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Sample records for single relaxation time

  1. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  2. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-09-11

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening with dislocations shearing the γ' precipitates, a high dislocation density in the γ channels and near the γ/γ' interface and precipitate shearing. When macroscopic contraction is restricted, relaxation dominates. This leads to work softening from a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Changes in lattice strains occur to a similar magnitude in both the γ and γ' phases during stress relaxation, while in creep there is no clear monotonic trend in lattice strain in the γ phase, but only a marginal increase in the γ' precipitates. Using a visco-plastic law derived from in-situ experiments, the experimentally measured and calculated stresses during cooling show a good agreement when creep predominates. However, when stress relaxation dominates accounting for the decrease in dislocation density during cooling is essential.

  3. Pair plasma relaxation time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A G; Ruffini, R; Vereshchagin, G V

    2010-04-01

    By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equations, we compute the time scale for relaxation to thermal equilibrium for an optically thick electron-positron plasma with baryon loading. We focus on the time scales of electromagnetic interactions. The collisional integrals are obtained directly from the corresponding QED matrix elements. Thermalization time scales are computed for a wide range of values of both the total-energy density (over 10 orders of magnitude) and of the baryonic loading parameter (over 6 orders of magnitude). This also allows us to study such interesting limiting cases as the almost purely electron-positron plasma or electron-proton plasma as well as intermediate cases. These results appear to be important both for laboratory experiments aimed at generating optically thick pair plasmas as well as for astrophysical models in which electron-positron pair plasmas play a relevant role.

  4. Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.

    1998-05-01

    The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.

  5. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  6. Immersed Boundary-Lattice Boltzmann Method Using Two Relaxation Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Hayashi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM using a two-relaxation time model (TRT is proposed. The collision operator in the lattice Boltzmann equation is modeled using two relaxation times. One of them is used to set the fluid viscosity and the other is for numerical stability and accuracy. A direct-forcing method is utilized for treatment of immersed boundary. A multi-direct forcing method is also implemented to precisely satisfy the boundary conditions at the immersed boundary. Circular Couette flows between a stationary cylinder and a rotating cylinder are simulated for validation of the proposed method. The method is also validated through simulations of circular and spherical falling particles. Effects of the functional forms of the direct-forcing term and the smoothed-delta function, which interpolates the fluid velocity to the immersed boundary and distributes the forcing term to fixed Eulerian grid points, are also examined. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1 the proposed method does not cause non-physical velocity distribution in circular Couette flows even at high relaxation times, whereas the single-relaxation time (SRT model causes a large non-physical velocity distortion at a high relaxation time, (2 the multi-direct forcing reduces the errors in the velocity profile of a circular Couette flow at a high relaxation time, (3 the two-point delta function is better than the four-point delta function at low relaxation times, but worse at high relaxation times, (4 the functional form of the direct-forcing term does not affect predictions, and (5 circular and spherical particles falling in liquids are well predicted by using the proposed method both for two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.

  7. Tuning of the hole spin relaxation time in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots by electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Hai; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin, E-mail: helx@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-11-28

    We investigate the electric field tuning of the phonon-assisted hole spin relaxation in single self-assembled In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs), using an atomistic empirical pseudopotential method. We find that the electric field along the growth direction can tune the hole spin relaxation time for more than one order of magnitude. The electric field can prolong or shorten the hole spin lifetime and the tuning shows an asymmetry in terms of the field direction. The asymmetry is more pronounced for the taller dot. The results show that the electric field is an effective way to tune the hole spin-relaxation in self-assembled QDs.

  8. Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.

    1987-02-01

    An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given

  9. What is the most suitable MR signal index for quantitative evaluation of placental function using Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo compared with T2-relaxation time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Kyoko Nakao; Kido, Aki; Himoto, Yuki; Moribata, Yusaku; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-06-01

    Background Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) imaging is now widely used for placental and fetal imaging because of its rapidity and low sensitivity to fetal movement. If placental dysfunction is also predicted by quantitative value obtained from HASTE image, then it might be beneficial for evaluating placental wellbeing. Purpose To ascertain the most suitable magnetic resonance (MR) signal indexes reflecting placental function using HASTE imaging. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 37 consequent patients who had given informed consent to MR imaging (MRI) examinations. All had undergone MRI examinations between February 2014 and June 2015. First, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of normal placenta and gestational age (GA) was examined. Second, correlation between signal intensity ratios (SIRs) using HASTE imaging and placental T2-relaxation time were assessed. The SIRs were calculated using placental signal intensity (SI) relative to the SI of the amniotic fluid, fetal ocular globes, gastric fluid, bladder, maternal psoas major muscles, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results Among the 37 patients, the correlation between T2-relaxation time of the 25 normal placentas and GA showed a moderately strong correlation (Spearman rho = -0.447, P = 0.0250). The most significant correlation with placental T2-relaxation time was observed with the placental SIR relative to the maternal psoas major muscles (SIR pl./psoas muscle ) (Spearman rho = -0.531, P = 0.0007). Conclusion This study revealed that SIR pl./psoas muscle showed the best correlation to placental T2-relaxation time. Results show that SIR pl./psoas muscle might be optimal as a clinically available quantitative index of placental function.

  10. Paramagnetic relaxation effects in perturbed angular correlations for arbitrary electronic relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, C.; Spanjaard, D.; Hartmann-Boutron, F.

    1975-01-01

    Previous perturbation treatments of paramagnetic relaxation effects in γγ PAC were limited to the case of very short electronic relaxation times. This limitation is circumvented by invoking a new perturbation theory recently elaborated by Hirst and others for handling relaxation effects in Moessbauer spectra. Under the assumption of spherical electronic relaxation the perturbation factors are computed as functions of certain relaxation parameters which are directly related to the microscopic relaxation Hamiltonian. The results are compared to those of the stochastic theory of Scherer and Blume [fr

  11. Anomalous reduction in the long-time flux creep relaxation in superconducting Ca10(Pt4As8)((Fe1‑x Pt x )2As2)5 (x ≈ 0.05) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkorn, N.; Huang, Silu; Jin, R.

    2018-06-01

    We report the vortex dynamics of superconducting a Ca10(Pt4As8)((Fe1‑x Pt x )2As2)5 (x ≈ 0.05) single crystal with T c = 26 K investigated by performing magnetic measurements. The field dependence of the magnetization displays a second peak (SPM), typically related to a crossover between elastic and plastic vortex relaxation in a weak pinning scenario. Long-time flux creep relaxation measurements for fields smaller that of the SPM show that the vortex dynamics can be separated in two different regions. For magnetic fields smaller than the lower end of the SPM, glassy relaxation (with a characteristic glassy exponent μ) is observed. For magnetic fields between the lower end and the SPM, the flux creep rate decreases systematically to values below to the ones predicted by the collective theory. This effect can be understood by considering a stable vortex lattice configuration. As the field position of the SPM can be adjusted by modifying the quenched potential, our results suggest that extremely low flux creep relaxation rate may be tuned in many other superconducting materials.

  12. Relaxation Processes and Time Scale Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the response function may be immediately recognized as being 14 of the Kubo - Green type in the classical regime. Given this general framework, it is now...b as a function of temperature is 24 equivalent to the Vogel-Beuche-Fulcher empirical law for viscosity or the Williams-Landel-Ferry empirical law...relaxation times. With the weighted sum in the form of an integral , one can write exp(-(t/T)b ] = f dT’g(r’) exp[-(t/T’)], O

  13. Universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon gases

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, M.; Marciak-Kozlowska, J.; Kozlowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon fermionic gases. We argue that the universal relaxation time tau(i) is equal tau(i)=h/m square v(i) where v(i)=alpha(i)c and alpha(1)=0.15 for nucleon gas and alpha(2)=1/137 for electron gas, c=light velocity. With the universal relaxation time we formulate the thermal Proca equation for fermionic gases. Key words: universal relaxation time, thermal universal Proca equation.

  14. Relaxation time in confined disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamati, H.; Korutcheva, E.

    2006-05-01

    The dynamic critical behavior of a quenched hypercubic sample of linear size L is considered within the 'random T c ' field theoretical model with purely relaxation dynamic (Model A). The dynamic finite size scaling behavior is established and analyzed when the system is quenched from a homogeneous phase towards its critical temperature. The obtained results are compared to those reported in the literature. (author)

  15. Relaxation Time of High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous water plays a fundamental role in astrophysics, cryoelectron microscopy, hydration of matter, and our understanding of anomalous liquid water properties. Yet, the characteristics of the relaxation processes taking place in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) are unknown. We here reveal that the relaxation processes in HDA at 110-135 K at 0.1-0.2 GPa are of collective and global nature, resembling the alpha relaxation in glassy material. Measured relaxation times suggest liquid-like relaxation characteristics in the vicinity of the crystallization temperature at 145 K. By carefully relaxing pressurized HDA for several hours at 135 K, we produce a state that is closer to the ideal glass state than all HDA states discussed so far in literature.

  16. Calculation of T2 relaxation time from ultrafast single shot sequences for differentiation of liver tumors. Comparison of echo-planar, HASTE, and spin-echo sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yasuko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Tang, Yi; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of T2 calculation from single shot imaging sequences such as echo-planar imaging (EPI) and half-Fourier single shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) imaging. For the phantom study, we prepared vials containing different concentrations of agarose, copper sulfate, and nickel chloride. The temperature of the phantom was kept at 22 deg C. MR images were obtained with a 1.5-Tesla superconductive magnet. Spin-echo (SE)-type EPI and HASTE sequences with different TEs were obtained for T2 calculation, and the T2 values were compared with those obtained from the Carr-Purcell-Meiborm-Gill (CPMG) sequence. The clinical study group consisted of 30 consecutive patients referred for MR imaging to characterize focal liver lesions. A total of 40 focal liver lesions were evaluated, including 25 primary or metastatic solid masses and 15 non-solid lesions. Single shot SE-type EPI and HASTE were both performed with TEs of 64 and 90 msec. In the phantom study, the T2 values obtained from both single shot sequences showed significant correlations with those from the CPMG sequence (T2 on EPI vs. T2 on CPMG: r=0.98, p<0.01; T2 on HASTE vs. T2 on CPMG: r=0.99, p<0.01). In the clinical study, mean T2 values for liver calculated from EPI (42 msec) were significantly shorter than those calculated from the HASTE sequence (58 msec) (p<0.001). Mean T2 values for solid tumors were 95 msec with HASTE and 72 msec with EPI, and mean T2 values for non-solid lesions were 128 msec with HASTE and 159 msec with EPI. Although mean T2 values between solid and non-solid lesions were significantly different for both EPI and HASTE sequences (p=0.01 for HASTE, p<0.001 for EPI), the overlap of solid and non-solid lesions was less frequent in EPI than in HASTE. With single shot sequences, it is possible to obtain the T2 values that show excellent correlation with the CPMG sequence. Although both HASTE and EPI are useful to calculate T2 values, EPI appears to be more

  17. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai; Li Yingjun

    2011-01-01

    We present an energy-conserving multiple-relaxation-time finite difference lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows. The collision step is first calculated in the moment space and then mapped back to the velocity space. The moment space and corresponding transformation matrix are constructed according to the group representation theory. Equilibria of the nonconserved moments are chosen according to the need of recovering compressible Navier-Stokes equations through the Chapman-Enskog expansion. Numerical experiments showed that compressible flows with strong shocks can be well simulated by the present model. The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. It contains more physical information and has better numerical stability and accuracy than its single-relaxation-time version. - Highlights: → We present an energy-conserving MRT finite-difference LB model. → The moment space is constructed according to the group representation theory. → The new model works for both low and high speeds compressible flows. → It has better numerical stability and wider applicable range than its SRT version.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and relaxation time mapping of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, Steven Donald

    2001-07-01

    The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of water in concrete is presented. This thesis will approach the problem of MR imaging of concrete by attempting to design new methods, suited to concrete materials, rather than attempting to force the material to suit the method. A number of techniques were developed, which allow the spatial observation of water in concrete in up to three dimensions, and permits the determination of space resolved moisture content, as well as local NMR relaxation times. These methods are all based on the Single-Point Imaging (SPI) method. The development of these new methods will be described, and the techniques validated using phantom studies. The study of one-dimensional moisture transport in drying concrete was performed using SPI. This work examined the effect of initial mixture proportions and hydration time on the drying behaviour of concrete, over a period of three months. Studies of drying concrete were also performed using spatial mapping of the spin-lattice (T1) and effective spin-spin (T2*) relaxation times, thereby permitting the observation of changes in the water occupied pore surface-to-volume ratio (S/V) as a function of drying. Results of this work demonstrated changes in the S/V due to drying, hydration and drying induced microcracking. Three-dimensional MRI of concrete was performed using SPRITE (Single-Point Ramped Imaging with T1 Enhancement) and turboSPI (turbo Single Point Imaging). While SPRITE allows for weighting of MR images using T 1 and T2*, turboSPI allows T2 weighting of the resulting images. Using relaxation weighting it was shown to be possible to discriminate between water contained within a hydrated cement matrix, and water in highly porous aggregates, used to produce low-density concrete. Three dimensional experiments performed using SPRITE and turboSPI examined the role of self-dessication, drying, initial aggregate saturation and initial mixture conditions on the transport of moisture between porous

  19. A moving mesh method with variable relaxation time

    OpenAIRE

    Soheili, Ali Reza; Stockie, John M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a moving mesh adaptive approach for solving time-dependent partial differential equations. The motion of spatial grid points is governed by a moving mesh PDE (MMPDE) in which a mesh relaxation time \\tau is employed as a regularization parameter. Previously reported results on MMPDEs have invariably employed a constant value of the parameter \\tau. We extend this standard approach by incorporating a variable relaxation time that is calculated adaptively alongside the solution in orde...

  20. Magnetization relaxation of single molecule magnets after field cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic clusters, such as Fe8 and Mn_12, behave at low temperatures as large single spins S. In crystals, anisotropy energies U allow magnetic relaxation only through tunneling at k_BTstackrelspins with dipolar interactions. To mimic tunneling effects, a spin on a lattice site where h is within some tunnel window -h_w

  1. Spin-Spin Cross Relaxation in Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Bhaduri, S.; Tiron, R.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.

    2002-10-01

    The one-body tunnel picture of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) is not always sufficient to explain the measured tunnel transitions. An improvement to the picture is proposed by including also two-body tunnel transitions such as spin-spin cross relaxation (SSCR) which are mediated by dipolar and weak superexchange interactions between molecules. A Mn4 SMM is used as a model system. At certain external fields, SSCRs lead to additional quantum resonances which show up in hysteresis loop measurements as well-defined steps. A simple model is used to explain quantitatively all observed transitions.

  2. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals Topology Dependent Mutual Relaxation of Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Abadi, Maram

    2015-08-24

    The motion and relaxation of linear and cyclic polymers under entangled conditions are investigated by means of a newly developed single-molecule tracking technique, cumulative-area (CA) tracking. CA tracking enables simultaneous quantitative characterization of the diffusion mode, diffusion rate, and relaxation time that have been impossible with a widely used conventional single-molecule localization and tracking method, by analyzing cumulative areas occupied by the moving molecule. Using the novel approach, we investigate the motion and relaxation of entangled cyclic polymers, which have been an important but poorly understood question. Fluorescently labeled 42 kbp linear or cyclic tracer dsDNAs in concentrated solutions of unlabeled linear or cyclic DNAs are used as model systems. We show that CA tracking can explicitly distinguish topology-dependent diffusion mode, rate, and relaxation time, demonstrating that the method provides an invaluable tool for characterizing topological interaction between the entangled chains. We further demonstrate that the current models proposed for the entanglement between cyclic polymers which are based on cyclic chains moving through an array of fixed obstacles cannot correctly describe the motion of the cyclic chain under the entangled conditions. Our results rather suggest the mutual relaxation of the cyclic chains, which underscore the necessity of developing a new model to describe the motion of cyclic polymer under the entangled conditions based on the mutual interaction of the chains.

  3. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals Topology Dependent Mutual Relaxation of Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Abadi, Maram; Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The motion and relaxation of linear and cyclic polymers under entangled conditions are investigated by means of a newly developed single-molecule tracking technique, cumulative-area (CA) tracking. CA tracking enables simultaneous quantitative characterization of the diffusion mode, diffusion rate, and relaxation time that have been impossible with a widely used conventional single-molecule localization and tracking method, by analyzing cumulative areas occupied by the moving molecule. Using the novel approach, we investigate the motion and relaxation of entangled cyclic polymers, which have been an important but poorly understood question. Fluorescently labeled 42 kbp linear or cyclic tracer dsDNAs in concentrated solutions of unlabeled linear or cyclic DNAs are used as model systems. We show that CA tracking can explicitly distinguish topology-dependent diffusion mode, rate, and relaxation time, demonstrating that the method provides an invaluable tool for characterizing topological interaction between the entangled chains. We further demonstrate that the current models proposed for the entanglement between cyclic polymers which are based on cyclic chains moving through an array of fixed obstacles cannot correctly describe the motion of the cyclic chain under the entangled conditions. Our results rather suggest the mutual relaxation of the cyclic chains, which underscore the necessity of developing a new model to describe the motion of cyclic polymer under the entangled conditions based on the mutual interaction of the chains.

  4. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya

    2012-06-19

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films. The axial position of the dye molecules across the thickness of the film was determined with a resolution of 12 nm by analyzing astigmatic fluorescence images. The average relaxation times of the rotating molecules do not depend on the overall thickness of the film between 20 and 110 nm. The relaxation times also do not show any dependence on the axial position within the films for the film thickness between 70 and 110 nm. In addition to the rotating molecules we observed a fraction of spatially diffusing molecules and completely immobile molecules. These molecules indicate the presence of thin (<5 nm) high-mobility surface layer and low-mobility layer at the interface with the substrate. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Quantifying NMR relaxation correlation and exchange in articular cartilage with time domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhiot, Sarah E.; Zong, Fangrong; Maneval, James E.; June, Ronald K.; Galvosas, Petrik; Seymour, Joseph D.

    2018-02-01

    Measured nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation data in articular cartilage has been shown to be multi-exponential and correlated to the health of the tissue. The observed relaxation rates are dependent on experimental parameters such as solvent, data acquisition methods, data analysis methods, and alignment to the magnetic field. In this study, we show that diffusive exchange occurs in porcine articular cartilage and impacts the observed relaxation rates in T1-T2 correlation experiments. By using time domain analysis of T2-T2 exchange spectroscopy, the diffusive exchange time can be quantified by measurements that use a single mixing time. Measured characteristic times for exchange are commensurate with T1 in this material and so impacts the observed T1 behavior. The approach used here allows for reliable quantification of NMR relaxation behavior in cartilage in the presence of diffusive fluid exchange between two environments.

  6. Magnetism of a relaxed single atom vacancy in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunyi; Hu, Yonghong; Xue, Li; Sun, Tieyu; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    It has been suggested in literature that defects in graphene (e.g. absorbed atoms and vacancies) may induce magnetizations due to unpaired electrons. The nature of magnetism, i.e. ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic, is dependent on a number of structural factors including locations of magnetic moments and lattice symmetry. In the present work we investigated the influence of a relaxed single atom vacancy in garphnene on magnetization which were obtained under different pinning boundary conditions, aiming to achieve a better understanding of the magnetic behaviors of graphene. Through first principles calculations, we found that major spin polarizations occur on atoms that deviate slightly from their original lattice positions, and pinning boundaries could also affect the relaxed positions of atoms and determine which atom(s) would become the main source(s) of total spin polarizations and magnetic moments. When the pinning boundary condition is free, a special non-magnetic and semi-conductive structure may be obtained, suggesting that magnetization should more readily occur under pinning boundary conditions.

  7. Time constant of logarithmic creep and relaxation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2001-07-15

    Full Text Available length and hardness which vary logarithmically with time. For dimensional reasons, a logarithmic variation must involve a time constant tau characteristic of the process, so that the deformation is proportional to ln(t/tau). Two distinct mechanisms...

  8. Relaxation time of acoustically disturbed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, K.S.; Abrahamyan, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The conservation time of an acoustic structure in plasma after relieving of external acoustic influence is investigated. Dependences of the conservation time on discharge parameters are presented. It is asserted that the plasma becomes an anisotropic uniaxial medium with an acoustic superlattice under the acoustic influence

  9. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Parameterization of NMR relaxation curves in terms of logarithmic moments of the relaxation time distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Oleg V.; Stapf, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    This work addresses the problem of a compact and easily comparable representation of multi-exponential relaxation data. It is often convenient to describe such data in a few parameters, all being of physical significance and easy to interpret, and in such a way that enables a model-free comparison between different groups of samples. Logarithmic moments (LMs) of the relaxation time constitute a set of parameters which are related to the characteristic relaxation time on the log-scale, the width and the asymmetry of an underlying distribution of exponentials. On the other hand, the calculation of LMs does not require knowing the actual distribution function and is reduced to a numerical integration of original data. The performance of this method has been tested on both synthetic and experimental NMR relaxation data which differ in a signal-to-noise ratio, the sampling range and the sampling rate. The calculation of two lower-order LMs, the log-mean time and the log-variance, has proved robust against deficiencies of the experiment such as scattered data point and incomplete sampling. One may consider using them as such to monitor formation of a heterogeneous structure, e.g., in phase separation, vitrification, polymerization, hydration, aging, contrast agent propagation processes. It may also assist in interpreting frequency and temperature dependences of relaxation, revealing a crossover from slow to fast exchange between populations. The third LM was found to be a less reliable quantity due to its susceptibility to the noise and must be used with caution.

  11. Algebraic relaxation of a time correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.; Kumar, C.N.; Tankeshwar, K.

    2004-06-01

    A second order non-linear differential equation obtained from Mori's integro- differential equation is shown to transform to another form which provides algebraic decay to a time correlation function. Involved parameters in algebraic formula are related to exact properties of the corresponding correlation function. The model has been used to study a sol-gel system which is known, experimentally, to exhibit a power law decay to stress auto-correlation function. The expression obtained for the viscosity shows a logarithmic divergence at some critical value of the parameter. Some features of the model have also been tested using available information about Lennard-Jones fluids. (author)

  12. Observation of relaxation on time scale of core hole decay by coincidence photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    It is shown by a many-body theory that when the relaxation time of a metastable core hole state(s) to the most stable one is comparable to or shorter than core hole decay time of the former state(s), a comparison between the singles (noncoincidence) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) spectrum and the coincidence one provides a direct evidence of the relaxation. In principle the variation with photoelectron kinetic energy of relaxation (or charge transfer (CT)) time can be determined. By singles measurement the correlation of a photoelectron generated by creation of the metastable states not only with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the same core hole state but also with an Auger electron generated by annihilation of the stable state via relaxation of the metastable state, is completely lost, unless only the metastable state is observed by PES, whereas the correlation often manifests directly in the coincidence spectra. Thus, compared to the coincidence spectroscopy the singles one is often much less capable of elucidating the competition between relaxation and core hole decay of a metastable state. Such examples are discussed

  13. Fourier transform distribution function of relaxation times; application and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple Fourier transform (FT) method is presented for obtaining a Distribution Function of Relaxation Times (DFRT) for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data. By using a special data extension procedure the FT is performed over the range from -∞ ≤ lnω ≤ + ∞. The integration procedure is

  14. Influence of relaxation times on the Bloch-Siegert shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Long Van

    1981-01-01

    A new method for calculations of Bloch-Siegert shifts in resonances between excited states with the inclusion of relaxation times is given. It will be shown that in this case the definition of the resonance given by I. Bialynicka-Birula is in agreement with the criterion defining the resonance used by D.A. Andrews and G. Newton. (author)

  15. Hyperpolarized nanodiamond with long spin-relaxation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David E. J.; Reilly, David J.

    2015-10-01

    The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance, such as 13C-labelled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarization technique is the inherently short spin-relaxation times, typically nanodiamond can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of free radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 h. Combined with the already established applications of nanodiamonds in the life sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

  16. Nernst effect beyond the relaxation-time approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Pikulin, D. I.; Hou, Chang-Yu; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in the Nernst effect in cuprate superconductors, we calculate this magneto-thermo-electric effect for an arbitrary (anisotropic) quasiparticle dispersion relation and elastic scattering rate. The exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation is compared with the commonly used relaxation-time approximation. We find qualitative deficiencies of this approximation, to the extent that it can get the sign wrong of the Nernst coefficient. Ziman's improvement of the...

  17. NMR relaxation times in human brain tumors (preliminary results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, L.; Certaines, J. de; Chatel, M.; Menault, F.

    1981-01-01

    Since the early work of Damadian in 1971, proton NMR studies of tumors has been well documented. Present study concerns the spin-lattice T 1 and spin-spin T 2 relaxation times of normal dog brain according to the histological differentiation and of 35 human benignant or malignant tumors. The results principally show T 2 important variations between white and gray substance in normal brain but no discrimination between malignant and benignant tumors [fr

  18. Stress relaxation analysis of single chondrocytes using porohyperelastic model based on AFM experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopytechnique, we found that the chondrocytes exhibits stress relaxation behavior. We explored the mechanism of this stress relaxation behavior and concluded that the intracellular fluid exuding out from the cells during deformation plays the most important role in the stress relaxation. We applied the inverse finite element analysis technique to determine necessary material parameters for porohyperelastic (PHE model to simulate stress relaxation behavior as this model is proven capable of capturing the non-linear behavior and the fluid-solid interaction during the stress relaxation of the single chondrocytes. It is observed that PHE model can precisely capture the stress relaxation behavior of single chondrocytes and would be a suitable model for cell biomechanics.

  19. Energy relaxation between low lying tunnel split spin-states of the single molecule magnet Ni4

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loubens, G.; Chaves-O'Flynn, G. D.; Kent, A. D.; Ramsey, C.; Del Barco, E.; Beedle, C.; Hendrickson, D. N.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed integrated magnetic sensors to study quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in single molecule magnet (SMMs) single crystals. These sensors incorporate a microstrip resonator (30 GHz) and a micro-Hall effect magnetometer. They have been used to investigate the relaxation rates between the 2 lowest lying tunnel split spin-states of the SMM Ni4 (S=4). EPR spectroscopy at 30 GHz and 0.4 K and concurrent magnetization measurements of several Ni4 single crystals are presented. EPR enables measurement of the energy splitting between the 2 lowest lying superposition states as a function of the longitudinal and transverse fields. The energy relaxation rate is determined in two ways. First, in cw microwave experiments the change in spin-population together with the microwave absorption directly gives the relaxation time from energy conservation in steady-state. Second, direct time-resolved measurements of the magnetization with pulsed microwave radiation have been performed. The relaxation time is found to vary by several orders of magnitude in different crystals, from a few seconds down to smaller than 100 μs. We discuss this and the form of the relaxation found for different crystals and pulse conditions.

  20. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya; Vacha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films

  1. Intrinsic spin and momentum relaxation in organic single-crystalline semiconductors probed by ESR and Hall measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Junto; Häusermann, Roger; Watanabe, Shun; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    Spin and charge momentum relaxation mechanism has been argued among organic semiconductors with various methods, devices, and materials. However, little is known in organic single-crystalline semiconductors because it has been hard to obtain an ideal organic crystal with an excellent crystallinity and controllability required for accurate measurements. By using more than 1-inch sized single crystals which are fabricated via contentious edge-casting method developed by our group, we have successfully demonstrated a simultaneous determination of spin and momentum relaxation time for gate-induced charges of 3,11-didecyldinaphtho[2,3- d:2',3'- d']benzo[1,2- b:4,5- b']dithiophene, by combining electron spin resonance (ESR) and Hall effect measurements. The obtained temperature dependences of spin and momentum relaxation times are in good agreement in terms of power law with a factor of approximately -2. It is concluded that Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism can be dominant at room temperature regime (200 - 300 K). Probing characteristic time scales such as spin-lattice, spin-spin, and momentum relaxation times, demonstrated in the present work, would be a powerful tool to elucidate fundamental spin and charge transport mechanisms. We acknowledge the New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization (NEDO) for financial support.

  2. Spin current relaxation time in thermally evaporated pentacene films

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Yasuo; Kondo, Takuya; Teki, Yoshio; Shikoh, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    The spin current relaxation time [tau] in thermally evaporated pentacene films was evaluated with the spin-pump-induced spin transport properties and the charge current transport properties in pentacene films. Under an assumption of a diffusive transport of the spin current in pentacene films, the zero-field mobility and the diffusion constant of holes in pentacene films were experimentally obtained to be ~8.0x10^-7 m^2/Vs and ~2.0x10^-8 m^2/s, respectively. Using those values and the previou...

  3. The effects of some parameters on the calculated 1H NMR relaxation times of cell water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivula, A.; Suominen, K.; Kiviniitty, K.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of some parameters on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times is calculated and a comparison between the calculated relaxation times with the results of different measurements is made. (M.S.)

  4. The shear and bulk relaxation times from the general correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present two quantum field theoretical analyses on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we discuss how to find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times. Next, we provide results on the shear viscosity relaxation time obtained within the diagrammatic approach for the massless λϕ4 theory.

  5. Simulation of Cavity Flow by the Lattice Boltzmann Method using Multiple-Relaxation-Time scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Seung Yeob; Kang, Ha Nok; Seo, Jae Kwang; Yun, Ju Hyeon; Zee, Sung Quun

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) has gained much attention for its ability to simulate fluid flows, and for its potential advantages over conventional CFD method. The key advantages of LBM are, (1) suitability for parallel computations, (2) absence of the need to solve the time-consuming Poisson equation for pressure, and (3) ease with multiphase flows, complex geometries and interfacial dynamics may be treated. The LBM using relaxation technique was introduced by Higuerea and Jimenez to overcome some drawbacks of lattice gas automata(LGA) such as large statistical noise, limited range of physical parameters, non- Galilean invariance, and implementation difficulty in three-dimensional problem. The simplest LBM is the lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook(LBGK) equation, which based on a single-relaxation-time(SRT) approximation. Due to its extreme simplicity, the lattice BGK(LBGK) equation has become the most popular lattice Boltzmann model in spite of its well-known deficiencies, for example, in simulating high-Reynolds numbers flow. The Multiple-Relaxation-Time(MRT) LBM was originally developed by D'Humieres. Lallemand and Luo suggests that the use of a Multiple-Relaxation-Time(MRT) models are much more stable than LBGK, because the different relaxation times can be individually tuned to achieve 'optimal' stability. A lid-driven cavity flow is selected as the test problem because it has geometrically singular points in the flow, but geometrically simple. Results are compared with those using SRT, MRT model in the LBGK method and previous simulation data using Navier-Stokes equations for the same flow conditions. In summary, LBM using MRT model introduces much less spatial oscillations near geometrical singular points, which is important for the successful simulation of higher Reynolds number flows

  6. Levitation and guidance force relaxations of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdioglu, M.; Ozturk, K.; Kabaer, M.; Ekici, M.

    2018-01-01

    The stable levitation and guidance forces at higher force levels are important parameters for technological applicability of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) in Maglev and Flywheel energy storage systems. In this study, we have investigated the levitation and guidance force relaxation of both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs for different (HTS)-permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) arrangements in different cooling heights (CH). The measured saturated force values of Halbach PMG arrangements are bigger than the maximum force values of other PMGs. It is determined that the normalized magnetic levitation force (MLF) and normalized guidance force (GF) relaxation rate values decrease while the relaxation rates increase with increasing magnetic pole number and the effective external magnetic field area for both the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCO. Also it can be said that the force stability at the higher force value of Halbach PMG arrangement indicates that the relaxation quality of Halbach PMG is better than that of the others. Additionally, it can be said that both the MLF and GF relaxation qualities of the multi-seeded YBCOs are better than that of the single-seeded ones. This magnetic force and relaxation results of the single-seeded and multi-seeded YBCOs are useful to optimize the loading capacity and lateral reliability of HTS Maglev and similar magnetic bearing systems.

  7. Anelastic relaxation peaks in single crystals of zirconium-oxygen alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.; Sprungmann, K.W.; Atrens, A.; Rosinger, H.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1977-01-01

    Relaxations of the compliances S 11 -S 12 and S 44 have been observed in single crystals of zirconium-oxygen alloys tested in flexure and in torsion respectively. The relaxations are attributed to the stress-induced reorientation of substitutional impurity atoms (s) paired with interstitial oxygen atoms (i). The results demonstrate that the jump of the interstitial parallel to the basal plane dominates in the reorientation of the s-i pair

  8. Ovarian chocolate cysts. Staging with relaxation time in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio

    1988-10-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 +- 91 msec for stage II, 356 +- 126 msec for stage III and 208 +- 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery.

  9. Accuracy and Numerical Stabilty Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Multiple Relaxation Time for Incompressible Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradipto; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is the novel method for simulating fluid dynamics. Nowadays, the application of LBM ranges from the incompressible flow, flow in the porous medium, until microflows. The common collision model of LBM is the BGK with a constant single relaxation time τ. However, BGK suffers from numerical instabilities. These instabilities could be eliminated by implementing LBM with multiple relaxation time. Both of those scheme have implemented for incompressible 2 dimensions lid-driven cavity. The stability analysis has done by finding the maximum Reynolds number and velocity for converged simulations. The accuracy analysis is done by comparing the velocity profile with the benchmark results from Ghia, et al and calculating the net velocity flux. The tests concluded that LBM with MRT are more stable than BGK, and have a similar accuracy. The maximum Reynolds number that converges for BGK is 3200 and 7500 for MRT respectively.

  10. Dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on magnetic field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Wu, Yong; Martens, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) the relaxation time of the magnetization in response to externally applied magnetic fields is determined by the Brownian and Néel relaxation mechanisms. Here the authors investigate the dependence of the relaxation times on the magnetic field strength and the implications for MPI and MPS. Methods: The Fokker–Planck equation with Brownian relaxation and the Fokker–Planck equation with Néel relaxation are solved numerically for a time-varying externally applied magnetic field, including a step-function, a sinusoidally varying, and a linearly ramped magnetic field. For magnetic fields that are applied as a step function, an eigenvalue approach is used to directly calculate both the Brownian and Néel relaxation times for a range of magnetic field strengths. For Néel relaxation, the eigenvalue calculations are compared to Brown's high-barrier approximation formula. Results: The relaxation times due to the Brownian or Néel mechanisms depend on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. In particular, the Néel relaxation time is sensitive to the magnetic field strength, and varies by many orders of magnitude for nanoparticle properties and magnetic field strengths relevant for MPI and MPS. Therefore, the well-known zero-field relaxation times underestimate the actual relaxation times and, in particular, can underestimate the Néel relaxation time by many orders of magnitude. When only Néel relaxation is present—if the particles are embedded in a solid for instance—the authors found that there can be a strong magnetization response to a sinusoidal driving field, even if the period is much less than the zero-field relaxation time. For a ferrofluid in which both Brownian and Néel relaxation are present, only one relaxation mechanism may dominate depending on the magnetic field strength, the driving frequency (or ramp time), and the phase of the magnetization relative to the

  11. Intrinsic spin-relaxation induced negative tunnel magnetoresistance in a single-molecule magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiqing; Wang, Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, HuJun; Liang, J.-Q.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of intrinsic spin-relaxation on the spin-dependent transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM), which is weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is obtained by means of the rate-equation approach including not only the sequential but also the cotunneling processes. It is shown that the TMR is strongly suppressed by the fast spin-relaxation in the sequential region and can vary from a large positive to slight negative value in the cotunneling region. Moreover, with an external magnetic field along the easy-axis of SMM, a large negative TMR is found when the relaxation strength increases. Finally, in the high bias voltage limit the TMR for the negative bias is slightly larger than its characteristic value of the sequential region; however, it can become negative for the positive bias caused by the fast spin-relaxation.

  12. Relaxation of the single-slip condition in strain-gradient plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguige, Keith; Dondl, Patrick W

    2014-09-08

    We consider the variational formulation of both geometrically linear and geometrically nonlinear elasto-plasticity subject to a class of hard single-slip conditions. Such side conditions typically render the associated boundary-value problems non-convex. We show that, for a large class of non-smooth plastic distortions, a given single-slip condition (specification of Burgers vectors) can be relaxed by introducing a microstructure through a two-stage process of mollification and lamination. The relaxed model can be thought of as an aid to simulating macroscopic plastic behaviour without the need to resolve arbitrarily fine spatial scales.

  13. Significance of focal relaxation times in head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inao, Suguru; Furuse, Masahiro; Saso, Katsuyoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Izawa, Akira

    1987-11-01

    Serial examinations by nuclear magnetic resonance-computed tomography were carried out in 35 head-injured patients aged 7 to 77 years. The injuries were classified as cerebral contusion (nine cases), acute epidural hematoma (eight cases), acute cerebral swelling (two cases), and chronic subdural hematoma (16 cases). The results of 92 measurements were divided into two groups: acute stage (within 3 days of injury) and chronic stage (2 weeks or longer after injury). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T/sub 1/) of brain tissue adjacent to chronic subdural hematoma were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. A Fonar QED 80-alpha system was used for magnetic resonance imaging and measurement of focal T/sub 1/. The T/sub 1/ values at the region of interest were measured 3 to 5 times by the field focusing technique (468 gauss in the focused spot), and the mean value was used for evaluation. The standard T/sub 1/ values obtained from healthy subjects were 290 +- 41 msec in the cerebral cortex and 230 +- 34 msec in the white matter. Prolongation of T/sub 1/ in perifocal brain gradually shortened over time and normalized in the chronic stage. The degree of contusional edema may have been reflected in alterations in T/sub 1/. In contrast, parenchymal injury resulted in a progressive T/sub 1/ elevation, which far exceeded 500 msec in the chronic stage. Such time courses of T/sub 1/ may indicate irreversible tissue damage. There were no noticeable changes in tissue T/sub 1/ over time in patients with acute diffuse cerebral swelling or those who underwent evacuation of acute epidural or chronic subdural hematomas. The underlying pathophysiology in such situations seems to be not brain edema but cerebral hyperemia. In the presence of ischemia, the T/sub 1/ value was prolonged in the early stage, reflecting progression of is chemic edema. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Two-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method and its application to advective-diffusive-reactive transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Siliang; Hilpert, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based on single-relaxation-time (SRT) or multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operators is widely used in simulating flow and transport phenomena. The LBM based on two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision operators possesses strengths from the SRT and MRT LBMs, such as its simple implementation and good numerical stability, although tedious mathematical derivations and presentations of the TRT LBM hinder its application to a broad range of flow and transport phenomena. This paper describes the TRT LBM clearly and provides a pseudocode for easy implementation. Various transport phenomena were simulated using the TRT LBM to illustrate its applications in subsurface environments. These phenomena include advection-diffusion in uniform flow, Taylor dispersion in a pipe, solute transport in a packed column, reactive transport in uniform flow, and bacterial chemotaxis in porous media. The TRT LBM demonstrated good numerical performance in terms of accuracy and stability in predicting these transport phenomena. Therefore, the TRT LBM is a powerful tool to simulate various geophysical and biogeochemical processes in subsurface environments.

  15. Nonadiabatic dynamics of electron transfer in solution: Explicit and implicit solvent treatments that include multiple relaxation time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The development of efficient theoretical methods for describing electron transfer (ET) reactions in condensed phases is important for a variety of chemical and biological applications. Previously, dynamical dielectric continuum theory was used to derive Langevin equations for a single collective solvent coordinate describing ET in a polar solvent. In this theory, the parameters are directly related to the physical properties of the system and can be determined from experimental data or explicit molecular dynamics simulations. Herein, we combine these Langevin equations with surface hopping nonadiabatic dynamics methods to calculate the rate constants for thermal ET reactions in polar solvents for a wide range of electronic couplings and reaction free energies. Comparison of explicit and implicit solvent calculations illustrates that the mapping from explicit to implicit solvent models is valid even for solvents exhibiting complex relaxation behavior with multiple relaxation time scales and a short-time inertial response. The rate constants calculated for implicit solvent models with a single solvent relaxation time scale corresponding to water, acetonitrile, and methanol agree well with analytical theories in the Golden rule and solvent-controlled regimes, as well as in the intermediate regime. The implicit solvent models with two relaxation time scales are in qualitative agreement with the analytical theories but quantitatively overestimate the rate constants compared to these theories. Analysis of these simulations elucidates the importance of multiple relaxation time scales and the inertial component of the solvent response, as well as potential shortcomings of the analytical theories based on single time scale solvent relaxation models. This implicit solvent approach will enable the simulation of a wide range of ET reactions via the stochastic dynamics of a single collective solvent coordinate with parameters that are relevant to experimentally accessible

  16. Hydrogen-1 NMR relaxation time studies in membrane: anesthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L.M.A.; Fraceto, L.; Paula, E. de; Franzoni, L.; Spisni, A.

    1997-01-01

    The study of local anesthetics'(LA) interaction with model phospholipid membranes is justified by the direct correlation between anesthetic's hydrophobicity and its potency/toxicity. By the same reason, uncharged LA species seems to play a crucial role in anesthesia. Most clinically used LA are small amphiphilics with a protonated amine group (pKa around 8). Although both charged (protonated) and uncharged forms can coexist at physiological pH, it has been shown (Lee, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 514:95, 1978; Screier et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 769:231, 1984) that the real anesthetic pka can be down-shifted, due to differential partition into membranes, increasing the ratio of uncharged species at pH 7.4. We have measured 1 H-NMR longitudinal relaxation times (T 1 ) for phospholipid and three local anesthetics (tetracaine, lidocaine, benzocaine), in sonicated vesicles at a 3:1 molar ratio. All the LA protons have shown smaller T 1 in this system than in isotropic phases, reflecting LA immobilization caused by insertion in the membrane. T 1 values for the lipid protons in the presence of LA were analyzed, in an attempt to identify specific LA:lipid contact regions. (author)

  17. Thermodynamic scaling of α-relaxation time and viscosity stems from the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the coupling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K L; Habasaki, J; Prevosto, D; Capaccioli, S; Paluch, Marian

    2012-07-21

    By now it is well established that the structural α-relaxation time, τ(α), of non-associated small molecular and polymeric glass-formers obey thermodynamic scaling. In other words, τ(α) is a function Φ of the product variable, ρ(γ)/T, where ρ is the density and T the temperature. The constant γ as well as the function, τ(α) = Φ(ρ(γ)/T), is material dependent. Actually this dependence of τ(α) on ρ(γ)/T originates from the dependence on the same product variable of the Johari-Goldstein β-relaxation time, τ(β), or the primitive relaxation time, τ(0), of the coupling model. To support this assertion, we give evidences from various sources itemized as follows. (1) The invariance of the relation between τ(α) and τ(β) or τ(0) to widely different combinations of pressure and temperature. (2) Experimental dielectric and viscosity data of glass-forming van der Waals liquids and polymer. (3) Molecular dynamics simulations of binary Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, the Lewis-Wahnström model of ortho-terphenyl, 1,4 polybutadiene, a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate, and a molten salt 2Ca(NO(3))(2)·3KNO(3) (CKN). (4) Both diffusivity and structural relaxation time, as well as the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in CKN obey thermodynamic scaling by ρ(γ)/T with the same γ. (5) In polymers, the chain normal mode relaxation time, τ(N), is another function of ρ(γ)/T with the same γ as segmental relaxation time τ(α). (6) While the data of τ(α) from simulations for the full LJ binary mixture obey very well the thermodynamic scaling, it is strongly violated when the LJ interaction potential is truncated beyond typical inter-particle distance, although in both cases the repulsive pair potentials coincide for some distances.

  18. Continuous relaxation time spectrum of α-process in glass-like B2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenev, G.M.; Lomovskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    α-process of relaxation of glass-like B 2 O 3 was investigated in a wide temperature range. Continuous spectrum of relaxation times H(τ) for this process was constructed, using data of dynamic methods of investigation. It is shown that increase of temperature of α-process investigation leads to change of glass-like BaO 3 structure in such a way, that H(τ) spectrum tends to the maxwell one with a unit relaxation time

  19. T2 relaxation time is related to liver fibrosis severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Luiz; Uppal, Ritika; Alford, Jamu; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Yamada, Suguru; Tanabe, Kenneth; Chung, Raymond T.; Lauwers, Gregory; Chew, Michael L.; Boland, Giles W.; Sahani, Duhyant V.; Vangel, Mark; Hahn, Peter F.; Caravan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The grading of liver fibrosis relies on liver biopsy. Imaging techniques, including elastography and relaxometric, techniques have had varying success in diagnosing moderate fibrosis. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the T2-relaxation time of hepatic parenchyma and the histologic grade of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C undergoing both routine, liver MRI and liver biopsy, and to validate our methodology with phantoms and in a rat model of liver fibrosis. Methods This study is composed of three parts: (I) 123 patients who underwent both routine, clinical liver MRI and biopsy within a 6-month period, between July 1999 and January 2010 were enrolled in a retrospective study. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T using dual-echo turbo-spin echo equivalent pulse sequence. T2 relaxation time of liver parenchyma in patients was calculated by mono-exponential fit of a region of interest (ROI) within the right lobe correlating to histopathologic grading (Ishak 0–6) and routine serum liver inflammation [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)]. Statistical comparison was performed using ordinary logistic and ordinal logistic regression and ANOVA comparing T2 to Ishak fibrosis without and using AST and ALT as covariates; (II) a phantom was prepared using serial dilutions of dextran coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. T2 weighed imaging was performed by comparing a dual echo fast spin echo sequence to a Carr-Purcell-Meigboom-Gill (CPMG) multi-echo sequence at 1.5 T. Statistical comparison was performed using a paired t-test; (III) male Wistar rats receiving weekly intraperitoneal injections of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) control (n=4 rats); diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for either 5 (n=5 rats) or 8 weeks (n=4 rats) were MR imaged on a Bruker Pharmascan 4.7 T magnet with a home-built bird-cage coil. T2 was quantified by using a mono-exponential fitting algorithm on multi-slice multi

  20. Spin-lattice relaxation times and knight shift in InSb and InAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Grande, S.

    1976-01-01

    For a dominant contact interaction between nuclei and conduction electrons the relaxation rate is deduced. The extreme cases of degenerate and non-degenerate semiconductors are separately discussed. At strong degeneracy the product of the Knight shift and relaxation time gives the Korringa relation for metals. Measurements of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation times of 115 InSb and 115 InAs were made between 4.2 and 300 K for strongly degenerated samples. The different relaxation mechanisms are discussed and the experimental and theoretical results are compared. (author)

  1. Investigation of the proteins relaxation time in human blood serum; Badania relaksacyjne bialek surowicy krwi II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blicharska, B.; Klauza, M. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the results of human blood serum proteins relaxation time measurements by means of NMR method are presented. The measurements have been done for three samples of human blood: i/laudably ii/leukemia iii/granulomas. The dependences of the relaxation time on the temperature are also presented. 3 refs, 4 figs.

  2. Electron excitation relaxation in wide-gap single crystal insulators under swift heavy-ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavlinskii, Yu.N.

    2000-01-01

    A heavy, multicharged ion moving in a solid interacts with nuclei and electrons of the matter atoms. If the projectile velocity exceeds the typical orbital velocity of the target electrons, the main process is excitation of the electronic subsystem, i.e., excitation and ionization of bound electrons. Initially, relaxation of the electron excitations results from electronic processes alone, and energy transfer from electrons to lattice happens later. Since free charge carriers are absent in insulators before irradiation, the motion of the excited electrons is possible only together with holes. Due to inner pressure of the electron-hole plasma the expansion takes place. The velocity of the expansion is determined by the heat velocity of electron-hole pairs. As the excitation region expands, the density of the electron-hole pairs decreases, the average distance between pairs increases, and excitons are produced. The expansion can be terminated in the time t≅10 -13 s, when, due to the electron-phonon interaction, self-trapped holes (and excitons) are formed. The annihilation of the trapped excitons gives rise to Frenkel defects. The set of equations comprising the continuity equation, the Euler equation and energy conservation is considered. The analytic dependence on time of the electron temperature and the radius of the excitation region is derived. The observation of projectile traces in a target is discussed in the single projectile regime

  3. Manganese-55 NMR and relaxation in single crystals of manganese(12)-Ac and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Andrew

    This dissertation presents the first single crystal 55Mn NMR characterization of three compounds related to Mn12-acetate [Mn12O12(O2CCH3)16(H 2O)4]·2CH3COOH·4H2O (henceforth Mn12-Ac) that have come to be known as Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs). This study was undertaken because they exhibit novel phenomena such as quantum mechanical tunneling of their magnetization (QTM), the origin of which is still not fully understood, and also because they have the potential to form elements of magnetic memory storage at the molecular dimensions. The investigations herein involve studies related to both the bonding as well as spin-dynamics in these compounds to much higher precision than in earlier work. These experiments were made possible by the design of a high frequency goniometer probe and a 3He temperature facility. The first single crystal NMR of any Mn12-based molecule was conducted on [Mn12O12(O2CCH2Br) 16(H2O)4]·4CH2Cl2 (Mn12-BrAc). Its 55Mn NMR spectrum, field dependence, angular dependence, and spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1) measurements were conducted. Most importantly, data are presented that (a) confirm the alteration of the magnetic core of these molecules when the samples are crushed into powder (a practice used in earlier studies), (b) show the presence of transverse hyperfine fields at the nuclear site, and (c) do not yield any evidence of temperature independent relaxation below 1 K, suggesting that QTM is not the dominant relaxation mechanism at these temperatures, in contrast to earlier studies. Data from single crystals of Mn12-Ac, the most studied SMM, concur with previous x-ray findings in that isomers are present. Such detailed information was not obtainable with powder samples. T 1-1 measurements over 400 mK--1 K indicate the existence of an energy barrier, in this case ˜1.65 K, which does not fit the current understanding of the electronic energy diagram. This value supports an earlier, yet unexplained observation of such a level by inelastic

  4. Instrumentation problems in the measurement of relaxation time T1 in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy-Willig, A.; Roucayrol, J.C.; Bittoun, J.; Courtieu, J.

    1986-01-01

    Longitudinal relaxation (T 1 ) of protons is a sensitive though non specific tool of tissue characterization. T 1 measurement from magnetic resonance images is unprecise, due to several phenomena that we review: time intervals shorter than in spectroscopic sequences; flip angle inhomogeneity; slice selection and spin echoes. In vivo the molecular inhomogeneity can prevent to measure a true T 1 ; motion and blood flow are important causes of errors. The relative effects of these factors are examined from in vitro and in vivo images acquired at 1.5 T. From a mono-echo single-slice saturation sequence reliable values of T 1 are obtained in vitro, the measurement time being compatible with clinical imaging. In vivo, problems due to various causes of motions are still unresolved [fr

  5. Detection of early gamma-postirradiation effects in murine spleen by proton NMR relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, G; Lewa, C J; Ramee, M P; Husson, F; De Certaines, J D

    2001-01-01

    It was our aim to evaluate the potential of proton relaxation times for the early detection of radiation-induced spleen changes. Female Swiss mice were irradiated with doses ranging from 0.05 Gy to 4 Gy. The body weight, the spleen weight and the spleen water content of single animals were determined. Measurements of longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) proton relaxation times of the spleen samples were performed in a 0.47 T spectrometer. Histological examinations of the control and irradiated organs were performed. NMR measurements during the first five days after irradiation showed that total body gamma-irradiation with doses from 1.5 Gy to 4 Gy results in decreasing T1 of the murine spleen. Significant shortening in T2 was observed for the spleen of animals irradiated with a dose of 4 Gy. Histological examinations demonstrated subnormal architecture in slices derived from animals irradiated with 2 Gy and 4 Gy. The fluctuations of the spleen T1 and T2 of irradiated mice are correlated with relative spleen weight and can be used to estimate radiation induced changes in this organ.

  6. T2 relaxation time in MR imaging of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, J.R.; McKay, A.; Mueller, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    To measure the T2 relaxation times of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma and to evaluate the influence of field strength and lung inflation on T2. Five healthy volunteers and five patients with diffuse lung disease were imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T. Excised normal pig lung was imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T and analyzed in a spectrometer at 2.0 T. Single-echo (Hahn) pulse sequences (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec) were compared with multiecho trains (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill [CPMG] at 0.15 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20-40-60... 240 msec) and 2.0 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 1, 2, 3,..., 10msec). T2 relaxation times calculated from single-echo sequences showed considerable variation between 0.15 and 2.0 T. T2 also changed with lung inflation. However, the T2 measurements on CPMG sequences did not change significantly (P > .05) with field strength and were only minimally affected by lung inflation. The mean ± SD T2 values for normal lung were 99 ± 8 and for abnormal lung were 84 ± 17. Lung parenchyma T2 measurements obtained with the use of conventional single-echo pulse sequences are variable and inaccurate because of inflation and field strength dependent magnetic susceptibility effects that lead to rapid nonrecoverable dephasing. The results indicate that multiecho sequences with appropriately short echo spacings yield more reproducible determinations of T2, which are independent of field strength and less dependent on lung inflation

  7. The relaxation time of processes in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ailing; Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relaxation time (RT) of the steady-state correlation function in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system under the presence of multiplicative and additive white noises and time delay. The noise correlation parameter λ can produce a critical behavior in the RT as functions of the multiplicative noise intensity D, the additive noise intensity Q and the time delay τ. That is, the RT decreases as the noise intensities D and Q increase, and increases as the time delay τ increases below the critical value of λ. However, above the critical value, the RT first increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases as D, Q and τ increase, i.e. a noise intensity D or Q and a time delay τ exist, at which the time scales of the relaxation process are at their largest. In addition, the additive noise intensity Q can also produce a critical behavior in the RT as a function of λ. The noise correlation parameter λ first increases the RT of processes, then decreases it below the critical value of Q. Above the critical value, λ increases it.

  8. Real-Time Observation of Ultrafast Intraband Relaxation and Exciton Multiplication in PbS Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El-Ballouli, Ala’a O.

    2014-03-19

    We examine ultrafast intraconduction band relaxation and multiple-exciton generation (MEG) in PbS quantum dots (QDs) using transient absorption spectroscopy with 120 fs temporal resolution. The intraconduction band relaxation can be directly and excellently resolved spectrally and temporally by applying broadband pump-probe spectroscopy to excite and detect the wavelengths around the exciton absorption peak, which is located in the near-infrared region. The time-resolved data unambiguously demonstrate that the intraband relaxation time progressively increases as the pump-photon energy increases. Moreover, the relaxation time becomes much shorter as the size of the QDs decreases, indicating the crucial role of spatial confinement in the intraband relaxation process. Additionally, our results reveal the systematic scaling of the intraband relaxation time with both excess energy above the effective energy band gap and QD size. We also assess MEG in different sizes of the QDs. Under the condition of high-energy photon excitation, which is well above the MEG energy threshold, ultrafast bleach recovery due to the nonradiative Auger recombination of the multiple electron-hole pairs provides conclusive experimental evidence for the presence of MEG. For instance, we achieved quantum efficiencies of 159, 129 and 106% per single-absorbed photon at pump photoexcition of three times the band gap for QDs with band gaps of 880 nm (1.41 eV), 1000 nm (1.24 eV) and 1210 nm (1.0 eV), respectively. These findings demonstrate clearly that the efficiency of transferring excess photon energy to carrier multiplication is significantly increased in smaller QDs compared with larger ones. Finally, we discuss the Auger recombination dynamics of the multiple electron-hole pairs as a function of QD size.

  9. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  10. The influence of measurement and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaobin; Zhou Youhe; Tu Shandong

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the magnetization and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors (HTSC) under varying magnetic field is studied using the fundamental electromagnetic field equations and the thermal diffusion equation; temperature variety corresponding to flux jump is also discussed. We find that for a low sweep rate of the applied magnetic field, the measurement and relaxation times can reduce flux jump and to constrain the number of flux jumps, even stabilizing the HTSC, since much heat produced by the motion of magnetic flux can transfer into coolant during the measurement and relaxation times. As high temperature superconductors are subjected to a high sweep rate or a strong pulsed magnetic field, magnetization undergoes from stability or oscillation to jump for different pause times. And the period of temperature oscillation is equal to the measurement and relaxation time.

  11. Isotope effect on hydrated electron relaxation dynamics studied with time-resolved liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2016-05-01

    The excited state relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron in H2O and D2O are investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy in a liquid microjet. The data show that the initial excited state decays on a time scale of 75 ± 12 fs in H2O and 102 ± 8 fs in D2O, followed by slower relaxation on time scales of 400 ± 70 fs and 390 ± 70 fs that are isotopically invariant within the precision of our measurements. Based on the time evolution of the transient signals, the faster and slower time constants are assigned to p → s internal conversion (IC) of the hydrated electron and relaxation on the ground electronic state, respectively. This assignment is consistent with the non-adiabatic mechanism for relaxation of the hydrated electron and yields an isotope effect of 1.4 ± 0.2 for IC of the hydrated electron.

  12. Contact problem for a solid indenter and a viscoelastic half-space described by the spectrum of relaxation and retardation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, F. I.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties of a material which is modeled by an exponential creep kernel characterized by a spectrum of relaxation and retardation times are studied. The research is carried out considering a contact problem for a solid indenter sliding over a viscoelastic half-space. The contact pressure, indentation depth of the indenter, and the deformation component of the friction coefficient are analyzed with respect to the case of half-space material modeled by single relaxation and retardation times.

  13. Angular momentum of phonons and its application to single-spin relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Jotaro J.; Kohno, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    We reexamine the relaxation process of a single spin embedded in an elastic medium, a problem studied recently by Garanin and Chudnovsky (GC) [Phys. Rev. B 92, 024421 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.024421] from the viewpoint of angular-momentum transfer. Using Noether's theorem, we identify two distinct angular momenta of the medium, one Newtonian discussed by GC and the other field-theoretical, both of which consist of an orbital part and a spin part. For both angular momenta, we found that the orbital part is as essential as the spin part in the relaxation process. In particular, the angular-momentum transfer from the (real) spin to the Newtonian orbital part may be considered as an incipient rotation that leads to the Einstein-de Haas effect.

  14. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  15. T2 relaxation times of irradiated vertebral bone marrow in patients with seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A; Maris, T; Vlahos, L

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to demonstrate the effects of localized radiotherapy on lumbar vertebral bone marrow with the use of quantitative MRI with measurements of T2 relaxation times. Ten patients with early stage testicular seminoma with a history of radiation therapy to a "dog-leg" field including the lumbar vertebrae underwent MR imaging of their lumbar spine using a 0.5 Tesla magnet. Five healthy subjects and two nonirradiated patients were imaged as well. The intervals from the beginning of radiotherapy to MRI examination varied from 1.5 to 52 months, and the radiation dose ranged from 3000-4200 cGy. The T2 relaxation times of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow and subcutaneous fat were calculated for each subject. Postirradiation bone marrow in irradiated seminoma patients exhibited significantly longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow in controls (71.1 vs. 63.6 ms, p = 0.047, t-test). The differences between the T2 relaxation times of bone marrow and subcutaneous fat for each subject allowed for even better differentiation between irradiated patients and controls (10.4 vs. 0.4 ms, p = 0.0004, t-test). Postirradiation bone marrow had significantly longer T2 relaxation times than subcutaneous fat in irradiated patients (N = 10, 71.1 vs. 60.7 ms, p = 0.00009, t-test), while nonirradiated bone marrow had T2 relaxation times not statistically different from subcutaneous fat in nonirradiated subjects (N = 7, 63.6 vs. 63.2 ms). Measurements of T2 relaxation times of bone marrow enabled us to differentiate between irradiated seminoma patients and controls. Postirradiation bone marrow undergoes late radiation effects resulting in longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow and subcutaneous fat.

  16. Thermal relaxation time of a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.A.; Hacyan, S.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a relativistic binary mixture is studied by means of a fully covariant formalism. Assuming both components to differ slightly in temperature, an application of the relativistic Boltzmann equation yields general expressions for the energy transfer rate and for the relaxation time of the system. The resulting relation is then applied to a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos to obtain numerical values of its relaxation time. (author)

  17. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation time in mixed alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannus, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using magneto-optic techniques the ground state spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of 'F' centers in mixed Alkali Halide cristals (KCl-KBr), was studied. A computer assisted system to optically measure short relaxation times (approx. = 1mS), was described. The technique is based on the measurement of the Magnetic Circular Dicroism (MCD) presented by F centers. The T1 magnetic field dependency at 2 K (up to 65 KGauss), was obtained as well as the MCD spectra for different relative concentration at the mixed matrices. The theory developed by Panepucci and Mollenauer for F centers spin-lattice relaxation in pure matrices was modified to explain the behaviour of T1 in mixed cristals. The Direct Process results (T approx. = 2.0 K) compared against that theory shows that the main relaxation mecanism, up to 25 KGauss, continues to be phonon modulation of the hiperfine iteraction between F electrons and surrounding nuclei. (Author) [pt

  18. Real-time relaxation and kinetics in hot scalar QED: Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de; Holman, R.; Kumar, S.P.; Pisarski, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The real time evolution of non-equilibrium expectation values with soft length scales ∼k -1 >(eT) -1 is solved in hot scalar electrodynamics, with a view towards understanding relaxational phenomena in the QGP and the electroweak plasma. We find that the gauge invariant non-equilibrium expectation values relax via power laws to asymptotic amplitudes that are determined by the quasiparticle poles. The long time relaxational dynamics and relevant time scales are determined by the behavior of the retarded self-energy not at the small frequencies, but at the Landau damping thresholds. This explains the presence of power laws and not of exponential decay. In the process we rederive the HTL effective action using non-equilibrium field theory. Furthermore we obtain the influence functional, the Langevin equation and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the soft modes, identifying the correlators that emerge in the classical limit. We show that a Markovian approximation fails to describe the dynamics both at short and long times. We find that the distribution function for soft quasiparticles relaxes with a power law through Landau damping. We also introduce a novel kinetic approach that goes beyond the standard Boltzmann equation by incorporating off-shell processes and find that the distribution function for soft quasiparticles relaxes with a power law through Landau damping. We find an unusual dressing dynamics of bare particles and anomalous (logarithmic) relaxation of hard quasiparticles. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Single-molecule supercoil-relaxation assay as a screening tool to determine the mechanism and efficacy of human topoisomerase IB inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Zhang, Hongliang; Agama, Keli; Lorence, Nicholas; Pommier, Yves; Neuman, Keir C.

    2015-01-01

    Human nuclear type IB topoisomerase (Top1) inhibitors are widely used and powerful anti-cancer agents. In this study, we introduce and validate a single-molecule supercoil relaxation assay as a molecular pharmacology tool for characterizing therapeutically relevant Top1 inhibitors. Using this assay, we determined the effects on Top1 supercoil relaxation activity of four Top1 inhibitors; three clinically relevant: camptothecin, LMP-400, LMP-776 (both indenoisoquinoline derivatives), and one natural product in preclinical development, lamellarin-D. Our results demonstrate that Top1 inhibitors have two distinct effects on Top1 activity: a decrease in supercoil relaxation rate and an increase in religation inhibition. The type and magnitude of the inhibition mode depend both on the specific inhibitor and on the topology of the DNA substrate. In general, the efficacy of inhibition is significantly higher with supercoiled than with relaxed DNA substrates. Comparing single-molecule inhibition with cell growth inhibition (IC50) measurements showed a correlation between the binding time of the Top1 inhibitors and their cytotoxic efficacy, independent of the mode of inhibition. This study demonstrates that the single-molecule supercoil relaxation assay is a sensitive method to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of Top1 inhibitors and is relevant for the cellular efficacy of Top1 inhibitors. PMID:26351326

  20. Attractors of relaxation discrete-time systems with chaotic dynamics on a fast time scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikov, Oleg V.; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new type of relaxation systems is considered. Their prominent feature is that they comprise two distinct epochs, one is slow regular motion and another is fast chaotic motion. Unlike traditionally studied slow-fast systems that have smooth manifolds of slow motions in the phase space and fast trajectories between them, in this new type one observes, apart the same geometric objects, areas of transient chaos. Alternating periods of slow regular motions and fast chaotic ones as well as transitions between them result in a specific chaotic attractor with chaos on a fast time scale. We formulate basic properties of such attractors in the framework of discrete-time systems and consider several examples. Finally, we provide an important application of such systems, the neuronal electrical activity in the form of chaotic spike-burst oscillations.

  1. Anisotropy barrier reduction in fast-relaxing Mn12 single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen; Murugesu, Muralee; Christou, George

    2009-11-01

    An angle-swept high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) technique is described that facilitates efficient in situ alignment of single-crystal samples containing low-symmetry magnetic species such as single-molecule magnets (SMMs). This cavity-based technique involves recording HFEPR spectra at fixed frequency and field, while sweeping the applied field orientation. The method is applied to the study of a low-symmetry Jahn-Teller variant of the extensively studied spin S=10 Mn12 SMMs (e.g., Mn12 -acetate). The low-symmetry complex also exhibits SMM behavior, but with a significantly reduced effective barrier to magnetization reversal (Ueff≈43K) and, hence, faster relaxation at low temperature in comparison with the higher-symmetry species. Mn12 complexes that crystallize in lower symmetry structures exhibit a tendency for one or more of the Jahn-Teller axes associated with the MnIII atoms to be abnormally oriented, which is believed to be the cause of the faster relaxation. An extensive multi-high-frequency angle-swept and field-swept electron paramagnetic resonance study of [Mn12O12(O2CCH2But)16(H2O)4]ṡCH2Cl2ṡMeNO2 is presented in order to examine the influence of the abnormally oriented Jahn-Teller axis on the effective barrier to magnetization reversal. The reduction in the axial anisotropy, D , is found to be insufficient to account for the nearly 40% reduction in Ueff . However, the reduced symmetry of the Mn12 core gives rise to a very significant second-order transverse (rhombic) zero-field-splitting anisotropy, E≈D/6 . This, in turn, causes a significant mixing of spin projection states well below the top of the classical anisotropy barrier. Thus, magnetic quantum tunneling is the dominant factor contributing to the effective barrier reduction in fast relaxing Mn12 SMMs.

  2. Time-Dependent Behaviors of Granite: Loading-Rate Dependence, Creep, and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, K.; Fukui, K.

    2016-07-01

    To assess the long-term stability of underground structures, it is important to understand the time-dependent behaviors of rocks, such as their loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. However, there have been fewer studies on crystalline rocks than on tuff, mudstone, and rock salt, because the high strength of crystalline rocks makes the detection of their time-dependent behaviors much more difficult. Moreover, studies on the relaxation, temporal change of stress and strain (TCSS) conditions, and relations between various time-dependent behaviors are scarce for not only granites, but also other rocks. In this study, previous reports on the time-dependent behaviors of granites were reviewed and various laboratory tests were conducted using Toki granite. These tests included an alternating-loading-rate test, creep test, relaxation test, and TCSS test. The results showed that the degree of time dependence of Toki granite is similar to other granites, and that the TCSS resembles the stress-relaxation curve and creep-strain curve. A viscoelastic constitutive model, proposed in a previous study, was modified to investigate the relations between the time-dependent behaviors in the pre- and post-peak regions. The modified model reproduced the stress-strain curve, creep, relaxation, and the results of the TCSS test. Based on a comparison of the results of the laboratory tests and numerical simulations, close relations between the time-dependent behaviors were revealed quantitatively.

  3. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  4. Time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in nanostructured copper: Stress relaxation tests and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Guo-Yong; Zhai, Hui-Ru; Dai, L.H.; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, stress relaxation tests, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted on coarse-grained (cg), nanograined (ng), and nanotwinned (nt) copper at temperatures of 22 °C (RT), 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, and 75 °C. The comprehensive investigations provide sufficient information for the building-up of a formula to describe the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation and clarify the relationship among the strain rate sensitivity parameter, stress exponent, and activation volume. The typically experimental curves of logarithmic plastic strain rate versus stress exhibited a three staged relaxation process from a linear high stress relaxation region to a subsequent nonlinear stress relaxation region and finally to a linear low stress relaxation region, which only showed-up at the test temperatures higher than 22 °C, 22 °C, and 30 °C, respectively, in the tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens. The values of stress exponent, stress-independent activation energy, and activation volume were determined from the experimental data in the two linear regions. The determined activation parameters, HRTEM images, and MD simulations consistently suggest that dislocation-mediated plastic deformation is predominant in all tested cg-, ng-, and nt-Cu specimens in the initial linear high stress relaxation region at the five relaxation temperatures, whereas in the linear low stress relaxation region, the grain boundary (GB) diffusion-associated deformation is dominant in the ng- and cg-Cu specimens, while twin boundary (TB) migration, i.e., twinning and detwinning with parallel partial dislocations, governs the time, stress, and temperature-dependent deformation in the nt-Cu specimens.

  5. Space and time dynamical heterogeneity in glassy relaxation. The role of democratic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appignanesi, G A; Rodriguez Fris, J A

    2009-01-01

    In this work we review recent computational advances in the understanding of the relaxation dynamics of supercooled glass-forming liquids. In such a supercooled regime these systems experience a striking dynamical slowing down which can be rationalized in terms of the picture of dynamical heterogeneities, wherein the dynamics can vary by orders of magnitude from one region of the sample to another and where the sizes and timescales of such slowly relaxing regions are expected to increase considerably as the temperature is decreased. We shall focus on the relaxation events at a microscopic level and describe the finding of the collective motions of particles responsible for the dynamical heterogeneities. In so doing, we shall demonstrate that the dynamics in different regions of the system is not only heterogeneous in space but also in time. In particular, we shall be interested in the events relevant to the long-time structural relaxation or α relaxation. In this regard, we shall focus on the discovery of cooperatively relaxing units involving the collective motion of relatively compact clusters of particles, called 'democratic clusters' or d-clusters. These events have been shown to trigger transitions between metabasins of the potential energy landscape (collections of similar configurations or structures) and to consist of the main steps in the α relaxation. Such events emerge in systems quite different in nature such as simple model glass formers and supercooled amorphous water. Additionally, another relevant issue in this context consists in the determination of a link between structure and dynamics. In this context, we describe the relationship between the d-cluster events and the constraints that the local structure poses on the relaxation dynamics, thus revealing their role in reformulating structural constraints. (topical review)

  6. Correlation of carrier localization with relaxation time distribution and electrical conductivity relaxation in silver-nanoparticle-embedded moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2014-02-01

    The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.

  7. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...

  8. Only through perturbation can relaxation times be estimated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ditlevsen, S.; Lánský, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 5 (2012), 050102-5 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0282; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : stochastic diffusion * parameter estimation * time constant Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.313, year: 2012

  9. Dielectric relaxation and hydrogen bonding interaction in xylitol-water mixtures using time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rander, D. N.; Joshi, Y. S.; Kanse, K. S.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The measurements of complex dielectric permittivity of xylitol-water mixtures have been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz-30 GHz using a time domain reflectometry technique. Measurements have been done at six temperatures from 0 to 25 °C and at different weight fractions of xylitol (0 xylitol-water can be well described by Cole-Davidson model having an asymmetric distribution of relaxation times. The dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant and relaxation time for the mixtures have been evaluated. The molecular interaction between xylitol and water molecules is discussed using the Kirkwood correlation factor ( g eff ) and thermodynamic parameter.

  10. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  11. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Daedzinski, Bernard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kim, Dong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component.

  12. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal; Daedzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component

  13. Understanding generalized inversions of nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J.; Chandrasekera, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time T2, measured using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) experiment, is a powerful method for obtaining unique information on liquids confined in porous media. Furthermore, T2 provides structural information on the porous material itself and has many applications in petrophysics, biophysics, and chemical engineering. Robust interpretation of T2 distributions demands appropriate processing of the measured data since T2 is influenced by diffusion through magnetic field inhomogeneities occurring at the pore scale, caused by the liquid/solid susceptibility contrast. Previously, we introduced a generic model for the diffusion exponent of the form -ant_e^k (where n is the number and te the temporal separation of spin echoes, and a is a composite diffusion parameter) in order to distinguish the influence of relaxation and diffusion in CPMG data. Here, we improve the analysis by introducing an automatic search for the optimum power k that best describes the diffusion behavior. This automated method is more efficient than the manual trial-and-error grid search adopted previously, and avoids variability through subjective judgments of experimentalists. Although our method does not avoid the inherent assumption that the diffusion exponent depends on a single k value, we show through simulation and experiment that it is robust in measurements of heterogeneous systems that violate this assumption. In this way, we obtain quantitative T2 distributions from complicated porous structures and demonstrate the analysis with examples of ceramics used for filtration and catalysis, and limestone of relevance to the construction and petroleum industries.

  14. Spin-relaxation time in the impurity band of wurtzite semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborenea, Pablo I.; Wellens, Thomas; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.

    2017-09-01

    The spin-relaxation time for electrons in the impurity band of semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structure is determined. The effective Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian is taken as the source of the spin relaxation at low temperature and for doping densities corresponding to the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition. The spin-flip hopping matrix elements between impurity states are calculated and used to set up a tight-binding Hamiltonian that incorporates the symmetries of wurtzite semiconductors. The spin-relaxation time is obtained from a semiclassical model of spin diffusion, as well as from a microscopic self-consistent diagrammatic theory of spin and charge diffusion in doped semiconductors. Estimates are provided for particularly important materials. The theoretical spin-relaxation times compare favorably with the corresponding low-temperature measurements in GaN and ZnO. For InN and AlN we predict that tuning of the spin-orbit coupling constant induced by an external potential leads to a potentially dramatic increase of the spin-relaxation time related to the mechanism under study.

  15. Real-time observation of cascaded electronic relaxation processes in p-Fluorotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiaoli; Deng, Xulan; Long, Jinyou; Wang, Yanmei; Abulimiti, Bumaliya; Zhang, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Ultrafast electronic relaxation processes following two photoexcitation of 400 nm in p-Fluorotoluene (pFT) have been investigated utilizing time-resolved photoelectron imaging coupled with time-resolved mass spectroscopy. Cascaded electronic relaxation processes started from the electronically excited S2 state are directly imaged in real time and well characterized by two distinct time constants of 85 ± 10 fs and 2.4 ± 0.3 ps. The rapid component corresponds to the lifetime of the initially excited S2 state, including the structure relaxation from the Franck-Condon region to the conical intersection of S2/S1 and the subsequent internal conversion to the highly excited S1 state. While, the slower relaxation constant is attributed to the further internal conversion to the high levels of S0 from the secondarily populated S1 locating in the channel three region. Moreover, dynamical differences with benzene and toluene of analogous structures, including, specifically, the slightly slower relaxation rate of S2 and the evidently faster decay of S1, are also presented and tentatively interpreted as the substituent effects. In addition, photoelectron kinetic energy and angular distributions reveal the feature of accidental resonances with low-lying Rydberg states (the 3p, 4s and 4p states) during the multi-photon ionization process, providing totally unexpected but very interesting information for pFT.

  16. Chemical exchange effects during refocusing pulses in constant-time CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint, Wazo; Ishima, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of the constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CT-CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiment, chemical exchange parameters, such as rate of exchange and population of the exchanging species, are typically optimized using equations that predict experimental relaxation rates recorded as a function of effective field strength. In this process, the effect of chemical exchange during the CPMG pulses is typically assumed to be the same as during the free-precession. This approximation may introduce systematic errors into the analysis of data because the number of CPMG pulses is incremented during the constant-time relaxation period, and the total pulse duration therefore varies as a function of the effective field strength. In order to estimate the size of such errors, we simulate the time-dependence of magnetization during the entire constant time period, explicitly taking into account the effect of the CPMG pulses on the spin relaxation rate. We show that in general the difference in the relaxation dispersion profile calculated using a practical pulse width from that calculated using an extremely short pulse width is small, but under certain circumstances can exceed 1 s -1 . The difference increases significantly when CPMG pulses are miscalibrated

  17. Stress-relaxation tests in the work-hardening regime of tungsten single crystals below 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, D.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of work hardening on the results of stress-relaxation tests was studied for highly pure tungsten single crystals isothermally deformed at four temperatures of 274, 241, 131, and 78 K. A method accounting for strong work hardening on the determination of the strain-rate sensitivity from stress-relaxation tests is introduced by establishing special diagrams of SR tests denoted as YX diagrams

  18. Study of dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity of InP:S single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, H. A. M.; El-Shazly, E. A.

    2012-07-01

    The dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity of InP:S single crystal were studied in the frequency range from 100 to 5.25 × 105 Hz and in the temperature range from 296 to 455 K. The dependence of the dielectric constant (ɛ1) and the dielectric loss (ɛ2) on both frequency and temperature was investigated. Since no peak was observed on the dielectric loss, we used a method based on the electric modulus to evaluate the activation energy of the dielectric relaxation. Scaling of the electric modulus spectra showed that the charge transport dynamics is independent of temperature. The AC conductivity (σAC) was found to obey the power law: Aωs. Analysis of the AC conductivity data and the frequency exponent showed that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is the dominant mechanism for the AC conduction. The variation of AC conductivity with temperature at different frequencies showed that σAC is a thermally activated process.

  19. Photoacoustic Determination of Non-radiative Relaxation Time of Absorbing Centers in Maize Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2017-07-01

    Using non-destructive photothermal techniques, it is possible to characterize non-homogenous materials to obtain its optical and thermal properties through photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). In photoacoustic (PA) phenomena, there are transient states of thermal excitation, when samples absorb the incident light; these states manifest an excitation process that generates the PA signal, being in direct relation with the non-radiative relaxation times with the sample absorbent centers. The objective of this study was to determine the non-radiative relaxation times associated with different absorbent centers of corn seeds ( Zea mays L.), by using PAS. A frequency scan was done at different wavelengths (350 nm, 470 nm and 650 nm) in order to obtain the non-radiative relaxation times with different types of maize seeds.

  20. The time-dependence of exchange-induced relaxation during modulated radio frequency pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Dennis J; Michaeli, Shalom; Garwood, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The problem of the relaxation of identical spins 1/2 induced by chemical exchange between spins with different chemical shifts in the presence of time-dependent RF irradiation (in the first rotating frame) is considered for the fast exchange regime. The solution for the time evolution under the chemical exchange Hamiltonian in the tilted doubly rotating frame (TDRF) is presented. Detailed derivation is specified to the case of a two-site chemical exchange system with complete randomization between jumps of the exchanging spins. The derived theory can be applied to describe the modulation of the chemical exchange relaxation rate constants when using a train of adiabatic pulses, such as the hyperbolic secant pulse. Theory presented is valid for quantification of the exchange-induced time-dependent rotating frame longitudinal T1rho,ex and transverse T2rho,ex relaxations in the fast chemical exchange regime.

  1. Energy-level statistics and time relaxation in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruver, J.L.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Aliaga, J.; Mello, P.A.; Proto, A.N.

    1997-05-01

    We study a quantum-mechanical system, prepared, at t = 0, in a model state, that subsequently decays into a sea of other states whose energy levels form a discrete spectrum with given statistical properties. An important quantity is the survival probability P(t), defined as the probability, at time t, to find the system in the original model state. Our main purpose is to analyze the influence of the discreteness and statistical properties of the spectrum on the behavior of P(t). Since P(t) itself is a statistical quantity, we restrict our attention to its ensemble average , which is calculated analytically using random-matrix techniques, within certain approximations discussed in the text. We find, for , an exponential decay, followed by a revival, governed by the two-point structure of the statistical spectrum, thus giving a nonzero asymptotic value for large t's. The analytic result compares well with a number of computer simulations, over a time range discussed in the text. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig

  2. On-chip Brownian relaxation measurements of magnetic nanobeads in the time domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2013-01-01

    the time and frequency domain methods on Brownian relaxation detection of clustering of streptavidin coated magnetic beads in the presence of different concentrations of biotin-conjugated bovine serum albumin and obtain comparable results. In the time domain, a measurement is carried out in less than 30 s...

  3. Deconvolution analysis to determine relaxation time spectra of internal friction peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for analysis of an internal friction vs temperature peak to obtain an approximation of the spectrum of relaxation time responsible for the peak is described. This method, referred to as direct spectrum analysis (DSA), is shown to provide an accurate estimate of the distribution of relaxation times. The method is validated for various spectra, and it is shown that: (1) It provides approximations to known input spectra which replicate the position, amplitude, width and shape with good accuracy (typically 10%). (2) It does not yield approximations which have false spectral peaks

  4. Relaxation time measurements of white and grey matter in multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Appel, B.; Moens, E.; Academisch Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp

    1987-01-01

    In a patient population of some 450 with definite, probable, and possible multiple sclerosis referred to us for MRI, some 40 suffering from definite MS were chosen randomly for relaxation time measurements of plaque-free grey and white matter. T 1 values could not be used for diagnostic purposes owing to their broad standard deviation. Overall white matter T 2 was slightly higher in MS patients than in a non-MS population (94 ms versus 89 ms). Because these changes are not visible in MR images, relaxation time measurements may prove valuable for differential diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  5. Menstrual variation of breast volume and T2 relaxation times in cyclical mastalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Zainab; Brooks, Jonathan; Percy, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Hormonal activity causes breast volume to change during the menstrual cycle. One possible cause of this volume change is thought to be due to water retention or oedema within the tissues. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the variation in breast volume and 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure T 2 relaxation times which are known to increase with increasing tissue water content. We hypothesised that an increase in breast volume will elevate T 2 relaxation due to the presence of an increased water content within the breast. T 2 Relaxation time and volume were studied in fifteen control subjects and in a cohort of eight patients with cyclical mastalgia in order to determine whether changes in breast volume and T 2 relaxation times differed in controls and patients during menses, ovulation and premenses. Method: Breast volume was determined by the Cavalieri method in combination with point counting techniques on MR images and T 2 relaxation times of the water and fat in a voxel of breast tissue were obtained using 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated highly significant differences in breast volume between the three stages of the cycle (p 2 of fat or water did not depend on stage of cycle. T-tests demonstrated no significant differences in T 2 of water or fat between patient and control groups. The average T 2 relaxation time of water was lowest in the patient and control groups during ovulation and highest in the patient group during premenses. Conclusion: We have performed the first combined volumetric and spectroscopic study of women with cyclical mastalgia and demonstrated that the global changes in volumes and T 2 were not significantly different from normal menstrual variations

  6. The effects of bone on proton NMR relaxation times of surrounding liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. A.; Genant, H. K.; Dunham, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary attempts by our group at UCSF to assess fat content of vertebral marrow in the lumbar spine using relaxation time information demonstrated that the presence of trabecular bone affects relaxation times. The objective of this work was a thorough study of the effects of bone on NMR relaxation characteristics of surrounding liquids. Trabecular bone from autopsy specimens was ground up and sifted into a series of powders with graded densities ranging from 0.3 gm/cc to 0.8 gm/cc. Each powder was placed first in n-saline and then in cottonseed oil. With spectroscopy, spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and effective spin-spin relaxation times (T2*) were measured for each liquid in each bone powder. As bone density and surface to volume ratio increased, T1 decreased faster for saline than for oil. T2* decreased significantly for both water and oil as the surface to volume ratio increased. It was concluded that effects of water on T1 could be explained by a surface interaction at the bone/liquid interface, which restricted rotational and translational motion of nearby molecules. The T1s of oil were not affected since oil molecules are nonpolar, do not participate in significant intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and therefore would not be expected to interact strongly with the bone surface. Effects on T2* could be explained by local magnetic field inhomogeneities created by discontinuous magnetic susceptibility near the bone surface. These preliminary results suggest that water in contact with trabecular bone in vivo will exhibit shortened relaxation times.

  7. 31P spin-lattice relaxation time measurements in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Eiji; Maeda, Munehiro; Kuki, Satoru; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) of phosphorus compounds in the perfused heart, liver, kidney and erythrocytes of rats were measured by the DESPOT (Driven-equilibrium single-pulse observation of T 1 ) method at 8.45 T. This method is a rapid and accurate technique for the measurement of T 1 values. T 1 values of phosphomonoesters (PME), 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and three phosphates of ATP were ranged from 0.15±0.02 sec (β-ATP in the liver) to 8.5±1.6 sec (PDE in the kidney). T 1 value of β-ATP in the liver was 1/4-1/5 of those in the mandibular gland, heart, erythrocytes and kidney. T 1 values obtained from biological materials are useful for selecting the optimal pulse repetition times and pulse angles to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of 13 P spectra, and for correcting distortions of signal intensities in the spectra. (author)

  8. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  9. An open-source software tool for the generation of relaxation time maps in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messroghli, Daniel R; Rudolph, Andre; Abdel-Aty, Hassan; Wassmuth, Ralf; Kühne, Titus; Dietz, Rainer; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization. After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI) T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data. MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet

  10. An open-source software tool for the generation of relaxation time maps in magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Titus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In magnetic resonance (MR imaging, T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times represent characteristic tissue properties that can be quantified with the help of specific imaging strategies. While there are basic software tools for specific pulse sequences, until now there is no universal software program available to automate pixel-wise mapping of relaxation times from various types of images or MR systems. Such a software program would allow researchers to test and compare new imaging strategies and thus would significantly facilitate research in the area of quantitative tissue characterization. Results After defining requirements for a universal MR mapping tool, a software program named MRmap was created using a high-level graphics language. Additional features include a manual registration tool for source images with motion artifacts and a tabular DICOM viewer to examine pulse sequence parameters. MRmap was successfully tested on three different computer platforms with image data from three different MR system manufacturers and five different sorts of pulse sequences: multi-image inversion recovery T1; Look-Locker/TOMROP T1; modified Look-Locker (MOLLI T1; single-echo T2/T2*; and multi-echo T2/T2*. Computing times varied between 2 and 113 seconds. Estimates of relaxation times compared favorably to those obtained from non-automated curve fitting. Completed maps were exported in DICOM format and could be read in standard software packages used for analysis of clinical and research MR data. Conclusions MRmap is a flexible cross-platform research tool that enables accurate mapping of relaxation times from various pulse sequences. The software allows researchers to optimize quantitative MR strategies in a manufacturer-independent fashion. The program and its source code were made available as open-source software on the internet.

  11. Large lateral photovoltaic effect with ultrafast relaxation time in SnSe/Si junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianjie; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Chang; Zhang, Yang; Song, Bingqian; Zhang, Lingli; Liu, Weilong; Lv, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Sui, Yu, E-mail: suiyu@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Jinke [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States); Song, Bo, E-mail: songbo@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, we report a large lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) with ultrafast relaxation time in SnSe/p-Si junctions. The LPE shows a linear dependence on the position of the laser spot, and the position sensitivity is as high as 250 mV mm{sup −1}. The optical response time and the relaxation time of the LPE are about 100 ns and 2 μs, respectively. The current-voltage curve on the surface of the SnSe film indicates the formation of an inversion layer at the SnSe/p-Si interface. Our results clearly suggest that most of the excited-electrons diffuse laterally in the inversion layer at the SnSe/p-Si interface, which results in a large LPE with ultrafast relaxation time. The high positional sensitivity and ultrafast relaxation time of the LPE make the SnSe/p-Si junction a promising candidate for a wide range of optoelectronic applications.

  12. Isotope effect on hydrated electron relaxation dynamics studied with time-resolved liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumark, Daniel M., E-mail: dneumark@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    The excited state relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O are investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy in a liquid microjet. The data show that the initial excited state decays on a time scale of 75 ± 12 fs in H{sub 2}O and 102 ± 8 fs in D{sub 2}O, followed by slower relaxation on time scales of 400 ± 70 fs and 390 ± 70 fs that are isotopically invariant within the precision of our measurements. Based on the time evolution of the transient signals, the faster and slower time constants are assigned to p → s internal conversion (IC) of the hydrated electron and relaxation on the ground electronic state, respectively. This assignment is consistent with the non-adiabatic mechanism for relaxation of the hydrated electron and yields an isotope effect of 1.4 ± 0.2 for IC of the hydrated electron.

  13. Multiple-decker phthalocyaninato dinuclear lanthanoid(III) single-molecule magnets with dual-magnetic relaxation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Keiichi; Horii, Yoji; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Toriumi, Koshiro; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-11-28

    The SMM behaviour of dinuclear Ln(III)-Pc multiple-decker complexes (Ln = Tb(3+) and Dy(3+)) with energy barriers and slow-relaxation behaviour were explained by using X-ray crystallography and static and dynamic susceptibility measurements. In particular, interactions among the 4f electrons of several dinuclear Ln(III)-Pc type SMMs have never been discussed on the basis of the crystal structure. For dinuclear Tb(III)-Pc complexes, a dual magnetic relaxation process was observed. The relaxation processes are due to the anisotropic centres. Our results clearly show that the two Tb(3+) ion sites are equivalent and are consistent with the crystal structure. On the other hand, the mononuclear Tb(III)-Pc complex exhibited only a single magnetic relaxation process. This is clear evidence that the magnetic relaxation mechanism depends heavily on the dipole-dipole (f-f) interactions between the Tb(3+) ions in the dinuclear systems. Furthermore, the SMM behaviour of dinuclear Dy(III)-Pc type SMMs with smaller energy barriers compared with that of Tb(III)-Pc and slow-relaxation behaviour was explained. Dinuclear Dy(III)-Pc SMMs exhibited single-component magnetic relaxation behaviour. The results indicate that the magnetic relaxation properties of dinuclear Ln(III)-Pc multiple-decker complexes are affected by the local molecular symmetry and are extremely sensitive to tiny distortions in the coordination geometry. In other words, the spatial arrangement of the Ln(3+) ions (f-f interactions) in the crystal is important. Our work shows that the SMM properties can be fine-tuned by introducing weak intermolecular magnetic interactions in a controlled SMM spatial arrangement.

  14. 31-P Relaxation times of metabolic compounds in tumors grafted in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, C.; Benabid, A.L.; Jacrot, M.; Riondel, J.; Albrand, J.P.; Decorps, M.

    1985-08-01

    The observation that water proton relaxation rates were longer in tumors than in normal tissues provided a basis for the detection of human tumors by the NMR imaging technique. To evaluate the potentiality of 31-P NMR spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool of the pathological state of tissues, T1 and T2 relaxation times have been measured for the phosphates of ATP, inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphomonoesters (PME) and phosphocreatine (PCr) in the 31-P NMR spectra obtained in vivo for normal rat brain and rat brain tumors implanted in nude mice

  15. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by 55Mn-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal (H Z ) and transverse (H T ) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H T is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier

  16. Distribution of relaxation times in (KBr)/sub 0.5/(KCN)/sub 0.5/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birge, N.O.; Jeong, Y.H.; Nagel, S.R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Susman, S.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the dielectric response of (KBr)/sub 0.5/(KCN)/sub 0.5/ covering nine decades of frequency are reported. We have shown how the relaxation times proliferate as the temperature is lowered. The anomalously wide distribution of relaxation times can be generated from a Gaussian distribution of energy barriers. As temperature is decreased not only does the spread of relaxation times increase, but more importantly the width of the distribution of activation energies itself increases

  17. Experimental investigations of relaxation times of gel electrolytes during polymerization by MR methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Radim; Vondrák, J.; Bartušek, Karel; Sedlaříková, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2013), s. 2109-2114 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Gel electrolyte * Relaxation times * Polarization * Nuclear magnetic resonance Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2013

  18. Time stepping free numerical solution of linear differential equations: Krylov subspace versus waveform relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Oseledets, I.V.; Tyrtyshnikov, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we propose an efficient implementation of the continuous time waveform relaxation method based on block Krylov subspaces. Second, we compare this new implementation against Krylov subspace methods combined with the shift and invert technique.

  19. Source of non-arrhenius average relaxation time in glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1998-01-01

    then discuss a recently proposed model according to which the activation energy of the average relaxation time is determined by the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid to create space needed for a "flow event". In this model, which is based on the fact that intermolecular interactions...

  20. MR pulse sequences for selective relaxation time measurements: a phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Jensen, M

    1990-01-01

    a Siemens Magnetom wholebody magnetic resonance scanner operating at 1.5 Tesla was used. For comparison six imaging pulse sequences for relaxation time measurements were tested on the same phantom. The spectroscopic pulse sequences all had an accuracy better than 10% of the reference values....

  1. Experimental study of electric field influence on low temperature long-time relaxation in crystalline ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, S.; Kolac, M.; Sahling, A.

    1987-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements with polycrystalline Pb 0.915 La 0.085 x(Zr 0.65 Ti 0.35 )O 3 were performed at helium temperatures in electric field E (0 ≤ E ≤ 4.3 kV/cm). Heat release after cooling from T 1 (1.3 K ≤ T 1 ≤ 35 K) to T 0 =1.3 K is very similar to that in amorphous metals and dielectrics. Experimental results disagree with the standard tunneling model. The observed release may be explained assuming the existence of a maximum energy is an element of f in the distribution function. The maximum relaxation time τ max was found as a function of T 1 . A similar heat release is observed after switching on or off the electric field. In dependent of T for 1.1 K ≤ T ≤ 3 K, proportional to E 2 with τ max ∼ E. No heat release was observed in the KH 2 PO 4 single crystal

  2. Associated relaxation time and the correlation function for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Wei Qun; Mei Dongcheng

    2008-01-01

    The associated relaxation time T c and the normalized correlation function C(s) for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises are investigated. Using the Novikov theorem and Fox approach, the steady probability distribution is obtained. Based on them, the expressions of T c and C(s) are derived by means of projection operator method, in which the effects of the memory kernels of the correlation function are taken into account. Performing the numerical computations, it is found: (1) With the cross-correlation intensity |λ|, the additive noise intensity α and the multiplicative noise self-correlation time τ 1 increasing, the tumor cell numbers can be restrained; And the cross-correlation time τ 3 , the multiplicative noise intensity D can induce the tumor cell numbers increasing; However, the additive noise self-correlation time τ 2 cannot affect the tumor cell numbers; The relaxation time T c is a stochastic resonant phenomenon, and the distribution curves exhibit a single-maximum structure with D increasing. (2) The cross-correlation strength λ weakens the related activity between two states of the tumor cell numbers at different time, and enhances the stability of the tumor cell growth system in the steady state; On the contrast, τ 1 and τ 3 enhance the related activity between two states at different time; However, τ 2 has no effect on the related activity between two states at different time

  3. Associated relaxation time and the correlation function for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Can-Jun; Wei, Qun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2008-03-01

    The associated relaxation time T and the normalized correlation function C(s) for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises are investigated. Using the Novikov theorem and Fox approach, the steady probability distribution is obtained. Based on them, the expressions of T and C(s) are derived by means of projection operator method, in which the effects of the memory kernels of the correlation function are taken into account. Performing the numerical computations, it is found: (1) With the cross-correlation intensity |λ|, the additive noise intensity α and the multiplicative noise self-correlation time τ increasing, the tumor cell numbers can be restrained; And the cross-correlation time τ, the multiplicative noise intensity D can induce the tumor cell numbers increasing; However, the additive noise self-correlation time τ cannot affect the tumor cell numbers; The relaxation time T is a stochastic resonant phenomenon, and the distribution curves exhibit a single-maximum structure with D increasing. (2) The cross-correlation strength λ weakens the related activity between two states of the tumor cell numbers at different time, and enhances the stability of the tumor cell growth system in the steady state; On the contrast, τ and τ enhance the related activity between two states at different time; However, τ has no effect on the related activity between two states at different time.

  4. Solid state dewetting and stress relaxation in a thin single crystalline Ni film on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, E.; Amram, D.; Alster, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we deposited a 80 nm thick single crystalline Ni film on a sapphire substrate. Heat treatment of this film at 1000 °C followed by slow cooling resulted in the formation of faceted holes, star-like channel instabilities and faceted microwires. The ridges at the rims of faceted holes and channels exhibited a twinning orientation relationship with the rest of the film. A sub-nanometer-high hexagonal topography pattern on the surface of the unperturbed film was observed by atomic force microscopy. No such pattern was observed on the top facets of isolated Ni particles and hole ridges. We discuss the observed dewetting patterns in terms of the effects of Ni surface anisotropy and faceting on solid state dewetting. The hexagonal pattern on the surface of the unperturbed film was attributed to thermal stress relaxation in the film via dislocations glide. This work demonstrates that solid state dewetting of single crystalline metal films can be utilized for film patterning and for producing hierarchical surface topographies

  5. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  6. TOMROP: a sequence for determining the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graumann, R.; Barfuss, H.; Fischer, H.; Hentschel, D.; Oppelt, A.

    1987-01-01

    We developed the pulse sequence TOMROP (T One by Multiple Read Out Pulses) for determining precisely the spatial distribution of the longitudinal relaxation time T 1 in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): a series of small-angle selection pulses is used to read out longitudinal magnetization from its initial state till thermal equilibrium. Hence, one measurement will produce several images with different T 1 weightings whose pixel brilliance depends exponentially from read-out time. T 1 can be determined from these independent of initial magnetization and selection pulse angle. The measuring time corresponds to the time needed in multi-echo imaging for the determination of the transversal relaxation time T 2 . We demonstrate this new method using head images of volunteers produced with a 0.23 T test facility. (orig./HP) [de

  7. NMR relaxation of the orientation of single segments in semiflexible dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markelov, Denis A.; Gotlib, Yuli Ya.; Dolgushev, Maxim; Blumen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the orientational properties of labeled segments in semiflexible dendrimers making use of the viscoelastic approach of Dolgushev and Blumen [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044905 (2009)]. We focus on the segmental orientational autocorrelation functions (ACFs), which are fundamental for the frequency-dependent spin-lattice relaxation times T 1 (ω). We show that semiflexibility leads to an increase of the contribution of large-scale motions to the ACF. This fact influences the position of the maxima of the [1/T 1 ]-functions. Thus, going from outer to inner segments, the maxima shift to lower frequencies. Remarkably, this feature is not obtained in the classical bead-spring model of flexible dendrimers, although many experiments on dendrimers manifest such a behavior

  8. Isothermal structural relaxation of Fe40Ni40B20 metallic glass in the relaxation times spectrum model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csach, K; Haruyama, O; Kasardova, A; Ocelik, Vaclav

    1997-01-01

    The structural relaxation of amorphous as-quenched Fe40Ni40B20 sample was investigated during isothermal annealing at temperatures close to 400 degrees C by: (i) the residual electrical resistance measured at liquid N-2 temperature; (ii) the in-situ electrical resistance; and (iii) the length

  9. Relaxation of the vibrational distribution function in N2 time varying discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capitelli, M.; Gorse, C.; Ricard, A.

    1981-01-01

    Relaxation of the electron and vibrational distribution functions have been calculated in function of residence time in nitrogen electrical discharges and post-discharges. In the discharge the vibrational temperature get bigger with the residence time for t -2 s. In the post-discharge the vibrational distribution is evolving in such a manner that the high levels are overpopulated as the low vibrational level population is dropping

  10. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of the Cartilage Cap of Osteochondromas

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition tim...

  11. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  12. Investigation of dielectric relaxation in systems with hierarchical organization: From time to frequency domain and back again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, Koki [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Raicu, Valerică, E-mail: vraicu@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Relaxation in fractal structures was investigated theoretically starting from a simple model of a Cantorian tree and kinetic equations linking the change in the number of particles (e.g., electrical charges) populating each branch of the tree and their transfer to other branches or to the ground state. We numerically solved the system of differential equations obtained and determined the so-called cumulative distribution function of particles, which, in dielectric or mechanical relaxation parlance, is the same as the relaxation function of the system. As a physical application, we studied the relationship between the dielectric relaxation in time-domain and the dielectric dispersion in the frequency-domain. Upon choosing appropriate rate constants, our model described accurately well-known non-exponential and non-Debye time- and frequency-domain functions, such as stretched exponentials, Havrilliak–Negami, and frequency power law. Our approach opens the door to applying kinetic models to describe a wide array of relaxation processes, which traditionally have posed great challenges to theoretical modeling based on first principles. - Highlights: • Relaxation was investigated for a system of particles flowing through a Cantorian tree. • A set of kinetic equations was formulated and used to compute the relaxation function of the system. • The dispersion function of the system was computed from the relaxation function. • An analytical method was used to recover the original relaxation function from the dispersion function. • This formalism was used to study dielectric relaxation and dispersion in fractal structures.

  13. The Influence of the Relaxation Time on the Dynamic Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palici Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic behavior of perovskite solar cells by focusing on the relaxation time τ, which corresponds to the slow de-polarization process from an initial bias pre-poled state. The dynamic electrical model (DEM is employed for simulating the J-V characteristics for different bias scan rates and pre-poling conditions. Depending on the sign of the initial polarization normal or inverted hysteresis may be induced. For fixed pre-poling conditions, the relaxation time, in relation to the bias scan rate, governs the magnitude of the dynamic hysteresis. In the limit of large τ the hysteretic effects are vanishing for the typical range of bias scan rates considered, while for very small τ the hysteresis is significant only when it is comparable with the measurement time interval.

  14. Optimal Configuration for Relaxation Times Estimation in Complex Spin Echo Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Baselice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pathologies can be identified by evaluating differences raised in the physical parameters of involved tissues. In a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI framework, spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation time parameters play a major role in such an identification. In this manuscript, a theoretical study related to the evaluation of the achievable performances in the estimation of relaxation times in MRI is proposed. After a discussion about the considered acquisition model, an analysis on the ideal imaging acquisition parameters in the case of spin echo sequences, i.e., echo and repetition times, is conducted. In particular, the aim of the manuscript consists in providing an empirical rule for optimal imaging parameter identification with respect to the tissues under investigation. Theoretical results are validated on different datasets in order to show the effectiveness of the presented study and of the proposed methodology.

  15. Measurement of short transverse relaxation times by pseudo-echo nutation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Maude; Moyne, Christian; Canet, Daniel

    2018-07-01

    Very short NMR transverse relaxation times may be difficult to measure by conventional methods. Nutation experiments constitute an alternative approach. Nutation is, in the rotating frame, the equivalent of precession in the laboratory frame. It consists in monitoring the rotation of magnetization around the radio-frequency (rf) field when on-resonance conditions are fulfilled. Depending on the amplitude of the rf field, nutation may be sensitive to the two relaxation rates R1 and R2. A full theoretical development has been worked out for demonstrating how these two relaxation rates could be deduced from a simple nutation experiment, noticing however that inhomogeneity of the rf field may lead to erroneous results. This has led us to devise new experiments which are the equivalent of echo techniques in the rotating frame (pseudo spin-echo nutation experiment and pseudo gradient-echo experiment). Full equations of motion have been derived. Although complicated, they indicate that the sum of the two relaxation rates can be obtained very accurately and not altered by rf field inhomogeneity. This implies however an appropriate data processing accounting for the oscillations which are superposed to the echo decays and, anyway, theoretically predicted. A series of experiments has been carried out for different values of the rf field amplitude on samples of water doped with a paramagnetic compound at different concentrations. Pragmatically, as R1 can be easily measured by conventional methods, its value is entered in the data processing algorithm which then returns exclusively the value of the transverse relaxation time. Very consistent results are obtained that way.

  16. Characterization of dynamics in complex lyophilized formulations: I. Comparison of relaxation times measured by isothermal calorimetry with data estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Norman; Mizuno, Masayasu; Pikal, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study are to characterize the relaxation dynamics in complex freeze dried formulations and to investigate the quantitative relationship between the structural relaxation time as measured by thermal activity monitor (TAM) and that estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature (ΔT(g)). The latter method has advantages over TAM because it is simple and quick. As part of this objective, we evaluate the accuracy in estimating relaxation time data at higher temperatures (50 °C and 60 °C) from TAM data at lower temperature (40 °C) and glass transition region width (ΔT(g)) data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations studied here were hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-disaccharide, HES-polyol, and HES-disaccharide-polyol at various ratios. We also re-examine, using TAM derived relaxation times, the correlation between protein stability (human growth hormone, hGH) and relaxation times explored in a previous report, which employed relaxation time data obtained from ΔT(g). Results show that most of the freeze dried formulations exist in single amorphous phase, and structural relaxation times were successfully measured for these systems. We find a reasonably good correlation between TAM measured relaxation times and corresponding data obtained from estimates based on ΔT(g), but the agreement is only qualitative. The comparison plot showed that TAM data are directly proportional to the 1/3 power of ΔT(g) data, after correcting for an offset. Nevertheless, the correlation between hGH stability and relaxation time remained qualitatively the same as found with using ΔT(g) derived relaxation data, and it was found that the modest extrapolation of TAM data to higher temperatures using ΔT(g) method and TAM data at 40 °C resulted in quantitative agreement with TAM measurements made at 50 °C and 60 °C, provided the TAM experiment temperature, is well below the Tg of the sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Menstrual variation of breast volume and T{sub 2} relaxation times in cyclical mastalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zainab [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: zay@liverpool.ac.uk; Brooks, Jonathan [Magnetic Resonance and Image Analysis Research Centre, University of Liverpool, Johnstone Building, Brownlow Hill, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3GB (United Kingdom); Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Percy, Dave [Centre for Operational Research and Applied Statistics, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    Purpose: Hormonal activity causes breast volume to change during the menstrual cycle. One possible cause of this volume change is thought to be due to water retention or oedema within the tissues. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the variation in breast volume and {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure T{sub 2} relaxation times which are known to increase with increasing tissue water content. We hypothesised that an increase in breast volume will elevate T{sub 2} relaxation due to the presence of an increased water content within the breast. T{sub 2} Relaxation time and volume were studied in fifteen control subjects and in a cohort of eight patients with cyclical mastalgia in order to determine whether changes in breast volume and T{sub 2} relaxation times differed in controls and patients during menses, ovulation and premenses. Method: Breast volume was determined by the Cavalieri method in combination with point counting techniques on MR images and T{sub 2} relaxation times of the water and fat in a voxel of breast tissue were obtained using {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated highly significant differences in breast volume between the three stages of the cycle (p < 0.0005) with breast volume being greatest premenstrually. Patients did not exhibit an increase in volume premenstrually, significantly above controls. T{sub 2} of fat or water did not depend on stage of cycle. T-tests demonstrated no significant differences in T{sub 2} of water or fat between patient and control groups. The average T{sub 2} relaxation time of water was lowest in the patient and control groups during ovulation and highest in the patient group during premenses. Conclusion: We have performed the first combined volumetric and spectroscopic study of women with cyclical mastalgia and demonstrated that the global changes in volumes and T{sub 2} were not significantly different from normal

  18. In vivo measurements of T1 relaxation times of 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Henriksen, O

    1989-01-01

    The T1 relaxation times were estimated for 31P-metabolites in human skeletal muscle. Five healthy volunteers were examined in a 1.5 Tesla wholebody imaging system using an inversion recovery pulse sequence. The calculated T1 relaxation times ranged from 5.517 sec for phosphocreatine to 3.603 sec...

  19. 13C NMR relaxation times of hepatic glycogen in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Lihsin; Laughlin, M.R.; Rothman, D.L.; Shulman, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The field dependence of relaxation times of the C-1 carbon of glycogen was studied in vitro by natural-abundance 13 C NMR. T 1 is strongly field dependent, while T 2 does not change significantly with magnetic field. T 1 and T 2 were also measured for rat hepatic glycogen enriched with [1- 13 C]glucose in vivo at 4.7 T, and similar relaxation times were observed as those obtained in vitro at the same field. The in vitro values of T 1 were 65 ± 5 ms at 2.1 T, 142 ± 10 ms at 4.7 T, and 300 ± 10 ms at 8.4 T, while T 2 values were 6.7 ± 1 ms at 2.1 T, 9.4 ± 1 ms at 4.7 T, and 9.5 ± 1 ms at 8.4 T. Calculations based on the rigid-rotor nearest-neighbor model give qualitatively good agreement with the T 1 field dependence with a best-fit correlation time of 6.4 x 10 -9 s, which is significantly smaller than τ M , the estimated overall correlation time for the glycogen molecule (ca. 10 -5 s). A more accurate fit of T 1 data using a modified Lipari and Szabo approach indicates that internal fast motions dominate the T 1 relaxation in glycogen. On the other hand, the T 2 relaxation is dominated by the overall correlation time τ M while the internal motions are almost but not completely unrestricted

  20. Using Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy to Characterize the Glass Transition Time of Polydextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G; Kindle, Michael L; Carter, Brady P

    2015-06-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was used to characterize the glass transition time, tg , of polydextrose, where the glass transition temperature, Tg , and water activity, aw (relative humidity), were held constant during polydextrose relaxation. The tg was determined from a shift in the peak frequency of the imaginary capacitance spectrum with time. It was found that when the peak frequency reaches 30 mHz, polydextrose undergoes glass transition. Glass transition time, tg , is the time for polydextrose to undergo glass transition at a specific Tg and aw . Results lead to a modified state diagram, where Tg is depressed with increasing aw . This curve forms a boundary: (a) below the boundary, polydextrose does not undergo glass transition and (b) above the boundary, polydextrose rapidly undergoes glass transition. As the boundary curve is specified by a tg value, it can assist in the selection of storage conditions. An important point on the boundary curve is at aw = 0, where Tg0 = 115 °C. The methodology can also be used to calculate the stress-relaxation viscosity of polydextrose as a function of Tg and aw , which is important when characterizing the flow properties of polydextrose initially in powder form. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Deducting the temperature dependence of the structural relaxation time in equilibrium far below the nominal Tg by aging the decoupled conductivity relaxation to equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Ngai, K L; Paluch, M

    2014-05-07

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy we investigate the changes in the conductivity relaxation times τσ observed during the physical aging of the protic ionic conductor carvedilol dihydrogen phosphate (CP). Due to the large decoupling of ion diffusion from host molecule reorientation, the ion conductivity relaxation time τσ(Tage,tage) can be directly measured at temperatures Tage below Tg for exceedingly long aging times tage till τσ(Tage,tage) has reached the equilibrium value τσ(eq)(Tage). The dependence of τσ(Tage,tage) on tage is well described by the stretched exponential function, τσ(Tage, tage) = Aexp[-((tage)/(τage(Tage)))(β)] + τσ(eq)(Tage), where β is a constant and τage(Tage) can be taken as the structural α-relaxation time of the equilibrium liquid at T = Tage. The value of τσ(eq)(Tage) obtained after 63 days long annealing of CP, deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHσ) dependence of τσ(T) determined from data taken above Tg and extrapolated down to Tage. Concurrently, τage(Tage) also deviates from the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTHα) dependence. The results help to answer the longstanding question of whether the VFTH dependence of τσ(T) as well as the structural α-relaxation time τα(T) holds or not in the equilibrium liquid state far below Tg.

  2. State of health assessment for lithium batteries based on voltage–time relaxation measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Issam; Briat, Olivier; Gyan, Philippe; Vinassa, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calendar aging under different storage conditions for three different battery technologies studied. • Two scenarios of aging under power cycling at two different temperatures investigated for one battery technology. • Relaxation profile of battery voltage just after full charge is highly correlated to aging. • Linear dependence between just after charge open circuit voltage and remaining capacity demonstrated. • No computational method and direct prediction of battery state of health or remaining capacity. - Abstract: The performance of lithium batteries degrades over time. The degradation rate strongly depends on stress conditions during use and even at rest. Thus, accurate and rapid diagnosis of battery state of health (SOH) is necessary for electric vehicle manufacturers to manage their vehicle fleets and warranties. This paper demonstrates a simple method for assessing SOH related to battery energy capability (SOH E ). The presented method is based on the monitoring of U relax over aging. U relax is the open-circuit voltage of the battery measured after full charging and 30 min of rest. A linear dependence between U relax and remaining capacity is noted. This correlation is demonstrated for three different commercial battery technologies (different chemistries) aged under different calendar and power cycling aging conditions. It was determined that the difference between two U relax voltages measured at two different aging states is proportional to SOH E decay. The mean error of the linear model is less than 2% for certain cases. This method could also be a highly useful and rapid tool for a complete battery pack diagnosis.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times for human lung cancer and lung tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yoshifumi; Shioya, Sumie; Kurita, Daisaku; Ohta, Takashi; Haida, Munetaka; Ohta, Yasuyo; Suda, Syuichi; Fukuzaki, Minoru.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , for lung cancer tissue, and other samples of lung tissue obtained from surgical specimens. The samples were nine squamous cell carcinomas, five necrotic squamous cell carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, two benign mesotheliomas, and 13 fibrotic lungs. The relaxation times were measured with a 90 MHz NMR spectrometer and the results were correlated with histological changes. The values of T 1 and T 2 for squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma were significantly longer than those of adenocarcinoma and fibrotic lung tissue. There were no significant differences in values of T 1 and T 2 between adenocarcinoma and lung tissue. The values of T 1 and T 2 for benign mesothelioma were similar to those of squamous cell carcinoma, which suggested that increases in T 1 and T 2 are not specific to malignant tissues. (author)

  4. Temperature dependence of relaxation times in proton components of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kagayaki; Iwabuchi, Taku; Saito, Kensuke; Obara, Makoto; Honda, Masatoshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We examined the temperature dependence of relaxation times in proton components of fatty acids in various samples in vitro at 11 tesla as a standard calibration data for quantitative temperature imaging of fat. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1 , of both the methylene (CH 2 ) chain and terminal methyl (CH 3 ) was linearly related to temperature (r>0.98, P 2 signal for calibration and observed the signal with 18% of CH 3 to estimate temperature. These findings suggested that separating the fatty acid components would significantly improve accuracy in quantitative thermometry for fat. Use of the T 1 of CH 2 seems promising in terms of reliability and reproducibility in measuring temperature of fat. (author)

  5. Dielectric Relaxation Studies of 2-Butoxyethanol with Aniline and Substituted Anilines Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeevanandham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex dielectric spectra of 2-butoxyethanol with aniline and substituted anilines like aniline, o-chloroaniline, m-chloroaniline, o-anisidine and m-anisidine binary mixtures in the composition of different volumes of percent (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% have been measured as a function of frequency between 10 MHz and 30 GHz at 298.15 K. The dielectric parameters like static dielectric constant ε0 and relaxation time τ have been obtained by using least square fit method. By using these parameters ε0,τ, effective Kirkwood correlation factor geff, corrective Kirkwood correlation factor gf, Bruggeman factor fB, excess dielectric constant εE, and excess inverse relaxation time 1/τE values are calculated and discussed to yield information on the dipolar alignment and molecular rotation of the binary liquid mixtures. From all the derived dielectric parameters, molecular interactions are interpreted through hydrogen bonding.

  6. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.I.; Majurin, M.L.; Komu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.)

  7. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, K.I. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Majurin, M.L. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Komu, M. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.).

  8. Characterization of relaxation processes in interacting vortex matter through a time-dependent correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe C

    2015-01-01

    Vortex lines in type-II superconductors display complicated relaxation processes due to the intricate competition between their mutual repulsive interactions and pinning to attractive point or extended defects. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations for an interacting elastic line model with either point-like or columnar pinning centers. From measurements of the space- and time-dependent height-height correlation function for lateral flux line fluctuations, we extract a characteristic correlation length that we use to investigate different non-equilibrium relaxation regimes. The specific time dependence of this correlation length for different disorder configurations displays characteristic features that provide a novel diagnostic tool to distinguish between point-like pinning centers and extended columnar defects. (paper)

  9. Evaluation of relaxation time measurements by magnetic resonance imaging. A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1987-01-01

    Several circumstances may explain the great variation in reported proton T1 and T2 relaxation times usually seen. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of relaxation time measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) operating at 1.5 tesla. Using a phantom of nine boxes with different...... concentrations of CuSO4 and correlating the calculated T1 and T2 values with reference values obtained by two spectrometers (corrected to MRI-proton frequency = 64 MHz) we found a maximum deviation of about 10 per cent. Measurements performed on a large water phantom in order to evaluate the homogeneity...... in the imaging plane showed a variation of less than 10 per cent within 10 cm from the centre of the magnet in all three imaging planes. Changing the gradient field strength apparently had no influence on the T2 values recorded. Consequently diffusion processes seem without significance. It is concluded...

  10. Relaxation Behavior by Time-Salt and Time-Temperature Superpositions of Polyelectrolyte Complexes from Coacervate to Precipitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samim Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexation between anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes results in solid-like precipitates or liquid-like coacervate depending on the added salt in the aqueous medium. However, the boundary between these polymer-rich phases is quite broad and the associated changes in the polymer relaxation in the complexes across the transition regime are poorly understood. In this work, the relaxation dynamics of complexes across this transition is probed over a wide timescale by measuring viscoelastic spectra and zero-shear viscosities at varying temperatures and salt concentrations for two different salt types. We find that the complexes exhibit time-temperature superposition (TTS at all salt concentrations, while the range of overlapped-frequencies for time-temperature-salt superposition (TTSS strongly depends on the salt concentration (Cs and gradually shifts to higher frequencies as Cs is decreased. The sticky-Rouse model describes the relaxation behavior at all Cs. However, collective relaxation of polyelectrolyte complexes gradually approaches a rubbery regime and eventually exhibits a gel-like response as Cs is decreased and limits the validity of TTSS.

  11. The modified relaxation time function: A novel analysis technique for relaxation processes. Application to high-temperature molybdenum internal friction peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteo, C.L.; Lambri, O.A.; Zelada-Lambri, G.I.; Sorichetti, P.A.; Garcia, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The modified relaxation time (MRT) function, which is based on a general linear viscoelastic formalism, has several important mathematical properties that greatly simplify the analysis of relaxation processes. In this work, the MRT is applied to the study of the relaxation damping peaks in deformed molybdenum at high temperatures. The dependence of experimental data from these relaxation processes with temperature are adequately described by a Havriliak-Negami (HN) function, and the MRT makes it possible to find a relation between the parameters of the HN function and the activation energy of the process. The analysis reveals that for the relaxation peak appearing at temperatures below 900 K, the physical mechanism is related to a vacancy-diffusion-controlled movement of dislocations. In contrast, when the peak appears at temperatures higher than 900 K, the damping is controlled by a mechanism of diffusion in the low-temperature tail of the peak, and in the high-temperature tail of the peak the creation plus diffusion of vacancies at the dislocation line occurs

  12. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating and metallic GaAs single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Kuhns, P. L.; Moulton, W. G.; Gan, Z.; Reyes, A. P.

    2006-09-01

    The coupling of electron and nuclear spins in n-GaAs changes significantly as the donor concentration n increases through the insulator-metal critical concentration nC˜1.2×1016cm-3 . The present measurements of the Ga71 relaxation rates W made as a function of magnetic field (1-13T) and temperature (1.5-300K) for semi-insulating GaAs and for three doped n-GaAs samples with donor concentrations n=5.9×1015 , 7×1016 , and 2×1018cm-3 , show marked changes in the relaxation behavior with n . Korringa-like relaxation is found in both metallic samples for T30K phonon-induced nuclear quadrupolar relaxation is dominant. The relaxation rate measurements permit determination of the electron probability density at Ga71 sites. A small Knight shift of -3.3ppm was measured on the most metallic (2×1018cm-3) sample using magic-angle spinning at room temperature. For the n=5.9×1015cm-3 sample, a nuclear relaxation model involving the Fermi contact hyperfine interaction, rapid spin diffusion, and exchange coupled local moments is proposed. While the relaxation rate behavior with temperature for the weakly metallic sample, n=7×1016cm-3 , is similar to that found for the just-insulating sample, the magnetic field dependence is quite different. For the 5.9×1015cm-3 sample, increasing the magnetic field leads to a decrease in the relaxation rate, while for the 7×1016cm-3 sample this results in an increase in the relaxation rate ascribed to an increase in the density of states at the Fermi level as the Landau level degeneracy is increased.

  13. The water proton spin-lattice relaxation times in virus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensin, G.; Gaggelli, E.; Tiezzi, E.; Valensin, P.E.; Bianchi Bandinelli, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The water proton spin-lattice relaxation times in HEp-2 cell cultures were determined immediately after 1 h of polio-virus adsorption. The shortening of the water T 1 was closely related to the multiplicity of infection, allowing direct inspections of the virus-cell interaction since the first steps of the infectious cycle. Virus-induced structural and conformational changes of cell constituents were suggested to be detectable by NMR investigation of cell water. (Auth.)

  14. In vivo estimation of transverse relaxation time constant (T2 ) of 17 human brain metabolites at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Patrik O; Bianchini, Claudio; Scheidegger, Milan; Giapitzakis, Ioannis A; Hock, Andreas; Fuchs, Alexander; Henning, Anke

    2018-08-01

    The transverse relaxation times T 2 of 17 metabolites in vivo at 3T is reported and region specific differences are addressed. An echo-time series protocol was applied to one, two, or three volumes of interest with different fraction of white and gray matter including a total number of 106 healthy volunteers and acquiring a total number of 128 spectra. The data were fitted with the 2D fitting tool ProFit2, which included individual line shape modeling for all metabolites and allowed the T 2 calculation of 28 moieties of 17 metabolites. The T 2 of 10 metabolites and their moieties have been reported for the first time. Region specific T 2 differences in white and gray matter enriched tissue occur in 16 of 17 metabolites examined including single resonance lines and coupled spin systems. The relaxation time T 2 is regions specific and has to be considered when applying tissue composition correction for internal water referencing. Magn Reson Med 80:452-461, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Simulation of turbulent flow over staggered tube bundles using multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon; Choi, Hyun Gyung

    2014-01-01

    A turbulent fluid flow over staggered tube bundles is of great interest in many engineering fields including nuclear fuel rods, heat exchangers and especially a gas cooled reactor lower plenum. Computational methods have evolved for the simulation of such flow for decades and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is one of the attractive methods due to its sound physical basis and ease of computerization including parallelization. In this study to find computational performance of the LBM in turbulent flows over staggered tubes, a fluid flow analysis code employing multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is developed based on a 2-dimensional D2Q9 lattice model and classical sub-grid eddy viscosity model of Smagorinsky. As a first step, fundamental performance MRT-LBM is investigated against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds number in terms of drag forces. As a major step, benchmarking of the MRT-LBM is performed over a turbulent flow through staggered tube bundles at Reynolds number of 18,000. For a flow past a single cylinder, the accuracy is validated against existing experimental data and previous computations in terms of drag forces on the cylinder. Mainly, the MRT-LBM computation for a flow through staggered tube bundles is performed and compared with experimental data and general purpose computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses with standard k-ω turbulence and large eddy simulation (LES) equipped with turbulence closures of Smagrinsky-Lilly and wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model. The agreement between the experimental and the computational results from the present MRT-LBM is found to be reasonably acceptable and even comparable to the LES whereas the computational efficiency is superior. (orig.)

  16. Simulation of turbulent flow over staggered tube bundles using multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon; Choi, Hyun Gyung [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear and Energy Engineering Dept.

    2014-02-15

    A turbulent fluid flow over staggered tube bundles is of great interest in many engineering fields including nuclear fuel rods, heat exchangers and especially a gas cooled reactor lower plenum. Computational methods have evolved for the simulation of such flow for decades and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is one of the attractive methods due to its sound physical basis and ease of computerization including parallelization. In this study to find computational performance of the LBM in turbulent flows over staggered tubes, a fluid flow analysis code employing multi-relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) is developed based on a 2-dimensional D2Q9 lattice model and classical sub-grid eddy viscosity model of Smagorinsky. As a first step, fundamental performance MRT-LBM is investigated against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at low Reynolds number in terms of drag forces. As a major step, benchmarking of the MRT-LBM is performed over a turbulent flow through staggered tube bundles at Reynolds number of 18,000. For a flow past a single cylinder, the accuracy is validated against existing experimental data and previous computations in terms of drag forces on the cylinder. Mainly, the MRT-LBM computation for a flow through staggered tube bundles is performed and compared with experimental data and general purpose computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses with standard k-ω turbulence and large eddy simulation (LES) equipped with turbulence closures of Smagrinsky-Lilly and wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model. The agreement between the experimental and the computational results from the present MRT-LBM is found to be reasonably acceptable and even comparable to the LES whereas the computational efficiency is superior. (orig.)

  17. Contribution of a solute atoms in the relaxation phenomenon at high temperature in Cu-Al single crystal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belamri, C.; Belhas, S.; Rivière, A.

    2009-11-01

    Two Cu-Al single crystals with 7 and 14 at. % Al respectively have been studied using isothermal mechanical spectroscopy (IMS) technique. After a 1% cold work by torsion, the samples have been progressively heated to 1140 K and then cooled until room temperature. IMS experiments allow to compare the isothermal internal friction spectra obtained during the heating (in this case, the annealing temperature is equal to the temperature of measurement) with the measurements performed at various temperature during the cooling after the annealing at 1140 K. Three relaxation peaks were observed. The first one at about 0.4 TM (TM: melting point) is a Zener relaxation peak (PZ) due to the reorientation under constraint of pairs of aluminium atoms. The high temperature annealing does not influence PZ. At about 0.6TM, a peak (P1) related to a dislocation mechanism is evidenced. The relaxation strength of P1 peak decreases with the temperature and a new relaxation peak (P2) is progressively developed. The IMS spectra obtained during the cooling evidenced only P2. The relaxation parameters obtained by the Arrhenius plots and the evolution with the annealing temperature allow to assign P1 and P2 to an interaction between the dislocations and the solute atoms according to the Darinskiy model.

  18. Determining the structural relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical Telmisartan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrjanowicz, K; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ngai, K L [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2010-03-31

    By using the dielectric relaxation method proposed recently by Casalini and Roland (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 035701), we were able to determine the structural alpha-relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical, Telmisartan. Normally, deep in the glassy state tau{sub a}lpha is so long that it cannot be measured but tau{sub b}eta, which is usually much shorter, can be directly determined. The method basically takes advantage of the connection between the alpha-relaxation and the secondary beta-relaxation of the Johari-Goldstein kind, including a relation between their relaxation times tau{sub a}lpha and tau{sub b}eta, respectively. Thus, tau{sub a}lpha of Telmisartan were determined by monitoring the change of the dielectric beta-loss, epsilon'', with physical aging time at temperatures well below the vitrification temperature. The values of tau{sub a}lpha were compared with those expected by the coupling model (CM). Unequivocal comparison cannot be made in the case of Telmisartan because its beta-loss peak is extremely broad, and the CM predicts only an order of magnitude agreement between the primitive relaxation frequency and the beta-peak frequency. We also made an attempt to analyze all isothermal and aging susceptibility data after transformation into the electric modulus representation. The tau{sub a}lpha found in the glass state by using the method of Casalini and Roland in the modulus representation are similar to those obtained in the susceptibility representation. However, it is remarkable that the stretching parameter beta{sub KWWM} = 0.51 in the electric modulus representation gives more precise fits to the aging data than in the susceptibility representation with beta{sub KWW} = 0.61. Our results suggest that the electric modulus representation may be useful as an alternative to analyze aging data, especially in the case of highly polar glassformers having a large ratio of low frequency and high frequency dielectric

  19. Bulk viscosity of strongly interacting matter in the relaxation time approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Hauksson, Sigtryggur; Shen, Chun; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2018-04-01

    We show how thermal mean field effects can be incorporated consistently in the hydrodynamical modeling of heavy-ion collisions. The nonequilibrium correction to the distribution function resulting from a temperature-dependent mass is obtained in a procedure which automatically satisfies the Landau matching condition and is thermodynamically consistent. The physics of the bulk viscosity is studied here for Boltzmann and Bose-Einstein gases within the Chapman-Enskog and 14-moment approaches in the relaxation time approximation. Constant and temperature-dependent masses are considered in turn. It is shown that, in the small mass limit, both methods lead to the same value of the ratio of the bulk viscosity to its relaxation time. The inclusion of a temperature-dependent mass leads to the emergence of the βλ function in that ratio, and it is of the expected parametric form for the Boltzmann gas, while for the Bose-Einstein case it is affected by the infrared cutoff. This suggests that the relaxation time approximation may be too crude to obtain a reliable form of ζ /τR for gases obeying Bose-Einstein statistics.

  20. Pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for cavitation bubble collapse with high density ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Ming-Lei; Zhu Chang-Ping; Yao Cheng; Yin Cheng; Jiang Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the cavitation bubble collapse is a fundamental issue for the bubble collapse application and prevention. In the present work, the modified forcing scheme for the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model developed by Li Q et al. [Li Q, Luo K H and Li X J 2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 053301] is adopted to develop a cavitation bubble collapse model. In the respects of coexistence curves and Laplace law verification, the improved pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is investigated. It is found that the thermodynamic consistency and surface tension are independent of kinematic viscosity. By homogeneous and heterogeneous cavitation simulation, the ability of the present model to describe the cavitation bubble development as well as the cavitation inception is verified. The bubble collapse between two parallel walls is simulated. The dynamic process of a collapsing bubble is consistent with the results from experiments and simulations by other numerical methods. It is demonstrated that the present pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is applicable and efficient, and the lattice Boltzmann method is an alternative tool for collapsing bubble modeling. (paper)

  1. Feasibility of high-resolution one-dimensional relaxation imaging at low magnetic field using a single-sided NMR scanner applied to articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Erik; Mattea, Carlos; Stapf, Siegfried

    2015-02-01

    Low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance increases the contrast of the longitudinal relaxation rate in many biological tissues; one prominent example is hyaline articular cartilage. In order to take advantage of this increased contrast and to profile the depth-dependent variations, high resolution parameter measurements are carried out which can be of critical importance in an early diagnosis of cartilage diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, the maximum achievable spatial resolution of parameter profiles is limited by factors such as sensor geometry, sample curvature, and diffusion limitation. In this work, we report on high-resolution single-sided NMR scanner measurements with a commercial device, and quantify these limitations. The highest achievable spatial resolution on the used profiler, and the lateral dimension of the sensitive volume were determined. Since articular cartilage samples are usually bent, we also focus on averaging effects inside the horizontally aligned sensitive volume and their impact on the relaxation profiles. Taking these critical parameters into consideration, depth-dependent relaxation time profiles with the maximum achievable vertical resolution of 20 μm are discussed, and are correlated with diffusion coefficient profiles in hyaline articular cartilage in order to reconstruct T2 maps from the diffusion-weighted CPMG decays of apparent relaxation rates.

  2. Asymptotic description of two metastable processes of solidification for the case of large relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanov, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    The non-isothermal Cahn-Hilliard equations in the n-dimensional case (n = 2,3) are considered. The interaction length is proportional to a small parameter, and the relaxation time is proportional to a constant. The asymptotic solutions describing two metastable processes are constructed and justified. The soliton type solution describes the first stage of separation in alloy, when a set of ''superheated liquid'' appears inside the ''solid'' part. The Van der Waals type solution describes the free interface dynamics for large time. The smoothness of temperature is established for large time and the Mullins-Sekerka problem describing the free interface is derived. (author). 46 refs

  3. Relaxation dynamics and thermophysical properties of vegetable oils using time-domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Anil A; Sonsale, Rahul P; Kanshette, Mahesh S; Kabara, Komal B; Wananje, Kunal H; Kumbharkhane, Ashok C; Sarode, Arvind V

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric relaxation studies of vegetable oils are important for insights into their hydrogen bonding and intermolecular dynamics. The dielectric relaxation and thermo physical properties of triglycerides present in some vegetable oils have been measured over the frequency range of 10 MHz to 7 GHz in the temperature region 25 to 10 °C using a time-domain reflectometry approach. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric constants and dielectric loss factors were determined for coconut, peanut, soya bean, sunflower, palm, and olive oils. The dielectric permittivity spectra for each of the studied vegetable oils are explained using the Debye model with their complex dielectric permittivity analyzed using the Havriliak-Negami equation. The dielectric parameters static permittivity (ε 0 ), high-frequency limiting static permittivity (ε ∞ ), average relaxation time (τ 0 ), and thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (∆F τ ), enthalpy (∆H τ ), and entropy of activation (∆S τ ) were also measured. Calculation and analysis of these thermodynamic parameters agrees with the determined dielectric parameters, giving insights into the temperature dependence of the molecular dynamics of these systems.

  4. Magnetic resonance studies on the brain edema by the administration of the osmotic agents; Special references to the relaxation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niino, Masaki; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Nakamura, Katsumi; Yatsushiro, Kazutaka; Kadota, Koki (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sasahira, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Shimooki, Susumu

    1990-03-01

    Changes of proton relaxation times (T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}) and MR imaging of the brain edema by the administration of the osmotic agents (mannitol or glycerol) were studied. Subjects were 11 patients who were composed of 4 gliomas, 2 metastatic brain tumors, 2 meningiomas, 2 hypertensive intracerebral hematomas, and a C-P angle tumor. 20% mannitol or 10% glycerol 550 ml was rapidly injected intravenously. Scanning was done before injection, just after injection, and post injection until 2 hours with passing times. We regarded the peritumoral or perihemorrahgical low density area on the CT scan as the edema, and then, relaxation times of the edema was obtained from the ROI of the calculated images corresponding to the surrounding low density area on the CT scan. The results were as follows. (1) In general, relaxation times of the edema showed a tendency to decrease after injection of the osmotic agents. Normal white matter, in the same way, showed the decreasing tendency, but the degree of the decreasing was more clearly in the edematous areas than in the white matter. (2) The changes of relaxation times did not show a uniform pattern. In most cases, relaxation times decreased just after injection. But in a few cases, relaxation times increased just after injection, transiently. In some cases, decreased relaxation times continued more than 2 hours, in the other cases, relaxation times increased at 2 hours. (3) The changes of relaxation times thought to be varied by some factors, that is --kinds of the lesions causing edema, degree of malignancy of the lesions, or phase of edema (acute or chronic) etc. (4) Osmotic agents were supposed to dehydrate the edematous lesions. In the current MR systems, there are considerably large standard deviations and inequality in the magnetic field, therefore, further investigations should be done moreover. (author).

  5. Elastic models for the non-Arrhenius relaxation time of glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short-time...... elastic properties are all determined by just one effective, temperature-dependent force constant). We finally discuss the connection between the elastic models and two well-established research fields of condensed-matter physics: point defects in crystals and solid-state diffusion....

  6. Elastic models for the Non-Arrhenius Relaxation Time of Glass-Forming Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We first review the phenomenology of viscous liquids and the standard models used for explaining the non-Arrhenius average relaxation time. Then the focus is turned to the so-called elastic models, arguing that these models are all equivalent in the Einstein approximation (where the short-time...... elastic properties are all determined by just one effective, temperature-dependent force constant). We finally discuss the connection between the elastic models and two well-established research fields of condensed-matter physics: point defects in crystals and solid-state diffusion....

  7. T(2) relaxation time of hyaline cartilage in presence of different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Edzard; Settles, Marcus; Diederichs, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The transverse relaxation time, T(2), of native cartilage is used to quantify cartilage degradation. T(2) is frequently measured after contrast administration, assuming that the impact of gadolinium-based contrast agents on cartilage T(2) is negligible. To verify this assumption the depth-dependent variation of T(2) in the presence of gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoteridol was investigated. Furthermore, the r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios were quantified in different cartilage layers to demonstrate differences between T(2) and T(1) relaxation effects. Transverse high-spatial-resolution T(1)- and T(2)-maps were simultaneously acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner before and after contrast administration in nine bovine patellae using a turbo-mixed sequence. The r(2)/r(1) ratios were calculated for each contrast agent in cartilage. Profiles of T(1), T(2) and r(2)/r(1) across cartilage thickness were generated in the absence and presence of contrast agent. The mean values in different cartilage layers were compared for global variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann-Whitney U-test. T(2) of unenhanced cartilage was 98 +/- 5 ms at 1 mm and 65 +/- 4 ms at 3 mm depth. Eleven hours after contrast administration significant differences (p cartilage thickness were close to 1.0 (range 0.9-1.3). At 1.5 T, T(2) decreased significantly in the presence of contrast agents, more pronounced in superficial than in deep cartilage. The change in T(2) relaxation rate was similar to the change in T(1). Cartilage T(2) measurements after contrast administration will lead to systematic errors in the quantification of cartilage degradation. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T and 7.0 T: a comparison of relaxation times and image contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Caroline D; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Bangerter, Neal K; Hargreaves, Brian A; Gold, Garry E

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the relaxation times of musculoskeletal tissues at 3.0 T and 7.0 T, and to use these measurements to select appropriate parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T. We measured the T₁ and T₂ relaxation times of cartilage, muscle, synovial fluid, bone marrow and subcutaneous fat at both 3.0 T and 7.0 T in the knees of five healthy volunteers. The T₁ relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo inversion recovery sequence with six inversion times. The T₂ relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo sequence with seven echo times. The accuracy of both the T₁ and T₂ measurement techniques was verified in phantoms at both magnetic field strengths. We used the measured relaxation times to help design 7.0 T musculoskeletal protocols that preserve the favorable contrast characteristics of our 3.0 T protocols, while achieving significantly higher resolution at higher SNR efficiency. The T₁ relaxation times in all tissues at 7.0 T were consistently higher than those measured at 3.0 T, while the T₂ relaxation times at 7.0 T were consistently lower than those measured at 3.0 T. The measured relaxation times were used to help develop high resolution 7.0 T protocols that had similar fluid-to-cartilage contrast to that of the standard clinical 3.0 T protocols for the following sequences: proton-density-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), T₂-weighted FSE, and 3D-FSE-Cube. The T₁ and T₂ changes were within the expected ranges. Parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T can be optimized based on these values, yielding improved resolution in musculoskeletal imaging with similar contrast to that of standard 3.0 T clinical protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T and 7.0 T: A comparison of relaxation times and image contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Caroline D.; Saranathan, Manojkumar; Bangerter, Neal K.; Hargreaves, Brian A.; Gold, Garry E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the relaxation times of musculoskeletal tissues at 3.0 T and 7.0 T, and to use these measurements to select appropriate parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T. Materials and methods: We measured the T 1 and T 2 relaxation times of cartilage, muscle, synovial fluid, bone marrow and subcutaneous fat at both 3.0 T and 7.0 T in the knees of five healthy volunteers. The T 1 relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo inversion recovery sequence with six inversion times. The T 2 relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo sequence with seven echo times. The accuracy of both the T 1 and T 2 measurement techniques was verified in phantoms at both magnetic field strengths. We used the measured relaxation times to help design 7.0 T musculoskeletal protocols that preserve the favorable contrast characteristics of our 3.0 T protocols, while achieving significantly higher resolution at higher SNR efficiency. Results: The T 1 relaxation times in all tissues at 7.0 T were consistently higher than those measured at 3.0 T, while the T 2 relaxation times at 7.0 T were consistently lower than those measured at 3.0 T. The measured relaxation times were used to help develop high resolution 7.0 T protocols that had similar fluid-to-cartilage contrast to that of the standard clinical 3.0 T protocols for the following sequences: proton-density-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), T 2 -weighted FSE, and 3D-FSE-Cube. Conclusion: The T 1 and T 2 changes were within the expected ranges. Parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T can be optimized based on these values, yielding improved resolution in musculoskeletal imaging with similar contrast to that of standard 3.0 T clinical protocols

  10. Radiation self-polarization of electrons moving in a magnetic field. [Vector spin operator, relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V G; Dorofeev, O F; Sokolov, A A; Ternov, I M; Khalilov, V R [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-03-11

    When electrons move in a magnetic field, synchrotron radiation gives rise to transitions accompanied by the electron spin reorientation. In this case, it is essential that the transition probability depends on the spin orientation; as a result electron polarization takes place with the spin orientation being predominantly opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. This effect has been called ''radiative self-polarization of electrons''. The present work is concerned with the question how the choice of the spin operator will affect the self-polarization degree and relaxation time. The problem has been solved for a vector spin operator.

  11. One-Dimensional Problem of a Conducting Viscous Fluid with One Relaxation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angail A. Samaan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a magnetohydrodynamic model of boundary-layer equations for conducting viscous fluids. This model is applied to study the effects of free convection currents with thermal relaxation time on the flow of a viscous conducting fluid. The method of the matrix exponential formulation for these equations is introduced. The resulting formulation together with the Laplace transform technique is applied to a variety problems. The effects of a plane distribution of heat sources on the whole and semispace are studied. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically for the problem.

  12. Application of Generalized Fractional Thermoelasticity Theory with Two Relaxation Times to an Electromagnetothermoelastic Thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd El-Latief

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional mathematical model of Maxwell’s equations in an electromagnetic field and the fractional generalized thermoelastic theory associated with two relaxation times are applied to a 1D problem for a thick plate. Laplace transform is used. The solution in Laplace transform domain has been obtained using a direct method and its inversion is calculated numerically using a method based on Fourier series expansion technique. Finally, the effects of the two fractional parameters (thermo and magneto on variable fields distributions are made. Numerical results are represented graphically.

  13. Predicting how nanoconfinement changes the relaxation time of a supercooled liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S; Errington, Jeffrey R; Truskett, Thomas M; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2013-12-06

    The properties of nanoconfined fluids can be strikingly different from those of bulk liquids. A basic unanswered question is whether the equilibrium and dynamic consequences of confinement are related to each other in a simple way. We study this question by simulation of a liquid comprising asymmetric dumbbell-shaped molecules, which can be deeply supercooled without crystallizing. We find that the dimensionless structural relaxation times-spanning six decades as a function of temperature, density, and degree of confinement-collapse when plotted versus excess entropy. The data also collapse when plotted versus excess isochoric heat capacity, a behavior consistent with the existence of isomorphs in the bulk and confined states.

  14. Dielectric dispersion, relaxation dynamics and thermodynamic studies of Beta-Alanine in aqueous solutions using picoseconds time domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, K.; Ganesh, T.; Senthilkumar, P.; Sylvester, M. Maria; Karunakaran, D. J. S. Anand; Hudge, Praveen; Kumbharkhane, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    The aqueous solution of beta-alanine characterised and studied by their dispersive dielectric properties and relaxation process in the frequency domain of 10×106 Hz to 30×109 Hz with varying concentration in mole fractions and temperatures. The molecular interaction and dielectric parameters are discussed in terms of counter-ion concentration theory. The static permittivity (ε0), high frequency dielectric permittivity (ε∞) and excess dielectric parameters are accomplished by frequency depended physical properties and relaxation time (τ). Molecular orientation, ordering and correlation factors are reported as confirmation of intermolecular interactions. Ionic conductivity and thermo dynamical properties are concluded with the behaviour of the mixture constituents. Solute-solvent, solute-solute interaction, structure making and breaking abilities of the solute in aqueous medium are interpreted. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of beta- alanine single crystal and liquid state have been studied. The 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral studies give the signature for resonating frequencies and chemical shifts of beta-alanine.

  15. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents: Investigation of 1H T2 relaxation times at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S.; Thisted, Ebbe; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate T 2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T 2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T 2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T 2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T 2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and T 2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T 2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T 2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1 H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T 2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T 2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.

  16. Coupled kinetic equations for fermions and bosons in the relaxation-time approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Maksymiuk, Ewa; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2018-02-01

    Kinetic equations for fermions and bosons are solved numerically in the relaxation-time approximation for the case of one-dimensional boost-invariant geometry. Fermions are massive and carry baryon number, while bosons are massless. The conservation laws for the baryon number, energy, and momentum lead to two Landau matching conditions, which specify the coupling between the fermionic and bosonic sectors and determine the proper-time dependence of the effective temperature and baryon chemical potential of the system. The numerical results illustrate how a nonequilibrium mixture of fermions and bosons approaches hydrodynamic regime described by the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate forms of the kinetic coefficients. The shear viscosity of a mixture is the sum of the shear viscosities of fermion and boson components, while the bulk viscosity is given by the formula known for a gas of fermions, however, with the thermodynamic variables characterising the mixture. Thus, we find that massless bosons contribute in a nontrivial way to the bulk viscosity of a mixture, provided fermions are massive. We further observe the hydrodynamization effect, which takes place earlier in the shear sector than in the bulk one. The numerical studies of the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse pressures show, to a good approximation, that it depends on the ratio of the relaxation and proper times only. This behavior is connected with the existence of an attractor solution for conformal systems.

  17. Kubo formulae for the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times and the scalar field theory shear $\\tau_\\pi$ calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we provide a quantum field theoretical study on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times, respectively. They are found by examining response functions of the stress-energy tensor. We use general properties of correlation functions and the gravitational Ward identity to parametrize analytical structures of the Green functions describing both sound and diffusion mode. We find that the hydrodynamic limits of the r...

  18. Simultaneously Suppressing Low-Frequency and Relaxation Oscillation Intensity Noise in a DBR Single-Frequency Phosphate Fiber Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yu; Li Can; Xu Shan-Hui; Feng Zhou-Ming; Yang Chang-Sheng; Zhao Qi-Lai; Yang Zhong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Effective multiple optoelectronic feedback circuits for simultaneously suppressing low-frequency and relaxation oscillation intensity noise in a single-frequency phosphate fiber laser are demonstrated. The forward transfer function, which relates the laser output intensity to the pump modulations, is measured and analyzed. A custom two-path feedback system operating at different frequency bands is designed to adjust the pump current directly. The relative intensity noise is decreased by 20 dB from 0.2 to 5kHz and over 10 dB from 5 to 10 kHz. The relaxation oscillation peak is suppressed by 22 dB. In addition, a long term (24 h) laser instability of less than 0.05% is achieved. (paper)

  19. Kubo formulas for the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times and the scalar field theory shear τπ calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Alina; Jeon, Sangyong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we provide a quantum field theoretical study on the shear and bulk relaxation times. First, we find Kubo formulas for the shear and the bulk relaxation times, respectively. They are found by examining response functions of the stress-energy tensor. We use general properties of correlation functions and the gravitational Ward identity to parametrize analytical structures of the Green functions describing both sound and diffusion mode. We find that the hydrodynamic limits of the real parts of the respective energy-momentum tensor correlation functions provide us with the method of computing both the shear and bulk viscosity relaxation times. Next, we calculate the shear viscosity relaxation time using the diagrammatic approach in the Keldysh basis for the massless λ ϕ4 theory. We derive a respective integral equation which enables us to compute η τπ and then we extract the shear relaxation time. The relaxation time is shown to be inversely related to the thermal width as it should be.

  20. Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T 1) and Spin-Spin (T 2) Relaxation Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K.

    The measurement of very short spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation (SLR) times (i.e., 10-10 Misra, 1998), and polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions (Pescia et al., 1999a; Pescia et al. 1999b). The ability to measure such fast SLR data on amorphous Si and copper-chromium-tin spinel led to an understanding of the role of exchange interaction in affecting spin-lattice relaxation, while the data on polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions provided evidence of spin-fracton relaxation (Pescia et al., 1999a, b). But such fast SLR times are not measurable by the most commonly used techniques of saturation- and inversion-recovery (Poole, 1982; Alger, 1968), which only measure spin-lattice relaxation times longer than 10-6 s. A summary of relevant experimental data is presented in Table 1.

  1. Towards quantitative measurements of relaxation times and other parameters in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofts, P.S.; Du Boulay, E.P.G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The nature and physical significance of the relaxation times T1 and T2 and of proton density are described. Methods of measuring T1 and T2 are discussed with emphasis on the establishment of precision and the maintenance of accuracy. Reported standards of success are briefly reviewed. We expect sensitivities of the order of 1% to be achievable in serial studies. Although early hopes of disease diagnosis by tissue characterisation were not realised, strict scientific method and careful calibration have made it pracitcable to apply relaxation time measurement to research into disease process. Serial measurements in patients and correlation with similar studies in animal models, biopsy results and autopsy material taken together have provided new knowledge about cerebral oedema, water compartmentation, alcoholism and the natural history of multiple sclerosis. There are prospects of using measurement to monitor treatment in other diseases with diffuse brain abnormalities invisible on the usual images. Secondarily derived parameters and notably the quantification of blood-brain barrier defect after injection of Gadolinium-DTPA also offer prospects of valuable data. (orig.)

  2. Quasiparticle energy distribution and relaxation times in a tunnel-injected superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirtley, J.R.; Kent, D.S.; Langenberg, D.N.; Kaplan, S.B.; Chang, J.; Yang, C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are reported in which a nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution was created in a dirty Al film by tunnel injection and probed using a second tunnel junction. The distribution was found to have the form of a quasithermal distribution characterized by an effective temperature greater than the ambient bath temperature and dependent on injection level, plus small sharp structures which originate in structures in the injected quasiparticle distribution due to gap-edge peaks in the quasiparticle density of states. A systematic theoretical analysis of these structures correctly predicts their shapes and relative amplitudes. The amplitudes show directly the presence of branch imbalance in the nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution. Using the theoretical model, inelastic quasiparticle relaxation and elastic branch mixing times, as functions of energy and temperature, are extracted from the experimental data without need for phonon-trapping corrections. The qualitative and quantitative behavior of these times is in reasonable accord with theoretical expectations and the results of other experiments. Experiments of the type reported here are shown to provide a kind of spectroscopy of tunnel-injection and quasiparticle-relaxation processes in superconductors

  3. Evaluation of PHB/Clay nanocomposite by spin-lattice relaxation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bruno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB based on nanocomposites containing different amounts of a commercial organically modified clay (viscogel B7 were prepared employing solution intercalation method. Three solvents, such as: CHCl3, dimethylchloride (DMC and tetrahydrofuran (THF were used. The relationship among the processing conditions; molecular structure and intermolecular interaction, between both nanocomposite components, were investigated using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, as a part of characterization methodology, which has been used by Tavares et al. It involves the hydrogen spin-lattice relaxation time, T1H, by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, employing low field NMR. X ray diffraction was also employed because it is a conventional technique, generally used to obtain the first information on nanocomposite formation. Changes in PHB crystallinity were observed after the organophilic nanoclay had been incorporated in the polymer matrix. These changes, in the microstructure, were detected by the variation of hydrogen nuclear relaxation time values and by X ray, which showed an increase in the clay interlamelar space due to the intercalation of the polymer in the clay between lamellae. It was also observed, for both techniques, that the solvents affect directly the organization of the crystalline region, promoting a better intercalation, considering that they behave like a plasticizer.

  4. Discuss the value of T2 relaxation time in the research of femorotibial joint biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jinglian; Song Lingling; Liang Biling; Ye Ruixin; Yun Wenjuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of T 2 relaxation time in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage of knee joint. Methods: Knees of 20 healthy adults and 19 osteoarthritis patients were examined with sagittal 8-echo sequence. The T 2 value of cartilage was calculated. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper cartilage of femoral and tibial joint were compared, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. Results: The T 2 values in the superficial and the deeper tibital cartilage were (48.8±6.3) ms, (44.3±5.7) ms, respectively. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper femoral cartilage were (52.1±5.7) ms, (47.7±5.3) ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between superficial and deeper femoral cartilage (t=3.148 and t=3.384, P 2 value in the tibial cartilage of osteoarthritis patients was (56.0±9.1) ms and was higher than that of healthy adults. There was a significant difference between osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults (t=-3.446, P 2 relaxation time can be used in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage and has a application value in clinical diagnosis. (authors)

  5. Double Scaling in the Relaxation Time in the β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Yuri V.; Onorato, Miguel

    2018-04-01

    We consider the original β -Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou system; numerical simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that, for a finite number of masses, a statistical equilibrium state is reached independently of the initial energy of the system. Using ensemble averages over initial conditions characterized by different Fourier random phases, we numerically estimate the time scale of equipartition and we find that for very small nonlinearity it matches the prediction based on exact wave-wave resonant interaction theory. We derive a simple formula for the nonlinear frequency broadening and show that when the phenomenon of overlap of frequencies takes place, a different scaling for the thermalization time scale is observed. Our result supports the idea that the Chirikov overlap criterion identifies a transition region between two different relaxation time scalings.

  6. Anisotropy of the nuclear magnetic relaxation times induced in solid 3He by modulation of the dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, G.

    1976-01-01

    Anisotropic nuclear relaxation times have been measured in solid 3 He samples grown at constant pressure, in the Larmor frequency range 1.5MHz-5MHz where the main relaxation mechanism is the modulation of the dipolar interaction by exchange or by motion of the vacancies. The second order calculation made by Harris for the exchange induced relaxation regime is extended to the regime where vacancy motion dominates. The theory is further refined by considering the fourth moment anisotropy effect on the spectral densities. This latter calculation yields a frequency dependent anisotropic contribution to T 1 which agrees qualitatively with the data, unlike the simpler results by Harris [fr

  7. Rapid simultaneous high-resolution mapping of myelin water fraction and relaxation times in human brain using BMC-mcDESPOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhrara, Mustapha; Spencer, Richard G

    2017-02-15

    A number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases exhibit changes in myelin content and magnetic resonance longitudinal, T 1 , and transverse, T 2 , relaxation times, which therefore represent important biomarkers of CNS pathology. Among the methods applied for measurement of myelin water fraction (MWF) and relaxation times, the multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T 1 and T 2 (mcDESPOT) approach is of particular interest. mcDESPOT permits whole brain mapping of multicomponent T 1 and T 2 , with data acquisition accomplished within a clinically realistic acquisition time. Unfortunately, previous studies have indicated the limited performance of mcDESPOT in the setting of the modest signal-to-noise range of high-resolution mapping, required for the depiction of small structures and to reduce partial volume effects. Recently, we showed that a new Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis substantially improved determination of MWF from mcDESPOT imaging data. However, our previous study was limited in that it did not discuss determination of relaxation times. Here, we extend the BMC analysis to the simultaneous determination of whole-brain MWF and relaxation times using the two-component mcDESPOT signal model. Simulation analyses and in-vivo human brain studies indicate the overall greater performance of this approach compared to the stochastic region contraction (SRC) algorithm, conventionally used to derive parameter estimates from mcDESPOT data. SRC estimates of the transverse relaxation time of the long T 2 fraction, T 2,l , and the longitudinal relaxation time of the short T 1 fraction, T 1,s , clustered towards the lower and upper parameter search space limits, respectively, indicating failure of the fitting procedure. We demonstrate that this effect is absent in the BMC analysis. Our results also showed improved parameter estimation for BMC as compared to SRC for high-resolution mapping. Overall we find that the combination of BMC analysis

  8. Rotational and translational dynamics and their relation to hydrogen bond lifetimes in an ionic liquid by means of NMR relaxation time experiments and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Anne; Neumann, Jan; Overbeck, Viviane; Bonsa, Anne-Marie; Michalik, Dirk; Paschek, Dietmar; Ludwig, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    We report a concerted theoretical and experimental effort to determine the reorientational dynamics as well as hydrogen bond lifetimes for the doubly ionic hydrogen bond +OH⋯O- in the ionic liquid (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Ch][NTf2] by using a combination of NMR relaxation time experiments, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Due to fast proton exchange, the determination of rotational correlation times is challenging. For molecular liquids, 17O-enhanced proton relaxation time experiments have been used to determine the rotational correlation times for the OH vectors in water or alcohols. As an alternative to those expensive isotopic substitution experiments, we employed a recently introduced approach which is providing access to the rotational dynamics from a single NMR deuteron quadrupolar relaxation time experiment. Here, the deuteron quadrupole coupling constants (DQCCs) are obtained from a relation between the DQCC and the δ1H proton chemical shifts determined from a set of DFT calculated clusters in combination with experimentally determined proton chemical shifts. The NMR-obtained rotational correlation times were compared to those obtained from MD simulations and then related to viscosities for testing the applicability of popular hydrodynamic models. In addition, hydrogen bond lifetimes were derived, using hydrogen bond population correlation functions computed from MD simulations. Here, two different time domains were observed: The short-time contributions to the hydrogen lifetimes and the reorientational correlation times have roughly the same size and are located in the picosecond range, whereas the long-time contributions decay with relaxation times in the nanosecond regime and are related to rather slow diffusion processes. The computed average hydrogen bond lifetime is dominated by the long-time process, highlighting the importance and longevity of

  9. Extracting energy and structure properties of glass-forming liquids from structural relaxation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen

    2012-04-18

    A comprehensive examination of the kinetic liquid model (Wang et al 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 455104) is carried out by fitting the structural relaxation time of 26 different glass-forming liquids in a wide temperature range, including most of the well-studied materials. Careful analysis of the compiled reported data reveals that experimental inaccuracies should not be overlooked in any 'benchmark test' of relating theories or models (e.g. in Lunkenheimer et al 2010 Phys. Rev. E 81 051504). The procedure, accuracy, ability, and efficiency of the kinetic liquid model are discussed in detail and in comparison with other available fitting methods. In general, the kinetic liquid model could be verified by 17 of the 26 compiled data sets and can serve as a meaningful approximative method for analyzing these liquids. Nonetheless, further experimental examinations in a wide temperature range are needed and are called for. Through fitting, the microscopic details of these liquids are extracted, namely, the enthalpy, entropy, and cooperativity in structural relaxation, which may facilitate further quantitative analysis to both the liquidus and glassy states of these materials.

  10. Multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann modeling of the acoustic field generated by focused transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Guo, Xiasheng; Tu, Juan; Cheng, Jianchun; Zhang, Dong

    The high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become an attractive therapeutic tool for the noninvasive tumor treatment. The ultrasonic transducer is the key component in HIFU treatment to generate the HIFU energy. The dimension of focal region generated by the transducer is closely relevant to the safety of HIFU treatment. Therefore, it is essential to numerically investigate the focal region of the transducer. Although the conventional acoustic wave equations have been used successfully to describe the acoustic field, there still exist some inherent drawbacks. In this work, we presented an axisymmetric isothermal multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) model with the Bouzidi-Firdaouss-Lallemand (BFL) boundary condition in cylindrical coordinate system. With this model, some preliminary simulations were firstly conducted to determine a reasonable value of the relaxation parameter. Then, the validity of the model was examined by comparing the results obtained with the LBM results with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation and the Spheroidal beam equation (SBE) for the focused transducers with different aperture angles, respectively. In addition, the influences of the aperture angle on the focal region were investigated. The proposed model in this work will provide significant references for the parameter optimization of the focused transducer for applications in the HIFU treatment or other fields, and provide new insights into the conventional acoustic numerical simulations.

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Gui Chen; Chuan-Hu Zhang; Yun-Tian Feng; Qi-Cheng Sun; Feng Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM) for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-L...

  12. Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu2+ and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Lijewski, S

    2011-08-31

    Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu(2+) ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu(2+) ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu(2+) ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or γ-rays.

  13. Entropic multiple-relaxation-time multirange pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feifei; Mazloomi Moqaddam, Ali; Kang, Qinjun; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2018-03-01

    An entropic multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann approach is coupled to a multirange Shan-Chen pseudopotential model to study the two-phase flow. Compared with previous multiple-relaxation-time multiphase models, this model is stable and accurate for the simulation of a two-phase flow in a much wider range of viscosity and surface tension at a high liquid-vapor density ratio. A stationary droplet surrounded by equilibrium vapor is first simulated to validate this model using the coexistence curve and Laplace's law. Then, two series of droplet impact behavior, on a liquid film and a flat surface, are simulated in comparison with theoretical or experimental results. Droplet impact on a liquid film is simulated for different Reynolds numbers at high Weber numbers. With the increase of the Sommerfeld parameter, onset of splashing is observed and multiple secondary droplets occur. The droplet spreading ratio agrees well with the square root of time law and is found to be independent of Reynolds number. Moreover, shapes of simulated droplets impacting hydrophilic and superhydrophobic flat surfaces show good agreement with experimental observations through the entire dynamic process. The maximum spreading ratio of a droplet impacting the superhydrophobic flat surface is studied for a large range of Weber numbers. Results show that the rescaled maximum spreading ratios are in good agreement with a universal scaling law. This series of simulations demonstrates that the proposed model accurately captures the complex fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfacial physical processes for a wide range of Reynolds and Weber numbers at high density ratios.

  14. Relaxation time T/sub 1/ and bound water fraction of muscle by NMR imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Yamane, T.; Tateno, Y.; Torii, S.; Matsumura, K.

    1986-05-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of NMR-CT in the diagnostic investigation of muscle disorders, proton NMR-CT imaging was performed and muscle longitudinal relaxation (T1) times were measured in 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and normal controls (NC). In addition, the bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the measured T1 value in appropriate cases. Results show that in DMD muscle T1 values were above normal in the early clinical stages, declined rapidly with progress of the disease, and reached the same low level as the subcutaneous fat. This decrease of T1 values was not uniform for all muscles, being most prominent in gluteus maximus and least in sartorius and gracilis. In NC muscle BWF increased with maturation under the age of 10 years, and became fixed beyond that. In the early stages of DMD, BWF was below normal.

  15. Study of relaxation times of nanocomposites of starch/montmorillonite employing low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Luciana M.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its various applications and features, especially in therapies for controlled release of pharmaceuticals, polymers are among the most widely used excipients in pharmaceutical technology. One of the most promising nanocomposites is formed from organic polymer and inorganic clay minerals. Nanocomposites of starch/montmorillonite were prepared employing solution intercalation and characterized by proton spin-lattice relaxation time, through NMR relaxometry. The characterization of nanocomposites was done by X-ray diffraction and by nuclear magnetic resonance. The results showed that nanostructured films were obtained by intercalation from solution. Furthermore, the use of low field NMR, T1H, provided more precise information about the movement of materials, being complementary to the results obtained by X-ray diffraction. (author)

  16. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE My Youssef, Rabat (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2014-10-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity.

  17. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2014-01-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity

  18. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  19. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T 1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  20. An anisotropic linear thermo-viscoelastic constitutive law - Elastic relaxation and thermal expansion creep in the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettermann, Heinz E.; DeSimone, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    A constitutive material law for linear thermo-viscoelasticity in the time domain is presented. The time-dependent relaxation formulation is given for full anisotropy, i.e., both the elastic and the viscous properties are anisotropic. Thereby, each element of the relaxation tensor is described by its own and independent Prony series expansion. Exceeding common viscoelasticity, time-dependent thermal expansion relaxation/creep is treated as inherent material behavior. The pertinent equations are derived and an incremental, implicit time integration scheme is presented. The developments are implemented into an implicit FEM software for orthotropic material symmetry under plane stress assumption. Even if this is a reduced problem, all essential features are present and allow for the entire verification and validation of the approach. Various simulations on isotropic and orthotropic problems are carried out to demonstrate the material behavior under investigation.

  1. Characteristics of Viscoelastic Crustal Deformation Following a Megathrust Earthquake: Discrepancy Between the Apparent and Intrinsic Relaxation Time Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahata, Yukitoshi; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-02-01

    The viscoelastic deformation of an elastic-viscoelastic composite system is significantly different from that of a simple viscoelastic medium. Here, we show that complicated transient deformation due to viscoelastic stress relaxation after a megathrust earthquake can occur even in a very simple situation, in which an elastic surface layer (lithosphere) is underlain by a viscoelastic substratum (asthenosphere) under gravity. Although the overall decay rate of the system is controlled by the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere, the apparent decay time constant at each observation point is significantly different from place to place and generally much longer than the intrinsic relaxation time constant of the asthenosphere. It is also not rare that the sense of displacement rate is reversed during the viscoelastic relaxation. If we do not bear these points in mind, we may draw false conclusions from observed deformation data. Such complicated transient behavior can be explained mathematically from the characteristics of viscoelastic solution: for an elastic-viscoelastic layered half-space, the viscoelastic solution is expressed as superposition of three decaying components with different relaxation time constants that depend on wavelength.

  2. Direct measurements of relaxation times of phosphorus metabolites in the human myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.; Krahe, T.; Neubauer, S.; Hillenbrand, H.; Entzeroth, C.; Horn, M.; Lackner, K.; Ertl, G.

    1992-01-01

    The T 1 relaxation times of the phosphorus metabolites in human heart muscle measurable by 31 P-MR spectra were determined in 12 individuals using a 1.5 Tesla system. Several spectra were recorded consecutively with a pulse repetition time of 1.6s to 24 s. The T 1 times of creatine phosphate (CP), of γ-, α-, β-adenosintriphosphate (ATP), 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) together with anorganic phosphate) and phosphodiester (PDE) showed mean measurements of 6.1±0.5, 5.4±0.5, 5.0±0.5, 5.8±1.0, 7.6±1.0, and 5.0±1.0s (M±SE). The accuracy of the ISIS technique was tested with a special phantom. T 1 times were also measured in standard solutions (20mM CP, 10mM ATP); CP was 8.7±0.2s and γ-ATP was 9.9±0.7s. Corrections for partially saturated 31 P-MR spectra - at least for CP/ATP ratios - are relatively small. (orig.) [de

  3. The study of NMR relaxation time spectra multi-exponential inversion based on Lloyd–Max optimal quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuewei; Kong, Li; Cheng, Jingjing; Wu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The multi-exponential inversion of a NMR relaxation signal plays a key role in core analysis and logging interpretation in the formation of porous media. To find an efficient metod of inverting high-resolution relaxation time spectra rapidly, this paper studies the effect of inversion which is based on the discretization of the original echo in a time domain by using a simulation model. This paper analyzes the ill-condition of discrete equations on the basis of the NMR inversion model and method, determines the appropriate number of discrete echoes and acquires the optimal distribution of discrete echo points by the Lloyd–Max optimal quantization method, in considering the inverse precision and computational complexity comprehensively. The result shows that this method can effectively improve the efficiency of the relaxation time spectra inversion while guaranteeing inversed accuracy. (paper)

  4. Long Spin-Relaxation Times in a Transition-Metal Atom in Direct Contact to a Metal Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Jan; Ternes, Markus; Steinbrecher, Manuel; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wiebe, Jens

    2018-03-14

    Long spin-relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition-metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables the direct addressing of the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have a surprisingly long spin-relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer. The combination of long spin-relaxation times and strong coupling to conduction electrons implies the possibility to use flexible coupling schemes to process the spin information.

  5. Single start multiple stop time digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, P.A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A single start multiple stop time digitizer has been developed which can digitize the time between a start pulse and multiple stop pulses. The system has been designed as a PC add on card. The resolution of the instrument is 10 nSecs and the maximum length of time that it can measure is 1.28 milliseconds. Apart from time digitization, it can also resolve the height of the incoming pulses into 64 levels. After each input pulse the system dead time is less than 300 nSecs. The driver software for this card has been developed on DOS platform. It uses graphical user interface to provide a user friendly environment. The system is intended to be used in time of flight mass spectroscopy experiments. It can also be used for time of flight experiments in nuclear physics. (author). 2 figs

  6. Improve Image Quality of Transversal Relaxation Time PROPELLER and FLAIR on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, N.; Alam, D. Y.; Jamaluddin, M.; Samad, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that uses the interaction between the magnetic field and the nuclear spins. MRI can be used to show disparity of pathology by transversal relaxation time (T2) weighted images. Some techniques for producing T2-weighted images are Periodically Rotated Overlapping Parallel Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) and Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR). A comparison of T2 PROPELLER and T2 FLAIR parameters in MRI image has been conducted. And improve Image Quality the image by using RadiAnt DICOM Viewer and ENVI software with method of image segmentation and Region of Interest (ROI). Brain images were randomly selected. The result of research showed that Time Repetition (TR) and Time Echo (TE) values in all types of images were not influenced by age. T2 FLAIR images had longer TR value (9000 ms), meanwhile T2 PROPELLER images had longer TE value (100.75 - 102.1 ms). Furthermore, areas with low and medium signal intensity appeared clearer by using T2 PROPELLER images (average coefficients of variation for low and medium signal intensity were 0.0431 and 0.0705, respectively). As for areas with high signal intensity appeared clearer by using T2 FLAIR images (average coefficient of variation was 0.0637).

  7. Single-crossover recombination in discrete time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wangenheim, Ute; Baake, Ellen; Baake, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Modelling the process of recombination leads to a large coupled nonlinear dynamical system. Here, we consider a particular case of recombination in discrete time, allowing only for single crossovers. While the analogous dynamics in continuous time admits a closed solution (Baake and Baake in Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), this no longer works for discrete time. A more general model (i.e. without the restriction to single crossovers) has been studied before (Bennett in Ann Hum Genet 18:311-317, 1954; Dawson in Theor Popul Biol 58:1-20, 2000; Linear Algebra Appl 348:115-137, 2002) and was solved algorithmically by means of Haldane linearisation. Using the special formalism introduced by Baake and Baake (Can J Math 55:3-41, 2003), we obtain further insight into the single-crossover dynamics and the particular difficulties that arise in discrete time. We then transform the equations to a solvable system in a two-step procedure: linearisation followed by diagonalisation. Still, the coefficients of the second step must be determined in a recursive manner, but once this is done for a given system, they allow for an explicit solution valid for all times.

  8. Lineshape theory of pigment-protein complexes: How the finite relaxation time of nuclei influences the exciton relaxation-induced lifetime broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.renger@jku.at [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-07-21

    In pigment-protein complexes, often the excited states are partially delocalized and the exciton-vibrational coupling in the basis of delocalized states contains large diagonal and small off-diagonal elements. This inequality may be used to introduce potential energy surfaces (PESs) of exciton states and to treat the inter-PES coupling in Markov and secular approximations. The resulting lineshape function consists of a Lorentzian peak that is broadened by the finite lifetime of the exciton states caused by the inter-PES coupling and a vibrational sideband that results from the mutual displacement of the excitonic PESs with respect to that of the ground state. So far analytical expressions have been derived that relate the exciton relaxation-induced lifetime broadening to the Redfield [T. Renger and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9997 (2002)] or modified Redfield [M. Schröder, U. Kleinekathöfer, and M. Schreiber, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084903 (2006)] rate constants of exciton relaxation, assuming that intra-PES nuclear relaxation is fast compared to inter-PES transfer. Here, we go beyond this approximation and provide an analytical expression, termed Non-equilibrium Modified Redfield (NeMoR) theory, for the lifetime broadening that takes into account the finite nuclear relaxation time. In an application of the theory to molecular dimers, we find that, for a widely used experimental spectral density of the exciton-vibrational coupling of pigment-protein complexes, the NeMoR spectrum at low-temperatures (T < 150 K) is better approximated by Redfield than by modified Redfield theory. At room temperature, the lifetime broadening obtained with Redfield theory underestimates the NeMoR broadening, whereas modified Redfield theory overestimates it by a similar amount. A fortuitous error compensation in Redfield theory is found to explain the good performance of this theory at low temperatures. Since steady state spectra of PPCs are often measured at low temperatures

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on brain edema. Time course of /sup 1/H-NMR relaxation times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, S; Horikawa, Y; Tanaka, C; Hirakawa, K; Nishikawa, H [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    1. The state of water in normal and edematous brain tissue was studied by measurement of proton longitudinal (T/sub 1/) and transverse (T/sub 2/) relaxation times using pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. 2. In control rats, T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ of water showed one component, which was more fast in white matter. Those values displayed 1.07 - 1.18 sec. of T/sub 1/ and 75 - 76 msec. of T/sub 2/. 3. When rat brain was injured by cold, T/sub 1/ was observed to become longer (1.18 - 1.27 sec.), and T/sub 2/ was observed be separated into two components, the faster T/sub 2/ (45 - 50 msec.) and slower T/sub 2/ (100 - 105 msec.), in both gray and white matter of the injured side. 4. In triethyltin (TET) induced brain edema, elongation of T/sub 1/ (1.2 sec.) and remarkable separation of T/sub 2/, faster T/sub 2/ (75 msec.) and slower T/sub 2/ (400 - 450 msec.), were observed in white matter. 5. In both cold and TET induced edema, slower T/sub 2/ fraction is suggested to be the extracellular space and faster T/sub 2/ fraction, intracellular. 6. T/sub 2/ changes precede the water content changes in cold injury, and parallel in TET induced edema. Those changes of relaxation times are reversible. 7. T/sub 2/ changes of water is more sensitive than the T/sub 1/ for the detection of production and disappearance of brain edema. 8. These results disclose the dynamic movements of water during the course of brain edema and offered significant information of the clinical application of NMR-CT.

  10. Two-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan-Camas, Borja; Tsai, Frank T.-C.

    2010-02-01

    This study develops a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with a two-relaxation-time collision operator (TRT) to cope with anisotropic heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and anisotropic velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion in the saltwater intrusion problem. The directional-speed-of-sound technique is further developed to address anisotropic hydraulic conductivity and dispersion tensors. Forcing terms are introduced in the LBM to correct numerical errors that arise during the recovery procedure and to describe the sink/source terms in the flow and transport equations. In order to facilitate the LBM implementation, the forcing terms are combined with the equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) to create pseudo-EDFs. This study performs linear stability analysis and derives LBM stability domains to solve the anisotropic advection-dispersion equation. The stability domains are used to select the time step at which the lattice Boltzmann method provides stable solutions to the numerical examples. The LBM was implemented for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem with high ratios of longitudinal to transverse dispersivities, and the results compared well to the solutions in the work of Abarca et al. (2007).

  11. Chirality effect on electron phonon relaxation, energy loss, and thermopower in single and bilayer graphene in BG regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Meenhaz; Ashraf, S. S. Z.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the energy dependent electron-phonon relaxation rate, energy loss rate, and phonon drag thermopower in single layer graphene (SLG) and bilayer graphene (BLG) under the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime through coupling to acoustic phonons interacting via the Deformation potential in the Boltzmann transport equation approach. We find that the consideration of the chiral nature of electrons alters the temperature dependencies in two-dimensional structures of SLG and BLG from that shown by other conventional 2DEG system. Our investigations indicate that the BG analytical results are valid for temperatures far below the BG limit (˜TBG/4) which is in conformity with a recent experimental investigation for SLG [C. B. McKitterick et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 075410 (2016)]. For temperatures above this renewed limit (˜TBG/4), there is observed a suppression in energy loss rate and thermo power in SLG, but enhancement is observed in relaxation rate and thermopower in BLG, while a suppression in the energy loss rate is observed in BLG. This strong nonmonotonic temperature dependence in SLG has also been experimentally observed within the BG limit [Q. Ma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247401 (2014)].

  12. Ab initio relaxation times and time-dependent Hamiltonians within the steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilki; von Spakovsky, Michael R.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum systems driven by time-dependent Hamiltonians are considered here within the framework of steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT) and used to study the thermodynamic characteristics of such systems. In doing so, a generalization of the SEAQT framework valid for all such systems is provided, leading to the development of an ab initio physically relevant expression for the intrarelaxation time, an important element of this framework and one that had as of yet not been uniquely determined as an integral part of the theory. The resulting expression for the relaxation time is valid as well for time-independent Hamiltonians as a special case and makes the description provided by the SEAQT framework more robust at the fundamental level. In addition, the SEAQT framework is used to help resolve a fundamental issue of thermodynamics in the quantum domain, namely, that concerning the unique definition of process-dependent work and heat functions. The developments presented lead to the conclusion that this framework is not just an alternative approach to thermodynamics in the quantum domain but instead one that uniquely sheds new light on various fundamental but as of yet not completely resolved questions of thermodynamics.

  13. Multiple-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Approach to Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Li Yingjun; Xu Aiguo; Zhang Guangcai

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present paper are twofold. At first, we further study the Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model proposed in [Europhys. Lett. 90 (2010) 54003]. We discuss the reason why the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure is not needed in the construction of transformation matrix M; point out a reason why the Kataoka-Tsutahara model [Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 035701 (R)] is only valid in subsonic flows. The von Neumann stability analysis is performed. Secondly, we carry out a preliminary quantitative study on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using the proposed MRT LB model. When a shock wave travels from a light medium to a heavy one, the simulated growth rate is in qualitative agreement with the perturbation model by Zhang-Sohn. It is about half of the predicted value by the impulsive model and is closer to the experimental result. When the shock wave travels from a heavy medium to a light one, our simulation results are also consistent with physical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Diffusion relaxation times of nonequilibrium isolated small bodies and their solid phase ensembles to equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility of obtaining analytical estimates in a diffusion approximation of the times needed by nonequilibrium small bodies to relax to their equilibrium states based on knowledge of the mass transfer coefficient is considered. This coefficient is expressed as the product of the self-diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic factor. A set of equations for the diffusion transport of mixture components is formulated, characteristic scales of the size of microheterogeneous phases are identified, and effective mass transfer coefficients are constructed for them. Allowing for the developed interface of coexisting and immiscible phases along with the porosity of solid phases is discussed. This approach can be applied to the diffusion equalization of concentrations of solid mixture components in many physicochemical systems: the mutual diffusion of components in multicomponent systems (alloys, semiconductors, solid mixtures of inert gases) and the mass transfer of an absorbed mobile component in the voids of a matrix consisting of slow components or a mixed composition of mobile and slow components (e.g., hydrogen in metals, oxygen in oxides, and the transfer of molecules through membranes of different natures, including polymeric).

  15. On a two-relaxation-time D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model for the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weifeng; Wang, Liang; Yong, Wen-An

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the stability of some lattice kinetic schemes. First, we show that a recently proposed lattice kinetic scheme is a two-relaxation-time model different from those in the literature. Second, we analyze the stability of the model by verifying the Onsager-like relation. In addition, a necessary stability criterion for hyperbolic relaxation systems is adapted to the lattice Boltzmann method. As an application of this criterion, we find some necessary stability conditions for a previously proposed lattice kinetic scheme. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the necessary stability conditions.

  16. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by {sup 55}Mn-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D

    2003-05-01

    The longitudinal (H{sub Z}) and transverse (H{sub T}) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H{sub T} is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier.

  17. Time course of action and endotracheal intubating conditions of Org 9487, a new short-acting steroidal muscle relaxant; a comparison with succinylcholine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; van den Broek, L; Proost, JH; Verbaan, BW; Hennis, PJ

    In a randomized study, we evaluated lag time (time from the end of injection of muscle relaxant until the first depression of the train-of-four response [TOF]), onset time (time from the end of injection of muscle relaxant until the maximum depression of the first twitch of the TOF [T1]),

  18. Intraindividual comparison of T1 relaxation times after gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA administration for cardiac late enhancement imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeblin, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.doeblin@charite.de [Department of Cardiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Schilling, Rene, E-mail: rene.schilling@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Moritz, E-mail: moritz.wagner@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Luhur, Reny, E-mail: renyluhur@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.huppertz@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Imaging Science Institute, Charité, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Taupitz, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.taupitz@harite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate T1-relaxation times of chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) using gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) over time and to determine the optimal imaging window for late enhancement imaging with both contrast agents. Material and methods: Twelve patients with CMI were prospectively included and examined on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) system using relaxivity-adjusted doses of gadobutrol (0.15 mmol/kg) and Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) in random order. T1-relaxation times of remote myocardium (RM), infarcted myocardium (IM), and left ventricular cavity (LVC) were assessed from short-axis TI scout imaging using the Look–Locker approach and compared intraindividually using a Wilcoxon paired signed-rank test (α < 0.05). Results: Within 3 min of contrast agent administration (CA), IM showed significantly lower T1-relaxation times than RM with both contrast agents, indicating beginning cardiac late enhancement. Differences between gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA in T1-relaxation times of IM and RM were statistically not significant through all time points. However, gadobutrol led to significantly higher T1-relaxation times of LVC than Gd-DTPA from 6 to 9 min (220 ± 15 ms vs. 195 ± 30 ms p < 0.01) onwards, resulting in a significantly greater ΔT1 of IM to LVC at 9–12 min (−20 ± 35 ms vs. 0 ± 35 ms, p < 0.05) and 12–15 min (−25 ± 45 ms vs. −10 ± 60 ms, p < 0.05). Using Gd-DTPA, comparable ΔT1 values were reached only after 25–35 min. Conclusion: This study indicates good delineation of IM to RM with both contrast agents as early as 3 min after administration. However, we found significant differences in T1 relaxation times with greater ΔT1 IM–LVC using 0.15 mmol/kg gadobutrol compared to 0.20 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA after 9–15 min post-CA suggesting earlier differentiability of IM and LVC using gadobutrol.

  19. The influence of temperature, viscosity and pH on the relaxation time T1 in flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toczylowska, B.

    1995-01-01

    The designed and constructed at the Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering facility for the relaxation time (T 1 ) measurements of liquids flow has been presented. The influence of temperature, viscosity and pH has been determined for several liquids, especially physiological fluids

  20. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T2 relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Lu Guangming; Zee Chishing

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T 2 relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T 2 relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T 2 -map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T 2 relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P 2 relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T 2 relaxation time.

  1. Influence of aging time of oleate precursor on the magnetic relaxation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Adriana P.; Polo-Corrales, Liliana; Chavez, Ermides; Cabarcas-Bolivar, Jari; Uwakweh, Oswald N.C.; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    that relax through a single relaxation mechanism. The resulting nanoparticles would be suitable for sensors based on the Brownian relaxation mechanism and in determining mechanical properties of complex fluids at the size scale of the nanoparticles. - Graphical Abstract: The aging time of the oleate precursor influenced the crystal structure, size, magnetic properties, and AC susceptibility of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method, resulting in crossing of the in-phase χ′ and out-of-phase χ″ components of the complex susceptibility, an attribute of a collection of nanoparticles with a single dominant magnetic relaxation mechanism. Highlights: ► Effect of aging of an iron–cobalt oleate precursor on properties of CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was evaluated. ► Aging of the iron–cobalt oleate resulted in changes in its thermo physical properties. ► Nanoparticles obtained with precursor aged for 2 days showed evidence of an impurity phase. ► Aging for 15–30 days resulted in nanoparticles with predominantly Brownian magnetic relaxation.

  2. Interaction study of polyisobutylene with paraffins by NMR using the evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times for hydrogen nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Rosana G.G.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times of 1 H for polyisobutylene/paraffin systems, were obtained using the classic inversion recovery technique, and also through Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) techniques varying the contact time and also by the delayed contact time pulse sequence. NMR results showed that the polyisobutylene/paraffin systems in which high molecular weight paraffins were used, is heterogeneous. However, for paraffins with low molecular weight, the system presents good homogeneity. (author)

  3. In-vivo measurement of proton relaxation time (T1 and T2) in paediatric brain by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumura, Michio

    1986-01-01

    The clinical application of MRI led to the detailed imaging of the three-dimentional structure of the brain. Thus, significant information has been obtained with respect to the diagnosis of various diseases, rating severity, evaluation of curative effects, etc. On the other hand, the proportion of the comparative length of the relaxation time to the signal intensity of the images (especially the Spin-Echo image) was not necessarily linear. Consquently, the evaluation of severity was not easy to make. However, if we can obtain T 1 and T 2 precisely as the parameters costituting the images, it will be possible to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties. Further, the usefulness of MRI in activities such as determining the water metabolism of the brain is expected to increase even more. By means of VISTA-MR (0.15 Tesla, resistive magnet ; Picker International Co.) we measured the proton relaxation time (spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) and spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 )) of various intracerebral lesions in paediatric cases. As the control group, 43 children, 4 adolescents and 6 adults were used. The T 1 and T 2 in the normal infantile cases prolonged significantly as compared with adult case. Thereafter, they become shortened by aging. In the age of two or three years, they reach the normal level of adult case. In the cases of degenerative disease, brain tumor, and cerebral contusion, the remarkable prolongation of both T 1 and T 2 , compared with normal value of the same age was observed. In the cases of brain atrophy and epilepsy, T 1 and T 2 were slightly short or within normal value of the same age. In the cases of intracerebral hemorrhage, T 1 was shortened. The in-vivo proton relaxation time obtained by MRI have various limits, but they can be a noninvasive and useful index in evaluation of severity or curative effects in various cerebral diseases. (author)

  4. Ultrafast time measurements by time-correlated single photon counting coupled with superconducting single photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.

  5. Thermal behaviour of the ESR Relaxation time in slightly dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachheim, G.; Machado, S.F.; Tsallis, C.

    1978-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of the ESR relaxation rate in slightly dirty superconductors is discussed for both exchange and spin-orbit interactions between the conduction electrons and the impurities. The sensibility to the electronic density of states is exhibited by using, in a modified BCS framework, an heuristic analytic form which avoids two of three defects of a previous similar treatment. The sudden increase (decrease) of the relaxation rate immediately below the critical temperature for the exchange (spin-orbit) case is confirmed. Reasonable agreement with experimental data in LaRu 2 ; Gd is obtained [pt

  6. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Binding and relaxation behavior of Coumarin-153 in lecithin-taurocholate mixed micelles: A time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Debdeep; Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Hazra, Partha; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2005-09-01

    The microenvironment of the bile salt-lecithin mixed aggregates has been investigated using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The steady state spectra show that the polarity of the bile salt is higher compared to lecithin vesicles or the mixed aggregates. We have observed slow solvent relaxation in bile salt micelles and lecithin vesicles. The solvation time is gradually slowed down due to gradual addition of the bile salt in lecithin vesicles. Addition of bile salt leads to the tighter head group packing in lecithin. Thus, mobility of the water molecules becomes slower and consequently the solvation time is also retarded. We have observed bimodal slow rotational relaxation time in all these systems.

  8. A study on magnetic relaxation times of various organs and body fluids using superconducting magnetic resonance imaging system part I: measurement of relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in various portions of brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Chang; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertake to determine if routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging sequences using only two different repetition times (TRs) and with only two sequential echo times (TEs) can be used to measure reproducible relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time for normal brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid using a 2.0T superconducting system. In 47 patients 6 different anatomic sites were measured. For each anatomic location, the mean and standard deviation of these values were determined. On T1-weighted (SE 500msec/30msec) images, in globus pallidus and thalamus, of the CSF, cortical gray matter and retrobulbar fat tissue varied more, with a standard deviation of 11-14% on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted (SE 3000msec/30msec and 3000msec/80msec) images, the relative signal intensity of all anatomic regions varied more than on T1-weighted images. The standard deviation of T2 relaxation times also varied from 10% (fat tissue) to 18% (CSF). These variations might be due to partial volume averaging, signal alteration of CSF secondary to CSF pulsatile motion, etc. Knowing that relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation times calculated from routine imaging sequences are reproducible in only limited area, these normal ranges can be used to investigate changes occurring in disease states of the limited regions.

  9. Single-molecule electron tunnelling through multiple redox levels with environmental relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    represent the substrate and tip in electrochemical in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. An equivalent three-electrode configuration represents a molecular single-electron transistor in which the enclosing electrodes constitute source and drain, and the reference electrode the gate. Current-bias voltage...... relations at fixed electrochemical overpotential or gate voltage, and current-overpotential or current-gate voltage relations at fixed bias voltage are equivalent in the two systems. Due to the activation-less nature of the processes, electron flow between the electrodes through the molecular redox levels...... level(s) subsequent to electron transfer. Several physical mechanisms can be distinguished and distinctive current-overpotential/gate voltage or current-bias voltage relations obtained. These reflect electronic level separation, environmental nuclear reorganisation, and coherent or incoherent multi...

  10. Measuring diffusion-relaxation correlation maps using non-uniform field gradients of single-sided NMR devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira d'Eurydice, Marcel; Galvosas, Petrik

    2014-11-01

    Single-sided NMR systems are becoming a relevant tool in industry and laboratory environments due to their low cost, low maintenance and capacity to evaluate quantity and quality of hydrogen based materials. The performance of such devices has improved significantly over the last decade, providing increased field homogeneity, field strength and even controlled static field gradients. For a class of these devices, the configuration of the permanent magnets provides a linear variation of the magnetic field and can be used in diffusion measurements. However, magnet design depends directly on its application and, according to the purpose, the field homogeneity may significantly be compromised. This may prevent the determination of diffusion properties of fluids based on the natural inhomogeneity of the field using known techniques. This work introduces a new approach that extends the applicability of diffusion-editing CPMG experiments to NMR devices with highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields, which do not vary linearly in space. Herein, we propose a method to determine a custom diffusion kernel based on the gradient distribution, which can be seen as a signature of each NMR device. This new diffusion kernel is then utilised in the 2D inverse Laplace transform (2D ILT) in order to determine diffusion-relaxation correlation maps of homogeneous multi-phasic fluids. The experiments were performed using NMR MObile Lateral Explore (MOLE), which is a single-sided NMR device designed to maximise the volume at the sweet spot with enhanced depth penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Escape time, relaxation, and sticky states of a softened Henon-Heiles model: Low-frequency vibrational mode effects and glass relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2018-04-01

    Here we study the relaxation of a chain consisting of three masses joined by nonlinear springs and periodic conditions when the stiffness is weakened. This system, when expressed in their normal coordinates, yields a softened Henon-Heiles system. By reducing the stiffness of one low-frequency vibrational mode, a faster relaxation is enabled. This is due to a reduction of the energy barrier heights along the softened normal mode as well as for a widening of the opening channels of the energy landscape in configurational space. The relaxation is for the most part exponential, and can be explained by a simple flux equation. Yet, for some initial conditions the relaxation follows as a power law, and in many cases there is a regime change from exponential to power-law decay. We pinpoint the initial conditions for the power-law decay, finding two regions of sticky states. For such states, quasiperiodic orbits are found since almost for all components of the initial momentum orientation, the system is trapped inside two pockets of configurational space. The softened Henon-Heiles model presented here is intended as the simplest model in order to understand the interplay of rigidity, nonlinear interactions and relaxation for nonequilibrium systems such as glass-forming melts or soft matter. Our softened system can be applied to model β relaxation in glasses and suggest that local reorientational jumps can have an exponential and a nonexponential contribution for relaxation, the latter due to asymmetric molecules sticking in cages for certain orientations.

  12. Monte Carlo computation of correlation times of independent relaxation modes at criticality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloete, H.W.J.; Nightingale, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate aspects of universality of Glauber critical dynamics in two dimensions. We compute the critical exponent $z$ and numerically corroborate its universality for three different models in the static Ising universality class and for five independent relaxation modes. We also present

  13. Whole brain MP2RAGE-based mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, G E; Bause, J; Ethofer, T; Ehses, P; Dresler, T; Herbert, C; Pohmann, R; Shajan, G; Fallgatter, A; Pavlova, M A; Scheffler, K

    2017-01-01

    Mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ) with high accuracy and precision is central for neuroscientific and clinical research, since it opens up the possibility to obtain accurate brain tissue segmentation and gain myelin-related information. An ideal, quantitative method should enable whole brain coverage within a limited scan time yet allow for detailed sampling with sub-millimeter voxel sizes. The use of ultra-high magnetic fields is well suited for this purpose, however the inhomogeneous transmit field potentially hampers its use. In the present work, we conducted whole brain T 1 mapping based on the MP2RAGE sequence at 9.4T and explored potential pitfalls for automated tissue classification compared with 3T. Data accuracy and T 2 -dependent variation of the adiabatic inversion efficiency were investigated by single slice T 1 mapping with inversion recovery EPI measurements, quantitative T 2 mapping using multi-echo techniques and simulations of the Bloch equations. We found that the prominent spatial variation of the transmit field at 9.4T (yielding flip angles between 20% and 180% of nominal values) profoundly affected the result of image segmentation and T 1 mapping. These effects could be mitigated by correcting for both flip angle and inversion efficiency deviations. Based on the corrected T 1 maps, new, 'flattened', MP2RAGE contrast images were generated, that were no longer affected by variations of the transmit field. Unlike the uncorrected MP2RAGE contrast images acquired at 9.4T, these flattened images yielded image segmentations comparable to 3T, making bias-field correction prior to image segmentation and tissue classification unnecessary. In terms of the T 1 estimates at high field, the proposed correction methods resulted in an improved precision, with test-retest variability below 1% and a coefficient-of-variation across 25 subjects below 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SU-F-I-63: Relaxation Times of Lipid Resonances in NAFLD Animal Model Using Enhanced Curve Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K-H; Yoo, C-H; Lim, S-I; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relaxation time of methylene resonance in comparison with other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a four-channel animal coil. Eight more Sprague-Dawley rats in the same baseline weight range were housed with ad libitum access to water and a high-fat (HF) diet (60% fat, 20% protein, and 20% carbohydrate). In order to avoid large blood vessels, a voxel (0.8×0.8×0.8 cm{sup 3}) was placed in a homogeneous area of the liver parenchyma during free breathing. Lipid relaxations in NC and HF diet rats were estimated at a fixed repetition time (TR) of 6000 msec, and multi echo time (TEs) of 40–220 msec. All spectra for data measurement were processed using the Advanced Method for Accurate, Robust, and Efficient Spectral (AMARES) fitting algorithm of the Java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface (jMRUI) package. Results: The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance in normal-chow diet was 37.1 msec (M{sub 0}, 2.9±0.5), with a standard deviation of 4.3 msec. The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance was 31.4 msec (M{sub 0}, 3.7±0.3), with a standard deviation of 1.8 msec. The T2 relaxation times of methylene protons were higher in normal-chow diet rats than in HF rats (p<0.05), and the extrapolated M{sub 0} values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). The excellent linear fit with R{sup 2}>0.9971 and R{sup 2}>0.9987 indicates T2 relaxation decay curves with mono-exponential function. Conclusion: In in vivo, a sufficient spectral resolution and a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved, so that the data measured over short TE values can be extrapolated back to TE = 0 to produce better estimates of the relative weights of the spectral components. In the short term, treating the effective decay rate as exponential is an adequate approximation.

  15. Nonadiabatic Dynamics in Single-Electron Tunneling Devices with Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Niklas; Splettstoesser, Janine; Helbig, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    We simulate the dynamics of a single-electron source, modeled as a quantum dot with on-site Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to an adjacent lead in time-dependent density-functional theory. Based on this system, we develop a time-nonlocal exchange-correlation potential by exploiting analogies with quantum-transport theory. The time nonlocality manifests itself in a dynamical potential step. We explicitly link the time evolution of the dynamical step to physical relaxation timescales of the electron dynamics. Finally, we discuss prospects for simulations of larger mesoscopic systems.

  16. DEVICE FOR MEASURMENT OF RELAXATION TIME OF THE BLEACHED STATE OF OPTICAL MATERIALS BY THE «PUMP-PROBE» METHOD IN SUB-ΜS TIME DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Glazunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive shutters to control the duration of the light pulses is an important aspect in the miniature and microchip lasers. One of the key spectroscopic characteristics which determine the properties of the material, which can be used as a passive shutter is relaxation time of its bleached state.We describe a device for determination of relaxation time of the bleached state in optical materials by the «pump-probe» method in the sub-μs time domain. This device allows one to determine relaxation times for materials which absorb at the light wavelength of 1.5 μm, e.g., materials doped with cobalt ions Co2+. The results of test examinations of the device are described, and the relaxation time of the bleached state of Co2+ ions is measured for a novel material – transparent glass-ceramics with Co2+:Ga2 O3 nanophase – amounting to 190 ± 6 ns. 

  17. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  18. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong (Dept. of Radiology, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea)); Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun (Cartilage Regeneration Center, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea))

    2009-11-15

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  19. SU-E-I-64: Transverse Relaxation Time in Methylene Protons of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K-H; Lee, D-W; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance compared to other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point — resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated considering repetition time (TR) as 6000 msec and echo time (TE) as 40 — 550 msec. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H — MRS), eight male Sprague — Dawley rats were given free access to a normal - chow (NC) and eight other male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high — fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T{sub 2} measurements in the rats’ livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000 msec and TE of 40 – 220 msec. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}). Results: A chemical analysis of phantom and liver was not performed but a T{sub 2} decay curve was acquired. The T{sub 2} relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.07 ± 4.32 msec; HF rats, 31.43 ± 1.81 msec (p < 0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p < 0.005). Conclusion: This study of {sup 1}H-MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal — to — noise ratio differences to characterize all observable resonances for yielding T{sub 2} relaxation times of methylene resonance. {sup 1}H — MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. This study was supported by grant (2012-007883 and 2014R1A2A1A10050270) from the Mid-career Researcher Program through the NRF funded by Ministry of Science. In addition, this study was supported by the Industrial R&D of MOTIE/KEIT (10048997, Development of the core technology for integrated therapy devices based on real-time MRI-guided tumor tracking)

  20. The application of T1 and T2 relaxation time and magnetization transfer ratios to the early diagnosis of patellar cartilage osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Weiwu; Qu, Nan; Lu, Zhihua; Yang, Shixun [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    We compare the T1 and T2 relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) of normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to evaluate the ability of these techniques to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of OA. The knee joints in 11 normal volunteers and 40 patients with OA were prospectively evaluated using T1 relaxation times as measured using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 relaxation times (multiple spin-echo sequence, T2 mapping), and MTRs. The OA patients were further categorized into mild, moderate, and severe OA. The mean T1 relaxation times of the four groups (normal, mild OA, moderate OA, and severe OA) were: 487.3{+-}27.7, 458.0{+-}55.9, 405.9{+-}57.3, and 357.9{+-}36.7 respectively (p<0.001). The mean T2 relaxation times of the four groups were: 37.8{+-}3.3, 44.0{+-}8.5, 50.9{+-}9.5, and 57.4{+-}4.8 respectively (p<0.001). T1 relaxation time decreased and T2 relaxation time increased with worsening degeneration of patellar cartilage. The result of the covariance analysis showed that the covariate age had a significant influence on T2 relaxation time (p<0.001). No significant differences between the normal and OA groups using MTR were noted. T1 and T2 relaxation times are relatively sensitive to early degenerative changes in the patellar cartilage, whereas the MTR may have some limitations with regard to early detection of OA. In addition, The T1 and T2 relaxation times negatively correlate with each other, which is a novel finding. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear spin phonon relaxation by Raman process in Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} single crystals with the electric-quadrupole-type interaction using {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ae Ran [Department of Science Education, Jeonju University, Jeonju 560-759, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: aeranlim@hanmail.net; Shin, Chang Woo [Solid State Analysis Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-30

    Successive phase transitions in a Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} single crystal were found at 296, 513, and 533 K. To investigate the mechanism of the phase transition at 296 K, the {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spin-lattice relaxation time and the spin-spin relaxation time of Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} were measured near the phase transition temperature using a FT NMR spectrometer. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T{sub 1}, for {sup 1}H in Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals exhibits a minimum below T{sub C1} (=296 K) indicating the presence of distinct molecular motion governed by the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound (BPP) theory. Although the results for the {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na relaxation times provide no evidence of the phase transition at T{sub C1}, the separation of the {sup 23}Na resonance lines changes abruptly at T{sub C1}. The phase transition at 296 K produces a change in the separation of the Na resonance line that is associated with a change in the atomic positions in the vicinity of the Na ions. Also, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation process in Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals with the electric-quadrupole-type interaction proceed via Raman process. These results are compared with those obtained for other M{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (M=K, Rb, and Cs) crystals, which have similar hydrogen-bonded structures.

  2. In vivo relaxation time measurements on a murine tumor model--prolongation of T1 after photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y H; Hawk, R M; Ramaprasad, S

    1995-01-01

    RIF tumors implanted on mice feet were investigated for changes in relaxation times (T1 and T2) after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodynamic therapy was performed using Photofrin II as the photosensitizer and laser light at 630 nm. A home-built proton solenoid coil in the balanced configuration was used to accommodate the tumors, and the relaxation times were measured before, immediately after, and up to several hours after therapy. Several control experiments were performed untreated tumors, tumors treated with Photofrin II alone, or tumors treated with laser light alone. Significant increases in T1s of water protons were observed after PDT treatment. In all experiments, 31P spectra were recorded before and after the therapy to study the tumor status and to confirm the onset of PDT. These studies show significant prolongation of T1s after the PDT treatment. The spin-spin relaxation measurements, on the other hand, did not show such prolongation in T2 values after PDT treatment.

  3. Predicting How Nanoconfinement Changes the Relaxation Time of a Supercooled Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Errington, Jeff; Truskett, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The properties of nanoconfined fluids can be strikingly different from those of bulk liquids. A basic unanswered question is whether the equilibrium and dynamic consequences of confinement are related to each other in a simple way. We study this question by simulation of a liquid comprising...... asymmetric dumbbell-shaped molecules, which can be deeply supercooled without crystallizing. We find that the dimensionless structural relaxation times—spanning six decades as a function of temperature, density, and degree of confinement—collapse when plotted versus excess entropy. The data also collapse...

  4. Surface-NMR measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 in a homogeneous sandy aquifer in Skive, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbrecker, J.; Behroozmand, A.

    2011-12-01

    Efficient groundwater management requires reliable means of characterizing shallow groundwater aquifers. One key parameter in this respect is hydraulic conductivity. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical exploration technique that can potentially provide this type of information in a noninvasive, cost-effective way. The technique is based on measuring the precession of nuclear spins of protons in groundwater molecules. It involves large loop antennas deployed on Earth's surface to generate electromagnetic pulses tuned to specifically excite and detect groundwater proton spins. Naturally, the excited state of spins is transitory - once excited, spins relax back to their equilibrium state. This relaxation process is strongly influenced by the spin environment, which, in the case of groundwater, is defined by the aquifer. By employing empirical relations, changes in relaxation behavior can be used to identify changes in aquifer hydraulic conductivity, making the NMR relaxation signal a very important piece of information. Particularly, efforts are made to record the longitudinal relaxation parameter T1, because it is known from laboratory studies that it often reliably correlates with hydraulic conductivity, even in the presence of magnetic species. In surface NMR, T1 data are collected by recording the NMR signal amplitude following two sequential excitation pulses as a function of the delay time τ between the two pulses. In conventional acquisition, the two pulses have a mutual phase shift of π. Based on theoretical arguments it was recently shown that T1 times acquired according to this conventional surface-NMR scheme are systematically biased. It was proposed that the bias can be minimized by cycling the phase of the two pulses between π and zero in subsequent double-pulse experiments, and subtracting the resulting signal amplitudes (phase-cycled pseudosaturation recovery scheme, pcPSR). We present the first surface-NMR T1 data set recorded

  5. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  6. A model problem for estimation of moving-film time relaxation at sudden change of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnovsky, Alexander A.; Eliseeva, Viktoria O.

    2018-05-01

    The study of the film flow occurred under the influence of a gas slug flow is of definite interest in heat and mass transfer during the motion of a coolant in the second circuit of a nuclear water-water reactor. Thermohydraulic codes are usually used for analysis of the such problems in which the motion of the liquid film and the vapor is modeled on the basis of a one-dimensional balance equations. Due to a greater inertia of the liquid film motion, film flow parameters changes with a relaxation compared with gas flow. We consider a model problem of film flow under the influence of friction from gas slug flow neglecting such effects as wave formation, droplet breakage and deposition on the film surface, evaporation and condensation. Such a problem is analogous to the well-known problems of Couette and Stokes flows. An analytical solution has been obtained for laminar flow. Numerical RANS-based simulation of turbulent flow was performed using OpenFOAM. It is established that the relaxation process is almost self-similar. This fact opens a possibility of obtaining valuable correlations for the relaxation time.

  7. Time-domain simulation of constitutive relations for nonlinear acoustics including relaxation for frequency power law attenuation media modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-10-01

    We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.

  8. Quantifying protein dynamics in the ps–ns time regime by NMR relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Griselda; LeMaster, David M., E-mail: david.lemaster@health.ny.gov [University at Albany - SUNY, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Both {sup 15}N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and sufficiently rapid exchange linebroadening transitions exhibit relaxation contributions that are proportional to the square of the magnetic field. Deconvoluting these contributions is further complicated by residue-dependent variations in protein amide {sup 15}N CSA values which have proven difficult to accurately measure. Exploiting recently reported improvements for the implementation of T{sub 1} and T{sub 1ρ} experiments, field strength-dependent studies have been carried out on the B3 domain of protein G (GB3) as well as on the immunophilin FKBP12 and a H87V variant of that protein in which the major conformational exchange linebroadening transition is suppressed. By applying a zero frequency spectral density rescaling analysis to the relaxation data collected at magnetic fields from 500 to 900 MHz {sup 1}H, differential residue-specific {sup 15}N CSA values have been obtained for GB3 which correlate with those derived from solid state and liquid crystalline NMR measurements to a level similar to the correlation among those previously reported studies. Application of this analysis protocol to FKBP12 demonstrated an efficient quantitation of both weak exchange linebroadening contributions and differential residue-specific {sup 15}N CSA values. Experimental access to such differential residue-specific {sup 15}N CSA values should significantly facilitate more accurate comparisons with molecular dynamics simulations of protein motion that occurs within the timeframe of global molecular tumbling.

  9. Energy and Momentum Relaxation Times of 2D Electrons Due to Near Surface Deformation Potential Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, Viktor; Vasko, Fedor; Mitin, Vladimir

    1997-03-01

    The low temperature energy and momentum relaxation rates of 2D electron gas placed near the free or clamped surface of a semi-infinit sample are calculated. To describe the electron-acoustic phonon interaction with allowance of the surface effect the method of elasticity theory Green functions was used. This method allows to take into account the reflection of acoustic waves from the surface and related mutual conversion of LA and TA waves. It is shown that the strength of the deformation potential scattering at low temperatures substantially depends on the mechanical conditions at the surface: relaxation rates are suppressed for the free surface while for the rigid one the rates are enhanced. The dependence of the conductivity on the distance between the 2D layer and the surface is discussed. The effect is most pronounced in the range of temperatures 2 sl pF < T < (2 hbar s_l)/d, where pF is the Fermi momentum, sl is the velocity of LA waves, d is the width of the quantum well.

  10. Single-molecule magnetism in three related {Co(III)2Dy(III)2}-acetylacetonate complexes with multiple relaxation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2013-06-17

    Three new heterometallic complexes with formulas of [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(teaH)2(acac)4(NO3)2] (1), [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OH)2(teaH)2(acac)4(NO3)2]·4H2O (2), and [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(mdea)2(acac)4(NO3)2] (3) were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and by dc and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements. All three complexes have an identical "butterfly"-type metallic core that consists of two Dy(III) ions occupying the "body" position and two diamagnetic low-spin Co(III) ions occupying the outer "wing-tips". Each complex displays single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior in zero applied magnetic field, with thermally activated anisotropy barriers of 27, 28, and 38 K above 7.5 K for 1-3, respectively, as well as observing a temperature-independent mechanism of relaxation below 5 K for 1 and 2 and at 3 K for 3, indicating fast quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). A second, faster thermally activated relaxation mechanism may also be active under a zero applied dc field as derived from the Cole-Cole data. Interestingly, these complexes demonstrate further relaxation modes that are strongly dependent upon the application of a static dc magnetic field. Dilution experiments that were performed on 1, in the {Y(III)2Co(III)2} diamagnetic analog, show that the slow magnetic relaxation is of a single-ion origin, but it was found that the neighboring ion also plays an important role in the overall relaxation dynamics.

  11. The dynamics of single protein molecules is non-equilibrium and self-similar over thirteen decades in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohu; Hong, Liang; Dean Smith, Micholas; Neusius, Thomas; Cheng, Xiaolin; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2016-02-01

    Internal motions of proteins are essential to their function. The time dependence of protein structural fluctuations is highly complex, manifesting subdiffusive, non-exponential behaviour with effective relaxation times existing over many decades in time, from ps up to ~102 s (refs ,,,). Here, using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that, on timescales from 10-12 to 10-5 s, motions in single proteins are self-similar, non-equilibrium and exhibit ageing. The characteristic relaxation time for a distance fluctuation, such as inter-domain motion, is observation-time-dependent, increasing in a simple, power-law fashion, arising from the fractal nature of the topology and geometry of the energy landscape explored. Diffusion over the energy landscape follows a non-ergodic continuous time random walk. Comparison with single-molecule experiments suggests that the non-equilibrium self-similar dynamical behaviour persists up to timescales approaching the in vivo lifespan of individual protein molecules.

  12. Properties of the relaxation time distribution underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts photoionization of the DX centers in Cd1-xMnxTe mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzmiel, J; Weron, K; Placzek-Popko, E; Janczura, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we clarify the relationship between the relaxation rate and relaxation time distributions underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) photoconductivity build-ups in indium- and gallium-doped Cd 1-x Mn x Te mixed crystals. We discuss the role of asymptotic properties of the corresponding probability density functions. We show that the relaxation rate distribution, as a completely asymmetric α-stable distribution, leads to an infinite mean value of the effective relaxation rate. In contrast, the relaxation time distribution related to it leads to a finite mean value of the effective relaxation time. It follows from the experimental data analysis that for all the investigated samples the KWW exponent α decreases linearly with increasing photon flux in the range of (0.6-0.99) and its values are more spread in the case of gallium-doped material. We also observe a linear dependence of the mean relaxation time on the characteristic material time constant, which is consistent with the theoretical model.

  13. The effect of timing of intravenous muscle relaxant on the quality of double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, E.M.; Elson, E.M.; Campbell, D.M.; Halligan, S.; Shaikh, I.; Davitt, S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the timing of buscopan administration during double-contrast barium enema examination (DCBE) affects diagnostic quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective setting, 100 consecutive adult out-patients referred for DCBE received 20 mg buscopan (hyoscine-N-butylbromide) intravenously, either before infusion of barium suspension (Group A) or after barium infusion and gas insufflation (Group B). A subjective assessment of ease of contrast medium infusion was made at the time of examination and the films subsequently analysed by two radiologists unaware of the mode of relaxant administration, who noted the quality of mucosal coating and made subjective and objective measurements of segmental distension. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in screening times, infusion difficulty or colonic contrast medium coating between the two groups. Subjective assessment of distension of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon and rectum were not significantly different. Patients receiving intravenous relaxant after barium and gas infusion had less subjective descending (P = 0.05) and sigmoid (P = 0.04) colon distension, but there was no significant difference with respect to maximal bowel diameter in any of the segments measured. CONCLUSION: The timing of intravenous administration during DCBE is likely to have no significant effect on the diagnostic quality of the study. Elson, E.M. (2000)

  14. Corroborative evidences of TV γ -scaling of the α-relaxation originating from the primitive relaxation/JG β relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, K. L.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Successful thermodynamic scaling of the structural alpha-relaxation time or transport coefficients of glass-forming liquids determined at various temperatures T and pressures P means the data conform to a single function of the product variable TVgamma, where V is the specific volume and gamma is a material specific constant. In the past two decades we have witnessed successful TVgamma-scaling in many molecular, polymeric, and even metallic glass-formers, and gamma is related to the slope of the repulsive part of the intermolecular potential. The advances made indicate TVgamma-scaling is an important aspect of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-formers. In this paper we show the origin of TVgamma-scaling is not from the structural alpha-relaxation time. Instead it comes from its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation or the primitive relaxation of the Coupling Model and their relaxation times or tau_0 respectively. It is remarkable that all relaxation times are functions of TVgamma with the same gama, as well as the fractional exponent of the Kohlrausch correlation function of the structural alpha-relaxation. We arrive at this conclusion convincingly based on corroborative evidences from a number of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations performed on a wide variety of glass-formers and in conjunction with consistency with the predictions of the Coupling Model.

  15. Quantum process tomography with informational incomplete data of two J-coupled heterogeneous spins relaxation in a time window much greater than T1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Thiago O.; Vianna, Reinaldo O.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.

    2015-11-01

    We reconstruct the time dependent quantum map corresponding to the relaxation process of a two-spin system in liquid-state NMR at room temperature. By means of quantum tomography techniques that handle informational incomplete data, we show how to properly post-process and normalize the measurements data for the simulation of quantum information processing, overcoming the unknown number of molecules prepared in a non-equilibrium magnetization state (Nj) by an initial sequence of radiofrequency pulses. From the reconstructed quantum map, we infer both longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) relaxation times, and introduce the J-coupling relaxation times ({T}1J,{T}2J), which are relevant for quantum information processing simulations. We show that the map associated to the relaxation process cannot be assumed approximated unital and trace-preserving for times greater than {T}2J.

  16. Nanosecond time measurements of single pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Jingyuan; Cheng Shiyuan

    1986-01-01

    This report mainly describes the principle specification of circuit design and time-interval calibrations of model SHS 500 time-to-digital converter. Its range is 12 to 500 ns, with six ranges: 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ns. The precision of measured time-interval is 0.3% of full scale and time resolution is 0.1% of full scale

  17. Relationship between aging and T1 relaxation time in deep gray matter: A voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Gosuke; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tsutomu; Murata, Katsutoshi; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-09-01

    To investigate age-related changes in T 1 relaxation time in deep gray matter structures in healthy volunteers using magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE). In all, 70 healthy volunteers (aged 20-76, mean age 42.6 years) were scanned at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A MP2RAGE sequence was employed to quantify T 1 relaxation times. After the spatial normalization of T 1 maps with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm, voxel-based regression analysis was conducted. In addition, linear and quadratic regression analyses of regions of interest (ROIs) were also performed. With aging, voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant T 1 value decreases in the ventral-inferior putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala, whereas T 1 values significantly increased in the thalamus and white matter as well (P time vary by location in deep gray matter. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:724-731. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. An analysis of the NMR-CT image by the measurement of proton-relaxation times in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Chuzo; Hirakawa, Kimiyoshi; Nishikawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Koji; Kiri, Motosada.

    1984-01-01

    NMR-CT images were analyzed by measuring the proton-relaxation times in tissues. The NMR-CT images were obtained in 10 normal volunteers and 16 patients with brain tumors with a prototype superconducting magnet (Shimadzu Corp., Japan) operating at 0.2 T and 0.375 T. A smooth T 1 relaxation curve was obtained in each part of the brain and the brain tumor by the use of the data of the NMR-CT image; consequently, the in vivo T 1 value was proved to be reliable. The in vivo T 1 value showed the specific value corresponding to each region of the normal brain in all cases. Cerebral gray matter normally had the longest T 1 value, followed by the medulla oblongata, the pons, and white matter. The T 1 value of each region of the brain varied to the same degree in proportion to the strength of the static magnetic field. The in vivo T 1 values of the brain tumor varied with the histological type. All were longer than any part of the brain parenchyma, being between 480 and 780 msec at 0.2 T. The prolongation of the T 1 value does not always correspond to the degree of the malignancy in a tumor. The in vitro T 1 and T 2 values were also prolonged in all tumors. Although the absolute value of T 1 did not coincide between the in vitro and in vivo data, the tendency of the prolongation was the same between them. This result indicated that the NMR-CT images could be analysed by the use of the data of the in vitro T 1 and T 2 values in the tumor tissues. It is important to analyse the NMR-CT image by both in vivo and in vitro examinations of the relaxation times. (J.P.N.)

  19. Time-optimal thermalization of single-mode Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Alberto; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-11-01

    We consider the problem of time-optimal control of a continuous bosonic quantum system subject to the action of a Markovian dissipation. In particular, we consider the case of a one-mode Gaussian quantum system prepared in an arbitrary initial state and which relaxes to the steady state due to the action of the dissipative channel. We assume that the unitary part of the dynamics is represented by Gaussian operations which preserve the Gaussian nature of the quantum state, i.e., arbitrary phase rotations, bounded squeezing, and unlimited displacements. In the ideal ansatz of unconstrained quantum control (i.e., when the unitary phase rotations, squeezing, and displacement of the mode can be performed instantaneously), we study how control can be optimized for speeding up the relaxation towards the fixed point of the dynamics and we analytically derive the optimal relaxation time. Our model has potential and interesting applications to the control of modes of electromagnetic radiation and of trapped levitated nanospheres.

  20. Follow-up of regional myocardial T2 relaxation times in patients with myocardial infarction evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, X.H.; Wall, E. van der; Laarse, A. van der; Dijkman, P.R.M. van; Bruschke, A.V.G.; Doornbos, J.; Roos, A. de; Voorthuisen, A.E. van

    1990-01-01

    Multi-echo spin-echo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies (echo times 30, 60, 90 and 120 ms) were performed in 19 patients with a 7-14-day (mean 10) old myocardial infarction and were repeated in 13 patients 4-7 months (mean 6) later. Also, 10 normal subjects were studied with magnetic resonance imaging. T2 relaxation times of certain left ventricular segments were calculated from the signal intensities at echo times of 30 and 90 ms. Compared to normal individuals, the mean T2 values on the early magnetic resonance images of the patients with inferior infarction showed significantly prolonged T2 times in the inferiorly localized segments, while on the follow-up magnetic resonance images the T2 times had almost returned to the normal range. Also the patients with anterior infarction showed significantly prolonged T2 times in the anteriorly localized segments on the early nuclear magnetic resonance images, but the T2 times remained prolonged at the follow-up magnetic resonance images. For every patient a myocardial damage score was determined, which was defined as the sum of the segmental T2 values in the patients minus the upper limit of normal T2 values obtained from the normal volunteers (= mean normal+2SD). The damage score on both the early and late magnetic resonance imaging study correlated well with the infarction size determined by myocardial enzyme release. Only the patients with an inferior infarction showed a significant decrease in damage score at follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. It is concluded that the regional T2 relaxation times are increased in infarcted myocardial regions and may remain prolonged for at least up to 7 months after the acute event, particularly in patients with an anterior infarction. These findings demonstrate the clinical potential of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies for detecting myocardial infarction, and estimating infarct size for an extended period after acute myocardial infarction. (author). 29 refs

  1. Vogel-Fulcher dependence of relaxation rates in a nematic monomer and elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, D.; Filippov, S.; Aliev, F.; Keller, P.; Thomsen, D.; Ratna, B.

    2000-12-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy is used to study the relaxation processes in a nematic monomer and the corresponding cross-linked polymer nematic liquid crystal (elastomer). In the frequency window 10 mHz to 2 GHz the monomer liquid crystal shows a single relaxation whereas the polymer exhibits three relaxation processes, two of which are quantitatively analyzed. The temperature dependence of relaxation times in both the monomer and polymer follows a Vogel-Fulcher behavior. The relaxation processes are identified with specific molecular motions and activation energies are calculated in a linear approximation for comparison with literature data.

  2. Relaxation dynamics of the conductive processes for PbNb2O6 ferroelectric ceramics in the frequency and time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R L; Leyet, Y; Guerrero, F; Guerra, J de Los S; Venet, M; Eiras, J A

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of the conductive process present in PbNb 2 O 6 piezoelectric ceramics was investigated. A relaxation function in the time domain, Φ(t), was found from the frequency dependence of the dielectric modulus (imaginary component, M'') by using a relaxation function in the frequency domain, F*(ω). The best relaxation function, F*(ω), was found to be a Cole-Cole distribution function, in which relaxation characteristic parameters, such as α and τ CC , are involved. On the other hand, the relaxation function, Φ(t), obtained by the time domain method, was found to be a Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function type. The thermal evolution of the characteristics parameters of the KWW function (β and τ*) was analysed. The values of the activation energy (E a ), obtained in the whole investigated temperature interval, suggest the existence of a relaxation mechanism (a conductive process), which may be interpreted by an ion hopping between neighbouring sites within the crystalline lattice. The results are corroborated with the formalism of the AC conductivity

  3. Effects of Liver Fibrosis Progression on Tissue Relaxation Times in Different Mouse Models Assessed by Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, clinical studies demonstrated that magnetic resonance relaxometry with determination of relaxation times T1 and T2⁎ may aid in staging and management of liver fibrosis in patients suffering from viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis. In the present study we investigated T1 and T2⁎ in different models of liver fibrosis to compare alternate pathophysiologies in their effects on relaxation times and to further develop noninvasive quantification methods of liver fibrosis. MRI was performed with a fast spin echo sequence for measurement of T1 and a multigradient echo sequence for determination of T2⁎. Toxic liver fibrosis was induced by injections of carbon tetrachloride (1.4 mL CCl4 per kg bodyweight and week, for 3 or 6 weeks in BALB/cJ mice. Chronic sclerosing cholangitis was mimicked using the ATP-binding cassette transporter B4 knockout (Abcb4 -/- mouse model. Untreated BALB/cJ mice served as controls. To assess hepatic fibrosis, we ascertained collagen contents and fibrosis scores after Sirius red staining. T1 and T2⁎ correlate differently to disease severity and etiology of liver fibrosis. T2⁎ shows significant decrease correlating with fibrosis in CCl4 treated animals, while demonstrating significant increase with disease severity in Abcb4 -/- mice. Measurements of T1 and T2⁎ may therefore facilitate discrimination between different stages and causes of liver fibrosis.

  4. The Abridgment and Relaxation Time for a Linear Multi-Scale Model Based on Multiple Site Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    Full Text Available Random effect in cellular systems is an important topic in systems biology and often simulated with Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA. Abridgment refers to model reduction that approximates a group of reactions by a smaller group with fewer species and reactions. This paper presents a theoretical analysis, based on comparison of the first exit time, for the abridgment on a linear chain reaction model motivated by systems with multiple phosphorylation sites. The analysis shows that if the relaxation time of the fast subsystem is much smaller than the mean firing time of the slow reactions, the abridgment can be applied with little error. This analysis is further verified with numerical experiments for models of bistable switch and oscillations in which linear chain system plays a critical role.

  5. Preliminary study for differential diagnosis of intracranial tumors using in vivo quantitative proton MR spectroscopy with correction for T2 relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Shiigai, Masanari; Shibata, Yasushi; Takada, Kenta; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Anno, Izumi; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The intent of this study was to differentiate intracranial tumors using the metabolite concentrations obtained by quantification with correction for T2 relaxation time, and to analyze whether the spectrum peak was generated by the existence of metabolites in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: All proton MRS studies were performed on a clinical 1.5T MR system. 7 normal volunteers and 57 patients (gliomas, metastases, meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, and pituitary adenomas) underwent single voxel proton MRS with different echo times (TE: 68, 136, 272 ms) for T2 correction of signal derived from metabolites and tissue water. With tissue water employed as an internal reference, the concentrations of metabolite (i.e. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (t-Cr) and choline-containing compounds (Cho)) were calculated. Moreover, proton MRS data of previously published typical literatures were critically reviewed and compared with our data. Results: Extramedullary tumors were characterized by absence of NAA compared with intramedullary tumors. High-grade glioma differed from low-grade glioma by lower t-Cr concentrations. Metastasis differed from cystic glioblastoma by higher Cho concentrations, lower t-Cr concentrations, an absence of NAA, and a prominent Lipids peak. Based on these results and review of previous reports, we suggest a clinical pathway for the differentiation of intracranial tumors. Conclusion: The metabolite concentrations obtained by quantification with correction for T2 relaxation time, and to analyze whether the spectrum peak was generated by the existence of metabolites in proton MRS is useful for the diagnosis of the intracranial tumors

  6. Three-dimensional simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Gui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-LBM is then validated through a benchmark problem: a 3D steady Poiseuille flow. The results from the numerical simulations are consistent with those derived analytically which indicates that the MRT-LBM effectively simulates Bingham fluids but with better stability. A parallel MRT-LBM framework is introduced, and the parallel efficiency is tested through a simple case. The MRT-LBM is shown to be appropriate for parallel implementation and to have high efficiency. Finally, a Bingham fluid flowing past a square-based prism with a fixed sphere is simulated. It is found the drag coefficient is a function of both Reynolds number (Re and Bingham number (Bn. These results reveal the flow behavior of Bingham plastics.

  7. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  8. Real T1 relaxation time measurement and diurnal variation analysis of intervertebral discs in a healthy population of 50 volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galley, J.; Maestretti, G.; Koch, G.; Hoogewoud, H-M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the real T1 relaxation time of the lumbar intervertebral discs in a young and healthy population, using different inversion recovery times, and assess diurnal variation. Material and methods: Intervertebral discs from D12 to S1 of 50 healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old were evaluated twice the same day, in the morning and in the late afternoon. Dedicated MRI sequences with different inversion recovery times (from 100 to 2500 ms) were used to calculate the real T1 relaxation time. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in each disc, the middle representing the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the outer parts the annulus fibrosus (AF) anterior and posterior. Diurnal variation and differences between each disc level were analyzed. Results: T1 mean values in the NP were 1142 ± 12 ms in the morning and 1085 ± 13 ms in the afternoon, showing a highly significant decrease of 57 ms (p < 0.001). A highly significant difference between the levels of the spine was found. The mean T1 of the anterior part of the AF was 577 ± 9 ms in the morning and 554 ± 8 ms in the afternoon. For the posterior part, the mean values were 633 ± 8 ms in the morning and 581 ± 7 ms in the evening. It shows a highly significant decrease of 23 ms for the anterior part and 51 ms for the posterior part (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: T1 mapping is a promising method of intervertebral disc evaluation. Significant diurnal variation and difference between levels of the lumbar spine were demonstrated. A potential use for longitudinal study in post-operative follow up or sport medicine needs to be evaluated.

  9. Real T1 relaxation time measurement and diurnal variation analysis of intervertebral discs in a healthy population of 50 volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galley, J., E-mail: galleyjulien@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland); Maestretti, G. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland); Koch, G.; Hoogewoud, H-M. [Department of Radiology, HFR Fribourg, Hôpital Cantonal (Switzerland)

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: To measure the real T1 relaxation time of the lumbar intervertebral discs in a young and healthy population, using different inversion recovery times, and assess diurnal variation. Material and methods: Intervertebral discs from D12 to S1 of 50 healthy volunteers from 18 to 25 years old were evaluated twice the same day, in the morning and in the late afternoon. Dedicated MRI sequences with different inversion recovery times (from 100 to 2500 ms) were used to calculate the real T1 relaxation time. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in each disc, the middle representing the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the outer parts the annulus fibrosus (AF) anterior and posterior. Diurnal variation and differences between each disc level were analyzed. Results: T1 mean values in the NP were 1142 ± 12 ms in the morning and 1085 ± 13 ms in the afternoon, showing a highly significant decrease of 57 ms (p < 0.001). A highly significant difference between the levels of the spine was found. The mean T1 of the anterior part of the AF was 577 ± 9 ms in the morning and 554 ± 8 ms in the afternoon. For the posterior part, the mean values were 633 ± 8 ms in the morning and 581 ± 7 ms in the evening. It shows a highly significant decrease of 23 ms for the anterior part and 51 ms for the posterior part (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: T1 mapping is a promising method of intervertebral disc evaluation. Significant diurnal variation and difference between levels of the lumbar spine were demonstrated. A potential use for longitudinal study in post-operative follow up or sport medicine needs to be evaluated.

  10. Stress relaxation and activation volume at the yield point of cold worked and neutron irradiated copper single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, D.; Diehl, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effective activation volume of slip is studied after neutron irradiation in as-grown crystals as well as in predeformed ones by means of stress relaxation tests between 20 K and 200 K. The activation volume corresponding to the initial strain rate is found to be always higher in predeformed crystals than in as-grown ones. During stress relaxation the flow stress tau decreases linearly with ln(-dtau/dt) (indicating a constant activation volume) only in rare cases. Depending on predeformation and temperature several types of deviations from straight lines are observed: monotoneously bent curves, strong scattering of data points not fitting smooth curves or systematic deviations from straight lines at the beginning of relaxation. Accordingly the effective activation volumes and their dependences on stress seem to behave in a strange manner. By the aid of a previously proposed model for the deformation within the yield point elongation the results can be interpreted qualitatively by taking into account the inhomogeneity of slip and work hardening, allowing a more reliable judgement on the real activation volumes, on which a better understanding of the superposition of the two hardening mechanisms involved here can be based. (author)

  11. Time dependence of volcano inflation: mass influx or viscoelastic relaxation? Insights from Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Distinguishing magma chamber pressurization from relaxation of a viscoelastic aureole surrounding the chamber based on geodetic measurements has remained challenging. Elastic models with mass inflow proportional to the pressure difference between the chamber and a deep reservoir predict exponentially decaying flux. For a spherical chamber surrounded by a Maxwell viscoelastic shell with pressure dependent recharge, the surface deformation is the sum of two exponentials (Segall, 2016). GPS displacements following eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland in 2004 and 2011 exhibit rapid post-eruptive inflation (time scale of 0.1 yr), followed by inflation with a much longer time constant. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion with the viscoelastic model shows the GPS time series can be fit with viscosity of 2e16 Pa-s, and a relatively incompressible magma, B = beta_c/ (beta_m + beta_c) > 0.6, where beta_m and beta_c are chamber and magma compressibility. The latter appears to conflict with the ratio of erupted volume to geodetically inferred source volume change, rv 10, obtained for the best fitting spherical (Mogi ) source (Hreinsdóttir, 2014). Since rv = 1/B, this implies a relatively compressible melt, B 0.1. Reexamination of the co-eruptive GPS and tilt data with the more general ellipsoidal model of Cervelli (2013), reveals that the best fitting sources are oblate (b/a 3), deeper, and with larger volume changes, rv 3, relative to spherical models. Oblate magma chambers are consistent with seismic tomography. FEM calculations including free surface effects lead to even larger co-eruptive volume changes, smaller rv and hence larger B. I conclude that the data are consistent with rapid post-eruptive inflation driven by viscoelastic relaxation with a relatively incompressible magma, although other interpretations will be discussed.

  12. Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Park, Hyunjoon; Iwasawa, Miho; Zhou, Yanfei

    2014-08-01

    The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers' time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers coresiding with parents spend less time with children and eat dinner together less frequently than either married mothers or their unmarried counterparts not living with parents, net of (grand)parental support, work hours, income, and stress. The findings suggest that rising divorce rates and associated growth in single-mother families may have a detrimental impact on parents' time with children in Japan and that the relatively high prevalence of intergenerational coresidence among single mothers may do little to temper this impact.

  13. EVALUTION OF THE SINGLE INTERCITY FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION WAITING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ponomariova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The example of vechicle operation on the pendulum intercity route during single freightages processing is considered. Two approaches to the definition of the single freightage waiting time by the carrier are proposed. These approaches allow to take into account the probability of the single freightage obtaining by the carrier during the different load level of the transport enterprise capacity.

  14. Characterization of anomalous relaxation using the time-fractional Bloch equation and multiple echo T2 *-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shanlin; Liu, Fawang; Turner, Ian W; Yu, Qiang; Yang, Qianqian; Vegh, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    To study the utility of fractional calculus in modeling gradient-recalled echo MRI signal decay in the normal human brain. We solved analytically the extended time-fractional Bloch equations resulting in five model parameters, namely, the amplitude, relaxation rate, order of the time-fractional derivative, frequency shift, and constant offset. Voxel-level temporal fitting of the MRI signal was performed using the classical monoexponential model, a previously developed anomalous relaxation model, and using our extended time-fractional relaxation model. Nine brain regions segmented from multiple echo gradient-recalled echo 7 Tesla MRI data acquired from five participants were then used to investigate the characteristics of the extended time-fractional model parameters. We found that the extended time-fractional model is able to fit the experimental data with smaller mean squared error than the classical monoexponential relaxation model and the anomalous relaxation model, which do not account for frequency shift. We were able to fit multiple echo time MRI data with high accuracy using the developed model. Parameters of the model likely capture information on microstructural and susceptibility-induced changes in the human brain. Magn Reson Med 77:1485-1494, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  16. A weighted multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for multiphase flows and its application to partial coalescence cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Abbas; Bolster, Diogo; Luo, Li-Shi

    2017-07-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with a weighted multiple-relaxation-time (WMRT) collision model and an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm for direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows in three dimensions. The proposed WMRT model enhances the numerical stability of the LBM for immiscible fluids at high density ratios, particularly on the D3Q27 lattice. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed WMRT-LBM-AMR is validated through simulations of (a) buoyancy-driven motion and deformation of a gas bubble rising in a viscous liquid; (b) the bag-breakup mechanism of a falling drop; (c) crown splashing of a droplet on a wet surface; and (d) the partial coalescence mechanism of a liquid drop at a liquid-liquid interface. The numerical simulations agree well with available experimental data and theoretical approximations where applicable.

  17. Multi-relaxation-time Lattice Boltzman model for uniform-shear flow over a rotating circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.

  18. Three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann front-tracking method for two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hai-Qiong; Zeng Zhong; Zhang Liang-Qi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow by coupling with a front-tracking technique. The flow field was simulated by using an Eulerian grid, an adaptive unstructured triangular Lagrangian grid was applied to track explicitly the motion of the two-fluid interface, and an indicator function was introduced to update accurately the fluid properties. The surface tension was computed directly on a triangular Lagrangian grid, and then the surface tension was distributed to the background Eulerian grid. Three benchmarks of two-phase flow, including the Laplace law for a stationary drop, the oscillation of a three-dimensional ellipsoidal drop, and the drop deformation in a shear flow, were simulated to validate the present model. (paper)

  19. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers. Proton spin-lattice relaxation times of skeletal muscles on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I. (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Neurology); Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Tateno, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Clinical Research); Aoki, Y. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.).

  20. Measurement of solute proton spin-lattice relaxation times in water using the 1,3,3,1 sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, S.S.; Mole, P.A.; Coulson, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    1 H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the N-CH3 proton resonances of phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in water solutions were obtained using the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. These T1 values were equivalent to those obtained in D 2 O and water using either the conventional inversion-recovery experiment or the 1,3,3,1 pulse sequence. Thus, the 1,3,3,1 sequence of proton NMR can provide an independent means along with phosphorous NMR for assess PCr and for the study of the creatine kinase reaction (PCr + ADP in equilibrium ATP + Cr) in aqueous solutions and perhaps in biological preparations

  1. In vivo field dependence of proton relaxation times in human brain, liver and skeletal muscle: a multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; de Certaines, J D; Spisni, A

    1993-01-01

    and MRS, the in vivo field dispersion of T1 and T2 has been measured in order to evaluate whether ex vivo data are representative for the in vivo situation. Brain, skeletal muscle, and liver of healthy human volunteers were studied. Fifteen MR units with a field strength ranging from 0.08 T to 1.5 T took......T1 and T2 relaxation times are fundamental parameters for signal contrast behaviour in MRI. A number of ex vivo relaxometry studies have dealt with the magnetic field dispersion of T1. By means of multicenter study within the frame of the COMAC BME Concerted Action on Tissue Characterization by MRI......, whereas no significant variations were seen for T2. Our in vivo data were generally in reasonable agreement with proposed models based on ex vivo measurements....

  2. Truncation of the many body hierarchy and relaxation times in the McKean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    In the McKean model the BBGKY-hierarchy is equivalent to a simple hierarchy of coupled equations for the p-particle correlation functions. Truncation effects and the convergence of the one-particle distribution towards its exact shape have been studied. In the long time limit the equations can be solved in a closed form. It turns out that the p-particle correlation decays p-times faster than the non-equilibrium one-particle distribution

  3. TRUNCATION OF THE MANY BODY HIERARCHY AND RELAXATION TIMES IN THE McKEAN MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt , K.-J.

    1987-01-01

    In the McKean model the BBGKY-hierarchy is equivalent to a simple hierarchy of coupled equations for the p-particle correlation functions. Truncation effects and the convergence of the one-particle distribution towards its exact shape have been studied. In the long time limit the equations can be solved in a closed form. It turns out that the p-particle correlation decays p-times faster than the non-equilibrium one-particle distribution.

  4. Oxygen vacancies effect on ionic conductivity and relaxation phenomenon in undoped and Mn doped PZN-4.5PT single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobor, Diouma; Guiffard, Benoit; Lebrun, Laurent; Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    AC-impedance spectroscopic studies in the temperature range 550-700 deg. C are carried out on undoped and Mn doped PZN-PT single crystals grown by the flux method. The variation of dielectric permittivity with temperature at different frequencies shows normal ferroelectric and relaxor-like dependence for the doped and undoped crystals, respectively. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic modulus plots reveal a much broader peak for PZN-4.5PT + 1%Mn compared with that for PZN-4.5PT, which is different from the dielectric behaviour of the doped one. Complex modulus imaginary part (Z-prime) versus real part (Z') plots fit well with one semicircle thus indicating only bulk contribution. The relaxation observed in the spectroscopic plots was assigned to mobile relaxor species such as oxygen vacancies and ions. No such relaxation could be observed for PZN-4.5PT + 1%Mn in the dielectric measurements. For both undoped and Mn doped crystals, the conduction behaviour was modelled by the universal dynamic response equation and by the NTC (negative temperature coefficient) materials resistance-temperature behaviour. A large difference in behaviour was found between the two single crystals such as the thermistor coefficients and the activation energy values, which could explain the increase in the thermal stability observed in the Mn doped PZN-PT single crystals by many studies

  5. Patellofemoral instability in children: T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage in patients with and without patellofemoral instability and correlation with morphological grading of cartilage damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, Ppatellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Wong, Brenda; Horn, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable

  7. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Wong, Brenda [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Horn, Paul S. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.

  8. On single-time reduction in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown, how the causality and spectrality properties in qUantum field theory may help one to carry out a single-time reduction of the Bethe-Salpeter wave fUnction. The single-time reduction technique is not based on any concrete model of the quantum field theory. Axiomatic formulations underline the quantum field theory

  9. Process of advective diffusive enrichment using differential gradients and the effects of variations in relaxation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola R.; Bernasconi, G.; Bertolotti, Angel

    1995-01-01

    A multicomponent solution is considered in advective diffusion chambers between two half-permeable barriers. A mathematical model is developed to calculate the concentration fields in the chamber. A new enrichment process is proposed and assessed using a digital simulation of space-time dynamics, based on the analytical solution of the model

  10. The time-local view of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. I. Linear theory of transport and relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    der, R.

    1987-01-01

    The various approaches to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics may be subdivided into convolution and convolutionless (time-local) ones. While the former, put forward by Zwanzig, Mori, and others, are used most commonly, the latter are less well developed, but have proven very useful in recent applications. The aim of the present series of papers is to develop the time-local picture (TLP) of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics on a new footing and to consider its physical implications for topics such as the formulation of irreversible thermodynamics. The most natural approach to TLP is seen to derive from the Fourier-Laplace transformwidetilde{C}(z)) of pertinent time correlation functions, which on the physical sheet typically displays an essential singularity at z=∞ and a number of macroscopic and microscopic poles in the lower half-plane corresponding to long- and short-lived modes, respectively, the former giving rise to the autonomous macrodynamics, whereas the latter are interpreted as doorway modes mediating the transfer of information from relevant to irrelevant channels. Possible implications of this doorway mode concept for socalled extended irreversible thermodynamics are briefly discussed. The pole structure is used for deriving new kinds of generalized Green-Kubo relations expressing macroscopic quantities, transport coefficients, e.g., by contour integrals over current-current correlation functions obeying Hamiltonian dynamics, the contour integration replacing projection. The conventional Green-Kubo relations valid for conserved quantities only are rederived for illustration. Moreover,widetilde{C}(z) may be expressed by a Laurent series expansion in positive and negative powers of z, from which a rigorous, general, and straightforward method is developed for extracting all macroscopic quantities from so-called secularly divergent expansions ofwidetilde{C}(z) as obtained from the application of conventional many-body techniques to the calculation

  11. Patellofemoral instability in children: T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage in patients with and without patellofemoral instability and correlation with morphological grading of cartilage damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, P<0.05) with the longest time at the central area. Positive correlation was seen between mean T2 relaxation time and morphological grading (Pearson correlation coefficiency, P<0.001). T2 increased with severity of morphological grading from 0 to 3 (mixed model, P<0.001), but no statistical difference was seen between grades 3 and 4. In patellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage. (orig.)

  12. Time-dependent entropy evolution in microscopic and macroscopic electromagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Jarvis, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a study of entropy and its evolution in the time and frequency domains upon application of electromagnetic fields to materials. An understanding of entropy and its evolution in electromagnetic interactions bridges the boundaries between electromagnetism and thermodynamics. The approach used here is a Liouville-based statistical-mechanical theory. I show that the microscopic entropy is reversible and the macroscopic entropy satisfies an H theorem. The spectral entropy development can be very useful for studying the frequency response of materials. Using a projection-operator based nonequilibrium entropy, different equations are derived for the entropy and entropy production and are applied to the polarization, magnetization, and macroscopic fields. I begin by proving an exact H theorem for the entropy, progress to application of time-dependent entropy in electromagnetics, and then apply the theory to relevant applications in electromagnetics. The paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the frequency-domain form of the entropy to the permittivity, permeability, and impedance

  13. Hyaline articular cartilage: relaxation times, pulse-sequence parameters and MR appearance at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalkias, S.M. [Dept. of Radiology, A.H.E.P.A. General Hospital of the Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Pozzi-Mucelli, M. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Frezza, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    1994-08-01

    In order to optimize the parameters for the best visualization of the internal architecture of the hyaline articular cartilage a study both ex vivo and in vivo was performed. Accurate T1 and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage were obtained with a particular mixed sequence and then used for the creation of isocontrast intensity graphs. These graphs subsequently allowed in all pulse sequences (spin echo, SE and gradient echo, GRE) the best combination of repetition time (TR), echo time (TE) and flip angle (FA) for optimization of signal differences between MR cartilage zones. For SE sequences maximum contrast between cartilage zones can be obtained by using a long TR (> 1,500 ms) with a short TE (< 30 ms), whereas for GRE sequences maximum contrast is obtained with the shortest TE (< 15 ms) combined with a relatively long TR (> 400 ms) and an FA greater than 40 . A trilaminar appearance was demonstrated with a superficial and deep hypointense zone in all sequences and an intermediate zone that was moderately hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images, slightly more hyperintense on proton density Rho and SE T2-weighted images and even more hyperintense on GRE images. (orig.)

  14. Simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SongGui; Sun, QiCheng; Jin, Feng; Liu, JianGuo

    2014-03-01

    Fresh cement mortar is a type of workable paste, which can be well approximated as a Bingham plastic and whose flow behavior is of major concern in engineering. In this paper, Papanastasiou's model for Bingham fluids is solved by using the multiplerelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LB). Analysis of the stress growth exponent m in Bingham fluid flow simulations shows that Papanastasiou's model provides a good approximation of realistic Bingham plastics for values of m > 108. For lower values of m, Papanastasiou's model is valid for fluids between Bingham and Newtonian fluids. The MRT-LB model is validated by two benchmark problems: 2D steady Poiseuille flows and lid-driven cavity flows. Comparing the numerical results of the velocity distributions with corresponding analytical solutions shows that the MRT-LB model is appropriate for studying Bingham fluids while also providing better numerical stability. We further apply the MRT-LB model to simulate flow through a sudden expansion channel and the flow surrounding a round particle. Besides the rich flow structures obtained in this work, the dynamics fluid force on the round particle is calculated. Results show that both the Reynolds number Re and the Bingham number Bn affect the drag coefficients C D , and a drag coefficient with Re and Bn being taken into account is proposed. The relationship of Bn and the ratio of unyielded zone thickness to particle diameter is also analyzed. Finally, the Bingham fluid flowing around a set of randomly dispersed particles is simulated to obtain the apparent viscosity and velocity fields. These results help simulation of fresh concrete flowing in porous media.

  15. Gendered Expectations? Reconsidering Single Fathers' Child-Care Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Jennifer L.; Chalasani, Satvika

    2008-01-01

    We take a fresh look at an important question in the sociology of gender and family: Do single fathers "mother"? We add to the theoretical debate by proposing that single fathers face competing interactional pressures, to simultaneously act like mothers and men. Using nationally representative data from the American Time Use Survey 2003-2006 (N =…

  16. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting using echo-planar imaging: Joint quantification of T1 and T2∗ relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Benedikt; Zimmer, Fabian; Zapp, Jascha; Weingärtner, Sebastian; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-11-01

    To develop an implementation of the magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) paradigm for quantitative imaging using echo-planar imaging (EPI) for simultaneous assessment of T 1 and T2∗. The proposed MRF method (MRF-EPI) is based on the acquisition of 160 gradient-spoiled EPI images with rapid, parallel-imaging accelerated, Cartesian readout and a measurement time of 10 s per slice. Contrast variation is induced using an initial inversion pulse, and varying the flip angles, echo times, and repetition times throughout the sequence. Joint quantification of T 1 and T2∗ is performed using dictionary matching with integrated B1+ correction. The quantification accuracy of the method was validated in phantom scans and in vivo in 6 healthy subjects. Joint T 1 and T2∗ parameter maps acquired with MRF-EPI in phantoms are in good agreement with reference measurements, showing deviations under 5% and 4% for T 1 and T2∗, respectively. In vivo baseline images were visually free of artifacts. In vivo relaxation times are in good agreement with gold-standard techniques (deviation T 1 : 4 ± 2%, T2∗: 4 ± 5%). The visual quality was comparable to the in vivo gold standard, despite substantially shortened scan times. The proposed MRF-EPI method provides fast and accurate T 1 and T2∗ quantification. This approach offers a rapid supplement to the non-Cartesian MRF portfolio, with potentially increased usability and robustness. Magn Reson Med 78:1724-1733, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Diastolic Function in Normal Sinus Rhythm vs. Chronic Atrial Fibrillation: Comparison by Fractionation of E-wave Deceleration Time into Stiffness and Relaxation Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossahebi, Sina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-01-01

    Although the electrophysiologic derangement responsible for atrial fibrillation (AF) has been elucidated, how AF remodels the ventricular chamber and affects diastolic function (DF) has not been fully characterized. The previously validated Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism models suction-initiated filling kinematically and generates error-minimized fits to E-wave contours using unique load (x o ), relaxation (c), and stiffness (k) parameters. It predicts that E-wave deceleration time (DT) is a function of both stiffness and relaxation. Ascribing DT s to stiffness and DTr to relaxation such that DT=DT s +DT r is legitimate because of causality and their predicted and observed high correlation (r=0.82 and r=0.94) with simultaneous (diastatic) chamber stiffness (dP/dV) and isovolumic relaxation (tau), respectively. We analyzed simultaneous echocardiography-cardiac catheterization data and compared 16 age matched, chronic AF subjects to 16, normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects (650 beats). All subjects had diastatic intervals. Conventional DF parameters (DT, AT, E peak , E dur , E-VTI, E/E') and E-wave derived PDF parameters (c, k, DT s , DT r ) were compared. Total DT and DT s , DT r in AF were shorter than in NSR (pwave DT in AF is due to stiffness compared to NSR. By trending individual subjects, this method can elucidate and characterize the beneficial or adverse long-term effects on chamber remodeling due to alternative therapies in terms of chamber stiffness and relaxation.

  18. Numerical simulation of convection and heat transfer in Czochralski crystal growth by multiple-relaxation-time LBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding; Huang, Weichao; Zhang, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric swirling model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in a pseudo Cartesian coordinate system is posited to simulate Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth in this paper. Specifically, the multiple-relaxation-time LBM (MRT-LBM) combined with the finite difference method (FDM) is used to analyze the melt convection and heat transfer in the process of Cz crystal growth. An incompressible axisymmetric swirling MRT-LB D2Q9 model is applied to solve for the axial and radial velocities by inserting thermal buoyancy and rotational inertial force into the two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann equation. In addition, the melt temperature and the azimuthal velocity are solved by MRT-LB D2Q5 models, and the crystal temperature is solved by FDM. The comparison results of stream functions values of different methods demonstrate that our hybrid model can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal coupling in the axisymmetric swirling model correctly and effectively. Furthermore, numerical simulations of melt convection and heat transfer are conducted under the conditions of high Grashof (Gr) numbers, within the range of 105 ˜ 107, and different high Reynolds (Re) numbers. The experimental results show our hybrid model can obtain the exact solution of complex crystal-growth models and analyze the fluid-thermal coupling effectively under the combined action of natural convection and forced convection.

  19. Energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates from a time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation

  20. Relationship between thermodynamic parameter and thermodynamic scaling parameter for orientational relaxation time for flip-flop motion of nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2013-03-07

    Thermodynamic parameter Γ and thermodynamic scaling parameter γ for low-frequency relaxation time, which characterize flip-flop motion in a nematic phase, were verified by molecular dynamics simulation with a simple potential based on the Maier-Saupe theory. The parameter Γ, which is the slope of the logarithm for temperature and volume, was evaluated under various conditions at a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and volumes. To simulate thermodynamic scaling so that experimental data at isobaric, isothermal, and isochoric conditions can be rescaled onto a master curve with the parameters for some liquid crystal (LC) compounds, the relaxation time was evaluated from the first-rank orientational correlation function in the simulations, and thermodynamic scaling was verified with the simple potential representing small clusters. A possibility of an equivalence relationship between Γ and γ determined from the relaxation time in the simulation was assessed with available data from the experiments and simulations. In addition, an argument was proposed for the discrepancy between Γ and γ for some LCs in experiments: the discrepancy arises from disagreement of the value of the order parameter P2 rather than the constancy of relaxation time τ1(*) on pressure.

  1. The age dependence of T2 relaxation times of N-acetyl aspartate, creatine and choline in the human brain at 3 and 4T

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirů, F.; Škoch, A.; Wágnerová, D.; Dezortová, M.; Visková, J.; Profant, Oliver; Syka, Josef; Hájek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2016), s. 284-292 ISSN 0952-3480 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : MRS * T2 relaxation times of metabolites * age dependence of T2 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2016

  2. Comparison of the Magnetic Anisotropy and Spin Relaxation Phenomenon of Dinuclear Terbium(III) Phthalocyaninato Single-Molecule Magnets Using the Geometric Spin Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takaumi; Damjanović, Marko; Katoh, Keiichi; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Breedlove, Brian K; Enders, Markus; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2018-02-28

    Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a dinuclear Tb III single-molecule magnet (SMM) with two [TbPc 2 ] 0 units connected via a fused-phthalocyaninato ligand. The stable and robust complex [(obPc)Tb(Fused-Pc)Tb(obPc)] (1) was characterized by using synchrotron radiation measurements and other spectroscopic techniques (ESI-MS, FT-IR, UV). The magnetic couplings between the Tb III ions and the two π radicals present in 1 were explored by means of density functional theory (DFT). Direct and alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements were conducted on magnetically diluted and nondiluted samples of 1, indicating this compound to be an SMM with improved properties compared to those of the well-known [TbPc 2 ] -/0/+ and the axially symmetric dinuclear Tb III phthalocyaninato triple-decker complex (Tb 2 (obPc) 3 ). Assuming that the probability of quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) occurring in one TbPc 2 unit is P QTM , the probability of QTM simultaneously occurring in 1 is P QTM 2 , meaning that QTM is effectively suppressed. Furthermore, nondiluted samples of 1 underwent slow magnetic relaxation times (τ ≈ 1000 s at 0.1 K), and the blocking temperature (T B ) was determined to be ca. 16 K with an energy barrier for spin reversal (U eff ) of 588 cm -1 (847 K) due to D 4d geometry and weak inter- and intramolecular magnetic interactions as an exchange bias (H bias ), reducing QTM. Four hyperfine steps were observed by micro-SQUID measurement. Furthermore, solution NMR measurements (one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and dynamic) were done on 1, which led to the determination of the high rotation barrier (83 ± 10 kJ/mol) of the obPc ligand. A comparison with previously reported Tb III triple-decker compounds shows that ambient temperature NMR measurements can indicate improvements in the design of coordination environments for SMMs. A large U eff causes strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in 1, leading to a χ ax value (1.39

  3. The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krout, R E

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the process and results of a three-month music therapy clinical effectiveness study conducted with terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of single-session music therapy interventions with hospice patients in three patient problem areas: pain control; physical comfort; and relaxation. Data from a total of 90 sessions conducted with a total of 80 subjects served by Hospice of Palm Beach County, Florida, were included in the study. Music therapy services were provided by five board-certified music therapists and one music therapist eligible for board certification. The subjects in this study were receiving regularly scheduled music therapy services from the hospice organization. The study used both behavioral observation and subject's self-reporting as methods of data reporting and recording. Subjects were observed for, or self-reported, their levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, both before and after each music therapy session. The subjects were served in the environments where music therapy services would normally be delivered (i.e., home, hospital, nursing home, or inpatient acute-care unit of the hospice organization). Music therapy services included live active and passive music-based experiences. These were designed to build and to establish rapport with patient or family, to facilitate family interaction and patient control, to provide support and comfort, to facilitate relaxation, to enable reminiscence and life review, to provide a frame-work for spiritual exploration and validation, and to encourage the identification and expression of feelings of anticipatory mourning and grief. A total of six hypotheses stated that there would be significant pre- to postsession differences in each of the three variables: pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, as measured during two different session and data collection scenarios. These scenarios included the

  4. Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)

  5. Relaxation of the magnetization in magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, S.; Bianchi, A.; Liviotti, E.; Santini, P.; Amoretti, G.

    2006-04-01

    Several mechanisms characterize the relaxation dynamics in magnetic molecules. We investigate two of them, spin-lattice coupling and incoherent quantum tunneling. The effect of the phonon heat bath is studied by analyzing the exponential time decay of the autocorrelation of the magnetization. We show that in ferromagnetic (Cu6) and antiferromagnetic (Fe6) molecular rings this decay is characterized by a single characteristic time. At very low temperature, relaxation through incoherent quantum tunneling may occur in nanomagnets such as Fe8 or Ni4. The mixing between levels with different values of the total spin (S mixing) greatly influences this mechanism. In particular, we demonstrate that a fourth-order anisotropy term O44, required to interpret experimental electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation data in Ni4, naturally arises when S mixing is considered in calculations.

  6. Heteronuclear relaxation in time-dependent spin systems: 15N-T1ρ dispersion during adiabatic fast passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrat, Robert; Tollinger, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A novel NMR experiment comprising adiabatic fast passage techniques for the measurement of heteronuclear self-relaxation rates in fully 15N-enriched proteins is described. Heteronuclear self-relaxation is monitored by performing adiabatic fast passage (AFP) experiments at variable adiabaticity (e.g., variation of RF spin-lock field intensity). The experiment encompasses gradient- selection and sensitivity-enhancement. It is shown that transverse relaxation rates derived with this method are in good agreement with the ones measured by the classical Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. An application of this method to the study of the carboxyl-terminal LIM domain of quail cysteine and glycine-rich protein qCRP2(LIM2) is presented

  7. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  8. Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.

  9. Slow magnetic relaxation and single-molecule toroidal behaviour in a family of heptanuclear {Cr"I"I"ILn"I"I"I_6} (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignesh, Kuduva R. [IITB-Monash Research Academy, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Langley, Stuart K. [School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Swain, Abinash; Rajaraman, Gopalan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Damjanovic, Marko; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institute Neel, CNRS, Universite Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    The synthesis, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of three heterometallic {Cr"I"I"ILn"I"I"I_6} (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) complexes, each containing a metal topology consisting of two Ln{sub 3} triangles connected via a Cr{sup III} linker, are reported. The {CrTb_6} and {CrEr_6} analogues display slow relaxation of magnetization in a 3000 Oe static magnetic field. Single-crystal measurements reveal opening up of the hysteresis loop for {CrTb_6} and {CrHo_6} molecules at low temperatures. Ab initio calculations predict toroidal magnetic moments in the two Ln{sub 3} triangles, which are found to couple, stabilizing a con-rotating ferrotoroidal ground state in Tb and Ho examples and extend the possibility of observing toroidal behaviour in non Dy{sup III} complexes for the first time. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Time expansion chamber and single ionization cluster measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1978-10-01

    The time expansion chamber (TEC), a new type of drift chamber, allows the measurement of microscopic details of ionization. The mean drift time interval from subsequent sngle ionization clusters of a relativistic particle in the TEC can be made large enough compared to the width of a anode signal to allow the recording of the clusters separately. Since single primary electrons can be detected, the cluster counting would allow an improved particle separation using the relativistic rise of primary ionization. In another application, very high position accuracy for track detectors or improved energy resolution may be obtained. Basic ionization phenomena and drift properties can be measured at the single electron level

  11. Analytical representation of time correlation functions and application to relaxation problems; Representation analytique des fonctions de correlation temporelle et application a des problemes de relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de physico-chimie, services des isotopes stables

    1971-07-01

    Two analytical representations of the Laplace transform of the time autocorrelation of a dynamical variable, namely the moment expansion and Mori's continued fraction expansion, are investigated from the point of view of structure and convergence properties, and the relation between them is established. The general theory is applied first to a dynamical model exactly solvable, the isotopic impurity in a linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators, and then to two stochastic models recently introduced by Gordon for the rotational diffusion of molecules. In the latter case, the continued fraction expansion yields simple analytical expressions for the infrared absorption band shapes, showing that these models contain all the features of observed shapes in compressed gases, liquids and solutions. (author) [French] Deux representations analytiques de la transformee de Laplace de la fonction d'autocorrelation temporelle d'une variable dynamique, le developpement en moments et le developpement en fraction continue recemment introduit par Mori, sont etudiees du point de vue de leurs proprietes de structure et de convergence, en meme temps que la relation qui existe entre elles est etablie. La theorie generale est appliquee, d'une part, a un modele dynamique exactement soluble, celui d'une particule isotopique dans une chaine lineaire d'oscillateurs harmoniques couples, et, d'autre part, a deux modeles stochastiques recemment proposes par Gordon pour la diffusion rotationnelle des molecules. Dans ce dernier cas, la voie de la fraction continue fournit des expressions analytiques simples pour les formes de bande d'absorption infrarouge, montrant que ces modeles possedent les caracteristiques des formes observees dans les gaz comprimes, les liquides ou les solutions. (auteur)

  12. Single-wavelength functional photoacoustic microscopy in biological tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope, based on saturation intensity, to measure picosecond relaxation times using a nanosecond laser. Here, using the different relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, the oxygen saturation was quantified in vivo with single-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy. All previous functional photoacoustic microscopy measurements required ima...

  13. The Arrow of Time in the Collapse of Collisionless Self-gravitating Systems: Non-validity of the Vlasov-Poisson Equation during Violent Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo e Silva, Leandro; de Siqueira Pedra, Walter; Sodré, Laerte; Perico, Eder L. D.; Lima, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    The collapse of a collisionless self-gravitating system, with the fast achievement of a quasi-stationary state, is driven by violent relaxation, with a typical particle interacting with the time-changing collective potential. It is traditionally assumed that this evolution is governed by the Vlasov-Poisson equation, in which case entropy must be conserved. We run N-body simulations of isolated self-gravitating systems, using three simulation codes, NBODY-6 (direct summation without softening), NBODY-2 (direct summation with softening), and GADGET-2 (tree code with softening), for different numbers of particles and initial conditions. At each snapshot, we estimate the Shannon entropy of the distribution function with three different techniques: Kernel, Nearest Neighbor, and EnBiD. For all simulation codes and estimators, the entropy evolution converges to the same limit as N increases. During violent relaxation, the entropy has a fast increase followed by damping oscillations, indicating that violent relaxation must be described by a kinetic equation other than the Vlasov-Poisson equation, even for N as large as that of astronomical structures. This indicates that violent relaxation cannot be described by a time-reversible equation, shedding some light on the so-called “fundamental paradox of stellar dynamics.” The long-term evolution is well-described by the orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck model, with Coulomb logarithm values in the expected range 10{--}12. By means of NBODY-2, we also study the dependence of the two-body relaxation timescale on the softening length. The approach presented in the current work can potentially provide a general method for testing any kinetic equation intended to describe the macroscopic evolution of N-body systems.

  14. High-field transport of electrons and radiative effects using coupled force-balance and Fokker-Planck equations beyond the relaxation-time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Danhong; Apostolova, T.; Alsing, P.M.; Cardimona, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of a many-electron system under both dc and infrared fields is separated into a center-of-mass and a relative motion. The first-order force-balance equation is employed for the slow center-of-mass motion of electrons, and the Fokker-Planck equation is used for the ultrafast relative scattering motion of degenerate electrons. This approach allows us to include the anisotropic energy-relaxation process which has been neglected in the energy-balance equation in the past. It also leads us to include the anisotropic coupling to the incident infrared field with different polarizations. Based on this model, the transport of electrons is explored under strong dc and infrared fields by going beyond the relaxation-time approximation. The anisotropic dependence of the electron distribution function on the parallel and perpendicular kinetic energies of electrons is displayed with respect to the dc field direction, and the effect of anisotropic coupling to an incident infrared field with polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the applied dc electric field is shown. The heating of electrons is more accurately described beyond the energy-balance equation with the inclusion of an anisotropic coupling to the infrared field. The drift velocity of electrons is found to increase with the amplitude of the infrared field due to a suppressed momentum-relaxation process (or frictional force) under parallel polarization but decreases with the amplitude due to an enhanced momentum-relaxation process under perpendicular polarization

  15. Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li-Guo; Meng, Kun; Li, Jiang; Liu, Qiao; Peng, Qi-Xian; Li, Ze-Ren; Zhao, Jian-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy is suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of ultrafast events. However, the study of irreversible or single shot ultrafast events requires ability to record transient properties at multiple time delays, i.e., time resolved at single shot level, which is not available currently. Here by angular multiplexing use of femtosecond laser pulses, we developed and demonstrated a time resolved, transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique, where burst mode THz pulses were generated and then detected in a single shot measurement manner. The burst mode THz pulses contain 2 sub-THz pulses, and the time gap between them is adjustable up to 1 ns with picosecond accuracy, thus it can be used to probe the single shot event at two different time delays. The system can detect the sub-THz pulses at 0.1 THz-2.5 THz range with signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ˜400 and spectrum resolution of 0.05 THz. System design was described here, and optimizations of single shot measurement of THz pulses were discussed in detail. Methods to improve SNR were also discussed in detail. A system application was demonstrated where pulsed THz signals at different time delays of the ultrafast process were successfully acquired within single shot measurement. This time resolved transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique provides a new diagnostic tool for irreversible or single shot ultrafast events where dynamic information can be extracted at terahertz range within one-shot experiment.

  16. Single-Index Additive Vector Autoregressive Time Series Models

    KAUST Repository

    LI, YEHUA; GENTON, MARC G.

    2009-01-01

    We study a new class of nonlinear autoregressive models for vector time series, where the current vector depends on single-indexes defined on the past lags and the effects of different lags have an additive form. A sufficient condition is provided

  17. Origin of Bi.sup.3+./sup.-related luminescencecentres in Lu.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub. :Bi and Y.sub.3./sub.Al.sub.5./sub.O.sub.12./sub.:Bi single crystalline films and the structure of their relaxed excited states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babin, V.; Gorbenko, V.; Krasnikov, A.; Makhov, A.; Mihóková, Eva; Nikl, Martin; Zazubovich, S.; Zorenko, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 5 (2012), s. 1039-1045 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0893; GA AV ČR IAA100100810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : LuAG:Bi * YAG:Bi * single crystalline films * time-resolved photoluminescence * triplet relaxed excited state Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  18. Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Liver: The Effect on T2 Relaxation Times and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving

  19. Determination of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity through the analysis of T2 Relaxation time of brain tumors before surgery using MATLAB software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmohammadi, Jamil; Shafiee, Mohsen; Faeghi, Fariborz; Arefan, Douman; Zali, Alireza; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Farshidfar, Zahra; Nazarlou, Ali Kiani; Tavakkoli, Ali; Yarham, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Timely diagnosis of brain tumors could considerably affect the process of patient treatment. To do so, para-clinical methods, particularly MRI, cannot be ignored. MRI has so far answered significant questions regarding tumor characteristics, as well as helping neurosurgeons. In order to detect the tumor cellularity, neuro-surgeons currently have to sample specimens by biopsy and then send them to the pathology unit. The aim of this study is to determine the tumor cellularity in the brain. In this cross-sectional study, 32 patients (18 males and 14 females from 18-77 y/o) were admitted to the neurosurgery department of Shohada-E Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2014. In addition to routine pulse sequences, T2W Multi echo pulse sequences were taken and the images were analyzed using the MATLAB software to determine the brain tumor cellularity, compared with the biopsy. These findings illustrate the need for more T2 relaxation time decreases, the higher classes of tumors will stand out in the designed table. In this study, the results show T2 relaxation time with a 85% diagnostic weight, compared with the biopsy, to determine the brain tumor cellularity (p<0.05). Our results indicate that the T2 relaxation time feature is the best method to distinguish and present the degree of intra-axial brain tumors cellularity (85% accuracy compared to biopsy). The use of more data is recommended in order to increase the percent accuracy of this techniques.

  20. T2 relaxation time in patellar cartilage - global and regional reproducibility at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, C.; Horng, A.; Mendlik, T.; Weckbach, S.; Hoffmann, R.T.; Wagner, S.; Raya, J.G.; Reiser, M.; Horger, W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the global and regional reproducibility of T2 relaxation time in patellar cartilage at 1.5 T and 3 T. Materials and Methods: 6 left patellae of 6 healthy volunteers (aged 25-30, 3 female, 3 male) were examined using a fat-saturated multiecho sequence and a T1-w 3D-FLASH sequence with water excitation at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla. Three consecutive data sets were acquired within one MRI session with the examined knee being repositioned in the coil and scanner between each data set. The segmented cartilage (FLASH sequence) was overlaid on the multiecho data and T2 values were calculated for the total cartilage, 3 horizontal layers consisting of a superficial, intermedial and deep layer, 3 facets consisting of a medial, median (ridge) and lateral facet (global T2 values) and 27 ROIs/MRI slices (regional T2 value). The reproducibility (precision error) was calculated as the root mean square average of the individual standard deviations [ms] and coefficients of variation (COV) [%]. Results: The mean global reproducibility error for T2 was 3.53% (±0.38%) at 1.5 Tesla and 3.25% (±0.61%) at 3 Tesla. The mean regional reproducibility error for T2 was 8.62% (±2.61%) at 1.5 Tesla and 9.66% (±3.37%) at 3 Tesla. There was no significant difference with respect to absolute reproducibility errors between 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla at a constant spatial resolution. However, different reproducibility errors were found between the cartilage layers. One third of the data variability could be attributed to the influence of the different cartilage layers, and another 10% to the influence of the separate MRI slices. Conclusion: Our data provides an estimation of the global and regional reproducibility errors of T2 in healthy cartilage. In the analysis of small subregions, an increase in the regional reproducibility error must be accepted. The data may serve as a basis for sample size calculations of study populations and may contribute to the decision regarding the

  1. Slip-flow in complex porous media as determined by a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, C. J.; Prodanovic, M.; Eichhubl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The pores and throats of shales and mudrocks are predominantly found within a range of 1-100 nm, within this size range the flow of gas at reservoir conditions will fall within the slip-flow and low transition-flow regime (0.001 clays). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to predict slip-flow in complex geometries, but due to prohibitive computational demand are generally limited to small volumes (one to several pores). Here we present a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) parameterized for slip-flow (Guo et al. 2008) and adapted here to complex geometries. LBMs are inherently parallelizable, such that flow in complex geometries of significant (near REV-scale) volumes can be readily simulated at a fraction of the computational cost of MD simulations. At the macroscopic-scale the LBM is parameterized with local effective viscosities at each node to capture the variance of the mean-free-path of gas molecules in a bounded system. The corrected mean-free-path for each lattice node is determined using the mean distance of the node to the pore-wall and Stop's correction for mean-free-paths in an infinite parallel-plate geometry. At the microscopic-scale, a combined bounce-back specular-reflection boundary condition is applied to the pore-wall nodes to capture Maxwellian-slip. The LBM simulation results are first validated in simple tube and channel geometries, where good agreement is found for Knudsen numbers below 0.1, and fair agreement is found for Knudsen numbers between 0.1 and 0.5. More complex geometries are then examined including triangular-ducts and ellipsoid-ducts, both with constant and tapering/expanding cross-sections, as well as a clay pore-network imaged from a hydrocarbon producing shale by sequential focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy. These results are analyzed to determine grid-independent resolutions, and used to explore the relationship between effective permeability and Knudsen number in complex geometries.

  2. In situ real-time x-ray reciprocal space mapping during InGaAs/GaAs growth for understanding strain relaxation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sai, Akihisa; Lee, Jong-Han; Kamiya, Itaru; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masamitsu; Fujikawa, Seiji; Arafune, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In situ real-time X-ray diffraction measurements during In 0.12 Ga 0.88 As/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth are performed for the first time to understand the strain relaxation mechanisms in a lattice-mismatched system. The high resolution reciprocal space maps of 004 diffraction obtained at interval of 6.2 nm thickness enable transient behavior of residual strain and crystal quality to be observed simultaneously as a function of InGaAs film thickness. From the evolution of these data, five thickness ranges with different relaxation processes and these transition points are determined quantitatively, and the dominant dislocation behavior in each phase is deduced. (author)

  3. Quantification of glutathione transverse relaxation time T2 using echo time extension with variable refocusing selectivity and symmetry in the human brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Kelley M.; Prinsen, Hetty; Coman, Daniel; de Graaf, Robin A.; Juchem, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    subjects. The T2 of glutathione was calculated to be 145.0 ± 20.1 ms (mean ± standard deviation); this result was robust within one standard deviation to changes in metabolite fitting baseline corrections and removal of individual data points on the signal decay curve. The measured T2 of NAA (222.1 ± 24.7 ms) and total creatine (153.0 ± 19.9 ms) were both higher than that calculated for GSH. Apparent glutathione concentration quantified relative to both reference metabolites increased by up to 32% and 6%, respectively, upon correction with calculated T2 values, emphasizing the importance of considering T2 relaxation differences in the spectroscopic measurement of these metabolites, especially at longer echo times.

  4. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-01

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  5. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-28

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  6. Comparative study of the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of Wallerian degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu Guangming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zee Chishing, E-mail: chishing@usc.edu [Department of Radiology, USC Keck School of Medicine (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background and purpose: Wallerian degeneration (WD), the secondary degeneration of axons from cortical and subcortical injuries, is associated with poor neurological outcome. There is some quantitative MR imaging techniques used to estimate the biologic changes secondary to delayed neuronal and axonal losses. Our purpose is to assess the sensitivity of ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time for early detection of WD. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish in vivo Wallerian degeneration model of CNS by ipsilateral motor-sensory cortex ablation. 5 days after cortex ablation, multiecho-T{sub 2} relaxometry and multi-b value DWI were acquired by using a 7 T MR imaging scanner. ADC-map and T{sub 2}-map were reconstructed by post-processing. ROIs are selected according to pathway of corticospinal tract from cortex, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, pons, medulla oblongata to upper cervical spinal cord to measure ADC value and T{sub 2} relaxation time of healthy side and affected side. The results were compared between the side with cortical ablation and the side without ablation. Results: Excluding ablated cortex, ADC values of the corticospinal tract were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in affected side compared to the unaffected, healthy side; no difference in T{sub 2} relaxation time was observed between the affected and healthy sides. Imaging findings were correlated with histological examinations. Conclusion: As shown in this animal experiment, ADC values could non-invasively demonstrate the secondary degeneration involving descending white matter tracts. ADC values are more sensitive indicators for detection of early WD than T{sub 2} relaxation time.

  7. Real-time Avatar Animation from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Jason M; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2011-01-01

    A real time facial puppetry system is presented. Compared with existing systems, the proposed method requires no special hardware, runs in real time (23 frames-per-second), and requires only a single image of the avatar and user. The user's facial expression is captured through a real-time 3D non-rigid tracking system. Expression transfer is achieved by combining a generic expression model with synthetically generated examples that better capture person specific characteristics. Performance of the system is evaluated on avatars of real people as well as masks and cartoon characters.

  8. Investigation of the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde using molecular orbital calculations and laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    1998-11-01

    Molecular orbital methods and laser ionization mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state. Energies, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of ground and low-lying excited states of benzaldehyde neutral and cation determined by ab initio calculations provide a theoretical description of the electronic spectroscopy of benzaldehyde and of the changes occurring on excitation and ionization. The S2(/pi/pi/sp/*)[/gets]S0 excitation spectrum of jet-cooled benzaldehyde acquired using two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry techniques is interpreted with the aid of these calculations. The spectrum is dominated by the origin band and by transitions involving some of the ring modes consistent with the results of the molecular orbital calculations that indicate that the major geometric changes on excitation to S2 are located in the aromatic ring. Ten fundamental vibrations of the S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are assigned. The dissociation dynamics of benzaldehyde into benzene and carbon monoxide following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are investigated under jet- cooled conditions by two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry using a pump-probe technique. This experimental arrangement allows monitoring the benzaldehyde reactant and the benzene product ion signals as a function of the time delay between the excitation and ionization steps. A kinetic model is proposed to explain the observed biexponential decay of the benzaldehyde signal and the single exponential growth of the benzene product signal in terms of a sequential decay of two excited states of benzaldehyde, one of which leads to formation of benzene molecules in its lowest triplet state. Reactant disappearance and product appearance rates are determined for a number of vibronic transitions of the S2 state. They are found to increase with excitation energy without any indication

  9. Animal experimental studies on the influence of fatty infiltration of the liver on tissue relaxation times and signal changes in MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreft, B.; Stark, D.; Schild, H.

    1995-01-01

    Using a spectrometer (n=60) in vitro and MRT imaging (n=8) in vivo, we studied the influence of fatty changes of liver cells on the relaxation times of the liver (two animal models of fatty liver disease/orotic acid, L-ethionine). Induction of fatty degeneration of the liver by means of an orotic acid diet resulted in pure deposition of fat in the liver without any histological or serological proof of inflammatory changes. Although accumulation of triglyceride in the liver reduced the T 1 relaxation time only relatively slightly (-15%), there was good correlation (r=0.88) between fat content and T 1 . There was also good correlation (r=0.92) between T 2 and histological fat content. Inflammatory changes besides fatty deposition were seen both serologically and histologically in the L-ethionine model, so that the fatty content did not correlate with T 1 . In-vivo MRT imaging showed that spin-echo sequences are inappropriate for diagnosing fatty infiltration of the liver despite the relaxation time changes produced by the fatty deposition. On the other hand, chemical-shift imaging sequences are very sensitive to identify fatty deposits, and are also independent of any additionally existing inflammatory changes. (orig.) [de

  10. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, C., E-mail: c.behzadi@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Welsch, G.H. [Department of Sports Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Schoen, G. [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Adam, G.; Regier, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  11. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, C.; Welsch, G.H.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G.; Schoen, G.; Adam, G.; Regier, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  12. Quantitative assessment of the T2 relaxation time of the gluteus muscles in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a comparative study before and after steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Horn, Paul S; Wong, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. ELEVEN BOYS WITH DMD (AGE RANGE: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.

  13. Role of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Magnetization Relaxation of {3d-4f} Single-Molecule Magnets: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-11

    Combined density functional and ab initio calculations are performed on two isomorphous tetranuclear {Ni3 (III) Ln(III) } star-type complexes [Ln=Gd (1), Dy (2)] to shed light on the mechanism of magnetic exchange in 1 and the origin of the slow magnetization relaxation in complex 2. DFT calculations correctly reproduce the sign and magnitude of the J values compared to the experiments for complex 1. Acute ∢Ni-O-Gd bond angles present in 1 instigate a significant interaction between the 4fxyz orbital of the Gd(III) ion and 3d${{_{x{^{2}}- y{^{2}}}}}$ orbital of the Ni(II) ions, leading to rare and strong antiferromagnetic Ni⋅⋅⋅Gd interactions. Calculations reveal the presence of a strong next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni antiferromagnetic interaction in complex 1 leading to spin frustration behavior. CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations performed on complex 2 suggest that the octahedral environment around the Dy(III) ion is neither strong enough to stabilize the mJ |±15/2〉 as the ground state nor able to achieve a large ground-state-first-excited-state gap. The ground-state Kramers doublet for the Dy(III) ion is found to be the mJ |±13/2〉 state with a significant transverse anisotropy, leading to very strong quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Using the POLY_ANISO program, we have extracted the JNiDy interaction as -1.45 cm(-1) . The strong Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions are found to quench the QTM to a certain extent, resulting in zero-field SMM behavior for complex 2. The absence of any ac signals at zero field for the structurally similar [Dy(AlMe4 )3 ] highlights the importance of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and the Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in the magnetization relaxation of complex 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in magnetization relaxation of a {3d-4f} molecular magnet have been established. © 2016

  14. Effect of Au{sup 8+} irradiation on Ni/n-GaP Schottky diode: Its influence on interface state density and relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiwakoti, N.; Bobby, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India)

    2017-01-01

    The in-situ capacitance-frequency and conductance-frequency measurements of 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} swift heavy ion irradiated Ni/n-GaP Schottky structure at a constant bias voltage have been carried out in the frequency range 1 kHz–1 MHz at room temperature. The interface states density and the relaxation time of the charge carriers have been calculated from Nicollian and Brews method. Various dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, loss tangent, series resistance, ac conductivity, real and imaginary parts of electric modulus have been extracted and analyzed under complex permittivity and complex electric modulus formalisms. The capacitance and conductance characteristics are found to exhibit complex behaviors at lower frequency region (1–20 kHz) for all the samples. The observed peaks and dips at low frequency region are attributed to the relaxation mechanisms of charge carriers and the interface or dipolar polarization at the interface. The dielectric properties are found to be effectively changed by the ion fluence which is attributed to the variation in interface states density and their relaxation time.

  15. T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the normal adult knee meniscus at 3T: analysis of zonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Shoichiro; Nguyen, Tan B; Yu, Hon J; Hagiwara, Shigeo; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Nozaki, Taiki; Iwamoto, Seiji; Otomo, Maki; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2017-05-18

    Prior studies describe histological and immunohistochemical differences in collagen and proteoglycan content in different meniscal zones. The aim of this study is to evaluate horizontal and vertical zonal differentiation of T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the entire meniscus from volunteers without symptom and imaging abnormality. Twenty volunteers age between 19 and 38 who have no knee-related clinical symptoms, and no history of prior knee surgeries were enrolled in this study. Two T1rho mapping (b-FFE T1rho and SPGR T1rho) and T2 mapping images were acquired with a 3.0-T MR scanner. Each meniscus was divided manually into superficial and deep zones for horizontal zonal analysis. The anterior and posterior horns of each meniscus were divided manually into white, red-white and red zones for vertical zonal analysis. Zonal differences of average relaxation times among each zone, and both inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were statistically analyzed. In horizontal zonal analysis, T1rho relaxation times of the superficial zone tended to be higher than those of the deep zone, and this difference was statistically significant in the medial meniscal segments (84.3 ms vs 76.0 ms on b-FFE, p meniscus (88.4 ms vs 77.1 ms on b-FFE, p meniscus, p = 0.011). T2 relaxation times of the white zone were significantly higher than those of the red zone in the medial meniscus posterior horn (96.8 ms vs 84.3 ms, p meniscus anterior horn (104.6 ms vs 84.2 ms, p 0.74) or good (0.60-0.74) in all meniscal segments on both horizontal and vertical zonal analysis, except for inter-class correlation coefficients of the lateral meniscus on SPGR. Compared with SPGR T1rho images, b-FFE T1rho images demonstrated more significant zonal differentiation with higher inter- and intra-observer reproducibility. There are zonal differences in T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the normal meniscus.

  16. Accuracy of single photoelectron time spread measurement of fast photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy of time spread measurements of fast photomultipliers was investigated, using single photoelectrons. The effect of the finite light pulse width on the measurement accuracy was determined and discussed. Experimental data were obtained on a special measuring system for light pulse widths ranging from 200 psec to 10 nsec, using fast photomultipliers 8850 and C31024 with optimized operating conditions for minimum transit time spread. A modified exponential function expression and curve-fitting parameters are given, which fit closely the experimentally obtained data over a wide dynamic range of light pulse widths. (U.S.)

  17. Time-resolved luminescent spectroscopy of YAG:Ce single crystal and single crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Vozniak, T.; Puzikov, V.; Danko, A.; Nizhankovski, S.

    2010-01-01

    The peculiarities of the luminescence and energy transfer from YAG host to the emission centers formed by the Y Al antisite defects and Ce 3+ ions have been studied in YAG:Ce single crystals, grown from the melt by modified Bridgman method in Ar and CO 2 + H 2 atmospheres, and YAG:Ce single crystalline film, grown by liquid phase epitaxy method, using the comparative time-resolved luminescent spectroscopy under excitation by synchrotron radiation in the range of fundamental adsorption of this garnet.

  18. Simultaneous MR quantification of hepatic fat content, fatty acid composition, transverse relaxation time and magnetic susceptibility for the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporq, B; Lambert, S A; Ronot, M; Vilgrain, V; Van Beers, B E

    2017-10-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized at histology by steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and inflammatory infiltrates, with or without fibrosis. Although diamagnetic material in fibrosis and inflammation can be detected with quantitative susceptibility imaging, fatty acid composition changes in NASH relative to simple steatosis have also been reported. Therefore, our aim was to develop a single magnetic resonance (MR) acquisition and post-processing scheme for the diagnosis of steatohepatitis by the simultaneous quantification of hepatic fat content, fatty acid composition, T 2 * transverse relaxation time and magnetic susceptibility in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. MR acquisition was performed at 3.0 T using a three-dimensional, multi-echo, spoiled gradient echo sequence. Phase images were unwrapped to compute the B 0 field inhomogeneity (ΔB 0 ) map. The ΔB 0 -demodulated real part images were used for fat-water separation, T 2 * and fatty acid composition quantification. The external and internal fields were separated with the projection onto dipole field method. Susceptibility maps were obtained after dipole inversion from the internal field map with single-orientation Bayesian regularization including spatial priors. Method validation was performed in 32 patients with biopsy-proven, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease from which 12 had simple steatosis and 20 NASH. Liver fat fraction and T 2 * did not change significantly between patients with simple steatosis and NASH. In contrast, the saturated fatty acid fraction increased in patients with NASH relative to patients with simple steatosis (48 ± 2% versus 44 ± 4%; p magnetic susceptibility decreased (-0.30 ± 0.27 ppm versus 0.10 ± 0.14 ppm; p magnetic susceptibility as NASH marker was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.79-1.0). Simultaneous MR quantification of fat content, fatty acid composition, T 2 * and magnetic susceptibility is feasible in the liver. Our preliminary results

  19. A simple measurement method of molecular relaxation in a gas by reconstructing acoustic velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Xiangqun; Li, Caiyun

    2018-01-01

    Recently, a decomposition method of acoustic relaxation absorption spectra was used to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process of gas. In this method, the acoustic attenuation and phase velocity were measured jointly based on the relaxation absorption spectra. However, fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic attenuation remain challenging. In this paper, we present a method of capturing the molecular relaxation process by only measuring acoustic velocity, without the necessity of obtaining acoustic absorption. The method is based on the fact that the frequency-dependent velocity dispersion of a multi-relaxation process in a gas is the serial connection of the dispersions of interior single-relaxation processes. Thus, one can capture the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N decomposed single-relaxation dispersions to reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation dispersion using the measurements of acoustic velocity at 2N  +  1 frequencies. The reconstructed dispersion spectra are in good agreement with experimental data for various gases and mixtures. The simulations also demonstrate the robustness of our reconstructive method.

  20. Fast mapping of the T2 relaxation time of cerebral metabolites using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Posse, Stefan; Lin, Yi-Ru; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Otazo, Ricardo; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2007-05-01

    Metabolite T2 is necessary for accurate quantification of the absolute concentration of metabolites using long-echo-time (TE) acquisition schemes. However, lengthy data acquisition times pose a major challenge to mapping metabolite T2. In this study we used proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) at 3T to obtain fast T2 maps of three major cerebral metabolites: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho). We showed that PEPSI spectra matched T2 values obtained using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS). Data acquisition for 2D metabolite maps with a voxel volume of 0.95 ml (32 x 32 image matrix) can be completed in 25 min using five TEs and eight averages. A sufficient spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for T2 estimation was validated by high Pearson's correlation coefficients between logarithmic MR signals and TEs (R2 = 0.98, 0.97, and 0.95 for NAA, Cre, and Cho, respectively). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the T2 values of NAA, but not Cre and Cho, were significantly different between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM; P PEPSI and SVS scans was less than 9%. Consistent spatial distributions of T2 were found in six healthy subjects, and disagreement among subjects was less than 10%. In summary, the PEPSI technique is a robust method to obtain fast mapping of metabolite T2. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Diagnostic value of T1 and T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation effects in the evaluation of Achilles tendinopathy by MRI at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Ulrich; Syha, Roland; Hein, Tobias; Gatidis, Sergios; Grözinger, Gerd; Schabel, Christoph; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Springer, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of T1 , T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation ratios (OSR) in healthy controls and patients with different clinical and morphological stages of Achilles tendinopathy. Forty-two healthy Achilles tendons and 34 tendons of 17 patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic tendinopathy were investigated clinically with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences on a 3T whole-body MR scanner and a dynamic ultrasound examination. In addition, T1 and T2 * relaxation times were assessed using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging sequence with flip angle and echo time variation. For the calculation of OSR values a Gaussian off-resonance saturation pulse (frequency offset: 750-5000 Hz) was used. The diagnostic value of the derived MR values was assessed and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves demonstrate the highest overall test performance for OSR values at 2000 Hz off-resonance in differentiating slightly (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.930] > T2 * [AUC: 0.884] > T1 [AUC: 0.737]) and more severe pathologically altered tendon areas (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.964] > T2 * [AUC: 0.917] > T1 [AUC: 0.819]) from healthy ones. OSR values at a frequency offset of 2000 Hz demonstrated a better sensitivity and specificity for detecting mild and severe stages of tendinopathy compared to T2 * and particularly when compared to T1 relaxation times. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Quantitative MRI T2 relaxation time evaluation of knee cartilage: comparison of meniscus-intact and -injured knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Shuang; Tao, Hongyue; Chen, Shiyi

    2015-04-01

    Associated meniscal injury is well recognized at anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and it is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis. To evaluate and characterize the postoperative appearance of articular cartilage after different meniscal treatment in ACL-reconstructed knees using T2 relaxation time evaluation on MRI. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 62 consecutive patients who under ACL reconstruction were recruited in this study, including 23 patients undergoing partial meniscectomy (MS group), 21 patients undergoing meniscal repair (MR group), and 18 patients with intact menisci (MI group) at time of surgery. Clinical evaluation, including subjective functional scores and physical examination, was performed on the same day as the MRI examination and at follow-up times ranging from 2 to 4.2 years. The MRI multiecho sagittal images were segmented to determine the T2 relaxation time value of each meniscus and articular cartilage plate. Differences in each measurement were compared among groups. No patient had joint-line tenderness or reported pain or clicking on McMurray test or instability. There were also no statistically significant differences in functional scores or medial or lateral meniscus T2 values among the 3 groups (P > .05 for both). There was a significantly higher articular cartilage T2 value in the medial femorotibial articular cartilage for the MS group (P T2 value between the MS and MR groups (P > .05) in each articular cartilage plate. The medial tibial articular cartilage T2 value had a significant positive correlation with medial meniscus T2 value (r = 0.287; P = .024) CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that knees with meniscectomy or meniscal repair had articular cartilage degeneration at 2 to 4 years postoperatively, with higher articular cartilage T2 relaxation time values compared with the knees with an intact meniscus. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Time-correlated single-photon counting study of multiple photoluminescence lifetime components of silicon nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamare, D., E-mail: d.diamare@ee.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Wojdak, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, S. [Institute for Superconductors and Innovative Materials, National Council of Research (CNR-SPIN), Via Cintia 80126, Naples (Italy); Department of Physical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Cintia 80126, Naples (Italy); Kenyon, A.J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    We report time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of thin films of silica containing silicon nanoclusters (Si NCs), produced by PECVD and annealed at temperatures between 700 °C and 1150 °C. While the near infrared emission of Si NCs has long been studied, visible light emission has only recently attracted interest due to its very short decay times and its recently-reported redshift with decreasing NCs size. We analyse the PL decay dynamics in the range 450–700 nm with picosecond time resolution using Time Correlated Single Photon Counting. In the resultant multi-exponential decays two dominant components can clearly be distinguished: a very short component, in the range of hundreds of picoseconds, and a nanosecond component. In this wavelength range we do not detect the microsecond component generally associated with excitonic recombination. We associate the nanosecond component to defect relaxation: it decreases in intensity in the sample annealed at higher temperature, suggesting that the contribution from defects decreases with increasing temperature. The origin of the very fast PL component (ps time region) is also discussed. We show that it is consistent with the Auger recombination times of multiple excitons. Further work needs to be done in order to assess the contribution of the Auger-controlled recombinations to the defect-assisted mechanism of photoluminescence. -- Highlights: ► We report time-resolved PL measurements of Si-Ncs embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix. ► Net decrease of PL with increasing the annealing temperature has been observed. ► Lifetime distribution analysis revealed a multiexponential decay with ns and ps components. ► Ps components are consistent with the lifetime range of the Auger recombination times. ► No evidence for a fast direct transition at the Brillouin zone centre.

  4. Single-mode Laser by Parity-time Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-21

    solenoid -like Pds5B that reside in direct proximity to Wapl and the Smc3-Scc1 in- teraction interface (fig. S13), implying that Wapl and Pds5 control the...accepted 26 September 2014 10.1126/science.1256904 REPORTS ◥ OPTICS Single-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breaking Liang Feng,1* Zi Jing Wong,1...Ren-Min Ma,1* Yuan Wang,1,2 Xiang Zhang1,2† Effective manipulation of cavity resonant modes is crucial for emission control in laser physics and

  5. Properties of the relaxation time distribution underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts photoionization of the DX centers in Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzmiel, J; Weron, K; Placzek-Popko, E [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Janczura, J [Hugo Steinhaus Center for Stochastic Methods and Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-08-26

    In this paper we clarify the relationship between the relaxation rate and relaxation time distributions underlying the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) photoconductivity build-ups in indium- and gallium-doped Cd{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Te mixed crystals. We discuss the role of asymptotic properties of the corresponding probability density functions. We show that the relaxation rate distribution, as a completely asymmetric alpha-stable distribution, leads to an infinite mean value of the effective relaxation rate. In contrast, the relaxation time distribution related to it leads to a finite mean value of the effective relaxation time. It follows from the experimental data analysis that for all the investigated samples the KWW exponent alpha decreases linearly with increasing photon flux in the range of (0.6-0.99) and its values are more spread in the case of gallium-doped material. We also observe a linear dependence of the mean relaxation time on the characteristic material time constant, which is consistent with the theoretical model.

  6. Can a quantum state over time resemble a quantum state at a single time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Dominic; Heunen, Chris; Pusey, Matthew F; Barrett, Jonathan; Spekkens, Robert W

    2017-09-01

    The standard formalism of quantum theory treats space and time in fundamentally different ways. In particular, a composite system at a given time is represented by a joint state, but the formalism does not prescribe a joint state for a composite of systems at different times. If there were a way of defining such a joint state, this would potentially permit a more even-handed treatment of space and time, and would strengthen the existing analogy between quantum states and classical probability distributions. Under the assumption that the joint state over time is an operator on the tensor product of single-time Hilbert spaces, we analyse various proposals for such a joint state, including one due to Leifer and Spekkens, one due to Fitzsimons, Jones and Vedral, and another based on discrete Wigner functions. Finding various problems with each, we identify five criteria for a quantum joint state over time to satisfy if it is to play a role similar to the standard joint state for a composite system: that it is a Hermitian operator on the tensor product of the single-time Hilbert spaces; that it represents probabilistic mixing appropriately; that it has the appropriate classical limit; that it has the appropriate single-time marginals; that composing over multiple time steps is associative. We show that no construction satisfies all these requirements. If Hermiticity is dropped, then there is an essentially unique construction that satisfies the remaining four criteria.

  7. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H

    2009-07-22

    Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  8. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin V Buhusi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock.Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s. When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results.These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  9. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for incompressible miscible flow with large viscosity ratio and high Péclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuhui; Guo, Zhaoli

    2015-10-01

    A lattice Boltzmann model with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator is proposed for incompressible miscible flow with a large viscosity ratio as well as a high Péclet number in this paper. The equilibria in the present model are motivated by the lattice kinetic scheme previously developed by Inamuro et al. [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 477 (2002), 10.1098/rsta.2001.0942]. The fluid viscosity and diffusion coefficient depend on both the corresponding relaxation times and additional adjustable parameters in this model. As a result, the corresponding relaxation times can be adjusted in proper ranges to enhance the performance of the model. Numerical validations of the Poiseuille flow and a diffusion-reaction problem demonstrate that the proposed model has second-order accuracy in space. Thereafter, the model is used to simulate flow through a porous medium, and the results show that the proposed model has the advantage to obtain a viscosity-independent permeability, which makes it a robust method for simulating flow in porous media. Finally, a set of simulations are conducted on the viscous miscible displacement between two parallel plates. The results reveal that the present model can be used to simulate, to a high level of accuracy, flows with large viscosity ratios and/or high Péclet numbers. Moreover, the present model is shown to provide superior stability in the limit of high kinematic viscosity. In summary, the numerical results indicate that the present lattice Boltzmann model is an ideal numerical tool for simulating flow with a large viscosity ratio and/or a high Péclet number.

  10. Topographical Variation of Human Femoral Articular Cartilage Thickness, T1rho and T2 Relaxation Times Is Related to Local Loading during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossom, Sam; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Assche, Dieter; Jonkers, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Objective Early detection of degenerative changes in the cartilage matrix composition is essential for evaluating early interventions that slow down osteoarthritis (OA) initiation. T1rho and T2 relaxation times were found to be effective for detecting early changes in proteoglycan and collagen content. To use these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, it is important to document the topographical variation in cartilage thickness, T1rho and T2 relaxation times in a healthy population. As OA is partially mechanically driven, the relation between these MRI-based parameters and localized mechanical loading during walking was investigated. Design MR images were acquired in 14 healthy adults and cartilage thickness and T1rho and T2 relaxation times were determined. Experimental gait data was collected and processed using musculoskeletal modeling to identify weight-bearing zones and estimate the contact force impulse during gait. Variation of the cartilage properties (i.e., thickness, T1rho, and T2) over the femoral cartilage was analyzed and compared between the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing zone of the medial and lateral condyle as well as the trochlea. Results Medial condyle cartilage thickness was correlated to the contact force impulse ( r = 0.78). Lower T1rho, indicating increased proteoglycan content, was found in the medial weight-bearing zone. T2 was higher in all weight-bearing zones compared with the non-weight-bearing zones, indicating lower relative collagen content. Conclusions The current results suggest that medial condyle cartilage is adapted as a long-term protective response to localized loading during a frequently performed task and that the weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle has superior weight bearing capacities compared with the non-weight-bearing zones.

  11. Real-time observation of formation and relaxation dynamics of NH4 in (CH3OH)m(NH3)n clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuji; Nishino, Yoko; Fujihara, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Haruki; Fuke, Kiyokazu

    2009-03-26

    The formation and relaxation dynamics of NH4(CH3OH)m(NH3)n clusters produced by photolysis of ammonia-methanol mixed clusters has been observed by a time-resolved pump-probe method with femtosecond pulse lasers. From the detailed analysis of the time evolutions of the protonated cluster ions, NH4(+)(CH3OH)m(NH3)n, the kinetic model has been constructed, which consists of sequential three-step reaction: ultrafast hydrogen-atom transfer producing the radical pair (NH4-NH2)*, the relaxation process of radical-pair clusters, and dissociation of the solvated NH4 clusters. The initial hydrogen transfer hardly occurs between ammonia and methanol, implying the unfavorable formation of radical pair, (CH3OH2-NH2)*. The remarkable dependence of the time constants in each step on the number and composition of solvents has been explained by the following factors: hydrogen delocalization within the clusters, the internal conversion of the excited-state radical pair, and the stabilization of NH4 by solvation. The dependence of the time profiles on the probe wavelength is attributed to the different ionization efficiency of the NH4(CH3OH)m(NH3)n clusters.

  12. The simulation of a two-dimensional (2D) transport problem in a rectangular region with Lattice Boltzmann method with two-relaxation-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto, S.; Hardyanto, W.; Marwoto, P.

    2018-03-01

    Transport phenomena are found in many problems in many engineering and industrial sectors. We analyzed a Lattice Boltzmann method with Two-Relaxation Time (LTRT) collision operators for simulation of pollutant moving through the medium as a two-dimensional (2D) transport problem in a rectangular region model. This model consists of a 2D rectangular region with 54 length (x), 27 width (y), and it has isotropic homogeneous medium. Initially, the concentration is zero and is distributed evenly throughout the region of interest. A concentration of 1 is maintained at 9 < y < 18, whereas the concentration of zero is maintained at 0 < y < 9 and 18 < y < 27. A specific discharge (Darcy velocity) of 1.006 is assumed. A diffusion coefficient of 0.8333 is distributed uniformly with a uniform porosity of 0.35. A computer program is written in MATLAB to compute the concentration of pollutant at any specified place and time. The program shows that LTRT solution with quadratic equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) and relaxation time τa=1.0 are in good agreement result with other numerical solutions methods such as 3DLEWASTE (Hybrid Three-dimensional Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite Element Model of Waste Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media) obtained by Yeh and 3DFEMWATER-LHS (Three-dimensional Finite Element Model of Water Flow Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media with Latin Hypercube Sampling) obtained by Hardyanto.

  13. Sandpile model for relaxation in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.; Brouers, F.

    1997-10-01

    The relaxation in complex systems is, in general, nonexponential. After an initial rapid decay the system relaxes slowly following a long time tail. In the present paper a sandpile moderation of the relaxation in complex systems is analysed. Complexity is introduced by a process of avalanches in the Bethe lattice and a feedback mechanism which leads to slower decay with increasing time. In this way, some features of relaxation in complex systems: long time tails relaxation, aging, and fractal distribution of characteristic times, are obtained by simple computer simulations. (author)

  14. A Linear Tetranuclear Dysprosium(III) Compound Showing Single-Molecule Magnet Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Hongshan; Xu, Gong Feng; Guo, Yun-Nan; Gamez, Patrick; Beavers, Christine M; Teat, Simon J; Tang, Jinkui

    2010-04-20

    Although magnetic measurements reveal a single-relaxation time for a linear tetranuclear Dy(III) compound, the wide distribution of the relaxation time observed clearly suggests the presence of two slightly different anisotropic centres, therefore opening new avenues for investigating the relaxation dynamics of lanthanide aggregates.

  15. Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Milic, Adriana; Müllneritsch, Michael; Asenbaum, Peter; Tsukernik, Alexander; Tüxen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Arndt, Markus

    2012-03-25

    The observation of interference patterns in double-slit experiments with massive particles is generally regarded as the ultimate demonstration of the quantum nature of these objects. Such matter-wave interference has been observed for electrons, neutrons, atoms and molecules and, in contrast to classical physics, quantum interference can be observed when single particles arrive at the detector one by one. The build-up of such patterns in experiments with electrons has been described as the "most beautiful experiment in physics". Here, we show how a combination of nanofabrication and nano-imaging allows us to record the full two-dimensional build-up of quantum interference patterns in real time for phthalocyanine molecules and for derivatives of phthalocyanine molecules, which have masses of 514 AMU and 1,298 AMU respectively. A laser-controlled micro-evaporation source was used to produce a beam of molecules with the required intensity and coherence, and the gratings were machined in 10-nm-thick silicon nitride membranes to reduce the effect of van der Waals forces. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy detected the position of each molecule with an accuracy of 10 nm and revealed the build-up of a deterministic ensemble interference pattern from single molecules that arrived stochastically at the detector. In addition to providing this particularly clear demonstration of wave-particle duality, our approach could also be used to study larger molecules and explore the boundary between quantum and classical physics.

  16. IPNS time-of-flight single crystal diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, A.J.; Teller, R.G.; Williams, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The single crystal diffractometer (SCD) at the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) utilizes the time-of-flight (TOF) Laue technique to provide a three-dimensional sampling of reciprocal space during each pulse. The instrument contains a unique neutron position-sensitive 6 Li-glass scintillation detector with an active area of 30 x 30 cm. The three-dimensional nature of the data is very useful for fast, efficient measurement of Bragg intensities and for the studies of superlattice and diffuse scattering. The instrument was designed to achieve a resolution of 2% or better (R = δQ/Q) with 2 THETA > 60 0 and lambda > 0.7A

  17. Single-Index Additive Vector Autoregressive Time Series Models

    KAUST Repository

    LI, YEHUA

    2009-09-01

    We study a new class of nonlinear autoregressive models for vector time series, where the current vector depends on single-indexes defined on the past lags and the effects of different lags have an additive form. A sufficient condition is provided for stationarity of such models. We also study estimation of the proposed model using P-splines, hypothesis testing, asymptotics, selection of the order of the autoregression and of the smoothing parameters and nonlinear forecasting. We perform simulation experiments to evaluate our model in various settings. We illustrate our methodology on a climate data set and show that our model provides more accurate yearly forecasts of the El Niño phenomenon, the unusual warming of water in the Pacific Ocean. © 2009 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  18. MonoSLAM: real-time single camera SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew J; Reid, Ian D; Molton, Nicholas D; Stasse, Olivier

    2007-06-01

    We present a real-time algorithm which can recover the 3D trajectory of a monocular camera, moving rapidly through a previously unknown scene. Our system, which we dub MonoSLAM, is the first successful application of the SLAM methodology from mobile robotics to the "pure vision" domain of a single uncontrolled camera, achieving real time but drift-free performance inaccessible to Structure from Motion approaches. The core of the approach is the online creation of a sparse but persistent map of natural landmarks within a probabilistic framework. Our key novel contributions include an active approach to mapping and measurement, the use of a general motion model for smooth camera movement, and solutions for monocular feature initialization and feature orientation estimation. Together, these add up to an extremely efficient and robust algorithm which runs at 30 Hz with standard PC and camera hardware. This work extends the range of robotic systems in which SLAM can be usefully applied, but also opens up new areas. We present applications of MonoSLAM to real-time 3D localization and mapping for a high-performance full-size humanoid robot and live augmented reality with a hand-held camera.

  19. Relaxation dynamics of lead-free (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}–BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals studied by Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Wan [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 24252 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Hyeon, E-mail: hwangko@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwondo 24252 (Korea, Republic of); Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The acoustic properties of 0.95(Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}–0.05BaTiO{sub 3} (NBT–0.05BT) single crystals were investigated in a hypersonic frequency range and compared to those of archetypal relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (PMN). Temperature dependences of the Brillouin frequency shift of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode, as well as its half width, of NBT–5%BT and PMN exhibited diffuse and broad anomalies over a wide temperature range, which were related to the softening of the sound velocity and substantial increase in the hypersonic damping toward the dielectric maximum temperature. These broad acoustic anomalies of unpoled NBT–0.05BT suggest the existence of noncentrosymmetric polar nanoregions in the paraelectric phase which do not evolve into a long-range ferroelectric order. The calculated relaxation times of NBT–0.05BT exhibited much longer values compared to those of PMN, which suggests that the size of polar nanoregions of NBT–0.05BT is larger than that of PMN.

  20. Switching Characteristics and High-Temperature Dielectric Relaxation Behaviours of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.91Ti0.09O₃ Single Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Tang, Xingui; Jiang, Yanping; Liu, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Tianfu; Li, Wenhua

    2017-03-28

    This work evaluated the resistance switching characteristics in the (100)-oriented Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.91 Ti 0.09 O₃ (PZNT) single crystal. The current hysteresis can be closely related to the ferroelectric polarization and we provided a possible explanation using a model about oxygen vacancies to analyze the mechanism of switching. The obvious frequency dispersion of the relative permittivity signified the relaxer-type behavior of the sample. The value of the relaxation parameter γ = 1.48 was estimated from the linear fit of the modified Curie-Weiss law, indicating the relaxer nature. High-temperature dielectric relaxation behaviors were revealed in the temperature region of 400-650 °C. In addition, under the measuring frequency of 10 kHz, ε r was tunable by changing the electric field and the largest tunability of ε r reached 14.78%. At room temperature, the high pyroelectric coefficient and detectivity figure of merit were reported.

  1. Plasmon-mediated energy relaxation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, D. K. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5706 (United States); Somphonsane, R. [Department of Physics, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ramamoorthy, H.; Bird, J. P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Energy relaxation of hot carriers in graphene is studied at low temperatures, where the loss rate may differ significantly from that predicted for electron-phonon interactions. We show here that plasmons, important in the relaxation of energetic carriers in bulk semiconductors, can also provide a pathway for energy relaxation in transport experiments in graphene. We obtain a total loss rate to plasmons that results in energy relaxation times whose dependence on temperature and density closely matches that found experimentally.

  2. A simple shear limited, single size, time dependent flocculation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprenas, R.; Tran, D. A.; Strom, K.

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses on the modeling of flocculation of cohesive sediment due to turbulent shear, specifically, investigating the dependency of flocculation on the concentration of cohesive sediment. Flocculation is important in larger sediment transport models as cohesive particles can create aggregates which are orders of magnitude larger than their unflocculated state. As the settling velocity of each particle is determined by the sediment size, density, and shape, accounting for this aggregation is important in determining where the sediment is deposited. This study provides a new formulation for flocculation of cohesive sediment by modifying the Winterwerp (1998) flocculation model (W98) so that it limits floc size to that of the Kolmogorov micro length scale. The W98 model is a simple approach that calculates the average floc size as a function of time. Because of its simplicity, the W98 model is ideal for implementing into larger sediment transport models; however, the model tends to over predict the dependency of the floc size on concentration. It was found that the modification of the coefficients within the original model did not allow for the model to capture the dependency on concentration. Therefore, a new term within the breakup kernel of the W98 formulation was added. The new formulation results is a single size, shear limited, and time dependent flocculation model that is able to effectively capture the dependency of the equilibrium size of flocs on both suspended sediment concentration and the time to equilibrium. The overall behavior of the new model is explored and showed align well with other studies on flocculation. Winterwerp, J. C. (1998). A simple model for turbulence induced flocculation of cohesive sediment. .Journal of Hydraulic Research, 36(3):309-326.

  3. The relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2009-01-01

    Using the γ-irradiated fresh mangoes followed by freeze-drying and powderization, electron spin resonance spectrometry of specimens was performed. As a result, a strong single peak in the flesh, the pericarp and the seed was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. When relaxation times of the peak was calculated using the method of Lund et al., T 2 showed dose responses according to increasing doses while T 1 was almost constant. Dose responsibility of the relaxation time T 2 obtained from flesh specimens of the mangoes could be measured regardless of the preservation period of 1 to 9 days following γ-irradiation. Therefore, there might be possible to detect the irradiation treatment of fresh mangoes using relaxation time T 2 . (author)

  4. The dependence of the ultrafast relaxation kinetics of the S2 and S1 states in β-carotene homologs and lycopene on conjugation length studied by femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Fujii, Ritsuko; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The ultrafast relaxation kinetics of all-trans-β-carotene homologs with varying numbers of conjugated double bonds n(n =7-15) and lycopene (n =11) has been investigated using femtosecond time-resolved absorption and Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopies, both carried out under identical excitation conditions. The nonradiative relaxation rates of the optically allowed S2(1Bu+1) state were precisely determined by the time-resolved fluorescence. The kinetics of the optically forbidden S1(2Ag-1) state were observed by the time-resolved absorption measurements. The dependence of the S1 relaxation rates upon the conjugation length is adequately described by application of the energy gap law. In contrast to this, the nonradiative relaxation rates of S2 have a minimum at n =9 and show a reverse energy gap law dependence for values of n above 11. This anomalous behavior of the S2 relaxation rates can be explained by the presence of an intermediate state (here called the Sx state) located between the S2 and S1 states at large values of n (such as n =11). The presence of such an intermediate state would then result in the following sequential relaxation pathway S2→Sx→S1→S0. A model based on conical intersections between the potential energy curves of these excited singlet states can readily explain the measured relationships between the decay rates and the energy gaps.

  5. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2 * relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2 * : 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2 * : 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2 * : 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2 * : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2 * values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  6. Experiments in paramagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijphart, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis presents two attempts to improve the resolving power of the relaxation measurement technique. The first attempt reconsiders the old technique of steady state saturation. When used in conjunction with the pulse technique, it offers the possibility of obtaining additional information about the system in which all-time derivatives are zero; in addition, non-linear effects may be distinguished from each other. The second attempt involved a systematic study of only one system: Cu in the Tutton salts (K and Rb). The systematic approach, the high accuracy of the measurement and the sheer amount of experimental data for varying temperature, magnetic field and concentration made it possible in this case to separate the prevailing relaxation mechanisms reliably

  7. T1 relaxation time constants, influence of oxygen, and the oxygen transfer function of the human lung at 1.5 T—A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Olaf, E-mail: od@dtrx.net [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Gaass, Thomas [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Comprehensive Pneumology Center, German Center for Lung Research, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: To pool and summarize published data from magnetic resonance longitudinal relaxation measurements of the human lung at 1.5 T to provide a reliable basis of T{sub 1} relaxation time constants of healthy lung tissue both under respiration of room air and of pure oxygen. In particular, the oxygen-induced shortening of T{sub 1} was evaluated. Materials and methods: The PubMed database was comprehensively searched up to June 2016 for original publications in English containing quantitative T{sub 1} data (at least mean values and standard deviations) of the lung parenchyma of healthy subjects (minimum subject number: 3) at 1.5 T. From all included publications, T{sub 1} values of the lung of healthy subjects were extracted (inhaling room air and, if available, inhaling pure oxygen). Weighted mean values and standard deviations of all extracted data and the oxygen transfer function (OTF) were calculated. Results: 22 publications were included with a total number of 188 examined healthy subjects. 103 of these subjects (from 13 studies) were examined while breathing pure oxygen and room air; 85 subjects were examined only under room-air conditions. The weighted mean value (weighted sample standard deviation) of the room-air T{sub 1} values over all 22 studies was 1196 ms (152 ms). Based on studies with room-air and oxygen results, the mean T{sub 1} value at room-air conditions was 1172 ms (161 ms); breathing pure oxygen, the mean T{sub 1} value was reduced to 1054 ms (138 ms). This corresponds to a mean T{sub 1} reduction by 118 ms (35 ms) or 10.0 % (2.3 %) and to a mean OTF value of 1.22 (0.32) × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}/(%O{sub 2}). Conclusion: This meta-analysis with data from 188 subjects indicates that the average T{sub 1} relaxation time constant of healthy lung tissue at 1.5 T is distributed around 1200 ms with a standard deviation of about 150 ms; breathing pure oxygen reduces this value significantly by 10 % to about 1050 ms.

  8. Short-time relaxation of the critical current in oriented grained YBa2Cu3Ox and granular (Bi,Pb)2 Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuepfer, H.; Keller, C.; Meier-Hirmer, R.; Wiech, U.; Salama, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Green, S.M.; Luo, H.L.; Politis, C.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the critical current density j c is investigated by ac inductive measurements. The variation of db/dt of the ac field between 0.1 and 3 T/s reveals a short-time relaxation in the millisecond regime before j c exhibits the familiar logarithmic decay. At fields above the irreversibility line only this short-time relaxation is observed. Our experimental time scale allows us to obtain the unrelaxed critical current density j c0 at certain fields and temperatures

  9. Minimization of spin-lattice relaxation time with highly viscous solvents for acquisition of natural abundance nitrogen-15 and silicon-29 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammel, B.P.; Evilia, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of high viscosity solution conditions to decrease T 1 of 15 N and 29 Si nuclei so that natural abundance NMR spectra can be acquired in reasonable times is illustrated. Significant T 1 decreases with negligible increases in peak width are observed. No spectral shifts are observed in any of the cases studied. Highly viscous solutions are produced by using glycerol as a solvent for water-soluble molecules and a mixed solvent consisting of toluene saturated with polystyrene for organic-soluble molecules. The microviscosity in the latter solvent is found to be much less than the observed macroviscosity. Hydrogen bonding of glycerol to the NH 2 of 2-aminopyridine results in a greater than predicted decrease in T 1 for this nitrogen. The technique appears to be a useful alternative to paramagnetic relaxation reagents

  10. Effect of magnetic coupling on non-radiative relaxation time of Fe3+ sites on LaAl1-xFexO3 pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novatski, A.; Somer, A.; Maranha, F. G.; de Souza, E. C. F.; Andrade, A. V. C.; Antunes, S. R. M.; Borges, C. P. F.; Dias, D. T.; Medina, A. N.; Astrath, N. G. C.

    2018-02-01

    Inorganic pigments of the system LaAl1-xFexO3 were prepared by the Pechini and the Solid State Reaction (SSR) methods. Magnetic interactions and non-radiative relaxation time were analyzed by means of phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR results show a change in the magnetic behavior from paramagnetic (x = 0.2 and 0.4) to antiferromagnetic (x = 1.0), which is believed to be a result of the SSR preparation method. Trends in the optical absorption bands of the Fe3+ are attributed to their electronic transitions, and the increase in the band's intensity at 480 and 550 nm was assigned to the increase in the magnetic coupling between Fe-Fe. The phase-resolved method is capable of distinguishing between the two preparation methods, and it is possible to infer that SSR modifies the magnetic coupling of Fe-Fe with x.

  11. A general model to calculate the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time of blood, accounting for haematocrit, oxygen saturation and magnetic field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick W; Kirkham, Fenella J; Clark, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Many MRI techniques require prior knowledge of the T1-relaxation time of blood (T1bl). An assumed/fixed value is often used; however, T1bl is sensitive to magnetic field (B0), haematocrit (Hct), and oxygen saturation (Y). We aimed to combine data from previous in vitro measurements into a mathematical model, to estimate T1bl as a function of B0, Hct, and Y. The model was shown to predict T1bl from in vivo studies with a good accuracy (± 87 ms). This model allows for improved estimation of T1bl between 1.5-7.0 T while accounting for variations in Hct and Y, leading to improved accuracy of MRI-derived perfusion measurements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  13. {CoIII2DyIII2} single molecule magnet with two resolved thermal activated magnetization relaxation pathways at zero field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Alejandro V; Carrella, Luca; Rentschler, Eva; Alborés, Pablo

    2014-02-14

    The new complex [Co(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(teaH)2(Piv)6] in the {Co(III)2Dy(III)2} family, shows two well resolved thermal activated magnetization relaxation pathways under AC experiments in zero DC field. Fitted crystal field parameters suggest that the origin of these two pathways relies on two different excited mJ sub-levels.

  14. Spatial characterization of T1 and T2 relaxation times and the water apparent diffusion coefficient in rabbit Achilles tendon subjected to tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, J; Helmer, K G; Grigg, P; Sotak, C H

    2005-03-01

    Tendons exhibit viscoelastic mechanical behavior under tensile loading. The elasticity arises from the collagen chains that form fibrils, while the viscous response arises from the interaction of the water with the solid matrix. Therefore, an understanding of the behavior of water in response to the application of a load is crucial to the understanding of the origin of the viscous response. Three-dimensional MRI mapping of rabbit Achilles tendons was performed at 2.0 T to characterize the response of T(1) and T(2) relaxation times and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water to tensile loading. The ADC was measured in directions both parallel (ADC( parallel)) and perpendicular (ADC( perpendicular)) to the long axis of the tendon. At a short diffusion time (5.8 ms) MR parameter maps showed the existence of two regions, here termed "core" and "rim", that exhibited statistically significant differences in T(1), T(2), and ADC( perpendicular) under the baseline loading condition. MR parameter maps were also generated at a second loading condition of approximately 1 MPa. At a diffusion time of 5.8 ms, there was a statistically significant increase in the rim region for both ADC( perpendicular) (57.5%) and ADC( parallel) (20.5%) upon tensile loading. The changes in core ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)), as well as the relaxation parameters in both core and rim regions, were not statistically significant. The effect of diffusion time on the ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)) values was investigated by creating maps at three additional diffusion times (50.0, 125.0, 250.0 ms) using a diffusion-weighted, stimulated-echo (DW-STE) pulse sequence. At longer diffusion times, ADC(( perpendicular), ( parallel)) values increased rather than approaching a constant value. This observation was attributed to T(1) spin-editing during the DW-STE pulse sequence, which resulted in the loss of short-T(1) components (with correspondingly lower ADCs) at longer diffusion times

  15. Two-Agent Single-Machine Scheduling of Jobs with Time-Dependent Processing Times and Ready Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Yee Kung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling involving jobs with time-dependent processing times has recently attracted much research attention. However, multiagent scheduling with simultaneous considerations of jobs with time-dependent processing times and ready times is relatively unexplored. Inspired by this observation, we study a two-agent single-machine scheduling problem in which the jobs have both time-dependent processing times and ready times. We consider the model in which the actual processing time of a job of the first agent is a decreasing function of its scheduled position while the actual processing time of a job of the second agent is an increasing function of its scheduled position. In addition, each job has a different ready time. The objective is to minimize the total completion time of the jobs of the first agent with the restriction that no tardy job is allowed for the second agent. We propose a branch-and-bound and several genetic algorithms to obtain optimal and near-optimal solutions for the problem, respectively. We also conduct extensive computational results to test the proposed algorithms and examine the impacts of different problem parameters on their performance.

  16. Influence of pudendal nerve blockade on stress relaxation in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thind, P; Bagi, P; Mieszczak, C

    1996-01-01

    The urethral pressure decay following a sudden and sustained dilatation corresponds to stress relaxation. Urethral stress relaxation can be described by the equation Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P beta e-t/tau beta, where Pt is the pressure at time t, Pequ is the equilibrium pressure after...... dilatation, P alpha and P beta are pressure decay, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants. The time constants have previously proved independent of the way the dilatation is performed. The urethral stress relaxation obtained in 10 healthy women before and after pudendal nerve blockade was analysed...... by the mathematical model and the pressure parameters and time constants determined. The fast time constant, tau beta, was reduced by the nerve blockade, whereas tau alpha was unaffected, however, both P alpha and P beta were reduced. No single stress relaxation parameter can therefore be related to the muscle...

  17. Wide-field time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) microscopy with time resolution below the frame exposure time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M. [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Petrášek, Zdeněk [Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Fast frame rate CMOS cameras in combination with photon counting intensifiers can be used for fluorescence imaging with single photon sensitivity at kHz frame rates. We show here how the phosphor decay of the image intensifier can be exploited for accurate timing of photon arrival well below the camera exposure time. This is achieved by taking ratios of the intensity of the photon events in two subsequent frames, and effectively allows wide-field TCSPC. This technique was used for measuring decays of ruthenium compound Ru(dpp) with lifetimes as low as 1 μs with 18.5 μs frame exposure time, including in living HeLa cells, using around 0.1 μW excitation power. We speculate that by using an image intensifier with a faster phosphor decay to match a higher camera frame rate, photon arrival time measurements on the nanosecond time scale could well be possible.

  18. Selective modification of NMR relaxation time in human colorectal carcinoma by using gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated with monoclonal antibody 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtet, C; Tellier, C; Bohy, J; Conti, M L; Saccavini, J C; Thedrez, P; Douillard, J Y; Chatal, J F; Koprowski, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 19-9 (mAb 19-9) against human colon adenocarcinoma was conjugated with gadolinium X diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd X DTPA) and used as a contrast agent in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in an effort to improve tumor target selectivity in nude mice. The data indicate that Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 in solution decreased the T1 relaxation of water protons at 90 MHz in direct proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and this effect was greater than in Gd X DTPA solutions. T1 relaxation time at 90 MHz, measured in tumors removed from nude mice 24 hr after injection of Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 (Gd, 20 mumol/kg; 16 DTPA molecules per mAb molecule), was significantly decreased (by 15%) as compared with the control group. Similar results were obtained in tumors from mice injected with Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 solutions in which Gd was used at 2, 6, or 10 mumol/kg (16 DTPA molecules per mAb molecule). These doses are lower than those commonly used for Gd X DTPA (10-100 mumol/kg) as contrast agent. Tumor localization by the Gd X DTPA-mAb 19-9 complex containing radioactive Gd (0.3 microCi/microgram of 153Gd) to confirm scintigraphy revealed significant concentrations of the complex (5% of the injected dose per gram of tissue) in the tumor. Scan images recorded in planar scintigraphy at day 5 showed good visualization of tumors. Images PMID:3459174

  19. Dielectric Relaxation of Water: Theory and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Narayan Prasad; Paudyal, Harihar; Johri, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bond dynamics and methods for evaluation of probability and relaxation time for hydrogen bond network. Further, dielectric relaxation time has been calculated by using a diagonalization procedure by obtaining eigen values (inverse of relaxation time) of a master equation framed on the basis of Fokker-Planck equations. Microwave cavity spectrometer has been described to make measurements of relaxation time. Slater's perturbation equations are given for the analysis of the data. A comparison of theoretical and experimental data shows that there is a need for improvements in the theoretical model and experimental techniques to provide exact information about structural properties of water. (author)

  20. Estimates for a general fractional relaxation equation and application to an inverse source problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhlekova, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    A general fractional relaxation equation is considered with a convolutional derivative in time introduced by A. Kochubei (Integr. Equ. Oper. Theory 71 (2011), 583-600). This equation generalizes the single-term, multi-term and distributed-order fractional relaxation equations. The fundamental and the impulse-response solutions are studied in detail. Properties such as analyticity and subordination identities are established and employed in the proof of an upper and a lower bound. The obtained...

  1. Longitudinal relaxation of initially straight flexible and stiff polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Dissanayake, Inuka

    2004-11-01

    The present talk considers the relaxation of a single flexible or stiff polymer chain from an initial straight configuration in a viscous solvent. This problem commonly arises when strong flows are turned off in both industrial and biological applications. The problem is also motivated by recent experiments with single biopolymer molecules relaxing after being fully extended by applied forces as well as by the recent development of micro-devices involving stretched tethered biopolymers. Our results are applicable to a wide array of synthetic polymers such as polyacrylamides, Kevlar and polyesters as well as biopolymers such as DNA, actin filaments, microtubules and MTV. In this talk we discuss the mechanism of the polymer relaxation as was revealed through Brownian Dynamics simulations covering a broad range of time scales and chain stiffness. After the short-time free diffusion, the chain's longitudinal reduction at early intermediate times is shown to constitute a universal behavior for any chain stiffness caused by a quasi-steady relaxation of tensions associated with the deforming action of the Brownian forces. Stiff chains are shown to exhibit a late intermediate-time longitudinal reduction associated with a relaxation of tensions affected by the deforming Brownian and the restoring bending forces. The longitudinal and transverse relaxations are shown to obey different laws, i.e. the chain relaxation is anisotropic at all times. In the talk, we show how from the knowledge of the relaxation mechanism, we can predict and explain the polymer properties including the polymer stress and the solution birefringence. In addition, a generalized stress-optic law is derived valid for any time and chain stiffness. All polymer properties which depend on the polymer length are shown to exhibit two intermediate-time behaviors with the early one to constitute a universal behavior for any chain stiffness. This work was supported in part by the Minta Martin Research Fund. The

  2. Combined Fat Imaging/Look Locker for mapping of lipid spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihyun Park, Annie; Yung, Andrew; Kozlowski, Piotr; Reinsberg, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a main problem arising in the treatment of cancer due to its resistance to cytotoxic therapy such as radiation and chemotherapy, and selection for more aggressive tumor phenotypes. Attempts to improve and quantify tumor oxygenation are in development and tools to assess the success of such schemes are required. Monitoring oxygen level with MRI using T1 based method (where oxygen acts as T1 shortening agent) is a dynamic and noninvasive way to study tumor characteristics. The method's sensitivity to oxygen is higher in lipids than in water due to higher oxygen solubility in lipid. Our study aims to develop a time-efficient method to spatially map T1 of fat inside the tumor. We are combining two techniques: Fat/Water imaging and Look Locker (a rapid T1 measurement technique). Fat/Water Imaging is done with either Dixon or Direct Phase Encoding (DPE) method. The combination of these techniques poses new challenges that are tackled using spin dynamics simulations as well as experiments in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Aging of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation in the glass-forming liquids sorbitol and xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Employing frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibility of both liquids possesses a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench through the glass transition, the susceptibility slowly approaches the equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, the magnitude of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation displays a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is quantitatively very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak frequency. The Johari-Goldstein relaxation time remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it decreases slightly with age for xylitol. Hence, one cannot sensibly assign a fictive temperature to the Johari-Goldstein relaxation. This behavior contrasts with that of liquids lacking distinct Johari-Goldstein peaks for which the excess wing of the alpha peak tracks the main part of the peak during aging, enabling the assignment of a single fictive temperature to the entire spectrum. The aging behavior of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation time further calls into question the possibility that the relaxation time possesses stronger temperature dependence in equilibrium than is observed in the out-of-equilibrium state below the glass transition.

  4. Ultrashort Echo Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lung Using a High-Relaxivity T1 Blood-Pool Contrast Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Tchouala Nofiele

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The lung remains one of the most challenging organs to image using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI due to intrinsic rapid signal decay. However, unlike conventional modalities such as computed tomography, MRI does not involve radiation and can provide functional and morphologic information on a regional basis. Here we demonstrate proof of concept for a new MRI approach to achieve substantial gains in a signal to noise ratio (SNR in the lung parenchyma: contrast-enhanced ultrashort echo time (UTE imaging following intravenous injection of a high-relaxivity blood-pool manganese porphyrin T1 contrast agent. The new contrast agent increased relative enhancement of the lung parenchyma by over 10-fold compared to gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA, and the use of UTE boosted the SNR by a factor of 4 over conventional T1-weighted gradient echo acquisitions. The new agent also maintains steady enhancement over at least 60 minutes, thus providing a long time window for obtaining high-resolution, high-quality images and the ability to measure a number of physiologic parameters.

  5. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  6. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Matthias A; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of parametric MR based lesion detection and

  7. Magnetoresistive sensor for real-time single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dufva, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a magnetoresistive sensor platform that allows for the real-time detection of point mutations in DNA targets. Specifically, we detect point mutations at two sites in the human beta globin gene. For DNA detection, the present sensor technology has a detection limit of about 160p...... of magnetic beads, which enables real-time quantification of the specific binding of magnetic beads to the sensor surface under varying experimental conditions....

  8. Tracking ultrafast relaxation dynamics of furan by femtosecond photoelectron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuzhu; Knopp, Gregor; Qin, Chaochao; Gerber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Relaxation dynamics of furan are tracked by femtosecond photoelectron imaging. • The mechanism for ultrafast formation of α-carbene and β-carbene is proposed. • Ultrafast internal conversion from S 2 to S 1 is observed. • The transient characteristics of the fragment ions are obtained. • Single-color multi-photon ionization dynamics at 800 nm are also studied. - Abstract: Ultrafast internal conversion dynamics of furan has been studied by femtosecond photoelectron imaging (PEI) coupled with photofragmentation (PF) spectroscopy. Photoelectron imaging of single-color multi-photon ionization and two-color pump–probe ionization are obtained and analyzed. Photoelectron bands are assigned to the related states. The time evolution of the photoelectron signal by pump–probe ionization can be well described by a biexponential decay: two rapid relaxation pathways with time constants of ∼15 fs and 85 (±11) fs. The rapid relaxation is ascribed to the ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from the S 2 state to the vibrationally hot S 1 state. The second relaxation process is attributed to the redistributions and depopulation of secondarily populated high vibronic S 1 state and the formation of α-carbene and β-carbene by H immigration. Additionally, the transient characteristics of the fragment ions are also measured and discussed as a complementary understanding

  9. Tracking ultrafast relaxation dynamics of furan by femtosecond photoelectron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuzhu, E-mail: yuzhu.liu@gmail.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Knopp, Gregor [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Qin, Chaochao [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Gerber, Thomas [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland)

    2015-01-13

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Relaxation dynamics of furan are tracked by femtosecond photoelectron imaging. • The mechanism for ultrafast formation of α-carbene and β-carbene is proposed. • Ultrafast internal conversion from S{sub 2} to S{sub 1} is observed. • The transient characteristics of the fragment ions are obtained. • Single-color multi-photon ionization dynamics at 800 nm are also studied. - Abstract: Ultrafast internal conversion dynamics of furan has been studied by femtosecond photoelectron imaging (PEI) coupled with photofragmentation (PF) spectroscopy. Photoelectron imaging of single-color multi-photon ionization and two-color pump–probe ionization are obtained and analyzed. Photoelectron bands are assigned to the related states. The time evolution of the photoelectron signal by pump–probe ionization can be well described by a biexponential decay: two rapid relaxation pathways with time constants of ∼15 fs and 85 (±11) fs. The rapid relaxation is ascribed to the ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from the S{sub 2} state to the vibrationally hot S{sub 1} state. The second relaxation process is attributed to the redistributions and depopulation of secondarily populated high vibronic S{sub 1} state and the formation of α-carbene and β-carbene by H immigration. Additionally, the transient characteristics of the fragment ions are also measured and discussed as a complementary understanding.

  10. Accurate determination of rates from non-uniformly sampled relaxation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetz, Matthew A.; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Johnson Research Foundation and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The application of non-uniform sampling (NUS) to relaxation experiments traditionally used to characterize the fast internal motion of proteins is quantitatively examined. Experimentally acquired Poisson-gap sampled data reconstructed with iterative soft thresholding are compared to regular sequentially sampled (RSS) data. Using ubiquitin as a model system, it is shown that 25 % sampling is sufficient for the determination of quantitatively accurate relaxation rates. When the sampling density is fixed at 25 %, the accuracy of rates is shown to increase sharply with the total number of sampled points until eventually converging near the inherent reproducibility of the experiment. Perhaps contrary to some expectations, it is found that accurate peak height reconstruction is not required for the determination of accurate rates. Instead, inaccuracies in rates arise from inconsistencies in reconstruction across the relaxation series that primarily manifest as a non-linearity in the recovered peak height. This indicates that the performance of an NUS relaxation experiment cannot be predicted from comparison of peak heights using a single RSS reference spectrum. The generality of these findings was assessed using three alternative reconstruction algorithms, eight different relaxation measurements, and three additional proteins that exhibit varying degrees of spectral complexity. From these data, it is revealed that non-linearity in peak height reconstruction across the relaxation series is strongly correlated with errors in NUS-derived relaxation rates. Importantly, it is shown that this correlation can be exploited to reliably predict the performance of an NUS-relaxation experiment by using three or more RSS reference planes from the relaxation series. The RSS reference time points can also serve to provide estimates of the uncertainty of the sampled intensity, which for a typical relaxation times series incurs no penalty in total acquisition time.

  11. Transition from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of structural relaxation time in glass-forming liquids: continuous versus discontinuous scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, V A; Surovtsev, N V

    2014-09-01

    The temperature dependences of α relaxation time τ(α)(T) of three glass-forming liquids (salol, o-terphenyl, and α-picoline) were investigated by a depolarized light scattering technique. A detailed description of τ(α)(T) near T(A), the temperature of the transition from the Arrhenius law at high temperatures to a non-Arrhenius behavior of τ(α)(T) at lower temperatures, was done. It was found that this transition is quite sharp. If the transition is described as switching from the Arrhenius law to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law, it occurs within the temperature range of about 15 K or less. Most of the known expressions for τ(α)(T) cannot describe this sharp transition. Our analysis revealed that this transition can be described either as a discontinuous transition in the spirit of the frustration-limited domain theory [D. Kivelson, G. Tarjus, X. Zhao, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. E 53, 751 (1996)], implying a phase transition, or by a phenomenological expression recently suggested [B. Schmidtke, N. Petzold, R. Kahlau, M. Hofmann, and E. A. Rössler, Phys. Rev. E 86, 041507 (2012)], where the activation energy includes the term depending exponentially on temperature.

  12. Magneto-optical measurement of spin-lattice relaxation time in KBr and in the Na and Cs halogenetes and Co++ ion magnetic circular dichroism study in KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A magnetic circular dicroism spectrometer is described, which was used in the following experiments: 1) The spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) for F centers in NaCl, NaBr, CsBr and CsCl, at 1,8 0 K in magnetic fields up to 15000Gs is described. The suitability of the theory of ref. (08) to explain the differences observed for halides of differents alkali ions as well as for different structures is verified proves that the hyperfine interaction is the most important mechanism for this kind of centers. It is also verified that, for temperatures between 6 0 K and 15 0 K, T 1 experimental values fits the theory of ref. (21) reasonably well, for F centers in KBr. This theory us an extension of that of ref. (8). 2) The MCD spectra for KCl:Co ++ and Caf 2 :Co ++ in different magnetic fields up to 56KGs, and in temperature range between 1,8 0 K and 4,2 0 K is obtained. The results are consistent with the assumption that Co ++ centers are intersticial in KCl lattice [pt

  13. Anisotropy of the proton spin--lattice relaxation time in the superconducting intercalation complex TaS2(NH3): Structural and bonding implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, F.R.; Silbernagel, B.G.

    1975-01-01

    The nature of the interaction responsible for the formation of molecular intercalation complexes between Lewis bases and layered transition metal dichalcogenides is not well understood. To some extent this is due to a lack of structural information. A prototype of these complexes is TaS 2 (NH 3 ), in which monolayers of ammonia are inserted between the metallic, superconducting layers of TaS 2 . The compound is crystalline and stoichiometric. Measurement of the anisotropy of the proton spin--lattice relaxation time at 300 degreeK indicates that the molecular threefold symmetry axis is not perpendicular to the disulfide layers as suggested by other workers, but is parallel to the layers. This orientation precludes direct interaction between the molecular lone pair orbital and the transition metal atoms. The interactions governing the structure of this complex may be similar to those obtaining in the intercalation complexes between TaS 2 and a number of substituted pyridines, in which complexes the axis of the lone pair orbital is also parallel to the layers

  14. Lifshitz quasinormal modes and relaxation from holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, Watse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369283074; Vandoren, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830739

    2015-01-01

    We obtain relaxation times for field theories with Lifshitz scaling and with holographic duals Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton gravity theories. This is done by computing quasinormal modes of a bulk scalar field in the presence of Lifshitz black branes. We determine the relation between relaxation time and

  15. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  16. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies...

  17. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-01-01

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress–displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements. (paper)

  18. Universal binding energy relation for cleaved and structurally relaxed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangarajan, Aarti; Datta, Aditi; Gandi, Appala Naidu; Ramamurty, U; Waghmare, U V

    2014-02-05

    The universal binding energy relation (UBER), derived earlier to describe the cohesion between two rigid atomic planes, does not accurately capture the cohesive properties when the cleaved surfaces are allowed to relax. We suggest a modified functional form of UBER that is analytical and at the same time accurately models the properties of surfaces relaxed during cleavage. We demonstrate the generality as well as the validity of this modified UBER through first-principles density functional theory calculations of cleavage in a number of crystal systems. Our results show that the total energies of all the relaxed surfaces lie on a single (universal) energy surface, that is given by the proposed functional form which contains an additional length-scale associated with structural relaxation. This functional form could be used in modelling the cohesive zones in crack growth simulation studies. We find that the cohesive law (stress-displacement relation) differs significantly in the case where cracked surfaces are allowed to relax, with lower peak stresses occurring at higher displacements.

  19. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  20. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  1. Assessing the scientific relevance of a single publication over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp A. Bloching

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively assessing the scientific relevance of a research paper is challenging for two reasons. Firstly, scientific relevance may change over time, and secondly, it is unclear how to evaluate a recently published paper. The temporally averaged paper-specific impact factor is defined as the yearly average of citations to the paper until now including bonus citations equal to the journal impact factor in the publication year. This new measure subsequently allows relevance rankings and annual updates of all (i.e. both recent and older scientific papers of a department, or even a whole scientific field, on a more objective basis. It can also be used to assess both the average and overall time-dependent scientific relevance of researchers in a specific department or scientific field.

  2. Interaction study of polyisobutylene with paraffins by NMR using the evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times for hydrogen nuclei; Estudo da interacao do poliisobutileno com parafinas por RMN no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Rosana G.G. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas - CENPES]. E-mail: garrido@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    The evaluation of spin-lattice relaxation times of {sup 1}H for polyisobutylene/paraffin systems, were obtained using the classic inversion recovery technique, and also through Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CP/MAS) techniques varying the contact time and also by the delayed contact time pulse sequence. NMR results showed that the polyisobutylene/paraffin systems in which high molecular weight paraffins were used, is heterogeneous. However, for paraffins with low molecular weight, the system presents good homogeneity. (author)

  3. Time-Dependent Mechanical Response of APbX3 (A = Cs, CH3NH3; X = I, Br) Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Reyes-Martinez, Marcos A.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Chung, Duck Young; Bakr, Osman; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Soboyejo, Wole O.; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The ease of processing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIPs) films, belonging to a material class with composition ABX3 , from solution and at mild temperatures promises their use in deformable technologies, including flexible photovoltaic devices, sensors, and displays. To successfully apply these materials in deformable devices, knowledge of their mechanical response to dynamic strain is necessary. The authors elucidate the time- and rate-dependent mechanical properties of HOIPs and an inorganic perovskite (IP) single crystal by measuring nanoindentation creep and stress relaxation. The observation of pop-in events and slip bands on the surface of the indented crystals demonstrate dislocation-mediated plastic deformation. The magnitudes of creep and relaxation of both HOIPs and IPs are similar, negating prior hypothesis that the presence of organic A-site cations alters the mechanical response of these materials. Moreover, these samples exhibit a pronounced increase in creep, and stress relaxation as a function of indentation rate whose magnitudes reflect differences in the rates of nucleation and propagation of dislocations within the crystal structures of HOIPs and IP. This contribution provides understanding that is critical for designing perovskite devices capable of withstanding mechanical deformations.

  4. Time-Dependent Mechanical Response of APbX3 (A = Cs, CH3NH3; X = I, Br) Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Reyes-Martinez, Marcos A.

    2017-05-02

    The ease of processing hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIPs) films, belonging to a material class with composition ABX3 , from solution and at mild temperatures promises their use in deformable technologies, including flexible photovoltaic devices, sensors, and displays. To successfully apply these materials in deformable devices, knowledge of their mechanical response to dynamic strain is necessary. The authors elucidate the time- and rate-dependent mechanical properties of HOIPs and an inorganic perovskite (IP) single crystal by measuring nanoindentation creep and stress relaxation. The observation of pop-in events and slip bands on the surface of the indented crystals demonstrate dislocation-mediated plastic deformation. The magnitudes of creep and relaxation of both HOIPs and IPs are similar, negating prior hypothesis that the presence of organic A-site cations alters the mechanical response of these materials. Moreover, these samples exhibit a pronounced increase in creep, and stress relaxation as a function of indentation rate whose magnitudes reflect differences in the rates of nucleation and propagation of dislocations within the crystal structures of HOIPs and IP. This contribution provides understanding that is critical for designing perovskite devices capable of withstanding mechanical deformations.

  5. The immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in young healthy adults at 3.0 T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Welsch, Goetz H; Laqmani, Azien; Henes, Frank O; Kaul, Michael G; Schoen, Gerhard; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2016-08-01

    To quantitatively assess the immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of the articular cartilage of the knee at 3.0 T in young healthy adults. 30 healthy male adults (18-31 years) who perform sports at an amateur level underwent an initial MRI at 3.0 T with T2 weighted [16 echo times (TEs): 9.7-154.6 ms] and T2* weighted (24 TEs: 4.6-53.6 ms) relaxation measurements. Thereafter, all participants performed a 45-min run. After the run, all individuals were immediately re-examined. Data sets were post-processed using dedicated software (ImageJ; National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD). 22 regions of interest were manually drawn in segmented areas of the femoral, tibial and patellar cartilage. For statistical evaluation, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and confidence intervals were computed. Mean initial values were 35.7 ms for T2 and 25.1 ms for T2*. After the run, a significant decrease in the mean T2 and T2* relaxation times was observed for all segments in all participants. A mean decrease of relaxation time was observed for T2 with 4.6 ms (±3.6 ms) and for T2* with 3.6 ms (±5.1 ms) after running. A significant decrease could be observed in all cartilage segments for both biomarkers. Both quantitative techniques, T2 and T2*, seem to be valuable parameters in the evaluation of immediate changes in the cartilage ultrastructure after running. This is the first direct comparison of immediate changes in T2 and T2* relaxation times after running in healthy adults.

  6. Nuclear magnetic relaxation induced by exchange-mediated orientational randomization: longitudinal relaxation dispersion for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhiwei; Halle, Bertil

    2013-10-14

    In complex biological or colloidal samples, magnetic relaxation dispersion (MRD) experiments using the field-cycling technique can characterize molecular motions on time scales ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds, provided that a rigorous theory of nuclear spin relaxation is available. In gels, cross-linked proteins, and biological tissues, where an immobilized macromolecular component coexists with a mobile solvent phase, nuclear spins residing in solvent (or cosolvent) species relax predominantly via exchange-mediated orientational randomization (EMOR) of anisotropic nuclear (electric quadrupole or magnetic dipole) couplings. The physical or chemical exchange processes that dominate the MRD typically occur on a time scale of microseconds or longer, where the conventional perturbation theory of spin relaxation breaks down. There is thus a need for a more general relaxation theory. Such a theory, based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) for the EMOR mechanism, is available for a single quadrupolar spin I = 1. Here, we present the corresponding theory for a dipole-coupled spin-1/2 pair. To our knowledge, this is the first treatment of dipolar MRD outside the motional-narrowing regime. Based on an analytical solution of the spatial part of the SLE, we show how the integral longitudinal relaxation rate can be computed efficiently. Both like and unlike spins, with selective or non-selective excitation, are treated. For the experimentally important dilute regime, where only a small fraction of the spin pairs are immobilized, we obtain simple analytical expressions for the auto-relaxation and cross-relaxation rates which generalize the well-known Solomon equations. These generalized results will be useful in biophysical studies, e.g., of intermittent protein dynamics. In addition, they represent a first step towards a rigorous theory of water (1)H relaxation in biological tissues, which is a prerequisite for unravelling the molecular basis of soft

  7. Integer batch scheduling problems for a single-machine with simultaneous effect of learning and forgetting to minimize total actual flow time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinto Yusriski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses an integer batch scheduling problems for a single-machine with position-dependent batch processing time due to the simultaneous effect of learning and forgetting. The decision variables are the number of batches, batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as total interval time between the arrival times of parts in all respective batches and their common due date. There are two proposed algorithms to solve the problems. The first is developed by using the Integer Composition method, and it produces an optimal solution. Since the problems can be solved by the first algorithm in a worst-case time complexity O(n2n-1, this research proposes the second algorithm. It is a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation method. Numerical experiments show that the heuristic algorithm gives outstanding results.

  8. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Erick

    characterization technique is comprised of three main components: experimental measurements, fitting of configurational length change, and description of glass behavior by analysis of fitting parameters. N-BK7 optical glass from Schott was used as the proof of concept glass but the main scientific interest was in three chalcogenide glasses: As40Se 60, As20Se80, and Ge17.9As19.7 Se62.4. The dilatometric experiments were carried out using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) on glass sample that were synthesized by the author, in all cases except N-BK7. Isothermal structural relaxation measurements were done on (12 mm tall x 3 mm x 3 mm) beams placed vertically in the TMA. The samples were equilibrated at a starting temperature (T 0) until structural equilibrium was reached then a temperature down step was initiated to the final temperature (T 1) and held isothermally until relaxation concluded. The configurational aspect of length relaxation, and therefore volume relaxation was extracted and fit with a Prony series. The Prony series parameters indicated a number of relaxation events occurring within the glass on timescales typically an order of magnitude apart in time. The data analysis showed as many as 4 discrete relaxation times at lower temperatures. The number of discrete relaxation decreased as the temperature increased until just one single relaxation was left in the temperature range just at or above Tg. In the case of N-BK7 these trends were utilized to construct a simple model that could be applied to glass manufacturing in the areas of annealing or PGM. A future development of a rather simple finite element model (FEM) would easily be able to use this model to predict the exponential-like, temperature and time dependent relaxation behaviors of the glass. The predictive model was not extended to the chalcogenide glass studied here, but could easily be applied to them in the future. The relaxation time trends versus temperature showed a definite region of transition between a

  9. Single-molecule stochastic times in a reversible bimolecular reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Valleriani, Angelo

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we consider the reversible reaction between reactants of species A and B to form the product C. We consider this reaction as a prototype of many pseudobiomolecular reactions in biology, such as for instance molecular motors. We derive the exact probability density for the stochastic waiting time that a molecule of species A needs until the reaction with a molecule of species B takes place. We perform this computation taking fully into account the stochastic fluctuations in the number of molecules of species B. We show that at low numbers of participating molecules, the exact probability density differs from the exponential density derived by assuming the law of mass action. Finally, we discuss the condition of detailed balance in the exact stochastic and in the approximate treatment.

  10. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  11. Non-invasive evaluation of blood oxygen saturation and hematocrit from T1 and T2 relaxation times: In-vitro validation in fetal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sharon; Seed, Mike; Sled, John G; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2017-12-01

    We propose an analytical method for calculating blood hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen saturation (sO 2 ) from measurements of its T 1 and T 2 relaxation times. Through algebraic substitution, established two-compartment relationships describing R1=T1-1 and R2=T2-1 as a function of hematocrit and oxygen saturation were rearranged to solve for Hct and sO 2 in terms of R 1 and R 2 . Resulting solutions for Hct and sO 2 are the roots of cubic polynomials. Feasibility of the method was established by comparison of Hct and sO 2 estimates obtained from relaxometry measurements (at 1.5 Tesla) in cord blood specimens to ground-truth values obtained by blood gas analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were also conducted to assess the effect of T 1 , T 2 measurement uncertainty on precision of Hct and sO 2 estimates. Good agreement was observed between estimated and ground-truth blood properties (bias = 0.01; 95% limits of agreement = ±0.13 for Hct and sO 2 ). Considering the combined effects of biological variability and random measurement noise, we estimate a typical uncertainty of ±0.1 for Hct, sO 2 estimates. Results demonstrate accurate quantification of Hct and sO 2 from T 1 and T 2 . This method is applicable to noninvasive fetal vessel oximetry-an application where existing oximetry devices are unusable or require risky blood-sampling procedures. Magn Reson Med 78:2352-2359, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  13. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-09-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  14. The development of the time-keeping clock with TS-1 single chip microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiguang; Li, Yongan

    The authors have developed a time-keeping clock with Intel 8751 single chip microcomputer that has been successfully used in time-keeping station. The hard-soft ware design and performance of the clock are introduced.

  15. Time Spent in Home Production Activities by Married Couples and Single Adults with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthitt, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    A study found that, over time, married women employed full time have not decreased the time spent working in the home. Married men with young children have increased the time spent on home work. Single parents' time most closely resembled that of married women. (JOW)

  16. Testing for one Generalized Linear Single Order Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Niels Langager; Christensen, Tage Emil; Dyre, Jeppe

    We examine a linear single order parameter model for thermoviscoelastic relaxation in viscous liquids, allowing for a distribution of relaxation times. In this model the relaxation of volume and entalpy is completely described by the relaxation of one internal order parameter. In contrast to prior...... work the order parameter may be chosen to have a non-exponential relaxation. The model predictions contradict the general consensus of the properties of viscous liquids in two ways: (i) The model predicts that following a linear isobaric temperature step, the normalized volume and entalpy relaxation...... responses or extrapolate from measurements of a glassy state away from equilibrium. Starting from a master equation description of inherent dynamics, we calculate the complex thermodynamic response functions. We device a way of testing for the generalized single order parameter model by measuring 3 complex...

  17. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  18. Single-time reduction of bethe-salpeter formalism for two-fermion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The single-time reduction method proposed in other refs. for the system of two scalar particles is generalized for the case of two-fermion system. A self-consistent procedure of single-time reduction has been constructed both in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function and in terms of the Green's function of two-fermion system. Three-dimensional dynamic equations have been obtained for single-time wave functions and two-time Green's functions of a two-fermion system and the Schroedinger structure of the equations obtained is shown to be a consequence of the causality structure of the local QFT. 32 refs

  19. Relaxation rates of gene expression kinetics reveal the feedback signs of autoregulatory gene networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chen; Qian, Hong; Chen, Min; Zhang, Michael Q.

    2018-03-01

    The transient response to a stimulus and subsequent recovery to a steady state are the fundamental characteristics of a living organism. Here we study the relaxation kinetics of autoregulatory gene networks based on the chemical master equation model of single-cell stochastic gene expression with nonlinear feedback regulation. We report a novel relation between the rate of relaxation, characterized by the spectral gap of the Markov model, and the feedback sign of the underlying gene circuit. When a network has no feedback, the relaxation rate is exactly the decaying rate of the protein. We further show that positive feedback always slows down the relaxation kinetics while negative feedback always speeds it up. Numerical simulations demonstrate that this relation provides a possible method to infer the feedback topology of autoregulatory gene networks by using time-series data of gene expression.

  20. Relaxation dynamics following transition of solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.B.; Landman, U.; Nitzan, A.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation dynamics following an electronic transition of an excess solvated electron in clusters and in bulk water is studied using an adiabatic simulation method. In this method the solvent evolves classically and the electron is constrained to a specified state. The coupling between the solvent and the excess electron is evaluated via the quantum expectation value of the electron--water molecule interaction potential. The relaxation following excitation (or deexcitation) is characterized by two time scales: (i) a very fast (/similar to/20--30 fs) one associated with molecular rotations in the first solvation shell about the electron, and (ii) a slower stage (/similar to/200 fs), which is of the order of the longitudinal dielectric relaxation time. The fast relaxation stage exhibits an isotope effect. The spectroscopical consequences of the relaxation dynamics are discussed

  1. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob

    Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  2. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  3. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  4. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  5. Association of lumbar spine stiffness and flexion-relaxation phenomenon with patient-reported outcomes in adults with chronic low back pain - a single-arm clinical trial investigating the effects of thrust spinal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Long, Cynthia R; Vining, Robert D; Gudavalli, Maruti R; DeVocht, James W; Kawchuk, Gregory N; Wilder, David G; Goertz, Christine M

    2017-06-09

    Spinal manipulation (SM) is used commonly for treating low back pain (LBP). Spinal stiffness is routinely assessed by clinicians performing SM. Flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) was shown to distinguish between LBP and healthy populations. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association of these two physiological variables with patient-reported pain intensity and disability in adults with chronic LBP (>12 weeks) receiving SM. A single-arm trial provided 12 sessions of side-lying thrust SM in the lumbosacral region over 6 weeks. Inclusion criteria included 21-65 years old, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) score ≥ 6 and numerical pain rating score ≥ 2. Spinal stiffness and FRR were assessed pre-treatment at baseline, after 2 weeks and after 6 weeks of treatment. Lumbar spine global stiffness (GS) were calculated from the force-displacement curves obtained using i) hand palpation, ii) a hand-held device, and iii) an automated indenter device. Lumbar FRR was assessed during trunk flexion-extension using surface electromyography. The primary outcomes were RMDQ and pain intensity measured by visual analog scale (VAS). Mixed-effects regression models were used to analyze the data. The mean age of the 82 participants was 45 years; 48% were female; and 84% reported LBP >1 year. The mean (standard deviation) baseline pain intensity and RMDQ were 46.1 (18.1) and 9.5 (4.3), respectively. The mean reduction (95% confidence interval) after 6 weeks in pain intensity and RMDQ were 20.1 mm (14.1 to 26.1) and 4.8 (3.7 to 5.8). There was a small change over time in the palpatory GS but not in the hand-held or automated GS, nor in FRR. The addition of each physiologic variable did not affect the model-estimated changes in VAS or RMDQ over time. There was no association seen between physiological variables and LBP intensity. Higher levels of hand-held GS at L3 and automated GS were significantly associated with higher levels of RMDQ (p

  6. Relaxation of ion energy spectrum just after turbulent heating pulse in TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Yukio; Itoh, Satoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1982-07-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial profile of the ion energy spectrum just after the application of a toroidal current pulse for turbulent heating are investigated experimentally in the TRIAM-1 tokamak and also numerically using the Fokker-Planck equation. The two-component ion energy spectrum formed by turbulent heating relaxes to a single one within tausub(i) (the ion collision time).

  7. Flow time prediction for a single-server order picking workstation using aggregate process times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriansyah, R.; Etman, L.F.P.; Rooda, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a simulation modeling approach based on aggregate process times for the performance analysis of order picking workstations in automated warehouses. The aggregate process time distribution is calculated from tote arrival and departure times. We refer to the aggregate process

  8. Strategies for real-time position control of a single atom in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, T W; Birnbaum, K; Kimble, H J

    2005-01-01

    Recent realizations of single-atom trapping and tracking in cavity QED open the door for feedback schemes which actively stabilize the motion of a single atom in real time. We present feedback algorithms for cooling the radial component of motion for a single atom trapped by strong coupling to single-photon fields in an optical cavity. Performance of various algorithms is studied through simulations of single-atom trajectories, with full dynamical and measurement noise included. Closed loop feedback algorithms compare favourably to open loop 'switching' analogues, demonstrating the importance of applying actual position information in real time. The high optical information rate in current experiments enables real-time tracking that approaches the standard quantum limit for broadband position measurements, suggesting that realistic active feedback schemes may reach a regime where measurement backaction appreciably alters the motional dynamics

  9. Relationship between Structural and Stress Relaxation in a Block-Copolymer Melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Amish J.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Garetz, Bruce A.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between structural relaxation on molecular length scales and macroscopic stress relaxation was explored in a disordered block-copolymer melt. Experiments show that the structural relaxation time, measured by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy is larger than the terminal stress relaxation time, measured by rheology, by factors as large as 100. We demonstrate that the structural relaxation data are dominated by the diffusion of intact micelles while the stress relaxation data are dominated by contributions due to disordered concentration fluctuations

  10. Relaxation properties in classical diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carati, A.; Benfenati, F.; Galgani, L.

    2011-06-01

    It is an old result of Bohr that, according to classical statistical mechanics, at equilibrium a system of electrons in a static magnetic field presents no magnetization. Thus a magnetization can occur only in an out of equilibrium state, such as that produced through the Foucault currents when a magnetic field is switched on. It was suggested by Bohr that, after the establishment of such a nonequilibrium state, the system of electrons would quickly relax back to equilibrium. In the present paper, we study numerically the relaxation to equilibrium in a modified Bohr model, which is mathematically equivalent to a billiard with obstacles, immersed in a magnetic field that is adiabatically switched on. We show that it is not guaranteed that equilibrium is attained within the typical time scales of microscopic dynamics. Depending on the values of the parameters, one has a relaxation either to equilibrium or to a diamagnetic (presumably metastable) state. The analogy with the relaxation properties in the Fermi Pasta Ulam problem is also pointed out.

  11. Single sources in the low-frequency gravitational wave sky: properties and time to detection by pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars; Sesana, Alberto; Taylor, Stephen R.

    2018-06-01

    We calculate the properties, occurrence rates and detection prospects of individually resolvable `single sources' in the low-frequency gravitational wave (GW) spectrum. Our simulations use the population of galaxies and massive black hole binaries from the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to comprehensive semi-analytic models of the binary merger process. Using mock pulsar timing arrays (PTA) with, for the first time, varying red-noise models, we calculate plausible detection prospects for GW single sources and the stochastic GW background (GWB). Contrary to previous results, we find that single sources are at least as detectable as the GW background. Using mock PTA, we find that these `foreground' sources (also `deterministic'/`continuous') are likely to be detected with ˜20 yr total observing baselines. Detection prospects, and indeed the overall properties of single sources, are only moderately sensitive to binary evolution parameters - namely eccentricity and environmental coupling, which can lead to differences of ˜5 yr in times to detection. Red noise has a stronger effect, roughly doubling the time to detection of the foreground between a white-noise only model (˜10-15 yr) and severe red noise (˜20-30 yr). The effect of red noise on the GWB is even stronger, suggesting that single source detections may be more robust. We find that typical signal-to-noise ratios for the foreground peak near f = 0.1 yr-1, and are much less sensitive to the continued addition of new pulsars to PTA.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  13. Time-domain single-source integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdé s, Felipe; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Single-source time-domain electric-and magnetic-field integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects are presented. Their temporal discretization is effected by using shifted piecewise polynomial temporal basis

  14. Online evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals for quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Su, Yang; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Yong; Shen, Huiping; Pu, Tao; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhao, Jiyong; Zhang, Baofu; Xu, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Online reconstruction of a time-variant quantum state from the encoding/decoding results of quantum communication is addressed by developing a method of evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals. A time-variant two-dimensional state is reconstructed on the basis of recovering its expectation value functions of three nonorthogonal projectors from a random single measurement record, which is composed from the discarded qubits of the six-state protocol. The simulated results prove that our method is robust to typical metro quantum channels. Our work extends the Fourier-based method of evolution reconstruction from the version for a regular single measurement record with equal time intervals to a unified one, which can be applied to arbitrary single measurement records. The proposed protocol of evolution reconstruction runs concurrently with the one of quantum communication, which can facilitate the online quantum tomography.

  15. Sojourn time tails in the single server queue with heavy-tailed service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Denisov, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the GI/GI/1 queue with regularly varying service requirement distribution of index -a. It is well known that, in the M/G/1 FCFS queue, the sojourn time distribution is also regularly varying, of index 1 - a, whereas in the case of LCFS or Processor Sharing, the sojourn time distribution

  16. Sojourn time tails in the single server queue with heavy-tailed service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Denisov, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the GI/GI/1 queue with regularly varying service requirement distribution of index -a. It is well known that, in the M/G/1 FCFS queue, the sojourn time distribution is also regularly varying, of index 1-a, whereas in the case of LCFS or Processor Sharing, the sojourn time distribution is

  17. Sci-Fri AM: MRI and Diagnostic Imaging - 01: Estimating the Transverse Relaxation Time of Taurine Protons in Rat Brain at 9.4 T with Optimized PRESS Sequence Timings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Marissa; Dobberthien, Brennen; Tessier, Anthony; Yahya, Atiyah [University of Alberta, University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the response of taurine (Tau) protons as a function of PRESS echo times, TE{sub 1} and TE{sub 2}, to determine two TE combinations that can be employed to estimate the T{sub 2} (transverse relaxation) value of Tau at 9.4 T. The Tau protons are involved in J-coupling interactions; therefore, the two timing combinations should result in similar signal losses due to J-coupling. Methods: Experiments were performed with a 9.4 T animal MRI scanner. Numerical calculations of the response of Tau as a function of PRESS TE{sub 1} and TE{sub 2} were calculated and two TE combinations that yield a similar area for the 3.42 ppm Tau resonance were selected as optimal. The timings were verified on a 50 mM Tau/10 mM Cr (creatine) phantom. In-vivo experiments were performed on four rats. Spectra were acquired with the timings from a voxel placed in the rat brain and Tau peak areas were fit to monoexponentially decaying functions to obtain T{sub 2} values. Results: The PRESS TE combinations selected for Tau T{sub 2} determination are (TE{sub 1}, TE{sub 2}) = (17 ms, 10 ms) and (80 ms, 70 ms); the signal yield for the two timings differs by 5 % theoretically. The average Tau T{sub 2} for the four rats was found to be 106 ms with a standard deviation of 12 ms. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that acquiring PRESS spectra with (TE{sub 1}, TE{sub 2}) = (17 ms, 10 ms) and (TE{sub 1}, TE{sub 2}) = (80 ms, 70 ms) enables T{sub 2} corrected measures of Tau to be obtained at 9.4 T.

  18. Anomalous NMR Relaxation in Cartilage Matrix Components and Native Cartilage: Fractional-Order Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L.; Li, Weiguo; Velasco, M. Pilar; Trujillo, Juan; Reiter, David A.; Morgenstern, Ashley; Spencer, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    We present a fractional-order extension of the Bloch equations to describe anomalous NMR relaxation phenomena (T1 and T2). The model has solutions in the form of Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions that generalize conventional exponential relaxation. Such functions have been shown by others to be useful for describing dielectric and viscoelastic relaxation in complex, heterogeneous materials. Here, we apply these fractional-order T1 and T2 relaxation models to experiments performed at 9.4 and 11.7 Tesla on type I collagen gels, chondroitin sulfate mixtures, and to bovine nasal cartilage (BNC), a largely isotropic and homogeneous form of cartilage. The results show that the fractional-order analysis captures important features of NMR relaxation that are typically described by multi-exponential decay models. We find that the T2 relaxation of BNC can be described in a unique way by a single fractional-order parameter (α), in contrast to the lack of uniqueness of multi-exponential fits in the realistic setting of a finite signal-to-noise ratio. No anomalous behavior of T1 was observed in BNC. In the single-component gels, for T2 measurements, increasing the concentration of the largest components of cartilage matrix, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, results in a decrease in α, reflecting a more restricted aqueous environment. The quality of the curve fits obtained using Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions are in some cases superior to those obtained using mono- and bi-exponential models. In both gels and BNC, α appears to account for microstructural complexity in the setting of an altered distribution of relaxation times. This work suggests the utility of fractional-order models to describe T2 NMR relaxation processes in biological tissues. PMID:21498095

  19. Nonlinear Relaxation in Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirone, Markus A.; de Pasquale, Ferdinando; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    We analyze the nonlinear relaxation of a complex ecosystem composed of many interacting species. The ecological system is described by generalized Lotka-Volterra equations with a multiplicative noise. The transient dynamics is studied in the framework of the mean field theory and with random interaction between the species. We focus on the statistical properties of the asymptotic behaviour of the time integral of the ith population and on the distribution of the population and of the local field.

  20. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  1. Time structure of ns duration bunches with single crystal diamond detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenas, J.A., E-mail: jose.duenas@dfa.uhu.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Ausset, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Berjillos, R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Gardes, D.; Junquera, T.; Lavergne, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Martinet, G.; Rauly, E.; Said, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Sanchez Benitez, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Semsoun, A.; Waast, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2011-06-11

    A single crystal diamond detector (SC-DD) has been used to obtain the time structure of bunches with lengths between 4 and 88 ns. This was achieved by setting an electronic chain based on a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC), which used the output of the diamond detector as the start of the time interval, and the accelerator RF as the stop. Moreover, the SC-DD not only provided the time information, but also the energy of the beam.

  2. Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...... in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance...... of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition...

  3. Single machine total completion time minimization scheduling with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Bo; Wang, Ming-Zheng; Ji, Ping

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we consider a single machine scheduling problem with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs. By the effects of time-dependent learning and deterioration, we mean that the job processing time is defined by a function of its starting time and total normal processing time of jobs in front of it in the sequence. The objective is to determine an optimal schedule so as to minimize the total completion time. This problem remains open for the case of -1 < a < 0, where a denotes the learning index; we show that an optimal schedule of the problem is V-shaped with respect to job normal processing times. Three heuristic algorithms utilising the V-shaped property are proposed, and computational experiments show that the last heuristic algorithm performs effectively and efficiently in obtaining near-optimal solutions.

  4. Stress relaxation in viscous soft spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschan, Julia; Vasudevan, Siddarth A; Boukany, Pouyan E; Somfai, Ellák; Tighe, Brian P

    2017-10-04

    We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic. We identify two distinct plateaus in the strain dependence of the relaxation time, one each in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The height of both plateaus scales as an inverse power law with the distance to jamming. By probing the time evolution of particle velocities during relaxation, we further identify a correlation between mechanical relaxation in the bulk and the degree of non-affinity in the particle velocities on the micro scale.

  5. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C.; Sherman, E.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  7. Collisional relaxation of electron tail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Masao.

    1985-05-01

    Relaxation due to the Coulomb collisions of the electron velocity distribution function with a high energy tail is investigated in detail. In the course of the relaxation, a 'saddle' point can be created in velocity space owing to upsilon -3 dependence of the deflection rate and a positive slope or a 'dip' appears in the tail direction. The time evolution of the electron tail is studied analytically. A comparison is made with numerical results by using a Fokker-Planck code. Also discussed is the kinetic instability concerned with the positive slope during the relaxation. (author)

  8. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  9. Time-gated single-photon detection module with 110 ps transition time and up to 80 MHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttafava, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.buttafava@polimi.it; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Mora, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor.

  10. Time-gated single-photon detection module with 110 ps transition time and up to 80 MHz repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttafava, Mauro; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Dalla Mora, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor

  11. A 30 ps Timing Resolution for Single Photons with Multi-pixel Burle MCP-PMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.; Benitez, J.; Coleman, J.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Mazaheri, G.; Ratcliff, B.; Schwiening, J.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    We have achieved {approx}30 psec single-photoelectron and {approx}12ps for multi-photoelectron timing resolution with a new 64 pixel Burle MCP-PMT with 10 micron microchannel holes. We have also demonstrated that this detector works in a magnetic field of 15kG, and achieved a single-photoelectron timing resolution of better than 60 psec. The study is relevant for a new focusing DIRC RICH detector for particle identification at future Colliders such as the super B-factory or ILC, and for future TOF techniques. This study shows that a highly pixilated MCP-PMT can deliver excellent timing resolution.

  12. Note: Time-gated 3D single quantum dot tracking with simultaneous spinning disk imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, M. S.; Stich, D. G.; Keller, A. M.; Phipps, M. E.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Goodwin, P. M.; Werner, J. H.; Cleyrat, C.; Lidke, D. S.; Wilson, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    We describe recent upgrades to a 3D tracking microscope to include simultaneous Nipkow spinning disk imaging and time-gated single-particle tracking (SPT). Simultaneous 3D molecular tracking and spinning disk imaging enable the visualization of cellular structures and proteins around a given fluorescently labeled target molecule. The addition of photon time-gating to the SPT hardware improves signal to noise by discriminating against Raman scattering and short-lived fluorescence. In contrast to camera-based SPT, single-photon arrival times are recorded, enabling time-resolved spectroscopy (e.g., measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and photon correlations) to be performed during single molecule/particle tracking experiments

  13. Analysis of single-photon time resolution of FBK silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, Fabio; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We characterized and analyzed an important feature of silicon photomultipliers: the single-photon time resolution (SPTR). We characterized the SPTR of new RGB (Red–Green–Blue) type Silicon Photomultipliers and SPADs produced at FBK (Trento, Italy), studying its main limiting factors. We compared time resolution of 1×1 mm 2 and 3×3 mm 2 SiPMs and a single SiPM cell (i.e. a SPAD with integrated passive-quenching), employing a mode-locked pulsed laser with 2-ps wide pulses. We estimated the contribution of front-end electronic-noise, of cell-to-cell uniformity, and intrinsic cell time-resolution. At a single-cell level, we compared the results obtained with different layouts. With a circular cell with a top metallization covering part of the edge and enhancing the signal extraction, we reached ~20 ps FWHM of time resolution

  14. Analysis of single-photon time resolution of FBK silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acerbi, Fabio, E-mail: acerbi@fbk.eu; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    We characterized and analyzed an important feature of silicon photomultipliers: the single-photon time resolution (SPTR). We characterized the SPTR of new RGB (Red–Green–Blue) type Silicon Photomultipliers and SPADs produced at FBK (Trento, Italy), studying its main limiting factors. We compared time resolution of 1×1 mm{sup 2} and 3×3 mm{sup 2} SiPMs and a single SiPM cell (i.e. a SPAD with integrated passive-quenching), employing a mode-locked pulsed laser with 2-ps wide pulses. We estimated the contribution of front-end electronic-noise, of cell-to-cell uniformity, and intrinsic cell time-resolution. At a single-cell level, we compared the results obtained with different layouts. With a circular cell with a top metallization covering part of the edge and enhancing the signal extraction, we reached ~20 ps FWHM of time resolution.

  15. Note: Time-gated 3D single quantum dot tracking with simultaneous spinning disk imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, M. S.; Stich, D. G.; Keller, A. M.; Phipps, M. E.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Goodwin, P. M.; Werner, J. H., E-mail: jwerner@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cleyrat, C.; Lidke, D. S.; Wilson, B. S. [Department of Pathology and Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We describe recent upgrades to a 3D tracking microscope to include simultaneous Nipkow spinning disk imaging and time-gated single-particle tracking (SPT). Simultaneous 3D molecular tracking and spinning disk imaging enable the visualization of cellular structures and proteins around a given fluorescently labeled target molecule. The addition of photon time-gating to the SPT hardware improves signal to noise by discriminating against Raman scattering and short-lived fluorescence. In contrast to camera-based SPT, single-photon arrival times are recorded, enabling time-resolved spectroscopy (e.g., measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and photon correlations) to be performed during single molecule/particle tracking experiments.

  16. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  17. Dielectric relaxation studies of some primary alcohols and their mixture with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Yaqub, M.

    2003-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and 1- propanol and their mixtures with water of different concentration, (0 to 100% by weight) at the temperature of 303K has been evaluated, within the frequency range of (100KHz- 100 MHz). Moreover, the viscosity mu of each alcohol and its mixture with water have been measured at this temperature. The dielectric properties have been evaluated by Hartshorn and Ward apparatus. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of aliphatic group, size and shape on the extent of hydrogen bonding and also to obtain the thermodynamic data on hydrogen bond formation in the pure liquid state and its mixture. The width of the semicircle plot determines the distribution of average relaxation time. Dielectric relaxation time in pure alcohols and their water mixture has been calculated from the respected Cole-Cole plot and dielectric data. A single relaxation time of 117.16ps has been obtained for the molecules of pure methanol, whereas, the dielectric data of prophyl alcohol which indicates the viscosity water have been measured at the temperature 303 K. The dielectric properties in distribution of relaxation time, which is in good agreement with the Davidson-cole representation. The molecules in liquid mixture within frequency range, the mixture has more than one relaxation item, leading to the shortening of main relaxation time as compared with the pure alcohol and broadening of the complex permitivity spectra. The dependence of the dielectric relaxation on composition shows a remarkable behavior. Results are discussed in the light of H-bonded molecules. (author)

  18. Single Machine Scheduling and Due Date Assignment with Past-Sequence-Dependent Setup Time and Position-Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Li Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d. It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in On4 time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in On3 time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  19. CMOS SPAD-based image sensor for single photon counting and time of flight imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Neale Arthur William

    2016-01-01

    The facility to capture the arrival of a single photon, is the fundamental limit to the detection of quantised electromagnetic radiation. An image sensor capable of capturing a picture with this ultimate optical and temporal precision is the pinnacle of photo-sensing. The creation of high spatial resolution, single photon sensitive, and time-resolved image sensors in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers numerous benefits in a wide field of applications....

  20. Experimental measure of arm stiffness during single reaching movements with a time-frequency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Piovesan, Davide; Pierobon, Alberto; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    2013-01-01

    We tested an innovative method to estimate joint stiffness and damping during multijoint unfettered arm movements. The technique employs impulsive perturbations and a time-frequency analysis to estimate the arm's mechanical properties along a reaching trajectory. Each single impulsive perturbation provides a continuous estimation on a single-reach basis, making our method ideal to investigate motor adaptation in the presence of force fields and to study the control of movement in impaired ind...

  1. Effect of Temper Condition on Stress Relaxation Behavior of an Aluminum Copper Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sumeet; Beura, Vikrant Kumar; Singh, Amit; Yadava, Manasij; Nayan, Niraj

    2018-04-01

    Deformation behavior of an Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions (solutionized and T8) is investigated using stress relaxation tests. Fundamental parameters such as the apparent and physical activation volume, strain rate sensitivity, effective stress, and exhaustion rate of mobile dislocation density are determined from single and multiple relaxation tests. It was found that dislocation-dislocation interaction controls the kinetics of plastic deformation in the solutionized sample, whereas dislocation-precipitate interaction is the overriding factor in the presence of T1 precipitates. The apparent activation volume was found to be significantly lower in the presence of T1 precipitates compared with solutionized samples. Strain rate sensitivity and effective stress were found to be higher in the presence of T1 precipitates. In addition, multiple relaxation tests showed that irrespective of microstructural features (solutes, semi-coherent precipitates), the mobile dislocation density reduces during the relaxation period. Further evidence regarding reduction in mobile dislocation density is obtained from uniaxial tensile tests carried out after stress relaxation tests, where both solutionized and T8 samples show an increase in strength. Additional discussion on relaxation strain is included to provide a complete overview regarding the time-dependent deformation behavior of the Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions.

  2. A hierarchy of functionally important relaxations within myoglobin based on solvent effects, mutations and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantsker, David; Samuni, Uri; Friedman, Joel M; Agmon, Noam

    2005-06-01

    Geminate CO rebinding in myoglobin is studied for two viscous solvents, trehalose and sol-gel (bathed in 100% glycerol) at several temperatures. Mutations in key distal hemepocket residues are used to eliminate or enhance specific relaxation modes. The time-resolved data are analyzed with a modified Agmon-Hopfield model which is capable of providing excellent fits in cases where a single relaxation mode is dominant. Using this approach, we determine the relaxation rate constants of specific functionally important modes, obtaining also their Arrhenius activation energies. We find a hierarchy of distal pocket modes controlling the rebinding kinetics. The "heme access mode" (HAM) is responsible for the major slow-down in rebinding. It is a solvent-coupled cooperative mode which restricts ligand return from the xenon cavities. Bulky side-chains, like those His64 and Trp29 (in the L29W mutant), operate like overdamped pendulums which move over and block the binding site. They may be either unslaved (His64) or moderately slaved (Trp29) to the solvent. Small side-chain relaxations, most notably of leucines, are revealed in some mutants (V68L, V68A). They are conjectured to facilitate inter-cavity ligand motion. When all relaxations are arrested (H64L in trehalose), we observe pure inhomogeneous kinetics with no temperature dependence, suggesting that proximal relaxation is not a factor on the investigated timescale.

  3. A study of pile-up in integrated time-correlated single photon counting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Jochen; Tyndall, David; Rae, Bruce R; Li, David D-U; Richardson, Justin A; Henderson, Robert K

    2013-10-01

    Recent demonstration of highly integrated, solid-state, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) systems in CMOS technology is set to provide significant increases in performance over existing bulky, expensive hardware. Arrays of single photon single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, timing channels, and signal processing can be integrated on a single silicon chip with a degree of parallelism and computational speed that is unattainable by discrete photomultiplier tube and photon counting card solutions. New multi-channel, multi-detector TCSPC sensor architectures with greatly enhanced throughput due to minimal detector transit (dead) time or timing channel dead time are now feasible. In this paper, we study the potential for future integrated, solid-state TCSPC sensors to exceed the photon pile-up limit through analytic formula and simulation. The results are validated using a 10% fill factor SPAD array and an 8-channel, 52 ps resolution time-to-digital conversion architecture with embedded lifetime estimation. It is demonstrated that pile-up insensitive acquisition is attainable at greater than 10 times the pulse repetition rate providing over 60 dB of extended dynamic range to the TCSPC technique. Our results predict future CMOS TCSPC sensors capable of live-cell transient observations in confocal scanning microscopy, improved resolution of near-infrared optical tomography systems, and fluorescence lifetime activated cell sorting.

  4. Relaxation strain measurements in cellular dislocation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.Y.; Quesnel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The conventional picture of what happens during a stress relaxation usually involves imagining the response of a single dislocation to a steadily decreasing stress. The velocity of this dislocation decreases with decreasing stress in such a way that we can measure the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity. Analysis of the data from a different viewpoint enables us to calculate the apparent activation volume for the motion of the dislocation under the assumption of thermally activated glie. Conventional thinking about stress relaxation, however, does not consider the eventual fate of this dislocation. If the stress relaxes to a low enough level, it is clear that the dislocation must stop. This is consistent with the idea that we can determine the stress dependence of the dislocation velocity from relaxation data only for those cases where the dislocation's velocity is allowed to approach zero asymptotically, in short, for those cases where the dislocation never stops. This conflict poses a dilemma for the experimentalist. In real crystals, however, obstacles impede the dislocation's progress so that those dislocations which are stopped at a given stress will probably never resume motion under the influence of the steadily declining stress present during relaxation. Thus one could envision stress relaxation as a process of exhaustion of mobile dislocations, rather than a process of decreasing dislocation velocity. Clearly both points of view have merit and in reality both mechanisms contribute to the phenomena

  5. Dynamically Switching among Bundled and Single Tickets with Time-Dependent Demand Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important market segmentation in sports and entertainment industry is the competition between customers that buy bundled and single tickets. A common selling practice is starting the selling season with bundled ticket sales and switching to selling single tickets later on. The aim of this practice is to increase the number of customers that buy bundles, which in return increases the load factor of the events with low demand. In this paper, we investigate the effect of time dependent demand on dynamic switching times from bundled to single ticket sales and the potential revenue gain over the case where the demand rate of events is assumed to be constant with time.

  6. Hyperpolarized 13C Urea Relaxation Mechanism Reveals Renal Changes in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas; Christoffer Hansen, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to assess a novel 13C radial fast spin echo golden ratio single shot method for interrogating early renal changes in the diabetic kidney, using hyperpolarized (HP) [13C,15N2]urea as a T2 relaxation based contrast bio-probe. Methods: A novel HP 13C MR contrast experiment...... saturation level and the relaxation times were observed in the healthy controls. Conclusion: HP [13C,15N2]urea apparent T2 mapping may be a useful for interrogating local renal pO2 status and renal tissue alterations....

  7. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  8. Relaxation of synchronization on complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong; Hong, Hyunsuk

    2008-07-01

    We study collective synchronization in a large number of coupled oscillators on various complex networks. In particular, we focus on the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization, which is important from the viewpoint of information transfer or the dynamics of system recovery from a perturbation. We measure the relaxation time tau that is required to establish global synchronization by varying the structural properties of the networks. It is found that the relaxation time in a strong-coupling regime (K>Kc) logarithmically increases with network size N , which is attributed to the initial random phase fluctuation given by O(N-1/2) . After elimination of the initial-phase fluctuation, the relaxation time is found to be independent of the system size; this implies that the local interaction that depends on the structural connectivity is irrelevant in the relaxation dynamics of the synchronization in the strong-coupling regime. The relaxation dynamics is analytically derived in a form independent of the system size, and it exhibits good consistency with numerical simulations. As an application, we also explore the recovery dynamics of the oscillators when perturbations enter the system.

  9. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  10. Study on the ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaomin; Huang Shengli; Xu Zizong; Wu Chong

    2001-01-01

    The ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer and their influence factors were studied. A method to depress the background, to shorten the measurement time and to increase the ratio of signal to noise was discussed. Results show that ratio of signal to noise is proportional to solid angle of detector to source and detection efficiency, and inverse proportional to electronics noise. Choose the activity of the source was important for decreasing of random coincidence counting. To use a coincidence gate and a discriminator of single photon were an effective way of increasing measurement accuracy and detection efficiency

  11. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O. A.; Wong, C. W.; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices

  12. Time delay between singly and doubly ionizing wavepackets in laser-driven helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J S; Doherty, B J S; Meharg, K J; Taylor, K T

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations of the time delay between single and double ionization of helium, obtained from full-dimensionality numerical integrations of the helium-laser Schroedinger equation. The notion of a quantum mechanical time delay is defined in terms of the interval between correlated bursts of single and double ionization. Calculations are performed at 390 and 780 nm in laser intensities that range from 2 x 10 14 to 14 x 10 14 Wcm -2 . We find results consistent with the rescattering model of double ionization but supporting its classical interpretation only at 780 nm. (letter to the editor)

  13. Multiuser underwater acoustic communication using single-element virtual time reversal mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN JingWei; WANG YiLin; WANG Lei; HUI JunYing

    2009-01-01

    Pattern time delay shift coding (PDS) scheme is introduced and combined with spread spectrum tech-nique called SS-PDS for short which is power-saving and competent for long-range underwater acous-tic networks.Single-element virtual time reversal mirror (VTRM) is presented in this paper and validated by the lake trial results.Employing single-element VTRM in multiuser communication system based on SS-PDS can separate different users' information simultaneously at master node as indicated in the simulation results.

  14. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  15. Hardware solution for continuous time-resolved burst detection of single molecules in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael; Erdmann, Rainer; Lauritsen, Kristian; Rahn, Hans-Juergen

    1998-04-01

    Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is a valuable tool for Single Molecule Detection (SMD). However, existing TCSPC systems did not support continuous data collection and processing as is desirable for applications such as SMD for e.g. DNA-sequencing in a liquid flow. First attempts at using existing instrumentation in this kind of operation mode required additional routing hardware to switch between several memory banks and were not truly continuous. We have designed a hard- and software system to perform continuous real-time TCSPC based upon a modern solid state Time to Digital Converter (TDC). Short dead times of the fully digital TDC design combined with fast Field Programmable Gay Array logic permit a continuous data throughput as high as 3 Mcounts/sec. The histogramming time may be set as short as 100 microsecond(s) . Every histogram or every single fluorescence photon can be real-time tagged at 200 ns resolution in addition to recording its arrival time relative to the excitation pulse. Continuous switching between memory banks permits concurrent histogramming and data read-out. The instrument provides a time resolution of 60 ps and up to 4096 histogram channels. The overall instrument response function in combination with a low cost picosecond diode laser and an inexpensive photomultiplier tube was found to be 180 ps and well sufficient to measure sub-nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes.

  16. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  17. Oxide-assisted crack growth in hold-time low-cycle-fatigue of single-crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Akane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive hold-time low-cycle fatigue is one of the important damage modes in Ni-based superalloy hot-gas path components. In strain controlled LCF, the compressive hold typically degrades fatigue life significantly due to creep relaxation and the resultant generation of tensile stress upon returning to zero strain. Crack initiation typically occurs on the surface, and therefore, the cracks are covered with layers of oxides. Recent finite element modeling based on experimental observations has indicated that the in-plane compressive stress in the alumina layer formed on the surface of the bond coat assists rumpling and, eventually, leads to initiation of cracks. The stress in the oxide layer continues to assist crack extension by pushing the alumina layer along the crack front during the compressive hold. In-situ measurements of the growth strains of alumina were performed using high energy synchrotron X-rays at Argonne National Lab. Specimens of single-crystal superalloys with and without aluminide coatings were statically pre-oxidized to form a layer of alumina at 1093 and 982 ∘C. For the in-situ synchrotron measurements, the specimens were heated up to the pre-oxidation temperatures with a heater. The alumina layers on both bare and coated specimens show compressive in-plane strains at both temperatures. The oxide strains on the superalloys showed dependency on temperature; on the other hand, the oxide strains in the aluminide coatings were insensitive to temperature. The magnitude of the compressive strains was larger on the superalloys than the ones on the aluminide coatings.

  18. Structural relaxation dynamics and annealing effects of sodium silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Mohamed; Piazza, Francesco; Guimbretière, Guillaume; Canizarès, Aurélien; Vaills, Yann

    2013-05-09

    Here we report high-precision measurements of structural relaxation dynamics in the glass transition range at the intermediate and short length scale for a strong sodium silicate glass during long annealing times. We evidence for the first time the heterogeneous dynamics at the intermediate range order by probing the acoustic longitudinal frequency in the GHz region by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Or, from in-situ Raman measurements, we show that relaxation is indeed homogeneous at the interatomic length scale. Our results show that the dynamics at the intermediate range order contains two distinct relaxation time scales, a fast and a slow component, differing by about a 10-fold factor below Tg and approaching to one another past the glass transition. The slow relaxation time agrees with the shear relaxation time, proving that Si-O bond breaking constitutes the primary control of structural relaxation at the intermediate range order.

  19. Excitation relaxation and structure of TPPS4 J-aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbauskas, L.; Bagdonas, S.; Dietel, W.; Rotomskis, R.

    2003-01-01

    The energy relaxation kinetics and the structure of the J-aggregates of water-soluble porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrasulphonatophenyl porphine (TPPS 4 ) were investigated in aqueous medium by means of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy. The excitation of the J-aggregates, at excitation intensities higher than ∼10 15 photons/cm 2 per pulse, results in a remarkable decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield and in the appearance of an additional, non-exponential energy relaxation channel with a decay constant that depends on the excitation intensity. This relaxation mechanism was attributed to the exciton single-singlet annihilation. The exciton lifetime in the absence of the annihilation was calculated to be ∼150 ps. Using exciton annihilation theory, the exciton migration within the J-aggregates could be characterized by determining the exciton diffusion constant (1.8±0.9) 10 -3 cm 2 /s and the hopping time (1.2±0.6) ps. Using the experimental data, the size of the J-aggregate could be evaluated and was seen to yield at least 20 TPPS 4 molecules per aggregate. It was shown by means of confocal fluorescence laser scanning microscopy that TPPS 4 does self-associate in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at acidic pH forming molecular macro-assemblies on a scale of ∼1 μm in PVA matrices

  20. Digital atom interferometer with single particle control on a discretized space-time geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Andreas; Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Belmechri, Noomen; Hild, Sebastian; Karski, Michał; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2012-06-19

    Engineering quantum particle systems, such as quantum simulators and quantum cellular automata, relies on full coherent control of quantum paths at the single particle level. Here we present an atom interferometer operating with single trapped atoms, where single particle wave packets are controlled through spin-dependent potentials. The interferometer is constructed from a sequence of discrete operations based on a set of elementary building blocks, which permit composing arbitrary interferometer geometries in a digital manner. We use this modularity to devise a space-time analogue of the well-known spin echo technique, yielding insight into decoherence mechanisms. We also demonstrate mesoscopic delocalization of single atoms with a separation-to-localization ratio exceeding 500; this result suggests their utilization beyond quantum logic applications as nano-resolution quantum probes in precision measurements, being able to measure potential gradients with precision 5 x 10(-4) in units of gravitational acceleration g.

  1. Homogeneous magnetic relaxation in iron-yttrium garnets in the vicinity of a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzyanin, I.D.; Khavronin, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation of the dynamics of homogeneous magnetization during a phase transition of the second kind in iron-yttrium garnet (IYG) single crystals of various shapes. It is shown that homogeneous relaxation significantly depends on both the magnitude of 4πchisub(st) (chisub(st) is static magnetic susceptibility) as well as on the relation between the variable field frequency (at which the investigation is carried out) and the characteristic energies. It is shown that beginning from temperatures such as 4πchisub(st) approximately 1, the characteristic dipole interaction energy becomes frequency dependent; this indicates that in this case Lorentz coupling between the dynamic susceptibility and homogeneous relaxation time is invalid. This is a principle point in investigations of homogeneous relaxation by radio-frequency techniques. The temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time and static susceptibility is determined in the exchange region. It is found that the phase transition in IYG involves anomalous phenomena which manifest in release and absorption of heat by a sample and in the appearance of additional singularities in the temperature dependence of the homogeneous relaxation time

  2. Pulsed single-photon spectrometer by frequency-to-time mapping using chirped fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex O C; Saulnier, Paul M; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J

    2017-05-29

    A fiber-integrated spectrometer for single-photon pulses outside the telecommunications wavelength range based upon frequency-to-time mapping, implemented by chromatic group delay dispersion (GDD), and precise temporally-resolved single-photon counting, is presented. A chirped fiber Bragg grating provides low-loss GDD, mapping the frequency distribution of an input pulse onto the temporal envelope of the output pulse. Time-resolved detection with fast single-photon-counting modules enables monitoring of a wavelength range from 825 nm to 835 nm with nearly uniform efficiency at 55 pm resolution (24 GHz at 830 nm). To demonstrate the versatility of this technique, spectral interference of heralded single photons and the joint spectral intensity distribution of a photon-pair source are measured. This approach to single-photon-level spectral measurements provides a route to realize applications of time-frequency quantum optics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where multiple spectral channels must be simultaneously monitored.

  3. The relaxation of plasmas with dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutov, Yu.I.; Kravchenko, A.Yu.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Various parameters of relaxing plasmas with dust particles including the electron and ion energy distributions function are numerically simulated at various parameters of the dust particles using the PIC method and taking into account the dynamics of the dust particle charge without the assumption about the equilibrium of electrons and ions. Coulomb collisions are taken into account in the framework of the method of stochastic differential equations. The relaxation of bounded plasma clouds expanding into a vacuum as well as the relaxation of a uniform plasma, in which dust particles appear at some initial time, are investigated. The obtained results show that the relaxation of plasmas can be accompanied by a deviation of the ion distribution function from equilibrium as well as a change of the mean energy of electrons and ions because of the dependence of the collection of electrons and ions by dust particles on their energy. (author)

  4. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    statements, 59 experiences were extracted. And then 9 categories--at rest after physical activities, after problem solving, fancy, bathing in the bed, situation, rest, particular time, others--were organized. 3. The musics of the relaxation; From 229 statements, 108 musics were extracted, and the 9 categories--Western classical music, semi classical music, Korean song, Korean popular classical music, song, western popular song, hymn, characteristics of music, others--were organized. In conclusion, There are some differences between Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and western concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation.

  5. Single-molecule three-color FRET with both negligible spectral overlap and long observation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghwa Lee

    Full Text Available Full understanding of complex biological interactions frequently requires multi-color detection capability in doing single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments. Existing single-molecule three-color FRET techniques, however, suffer from severe photobleaching of Alexa 488, or its alternative dyes, and have been limitedly used for kinetics studies. In this work, we developed a single-molecule three-color FRET technique based on the Cy3-Cy5-Cy7 dye trio, thus providing enhanced observation time and improved data quality. Because the absorption spectra of three fluorophores are well separated, real-time monitoring of three FRET efficiencies was possible by incorporating the alternating laser excitation (ALEX technique both in confocal microscopy and in total-internal-reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy.

  6. Single-machine common/slack due window assignment problems with linear decreasing processing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingong; Lin, Win-Chin; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chia

    2017-08-01

    This paper studies linear non-increasing processing times and the common/slack due window assignment problems on a single machine, where the actual processing time of a job is a linear non-increasing function of its starting time. The aim is to minimize the sum of the earliness cost, tardiness cost, due window location and due window size. Some optimality results are discussed for the common/slack due window assignment problems and two O(n log n) time algorithms are presented to solve the two problems. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the correctness of the corresponding algorithms.

  7. Relaxed Binaural LCMV Beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new binaural beamforming technique, which can be seen as a relaxation of the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework. The proposed method can achieve simultaneous noise reduction and exact binaural cue preservation of the target source, similar to the

  8. Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zheng-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ming; Chen, Yen-Sheng

    2006-09-15

    Anti-control of chaos of single time-scale brushless DC motors is studied in this paper. In order to analyse a variety of periodic and chaotic phenomena, we employ several numerical techniques such as phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. Anti-control of chaos can be achieved by adding an external constant term or an external periodic term.

  9. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    1996-01-01

    We address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  10. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates, and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Schutten (Marco); S.L. van de Velde (Steef); W.H.M. Zijm

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  11. Improving performance of single-path code through a time-predictable memory hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilku, Bekim; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    -predictable memory hierarchy with a prefetcher that exploits the predictability of execution traces in single-path code to speed up code execution. The new memory hierarchy reduces both the cache-miss penalty time and the cache-miss rate on the instruction cache. The benefit of the approach is demonstrated through...

  12. Real-time single-molecule observation of rolling-circle DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Hamdan, Samir M.; Jergic, Slobodan; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple technique for visualizing replication of individual DNA molecules in real time. By attaching a rolling-circle substrate to a TIRF microscope-mounted flow chamber, we are able to monitor the progression of single-DNA synthesis events and accurately measure rates and processivities

  13. Testing the Efficacy of a Scholarship Program for Single Parent, Post-Freshmen, Full Time Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…

  14. Single view reflectance capture using multiplexed scattering and time-of-flight imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shuang; Velten, Andreas; Raskar, Ramesh; Bala, Kavita; Naik, Nikhil Deepak

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of time-of-flight reflectance estimation, and demonstrates a new technique that allows a camera to rapidly acquire reflectance properties of objects from a single view-point, over relatively long distances and without encircling equipment. We measure material properties by indirectly illuminating an object by a laser source, and observing its reflected light indirectly using a time-of-flight camera. The configuration collectively acquires dense angular, but l...

  15. Pseudospectral operational matrix for numerical solution of single and multiterm time fractional diffusion equation

    OpenAIRE

    GHOLAMI, SAEID; BABOLIAN, ESMAIL; JAVIDI, MOHAMMAD

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical approach to solve single and multiterm time fractional diffusion equations. In this work, the space dimension is discretized to the Gauss$-$Lobatto points. We use the normalized Grunwald approximation for the time dimension and a pseudospectral successive integration matrix for the space dimension. This approach shows that with fewer numbers of points, we can approximate the solution with more accuracy. Some examples with numerical results in tables and fig...

  16. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  17. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  18. In-depth study of single photon time resolution for the Philips digital silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Paganoni, M.; Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Lecoq, P.

    2016-01-01

    The digital silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) has been commercialised by Philips as an innovative technology compared to analog silicon photomultiplier devices. The Philips digital SiPM, has a pair of time to digital converters (TDCs) connected to 12800 single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Detailed measurements were performed to understand the low photon time response of the Philips digital SiPM. The single photon time resolution (SPTR) of every single SPAD in a pixel consisting of 3200 SPADs was measured and an average value of 85 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) was observed. Each SPAD sends the signal to the TDC with different signal propagation time, resulting in a so called trigger network skew. This distribution of the trigger network skew for a pixel (3200 SPADs) has been measured and a variation of 50 ps FWHM was extracted. The SPTR of the whole pixel is the combination of SPAD jitter, trigger network skew, and the SPAD non-uniformity. The SPTR of a complete pixel was 103 ps FWHM at 3.3 V above breakdown voltage. Further, the effect of the crosstalk at a low photon level has been studied, with the two photon time resolution degrading if the events are a combination of detected (true) photons and crosstalk events. Finally, the time response to multiple photons was investigated.

  19. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang; Liu, Taixiang; Liao, G J; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  20. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2017-09-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.