, we have encountered a new satisfactory result, which combines more pros than cons. In fact, as we have seen, after a follow-up of 3 years, the outcomes of
Pieskä, J. (Jukka)
Abstract The aim of this thesis is to study risk factor based investing and test how well MSCI constructs their risk factor based indices. Risk factor based investing has gained a lot of media exposure in the recent years and “Smart Beta” products are becoming more popular. Blackrock estimated that there are more than 700 exchange traded products available and they have over $ 529 billion in assets under management. Risk fa...
Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc
Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.
Yugué, Itaru; Okada, Seiji; Masuda, Muneaki; Ueta, Takayoshi; Maeda, Takeshi; Shiba, Keiichiro
We determined the incidence of and risk factors for clinical adjacent segment pathology (C-ASP) requiring additional surgeries among patients previously treated with one-segment lumbar decompression and fusion surgery. We retrospectively analysed 161 consecutive patients who underwent one-segment lumbar decompression and fusion surgery for L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), facet orientation and tropism, laminar inclination angle, spinal canal stenosis ratio [on myelography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], preoperative adjacent segment instability, arthrodesis type, pseudarthrosis, segmental lordosis at L4-5, and the present L4 slip were evaluated by a log-rank test using the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model was used to analyse all factors found significant by the log-rank test. Of 161 patients, 22 patients (13.7 %) had additional surgeries at cranial segments located adjacent to the index surgery's location. Pre-existing canal stenosis ≥47 % at the adjacent segment on myelography, greater facet tropism, and high BMI were significant risk factors for C-ASP. The estimated incidences at 10 years postoperatively for each of these factors were 51.3, 39.6, and 32.5 %, and the risks for C-ASP were 4.9, 3.7, and, 3.1 times higher than their counterparts, respectively. Notably, spinal canal stenosis on myelography, but not on MRI, was found to be a significant risk factor for C-ASP (log-rank test P < 0.0001 and 0.299, respectively). Pre-existing spinal stenosis, greater facet tropism, and higher BMI significantly increased C-ASP risk. Myelography is a more accurate method for detecting latent spinal canal stenosis as a risk factor for C-ASP.
Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry
Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....
Lightner, Amy L; Shurell, Elizabeth; Dawson, Nicole; Omidvar, Yasaman; Foster, Nova
Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial tumors that are characterized as benign, borderline, or malignant based on cellular characteristics such as stromal overgrowth and number of mitoses. Currently, there is a lack of consensus on risk factors and management of patients with phyllodes tumors, which has led to variation in treatment patterns as well as patient outcomes across many institutions. This study seeks to understand the clinicopathologic features, risk factors for local and metastatic recurrence, and clinical outcomes of patients with phyllodes tumors to better define optimal treatment patterns.
Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J
Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.
Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem
We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization.
Mohamed Mohamed Elawdy
Conclusions: In our present series, bladder cancer recurrence of urothelial malignancy occurred in nearly half of the patients after surgical management of UTUC. Ureteric tumour was the only identifiable risk factor, thus patients with ureteric tumours may benefit from prophylactic intravesical chemoimmunotherapy. Bladder recurrence does not appear to affect the cancer-specific survival after surgical management of UTUC.
Adamová, Z; Slováček, R; Sankot, J
Colonic diverticular disease is a common illness, especially in the elderly population. It may be asymptomatic and cause chronic intestinal problems, colonic diverticular bleeding or inflammatory complications with considerable morbidity and mortality. We have attempted at finding factors that would help us identify patients with a higher risk of diverticulitis recurrence as well as patients with a higher likelihood of perforated diverticulitis. This retrospective study included all patients admitted to our surgical ward for inflammatory complications of diverticular disease between 2000 and 2012: 278 patients, 88 men and 190 women. We looked up the first attack of diverticulitis in our documentation as well as the relapses, if any, their number and course, and the time from the first attack to the relapse. We analyzed the influence of age, gender, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, overweight, ischemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, gastroduodenal disease), nicotine abuse and medication (glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive drugs, acetylsalicylic acid) on diverticulitis recurrence and its complicated course. We compared the results of conservative and surgical therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Fishers exact test and Man-Whitney U tests. We did not demonstrate any statistically significant dependence of diverticulitis recurrence on age or gender. Colectomy (both acute and elective surgery) clearly decreases the likelihood of recurrence (p=0.00007). Comorbidities, nicotine abuse and medication were not associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Steroid and immunosuppressive drugs use was significantly associated with higher perforation rates, without impacting on the likelihood of recurrence. Regular smoking of cigarettes had no impact on recurrence or on its severity. We did not find any reliable indicator of recurrent diverticulitis. Age, gender, comorbidities, smoking and medication are not significant. Immunocompromised
Kim, Kew-Wan; Lim, Bee-Oh
Although numerous studies have demonstrated the relationship between maturation and lower extremity biomechanics during landing in team sport athletes, we are presently uninformed of any research that examined the single-legged drop landing biomechanics of gymnasts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the menarcheal age on the lower extremity biomechanics during a single-legged drop landing in female artistic elite gymnasts. Twenty-two female artistic elite gymnasts, between 9 and 36 years of age, participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups pre- (n = 11) and post- (n = 11) menarche and asked to perform a single-legged drop landing on top of a 30 cm platform and land on a force plate. The statistical analysis consisted of the multivariate analysis with the level of significance set at p knee flexion angle and increase in their maximum knee abduction angle, maximum internal tibial rotation angle, maximum knee abduction moment, and hamstring-quadriceps muscle activity ratio compared with the pre-menarche group during the single-legged drop landing. The post-menarche group showed an increased noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk, due to their greater knee loads, compared with the pre-menarche group.
Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten
Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...
R, Jewkes; Y, Sikweyiya; K, Dunkle; R, Morrell
Studies of rape of women seldom distinguish between men's participation in acts of single and multiple perpetrator rape. Multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) occurs globally with serious consequences for women. In South Africa it is a cultural practice with defined circumstances in which it commonly occurs. Prevention requires an understanding of whether it is a context specific intensification of single perpetrator rape, or a distinctly different practice of different men. This paper aims to address this question. We conducted a cross-sectional household study with a multi-stage, randomly selected sample of 1686 men aged 18-49 who completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. We attempted to fit an ordered logistic regression model for factors associated with rape perpetration. 27.6 % of men had raped and 8.8 % had perpetrated multiple perpetrator rape (MPR). Thus 31.9 % of men who had ever raped had done so with other perpetrators. An ordered regression model was fitted, showing that the same associated factors, albeit at higher prevalence, are associated with SPR and MPR. Multiple perpetrator rape appears as an intensified form of single perpetrator rape, rather than a different form of rape. Prevention approaches need to be mainstreamed among young men.
...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...
suggest that obstetric factors increase the risk of damage to the anal sphincter and subsequent development of AI.[4-6] These ... variations may impact on obstetric risk factors and AI prevalence. We therefore performed a study in our population, which .... Regulatory approvals. Institutional and hospital ethical approval were ...
Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.
In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed
Hirmerova, J; Seidlerova, J; Subrt, I
The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of concurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) in the patients with superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) of the legs and to find factors significantly and independently associated with coincident DVT/PE. In the setting of a tertiary referral hospital, patients with SVT, attending vascular clinic, underwent physical examination, laboratory testing and leg vein ultrasound (in the case of clinically suspected PE also perfusion/ventilation lung scan or/and helical CT pulmonary angiography). In statistical analysis, we used unpaired t-test, non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum test, stepwise logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression model. We examined 138 patients (age 61.4 ± 13.9 years, 36.2% men), with ST mostly on varicose veins (89.9%). The prevalence of concurrent DVT/PE was 34.1%. Neither the clinical manifestation nor SVT localization differed significantly between the group with isolated SVT and that with coincident DVT/PE. Of all the assessed patients characteristics (age and sex, BMI, history of SVT, DVT or PE, hypercoagulable states, cardiovascular risk factors) only two factors were significantly and independently associated with the presence of concurrent DVT/PE. Log BMI was significantly higher in the patients with isolated SVT. Factor V Leiden (FVL) was proved as an independent risk factor for concomitant DVT/PE with odds ratio 2,531 (95% CI 1,064-6,016). The prevalence of concurrent DVT/PE in patients with SVT, referred to hospital vascular clinic was 34.1%. Lower BMI (log BMI, respectively) and the presence of FVL were significantly and independently associated with concurrent DVT/PE. Our results should be further investigated in a larger prospective study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Detectable HIV RNA in mothers at delivery is an important risk factor for HIV transmission to newborns. Our hypothesis was that, in migrant women, the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery is greater owing to late HIV diagnosis. Therefore, we examined pregnant women by regional provenance and measured variables that could be associated with detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Methods A observational retrospective study was conducted from January 1999 to May 2008. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses (generalized linear models were used, with detectable HIV RNA at delivery as dependent variable. Results The overall population comprised 154 women (46.8% migrants. Presentation was later in migrant women than Italians, as assessed by CD4-T-cell count at first contact (mean 417/mm3 versus 545/mm3, respectively; p = 0.003. Likewise, HIV diagnosis was made before pregnancy and HAART was already prescribed at the time of pregnancy in more Italians (91% and 75%, respectively than migrants (61% and 42.8%, respectively. A subgroup of women with available HIV RNA close to term (i.e., ≤30 days before labour was studied for risk factors of detectable HIV RNA (≥50 copies/ml at delivery. Among 93 women, 25 (26.9% had detectable HIV RNA. A trend toward an association between non-Italian nationality and detectable HIV RNA at delivery was demonstrated by univariate analysis (relative risk, RR = 1.86; p = 0.099. However, by multivariable regression analysis, the following factors appeared to be more important: lack of stable (i.e., ≥14 days antiretroviral therapy at the time of HIV RNA testing (RR = 4.3; p 3, RR = 0.94; p = 0.038. Conclusions These results reinforce the importance of extensive screening for HIV infection, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy and stricter monitoring of pregnant women to reduce the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Public health interventions should be particularly targeted to migrant
Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS and explore the influence of UPOINT domains, National Institutes of Health-CP symptom index (NIH-CPSI and other factors on ED prevalence. This was a prospective study of consecutive patients with CP/CPPS seen at 11 tertiary hospitals during January-July 2014. ED was diagnosed as a score of<21 on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. Patients from one center were evaluated by the UPOINT system and NIH-CPSI. Each patient was assessed using clinical examination, asocio-demographic questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS, NIH-CPSI and IIEF-5.1406 patients from 11 centers (mean age, 32.18 years; range 18-60 years were enrolled. ED was found in 638/1406 patients (45.4%, and was categorized as mild in 291(45.6%, moderate in 297(46.6% and severe in50(7.7%. 192 patients from one center(mean age,31.3 years; range 18-57 years were further studied.IIEF-5 score correlated negatively with NIH-CPSI(r = 0.251, PHQ (r = 0.355 and PCS (r = 0.322scores (P<0.001.PHQ score correlated positively with NIH-CPSI (r = 0.586 and PCS(r = 0.662 scores (P<0.001.NIH-CPSI, PHQ, PCS and IIEF-5 scores did not differ significantly between class IIIA and IIIB CP/CPPS. Multivariate logistic regression showed that UPOINT psychological (P domain and NIH-CPSI symptom severity were independent risk factors for ED in CP/CPPS. It is concluded that psychological factors and symptom severity are independent risk factors for ED in CP/CPPS.
Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James
Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...
Risk Factors for Ineffectiveness of Posterior Decompression and Dekyphotic Corrective Fusion with Instrumentation for Beak-Type Thoracic Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A Single Institute Study.
Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Ito, Zenya; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Wakao, Norimitsu; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki
Thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL) is treated surgically with instrumented posterior decompression and fusion. However, the factors determining the outcome of this approach and the efficacy of additional resection of T-OPLL are unknown. To identify these factors in a prospective study at a single institution. The subjects were 70 consecutive patients with beak-type T-OPLL who underwent posterior decompression and dekyphotic fusion and had an average of 4.8 years of follow-up (minimum of 2 years). Of these patients, 4 (6%; group R) had no improvement or aggravation, were not ambulatory for 3 weeks postoperatively, and required additional T-OPLL resection; while 66 (group N) required no further T-OPLL resection. Clinical records, gait status, intraoperative ultrasonography, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM), plain radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were compared between the groups. Preoperatively, patients in group R had significantly higher rates of severe motor paralysis, nonambulatory status, positive prone and supine position test, no spinal cord floating in intraoperative ultrasonography, and deterioration of IONM at the end of surgery ( P < .05). In preoperative radiography, the OPLL spinal cord kyphotic angle difference in fused area, OPLL length, and OPLL canal stenosis were significantly higher in group R ( P < .05). At final follow-up, JOA scores improved similarly in both groups. Preoperative severe motor paralysis, nonambulatory status, positive prone and supine position test, radiographic spinal cord compression due to beak-type T-OPLL, and intraoperative residual spinal cord compression and deterioration of IONM were associated with ineffectiveness of posterior decompression and fusion with instrumentation. Our 2-stage strategy may be appropriate for beak-type T-OPLL surgery. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of
Pulido, Catarina; Vendrell, Inês; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Casimiro, Sandra; Mansinho, André; Alho, Irina; Costa, Luís
Bone is the single most frequent site for bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Patients with bone-only metastasis have a fairly good prognosis when compared with patients with visceral disease. Nevertheless, cancer-induced bone disease carries an important risk of developing skeletal related events that impact quality of life (QoL). It is therefore particularly important to stratify patients according to their risk of developing bone metastasis. In this context, several risk factors have been studied, including demographic, clinicopathological, genetic, and metabolic factors. Most of them show conflicting or non-definitive associations and are not validated for clinical use. Nonetheless, tumour intrinsic subtype is widely accepted as a major risk factor for bone metastasis development and luminal breast cancer carries an increased risk for bone disease. Other factors such as gene signatures, expression of specific cytokines (such as bone sialoprotein and bone morphogenetic protein 7) or components of the extracellular matrix (like bone crosslinked C-telopeptide) might also influence the development of bone metastasis. Knowledge of risk factors related with bone disease is of paramount importance as it might be a prediction tool for triggering the use of targeted agents and allow for better patient selection for future clinical trials. PMID:28194227
Simone, Benedetto; De Stefano, Valerio; Leoncini, Emanuele
individual data for the pooling. The Odds Ratio (OR) for first VTE associated with each variant, individually and combined with the others, were calculated with a random effect model, in heterozygotes and homozygotes (dominant model for FVL and PT20210A; recessive for C677T MTHFR). We analysed 31 databases......: 2.25-3.46, respectively), in double heterozygotes (OR = 3.42; 95 %CI 1.64-7.13), and in homozygous FVL or PT20210A (OR = 11.45; 95 %CI: 6.79-19.29; and OR: 6.74 (CI 95 % 2.19-20.72), respectively). The stratified analyses showed a stronger effect of FVL on individuals ≤ 45 years (p value...... for interaction = 0.036) and of PT20210A in women using oral contraceptives (p-value for interaction = 0.045). In this large pooled analysis, inclusive of large studies like MEGA, no effect was found for C677T MTHFR on VTE; FVL and PT20210A were confirmed to be moderate risk factors. Notably, double carriers...
Şişli, Emrah; Kavala, Ali Aycan; Mavi, Mustafa; Sarıosmanoğlu, Osman Nejat; Oto, Öztekin
To elucidate the risk factors associated with amputation in cases with combat-related vascular injury (CRVI). This retrospective study included 90 cases with CRVI treated between May 2011 and July 2013. The patients were divided into group I (n=69), in which the limb was salvaged and group II (n=21), in which the patients received amputation. The overall and the secondary amputation rates were 23% and 18%, respectively. There were no amputations with the MESS of nine or less, increasing proportions of amputations at 10 and 11, with a level of 12 leading to 100% amputation rate. The mortality rate was 2%. Among the 52 (58%) cases with the mangled extremity severity score (MESS) ≥7, the limb salvage rate was 60%. The patients in group II were more likely to have a combined artery and vein injury (p=0.042). They were also more likely to be injured as a result of an explosion (p=0.004). Along with the MESS (p7 seem to benefit from revascularisation with initiation of reperfusion at once. The validity of MESS merits further investigation with regard to the determination of a new cut-off value under ever developing medical management strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sas-Korczynska, Beata; Kamzol, Wojciech [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Cracow Branch, Clinic of Oncology and Department of Radiotherapy, Cracow (Poland); Luczynska, Elzbieta [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Cracow Branch, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Sokolowski, Andrzej [Cracow University of Economics, Department of Statistics, Cracow (Poland)
The most effective therapy in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS SCLC) seems to be chemotherapy (using platinum-based regimens) and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT), which is followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation. The analysed group comprised 217 patients who received combined treatment for LS SCLC, i.e. chemotherapy (according to cisplatin and etoposide schedule) and TRT (concurrent in 101 and sequential in 116 patients). The influence of chemoradiotherapy (ChT-RT) schedule on treatment results (frequency of complete response, survival rates, and incidence of treatment failure and complications) was evaluated, and the frequency and severity of pulmonary complications were analysed to identify risk factors. The 5-year survival rates in concurrent vs. sequential ChT-RT schedules were 27.3 vs. 11.7% (overall) and 28 vs. 14.3% (disease-free). The frequencies of adverse events in relation to concurrent vs. sequential therapy were 85.1 vs. 9.5% (haematological complications) and 58.4 vs. 38.8% (pulmonary fibrosis), respectively. It was found that concurrent ChT-RT (hazard ratio, HR 2.75), a total dose equal to or more than 54 Gy (HR 2.55), the presence of haematological complications (HR 1.89) and a lung volume receiving a dose equal to or greater than 20 Gy exceeding 31% (HR 1.06) were the risk factors for pulmonary complications. Pulmonary complications after ChT-RT developed in 82% of patients treated for LS SCLC. In comparison to the sequential approach, concurrent ChT-RT had a positive effect on treatment outcome. However, this is a factor that can impair treatment tolerance, which manifests in the appearance of side effects. (orig.) [German] Die wirksamste Therapie bei einem kleinzelligen Lungenkrebs im limitierten Stadium (LS SCLC) scheinen Chemotherapie (platinbasierte Regime) und thorakale Strahlentherapie (TRT) zu sein, begleitet von der prophylaktischen Schaedelbestrahlung. Analysiert wurden 217 Patienten, die eine kombinierte Behandlung
For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between risk factors and diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries for patients aged 20 to 65.We compared risk factors between patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferate and with proliferate retinopathy (p< 0.05. Duration of diabetes is most important for the development of retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are important for progression. Better control of blood sugar and elevated blood pressure can reduce progression of retinopathy and riskof vision loss.
Lígia da Silva Leroy; Adélia Lúcio; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine...
Roč. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212 ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics
Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...
Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.
OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and
Long-term Outcomes and Risk Factors for Reoperation After Surgical Treatment for Gastrointestinal Crohn Disease According to Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antibody Use: 35 Years of Experience at a Single Institute in Korea.
Lee, Sang Mok; Han, Eon Chul; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Park, Kyu Joo
Crohn disease is characterized by high rates of recurrence and reoperations. However, few studies have investigated long-term surgical outcomes in Asian populations. We investigated risk factors for reoperation, particularly those associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) antibody use, and long-term follow-up results. We reviewed the records of 148 patients (100 males and 48 females) who underwent surgery for gastrointestinal Crohn disease and retrospectively analyzed long-term outcomes and risk factors. The mean age at diagnosis was 28.8 years. Thirty-eight patients (25.7%) received monoclonal antibody treatment before reoperation. A small bowel and colon resection was most commonly performed (83 patients, 56.1%). The median follow-up was 149 months, during which 47 patients underwent reoperation. The median interval between the primary and the secondary surgeries was 65 months, with accumulated reoperation rates of 16.5%, 31.8%, and 57.2% after 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Obstruction was the most common indication for reoperation (37 patients, 25.0%). In a multivariable analysis, age Crohn diseases. Younger age at primary operation, penetrating behavior, and no azathioprine use were significant factors associated with reoperation for gastrointestinal Crohn disease.
In this paper, we use replica analysis to investigate the influence of correlation among the return rates of assets on the solution of the portfolio optimization problem. We consider the behavior of an optimal solution for the case where the return rate is described with a single-factor model and compare the findings obtained from our proposed methods with correlated return rates with those obtained with independent return rates. We then analytically assess the increase in the investment risk when correlation is included. Furthermore, we also compare our approach with analytical procedures for minimizing the investment risk from operations research.
Lee, Robert C; Berzins, Sandy; Alfieri, Nancy
Efforts to reduce both costs and medical waste have led many health systems to start reusing single-use medical devices (SUDs) after cleaning and sterilizing (i.e. reprocessing). There is a currently a wide range of SUD types being reused in many health systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief summary of risk issues associated with critical SUDs, based on a rapid review of the available literature. The specific focus is on risk issues, but includes discussion of economic and legal/ethical issues as well. The evidence in the literature regarding the safety of reuse of SUDs indicates that for certain devices (e.g. heart catheters) reuse can be safe (in terms of patient infection) and cost-effective as long as stringent reprocessing protocols are followed. However, potential risks associated with reusing SUDs are not just limited to infection of patients. There are staff and environmental risks, plus important legal, ethical, and financial issues to consider in a reuse policy. There are currently no Canadian guidelines on reuse or reprocessing SUDs, although a national Scientific Advisory Panel on Reprocessing of Medical Devices has made recommendations. Additionally, reuse of SUDs is interwoven with the issue of infection control and reprocessing procedures in general and as applied to multiple-use devices. With limited healthcare resources, there will always be a trade-off between the human resources and costs required to clean and sterilize reused devices with costs associated with purchasing and disposing of non-reused SUDs. Evaluation of complete operational pathways, especially for more expensive and commonly used SUDs, will be useful to properly determine the balance of benefits, risks, and costs under a reuse policy.
Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil
. Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...... and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results: HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health...
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...
Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.
Blankertz, Laura E.; And Others
Examined prevalence of five childhood risk factors (sexual abuse, physical abuse, parental mental illness, substance abuse, out-of-home placement) among dually diagnosed (mentally ill and substance abusing) homeless adults (n=156) in rehabilitation programs. Findings suggest that childhood risk factors, whether single or multiple, are very…
Factor V Leiden mutation and high FVIII are associated with an increased risk of VTE in women with breast cancer during adjuvant tamoxifen - results from a prospective, single center, case control study.
Kovac, Mirjana; Kovac, Zeljko; Tomasevic, Zorica; Vucicevic, Slavko; Djordjevic, Valentina; Pruner, Iva; Radojkovic, Dragica
Estimates of the risk ratio of tamoxifen-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) in breast cancer patients range from 2.4 to 7.1. The occurrence of thrombosis in patients with breast cancer complicates the clinical condition and causes a change of treatment. Our study was conducted in order to investigate the influence of patient-related risk factors for thrombosis development in breast cancer patients whose treatment included adjuvant tamoxifen. The prospective, single center, case control study included 150 breast cancer women, 50 whom developed venous thrombosis during adjuvant tamoxifen and 100 whom did not have thrombosis, as a control group. Patient-related risk factors such as: age, body mass index, previous VTE, varicose veins, concomitant diseases, the presence of prothrombotic mutations (FV Leiden, FII G20210A) and FVIII activity were evaluated in both groups. In respect of prothrombotic mutations, the FV Leiden mutation was present in a higher number of women from the VTE group (10/50 vs 7/100; P=0.020). Additionally, FVIII activity was significantly higher in the VTE group; median (IQR), of 1.79 (0.69) vs 1.45 (0.55); P1.5IU/ml, who were carriers of prothrombotic mutations, an OR of 3.76 (CI 95% 1.276-11.096; P=0.016) was obtained for VTE. The results of our study showed that the factor V Leiden mutation and high FVIII are associated with an increased risk of VTE in women with breast cancer during adjuvant tamoxifen. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross......-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM...... lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should...
Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad; Saleem, Shafaq; Afzal, Rafia; Iqbal, Umair; Saleem, Sehrish Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Waqas Abid; Shahid, Nazish
Birth asphyxia is an insult to the fetus or newborn due to failure to breath or breathing poorly, leads to decrease oxygen perfusion to various organs. According to WHO, 4 million neonatal deaths occurred each year due to birth asphyxia. Our goal was to evaluate antepartum, intrapartum, and fetal risk factors of birth asphyxia. It was a Retrospective Case control study, conducted at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of pediatric ward (I, II, III) and in Gynecology wards (I, II, III) of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. Study was conducted from January 2011-November 2012. Neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia were considered as "cases" while neonates born either with normal vaginal delivery or by cesarean section having no abnormality were considered as "control". Demographics of both the mother and neonate were noted and Questions regarding possible risk factors were asked from mother. Ethical issues were confirmed from Institutional review board of Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences. All data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Out of total 240 neonates, 123 were "cases" and 117 were "control". Mean maternal age in "case" group was 24.22 ± 3.38 while maternal age of control group was 24.30 ± 4.04. Significant antepartum risk factors were maternal age of 20-25 (OR 0.30 CI 95% 0.07-1.21), booking status (OR 0.20 CI 95% 0.11-0.37), pre-eclampsia (OR 0.94 CI 95% 0.90-0.98) and primigravidity (OR 2.64 CI 95% 1.56-4.46). Significant Intrapartum risk factors were breech presentation (OR 2.96 CI 95% 1.25-7.02), home delivery (OR 16.16 CI 95% 3.74-69.75) and maternal fever (OR 10.01 CI95% 3.78-26.52). Significant Fetal risk factors were resuscitation of child (OR 23 CI 95% 31.27-1720.74), pre-term babies(OR 0.34 CI 95% 0.19-0.58), fetal distress (OR 0.01 CI 95% 0.00-0.11) and baby weight (OR 0.13 CI 95% 0.05-0.32). Measures should be taken to prevent neonatal mortality with great emphasis on skilled attendance at birth
Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.
The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de
Full Text Available Background: The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling pathway is crucial in a number of developmental processes and is critical in the formation of variety of craniofacial elements including cranial neural crest, facial primordium, tooth, lip and palate. It is an important mediator in regulation of lip and palate fusion, cartilage and bone formation. Aim: To study the role of mutation of BMP4 genes in the aetiology of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL ± P and identify it directly from human analyses. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was done to evaluate whether BMP4T538C polymorphism, resulting in an amino acid change of Val=Ala (V152A in the polypeptide, is associated with NSCL ± P in an Indian paediatric population. Genotypes of 100 patients with NSCL ± P and 100 controls (in whom absence of CL ± P was confirmed in three generations were detected using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate allele and genotype association with NSCLP. Results: Results showed significant association between homozygous CC genotype with CL ± P (odds ratio [OR]-5.59 and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85-10.99. The 538C allele carriers showed an increased risk of NSCL ± P as compared with 538 T allele (OR - 4.2% CI = 2.75-6.41. Conclusion: This study suggests an association between SNP of BMP4 gene among carriers of the C allele and increased risk for NSCLP in an Indian Population. Further studies on this aspect can scale large heights in preventive strategies for NSCLP that may soon become a reality.
Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women
Wang, Chih-Hung; Wu, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Justin Cheng-Ta; Lien, Wan-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Liu, Kao-Lang; Wu, Yao-Ming; Chen, Shyr-Chyr
Background Percutaneous cholecystostomy tube (PCT) has been effectively used for the treatment of acute cholecystitis (AC) for patients unsuitable for early cholecystectomy. This retrospective study investigated the recurrence rate after successful PCT treatment and factors associated with recurrence. Methods We reviewed patients treated with PCT for AC from October 2004 through December 2013. Patients with successful PCT treatment were those who were free from persistent PCT drainage. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis sequentially to identify factors associated with each outcome. Results The study included 184 patients (mean age: 70.1 years). The average duration for parenteral antibiotics was 14.4 days and 20.0 days for PCT drainage. The one-year recurrence rate was 9.2% (17/184) with most recurrences occurring within two months (6.5%, 12/184) of the procedure. Complicated cholecystitis (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44–15.70; P = 0.01) and PCT drainage duration >32 days (OR: 4.92; 95% CI: 1.03–23.53; P = 0.05) positively correlated with one-year recurrence; parenteral antibiotics duration >10 days (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05–0.68; P = 0.01) was inversely associated with one-year recurrence. Conclusions The recurrence rate was low for patients after successful PCT treatment. Predictors for recurrence included the severity of initial AC and subsequently provided treatments. PMID:26821150
Dietz, A; Senneweld, E; Maier, H
We have carried out three case-control studies on the relative risk of head and neck cancer in association with indoor air pollution. The studies performed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University of Heidelberg comprised 369 male patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx and 1476 healthy control subjects matched for sex, age, and residential area. The OR of laryngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove-heating with oil, coal, gas, and wood for longer than 40 years was 2.5 (CI = 1.51 to 4.05). After adjustment for tobacco and alcohol, the OR declined slightly to 2.0 (CI = 1.10 to 3.46) but still was significant. Elevated ORs were also found for daily presence in a kitchen with an oil, coal, or wood oven for longer than 40 years (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.01 to 2.71; after tobacco and alcohol adjustment, OR = 1.4, CI = 0.76 to 2.41). The OR of pharyngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove-heating with oil, coal, gas, and wood for longer than 40 years was 3.6 (CI = 2.04 to 6.41). After adjustment for tobacco and alcohol the OR declined slightly to 3.3 (CI = 1.43 to 7.55) but still was significant. Elevated ORs were also found for daily presence in a kitchen with an oil, coal, or wood oven for longer than 40 years (OR = 1.6, CI = 0.89 to 2.77; after tobacco and alcohol adjustment, OR = 2.5, CI = 1.03 to 6.30).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.
Conclusions: Hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria were the most frequent risk factors associated with urolithiasis, followed by hypercalciuria. High PTH values were excluded. Children presented two or more risk factors for urolithiasis.
van Wijk, N Ph L; de Bruijn, J G M
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single parenthood, and unemployment increase the risk for women, but not for men. These findings are consistent with current literature on the subject. Further research on the context, nature, and severity of domestic violence in the Caribbean is necessary. Studies should preferably combine the strengths of national crime surveys and family conflict studies: nationally representative samples (including men and women) and questionnaires that include all possible experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual assaults by current and former partners, family, and friends.
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…
Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mirza, N M; Caulfield, L E; Black, R E; Macharia, W M
To identify child feeding behavior and household hygiene practices that are risk factors for prolonged diarrheal illness, a longitudinal community study was conducted over a 14-month period among 920 children aged 3-37 months who lived in an urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Morbidity surveillance was done by home visits every third day in the absence of diarrhea and daily during diarrheal illness until termination of the episode. In-home observations were made to characterize maternal hygiene, cooking, and child feeding practices. Overall, 1,496 episodes of diarrhea were detected. The average diarrheal incidence was 3.5 episodes/child-year, and the incidence of diarrhea > 14 days was 3 episodes/100 child-years. Cox regression was used to examine the independent effects of covariates on time to recovery from a diarrheal episode. Adjusted behavioral factors that were observed to influence recovery from diarrhea included: uncovered water containers (rate ratio (RR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.94); giving no fluids (as opposed to oral rehydration solutions (ORS)/sugar salt solutions (SSS)) (RR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77); and administration of diluted cow's milk during the first 3 days of an episode (RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.52). These associations remained significant after adjusting for diarrheal severity. The authors recommend, among other measures, improvement of water storage and promotion of continued feeding with cereal-milk mix during diarrhea.
Scharte, M; Bolte, G
street. Children with single mothers reveal increased health risks and live under significantly poorer housing and environmental conditions. Further analyses are necessary to identify the mediating factors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C
This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients.
Mathew, Mariam; Saquib, Shabnam; Rizvi, Syed G
To determine the risk factors associated with polyhydramnios, and assess the maternal and perinatal outcome in these patients. A prospective study of all deliveries complicated with polyhydramnios in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman between January 2005 and April 2006. Polyhydramnios was divided into mild and moderate to severe based on the amniotic fluid index values. The demographic data, antenatal complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, postpartum complications, and perinatal outcome were studied. A total of 2648 singleton deliveries occurred during the study period. Two hundred and eight (7.8%) women with polyhydramnios formed the study group, and 2440 women with normal amniotic fluid formed the control. Polyhydramnios was mild in 179 (86.1%) and moderate to severe in 29 (13.9%) cases. Sixty-eight (32.7%) of these pregnancies were complicated with diabetes as compared with 12.4% of the controls. Preterm delivery occurred in 16 (7.7%) cases. Cesarean delivery rate was 27.9% in the study group compared with 17.3% in the control. Major congenital anomalies were found in 2.8% of newborns compared with 1% among the controls. Eighteen babies were admitted to the special care baby unit. These data demonstrates a significant positive relation with maternal age, diabetes in pregnancy, and fetal macrosomia with polyhydramnios. Anemia during pregnancy, cesarean delivery rate, and congenital anomalies were significantly higher in the study group.
Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...
Full Text Available Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...
Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood
Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.
... present. History of Preeclampsia/Eclampsia: Women with a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia have an increased risk of future hypertension and stroke one to 30 years after delivery. Hypertension: Women with chronic primary or secondary hypertension, ...
Lígia da Silva Leroy
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.
Stolk, Ronald P.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Navis, Gerjan; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Ormel, Johan; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.
The risk for multifactorial diseases is determined by risk factors that frequently apply across disorders (universal risk factors). To investigate unresolved issues on etiology of and individual's susceptibility to multifactorial diseases, research focus should shift from single determinant-outcome
Soomann, Maarja; Vibo, Riina; Kõrv, Janika
Risk factor management is the key to stroke prevention. Although several studies have assessed the awareness of different risk factors in the general public, there are limited data available on how well acute stroke patients know their own risk factors. The aim of this study was to assess stroke patients' informedness of their own stroke risk factors. All consecutive eligible acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients hospitalized at the Tartu University Hospital, Department of Neurology, during 9 months in 2010 were interviewed about different stroke risk factors within 72 hours from hospitalization. The respective information was also retrieved from medical records. Of the 341 patients admitted during the study period, 195 were eligible for the interview. Diabetes was the best known risk factor (89%) followed by hypertension (80%), atrial fibrillation (78%), previous stroke (77%), and heart failure and/or ischemic heart disease (66%). We found that acute stroke patients are best informed of their diabetes and worst informed of their ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure. There is, however, room for amelioration in the awareness of all of the studied risk factors. More attention should be addressed to explaining the risks and treatment options to patients at risk of stroke and the general population. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg
PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective o...
Ariëns, G.A.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.; Wal, G. van der; Bouter, L.M.
To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22
Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in its diagnosis. ... therapy. Several risk factors are shared between ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke and these have been well documented. Stroke has .... history, physical examination, electrocardiography or chest.
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Böhm, Stephan K; Kruis, Wolfgang
Diverticulosis is a very common condition. Around 20% of the carriers of diverticula are believed to suffer from diverticular disease during their lifetime. This makes diverticular disease one of the clinically and economically most significant diseases in gastroenterology. The etiopathogenesis of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is not well understood. Epidemiological studies allow defining risk factors for the development of diverticulitis and its complications. A comprehensive literature search was performed and the current knowledge about risk factors for diverticulitis and associated conditions reviewed. Besides non-controllable risk factors like age and sex, lifestyle factors like food, drinks and physical activity, drugs are described to increase or decrease the risk to develop diverticulitis or to suffer from complications. The recognition of risk factors for the development of diverticular disease or even complicated disease like lifestyle habits or medication is crucial for patient management.
A cross sectional abattoir based study was conducted from February 2014 to October, 2015 on camels slaughtered at Akaki municipality abattoir to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal ...
Results: A single-parent household and the presence of a child or oppositional defiant disorder were risk factors for premature termination of treatment, while the presence of a maternal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with a lower likelihood of terminating treatment prematurely. Conducting a scholastic assessment ...
prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels and assess the association of risk factors with the prevalence of Tuberculosis in camels using single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT). Of the total of 387 camels investigated, overall camel tuberculosis prevalence of 9.82% (95% CI: 6.84%-12.8%) at a cut off value ≥ ...
Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron
Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B
In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.
Weng, Lu-Chen; Preis, Sarah R; Hulme, Olivia L; Larson, Martin G; Choi, Seung Hoan; Wang, Biqi; Trinquart, Ludovic; McManus, David D; Staerk, Laila; Lin, Honghuang; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Ellinor, Patrick T; Benjamin, Emelia J; Lubitz, Steven A
The long-term probability of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) considering genetic predisposition and clinical risk factor burden is unknown. We estimated the lifetime risk of AF in individuals from the community-based Framingham Heart Study. Polygenic risk for AF was derived using a score of ≈1000 AF-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Clinical risk factor burden was calculated for each individual using a validated risk score for incident AF comprised of height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, current smoking status, antihypertensive medication use, diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, and history of heart failure. We estimated the lifetime risk of AF within tertiles of polygenic and clinical risk. Among 4606 participants without AF at 55 years of age, 580 developed incident AF (median follow-up, 9.4 years; 25th-75th percentile, 4.4-14.3 years). The lifetime risk of AF >55 years of age was 37.1% and was substantially influenced by both polygenic and clinical risk factor burden. Among individuals free of AF at 55 years of age, those in low-polygenic and clinical risk tertiles had a lifetime risk of AF of 22.3% (95% confidence interval, 15.4-9.1), whereas those in high-risk tertiles had a risk of 48.2% (95% confidence interval, 41.3-55.1). A lower clinical risk factor burden was associated with later AF onset after adjusting for genetic predisposition ( P <0.001). In our community-based cohort, the lifetime risk of AF was 37%. Estimation of polygenic AF risk is feasible and together with clinical risk factor burden explains a substantial gradient in long-term AF risk. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.
Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358
Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...
Keel, Pamela K; Forney, K Jean
One goal in identifying psychosocial risk factors is to discover opportunities for intervention. The purpose of this review is to examine psychosocial risk factors for disordered eating, placing research findings in the larger context of how etiological models for eating disorders can be transformed into models for intervention. A qualitative literature review was conducted focusing on psychological and social factors that increase the risk for developing eating disorders, with an emphasis on well-replicated findings from prospective longitudinal studies. Epidemiological, cross-cultural, and longitudinal studies underscore the importance of the idealization of thinness and resulting weight concerns as psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders. Personality factors such as negative emotionality and perfectionism contribute to the development of eating disorders but may do so indirectly by increasing susceptibility to internalize the thin ideal or by influencing selection of peer environment. During adolescence, peers represent self-selected environments that influence risk. Peer context may represent a key opportunity for intervention, as peer groups represent the nexus in which individual differences in psychological risk factors shape the social environment and social environment shapes psychological risk factors. Thus, peer-based interventions that challenge internalization of the thin ideal can protect against the development of eating pathology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura
The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by
McMonnies, Charles W
Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mohamed Shameem P. M
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetic foot ulcers vary in their clinical presentation and nature of severity and therefore create a challenging problem to the treating surgeon regarding the prediction of the clinical course and the end result of the treatment. Clinical studies have shown that there are certain risk factors for the progression of foot ulcers in diabetics and it may therefore be possible to predict the course of an ulcer foot at presentation itself, thus instituting proper therapy without delay. Spoken otherwise clinical scoring may tell that this particular ulcer is having highest chance of amputation, then one may be able to take an early decision for the same and avoid the septic complications, inconvenience to the patient, long hospital stay and cost of treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY Aim of the study is to evaluate the above-mentioned scoring system in predicting the course the diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with Diabetic Foot attending the OPD of Department of Surgery of Government Hospital attached to Calicut Medical College are included in the present study. After thorough history taking and clinical examination, six risk factors like Age, pedal vessels, renal function, neuropathy, radiological findings and ulcers were observed in the patients by giving certain scoring points to each of them. The total number of points scored by the patients at the time of admission or OPD treatment was correlated with the final outcome in these patients, whether leading to amputation or conservative management. All the data was analysed using standard statistical methods. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There were 12 females and 38 males with a female to male ratio 1:3.1. All were aged above 30 years. Twenty-four (48% of them were between 30-60 years and twenty six (52% were above 60 years. 10 patients were treated conservatively with risk score range: 10 to 35. Six had single toe loss with risk score: 25 to 35. Six had multiple toe loss
Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.
The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation
Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted.
... among the elderly (Bernert, 2007) and, mediated by depression, are associated with suicide ideation among the elderly (Nadorff et al., 2013). ... suicidal behavior in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent ... (2013) 5 Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for ...
... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria NTM Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors The symptoms caused by NTM infection ... Low-grade fever Night sweats Weight loss What Causes NTM Lung Infections? NTM lung infections are caused ...
Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen
Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... rupture (ASR). Design Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting Data were taken from the National Medical Birth Registry, Denmark. Population Patients with a first and a second vaginal delivery in the time period 1997-2010. Methods Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...
Ouzounian, Joseph G
Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.
Heuvel, S. van den
It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...
Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.
The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk
This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...
Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert
Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…
Franco, R. F.; Reitsma, P. H.
Venous thrombosis, whose main clinical presentations include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, represents a major health problem worldwide. Numerous conditions are known to predispose to venous thrombosis and these conditions are commonly referred to as risk indicators or risk factors.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A
Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.
Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171
Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD
Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McGuire, James; Hines, Vivian; Lee, Martin; Gelberg, Lillian
Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. Characteristics associated with homelessness were sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled, having worse overall health, and screening positive for an anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. Efforts to assess housed women veterans' risk factors for homelessness should be integrated into clinical care programs within and outside the Veterans Administration. Programs that work to ameliorate risk factors may prevent these women's living situations from deteriorating over time.
Frigm, Ryan Clayton; Newman, Lauri K.
The Conjunction Assessment Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center provides conjunction risk assessment for many NASA robotic missions. These risk assessments are based on several figures of merit, such as miss distance, probability of collision, and orbit determination solution quality. However, these individual metrics do not singly capture the overall risk associated with a conjunction, making it difficult for someone without this complete understanding to take action, such as an avoidance maneuver. The goal of this analysis is to introduce a single risk index metric that can easily convey the level of risk without all of the technical details. The proposed index is called the conjunction "F-value." This paper presents the concept of the F-value and the tuning of the metric for use in routine Conjunction Assessment operations.
Breithardt, G.; Ravens, U.; Kirchhof, P.; van Gelder, I. C.
The development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is closely linked to risk factors like hypertension and heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and valvular heart disease. These factors partly overlap with those which determine the progression of atrial fibrillation and the incidence of
Ingram, Carolyn; Visovsky, Constance
To review the best current evidence regarding the effects of exercise on modifiable risk factors for adverse physiologic outcomes of cancer and its treatment. Clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and single studies. There is mounting evidence that exercise improves fatigue, physical functioning, and cardio-respiratory fitness. Preliminary evidence suggests that exercise also contributes to improvements in body weight and composition, metabolic risk factors, and immune function. It may also influence disease-free and overall survival in selected populations. Exercise appears to be a safe and well-tolerated intervention that may minimize or prevent adverse physiologic outcomes of cancer and cancer treatment.
Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J
This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849
About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.
Janoutová, J.; Janáčková, P.; Šerý, Omar; Zeman, T.; Ambrož, P.; Kovalová, M.; Vařechová, K.; Hosák, L.; Jiřík, V.; Janout, V.
Roč. 37, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-8 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14504 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : schizophrenia * risk factors * epidemiology Subject RIV: FQ - Public Health Care, Social Medicine Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016
de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E
Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.
Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.
Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on
R. Pietersz (Raoul); A.A.J. Pelsser (Antoon)
textabstractWe compare single factor Markov-functional and multi factor market models for hedging performance of Bermudan swaptions. We show that hedging performance of both models is comparable, thereby supporting the claim that Bermudan swaptions can be adequately riskmanaged with single factor
Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B
BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...
Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A
Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor
Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H
According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia
Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.
Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio
The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.
Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H
To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity
Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.
Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N
It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T: a meta-analysis involving over 11,000 cases and 21,000 controls
Simone, B; De Stefano, V; Leoncini, E; Zacho, J; Martinelli, I; Emmerich, J; Rossi, E; Folsom, AR; Almawi, WY; Scarabin, PY; den Heijer, M; Cushman, M; Penco, S; Vaya, A; Angchaisuksiri, P; Okumus, G; Gemmati, D; Cima, S; Akar, N; Oguzulgen, KI; Ducros, V; Lichy, C; Fernandez-Miranda, C; Szczeklik, A; Nieto, JA; Torres, JD; Le Cam-Duchez, V; Ivanov, P; Cantu, C; Shmeleva, VM; Stegnar, M; Ogunyemi, D; Eid, SS; Nicolotti, N; De Feo, E; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S
BACKGROUND Genetic and environmental factors interact in determining the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk associated with the polymorphic variants G1691A of factor V (Factor V Leiden,FVL), G20210A of prothrombin (PT20210A) and C677T of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) genes has been investigated in many studies. METHODS We performed a pooled analysis of case-control and cohort studies investigating in adults the association between each variant and VTE, published on Pubmed, Embase or Google through January 2010. Authors of eligible papers, were invited to provide all available individual data for the pooling. The Odds Ratio (OR) for first VTE associated with each variant, individually and combined with the others, were calculated with a random effect model, in heterozygotes and homozygotes (dominant model for FVL and PT20210A; recessive for C677T MTHFR). RESULTS We analysed 31 databases, including 11,239 cases and 21,521 controls. No significant association with VTE was found for homozygous C677T MTHFR (OR: 1.38; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.98–1.93), whereas the risk was increased in carriers of either heterozygous FVL or PT20210 (OR=4.22; 95% CI: 3.35–5.32; and OR=2.79;95% CI: 2.25–3.46, respectively), in double hterozygotes (OR=3.42; 95%CI 1.64-7.13), and in homozygous FVL or PT20210A (OR=11.45; 95%CI: 6.79-19.29; and OR: 2.79; 95%CI: 2.25 – 3.46, respectively). The stratified analyses showed a stronger effect of FVL on individuals ≤45 years (p-value for interaction = 0.036) and of PT20210A in women using oral contraceptives (p-value for interaction = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS In this large pooled analysis, inclusive of large studies like MEGA, no effect was found for C677T MTHFR on VTE; FVL and PT20210A were confirmed to be moderate risk factors. Notably, double carriers of the two genetic variants produced an impact on VTE risk significantly increased but weaker than previously thought. PMID:23900608
Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E
The present study aims to examine risk factors and risk-based and interactive protective factors for violent offending in a group of 437 young Australians. Participants were recruited into the study when they were in Grade 5 (10-11 years) and followed up almost annually until young adulthood (18-19 years). Measures of violent offending, risk and protective factors, and demographics were obtained through a modification of the Communities That Care youth survey. The data collected enabled identification of groups of students at-risk of violent offending according to drug use, low family socioeconomic status, and antisocial behavior. Results showed that there were very few associations between the risk factors and risk-based protective factors measured in this study (e.g., belief in the moral order, religiosity, peer recognition for prosocial involvement, attachment to parents, low commitment to school, and poor academic performance) and later self-reported violent offending. There were no statistically significant interactive protective factors. Further longitudinal analyses with large sample sizes are needed to examine risk factors and risk-based protective factors and interactive protective factors in at-risk groups. The findings support the need for multi-faceted prevention and early intervention approaches that target multiple aspects of youth's lives.
Murguía-González, Alejandrina; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Nava-Bermea, Manuel
The proper prenatal care for pregnant women is crucial to quickly identify risk factors for birth trauma. To identify risk factors for neonatal birth trauma. Case-control study that included a patient in the case group for every two controls. The following risk factors were identified: cephalopelvic disproportion, macrosomia, use of forceps, precipitated or prolonged labor, malpresentation, and the most common types of birth trauma. We used descriptive statistics and odds ratios. Statistically significant risk factors for birth trauma were: maternal age or = 30 years (OR = 2.5), first pregnancy (OR = 4.0), cephalopelvic disproportion (OR = 8.3), forceps delivery (OR = 9.4), birth weight greater than 3,800 g (OR = 6.6), and non-cephalic presentation (OR = 8.3). Found birth trauma types were: ecchymosis (40.4%), caput succedaneum (25%), erosion (15.4%), clavicle fracture (5.9%), brachial plexus paralysis (4.7%), inter alia. The perinatal outcome of 79 infants with birth trauma were compared to 158 healthy newborns. Risk factors associated with birth injuries were: Maternal (age, pregnancy), newborn (weight), and birth care (presentation, instrumentation and pelvic sufficiency).
Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun
Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.53–2.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.15–2.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413
Jae Hoon Moon
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.
Exfoliated cervical cells were harvested and processed using Polymerase Chain Reaction to identify the DNAs of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. The prevalence rate of HPV infection was 76% [(38/50) at 95% CI=61.8-86.9] with 60.5% (23/38) having co-infections with both HPV type 16 and 18. Risk factors of the infection ...
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva
Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....
Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan
of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....
Kessous, Roy; Danor, Daniela; Weintraub, Y Adi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Sergienko, Ruslan; Ohel, Iris; Sheiner, Eyal
To investigate risk factors for relaparotomy after cesarean section (CS). A retrospective case-control study comparing all CS that were complicated with relaparotomy to cesarean deliveries without this complication. Relaparotomy complicated 0.23% (n=80) of CS during the study period (n=34,389). Independent risk factors for relaparotomy following CS from a multivariable logistic regression model were post partum hemorrhage, cervical tears, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, severe preeclampsia and previous CS. Most women (51.2%) underwent relaparotomy during the first 24 h after CS. The leading causes for relaparotomy was bleeding (70%) and burst abdomen (8.8%). Hysterectomy was performed in 31.3% of the patients. Risk factors for relaparotomy after CS are previous CS, severe preeclampsia, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, cervical tear and PPH. Experienced obstetricians should be involved in such cases and the possibility for complications including relaparotomy should be emphasized.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.
Choudhury, A M; Nargis, S; Mollah, A H; Kabir, L M; Sarkar, R N
Pneumonia is an important cause of neonatal infection and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. The best way to reduce the high prevalence of pneumonia at this age group is through identification and elimination of its risk factors. This case-control study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital during Nov 2007 to Nov 2008 with an aim to identify the risk factors of pneumonia. Data were collected from 100 neonates, 50 cases and 50 controls who met the predefined inclusion criteria. Results shows mean birth weight (pneonatal resuscitation (ppneumonia. Multivariate analysis showed inadequate antenatal care (OR 168.9), home delivery (OR 13.8), intrapartum fever (OR 225.9), obstetric problem of mother (OR 33.4), requirement of resuscitation (OR 12.5), prolonged labour (OR 15.2) as significant risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.
van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O
in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...
FD Richard Hobbs
Full Text Available FD Richard HobbsUniversity of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.Abstract: In order to prevent cardiovascular events, it is essential to effectively manage overall risk of cardiovascular disease. However, despite guideline recommendations to this effect, current management of the major, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia is disconnected and patient adherence to therapy is poor. This is particularly important for patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who are often prescribed multiple medications. The JEWEL study program investigated the use of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin as a strategy to improve management of these patients. The JEWEL program consisted of two 16-week, international, openlabel, multicenter, titration-to-goal studies in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The two studies differed based on country of enrollment and certain tertiary endpoints, but the overall designs were very similar. Patients were enrolled from 255 centers across Canada and 13 European countries. The study was designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and utility of amlodipine/atorvastatin single pill therapy in a real-world setting. Patients were initiated at a dose of amlodipine 5 mg/atorvastatin 10 mg, unless previously treated, and were uptitrated as necessary. The primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients, at different levels of cardiovascular risk, achieving country-specific guideline-recommended target levels for blood pressure and lipids. A secondary analysis of efficacy measured attainment of the same single goal for blood pressure across all study participants (JEWEL I and II and the same single goal for LDL-C across all study participants (JEWEL I and II. The program utilized a newly developed questionnaire to gain better understanding of participants’ beliefs and behaviors towards medical treatment of their multiple risk factors. Approximately 2850
Sakshi Singh; T K Ray; Ranjan Das; Abha Singh
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus,...
Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedules of single risks. 223.14 Section 223.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS WITH THE...
Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and
Felipe Freire da Silva
Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.
Harmon, K G; Roush, M B
A 20-year-old female college cross-country runner developed chest pain and dyspnea that increased with running. A chest radiograph revealed a right-side pleural effusion, and a ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a probable pulmonary embolism. The diagnosis was left-side pulmonary emboli. Testing for genetic risk factors was negative, leaving oral contraceptive use as the likely cause of the condition. The patient was treated with anticoagulant drugs and discontinuation of oral contraceptives, and was allowed to resume running gradually. Discussion covers genetic and other risk factors, anticoagulation therapy, and return to play.
Ahn, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sung Hyun
The objective of this study was to estimate risk factors that influence postoperative instability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 152 consecutive patients with symptomatic ACL insufficiency underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between 2005 and 2011. Loss to follow-up and previous ligament reconstruction were exclusion criteria, resulting in 131 patients remaining for this retrospective study. The median follow-up was 55 months (range 25-100 months). Patients were sorted into two groups by anterior translation on stress radiograph and pivot shift test grade and were analysed for the statistical significance of various risk factors including age at surgery, gender, body mass index, preoperative instability, time from injury to surgery, single-bundle reconstruction with preserved abundant remnant versus double-bundle reconstruction with scanty remnant, and concomitant ligament, meniscus, and articular cartilage injury with use of multivariate logistic regression analysis. Time from injury to surgery over 12 weeks was found to be a significant risk factor for postoperative instability [p ligament (MCL) was also a risk factor (p = 0.02, adjusted OR 13.60; 95 % CI 1.24-148.25). The other variables were not found to be a significant risk factor. Among the risk factor variables, concomitant grade 2 MCL injury and surgical delay of more than 12 weeks from injury were significant risk factors for postoperative knee instability after ACL reconstruction. The overall results suggest that surgery <12 weeks from injury and meticulous attention to concomitant MCL injury should be considered. Retrospective case-control study, Level III.
Virtanen, Iita M; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Ott, Jürg; Barral, Sandra; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Heikkilä, Olli; Mutanen, Pertti; Noponen, Noora; Männikkö, Minna; Tervonen, Osmo; Natri, Antero; Ala-Kokko, Leena
Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. To evaluate the interaction between known genetic risk factors and whole-body vibration for symptomatic intervertebral disc disease (IDD) in an occupational sample. Risk factors of IDD include, among others, whole-body vibration and heredity. In this study, the importance of a set of known genetic risk factors and whole-body vibration was evaluated in an occupational sample of train engineers and sedentary controls. Eleven variations in 8 genes (COL9A2, COL9A3, COL11A2, IL1A, IL1B, IL6, MMP-3, and VDR) were genotyped in 150 male train engineers with an average of 21-year exposure to whole-body vibration and 61 male paper mill workers with no exposure to vibration. Subjects were classified into IDD-phenotype and asymptomatic groups, based on the latent class analysis. The number of individuals belonging to the IDD-phenotype was significantly higher among train engineers (42% of train engineers vs. 17.5% of sedentary workers; P = 0.005). IL1A -889T allele represented a significant risk factor for the IDD-phenotype both in the single marker allelic association test (P = 0.043) and in the logistic regression analysis (P = 0.01). None of the other allele markers was significantly associated with symptoms when analyzed independently. However, for all the SNP markers considered, whole-body vibration represents a nominally significant risk factor. The results suggest that whole-body vibration is a risk factor for symptomatic IDD. Moreover, whole-body vibration had an additive effect with genetic risk factors increasing the likelihood of belonging to the IDD-phenotype group. Of the independent genetic markers, IL1A -889T allele had strongest association with IDD-phenotype.
Al-Shammari, Khalaf F; Al-Ansari, Jassem M; Al-Khabbaz, Areej K; Nociti, Francisco H; Wang, Hom-Lay
The use of dental implants for single-tooth replacement has been established as a predictable treatment option; yet, limited data are available as to how frequently this option is recommended to patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency of implant recommendation by general dental practitioners after single-tooth extraction and factors influencing their decision to recommend an implant. All single-tooth extractions performed in 26 general dental practice clinics in Kuwait over a 30-day period were examined. Dentists in these centers used the study form to record demographic data, the type of tooth extracted, reason for extraction, and replacement options presented to the patients. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between background factors and decisions to recommend implant therapy. A total of 1367 patients (mean age, 37.9 +/- 11.8 years) had an extraction of one tooth during the study period. Forty-three patients were offered implants as a replacement option (3.3% of the total sample; 8.6% of patients who were offered tooth replacement options). Factors associated significantly with the recommendation of an implant by Kuwaiti dentists to their patients included younger age, regular dental maintenance visits, and adequate oral hygiene practices (P single-tooth replacement in the present sample of dentists was low. Factors associated significantly with dentist recommendation of an implant for single-tooth replacement included age, history of dental maintenance, and oral hygiene practices.
Familial risk factors are known to play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, particularly when the relatives are affected by early-onset cancer. Part of this familial aggregation can be accounted for by inherited forms of colorectal cancer, i.e. familial adenomatous polyposis (less than 1% of all CRC) and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (about 3%). Other genetic factors may be involved in the development of adenoma or in the transformation of adenoma into carcinoma. That the existence of polymorphisms of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene increase susceptibility to both adenomas and cancer favours this hypothesis. Interactions between environmental factors, and most of all dietary factors, and polymorphisms of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may also be involved. Better knowledge of these mechanisms will substantially widen the scope of colorectal cancer prevention.
Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra
Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.
E. A. Epanchintseva
Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42
A study was done to identify social, economic, and childhood characteristics of high and low achieving children living in adverse environmental conditions, and to test the association between achievement and specific risk and protective factors. In addition, the study identified the most powerful model for predicting achievement by comparing…
Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood
Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of ke...
Leroy, Lígia da Silva; Lúcio, Adélia; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes
To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, ppregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent. Investigar os fatores de risco para a incontinência urinária (IU) no puerpério e as suas características. Trata-se de estudo caso-controle com 344 puérperas (77 casos e 267 controles), com até 90 dias pós-parto. Foi aplicado, em um único momento, um questionário para os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos, e dois outros para avaliar a perda urinária, situações de perda e o tipo de IU. Apresentaram IU de esforço 45,5%, perda urinária diversas vezes ao dia 44,2%, sendo 71,4% em pequena quantidade e 57,1% ao tossir ou espirrar. Em 70,1% dos casos a IU iniciou-se na gestação e permaneceu no puerpério. Ao ajustar-se um modelo de regressão logística binária, apenas IU na gestação (OR 12,82, IC 95% 6,94 - 23,81, p<0,0001), multiparidade (OR 2,26, IC 95% 1,22 - 4,19, p=0,009), idade gestacional no parto maior ou igual a 37 semanas (OR 2,52, IC 95% 1,16 - 5,46, p=0,02) e constipação (OR 1,94, IC
Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R
Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gláucia Macedo de Lima
Full Text Available Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors; risk estimationwas based on the odds ratio (95% confidence interval; a bi-variantmultivariate regression logistic analysis was applied to variables forp < 0.1. Results: Of 818 babies born during the studied period, 94(11% had jaundice prior to hospital discharge. Phototherapy was usedon 69 (73% patients. Predictive factors for severity were multiparity;prolonged rupture of membranes, dystocia, cephalohematoma, a lowApgar score, prematurity and small-for-date babies. Following birth,breastfeeding, sepsis, Rh incompatibility, and jaundice presentingbefore the third day of life were associated with an increased risk ofhyperbilirubinemia and the need for therapy. Conclusion: Other thanthose characteristics that are singly associated with phototherapy,we concluded that multiparity, presumed neonatal asphyxia, low birthweight and infection are the main predictive factors leading to moderateand severe jaundice in newborn infants in our neonatal unit.
Hanscombe, Ken B; Traylor, Matthew; Hysi, Pirro G; Bevan, Stephen; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Worrall, Bradford B; Seshadri, Sudha; Sudlow, Cathie; Williams, Frances M K; Markus, Hugh S; Lewis, Cathryn M
Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls-the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10(-04)); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10(-04)) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10(-04)). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=-0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=-0.80, P=0.03). Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels increase risk of ischemic stroke cardioembolic subtype. © 2015 The
Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.
Kim, Insook; Won, Seonae; Lee, Mijin; Lee, Won
The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors through analysis of seven medical malpractice judgments related to fall injuries. The risk factors were analysed by using the framework that approaches falls from a systems perspective and comprised people, organisational or environmental factors, with each factor being comprised of subfactors. The risk factors found in each of the seven judgments were aggregated into one framework. The risk factors related to patients (i.e. the people factor) were age, pain, related disease, activities and functional status, urination state, cognitive function impairment, past history of fall, blood transfusion, sleep endoscopy state and uncooperative attitude. The risk factors related to the medical staff and caregivers (i.e. people factor) were observation negligence, no fall prevention activities and negligence in managing high-risk group for fall. Organisational risk factors were a lack of workforce, a lack of training, neglecting the management of the high-risk group, neglecting the management of caregivers and the absence of a fall prevention procedure. Regarding the environment, the risk factors were found to be the emergency room, chairs without a backrest and the examination table. Identifying risk factors is essential for preventing fall accidents, since falls are preventable patient-safety incidents. Falls do not happen as a result of a single risk factor. Therefore, a systems approach is effective to identify risk factors, especially organisational and environmental factors.
Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction
Alexander J. Ambinder
Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.
Loh, K W; Rani, F; Chan, T C; Loh, H Y; Ng, C W; Moy, F M
Hypertension is a major public health problem in Malaysia. A survey was initiated to examine the association of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for hypertension in Perak, Malaysia. A total of 2025 respondents aged 30 years and above were recruited using a multi-stage sampling method. Hypertension was defined as self-reported hypertension and/or average of two blood pressure readings at single occasion with SBP ≥ 140mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Body mass index (BMI) was defined using the Asian criteria and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to evaluate physical activity. Body weight, height and blood pressure were obtained using standard procedures. Univariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between risk factors and hypertension. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine each significant risk factor on hypertension after adjusted for confounders. In total, 1076 (54.9%) respondents were found to be hypertensive. Significant associations (p history of hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education background, family history, BMI, physical activity, smoking and diet, respondents who were obese and had positive family history had higher odds for hypertension (OR:2.34; 95% CI:1.84-3.17 and 1.96 (1.59-2.42) respectively. A significant increase (p <0.001) in risk for hypertension was noted for age. Those with moderate physical activities were 1.40 (1.04-1.78) times more of having hypertension than those active. Poor diet score and smoking were not significantly associated with increased risk for hypertension. In conclusion, modifiable risk factors such as BMI and physical activity are important risk factors to target in reducing the risk for hypertension.
Brouwers, M.M.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Gier, R.P.E. de; Barten, E.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.
OBJECTIVE: To obtain more insight into the origin of hypospadias by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study in which a distinction was made between different phenotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were 305 boys with hypospadias and 629 boys with
Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...
MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.
The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…
Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.
Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing
Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A
To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population.
The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for
Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong
Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…
Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from c...
Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.
Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this
East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... Genetics, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption are among the known risk factors for this deadly cancer. ... Methods: A case-control study where volunteer adult patients aged 18 and above with diagnosis of oesophageal cancer (cases) and non-esophageal cancer ...
Heuvel, S. van den
It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption
Abstract This study has been conducted to determine the possible risk factors of autism. This case control study was conducted at pediatric hospital, Ain Shams University on, 100 autistic patients who were subjected to the followings tools: Confirmation of diagnosis using DSM-IV-TR criteria,. IQ assessment using ...
Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E
A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.
Ni Luh Putu Maharani
Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.
Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada
was generally seen with increasing age in both countries, but deviating patterns were seen for alcohol intake, red/processed meat, obesity and age 70+. Conclusions: This study supports findings from other European studies that generally demonstrate modest public awareness of many established cancer risk factors...
Boelens, C.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Verkerke, G. J.
OBJECTIVE: Fall prevention is a major issue in the ageing society. This study provides an overview of all risk factors for falls of older citizens. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or
... having TS. The causes of TS and other tic disorders are not well understood. Although the risk factors ... Psychiatry. 2017; 74(7): 740-746. Related Links Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Child Development Positive Parenting Tips A-Z ...
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…
van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to
infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a ... of the high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as maternal morbidity, are discussed. S Afr Med J 1995; 85: 43-46. Little attention has been paid to fetal macrosomia in black. African populations, despite the fact that ...
and Gram-positive bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antenatal women, antibiotic resistance, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, risk factors. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic UTI are divided into lower tract (acute cystitis) and upper ...
Iribarren B, Osvaldo; Aranda T, Jacquelin; Dorn H, Lilian; Ferrada M, Mónica; Ugarte E, Héctor; Koscina M, Vinka; López R, Daniel; Morel F, Mauro
to identify lethality and mortality rates and, mortality risk factors in ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) on 114 patients treated between 2000 and 2007. Twenty five risk factors were analyzed, emphasizing age, gender, APACHE score, associated diseases, hypotension at intake, coma, hospitalization time, length of time of ventilation, emergency intubation, reintubation, previous antibiotics, and resistant microrganisms. Lethality was 25.4 %, and mortality was 2.4 %. Association between lethality, and APACHE score was found (p: 0.04). Critical APACHE value was 22. Also, in early pneumonia, association between lethality and nasogastric tube (p: 0.01, I.C. 95 % 1.39 - 6.35) was found. No association with late pneumonia was found among mortality and clinical practices. Death's RR (relative risk) increase in following values with: previous neurological disease 2.7 (p: 0.15, IC 95 % 1.15 - 6.5), neurological comaRR 2 (p: 0.2, IC 95 % 0.54 - 7.53). Nevertheless, at multivariate analysis no mortality risk factors were identified. Fair association with time in ICU (p: 0.051 IC 95 % 0.99 - 1.17) and, male sex (p: 0.051, IC 95 % 0.99 - 6.72) was found. We observed multiple factors associated to mortality in VAP: use of nasogastric catheter, longer stay in ICU and male sex.
Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among Ethiopian patients: a case control study. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...
Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone den- sity and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporo- sis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of ...
Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and ...
Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in its diagnosis. ... embolism(5,18). Intra-cardiac thrombosis: This occurs in the setting of post myocardial infarction particularly in the anterior cardiac area (19). AC with INR .... of left ventricular thrombi in patients with acute anterior.
David, A.; Kipp, J.M.
This paper reports that with the increasing internationalization of the petroleum industry, lenders to the industry must understand and overcome several new credit risk factors. As a result, new financial products are now available to reserve-based borrowers. Traditional project financing now also may include futures hedging, swaps, and collar elements
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence
Allan, G Michael; Nouri, Faeze; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael R; Vandermeer, Ben; McCormack, James
Risk estimates for the same patient can vary substantially among cardiovascular risk calculators and the reasons are not fully explained. We compared the relative risk increases for consistent risk factors changes across different cardiovascular risk calculators. Five clinicians independently selected 16 calculators providing absolute risk estimations. Hypothetical patients were generated using a combination of seven risk factors [age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol and diabetes] dichotomized to high and low risk, generating 2(7) patients (128 total). Relative risk increases due to specific risk factors were determined and compared. The 16 selected calculators were from six countries, used 5- and 10-year predictions, and estimated CVD or coronary heart disease risk. Across the different calculators for non-diabetic patients, changing age from 50 to 70 produced average relative risk increases from 82 to 395%, gender (female to male) 35-225%, smoking status 31-118%, systolic blood pressure (120-160 mmHg) 16-124%, total cholesterol (4-7 mmol/L) 51-302% and HDL (1.3-0.8 mmol/L) 27-133%. Similar results were found among diabetic patients. Some calculators appeared to have consistently higher relative risk increases over multiple risk factors. Cardiovascular risk calculators weigh the same risk factors differently. For each risk factor, the relative risk increase from the calculator with the highest increase was generally three to eight times greater than the relative risk increase from the calculator with lowest increase. This likely contributes to some of the inconsistency in risk calculator estimation. It also limits the use of risk calculators in estimating the benefits of therapy.
Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin
This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823
Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent
2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.9), being distracted by someone (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.1), non-routine task (OR 8.2, 95% CI 5.3-12.5), altered surroundings (OR 20.9, 95% CI 12.2-35.8), and broken machinery or materials (OR 20.6, 95% CI 13.5-31.7). The risk of occupational injury did not vary substantially....... In particular, equipment (broken machinery or materials) and work-practice-related factors (non-routine task and altered surroundings) increased the risk of an occupational injury. Elaboration of results in relation to hazard period and information bias is warranted....... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...
Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan
Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge...... of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...
Xiong, Y; Xia, H X; Wang, Y S; Lin, X L; Zhu, T T; Zhao, Y; Li, X T
Objective: To explore the high risk factors of stillbirth. Methods: 176 cases of stillbirth were collected in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University from January 1(st), 2010 to December 31(st), 2016. All cases were analyzed retrospectively, including general profile, high risk factors of stillbirth in different years and pregnancy periods. Results: (1) The incidence of stillbirth was 0.178%(176/98 785). Stillbirth occured mostly at 28-28(+6) gestational weeks (10.8%,19/176), and the second peak was 29-29(+6) weeks(10.2%,18/176), while the third common period was 37-37(+6) weeks (9.1%,16/176). After 39 weeks, it maintained at a low level. (2) The top 5 high risk factors of stillbirth were infection (18.2%,32/176), unexplained (13.6%,24/176), hypertention disorders in pregnancy (13.1%, 23/176), umbilical cord torsion (12.5%, 22/176) and fetal malformations (10.2%, 18/176). (3) From 2010 to 2012, the top 3 high risk factors were unexplained, the umbilical cord torsion and infection, while hypertention in pregnancy, infection and fetal malformation became the top 3 high risk factors after 2013. (4) Early stillbirth (20-27(+6) weeks) accounted for 21.6%(38/176); and unexplained (47.4%, 18/38), fetal edema (13.2%, 5/38),infection (13.2%, 5/38), umbilical cord torsion (5.3%, 2/38) were the top 4 high risk factors. Late stillbirth (≥28 weeks) accounted for 78.4%(138/176), with infection (19.6%,27/138), hypertention in pregnancy (15.9%,22/138), umbilical cord torsion (14.5%,20/138) and fetal malformation(12.3%,17/138)being the top 4 high risk factors. Conclusions: More attention should be paid to maternal complications, especially infection and hypertension in pregnancy. Antenatal fetal monitoring, timely termination of pregnancy, standard management of stillbirth and looking for the causes may help reduce the incidence of stillbirth.
Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R
Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.
Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.
Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474
Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J
In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended.
Babar, Tariq Farooq; Zaman, Mir; Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Khan, Mohammad Daud
To estimate the frequency and major risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis. A cross-sectional analytical study. The Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from July 2003 to December 2006. All consecutive patients between ages 6 and 40 years, admitted to the institute with the diagnosis of preseptal and orbital cellulitis were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with ages 6-16 years and group II with ages 17-40 years. The clinical features, diagnosis and risk factors were entered on a specially-designed proforma. The risk factors included were trauma, insect bite, localized or systemic infection and postsurgical. Odd ratio and p-values were calculated for potential risk factors. The frequency of orbital cellulitis was 0.1% of total admission. Out of 26 patients, 42.30% patients were in group I and 57 in group II. In group I, insect bite was the most common risk factor identified in 40% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and trauma as a common cause in 50% with orbital cellulitis. In group II, trauma was the leading cause in 50% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and sinusitis as a common cause in 18.1% with those of orbital cellulitis. In both groups the p-values were found insignificant (p>0.5). Complications included cicatricial ectropion in 44.4% and orbital abscess in 41.1%. For preseptal cellulitis, insect bite was the most common cause in group I and trauma was the leading cause in group II. For orbital cellulitis, trauma was important cause in group I and sinusitis in group II.
G. Carson, Charlotte
for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD......-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma...
G. Carson, Charlotte
-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma......The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal...
Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling
PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... in this first large-scale study. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted among all psychiatric inpatients in Denmark, following 112,233 individuals during 1999-2014. Data from Danish registers were analysed using logistic regression for repeated measures. RESULTS: 24,594 inpatients were exposed to a coercive...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...
O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni
In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.
Abdo Karim Tourkmani
Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases, incomplete medical notes (5 cases and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases. We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS: Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P0.05 between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05, although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION: After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.
Risk factors for intervertebral instability assessed by temporal evaluation of the radiographs and reconstructed computed tomography images after L5-S1 single-level transforaminal interbody fusion: A retrospective study.
Kobayashi, Yoshiomi; Shinozaki, Yoshio; Takahashi, Yohei; Takaishi, Hironari; Ogawa, Jun
Intervertebral instability risks following L5-S1 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and causes of bony bridge formation on computed tomography (CT) remain largely unknown. We evaluated the temporal changes on plain radiographs and reconstructed CT images from 178 patients who had undergone single-level L5-S1 TLIF between February 2011 and February 2015. We statistically analyzed temporal changes the L5-S1 angle on radiographs and intervertebral stability (IVS) at the last observation. Bony bridge formation between the L5-S1 vertebral bodies and the titanium cage subsidence were analyzed by using reconstructed CT. Preoperative L5-S1 angle in the non-IVS group was significantly greater than that in the IVS group. The cage subsidence was classified as follows: type A, both upper and lower endplates; type B, either endplate; or type C, no subsidence. Types B and C decreased over time, whereas type A increased after surgery. The bony bridges between vertebral bodies were found in 87.2% of patients, and 94.5% of all bony bridges were found only in the cage, not on the contralateral side. Our findings suggested that high preoperative L5-S1 angle increased the risk of intervertebral instability after TLIF. The L5-S1 angle decreased over time with increasing type A subsidence, and almost all bony bridges were found only in the cage. These results suggest that the vertebral bodies were stabilized because of cage subsidence, and final bony bridges were created. Methods to improve bony bridge creation are needed to obtain reliable L5-S1 intervertebral bone union. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Connell, Paul P
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Davies, Eryl A; Jones, Alyson C
To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.
therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...... and for prevention and possible treatment of this important entity of chronic pain....
M. M. Vysotsky
Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.
Gurewitsch Allen, Edith D
A prior history of delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia confers a 6-fold to nearly 30-fold increased risk of shoulder dystocia recurrence in a subsequent vaginal delivery, with most reported rates between 12% and 17%. Whereas prevention of shoulder dystocia in the general population is neither feasible nor cost-effective, directing intervention efforts at the particular subgroup of women with a prior history of shoulder dystocia has merit. Potentially modifiable risk factors and individualized management strategies that may reduce shoulder dystocia recurrence and its associated significant morbidities are reviewed.
Schmidbauer, Stefan; Witzel, Reinhild; Robbel, Lars; Sebastian, Petra; Grammel, Nicolas; Metzner, Hubert J; Schulte, Stefan
rVIII-SingleChain is a novel recombinant single-chain factor VIII (FVIII) construct, comprising covalently bonded heavy and light chains. Post-translational modifications of FVIII affect physicochemical parameters, including hydrophobicity and charge. The most relevant post-translational modifications of FVIII products are N-glycosylation of asparagine residues and tyrosine sulphations. Here, the physicochemical properties, thrombin cleavage products and post-translational modifications of rVIII-SingleChain were investigated and compared against commercially available recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products with a predominant two-chain structure (B-domain deleted rFVIII and full-length rFVIII). rVIII-SingleChain was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and purified by chromatographic methods. Physicochemical properties of rVIII-SingleChain or thrombin-derived cleavage products were assessed using size-exclusion chromatography, reversed-phase chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the respective carbohydrate structures was performed after release of N-glycans by PNGase F followed by fluorescence labelling and high-performance liquid chromatography. Proteolysis by trypsin generated the corresponding peptides, which were analysed for sulphated tyrosines by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation time of flight-mass spectrometry. rVIII-SingleChain was shown to be of high purity and homogeneity, and presented a well-defined single-chain molecule with predominant β-sheet conformation. The coagulation-relevant thrombin-activation products of rVIII-SingleChain were comparable with those obtained by activation of commercially available rFVIII products. rVIII-SingleChain post-translational modifications were similar to other CHO cell-derived rFVIII products for N-glycopattern and tyrosine sulphation. In conclusion, rVIII-SingleChain is of high homogeneity and purity, and provides an expected cleavage pattern on
Brian C. Peach MSN
Full Text Available Objective: To identify factors that predispose older adults to urosepsis and urosepsis-related mortality. Method: A systematic search using PubMed and CINAHL databases. Articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE criteria and were scored on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Results: A total of 180 articles were identified, and six met inclusion criteria. The presence of an internal urinary catheter was associated with the development of urosepsis and septic shock. Although a number of factors were examined, functional dependency, number of comorbidities, and low serum albumin were associated with mortality across multiple studies included in this review. Discussion: Little scientific evidence is available on urosepsis, its associated risk factors, and those factors associated with urosepsis-related mortality in older adults. More research is warranted to better understand urosepsis in this vulnerable population in an effort to improve the quality of patient care.
Full Text Available Caroline Ingre,1 Per M Roos,2 Fredrik Piehl,1 Freya Kamel,3 Fang Fang4 1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, risk factors, genetics, lifestyle, environment
Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda
Scientific studies show that many factors related to lifestyles affect the reduction of bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The goal of this study was to determine whether smoking, drinking coffee and alcohol in menopausal women contribute to the reduction of bone mass and osteoporosis, as well as the impact of physical activity on bone mass. The study was carried out as case study and matched controls. The group of cases consisted of 100 females in postmenopausal age, in which by the DEXA method was newly diagnosed osteoporosis at the Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center of RS during 2015-2016, while the control group consisted of 100 females in a postmenopausal age without diagnosed osteoporosis. The groups were matched by age (±2 years). In order to collect demographic data and information on risk factors for osteoporosis and lifestyle of patients was used the questionnaire Bone Mineral Density Questionnaire- Female of the Irish Association for osteoporosis. Testing the significance of differences in terms of smoking showed that the studied groups are statistically significantly different in terms of smoking (χ 2 =24.025, p=0.000). In terms of consumption of coffee, a statistically significant difference was found between the group of cases and control group (χ 2 =0.615, p=0.735). When observing the obtained information about the consumption of alcohol, we find that this preventable risk factor in the present study did not show as significant for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (χ 2 =4.35, p=0.114). Statistical analysis shows that there are significant differences between the group of cases and control group in terms of physical activity (χ 2 =7.30, p=0.026). Analysis of the data of our study by univariate logistic regressions showed that smoking (p=0.000) was statistically significantly associated with osteoporosis, while physical activity is a protective factor for bone mass (p
Linares Fernandez, Tomasa Maria; Correa Lozano, Zoila; Ibarra Fernandez de la Vega, Enrique Jose; Bonet Gorbea Mariano
To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic
Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony
Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.
Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus
Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...
Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck
The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...
Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise
Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...
Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires
Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.
van Osch, Dirk; Dieleman, Jan M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817902; Bunge, Jeroen J.; van Dijk, Diederik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241616301; Doevendans, Pieter A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Suyker, Willem J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/321847024; Nathoe, Hendrik M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/267961472; Roes, CB|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115147020; Moons, KGM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152483519
OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to investigate the long-term prognosis and risk factors of postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS). METHODS: We performed a single-center cohort study in 822 patients undergoing nonemergent valve surgery. Risk factors of PPS were evaluated using multivariable logistic
Osch, D. van; Dieleman, J.M.; Bunge, J.J.; Dijk, D. van; Doevendans, P.A.; Suyker, W.J.; Nathoe, H.M.; Hofland, J.; et al.,
OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to investigate the long-term prognosis and risk factors of postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS). METHODS: We performed a single-center cohort study in 822 patients undergoing nonemergent valve surgery. Risk factors of PPS were evaluated using multivariable logistic
The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for plasma glucose measurements. The glucose disposal rate measured during HGC was lower in normal glucose-tolerant cats than in normal glucose-tolerant humans, apparently related to the cat’s lower insu...
The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...
Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins; Marília Fontenele e Silva Câmara
Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment ...
Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.
The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.
This thesis explores the epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorders. It focuses on the impact of the political and cultural changes that occured in the Czech Republic in the early 1990s. The term eating disorders includes mental illnesses characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and various eating disorders not otherwise specifieed. It appears that the incidence of anorexia nervosa was increasing until 1970s and remains stable since. The inci...
Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still
Anne F Peery
Full Text Available Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids.We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects' colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex.The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86. Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98. We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62-1.40. Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03. Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06.Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids.
Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.
Gray, P; Hildebrand, K
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.
Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer
As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.
Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.
Akre, Olof; Boyd, Heather A.; Ahlgren, Martin; Wilbrand, Kerstin; Westergaard, Tine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Ekbom, Anders; Melbye, Mads
Background An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. Objectives Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. Results A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20–24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy’s risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1–3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2–2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6; 95% CI, 1.1–53). Conclusions A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:18709149
Wang, ChunFang; Lv, GaoPeng; Zang, DaWei
To analyze the risk factors of carotid plaque (CP) and carotid common artery intima-media thickening (CCAIMT) and the association between the risk factors and CP numbers and the side of the CCAIMT in a high-stroke-risk population. Carotid ultrasonography was conducted in 2025 participants with high stroke risk. Participants were divided into different groups according to the results of the ultrasound. The risk factors and blood biochemical indices were recorded. The presence of CP and CCAIMT were 38.9% and 24.8% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the risk factors of CP were age, high LDL-C and FBG levels, male gender, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and tobacco use. Compared with participants without CPs, the participants who were male, and older in age, with risk factors of tobacco use, diabetes, high LDL-C levels, and a family history of hypertension were likely to have a single CP, whereas the participants with risk factors of tobacco use, diabetes, hypertension, male gender, older age, high LDL-C levels, stroke and AF or valvulopathy were prone to have multiple CPs. The risk factors of CCAIMT were male gender, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, AF or valvulopathy, tobacco use and age. Compared with the N-CCAIMT subgroup, the risk factors of left CCAIMT were tobacco use, diabetes, male gender, and age. The risk factors of right CCAIMT were male gender, high FBG levels, age, AF or valvulopathy. The risk factors of dual CCAIMT were high frequency of drinking milk, tobacco use, male gender, age, stroke, and hypertension. These findings revealed the risk factors of CP and CCAIMT, and an association between the risk factors and the CP numbers and the side of the CCAIMT.
Koutroubakis, I; Manousos, O N; Meuwissen, S G; Pena, A S
Besides a genetic predisposition, a causal role of various environmental factors have been taken into consideration in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most consistent association of environmental factors so far identified is the association between non smoking and ulcerative colitis (UC) as well a between smoking and Crohn's disease (CD). Other factors such as oral contraceptives, refined sugar, perinatal events, childhood infections, microbial agents, and domestic hygiene have been found to be associated with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease but further evaluation is required to confirm the consistency and to define the strength of the association. Recent data also suggest that measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue and early exposure to the virus may be a risk factor for development of CD. The further investigation of environmental factors on IBD and the explanation of their role is expected to open new avenues for basic scientific research and may lead to the development of a more rational approach to the prevention and treatment of IBD. The available data suggest that UC and CD are heterogeneous disorders of multifactorial etiology in which hereditary and environmental factors interact to produce the disease.
Tint, Derrick; Kubala, Stephanie; Toskala, Elina
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disorder that creates a significant burden on the healthcare system. It is caused by a combination of inflammatory, environmental, and host factors; however, the precise mechanism of how each factor leads to CRS continues to be a source of debate. Previous data regarding this topic is often inconsistent or of lower quality. In this article, we review the recent literature on the risk factors and comorbidities in CRS. Large population-based studies have helped establish smoking as a significant risk factor for CRS. The focus has now shifted towards smoking and its effect on long-term outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Ciliary dyskinesia, both primary and secondary, can affect both the sinonasal cavity and lower airways simultaneously by decreasing the beat frequency of cilia and inducing mucostasis. The effects of secondary dyskinesia may be reversible and there is some evidence to suggest the use of topical mucolytics in patients with CRS. Allergy and variants of sinonasal anatomy have been hypothesized to increase the risk of developing CRS by inducing chronic inflammation and obstructing the sinus ostia. Nevertheless, emerging data regarding these topics continue to produce inconclusive results. Inflammation of the upper and lower airways can occur simultaneously as seen in patients with asthma and aspirin sensitivity. The connection between these pro-inflammatory disease states has been known for many years. Newer evidence include large population-based studies and studies that correlate objective tests, such as computer tomography scans to pulmonary function tests. However, the treatment of CRS and its effects on obstructive airway disease continues to be a topic of debate. More large prospective studies are needed in order to continue refining our knowledge of the disease processes in CRS.
Al-Quran, Firas A; Al-Ghalayini, Raed F; Al-Zu'bi, Bashar N
The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males) divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The highest percentage of males within groups (58%) was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.
Al-Quran Firas A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.
Full Text Available Introduction. In current era of widespread use of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI, it is debatable whether coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG patients are at higher risk. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate trends in risk profile of isolated CABG patients. Methods. By analysing the EuroSCORE and its risk factors, we reviewed a consecutive group of 4675 isolated CABG patients, operated on during the last 8 years (2001-2008 at our Clinic. The number of PCI patients was compared to the number of CABG patients. For statistical analyses, Pearson’s chi-square and ANOVA tests were used. Results. The number of PCI increased from 159 to 1595 (p<0.001, and the number of CABG from 557 to 656 (p<0.001. The mean EuroSCORE increased from 2.74 to 2.92 (p=0.06. The frequency of the following risk factors did not change over years: female gender, previous cardiac surgery, serum creatinine >200μmol/l, left ventricular dysfunction and postinfarct ventricular septal rupture. Chronic pulmonary disease, neurological dysfunction, and unstable pectoral angina declined significantly (p<0.001. Critical preoperative care declined from 3.1% in 2001 to 0.5 % in 2005, than increased and during the last 3 years did not change (2.3%. The mean age increased from 56.8 to 60.7 (p<0.001 and extracardiac arteriopathy increased from 9.2% to 22.9% (p<0.001. Recent preoperative myocardial infarction increased from 11% to 15.1% (p=0.021, while emergency operations increased from 0.9% to 4.0% (p=0.001. Conclusion. The number of CABG increases despite the enlargement of PCI. The risk for isolated CABG given by EuroSCORE increases over years. The risk factors, significantly contributing to higher EuroSCORE are: older age, extracardiac arteriopathy, recent myocardial infarction and emergency operation.
van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J
The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.
de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Mano Azul, António; Rocha, Evangelista; Maló, Paulo
This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of peri-implant pathology. One-thousand, two-hundred and seventy-fifty patients (255 cases and 1020 controls), rehabilitated with dental implants, were included. Peri-implant pathology was defined as the presence of peri-implant pockets ≥ 5 mm, bleeding on probing, vertical bone loss, and loss of attachment ≥ 2 mm. Cases and controls were matched for age, gender, and duration of follow-up. A logistic regression model was used, with estimation of the OR for each variable and interaction, with a level of significance of 5%. The risk factors for peri-implant pathology were: history of periodontitis (OR = 19), bacterial plaque (OR = 3.6), bleeding (OR = 2.9), bone level on the medium third of the implant (OR = 13.9), lack of prosthetic fit or non-optimal screw joint (OR = 5.9), metal-ceramic restorations (OR = 3.9), and the interaction between bacterial plaque and the proximity of other teeth or implants (PROXI) (OR = 4.3). PROXI (OR = 0.44) exerted a protective effect when independent. Based on the results, peri-implant pathology represents a group of multifactorial situations with interaction of biological and biomechanical components in its pathogenesis. It was possible to model the condition and to assess, with high precision, the risk profile of each patient. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.
Tikkanen, J; Heinonen, O P
To investigate possible associations between cardiovascular malformations and maternal occupational exposure to various factors during the first trimester of pregnancy, 406 cases and 756 controls were studied retrospectively. The cases were taken from all infants diagnosed with cardiovascular malformations born in Finland during 1982 and 1983. The controls were randomly selected from all normal births in the country during the same period. All mothers were interviewed approximately 3 months after delivery by a midwife, using a structured questionnaire. Maternal overall exposure to chemicals at work was more prevalent among the case group (35.8%) than the control group (26.2%, P less than 0.01). Among the specific chemical groups, maternal exposure to dyes, lacquers, or paints was significantly associated with the risk of congenital heart disease. Exposure to organic solvents during the first trimester seemed to increase to risk of ventricular septal defect (P less than 0.05). Work at video display terminals was slightly more prevalent among the case group (6.3%) than among the control group (5.0%). The mothers' education level, regular exposure to passive smoking at work, or temperature at the workplace were not risk factors for congenital heart disease in the offspring, neither was maternal exposure to microwave ovens, disinfectants, pesticides, or anesthetic gases. It is concluded that many maternal exposures at work seem not to have a teratogenic effect on the fetal heart, although the limited power of this investigation needs to be borne in mind.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for osteoporotic vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. 44 postmenopausal women whose L 2-L4 T scores were £ -2.5 SD with a mean age of 66.38+ 6.47 years were included in this study. Age, postmenopausal years, body mass index, milk consumption (before and after age 50, family history of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, patient’s previous fracture history, tobacco use, number of pregnancies, surgical menopause were questioned in all patients. DEXA was used to evaluate bone mineral density . Kleerekoper method was used to evaluate the fractures between T4 and L5 vertebra on lateral thoracal and lumbar X rays. When 25 patient with vertebral fractures compared with 19 patients without fracture ,only patient’s age showed statistically significant difference between groups ( p=0.035. Of the 5 risk factors chosen (age, L2-L4 BMD, L2-L4 T score, body weight <57 kg, milk consumption before age 50 only patient’s age was found to be statistically important in estimating vertebral fracture risk (p=0.032.There was statistically significant positive correlation between vertebral deformity score (evaluated according to Kleerekoper method and patient’s age and postmenopausal years (respectively p=0.001, p=0.006.
Machado, V; Troncoso, S; Mejías, L; Idoate, M Á; San-Julián, M
To evaluate the clinical, radiological and histological factors that can predict local recurrence of fibromatosis. A retrospective study was conducted on 51 patients diagnosed with fibromatosis in this hospital from 1983 to 2014. The mean follow-up was 83 months. A study was made of the clinical parameters, location, depth, size, surgical margins, and proliferation index (Ki-67). An evaluation was also made of the risk of recurrence depending on the adjuvant treatment and the relationship between treatment and patient functionality. Tumour location and depth were identified as risk factors for local recurrence, showing statistically significant differences (P<.001 and P=.003, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, size, surgical margins, or adjuvant treatments, or in the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Score according to the treatment received. The mean Ki-67 was 1.9% (range 1-4), and its value was not associated with the risk of recurrence. Deep fibromatosis fascia tumours, and those located in extremities are more aggressive than superficial tumours and those located in trunk. The Ki-67 has no predictive value in local recurrence of fibromatosis. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or other adjuvant treatments such as tamoxifen have not been effective in local control of the disease. Given the high recurrence rate, even with adequate margins, a wait and see attitude should be considered in asymptomatic patients and/or stable disease. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J
Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burghaus, Stefanie; Fasching, Peter A; Häberle, Lothar; Rübner, Matthias; Büchner, Kathrin; Blum, Simon; Engel, Anne; Ekici, Arif B; Hartmann, Arndt; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Renner, Stefan P
Several genetic variants have been validated as risk factors for ovarian cancer. Endometriosis has also been described as a risk factor for ovarian cancer. Identifying genetic risk factors that are common to the two diseases might help improve our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis potentially linking the two conditions. In a hospital-based case-control analysis, 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), validated by the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) project, were genotyped using TaqMan® OpenArray™ analysis. The cases consisted of patients with endometriosis, and the controls were healthy individuals without endometriosis. A total of 385 cases and 484 controls were analyzed. Odds ratios and P values were obtained using simple logistic regression models, as well as from multiple logistic regression models with adjustment for clinical predictors. rs11651755 in HNF1B was found to be associated with endometriosis in this case-control study. The OR was 0.66 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.84) and the P value after correction for multiple testing was 0.01. None of the other genotypes was associated with a risk for endometriosis. As rs11651755 in HNF1B modified both the ovarian cancer risk and also the risk for endometriosis, HNF1B may be causally involved in the pathogenetic pathway leading from endometriosis to ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa
Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.
Liu, Wei-Xiao; Lang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Qin-Feng
To investigate the risk factors for anorexia in children, and to reduce the prevalence of anorexia in children. A questionnaire survey and a case-control study were used to collect the general information of 150 children with anorexia (case group) and 150 normal children (control group). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors for anorexia in children. The results of the univariate analysis showed significant differences between the case and control groups in the age in months when supplementary food were added, feeding pattern, whether they liked meat, vegetables and salty food, whether they often took snacks and beverages, whether they liked to play while eating, and whether their parents asked them to eat food on time (Panorexia in children. Liking of meat (OR=0.093) and vegetables (OR=0.272) and eating on time required by parents (OR=0.079) were protective factors against anorexia in children. Timely addition of supplementary food, a proper diet, and development of children's proper eating and living habits can reduce the incidence of anorexia in children.
Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A
Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.
Gul Mert, Gulen; Herguner, Mihriban Ozlem; Incecik, Faruk; Altunbasak, Sakir; Sahan, Duygu; Unal, Ilker
To assess risk factors that affect epilepsy prognosis and neurodevelopmental outcome and response to treatment in patients diagnosed with infantile spasm. In this study, demographics, treatment modalities, etiologies, risk factors affecting neurodevelopmental outcome and epilepsy prognosis were assessed retrospectively at the end of a minimum 24-months follow-up of 104 patients diagnosed with infantile spasm from May 2012 to October 2015. Neonatal seizure during neonatal period, abnormal head circumference, young age at the time of presentation and early gestational age, symptomatic etiology, abnormal initial examination and abnormal development test at the time of diagnosis, consanguinity, the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond and magnetic resonance imaging finding were found to be statistically significant for poor prognosis in terms of neurodevelopment (p Infantile spasm is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy, and it was observed that it is still catastrophic, and that the most important factor affecting prognosis of epilepsy is etiology, age at the time of presentation and the medical center where treatment was started in the second center or beyond.
Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...
Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo
Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.
Artur A. Rean
Full Text Available The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passivebehaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization. Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings: what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father. It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation. A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.
Garipagaoglu, Muazzez; Budak, Nurten; Süt, Necdet; Akdikmen, Oznur; Oner, Naci; Bundak, Rüveyde
On the basis of the knowledge that the prevalence of obesity in children has increased steadily in recent years, this study aimed to assess the association between obesity and certain risk factors in a group of 6- to 14-year-old children living in Istanbul. The study was carried out at the Istanbul University School of Medicine Hospital. Data were collected from 592 children aged between 6 and 14 years who were examined in general pediatrics clinics. Weight and height measurements were performed on the children and their parents. The children were classified as obese and nonobese in accordance with the body mass index reference values for Turkish children. Energy intake of children was estimated with a 3-day food consumption recording form. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the information from the parents on possible risk factors causing obesity. The physical activity state of the children was assessed. A logistic regression model was developed to examine the relationships between obesity and possible risk factors. Almost 32% (n = 184) and 69% (n = 408) of children were assessed as obese and nonobese, respectively. Although there was no difference in daily energy intakes of obese and nonobese children, 13.6% of obese and 40.9% of nonobese children were reported to do physical activity regularly. Obesity was strongly associated with parental obesity. Furthermore, energy intake; having regular physical activity; presence of obesity in the mother, the father, and the mother's family; and having a mother working out of home were also significantly associated with obesity. Creating awareness in mothers on the importance of a healthy nutrition and encouraging families to participate in physical activities are important points in the prevention of childhood obesity.
Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing
This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...
Ondrusova, M.; Ondrus, D.
Testicular cancer is a rare malignancy, that affects 1-2 % of male population. Trends of testicular cancer mortality are stable for a long period of time, even that incidence shows a rapid growth. This paper deals with national trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality in Slovakia from 1968 to 2007 by using the join-point regression analysis to propose potential changes in health care. The authors noted a statistically significant increase in the values of incidence and improvement in mortality after 1975. Paper also deals with the etiology and risk factors of this malignancy. (author)
Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye
G. K. Taitubayeva
Full Text Available Purpose. To identify risk factors for the development of acute cerebral circulatory impairments (ACCI in pregnant women.Materials and methods. The material for the study was the medical history of 31 pregnant women with diagnosis ACCI. The average age was 29,5 ± 5,1 years. The comparison group consisted of pregnant women with physiological pregnancy (n = 30 with different gestation periods, the mean age was 29,1 ± 6,7 years. In this study, a comparative analysis of risk factors for stroke was carried out: gynecological and allergic history, smoking and taking contraceptives, the presence of chronic diseases, indicators of the hemostasis and lipid spectrum, polymorphism of thrombophilia genes.Results. The prevalence of ischemic stroke over hemorrhagic stroke was found, which was 77.4% and 22.6%, respectively. In 93.5% of cases, a stroke occurred during pregnancy, in 79.3% of them in the third trimester of gestation. The number of recuperated women was 67.7%. As a result of statistical treatment, a significant difference in study and comparison groups was obtained (p < 0.05 as a result of a burdened obstetric-gynecological history. Among the women taking contraceptives, 11 (35.5% women were in the study group, and 3 (10% women were found in the comparison group (p < 0.05. At the analysis of smoking in the history the number of women in the study group prevailed comparing to the comparison group (35.5–13.3%, p < 0.05. Changes in the lipid spectrum system and hemostasis were detected, but there were no significant differences between the study group and the comparison group (p> 0.05. Various forms of mutations were identified in the group with ischemic stroke in 14 (58.3% women, in 2 (28.5% women in the group with hemorrhagic stroke.Conclusion. Of all the data analyzed in pregnant women with stroke, statistically significant risk factors are: smoking, taking contraceptives, the presence of chronic diseases, including an obstructed obstetric
The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...
Allou, Nicolas; Bronchard, Regis; Guglielminotti, Jean; Dilly, Marie Pierre; Provenchere, Sophie; Lucet, Jean Christophe; Laouénan, Cédric; Montravers, Philippe
The aims of this study were, first, to identify risk factors for microbiology-proven postoperative pneumonia after cardiac surgery and, second, to develop and validate a preoperative scoring system for the risk of postoperative pneumonia. A single-center cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery between January 2006 and July 2011. None. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for postoperative pneumonia was performed on data from patients operated between January 2006 and December 2008 (training set). External temporal validation was performed on data from patients operated between January 2009 and July 2011 (validation set). Preoperative variables identified in multivariate analysis of the training set were then used to develop a preoperative scoring system that was validated on the validation set. Postoperative pneumonia occurred in 174 of the 5,582 patients (3.1%; 95% CI, 2.7-3.6). Multivariate analysis identified four risk factors for postoperative pneumonia: age (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.8-4.71), preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and the interaction between RBC transfusion during surgery and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.96-4.54). A 6-point score including the three preoperative variables then defined two risk groups corresponding to postoperative pneumonia rates of 1.8% (score risk factors for postoperative pneumonia with the proposed scoring system could help to implement a preventive policy in high-risk patients with a risk of postoperative pneumonia greater than 4% (i.e., patients with a score ≥ 3).
Tabbara, Khalid F; Kotb, Amgad A
To establish a grading system that helps identify high-risk individuals who may experience corneal ectasia after LASIK. Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. One hundred forty-eight consecutive patients (148 eyes) were included in this study. Thirty-seven patients who underwent LASIK at other refractive centers experienced corneal ectasia in 1 eye after LASIK. One hundred eleven eyes of 111 patients who underwent successful LASIK during the same period were age and gender matched and served as controls. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative topographic analysis of the cornea. The follow-up period in both groups of patients ranged from 2 to 5 years, with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. All patients underwent LASIK for myopia (spherical equivalent, -4.00 to -8.00 diopters). Corneal keratometry, oblique cylinder, pachymetry, posterior surface elevation, difference between the inferior and superior corneal diopteric power, and posterior best sphere fit (BSF) over anterior BSF were given a grade of 1 to 3 each. An ectasia grading system was established, and the cumulative risk score was assessed. Patients who had a grade of 7 or less showed no evidence of corneal ectasia, whereas 16 (59%) of 27 patients who had a grade of 8 to 12 had corneal ectasia. Twenty-one (100%) of 21 patients with a grade of more than 12 had corneal ectasia after LASIK (P<0.0001). A risk score may help in the prediction of patients who are at risk of experiencing corneal ectasia after LASIK. A prospective clinical study is needed to assess the validity of these risk factors.
Full Text Available Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate, ergonomics assessment of working conditions and determination of factors associated with MSDs among office workers. Methods:In this study 400 randomly selected office workers participated. Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire was applied to determine prevalence rate of MSDs. Working conditions were assessed by the designed ergonomics checklist and ergonomic risk factors were identified. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, Chi-square and test of proportion by SPSS software (Version 12.0. Results:The highest prevalence rates of MSDs were reported in lower back and neck regions (49% and 47%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant association between occurrence of MSDs and calculated ergonomics indices (P<0.05. The mean of ergonomics index among those suffered from MSDs were less than other healthy workers indicating inappropriate ergonomics conditions. Calculation of OR also revealed that ergonomics conditions was associated with MSDs occurrence among workers (P<0.05. Totally, 53.3% of the office workers studied had poor working conditions. Awkward working posture and inappropriate workstation design were recognized as the main risk factors in the office workplace. Conclusion:Most ergonomics problems were originated from bad postures and inappropriate design of workstation. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should
seyed Mohammad Ali Khatami Firouzabadi
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the decision making process for import complete manufactured pieces versus import of partial pieces to assemble in Iran, taking into account the risk factors for a manufacturing company. Since this sort of decision making confront with several risks, it is necessary to establish a process for finding the risks associated with this kind of problems in order to decrease the effects of these risks in the process. Since the problem is classified as a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM problem, Uncertain Analytical Hierarchy Process (UAHP was used to find the most attractive alternative. Because the alternatives were identified from the first point, a bottom-up procedure was used to organize the hierarchy. In initial stage, the attributes which distinct from the alternatives were obtained by literature review and experts' interviews. Then the attributes were grouped to upper level to establish the criteria. Three criteria were found from this stage. The criteria were product, partners, and environment which they encompassed 12 attributes. Forming the hierarchy and doing the uncertain pairwised comparisons, which considers a range of numbers instead of one single number for declaring the preference between two factors, a Linear Programming (LP model with two types of objective functions were formed for each individual alternative. Each single LP model can express the maximum and minimum value of each individual alternative. The research's results indicate the most appropriate alternative is to import the final product from India. The last preferred one was to import the parts of the final product from India. This study can be a suitable framework in supply chain management and purchasing decisions and risk evaluations because the major parts of manufacturing activities is always to decide about the selection of most preferred strategies for companies.
Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pitkänen, Niina; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Kelly, Tanika; Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia; Elo, Laura L; Raitakari, Olli T
Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Early prediction of obesity is essential for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the use of childhood clinical factors and the genetic risk factors in predicting adulthood obesity using machine learning methods. A total of 2262 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in YFS (Young Finns Study) were followed up from childhood (age 3-18 years) to adulthood for 31 years. The data were divided into training (n=1625) and validation (n=637) set. The effect of known genetic risk factors (97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) was investigated as a weighted genetic risk score of all 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS97) or a subset of 19 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS19) using boosting machine learning technique. WGRS97 and WGRS19 were validated using external data (n=369) from BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study). WGRS19 improved the accuracy of predicting adulthood obesity in training (area under the curve [AUC=0.787 versus AUC=0.744, P obesity. Predictive accuracy is highest among young children (3-6 years), whereas among older children (9-18 years) the risk can be identified using childhood clinical factors. The model is helpful in screening children with high risk of developing obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kawanishi, Koki; Kato, Jun; Toda, Nobuo; Yamagami, Mari; Yamada, Tomoharu; Kojima, Kentaro; Ohki, Takamasa; Seki, Michiharu; Tagawa, Kazumi
Although all types of endoscopic procedures harbor risk of aspiration, little is understood about risk factors for aspiration pneumonia developing after endoscopic hemostasis. The present study aimed to identify risk factors for aspiration pneumonia after endoscopic hemostasis. Charts from consecutive patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding that had been treated by endoscopic hemostasis at a single center between January 2004 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient information and clinical characteristics including cause of hemorrhage, established prognostic scales, laboratory data, comorbidities, medications, duration of endoscopic hemostasis, vital signs, sedative use, and the main operator during the procedure were compared between patients who developed aspiration pneumonia and those who did not. Aspiration pneumonia developed in 24 (4.8%) of 504 patients after endoscopic hemostasis. Endotracheal intubation was required for three of them, and one died of the complication. Multivariate analysis revealed that age >75 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-13.6; p = 0.0073), procedural duration >30 min (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.9-18.2; p = 0.0023), hemodialysis (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.2-11; p = 0.024), and a history of stroke (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1-14; p = 0.041) were independent risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia. Specific risk factors for aspiration pneumonia after endoscopic hemostasis were identified. Endoscopists should carefully consider aspiration pneumonia when managing older patients who are on hemodialysis, have a history of stroke, and undergo a longer procedure.
Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria C; Figueroa, Dana; Biggio, Joseph R; Owen, John; Tita, Alan T N
Risk factors for post-cesarean wound infection, but not disruption, are well-described in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a single-center randomized controlled trial of staple versus suture skin closure in women ≥24 weeks' gestation undergoing cesarean delivery. Wound disruption was defined as subcutaneous skin or fascial dehiscence excluding primary wound infections. Composite wound morbidity (disruption or infection) was examined as a secondary outcome. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, and intrapartum characteristics were evaluated as potential risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 398 randomized patients, 340, including 26 with disruptions (7.6%) met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. After multivariable adjustments, African-American race (aOR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-13.8) and staple - as opposed to suture - wound closure (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.1) remained significant risk factors for disruption; non-significant increases were observed for body mass index ≥30 (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.5), but not for diabetes mellitus (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3-2.9). RESULTS for composite wound morbidity were similar. Skin closure with staples, African-American race, and considering the relatively small sample size, potentially obesity are associated with increased risk of non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption.
Clinical Utility of Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Load Monitoring and Risk Factors for Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders After Kidney Transplantation: A Single-Center, 10-Year Observational Cohort Study
Erica Franceschini, MD
Conclusions. Our results suggest that the keystone of PTLD diagnosis is the clinical suspicion. Our study suggests that, in line with guidelines, EBV-VL assays may be avoided in low-risk patients in the absence of a strong clinical PTLD suspicion without increasing patients' risk of developing PTLD. This represents a safe and cost-saving clinical strategy for our center.
Purnell, Christianna; Gao, Sujuan; Callahan, Christopher M; Hendrie, Hugh C
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature of cardiovascular factors pertaining to incident Alzheimer disease (AD). A systematic literature review was conducted of all studies of cardiovascular risk factors for incident AD listed in PubMed in English from 2000 to 2007. Risk factors included hypertension, diabetes, exercise, alcohol intake, smoking, B complex vitamins, homocysteine, stroke, atrial fibrillation, apolipoprotein E (APOE), lipids, and diet. Inclusion criteria consisted of diagnoses of incident AD and longitudinal studies with cohorts of 500 or more. Individual clinically defined risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes were not significantly associated with increased risk for AD. The strength of the association for hypertension could be considerably strengthened by changing criteria such as midlife measurements or using higher cutoffs for systolic blood pressure. APOE epsilon4 was the most consistent risk factor. Interactions between risk factors modify risk particularly for hypertension and diabetes. Interactions modifying risk were also found for exercise and physical function, APOE epsilon4, diabetes, and cholesterol. In this review, the evidence that single clinically defined cardiovascular risk factors are significantly associated with incident AD is inconsistent at best. The strength of the association of cardiovascular risk factors and AD can be influenced greatly by changing the parameters of measurement of risk factors and by identifying interactions between the factors.
Sanchez, J.A.; Retamar, J.A.; Blazquez, J.; Castano, J.C.
The was to study the natural course of pneumothorax produced after aspiration biopsy in the attempt to differentiate those cases that will resolve spontaneously from those that will require drainage, and to assess the possible risk factors associated with the development of this entity. Eighty-nine CT-guided aspiration biopsies were performed in 80 patients. Control CT was done immediately after the procedure and 24 hours later. When pneumothorax persisted, CT was repeated at 48 h, 72 h, day 5 and day 7 or until a drainage tube was introduced. The cases of pneumothorax were classified as minimal, anterior or anterolateral. Seven variables were assessed as possible risk factors for its occurrence. Pneumothorax developed on 29 occasions (32.5%), requiring drainage in 12 cases (13.5%). In 20 patients (22%), pneumothorax occurred immediately, while in the remaining 9 (10%) it was detected in the 24 h CT scan. When studied according to type, drainage was required in 3 of the 19 cases of minimal or anterior pneumothorax (15%) and in 9 or the 10 cases of anterolateral location (90%) (p<0.0005). The mean thickness of the parenchyma punctured was 3.4 cm +- 2.2. cm when pneumothorax developed and 1.3 cm+- 2 cm when it did not (p<0.0001). There is a statistically significant association between the development of anterolateral pneumothorax and the need for chest drainage. The thickness of the punctured parenchyma is associated with the production of pneumothorax. 16 refs
Cinthia Tomasa Mercado Contreras
Full Text Available The advance of the technology in communications has led to social networking sites fulfill an important role in society. Among the most used and known is Facebook, that social network allows to make public certain information and provides the opportunity to hold private conversations. This new trend of talks, and the natural desire to explore sexuality has led young people interested at phenomenon known as sexting. This phenomenon, from some of the negative consequences became public, has attracted the interest from parents, teachers, researchers and health workers, however, have not been universally well defined. This lack of unanimous conceptualization has led to confusion within the psychological, social and legal area. That is why in the present article presents results of a systematic review of articles that speak about sexting. The select articles were those that were published from 2009 to 2014, in which work was focused to adolescents and speak about risk factors and consequences of the phenomenon. The articles were analyzed by looking at the similarities and differences in their definition of sexting and their results, identifying risk factors and consequences related considered. With the analysis was possible to categorize their limitations and finally offer a possible definition of sexting.
Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A
To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.
Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing.
Silvia Di Legge
Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.
Estrella de la Caridad Armenteros Espino
Full Text Available Background: cervix cancer constitutes the second cause of death worldwide, with new diagnosis each year. Objective: to determine the risk factors of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the municipality of Cruces. Methods: it was developed an analytical research with case and control design from November 2013 to November 2014. The group of cases was formed of the 34 women with this diagnosis. There were selected 64 females from the same environment with the same age for the control group. The data obtained by surveys and clinical records reviews were presented in absolute numbers and percentages. It was used Chi-squared test and odd ratio. Results: 52 % of women with neoplasia were less than 25 years old. Significant differences were found which associate neoplasia with early sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted infections by Papilloma virus, Plane genital condyloma, and the use of oral contraceptive pills. Multiple sex partner was a frequent antecedent. Conclusion: risk factors associated to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the group of women studied in the Cruces municipality were early sexual intercourse, mainly before 15 years old, multiple sex partner, sexually communicated diseases and the use of oral contraceptive pills for more than 5 years.
Tuggy, M L; Ong, R
We performed a population survey of telemark skiers over two ski seasons to determine specific risk factors for injury. The survey inquired about the skier's sex, experience, equipment used, injuries, and number of days skied in each season. The respondents completed the surveys whether or not they were injured while skiing. We received 677 responses from telemark skiing clubs, with 19,962 skier-days of data. The number of self-reported injuries was 178, for an overall self-reported injury rate of 8.9 per 1000 skier-days. Knee injuries (N = 48) were the most common injury (27%), followed by thumb (N = 32, 18%) and shoulder (N = 21, 12%) injuries. Specific risk factors for injury were identified with multivariate regression and survival analysis. The skill level of the skier had a significant injury-sparing effect, as did the use of plastic telemark boots. The protective effect of the plastic boots was likely due to the increased stability they provided compared with traditional leather boots. There were fewer knee injuries with the recently available releasable bindings for telemark skis. Sex and age had no significant impact on injury rates in this study population. As all reported deaths associated with telemark sking were due to environmental hazards, skiers must continue to pay close attention to these hazards in the backcountry.
Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins
Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.
Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes
To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.
Florian Joachim Raabe
Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.
Majeed, R.; Rajar, U.D.M.
To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)
Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes CAT, GR and SOD1, erythrocyte enzyme activities, dietary and life style factors and breast cancer risk in a Danish, prospective cohort study
Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Dragsted, Lars Ove
investigated in 703 breast cancer case-control pairs in the Danish, prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort together with gene-environment interactions between the polymorphisms, enzyme activities and intake of fruits and vegetables, alcohol and smoking in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results...... showed that genetically determined variations in the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD1, CAT and GSR were not associated with risk of breast cancer per se. However, intake of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and smoking status interacted with some of the polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk...
Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus, history of abortions, previous history of GDM. Objective: To assess the risk of developing GDM in pregnant women consuming food items with high glycemic index. Material and Methods: A hospital based case control study was conducted in Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospital with a sample size of 104 (52 cases & 52 controls. For dietary history a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. The usual pattern of eating during days, weeks and months were asked. The data was compiled and analysed in SPSS version 12. Results: Total 30.8% cases and 13.5% controls gave history of consuming food items having high glycaemic index more frequently (at least once daily. The odds ratio of developing GDM was 2.86(CI -1.06-7.70 among the cases who were taking high glycaemic foods more frequently in comparison to those who were taking occasionally. Conclusions: Risk of developing GDM in high glycemic foods consumers is high. Simple measures like changing dietary patterns, consuming food items with low glycaemic load can contribute significantly in prevention of GDM.
Mtibaa, L; Fakhfakh, N; Kallel, A; Belhadj, S; Belhaj Salah, N; Bada, N; Kallel, K
To determine epidemiological, clinical and mycological characteristics of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in Tunisian population and to evaluate predisposing factors. In this retrospective study, 2160 vaginal swabs were performed over 2 years (January 2014-December 2015). It was carried out at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Rabta Hospital in Tunisia. After swab collecting, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol and Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Actidione media were implemented to research yeasts. Then identifying of yeast species was through chlamydosporulation test and auxanogram. For each patient, a questionnaire was filled noting age, medical and surgical history, symptoms and risk factors. Statistical analysis of data was performed on SPSS 16 using Khi 2 test, P<0.05 was considered significant. Direct examination was positive showed spore and/or pseudohypha in 24.72%. Candida albicans was isolated most frequently (76.61%) followed by Candida glabrata (17.18%). The maximum frequency of Candida-positive cultures was in 25-34 years old age group. Leucorrhea was the most common symptom (72.25%) followed by vulvar prurits (63.23%), dyspareunia (32.25%) and urinary burning (24.92%). Only pregnancy was correlated positively with VVC. It appears from our study that VVC is relatively common in Tunisia. His diagnosis results from confrontation of anamnestic, clinical and mycological data. The knowledge of risk factors and their correction would be necessary to prevent the occurrence of VVC, especially in its recurrent form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Van der Houwen, H.K.
In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on only one or a few factors (which increases the chances of reporting spurious results) and reliance on use of a single measure of bereavement outcome. We avoided these pitfalls by simultaneously exami...
Sandra Cristina Dias dos Santos
Full Text Available Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an inserted query in Pubmed, other references relevant to the topic in question were included. Results: Colorectal cancer risk varies according to the presence of certain factors, and an example of this is Crohn's disease. Chronic inflammation seems to be an important contribution to carcinogenesis, since it creates a microenvironment suitable for the onset and progression of the disease. There are molecular changes that are common to two conditions, thus justifying the fact of Crohn's disease being a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma. The disease control with an appropriate therapy and with surveillance are two ways to control this risk. Conclusions: A proinflammatory state is the cornerstone in the association between Crohn's disease and colorectal carcinoma. The implementation of surveillance strategies allowed a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with this cancer. Resumo: Introdução: A doença de Crohn é uma doença inflamatória que pode atingir todo o trato gastrointestinal. Esta patologia tem sido associada a um risco neoplásico aumentado, nomeadamente de carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever os mecanismos responsáveis pelo aumento do risco de carcinoma colorretal na doença de Crohn. Métodos: A pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada na base de dados Pubmed. Para além dos artigos obtidos com a query inserida na Pubmed, foram também incluídas outras referências com relevância para o tema em questão. Resultados
Financial or corporate risk management is a part of the firm risk management with which deal with the financial risks, such as market risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. In the context of international financial crisis, a variety of factors are influencing the development of corporate risk management: the increased volatility and deregulation of financial markets; developments in information and communications technology; the complexity of financial products and so on. The objective of risk...
Okroglic, S.; Widmann, C.N.; Urbach, H.; Scheltens, P.; Heneka, M.T.
Objective: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated
Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob
To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....
Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.
... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...
Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva
on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...
Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.
Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy with extrauterine implantation. This situation is gynecologic emergency that contributes to maternal mortality. Therefore, early recognition, based on identification of the causes of ectopic pregnancy risk factors, is needed. Methods: The design descriptive observational. The samples were pregnant women who had ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Room, Emergency Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010. Sampling technique was total sampling using medical records. Result: Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 99 individuals out of 2090 pregnant women who searched for treatment in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. However, only 29 patients were accompanied with traceable risk factors. Discussion:. Most ectopic pregnancies were in the age group of 26-30 years, comprising 32 patients (32.32%, then in age groups of 31–35 years as many as 25 patients (25.25%, 18 patients in age group 21–25 years (18.18%, 17 patients in age group 36–40 years (17.17%, 4 patients in age group 41 years and more (4.04%, and the least was in age group of 16–20 years with 3 patients (3.03%. A total of 12 patients with ectopic pregnancy (41.38% had experience of abortion and 6 patients (20.69% each in groups of patients with ectopic pregnancy who used family planning, in those who used family planning as well as ectopic pregnancy patients with history of surgery. There were 2 patients (6.90% of the group of patients ectopic pregnancy who had history of surgery and history of abortion. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 4.73%, mostly in the second gravidity (34.34%, whereas the nulliparous have the highest prevalence of 39.39%. Acquired risk factors, i.e. history of operations was 10.34%, patients with family planning 20.69%, patients with history of abortion 41.38%, patients with history of abortion and operation 6.90% patients with family and history of abortion was 20.69%.
Наталья Витальевна Батырева
Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.
Ramesh Kota; Ramesh Lingala
BACKGROUND Incisional hernia is a common surgical problem with which a patient presents to the surgical OPD. There are certain modifiable risk factors, which if corrected can prevent incisional hernia. Among these risk factors, obesity is a major risk factor. Present study aims to prove that obesity is a major risk factor for incisional hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care centre from December 2014 to December 2017...
Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive
Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive
Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C
To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.
Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads
To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....
Introduction: cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of ...
Jo, Yong Suk; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Cho, Young-Jae
The objectives of this study were to find factors related to medical intensive care unit (ICU) readmission and to develop a prediction index for determining patients who are likely to be readmitted to medical ICUs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 343 consecutive patients who were admitted to the medical ICU of a single medical center from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. We analyzed a broad range of patients' characteristics on the day of admission, extubation, and discharge from the ICU. Of the 343 patients discharged from the ICU alive, 33 (9.6%) were readmitted to the ICU unexpectedly. Using logistic regression analysis, the verified factors associated with increased risk of ICU readmission were male sex [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-8.48], history of diabetes mellitus (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.29-7.09), application of continuous renal replacement therapy during ICU stay (OR 2.78, 95% CI 0.85-9.09), white blood cell count on the day of extubation (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21), and heart rate just before ICU discharge (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06). We established a prediction index for ICU readmission using the five verified risk factors (area under the curve, 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86). By using specific risk factors associated with increased readmission to the ICU, a numerical index could be established as an estimation tool to predict the risk of ICU readmission.
The 2013 Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 20 - 21, 2013. The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition (from here on referred to as the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plan for this Risk. Overall, the SRP thinks the well-qualified research team has compiled an excellent summary of background information in the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report. The SRP would like to commend the authors in general and particularly note that while the 2013 Nutrition Evidence Report has been written using a single nutrient approach, the research plan takes a much more integrated and physiologically based approach.
Oct 13, 2011 ... risk factor and 104(76%) recognized history of previous benign breast lump as a risk factor . Other risk factors .... nurses in Nigeria where 89% would agree to have mastectomy should they develop breast cancer . ... Only seventy five percent carried out the procedure at least once every month. A lower.
Abstract. Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the ...
de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan
In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the
Tarek A. Ghonemy
Aug 18, 2015 ... Diabetes was the second common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (17%) of patients. Conclusion: Stenosis and infection are the most common complications of the vascular access. DM is an important risk factor for the incidence of infection. Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older ...
Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors of hypertension in ... Ibekwe: Correlation between modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio‑demographic profile in Oghara, Delta State. 72. Annals of ..... non‑communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa.
There was a statistically significant association between presence of hypertension and impaired fasting glucose and risk factor for type 2 DM. Conclusion: The significant risk factors identified in this study were prehypertension/hypertension and impaired fasting blood glucose. Key words: Adolescence, Risk factors, Type 2 ...
Conclusion: DCM and cardiac sarcoidosis were identified as risk factors for amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism included higher baseline TSH level and lower baseline free T4 level, suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a potential risk factor for the development of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism.
Wang, Chun-Hao; Lee, Sai-Cheong; Huang, Shie-Shian; Kao, Yu-Chin; See, Lai-Chu; Yang, Shih-Hsien
Scabies is a global problem. Transmission of scabies is usually due to direct or indirect contact. Delay in diagnosis may result in the spread of the scabies mite. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important. In this study, we collected data from 52 scabies patients and analyzed the risk factors for scabies with the case-control method. Our study has revealed that the patients who were bedridden [odds ratio (OR) 6.72, p scabies infection. To prevent scabies, proper management of the nursing home setting, including adequate cleaning of the contaminated clothing, bedding and equipment, in combination with treating all suspected scabies patients, and contact isolation are important and necessary. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia
Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.
Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E
suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...... made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: The male suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour...
Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.
Cervical carcinoma is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Among the risk factors for HPV infection are having multiple sex partners and sex partners who themselves had multiple sex partners. Women married to relatives are more likely to become infected with HPV and develop cervical carcinoma. Consanguineous spouses have a mild sexual aversion to each other that leads to sex avoidance and increases likelihood of satisfying sexual desire outside the marriage. Sexual aversion develops as a result of spouses growing together in early childhood, which triggers biological imprinting of Westermarck. Westermarck's effect prevents incest in nuclear family. In consanguineous family, it extends to spouses, producing mild sexual antipathy. Because of high prevalence of consanguinity worldwide, it is important to test this hypothesis.
Kelmanson, Igor A.
Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…
Monma, Takafumi; Ando, Akira; Asanuma, Tohru; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Yoshida, Goichiro; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ebine, Naoyuki; Takeda, Satoko; Omi, Naomi; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Takeda, Fumi
To clarify sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes, this study examined the relationship between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders. Student athletes (N = 906; male: 70.1%; average age: 19.1 ± 0.8 years) in five university sports departments from four Japanese regions were targeted for analysis. Survey items were attributes (age, gender, and body mass index), sleep disorders (recorded through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), lifestyle habits (bedtime, wake-up time, smoking, drinking alcohol, meals, part-time jobs, and use of electronics after lights out), competition activities (activity contents and competition stressors), and psychological distress (recorded through the K6 scale). The relation between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders was explored using logistic regression analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis with attributes as adjustment variables showed that "bedtime," "wake-up time," "psychological distress," "part-time jobs," "smartphone/cellphone use after lights out," "morning practices," and "motivation loss stressors," were risk factors that were independently related to sleep disorders. Sleep disorders among student athletes are related to lifestyle habits such as late bedtime, early wake-up time, late night part-time jobs, and use of smartphones/cellphones after lights out; psychological distress; and competition activities such as morning practices and motivation loss stressors related to competition. Therefore, this study suggests the importance of improving these lifestyle habits, mental health, and competition activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio
Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.
Montalva-Iborra, A; Alcanyis-Alberola, M; Grao-Castellote, C; Torralba-Collados, F; Giner-Pascual, M
In the last years, there has been a change in the aetiology of spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients with spinal cord injuries caused by diseases or medical procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of the occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury in our unit. The secondary aim is to study what variables can be associated with a higher risk of iatrogenesis. A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of patients with acute spinal cord injury admitted from June 2009 to May 2014 was conducted. The information collected included the patient age, aetiology, neurological level and grade of injury when admitted and when discharged, cardiovascular risk factors, a previous history of depression and any prior treatment with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. We applied a logistic regression. The grade of statistical significance was established as Pinjury was the thoracic level (48%). The main aetiology of spinal cord injury caused by iatrogenesis was surgery for degenerative spine disease, in patients under the age of 30 were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury is a frequent complication. A statistically significant association between a patient history of depression and iatrogenic spinal cord injury was found as well as with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use prior to iatrogenic spinal cord injury.
Jahromi, Alireza Hamidian; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Raiss-Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Dabaghmanesh, Alireza; Jalaeian, Hamed; Bahador, Ali; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Salehipour, Mehdi; Salahi, Heshmat; Malek-Hosseini, Ali
It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)
Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest unique occurrence patterns of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL worldwide. In most Western countries there is a clear bimodal age distribution with an early peak in young adults followed by a second peak in older adults, particularly among males. In the Middle East and Asia, HL is more common in early childhood. There also are marked racial differences in the presentations of HL and HL subtypes, and particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified as etiological factors suggesting that gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are involved. Personal health choices such as exercise and smoking may modify an individual's chances of developing HL. Numerous studies highlight the impact that exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and other environmental factors have on HL risk. Understanding the relative importance of each of these findings and their links to HL development and survival will help clinical researchers expand curative therapies and create preventative strategies for HL.
Alienke J Monsuur
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HLA genes, located in the MHC region on chromosome 6p21.3, play an important role in many autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease (CD, type 1 diabetes (T1D, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and others. Known HLA variants that confer risk to CD, for example, include DQA1*05/DQB1*02 (DQ2.5 and DQA1*03/DQB1*0302 (DQ8. To diagnose the majority of CD patients and to study disease susceptibility and progression, typing these strongly associated HLA risk factors is of utmost importance. However, current genotyping methods for HLA risk factors involve many reactions, and are complicated and expensive. We sought a simple experimental approach using tagging SNPs that predict the CD-associated HLA risk factors. METHODOLOGY: Our tagging approach exploits linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs and the CD-associated HLA risk factors DQ2.5 and DQ8 that indicate direct risk, and DQA1*0201/DQB1*0202 (DQ2.2 and DQA1*0505/DQB1*0301 (DQ7 that attribute to the risk of DQ2.5 to CD. To evaluate the predictive power of this approach, we performed an empirical comparison of the predicted DQ types, based on these six tag SNPs, with those executed with current validated laboratory typing methods of the HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes in three large cohorts. The results were validated in three European celiac populations. CONCLUSION: Using this method, only six SNPs were needed to predict the risk types carried by >95% of CD patients. We determined that for this tagging approach the sensitivity was >0.991, specificity >0.996 and the predictive value >0.948. Our results show that this tag SNP method is very accurate and provides an excellent basis for population screening for CD. This method is broadly applicable in European populations.
Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.
Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as omphalocele, OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects) complex, pentalogy of Cantrell, amniotic band sequence, limb-body wall complex, Meckel syndrome, Joubert syndrome, skeletal dysplasia, diabetic embryopathy, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of glucose metabolism. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.
Neumann, Alexander; Pappa, Irene; Lahey, Benjamin B; Verhulst, Frank C; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Moffitt, Terrie E; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tiemeier, Henning
Co-occurrence of mental disorders is commonly observed, but the etiology underlying this observation is poorly understood. Studies in adolescents and adults have identified a general psychopathology factor associated with a high risk for different psychiatric disorders. We defined a multi-informant general psychopathology factor in school-aged children and estimated its single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability. The goal was to test the hypothesis that child behavioral and emotional problems are under the influence of highly pleiotropic common autosomal genetic variants that nonspecifically increase the risk for different dimensions of psychopathology. Children from the Generation R cohort were repeatedly assessed between ages 6 to 8 years. Child behavior problems were reported by parents, teachers, and children. Confirmatory factor analysis estimated a general psychopathology factor across informants using various psychiatric problem scales. Validation of the general psychopathology factor was based on IQ and temperamental measures. Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) was used to estimate the SNP heritability (N = 2,115). The general psychopathology factor was associated with lower IQ, higher negative affectivity, and lower effortful control, but not with surgency. Importantly, the general psychopathology factor showed a significant SNP heritability of 38% (SE = 0.16, p = .008). Common autosomal SNPs are pleiotropically associated with internalizing, externalizing, and other child behavior problems, and underlie a general psychopathology factor in childhood. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.
From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.
Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.
Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Antonio; Abranches, Denise; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Paulo
To characterize the presence of hoarseness and the risk factors in male and female university teachers in private institutions in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey. Voice self-evaluation forms prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor were administered to 846 university teachers in a private institution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of hoarseness in the sample is 39.6%. Percentage of hoarseness is higher in females (51.8%) than in males (32.6%). Comparing hoarseness and time of teaching, it was observed that the percentage of hoarseness is lower in a time shorter or equal to 1 year, and it is higher in a time between 10 and 20 years. Percentage of hoarseness is lower in the maximum workload of one to three class hours per day compared with the other workloads. Percentage of hoarseness is lower when the maximum number of students per classroom is less than 30 than when it is between 101 and 150 students. Other factors like in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life are related to the presence of hoarseness. University teachers show high percentage of hoarseness. Factors, such as time of teaching, females, work organization, workplace, in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life, are related to the presence of hoarseness in this group. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
During early development in the Drosophila embryo, cell fates are determined over the course of just 2 hours with exquisite spatio-temoral precision. One of the key regulators of this process is the transcription factor Bicoid which forms a concentration gradient across the long axis of the embryo. Although Bicoids' primary role is activation at the anterior, where concentrations are highest, it is also known to play a role in the posterior where there are only 100s of molecules per nucleus. Understanding how Bicoid can find its target at such low concentrations has remained intractable, largely due to the inability to perform single molecule imaging in the context of the developing embryo. Here we use lattice light sheet microscopy to overcome the technical barriers of sample thickness and auto-fluorescence to characterize the single molecule dynamics of Bicoid. We find that off-rates do not vary across the embryo and that instead the on-rates are modulated through the formation of clusters that enrich local concentration. This data is contrary to the current concentration dependent model of Bicoid function since local concentration within the nucleus is now a regulated parameter and suggests a previously unknown mechanism for regulation at extremely low concentrations.
Pascual, Maisie; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen G; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Quinn, Graham E; Ciner, Elise; Cyert, Lynn A; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Moore, Bruce; Ying, Gui-shuang
Objective To evaluate risk factors for unilateral amblyopia and for bilateral amblyopia in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional Study. Participants Three- to 5-year old Head Start preschoolers from 5 clinical centers, over-representing children with vision disorders. Methods All children underwent comprehensive eye exams including threshold visual acuity (VA), cover testing, and cycloplegic retinoscopy, performed by VIP-certified optometrists and ophthalmologists who were experienced in providing care to children. Monocular threshold VA was tested using single-surround HOTV letter protocol without correction, and retested with full cycloplegic correction when retest criteria were met. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as an inter-ocular difference in best-corrected VA ≥2 lines. Bilateral amblyopia was defined as best-corrected VA in each eye worse than 20/50 for 3-year-olds and worse than 20/40 for 4- to 5-year-olds. Main Outcome Measures Risk of amblyopia was summarized by The odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) estimated from logistic regression models. Results In this enriched sample of Head Start children (N=3869), 296 (7.7%) children had unilateral amblyopia, and 144 (3.7%) children had bilateral amblyopia. Presence of strabismus (pamblyopia. Presence of strabismus, hyperopia ≥2.0 D, astigmatism ≥1.0 D, or anisometropia ≥0.5 D were present in 91% of children with unilateral amblyopia. Greater magnitude of astigmatism (pamblyopia. Bilateral hyperopia ≥3.0 diopters (D) or astigmatism ≥1.0 D were present in 76% of children with bilateral amblyopia. Conclusion Strabismus and significant refractive errors were risk factors for unilateral amblyopia. Bilateral astigmatism and bilateral hyperopia were risk factors for bilateral amblyopia. Despite differences in selection of study population, these results validated the findings from the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and Baltimore
Full Text Available Co-infection with Hepatitis B (HBV virus and HIV is common due to similarity of their transmission methods. However, the prevalence of concurrent infection in different societies, shows the crucial role of various risk factors in different populations. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine risk factors of transmission of HBV in patients with HIV in a care center for AIDS patients in Rasht City. This case-control study was carried out on 60 HIV positive patients, who visited the Infectious Diseases Center of Razi Hospital of Rasht from November, 2015 to March, 2016. Participants were assigned to two 30-member experiment and control groups. They were adjusted in terms of age group (18-30, 30-40, 40-50, and 50-60, gender (male and female, and marital status (married, single, divorced, and widowed and visited by an infectious diseases specialist according to routine examinations. Data was recorded in a questionnaire for each subject. The mean age for the experimental group was 35±6.1, and for control group was 36.6± 5.7 years. Both univariate and multivariate analyses of development of HBV infection and variables including Illegitimate sexual intercourse, use of intravenous injection drugs, positive history of imprisonment, and tattooing (p value < 0.05 showed existence of significant relationships. Injection of illegal intravenous drugs, history of imprisonment, illegitimate sexual intercourse, and tattooing are four important risk factors for transmission of HBV infection to HIV patients. In addition, the master risk reduction program may include provision of clean disposable tools for intravenous injection of drugs and tattooing.
Khorrami, Zahra; Etemad, Koorosh; Yarahmadi, Shahin; Khodakarim, Soheila; Kameli, Mohammadesmail; Hezaveh, Alireza Mahdavi; Rahimi, Ebrahim
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) according to the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance of NCDs. This study is part of a NCD risk factor surveillance of 10 069 individuals in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, aged over 20 years, during 2011. By utilizing 2011 census data, urbanization levels were determined in all provinces and logistics regression was used to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors. Among males, urbanization had a positive correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.42-2.09), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.09-2.96), and high BMI (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.20-1.70). Among females there was a positive and significant correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 0.78-1.91) and high BMI (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.14-1.53). Thus, urbanization has a significant correlation with increases in NCD factors in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses
Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...
Arun Prasanna; Gandhibabu; Asok Kumar
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a potent risk factor for completed suicide but data are limited on factors that distinguish risk within this high risk population. AIM: To study the risk factors for suicide attempts among male alcohol dependents. METHODS: This was a case control study conducted from January to July in the Year 2014. Cases and controls were recruited from Department of Psychiatry, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, using various tools such as semi structured p...
Grantz, Katherine L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Mendola, Pauline; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Leishear, Kira; Albert, Paul S.
Risk factors for preterm delivery have been described, but whether risk factors differ in the context of prior preterm delivery history is less understood. We assessed whether known risk factors were different in women with versus without prior preterm delivery using medical records of the first and second singleton deliveries in 25,820 Utah women (2002–2010). Longitudinal transition models with modified Poisson regression calculated adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals, with ...
Falcon, Shannon; Williams, Angela; Weinfurtner, Jared; Drukteinis, Jennifer S
Breast density is well recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of breast cancer. However, the magnitude of risk is controversial. As the public becomes increasingly aware of breast density as a risk factor, legislation and notification laws in relation to breast density have become common throughout the United States. Awareness of breast density as a risk factor for breast cancer presents new challenges for the clinician in the approach to the management and screening of women with dense breasts. The evidence and controversy surrounding breast density as a risk factor for the development of breast cancer are discussed. Common supplemental screening modalities for breast cancer are also discussed, including tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. A management strategy for screening women with dense breasts is also presented. The American College of Radiology recognizes breast density as a controversial risk factor for breast cancer, whereas the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recognizes breast density as a modest risk factor. Neither organization recommends the routine use of supplemental screening in women with dense breasts without considering additional patient-related risk factors. Breast density is a poorly understood and controversial risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Mammography is a screening modality proven to reduce breast cancer-related mortality rates and is the single most appropriate tool for population-based screening. Use of supplemental screening modalities should be tailored to individual risk assessment.
Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood
Raj Krishna Dangol
Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of cardiovascular risk in young age is important to motivate them to modify life styles and seek health care early to lower the chances of acquiring cardiovascular disease in later age. This study was done to assess cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout September and October 2017 in which all first year medical students from a medical college were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants’ demography, family history of illness, anthropometric measurements, and blood reports of lipid profile and fasting glucose were acquired. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-21. Result: There were 99 participants; 55 males and 44 females. One or more risk factors were present in 87 (87.9% participants. Moreover, 67.7% (n = 67 participants had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common (n = 55, 55.6% risk factor followed by elevated triacylglycerol (n = 47, 47.5% and family history of hypertension (n = 45, 45.5%. There was no significant difference in presence of various risk factors between genders. Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Majority of them had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common risk factor. The risk factors were comparable in males and females.
Fusar-Poli, P; Tantardini, M; De Simone, S; Ramella-Cravaro, V; Oliver, D; Kingdon, J; Kotlicka-Antczak, M; Valmaggia, L; Lee, J; Millan, M J; Galderisi, S; Balottin, U; Ricca, V; McGuire, P
Subjects at ultra high-risk (UHR) for psychosis have an enhanced vulnerability to develop the disorder but the risk factors accounting for this accrued risk are undetermined. Systematic review of associations between genetic or environmental risk factors for psychosis that are widely established in the literature and UHR state, based on comparisons to controls. Forty-four studies encompassing 170 independent datasets and 54 risk factors were included. There were no studies on association between genetic or epigenetic risk factors and the UHR state that met the inclusion criteria. UHR subjects were more likely to show obstetric complications, tobacco use, physical inactivity, childhood trauma/emotional abuse/physical neglect, high perceived stress, childhood and adolescent low functioning, affective comorbidities, male gender, single status, unemployment and low educational level as compared to controls. The increased vulnerability of UHR subjects can be related to environmental risk factors like childhood trauma, adverse life events and affective dysfunction. The role of genetic and epigenetic risk factors awaits clarification. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
Elflein, H M
Amblyopia is the main cause for mostly monocular, impaired vision in childhood. Treatment and prevention of amblyopia is only effective during childhood. Ophthalmological screening of children does not yet exist in Germany. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany is 5.6%, which is higher than in reports from studies in Australia; however, the prevalence of amblyopia is not comparable in these studies due to different definitions of amblyopia and the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study cohorts. At present it is unknown at what age ophthalmological screening should be carried out to prevent amblyopia and the appropriate frequency of screening examinations. Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual cortex that is due to suppression and deprivation of one eye leading to unilateral visual impairment. Approximately 50% of cases of amblyopia are caused by anisometropia, 25% by strabismus and in every sixth person by a combination of both. Other causes, such as unilateral congenital cataracts are relatively rare. A variety of factors, such as ocular pathologies, premature birth, familial disposition and general diseases are associated with an increased risk for amblyopia.
Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.
Santos, Ana Paula Pires dos; Soviero, Vera Mendes
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...
Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as infertility, periconceptional clomiphene use and assisted reproductive technology, periconceptional folic acid deficiency and effects offolic acid supplementation and fortification on NTD rates, periconceptional vitamin B1 2 deficiency, single nucleotide polymorphisms and polymorphisms in g...
Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...
Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Visschere, L.M. De; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Baat, C. de; Schols, J.M.
Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five
Hyun Il Seo
Full Text Available Background and Aims. While several case reports on ischemic colitis (IC suggest the presence of predisposing causative factors, a few studies have investigated the predisposing factors in IC. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with IC, particularly focusing on the predisposing factors. Methods. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of 159 patients with IC. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, endoscopic findings, and medical records were reviewed. Data were compared between groups of patients defined according to the predisposing factors. The predisposing factors are defined as temporary states or episodic events occurring within a week before the development of IC such as colonoscopy, enema, use of laxatives, heavy drinking, pancreatitis, shock, and burn. Results. Compared to the group of patients without predisposing factors of IC, the group of patients with predisposing factors was characterized by a relatively higher prevalence of male sex (56.9% versus 33.3%, p=0.005, younger age (60.9 ± 15.4 versus 67.2 ± 13.4 years, p=0.010, lower incidence of hypertension (43.1% versus 60.2%, p=0.044, and fewer risk factors (1.24 ± 1.18 versus 1.82 ± 1.22, p=0.005. Conclusions. Among men with predisposing factors, IC may develop even at a relatively younger age and in the absence of multiple risk factors, suggesting that predisposing factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of IC.
Background. Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk ...
Nadal, Josep Franch; Gutiérrez, Pedro Conthe
Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2, is a metabolic disease involving the coexistence of several cardiovascular risk factors. Affected patients are therefore at high cardiovascular risk (2-3 times higher than that of men in the general population and 2-6 times higher than that of women). Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the diabetic population, followed by cancer. Cardiovascular risk cannot be compared between diabetic patients and persons who have already shown one or more manifestations of cardiovascular disease (such as myocardial infarction). Single risk factors should be evaluated in combination with other risk factors and a person's cardiovascular risk should be individually assessed. Cardiovascular risk assessment in patients with diabetes through current calculations methods is complex because their ability to predict risk in individuals is very low. Studies such as that by Steno have demonstrated the validity of a comprehensive strategy to control all the risk factors present in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which can reduce the development of micro- and macrovascular complications and mortality by almost 50%. The present article reviews each of the classical cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, sedentariness) in relation to diabetes, as well as their recommended targets and the benefits of their control. In view of the above, a comprehensive approach is recommended to control the multiple risk factors that can coexist in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD
Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.
Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two
Chang, C F; Tuckman, H P
This article focuses on a hospital group that has not received adequate attention in the literature: the sole provider of short-term, acute hospital care located in a county. In Tennessee, SPHs (single provider hospitals) are fewer in number but are present in more counties than multiprovider hospitals (MPHs). They are smaller in size, less labor and capital intensive, more likely to be a government hospital, and more likely to be in a rural area with low income and limited health care resources. SPHs operate with lower costs, charge patients less, and have lower revenue write-offs than MPHs. As a result, their cash flow is sufficient to fund their depreciation and they consistently earn modest returns. Between 1982 and 1988, a total of 16 hospitals failed in Tennessee but only 3 were SPHs. While SPHs have not been profitable enough to make them ideal candidates for takeover by major hospital systems, they are not a population that is unduly at risk. PMID:1905685
Oral contraceptives (OCs) have been distributed through a community-based distribution (CBD) program in Matamaros, Mexico under the auspices of the Centro pro Orientacion Familiar (COFAC). Family Health International (FHI) has provided technical assistance enabling COFAC to conduct a Reproductive Risk Factors Survey to determine if any substantial group of women were placed at a greater risk of death or serious health damage because of this program than if the program had not existed, and, if so, how might such women be protected. The health of CBD acceptors was compared with that of women accepting OC from other sources and women who had never taken OC, using parameters ranging from anemia to cardiovascular disorders. The objective was to investigate the behavior of women who may have serious contraindications to OC and/or pregnancy. About 500 women were interviewed in their homes by specially trained nurses with a questionnaire supplemented by some simple, objective measurements. For validation, a complete medical history was taken and physical examination given for a subsample in the COFAC clinic. Some 40 separate reproductive health indicators were developed from this data. Findings indicated that the CBD program in Matamoros did not introduce any new source of danger to women of reproductive age. As a generality across the 40 indicators, CBD acceptors were as healthy as acceptors from other sources and were somewhat more likely to have consulted a physician. Current OC users were healthier than never users, after controlling for age and parity. The fact of regular contact with neighborhood promotoras (promoters), backed up by the COFAC medical center, represented an additional source of safety not previously available. The promoters were responsible for promotion of family planning, including sale at a subsidized price of OCs and contraceptive foam, and were trained in the use of a checklist for possible contraindications to OC. The CBD program introduced an
Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of refracture in patients suffering from osteoporosis-related fractures as well as effective interventions. Methods: From January 2006 to January 2008, both out-patients and in-patients in our hospital who were over 50 years old and suffered from osteoporosis-related fractures were selected for this research. They were divided into fracture group and refracture group. The refracture rate was followed up for 2 years, during which 11 patients developed refracture, thus were included in the refracture group. Therefore, 273 patients, 225 first-fracture cases, aged (67.7± 8.5 years, and 48 refracture cases, aged (72.7±9.5 years, were included in this study. General data including age and sex, fracture types, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores tested by dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry (DEXA, Charlson index, time-frame between two fractures as well as mobility skill assessment were collected and analyzed by single-factor and multivariate statistical methods. Results: Females accounted for 70.2% of the fracture group and 77.1% of the refracture group. The most common refracture type was vertebral fracture for the first time and femoral neck fracture for the second time during the followup. The second fracture happened 3.7 years after the first one on average. The refracture rate was 2.12% within one year, and 4.66% within two years. Risk factors for a second fracture in osteoporotic fracture patients included age (>75 years, HR=1.23, 95%CI 1.18-1.29; >85 years, HR=1.68, 95% CI 1.60-1.76, female sex (HR=1.36, 95%CI 1.32-1.40, prior vertebral fractures (HR=1.62, 95%CI 1.01-2.07, prior hip fractures (HR=1.27, 95%CI 0.89-2.42, BMD T-score<-3.5 (HR=1.38, 95%CI 1.17-1.72 and weakened motor skills (HR=1.27, 95%CI 1.09-1.40. Conclusions: The risks of second fracture among patients with initial brittle fracture are substantial. There is adequate time between the
Krug, Tiago; Manso, Helena; Gouveia, Liliana; Sobral, João; Xavier, Joana M; Albergaria, Isabel; Gaspar, Gisela; Correia, Manuel; Viana-Baptista, Miguel; Simões, Rita Moiron; Pinto, Amélia Nogueira; Taipa, Ricardo; Ferreira, Carla; Fontes, João Ramalho; Silva, Mário Rui; Gabriel, João Paulo; Matos, Ilda; Lopes, Gabriela; Ferro, José M; Vicente, Astrid M; Oliveira, Sofia A
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. They are complex disorders resulting from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, and may share several susceptibility genes. Several recent studies have implicated variants of the Kalirin (KALRN) gene with susceptibility to cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes, but no studies have yet been performed in stroke patients. KALRN is involved, among others, in the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, in the regulation of ischemic signal transduction, and in neuronal morphogenesis, plasticity, and stability. The goal of the present study was to determine whether SNPs in the KALRN region on 3q13, which includes the Ropporin gene (ROPN1), predispose to ischemic stroke (IS) in a cohort of Portuguese patients and controls. We genotyped 34 tagging SNPs in the KALRN and ROPN1 chromosomal region on 565 IS patients and 517 unrelated controls, and performed genotype imputation for 405 markers on chromosome 3. We tested the single-marker association of these SNPs with IS. One SNP (rs4499545) in the ROPN1-KALRN intergenic region and two SNPs in KALRN (rs17286604 and rs11712619) showed significant (P < 0.05) allelic and genotypic (unadjusted and adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, and ever smoking) association with IS risk. Thirty-two imputed SNPs also showed an association at P < 0.05, and actual genotyping of three of these polymorphisms (rs7620580, rs6438833, and rs11712039) validated their association. Furthermore, rs11712039 was associated with IS (0.001 < P < 0.01) in a recent well-powered genomewide association study (Ikram et al. 2009). These studies suggest that variants in the KALRN gene region constitute risk factors for stroke and that KALRN may represent a common risk factor for vascular diseases.
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens
Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...
The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions
Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.
We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…
Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...
Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard
psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis....
Silva, Amílcar B; Capingana, Daniel P; Magalhães, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mauer A; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Rodrigues, Sërgio L; Baldo, Marcelo P; Mateus, Miguel S; Mill, Josë Geraldo
The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially in countries with accelerated economic growth. We determined the prevalence of and associations between overweight/obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in pre-pubertal (seven- to 11-year-old) schoolchildren (both genders, n = 198) in Luanda, Angola. Biochemical (fasting blood) and clinical examinations were obtained in a single visit. Data are reported as prevalence (95% confidence intervals) and association (r, Pearson). Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 17.7% (12.4- 23.0%), high blood pressure (BP > 90% percentile) was 14.6% (9.7-19.5%), elevated glucose level was 16.7% (11.5-21.9%) and total cholesterol level > 170 mg/dl (4.4 mmol/l) was 69.2% (62.8-75.6%). Significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic BP (r = 0.46 and 0.40, respectively; p Angola and fat accumulation was directly associated with blood pressure increase but not with other cardiovascular risk factors.
Bright, Fiona; Gilbert, John D; Winskog, Calle; Byard, Roger W
An 86-year-old woman was found dead lying on her back on the floor of an unkempt kitchen. She had last been seen four days before. Her dress was pulled up and she was not wearing underpants. The house was noted to be in "disarray" with papers covering most surfaces and the floor. Rubbish was piled up against one of the doors. At autopsy the major findings were of a fractured left neck of femur, fresh pressure areas over her right buttock, Wischnewski spots of the stomach and foci of pancreatic necrosis, in keeping with hypothermia. No significant underlying organic diseases were identified and there was no other evidence of trauma. Death was due to hypothermia complicating immobility from a fractured neck of femur. This case confirms the vulnerability of frail, elderly and socially-isolated individuals to death from hypothermia if a significant illness or injury occurs. Additional risk factors for hypothermia are also illustrated in this case that involve inadequate housing construction with absent insulation and window double glazing. The approach to hypothermic deaths should, therefore, include checking for these features as well as measuring room and environmental temperatures, evaluating the type and quality of heating and the nature of the floor and its coverings, Given the ageing population in many Western countries, increasing social isolation of the elderly, cost of fuel and electricity, and lack of energy efficient housing, this type of death may become an increasingly witnessed occurrence during the colder months of the year. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Cleopas Martin Rumende
Diabetes mellitus has been a well-known risk factor for TB in the past. The global convergence of the accelerating type 2 DM pandemic, high TB prevalence and drug-resistant TB during the past couple of decades has become a serious challenge to clinicians worldwide. Over the past few years, some studies have shown that the treatment failure rate is higher in TB patients with DM as comorbidity. Moreover, there is significant association between DM an MDR-TB. There is higher chance of TB bacilli persistence to be present in sputum of pulmonary TB patient with DM than TB-only patient after 5 months treatment, and this persistence made it necessary for more longer treatment. Presence of DM in TB patients cause a longer period for sputum conversion, therefore it may become a major cause of poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Previous studies showed that a major mechanism for the emergence of drugs resistance in TB bacilli is random mutation in the bacterial genome and the pressure of selection by anti-TB drugs. Pulmonary TB in diabetic patients usually show higher mycobacterial loads at the initiation of treatment, hence they may have higher chance of bacillary mutation and the emergence of MDR-TB with the presenting of higher bacterial loads, longer treatment is needed to clear the bacteria. Therefore, it is not suprising that a higher chance of MDR-TB patients could be find in those patients. A pharmacokinetic study noted that plasma levels of rifampicin were 53% lower in TB patients with diabetes, which might affect treatment outcomes. Inadequate immune respons of the host may also be important in this negative effect of diabetes. Depressed production of IFN-γ in diabetic patients is related to decreasing immune response to TB infection. Reduction of IL-12 response to mycobacterial stimulation in leukocytes from TB with diabetic patients suggest a compromise of innate immune response.
Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.
Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K
OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. DESIGN: Nationwide observational follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies...... consumption, lifting of >20 kg daily, and night work. We estimated that 25.2% of the miscarriages might be prevented by reduction of all these risk factors to low risk levels. Modification of risk factors acting before and during pregnancy could lead to prevention of 14.7 and 12.5%, respectively......, of the miscarriages. Maternal age at conception and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Miscarriage risk is increased by multiple potentially modifiable risk factors and a considerable proportion of miscarriages may be preventable....
) in order to determine occupational risk ... KEYWORDS: HIV, Traditional birth attendants, occupational risk factors, Zambia. [Afr J Health Sci. 2010; 17:5-9] ... + 5% and a confidence level of 95%, the required minimum sample would have been ...
Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and lack of physical exercise are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies
Koziol-McLain, J.; Brand, D.; Morgan, D.; Leff, M.; Lowenstein, S.
Background—Recently (1996–98), Colorado added 15 questions pertaining to injury related risks and behaviors to the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS). Questions addressed bicycle helmet use, traffic crashes, exposure to violence, suicidal behavior, and gun storage.
Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.
Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685
Sears, Kim; Goodman, William M.
Patients' risks from medication errors are widely acknowledged. Yet not all errors, if they occur, have the same risks for severe consequences. Facing resource constraints, policy makers could prioritize factors having the greatest severe–outcome risks. This study assists such prioritization by identifying work-related risk factors most clearly associated with more severe consequences. Data from three Canadian paediatric centres were collected, without identifiers, on actual or potential erro...
Phua, Chun Seng; Jayaram, Lata; Wijeratne, Tissa
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. While various risk factors have been identified, sleep has only been considered a risk factor more recently. Various epidemiologic studies have associated stroke with sleep such as sleep duration, and laboratory and clinical studies have proposed various underlying mechanisms. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, especially considering sleep affects many common risk factors for stroke. This review aims to provide an outline of the...
Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Ji-Hun
Background and Purpose Stroke is common among cancer patients. However, risk factors and biomarkers of stroke in cancer patients are not well established. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and biomarkers as well as etiology of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in cancer patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to a general hospital in Busan, Korea, between January 2003 and December 2012. The risk factors and biomarkers for strok...
Prevalence of Mental Health Risk Factors among Students in Lithuania There are a numberof studiesin Lithuania and whole world about depression among young people. However, the prevalence of several risk factors (mental health literacy, sense of coherence, depressiveness, suicidal thoughts, social support) among universities, colleges, vocational studentsin Lithuania has not been studied. Aim of the study – to assess mental health risk factors prevalence among Lithuanian students. Objectives: ...
Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina
BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....
Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette
Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...
Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, ...
Background The objective of our study was to describe factors associated with repeat workers' compensation claims and to compare the work disability arising in workers with single and multiple compensation claims. Methods All initial injury claims lodged by persons of working age during a five year period (1996 to 2000) and any repeat claims were extracted from workers' compensation administrative data in the state of Victoria, Australia. Groups of workers with single and multiple claims were identified. Descriptive analysis of claims by affliction, bodily location, industry segment, occupation, employer and workplace was undertaken. Survival analysis determined the impact of these variables on the time between the claims. The economic impact and duration of work incapacity associated with initial and repeat claims was compared between groups. Results 37% of persons with an initial claim lodged a second claim. This group contained a significantly greater proportion of males, were younger and more likely to be employed in manual occupations and high-risk industries than those with single claims. 78% of repeat claims were for a second injury. Duration between the claims was shortest when the working conditions had not changed. The initial claims of repeat claimants resulted in significantly (p claims. Conclusions A substantial proportion of injured workers experience a second occupational injury or disease. These workers pose a greater economic burden than those with single claims, and also experience a substantially greater cumulative period of work disability. There is potential to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting prevention programs targeted at these workers. PMID:21696637
Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.
Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.
Lord, Dana; Conlon, Helen Acree
The health of an airline pilot is imperative to the safe travels of millions of people worldwide. Medical providers evaluate the cardiovascular risks for airline pilots and the medical requirements to obtain and maintain licensure as an airline pilot. It is the role of the occupational health nurse practitioner to evaluate and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.
Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu
Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.
Hutchinson, Allison B; Yao, Paul; Hutchinson, Mark R
Introduction While numerous publications have demonstrated the correlation of poor single-leg balance and core motor control with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in skeletally mature female athletes, few have analysed the preadolescent population regarding when indeed comparative deficits in balance and core control actually occur. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the neuromotor factors that place mature females at increased risk of ACL injury act...
Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...
Cai, Jian-Shan; Qiang, Sun; Bao-Bing, Yin
Gallstone disease is a common and frequently occurring disease in human, and it is the main disease among the digestive system diseases. The incidence of gallstone disease in western countries is about 5%-22%, and common bile duct stones (CBDS) accounts for 8%-20%. CBDS easily lead to biliary obstruction, secondary cholangitis, pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice, even endanger life. Therefore, it needs timely treatment once diagnosed. The recurrence of choledocholithiasis after bile duct stones clearance involves complicated factors and cannot be completely elaborated by a single factor. The risk factors for recurrence of choledocholithiasis include bacteria, biliary structure, endoscopic and surgical treatment, and inflammation. The modalities for management of choledocholithiasis are endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), laparoscopic or open common bile duct exploration, dissolving solutions, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous radiological interventions, electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) and laser lithotripsy. We compare the different benefits between surgery and ERCP. And finally, we make a summary of the current strategy for reducing the recurrence of CBDS and future perspectives for CBDS management.
Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.
Wessel, H; Bergstrorn, S; Cnattingius, S; Dupret, A; Reitmaier, P
The prevalence of antenatal risk factors and their association with adverse pregnancy outcome were prospectively studied in the county of Praia, Cape Verde. Of 4693 women registering for antenatal care, 8% were randomly selected from October 1991 through December 1992. Eventually 358 women were observed until puerperium when a physical examination and a structured interview took place. Three out of four women of the cohort were exposed to risk factors according to the existing risk classification in Praia, and 9% presented high risk factors. Thirty two percent of the cohort faced adverse pregnancy outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were significantly increased among women who presented high risk factors, but 82% of all adverse outcomes occurred among other women. The antenatal risk classification investigated cannot be considered an effective tool for detection of women at risk of adverse pregnancy outcome.
Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig
The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross......-sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...... CVD risk score). All the CVD risk factors and CRP differed between the high- and low-risk groups; but plasma glucose, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 had small and inconsistent differences. Strong associations were found between CVD risk scores and fitness (VO(2peak)) or fatness. No associations were found...
Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis
Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.
Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Xiaonan; Duncan, Ashlee; Hu, Guizhou; Zheng, Jiayin
Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS) is the most well-regarded risk appraisal tools for evaluating an individual's absolute risk on stroke onset. However, several widely accepted risk factors for stroke were not included in the original Framingham model. This study proposed a new model which combines an existing risk models with new risk factors using synthesis analysis, and applied it to the longitudinal Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) data set. Risk factors in original prediction models and new risk factors in proposed model had been discussed. Three measures, like discrimination, calibration and reclassification, were used to evaluate the performance of the original Framingham model and new risk prediction model. Modified C-statistics, Hosmer-Lemeshow Test and classless NRI, class NRI were the statistical indices which, respectively, denoted the performance of discrimination, calibration and reclassification for evaluating the newly developed risk prediction model on stroke onset. It showed that the NEW-STROKE (new stroke risk score prediction model) model had higher modified C-statistics, smaller Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square values after recalibration than original FSRS model, and the classless NRI and class NRI of the NEW-STROKE model over the original FSRS model were all significantly positive in overall group. The NEW-STROKE integrated with seven literature-derived risk factors outperformed the original FSRS model in predicting the risk score of stroke. It illustrated that seven literature-derived risk factors contributed significantly to stroke risk prediction.
AlJehani, Yousef A.
Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294
Agopian, A J; Tinker, Sarah C; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E
Recognized risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs) poorly predict population-level NTD risk. However, the proportion of NTDs that can be attributed to these risk factors is uncertain. To determine the proportion of NTD cases that is attributable to known or suspected risk factors (i.e., female infant sex, family history of NTDs, and maternal Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, low dietary folate intake, lack of folic acid supplementation, anticonvulsant use, and hot tub or sauna use), we estimated the adjusted population attributable fraction (aAF) for each factor, using the method of Eide and Geffler and data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Our analyses of these data indicate that the proportion of cases of spina bifida and anencephaly that can be attributed to known risk factors is 28% and 44%, respectively. For spina bifida, the factor with the greatest attributable fraction was maternal obesity (aAF, 10%), whereas for anencephaly it was Hispanic ethnicity (aAF, 15%). Our analyses indicate that known risk factors account for <50% of NTD cases. Hence, the majority of NTD cases are attributable to, as yet, unidentified factors. These findings highlight the need for continued research to identify genetic and additional nongenetic risk factors for NTDs. Further, these findings suggest that strategies that aim to reduce the risk of NTDs associated with maternal Hispanic ethnicity and obesity may have the greatest impact on the population prevalence of these conditions.
Santos, Sandra Cristina Dias dos; Barbosa, Laura Elisabete Ribeiro
ABSTRACT Background: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease that can reach any part of the gastrointestinal tract. This disease has been associated with an increased neoplastic risk, including colorectal carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe the mechanisms present in two diseases, and that are responsible for the increased risk in Crohn's disease. Methods: A bibliographic research was conducted in PubMed database. In addition to the articles obtained with an i...
Full Text Available To solve the problem of rational organization of accounting factoring activity the current research identifies the types of factoring operations typical for the accounting system of factoring company, and their place in this system. The recommended provisions, which must be fixed in the accounting policy of the enterprise-factor, are presented. Based on the identification of the most significant provisions of the factoring agreement, it is proposed to limit the amount of funding depending on the type of factoring. The risk factor matrix for factoring business is developed to improve the efficiency of their management and the accounting of operations due to risk management methods. The accounting of the factoring company is proposed taking into account the following components: 1 the moment of acceptance of the sold (deferred receivable to the accounting; 2 the features of factoring depending on its type; 3 the peculiarities of accounting registration of charges in factoring operations; 4 the procedure for inventorying factoring transactions.
Background: Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions. Objective: To describe the factors associated ...
Nuotio, Joel; Pitkänen, Niina; Magnussen, Costan G; Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Venäläinen, Mikko S; Elo, Laura L; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T
Dyslipidemia is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We examined whether the addition of novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms for blood lipid levels enhances the prediction of adult dyslipidemia in comparison to childhood lipid measures. Two thousand four hundred and twenty-two participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had participated in 2 surveys held during childhood (in 1980 when aged 3-18 years and in 1986) and at least once in a follow-up study in adulthood (2001, 2007, and 2011) were included. We examined whether inclusion of a lipid-specific weighted genetic risk score based on 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 71 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for triglycerides improved the prediction of adult dyslipidemia compared with clinical childhood risk factors. Adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking in childhood, childhood lipid levels, and weighted genetic risk scores were associated with an increased risk of adult dyslipidemia for all lipids. Risk assessment based on 2 childhood lipid measures and the lipid-specific weighted genetic risk scores improved the accuracy of predicting adult dyslipidemia compared with the approach using only childhood lipid measures for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.806 versus 0.811; P =0.01) and triglycerides (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.740 versus area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.758; P dyslipidemia in adulthood. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Christiansen, Erik; Juul Larsen, Kim; Agerbo, Esben
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from ...... on the increase in the period studied. Individuals exposed to multiple risk factors are at the highest risk for suicide attempts, and when spotted or in contact with authorities they should be given proper care and treatment to prevent suicide attempts and death.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the Danish epidemiological long-term incidence rates for suicide attempts in the general population of children and adolescents, and to analyze the impact from single and multiple risk factors on the risk of suicide attempts. METHOD: We used longitudinal register data from...... a total cohort of all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 and living in Denmark to calculate incidence rates. From the cohort, we identified all who have attempted suicide, and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to estimate the impact from risk factors on the risk...
Bazinet, G.D.; Cruse, J.M.; Hampsten, K.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Treat, R.L.
Subsurface barriers are among various alternatives under evaluation to mitigate the threat of leakage from the Hanford Site`s 149 single-shell high-level radioactive waste tanks. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) division of Westinghouse Hanford Company is conducting this evaluation of subsurface barriers and other alternatives, focusing on risk and cost as performance measures. A number of alternative retrieval/closure approaches were evaluated in terms of risks (carcinogenic and toxicological) to a postulated maximally exposed individual. In addition, worker and accident risks were evaluated and factors developed for each alternative on a relative basis. The work performed to date indicates the use of subsurface barriers may potentially reduce public risk by limiting contamination of groundwater below the Hanford Site; however, the cost in terms of actual funding and in elevated worker risk is significant. The analyses also assume certain performance levels for technologies that have not been demonstrated in field conditions similar to Hanford Site tank farms. The evaluations summarized herein are being used to support a decision by representatives of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding potential further development of subsurface barrier technology.
Bazinet, G.D.; Cruse, J.M.; Hampsten, K.L.; Treat, R.L.
Subsurface barriers are among various alternatives under evaluation to mitigate the threat of leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level radioactive waste tanks. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) division of Westinghouse Hanford Company is conducting this evaluation of subsurface barriers and other alternatives, focusing on risk and cost as performance measures. A number of alternative retrieval/closure approaches were evaluated in terms of risks (carcinogenic and toxicological) to a postulated maximally exposed individual. In addition, worker and accident risks were evaluated and factors developed for each alternative on a relative basis. The work performed to date indicates the use of subsurface barriers may potentially reduce public risk by limiting contamination of groundwater below the Hanford Site; however, the cost in terms of actual funding and in elevated worker risk is significant. The analyses also assume certain performance levels for technologies that have not been demonstrated in field conditions similar to Hanford Site tank farms. The evaluations summarized herein are being used to support a decision by representatives of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding potential further development of subsurface barrier technology
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.
Itrat, Ahmad; Ahmed, Bilal; Khan, Maria; Muhammad, Murtaza; Thaver, Danyal; Khowaja, Zubair; Ali, Shehzad; Bawa, Zeeshan; Rahat, Muhammad; Kamal, Ayeesha Kamran
There is a paucity of population based data about the coexistent proportions of risk factors for stroke in South Asians. In this cross sectional survey performed in an urban slum, individuals 35 years of age or older were invited for participation through a simple random sample drawn from baseline census data. For each participant a systematic history and examination was performed to confirm the following risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, obesity, tobacco use, coronary artery disease, family history of coronary artery disease and/or stroke. Cerebrovascular events (stroke and TIA) were verified by a vascular neurologist. We report the association of risk factor groups and the presence of contemporaneous cerebrovascular event. Five hundred and forty-five individuals (49.4% females) participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen (21.8%) individuals had a cerebrovascular event (stroke and /or TIA). Obesity was found to be the predominant risk factor, occurring in 310 individuals (56.9%), followed by total hypertension (284; 52.1%) and tobacco use respectively (213; 39%). Cerebrovascular event increased in percentage with quantitative increase in risk factors. Cerebrovascular event prevalence was 14.3% with one risk factor, 22% with two, 27% with three, 33% with four, and 86% with five risk factors respectively. The combination of 4 risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking) conferred the highest odds of having cerebrovascular event at 4.9 (P 0.03). South Asians in an urban slum often have multiple modifiable risk factors for cerebrovascular event, increasing numbers of risk factors increase the risk of stroke and TIA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...
Parazzini, F; La Vecchia, C; Mangili, G; Caminiti, C; Negri, E; Cecchetti, G; Fasoli, M
The risk of gestational trophoblastic disease in relation to frequency of consumption of selected dietary items was evaluated with data from a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 148 women with histologically confirmed gestational trophoblastic disease and two control groups, one consisting of 372 obstetric control subjects and one consisting of 406 patients in the hospital for acute, nonobstetric, nongynecologic conditions. Patients with gestational trophoblastic disease tended to consume several foods less frequently, including the major sources of vitamin A and animal protein in the Italian diet. Relative risk estimates were significantly below unity in both control groups for green vegetable, carrot, liver, and cheese consumption and in the obstetric control group only for milk, meat, eggs, fresh fruit, and fish. Inverse relationships emerged between the risk of gestational trophoblastic disease and beta-carotene or retinol intake index. The trend of decreasing risk with increasing intake was significant for beta-carotene consumption. The present findings confirm that various aspects of diet may influence the risk of gestational trophoblastic disease. However, the limitation of available evidence still introduces serious uncertainties in the interpretation of these findings and suggests the potential importance of further epidemiologic and biochemical research to obtain more precise definition of specific dietary correlates of gestational trophoblastic disease.
An, Xiao-lei; Li, Chuan-ling
This study aimed to identify risk factors for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in cerebral infarction patients. Associations between VCI and age, gender, blood pressure, lipid levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, atrial fibrillation, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, homocysteine (Hcy), and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (HS-CRP) were evaluated in patients with cerebral infarction (n = 300) using single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. By single factor analysis, the age, glycosylated hemoglobin, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure, Hcy, HS-CRP, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with VCI in these patients. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, Hcy, and HS-CRP were revealed as independent risk factors. The age, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, Hcy, and HS-CRP can serve as predictive factors for VCI in patients with cerebral infarction.
Hypertension is fast becoming a public health problem and has been associated with certain risk factors that have been found to contribute to the increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Sub Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of some risk factors associated with ...
Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of the following coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in urban (westernised) Black and White females: physical inactivity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and multiple risk factors. Subjects: Subjects for this study were ...
Hypertension is the most common stroke risk factor globally as well as in the Nigerian population, however other modifiable risk factors such as obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent due to unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyle. Materials and Methods: We screened 224 volunteers from Ile‑Ife during the 2011 and ...
Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...
Information about the prevalence and risk factors for the disease in resident cattle herds in the North Central Zone of Nigeria is however lacking. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis and the risk factors associated with the disease in Kanke Local Government Area (LGA) of ...
In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...
AJRH Managing Editor
Salud. Publica de Mexico 2006;48(3):183-92. 28. Mbonye A. Risk factors associated with maternal deaths in health units in Uganda. African Journal of. Reproductive Health 2001;5(3). 29. Evjen-Olsen B, Hinderaker SG, Lie RT, Bergsjo P,. Gasheka P, Kvale G. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern ...
Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...
Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...
Background: Studies suggest that obstetric complications are associated with several child psychiatric conditions. In planning for child psychiatric services it is important to monitor patterns of morbidity and associated risk factors. Identifying obstetric risk factors in a newly opened child psychiatric clinic population with ...
Geophagy As A Risk Factor For Helminth Infections In. Pregnant Women In Lusaka, Zambia. Shinondo1 ... women, and as such geophagy was an unlikely risk factor for geohelminth infections. Other explanations for the ... markets to pregnant women are richer in iron and copper than the dietary supplement pills made by ...
Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C
BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...
Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...
Its origin is in childhood, but information on its prevalence and associated risk factors in children are scarce. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among adolescents in Ondo town. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 965 respondents selected ...
ABSTRACT Background: Studies on the prevalence of hypertension among Africans in workplace did not deal with risk factors of hypertension. Thus there is a need to screen urban central Africans at workplace for environmental risk factors of hypertension. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Kinshasa ...
Estimating risk factors for HIV infection among women in Mozambique using population-based survey data. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... Findings from our study provide a unique and integrated perspective on risk factors for being HIV-positive among Mozambican women and could support the implementation of ...
No African-based studies have reported the prevalence or severity of injuries, risk factors associated with injuries or return-to-play (RTP) time. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of injuries and associated risk factors, as well as severity of injuries sustained by professional male MMA athletes competing at the Extreme ...
Objective: Identification of risk factors such as early age of menarche, obesity and family history of breast cancer may permit preventive strategies. .... density at mammography, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity are also ... therefore, there is a need for determining the pattern of breast cancer risk factors among ...
BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity .... 30 patients, training was given to data collectors and supervisors on the data ...
Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve
Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…
Less than 20% knew that cervical cancer could be detected early and 6.8% had had Pap smears done. Knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms was low, although there was a statistically significant relationship between the educational level of the women and risk factors for cervical cancer. The paper discusses the ...
Knowledge, attitude and practices towards risk factors for hypertension in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam. M Linda. Abstract. Objective: To assess the people's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards risk factors for hypertension in Kinondoni Municipality. Study design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Settings: ...
Flinterman, Linda Elisabeth
The aim of this thesis was to identify new risk factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis of both the upper and lower extremity, and assess the incidence of recurrence and mortality after a first venous thrombosis. An overview was provided of the current literature on risk factors and