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Sample records for single recognition site

  1. Single-stranded γPNAs for in vivo site-specific genome editing via Watson-Crick recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahal, Raman; Quijano, Elias; McNeer, Nicole A; Liu, Yanfeng; Bhunia, Dinesh C; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesco; Fields, Rachel J; Saltzman, William M; Ly, Danith H; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) facilitate gene editing by stimulating recombination of donor DNAs within genomic DNA via site-specific formation of altered helical structures that further stimulate DNA repair. However, PNAs designed for triplex formation are sequence restricted to homopurine sites. Herein we describe a novel strategy where next generation single-stranded gamma PNAs (γPNAs) containing miniPEG substitutions at the gamma position can target genomic DNA in mouse bone marrow at mixed-sequence sites to induce targeted gene editing. In addition to enhanced binding, γPNAs confer increased solubility and improved formulation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery. Single-stranded γPNAs induce targeted gene editing at frequencies of 0.8% in mouse bone marrow cells treated ex vivo and 0.1% in vivo via IV injection, without detectable toxicity. These results suggest that γPNAs may provide a new tool for induced gene editing based on Watson-Crick recognition without sequence restriction.

  2. LIBRA: LIgand Binding site Recognition Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Le Viet; Caprari, Silvia; Bizai, Massimiliano; Toti, Daniele; Polticelli, Fabio

    2015-12-15

    In recent years, structural genomics and ab initio molecular modeling activities are leading to the availability of a large number of structural models of proteins whose biochemical function is not known. The aim of this study was the development of a novel software tool that, given a protein's structural model, predicts the presence and identity of active sites and/or ligand binding sites. The algorithm implemented by ligand binding site recognition application (LIBRA) is based on a graph theory approach to find the largest subset of similar residues between an input protein and a collection of known functional sites. The algorithm makes use of two predefined databases for active sites and ligand binding sites, respectively, derived from the Catalytic Site Atlas and the Protein Data Bank. Tests indicate that LIBRA is able to identify the correct binding/active site in 90% of the cases analyzed, 90% of which feature the identified site as ranking first. As far as ligand binding site recognition is concerned, LIBRA outperforms other structure-based ligand binding sites detection tools with which it has been compared. The application, developed in Java SE 7 with a Swing GUI embedding a JMol applet, can be run on any OS equipped with a suitable Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and is available at the following URL: http://www.computationalbiology.it/software/LIBRAv1.zip. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Recognition of functional sites in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman-Peleg, Alexandra; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

    2004-06-04

    Recognition of regions on the surface of one protein, that are similar to a binding site of another is crucial for the prediction of molecular interactions and for functional classifications. We first describe a novel method, SiteEngine, that assumes no sequence or fold similarities and is able to recognize proteins that have similar binding sites and may perform similar functions. We achieve high efficiency and speed by introducing a low-resolution surface representation via chemically important surface points, by hashing triangles of physico-chemical properties and by application of hierarchical scoring schemes for a thorough exploration of global and local similarities. We proceed to rigorously apply this method to functional site recognition in three possible ways: first, we search a given functional site on a large set of complete protein structures. Second, a potential functional site on a protein of interest is compared with known binding sites, to recognize similar features. Third, a complete protein structure is searched for the presence of an a priori unknown functional site, similar to known sites. Our method is robust and efficient enough to allow computationally demanding applications such as the first and the third. From the biological standpoint, the first application may identify secondary binding sites of drugs that may lead to side-effects. The third application finds new potential sites on the protein that may provide targets for drug design. Each of the three applications may aid in assigning a function and in classification of binding patterns. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each type of search, provide examples of large-scale searches of the entire Protein Data Base and make functional predictions.

  4. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2001-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...... at the initiation site of transcription in both types of promoters than previously thought. When tested on the entire B. subtilis genome, the model predicts that approximately half of the sigma (A) recognition sites are of the extended type. Some of the response-regulator aspartate phosphatases were among...

  5. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  6. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgett, Steven E; Hernandez, Jonathan M; Morton, Connor A; Ross, Sharona B; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2009-02-01

    The journey from conventional "open" operations to truly "minimally invasive" operations naturally includes progression from operations involving multiple trocars and multiple incisions to operations involving access through the umbilicus alone. Laparoscopic operations through the umbilicus alone, laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS), offer improved cosmesis and hopes for less pain and improved recovery. This study was undertaken to evaluate our initial experience with LESS cholecystectomy and to compare our initial experience to concurrent outcomes with more conventional multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients referred for cholecystectomy over a 6-month period were offered LESS. Outcomes, including blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of stay were recorded. Outcomes with our first LESS cholecystectomies were compared to an uncontrolled group of concurrent patients undergoing multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the same hospital by the same surgeon. Twenty-nine patients of median age 50 years undergoing LESS cholecystectomy from November 2007 until May 2008 were compared to 29* patients, median age 48 years, undergoing standard multiport, multiple-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy over the same time period. Median operative time for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy was 72 min and was not different from that of patients undergoing multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.81). Median length of hospital stay was 1.0 day for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy and was not different from patients undergoing standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.46). Operative estimated blood loss was less than 100 cc for all patients. No patients undergoing attempted LESS cholecystectomy had conversions to "open" operations; two patients had an additional trocar(s) placed distant from the umbilicus to aid in exposure. Three patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy had

  8. Automatic Blastomere Recognition from a Single Embryo Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of blastomeres of human day 3 embryos is one of the most important criteria for evaluating embryo viability. However, due to the transparency and overlap of blastomeres, it is a challenge to recognize blastomeres automatically using a single embryo image. This study proposes an approach based on least square curve fitting (LSCF for automatic blastomere recognition from a single image. First, combining edge detection, deletion of multiple connected points, and dilation and erosion, an effective preprocessing method was designed to obtain part of blastomere edges that were singly connected. Next, an automatic recognition method for blastomeres was proposed using least square circle fitting. This algorithm was tested on 381 embryo microscopic images obtained from the eight-cell period, and the results were compared with those provided by experts. Embryos were recognized with a 0 error rate occupancy of 21.59%, and the ratio of embryos in which the false recognition number was less than or equal to 2 was 83.16%. This experiment demonstrated that our method could efficiently and rapidly recognize the number of blastomeres from a single embryo image without the need to reconstruct the three-dimensional model of the blastomeres first; this method is simple and efficient.

  9. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalysis on singly dispersed bimetallic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Nguyen, Luan; Liang, Jin-Xia; Shan, Junjun; Liu, Jingyue; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Patlolla, Anitha; Huang, Weixin; Li, Jun; Tao, Franklin

    2015-08-01

    A catalytic site typically consists of one or more atoms of a catalyst surface that arrange into a configuration offering a specific electronic structure for adsorbing or dissociating reactant molecules. The catalytic activity of adjacent bimetallic sites of metallic nanoparticles has been studied previously. An isolated bimetallic site supported on a non-metallic surface could exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance owing to the cationic state of the singly dispersed bimetallic site and the minimized choices of binding configurations of a reactant molecule compared with continuously packed bimetallic sites. Here we report that isolated Rh1Co3 bimetallic sites exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance in reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide at low temperature, resulting from strong adsorption of two nitric oxide molecules and a nitrous oxide intermediate on Rh1Co3 sites and following a low-barrier pathway dissociation to dinitrogen and an oxygen atom. This observation suggests a method to develop catalysts with high selectivity.

  11. Fast recognition of single molecules based on single-event photon statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangli; Huang Tao; Liu Yuan; Wang Jun; Zhang Guofeng; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2007-01-01

    Mandel's Q parameter, which is determined from single-event photon statistics, provides an alternative way to recognize single molecules with fluorescence detection, other than the second-order correlation function. It is shown that the Q parameter of an assumed ideal double-molecule fluorescence with the same average photon number as that of the sample fluorescence can act as the criterion for single-molecule recognition. The influence of signal-to-background ratio and the error estimates for photon statistics are also presented. We have applied this method to ascertain single Cy5 dye molecules within hundreds of milliseconds

  12. Simple test system for single molecule recognition force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riener, Christian K.; Stroh, Cordula M.; Ebner, Andreas; Klampfl, Christian; Gall, Alex A.; Romanin, Christoph; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    2003-01-01

    We have established an easy-to-use test system for detecting receptor-ligand interactions on the single molecule level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this, avidin-biotin, probably the best characterized receptor-ligand pair, was chosen. AFM sensors were prepared containing tethered biotin molecules at sufficiently low surface concentrations appropriate for single molecule studies. A biotin tether, consisting of a 6 nm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and a functional succinimide group at the other end, was newly synthesized and covalently coupled to amine-functionalized AFM tips. In particular, PEG 800 diamine was glutarylated, the mono-adduct NH 2 -PEG-COOH was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and reacted with biotin succinimidylester to give biotin-PEG-COOH which was then activated as N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester to give the biotin-PEG-NHS conjugate which was coupled to the aminofunctionalized AFM tip. The motional freedom provided by PEG allows for free rotation of the biotin molecule on the AFM sensor and for specific binding to avidin which had been adsorbed to mica surfaces via electrostatic interactions. Specific avidin-biotin recognition events were discriminated from nonspecific tip-mica adhesion by their typical unbinding force (∼40 pN at 1.4 nN/s loading rate), unbinding length (<13 nm), the characteristic nonlinear force-distance relation of the PEG linker, and by specific block with excess of free d-biotin. The convenience of the test system allowed to evaluate, and compare, different methods and conditions of tip aminofunctionalization with respect to specific binding and nonspecific adhesion. It is concluded that this system is well suited as calibration or start-up kit for single molecule recognition force microscopy

  13. Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Clavijo, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Sotelo, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon's ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena.. PMID:22557719

  14. Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanchez-Salas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon′s ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena..

  15. Further details of a hypothesis for the initiation of genetic recombination from recognition sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, P [Queen Elizabeth College, London (G.B.)

    1982-01-01

    Consideration of the initiation of genetic recombination from fixed sites recognised by an initiation complex, has provided more details of the envisaged mechanism and implications of a recent hypothesis. It has been shown that the hypothesis allows for more than one recombinogenic-event to result from a single binding of the recombination initiation complex to a recognition site in a DNA duplex. This capacity can explain data from fungal systems which are apparently inconsistent with the Meselson-Radding model of genetic recombination with respect to the positional relationship between tracts of hybrid DNA and sites of crossing-over. A mechanism for conversion, involving hybrid DNA formation, but without mismatch correction has also been proposed on the basis of this capacity. It is suggested that the hypothesis may apply generally to genetic recombination, in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes.

  16. Laparoendoscopic single site surgery in urology: A single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind P Ganpule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze our experience of 87 cases with single port surgery, which is also known as laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS. Materials and Methods: Case records of all LESS procedures performed between December 2007 and June 2010 were analysed. The procedures performed were donor nephrectomy (n=45, simple nephrectomy (n=27, radical nephrectomy (n=5, pyeloplasty (n=9, and ureteroneocystostomy (n=1. Parameters analysed were operating room (OR time, estimated blood loss (EBL, visual analogue score (VAS, and complications in all patients undergoing LESS procedure and additionally, warm ischaemia time (WIT and graft outcome in patients undergoing LESS donor nephrectomy. In reconstructive procedures, the functional assessment was performed with a diuretic renogram at 6 months. Results: In LESS donor nephrectomy, the mean WIT was 6.9 ± 1.9 min. Mean serum creatinine in recipients at 1 month was 0.96 ± 0.21 mg%. We encountered one instance each of renal artery injury, renal vein injury, large bowel injury, minor cortical laceration at the upper pole and two instances of diaphragmatic injury. In LESS simple nephrectomy, the average OR time was 148.7 ± 52.2 min and hospital stay was 3.7 ± 1.2 days. There was one instance of large bowel injury during specimen retrieval. In LESS radical nephrectomy, the average OR time was 202.5 ± 35.7 min and average hospital stay was 4.2 ± 1.3 days. 6 patients of LESS pyeloplasty completed follow up with a diuretic renogram showing a good drainage. LESS ureteroneocystostomy could also be performed successfully without any complications. Conclusion: LESS surgery can be accomplished safely in nephrectomy and reconstructive procedures such as pyeloplasty and ureteroneocystostomy with equivalent outcomes as standard laparoscopy and with added benefits of cosmesis and quicker convalescence. LESS donor nephrectomy is a technically feasible procedure; current status of procedure needs to be proved with

  17. Analysis and recognition of 5 ' UTR intron splice sites in human pre-mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, E.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of splice sites in non-coding regions of genes is one of the most challenging aspects of gene structure recognition. We perform a rigorous analysis of such splice sites embedded in human 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), and investigate correlations between this class of splice sites and...

  18. Mutational analysis of Kex2 recognition sites and a disulfide bond in tannase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Takuya; Otsuka, Motohiro; Mizuno, Toshiyuki; Shiono, Yoshihito

    2017-01-22

    Aspergillus oryzae tannase (AoTanA), which contains two Kex2 recognition sites at positions Arg311 and Arg316, consists of two subunits that are generated by the cleavage of tannase gene product by the Kex2 protease. Based on the crystal structure of feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoFaeB), which has been classified as a member of the fungal tannase family, the catalytic triad residues of AoTanA are predicted to be Ser195, Asp455, and His501, with the serine and histidine residues brought together by a disulfide bond of the neighboring cysteines, Cys194 and Cys502. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the Kex2 recognition sites and disulfide bond between the neighboring cysteines in AoTanA. We constructed a double variant (R311A/R316A), a seven amino-acid deletion variant of region Lys310-Arg316 (ΔKR), and two single variants (C194A and C502A). While the R311A/R316A variant exhibited the two bands similar to wild type by SDS-PAGE after treatment with endoglycosidase H, the ΔKR variant exhibited only one band. R311A/R316A variation had no effect on tannase activity and stability. Meanwhile, the ΔKR variant exhibited higher activity compared to the wild-type. The activities of the C194A and C502A variants decreased considerably (<0.24% of the wild-type) toward methyl gallate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tree Hazards Recognition and Reduction in Recreation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Defective trees are potential hazards to people and property in recreation areas. Most reported tree failures within recreation sites in the Rocky Mountain Region occur in lodgepole pine. Defective root systems account for the greatest percentage of failures. External indicators of defects are used to identify trees that may fail. Some tree species, particularly aspen...

  20. The Impact of Mutual Recognition: Inbuilt Limits and Domestic Responses to the Single Market

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S.

    2002-01-01

    What have been the consequences of integrating the single market via mutual recognition? Did competitive deregulation result? Or were its implications less significant than expected? In this paper I analyse two previously highly regulated service sectors, insurance and road haulage, and study the impact of European policies in Germany and France. I find that the Council instituted mutual recognition in a restrictive way. This limits its impact on member states, which is moreover mediated by n...

  1. Molecular architecture of protein-RNA recognition sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Amita; C, Nithin; Pilla, Smita P; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The molecular architecture of protein-RNA interfaces are analyzed using a non-redundant dataset of 152 protein-RNA complexes. We find that an average protein-RNA interface is smaller than an average protein-DNA interface but larger than an average protein-protein interface. Among the different classes of protein-RNA complexes, interfaces with tRNA are the largest, while the interfaces with the single-stranded RNA are the smallest. Significantly, RNA contributes more to the interface area than its partner protein. Moreover, unlike protein-protein interfaces where the side chain contributes less to the interface area compared to the main chain, the main chain and side chain contributions flipped in protein-RNA interfaces. We find that the protein surface in contact with the RNA in protein-RNA complexes is better packed than that in contact with the DNA in protein-DNA complexes, but loosely packed than that in contact with the protein in protein-protein complexes. Shape complementarity and electrostatic potential are the two major factors that determine the specificity of the protein-RNA interaction. We find that the H-bond density at the protein-RNA interfaces is similar with that of protein-DNA interfaces but higher than the protein-protein interfaces. Unlike protein-DNA interfaces where the deoxyribose has little role in intermolecular H-bonds, due to the presence of an oxygen atom at the 2' position, the ribose in RNA plays significant role in protein-RNA H-bonds. We find that besides H-bonds, salt bridges and stacking interactions also play significant role in stabilizing protein-nucleic acids interfaces; however, their contribution at the protein-protein interfaces is insignificant.

  2. Biochemical study of multiple drug recognition sites on central benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifiletti, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor complex of mammalian brain possesses recognition sites which mediate (at least in part) the pharmacologic actions of the 1,4-benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Evidence is provided suggesting the existence of least seven distinct drug recognition sites on this complex. Interactions between the various recognition sites have been explored using radioligand binding techniques. This information is utilized to provide a comprehensive scheme for characterizing receptor-active drugs on an anxiolytic-anticonvulsant/proconvulsant continuum using radioligand binding techniques, as well as a comprehensive program for identifying potential endogenous receptor-active substances. Further evidence is provided here supporting the notion of benzodiazepine recognition site heterogeneity. Classical 1,4-benzodiazepines do not appear to differentiate two populations of benzodiazepine receptors in an equilibrium sense, but appear to do so in a kinetic sense. An apparent physical separation of the two receptor subtypes can be achieved by differential solubilization. The benzodiazepine binding subunit can be identified by photoaffinity labeling with the benzodiazepine agonist (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepan. Conditions for reproducible partial proteolytic mapping of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeled receptors are established. From these maps, it is concluded that there are probably no major differences in the primary sequence of the benzodiazepine binding subunit in various regions of the rat central nervous system.

  3. A single-system model predicts recognition memory and repetition priming in amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher J; Kessels, Roy P C; Wester, Arie J; Shanks, David R

    2014-08-13

    We challenge the claim that there are distinct neural systems for explicit and implicit memory by demonstrating that a formal single-system model predicts the pattern of recognition memory (explicit) and repetition priming (implicit) in amnesia. In the current investigation, human participants with amnesia categorized pictures of objects at study and then, at test, identified fragmented versions of studied (old) and nonstudied (new) objects (providing a measure of priming), and made a recognition memory judgment (old vs new) for each object. Numerous results in the amnesic patients were predicted in advance by the single-system model, as follows: (1) deficits in recognition memory and priming were evident relative to a control group; (2) items judged as old were identified at greater levels of fragmentation than items judged new, regardless of whether the items were actually old or new; and (3) the magnitude of the priming effect (the identification advantage for old vs new items) overall was greater than that of items judged new. Model evidence measures also favored the single-system model over two formal multiple-systems models. The findings support the single-system model, which explains the pattern of recognition and priming in amnesia primarily as a reduction in the strength of a single dimension of memory strength, rather than a selective explicit memory system deficit. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410963-12$15.00/0.

  4. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  5. Single prolonged stress impairs social and object novelty recognition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Andrew L; Fitzpatrick, Chris J; Perrine, Shane A

    2013-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event and manifests as re-experiencing, arousal, avoidance, and negative cognition/mood symptoms. Avoidant symptoms, as well as the newly defined negative cognitions/mood, are a serious complication leading to diminished interest in once important or positive activities, such as social interaction; however, the basis of these symptoms remains poorly understood. PTSD patients also exhibit impaired object and social recognition, which may underlie the avoidance and symptoms of negative cognition, such as social estrangement or diminished interest in activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that single prolonged stress (SPS), models PTSD phenotypes, including impairments in learning and memory. Therefore, it was hypothesized that SPS would impair social and object recognition memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to SPS then tested in the social choice test (SCT) or novel object recognition test (NOR). These tests measure recognition of novelty over familiarity, a natural preference of rodents. Results show that SPS impaired preference for both social and object novelty. In addition, SPS impairment in social recognition may be caused by impaired behavioral flexibility, or an inability to shift behavior during the SCT. These results demonstrate that traumatic stress can impair social and object recognition memory, which may underlie certain avoidant symptoms or negative cognition in PTSD and be related to impaired behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TU-FG-209-12: Treatment Site and View Recognition in X-Ray Images with Hierarchical Multiclass Recognition Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, X; Mazur, T; Yang, D [Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate an approach of automatically recognizing anatomical sites and imaging views (the orientation of the image acquisition) in 2D X-ray images. Methods: A hierarchical (binary tree) multiclass recognition model was developed to recognize the treatment sites and views in x-ray images. From top to bottom of the tree, the treatment sites are grouped hierarchically from more general to more specific. Each node in the hierarchical model was designed to assign images to one of two categories of anatomical sites. The binary image classification function of each node in the hierarchical model is implemented by using a PCA transformation and a support vector machine (SVM) model. The optimal PCA transformation matrices and SVM models are obtained by learning from a set of sample images. Alternatives of the hierarchical model were developed to support three scenarios of site recognition that may happen in radiotherapy clinics, including two or one X-ray images with or without view information. The performance of the approach was tested with images of 120 patients from six treatment sites – brain, head-neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis – with 20 patients per site and two views (AP and RT) per patient. Results: Given two images in known orthogonal views (AP and RT), the hierarchical model achieved a 99% average F1 score to recognize the six sites. Site specific view recognition models have 100 percent accuracy. The computation time to process a new patient case (preprocessing, site and view recognition) is 0.02 seconds. Conclusion: The proposed hierarchical model of site and view recognition is effective and computationally efficient. It could be useful to automatically and independently confirm the treatment sites and views in daily setup x-ray 2D images. It could also be applied to guide subsequent image processing tasks, e.g. site and view dependent contrast enhancement and image registration. The senior author received research grants from View

  7. TU-FG-209-12: Treatment Site and View Recognition in X-Ray Images with Hierarchical Multiclass Recognition Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, X; Mazur, T; Yang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate an approach of automatically recognizing anatomical sites and imaging views (the orientation of the image acquisition) in 2D X-ray images. Methods: A hierarchical (binary tree) multiclass recognition model was developed to recognize the treatment sites and views in x-ray images. From top to bottom of the tree, the treatment sites are grouped hierarchically from more general to more specific. Each node in the hierarchical model was designed to assign images to one of two categories of anatomical sites. The binary image classification function of each node in the hierarchical model is implemented by using a PCA transformation and a support vector machine (SVM) model. The optimal PCA transformation matrices and SVM models are obtained by learning from a set of sample images. Alternatives of the hierarchical model were developed to support three scenarios of site recognition that may happen in radiotherapy clinics, including two or one X-ray images with or without view information. The performance of the approach was tested with images of 120 patients from six treatment sites – brain, head-neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis – with 20 patients per site and two views (AP and RT) per patient. Results: Given two images in known orthogonal views (AP and RT), the hierarchical model achieved a 99% average F1 score to recognize the six sites. Site specific view recognition models have 100 percent accuracy. The computation time to process a new patient case (preprocessing, site and view recognition) is 0.02 seconds. Conclusion: The proposed hierarchical model of site and view recognition is effective and computationally efficient. It could be useful to automatically and independently confirm the treatment sites and views in daily setup x-ray 2D images. It could also be applied to guide subsequent image processing tasks, e.g. site and view dependent contrast enhancement and image registration. The senior author received research grants from View

  8. Computational Recognition of RNA Splice Sites by Exact Algorithms for the Quadratic Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Fischer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental problem of bioinformatics is the computational recognition of DNA and RNA binding sites. Given a set of short DNA or RNA sequences of equal length such as transcription factor binding sites or RNA splice sites, the task is to learn a pattern from this set that allows the recognition of similar sites in another set of DNA or RNA sequences. Permuted Markov (PM models and permuted variable length Markov (PVLM models are two powerful models for this task, but the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model is NP-hard. While the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model of order one is equivalent to the traveling salesman problem (TSP, the problem of finding an optimal PM model or PVLM model of order two is equivalent to the quadratic TSP (QTSP. Several exact algorithms exist for solving the QTSP, but it is unclear if these algorithms are capable of solving QTSP instances resulting from RNA splice sites of at least 150 base pairs in a reasonable time frame. Here, we investigate the performance of three exact algorithms for solving the QTSP for ten datasets of splice acceptor sites and splice donor sites of five different species and find that one of these algorithms is capable of solving QTSP instances of up to 200 base pairs with a running time of less than two days.

  9. Molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy: intermolecular electron tunneling for single-molecule recognition and electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of molecular tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Molecular tips offer many advantages: first is their ability to perform chemically selective imaging because of chemical interactions between the sample and the molecular tip, thus improving a major drawback of conventional STM. Rational design of the molecular tip allows sophisticated chemical recognition; e.g., chiral recognition and selective visualization of atomic defects in carbon nanotubes. Another advantage is that they provide a unique method to quantify electron transfer between single molecules. Understanding such electron transfer is mandatory for the realization of molecular electronics.

  10. Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, V.K.K

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k) for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9 x108 and 2 x108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  11. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K. K. Upadhyayula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9×108 and 2×108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  12. Robotic-assisted single-port donor nephrectomy using the da Vinci single-site platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMattina, John C; Alvarez-Casas, Josue; Lu, Irene; Powell, Jessica M; Sultan, Samuel; Phelan, Michael W; Barth, Rolf N

    2018-02-01

    Although single-port donor nephrectomy offers improved cosmetic outcomes, technical challenges have limited its application to selected centers. Our center has performed over 400 single-port donor nephrectomies. The da Vinci single-site robotic platform was utilized in an effort to overcome the steric, visualization, ergonomic, and other technical limitations associated with the single-port approach. Food and Drug Administration device exemption was obtained. Selection criteria for kidney donation included body mass index da Vinci single-site platform. Our experience supported the safety of this approach but found that the technology added cost and complexity without tangible benefit. Development of articulating instruments, energy, and stapling devices will be necessary for increased application of robotic single-site surgery for donor nephrectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Unified Probabilistic Models for Face Recognition from a Single Example Image per Person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Liao; Li Shen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique of unified probabilistic models for face recognition from only one single example image per person. The unified models, trained on an obtained training set with multiple samples per person, are used to recognize facial images from another disjoint database with a single sample per person. Variations between facial images are modeled as two unified probabilistic models: within-class variations and between-class variations. Gaussian Mixture Models are used to approximate the distributions of the two variations and exploit a classifier combination method to improve the performance. Extensive experimental results on the ORL face database and the authors' database (the ICT-JDL database) including totally 1,750facial images of 350 individuals demonstrate that the proposed technique, compared with traditional eigenface method and some well-known traditional algorithms, is a significantly more effective and robust approach for face recognition.

  14. Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Fedosova, Natalya U; Berglund, Lars

    2005-01-01

    of the ligand. Each isolated fragment of IF was tested for the binding to the specific receptor cubilin in the presence or absence of Cbl. Neither apo nor holo forms of IF(20) and IF(30) were recognized by the receptor. When two fragments were mixed and incubated with Cbl, they associated into a stable complex......; however, efficient retention of the ligand required the presence of both fragments. Detailed schemes of the interaction of Cbl with IF(50) and with IF(30) and IF(20) are presented, where the sequential attachment of Cbl to the IF(20) and IF(30) domains plays the key role in recognition and retention......, IF(30+20).Cbl, which bound to cubilin as well as the noncleaved IF(50).Cbl complex. We suggest that formation of the cubilin recognition site on IF is caused by assembly of two distant domains, which allows the saturated protein to be recognized by the receptor. The obtained parameters for ligand...

  15. A microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.; Gould, J.J.; Imossi, R.; Kopp, J.K.; Love, W.A.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Kramer, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and bench marked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTRAN compiler including assembler, linker and library. The intention of this work is to assemble a large number of these single board computers in a parallel FASTBUS environment to act as an on-line and off-line filter for the raw data from MPS II and ISABELLE experiments. (orig.)

  16. Early recognition is important when multiple magnets masquerade as a single chain after foreign body ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriel August

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ingestions of multiple magnets can lead to serious damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, these foreign bodies can take deceptive shapes such as single chains which may mislead clinicians. We report the case of a ten-year-old boy who swallowed 33 magnets, the most yet reported, which took on the appearance of a single loop in the stomach, while actually being located in the stomach, small bowel, and colon. Early recognition and prompt intervention are necessary to avoid complications of this foreign body misadventure.

  17. Microprocessor-based single board computer for high energy physics event pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.; Gould, J.J.; Imossi, R.; Kopp, J.K.; Love, W.A.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Kramer, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A single board MC 68000 based computer has been assembled and bench marked against the CDC 7600 running portions of the pattern recognition code used at the MPS. This computer has a floating coprocessor to achieve throughputs equivalent to several percent that of the 7600. A major part of this work was the construction of a FORTRAN compiler including assembler, linker and library. The intention of this work is to assemble a large number of these single board computers in a parallel FASTBUS environment to act as an on-line and off-line filter for the raw data from MPS II and ISABELLE experiments

  18. On multi-site damage identification using single-site training data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthorpe, R. J.; Manson, G.; Worden, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for developing multi-site damage location systems for engineering structures that can be trained using single-site damaged state data only. The methodology involves training a sequence of binary classifiers based upon single-site damage data and combining the developed classifiers into a robust multi-class damage locator. In this way, the multi-site damage identification problem may be decomposed into a sequence of binary decisions. In this paper Support Vector Classifiers are adopted as the means of making these binary decisions. The proposed methodology represents an advancement on the state of the art in the field of multi-site damage identification which require either: (1) full damaged state data from single- and multi-site damage cases or (2) the development of a physics-based model to make multi-site model predictions. The potential benefit of the proposed methodology is that a significantly reduced number of recorded damage states may be required in order to train a multi-site damage locator without recourse to physics-based model predictions. In this paper it is first demonstrated that Support Vector Classification represents an appropriate approach to the multi-site damage location problem, with methods for combining binary classifiers discussed. Next, the proposed methodology is demonstrated and evaluated through application to a real engineering structure - a Piper Tomahawk trainer aircraft wing - with its performance compared to classifiers trained using the full damaged-state dataset.

  19. Conformational Smear Characterization and Binning of Single-Molecule Conductance Measurements for Enhanced Molecular Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshoj, Lee E; Afsari, Sepideh; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-11-01

    Electronic conduction or charge transport through single molecules depends primarily on molecular structure and anchoring groups and forms the basis for a wide range of studies from molecular electronics to DNA sequencing. Several high-throughput nanoelectronic methods such as mechanical break junctions, nanopores, conductive atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling break junctions, and static nanoscale electrodes are often used for measuring single-molecule conductance. In these measurements, "smearing" due to conformational changes and other entropic factors leads to large variances in the observed molecular conductance, especially in individual measurements. Here, we show a method for characterizing smear in single-molecule conductance measurements and demonstrate how binning measurements according to smear can significantly enhance the use of individual conductance measurements for molecular recognition. Using quantum point contact measurements on single nucleotides within DNA macromolecules, we demonstrate that the distance over which molecular junctions are maintained is a measure of smear, and the resulting variance in unbiased single measurements depends on this smear parameter. Our ability to identify individual DNA nucleotides at 20× coverage increases from 81.3% accuracy without smear analysis to 93.9% with smear characterization and binning (SCRIB). Furthermore, merely 7 conductance measurements (7× coverage) are needed to achieve 97.8% accuracy for DNA nucleotide recognition when only low molecular smear measurements are used, which represents a significant improvement over contemporary sequencing methods. These results have important implications in a broad range of molecular electronics applications from designing robust molecular switches to nanoelectronic DNA sequencing.

  20. H-2 restriction: Independent recognition of H-2 and foreign antigen by a single receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F.; Zacharchuk, Charles M.; Shin, Hyun S.

    1980-01-01

    We describe two situations in which the recognition of hapten can compensate for the lack of recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products in hapten-specific, H-2 restricted, T lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. First, we show that although recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products is essential for the lysis of target cells bearing a low hapten density, significant hapten-specific lysis of H-2 inappropriate target cells is observed at high levels of target cell derivatization. Secondly, we show that hapten-conjugated anti-H-2 antibody inhibits cytolysis poorly even though its binding to target cell H-2 antigens is equivalent to that of underivatized antibody. These results suggest that hapten and H-2 are recognized independently and are therefore inconsistent with the altered-self model. Although our data do not exclude the dual-recognition model, we prefer to interpret them within the framework of a single-receptor model in which hapten and H-2 are recognized independently by receptors of identical idiotype on the T cell. We postulate that the affinity of these receptors for the relevant H-2 gene product is low enough so that the T cell is not activated by encounters with normal-self cells expressing that H-2 gene product. However, when self cells express in addition a foreign antigen that can also be recognized by the same receptor, then the force of T cell-target cell interaction may be increased sufficiently to activate T cell effector function. PMID:6966404

  1. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F.; Govoni, S.; Rius, R.A.; Spano, P.F.; Trabucchi, M.

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  3. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F; Govoni, S; Rius, R A; Spano, P F; Trabucchi, M

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  4. Single-Molecule View of Small RNA-Guided Target Search and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globyte, Viktorija; Kim, Sung Hyun; Joo, Chirlmin

    2018-05-20

    Most everyday processes in life involve a necessity for an entity to locate its target. On a cellular level, many proteins have to find their target to perform their function. From gene-expression regulation to DNA repair to host defense, numerous nucleic acid-interacting proteins use distinct target search mechanisms. Several proteins achieve that with the help of short RNA strands known as guides. This review focuses on single-molecule advances studying the target search and recognition mechanism of Argonaute and CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems. We discuss different steps involved in search and recognition, from the initial complex prearrangement into the target-search competent state to the final proofreading steps. We focus on target search mechanisms that range from weak interactions, to one- and three-dimensional diffusion, to conformational proofreading. We compare the mechanisms of Argonaute and CRISPR with a well-studied target search system, RecA.

  5. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  6. Effect of the bases flanking an abasic site on the recognition of nucleobase by amiloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Arivazhagan; Zhao, Chunxia; Rajendar, Burki; Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Sato, Yusuke; Nishizawa, Seiichi; Teramae, Norio

    2010-06-01

    We explain here the various non-covalent interactions which are responsible for the different binding modes of a small ligand with DNA. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods was used. The interaction of amiloride with thymine was found to depend on the bases flanking the AP site and different binding modes were observed for different flanking bases. Molecular modeling, absorption studies and binding constant measurements support for the different binding patterns. The flanking base dependent recognition of AP site phosphates was investigated by (31)P NMR experiments. The thermodynamics of the ligand-nucleotide interaction was demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The emission behavior of amiloride was found to depend on the bases flanking the AP site. Amiloride photophysics in the context of AP-site containing DNA is investigated by time-dependent density functional theory. Flanking bases affect the ground and excited electronic states of amiloride when binding to AP site, which causes flanking base-dependent fluorescence signaling. The various noncovalent interactions have been well characterized for the determination of nucleic acid structure and dynamics, and protein-DNA interactions. However, these are not clear for the DNA-small molecule interactions and we believe that our studies will bring a new insight into such phenomena. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-molecule spectroscopy of amino acids and peptides by recognition tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanan; Ashcroft, Brian; Zhang, Peiming; Liu, Hao; Sen, Suman; Song, Weisi; Im, Jongone; Gyarfas, Brett; Manna, Saikat; Biswas, Sovan; Borges, Chad; Lindsay, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    The human proteome has millions of protein variants due to alternative RNA splicing and post-translational modifications, and variants that are related to diseases are frequently present in minute concentrations. For DNA and RNA, low concentrations can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction, but there is no such reaction for proteins. Therefore, the development of single-molecule protein sequencing is a critical step in the search for protein biomarkers. Here, we show that single amino acids can be identified by trapping the molecules between two electrodes that are coated with a layer of recognition molecules, then measuring the electron tunnelling current across the junction. A given molecule can bind in more than one way in the junction, and we therefore use a machine-learning algorithm to distinguish between the sets of electronic `fingerprints' associated with each binding motif. With this recognition tunnelling technique, we are able to identify D and L enantiomers, a methylated amino acid, isobaric isomers and short peptides. The results suggest that direct electronic sequencing of single proteins could be possible by sequentially measuring the products of processive exopeptidase digestion, or by using a molecular motor to pull proteins through a tunnel junction integrated with a nanopore.

  8. Single site laparoscopic right hemicolectomy: an oncological feasible option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yon Kuei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present the first 7 cases of single site right hemicolectomy in Asia using the new Single Site Laparoscopy (SSL access system from Ethicon Endo-surgery. Methods Right hemicolectomy was performed using the new Single Site Laparoscopy (SSL access system. Patient demographics, operative time, histology and post operative recovery and complications were collected and analysed. Results The median operative time was 90 mins (range 60 - 150 mins and a median wound size of 2.5 cm (range 2 to 4.5 cm. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 24 (range 20 to 34 lymph nodes. The median length of proximal margin was 70 mm (range 30 to 145 mm and that of distal margin was 50 mm (35 to 120 mm. All patients had a median hospital stay of 7 days (range 5 to 11 and there were no significant perioperative complications except for 1 patient who had a minor myocardial event. Conclusion Right hemicolectomy using SSL access system is feasible and safe for oncologic surgery.

  9. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element Specific for Bromacil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromacil is a widely used herbicide that is known to contaminate environmental systems. Due to the hazards it presents and inefficient detection methods, it is necessary to create a rapid and efficient sensing device. Towards this end, we have utilized a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE specific for bromacil. We have identified one MRE with high affinity (Kd=9.6 nM and specificity for bromacil compared to negative targets of selection and other pesticides. The selected ssDNA MRE will be useful as the sensing element in a field-deployable bromacil detection device.

  10. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunyeol Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel is 2.84 mm2 with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  11. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunyeol; Song, Minkyu; Kim, Soo Youn

    2018-02-24

    This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS) that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR) logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel) is 2.84 mm² with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB) on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  12. Hanford Site Welding Program Successfully Providing A Single Site Function For Use By Multiple Contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) recently restructured its Hanford work scope, awarding two new contracts over the past several months for a total of three contracts to manage the sites cleanup efforts. DOE-RL met with key contractor personnel prior to and during contract transition to ensure site welding activities had appropriate oversight and maintained code compliance. The transition also provided an opportunity to establish a single site-wide function that would provide welding and materials engineering services to the Hanford site contractors: CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC); Mission Support Alliance (MSA); Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS); and Washington Closure Hanford (WCH). Over the years, multiple and separate welding programs (amongst the several contractors) existed at the Hanford site leading to inefficiencies resulting from duplication of administrative efforts, maintenance of welding procedures, welder performance certifications, etc. The new, single program eliminates these inefficiencies. The new program, co-managed by two of the sites' new contractors, the CHPRC ('owner' of the program and responsible for construction welding services) and the MSA (provides maintenance welding services), provides more than just the traditional construction and maintenance welding services. Also provided, are welding engineering, specialty welding development/qualification for the closure of radioactive materials containers and materials evaluation/failure analysis. The following describes the new Hanford site welding program.

  13. Human antibody recognition of antigenic site IV on Pneumovirus fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Jarrod J; Binshtein, Elad; Human, Stacey; Fong, Rachel H; Alvarado, Gabriela; Doranz, Benjamin J; Moore, Martin L; Ohi, Melanie D; Crowe, James E

    2018-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of children by two years of age. The RSV fusion (F) protein is a primary target of human antibodies, and it has several antigenic regions capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies. Antigenic site IV is preserved in both the pre-fusion and post-fusion conformations of RSV F. Antibodies to antigenic site IV have been described that bind and neutralize both RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). To explore the diversity of binding modes at antigenic site IV, we generated a panel of four new human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and competition-binding suggested the mAbs bind at antigenic site IV. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that binding and neutralization of two mAbs (3M3 and 6F18) depended on arginine (R) residue R429. We discovered two R429-independent mAbs (17E10 and 2N6) at this site that neutralized an RSV R429A mutant strain, and one of these mAbs (17E10) neutralized both RSV and hMPV. To determine the mechanism of cross-reactivity, we performed competition-binding, recombinant protein mutagenesis, peptide binding, and electron microscopy experiments. It was determined that the human cross-reactive mAb 17E10 binds to RSV F with a binding pose similar to 101F, which may be indicative of cross-reactivity with hMPV F. The data presented provide new concepts in RSV immune recognition and vaccine design, as we describe the novel idea that binding pose may influence mAb cross-reactivity between RSV and hMPV. Characterization of the site IV epitope bound by human antibodies may inform the design of a pan-Pneumovirus vaccine.

  14. A deep convolutional neural network approach to single-particle recognition in cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanan; Ouyang, Qi; Mao, Youdong

    2017-07-21

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a mainstream tool for the structural determination of biological macromolecular complexes. However, high-resolution cryo-EM reconstruction often requires hundreds of thousands of single-particle images. Particle extraction from experimental micrographs thus can be laborious and presents a major practical bottleneck in cryo-EM structural determination. Existing computational methods for particle picking often use low-resolution templates for particle matching, making them susceptible to reference-dependent bias. It is critical to develop a highly efficient template-free method for the automatic recognition of particle images from cryo-EM micrographs. We developed a deep learning-based algorithmic framework, DeepEM, for single-particle recognition from noisy cryo-EM micrographs, enabling automated particle picking, selection and verification in an integrated fashion. The kernel of DeepEM is built upon a convolutional neural network (CNN) composed of eight layers, which can be recursively trained to be highly "knowledgeable". Our approach exhibits an improved performance and accuracy when tested on the standard KLH dataset. Application of DeepEM to several challenging experimental cryo-EM datasets demonstrated its ability to avoid the selection of un-wanted particles and non-particles even when true particles contain fewer features. The DeepEM methodology, derived from a deep CNN, allows automated particle extraction from raw cryo-EM micrographs in the absence of a template. It demonstrates an improved performance, objectivity and accuracy. Application of this novel method is expected to free the labor involved in single-particle verification, significantly improving the efficiency of cryo-EM data processing.

  15. Potent neutralization of hepatitis A virus reveals a receptor mimic mechanism and the receptor recognition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxi; Zhu, Ling; Dang, Minghao; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Yuan, Shuai; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo; Ren, Jingshan; Kotecha, Abhay; Walter, Thomas S; Wang, Junzhi; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Rao, Zihe

    2017-01-24

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects ∼1.4 million people annually and, although there is a vaccine, there are no licensed therapeutic drugs. HAV is unusually stable (making disinfection problematic) and little is known of how it enters cells and releases its RNA. Here we report a potent HAV-specific monoclonal antibody, R10, which neutralizes HAV infection by blocking attachment to the host cell. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of HAV full and empty particles and of the complex of HAV with R10 Fab reveal the atomic details of antibody binding and point to a receptor recognition site at the pentamer interface. These results, together with our observation that the R10 Fab destabilizes the capsid, suggest the use of a receptor mimic mechanism to neutralize virus infection, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  16. U2AF1 mutations alter splice site recognition in hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilagan, Janine O; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Hayes, Brian; Murphy, Michele E; Zebari, Ahmad S; Bradley, Philip; Bradley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing studies have identified common mutations affecting genes encoding components of the RNA splicing machinery in hematological malignancies. Here, we sought to determine how mutations affecting the 3' splice site recognition factor U2AF1 alter its normal role in RNA splicing. We find that U2AF1 mutations influence the similarity of splicing programs in leukemias, but do not give rise to widespread splicing failure. U2AF1 mutations cause differential splicing of hundreds of genes, affecting biological pathways such as DNA methylation (DNMT3B), X chromosome inactivation (H2AFY), the DNA damage response (ATR, FANCA), and apoptosis (CASP8). We show that U2AF1 mutations alter the preferred 3' splice site motif in patients, in cell culture, and in vitro. Mutations affecting the first and second zinc fingers give rise to different alterations in splice site preference and largely distinct downstream splicing programs. These allele-specific effects are consistent with a computationally predicted model of U2AF1 in complex with RNA. Our findings suggest that U2AF1 mutations contribute to pathogenesis by causing quantitative changes in splicing that affect diverse cellular pathways, and give insight into the normal function of U2AF1's zinc finger domains. © 2015 Ilagan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Recognition of AT-Rich DNA Binding Sites by the MogR Repressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Aimee; Higgins, Darren E.; Panne, Daniel; (Harvard-Med); (EMBL)

    2009-07-22

    The MogR transcriptional repressor of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes recognizes AT-rich binding sites in promoters of flagellar genes to downregulate flagellar gene expression during infection. We describe here the 1.8 A resolution crystal structure of MogR bound to the recognition sequence 5' ATTTTTTAAAAAAAT 3' present within the flaA promoter region. Our structure shows that MogR binds as a dimer. Each half-site is recognized in the major groove by a helix-turn-helix motif and in the minor groove by a loop from the symmetry-related molecule, resulting in a 'crossover' binding mode. This oversampling through minor groove interactions is important for specificity. The MogR binding site has structural features of A-tract DNA and is bent by approximately 52 degrees away from the dimer. The structure explains how MogR achieves binding specificity in the AT-rich genome of L. monocytogenes and explains the evolutionary conservation of A-tract sequence elements within promoter regions of MogR-regulated flagellar genes.

  18. Recognition of anesthetic barbiturates by a protein binding site: a high resolution structural analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Oakley

    Full Text Available Barbiturates potentiate GABA actions at the GABA(A receptor and act as central nervous system depressants that can induce effects ranging from sedation to general anesthesia. No structural information has been available about how barbiturates are recognized by their protein targets. For this reason, we tested whether these drugs were able to bind specifically to horse spleen apoferritin, a model protein that has previously been shown to bind many anesthetic agents with affinities that are closely correlated with anesthetic potency. Thiopental, pentobarbital, and phenobarbital were all found to bind to apoferritin with affinities ranging from 10-500 µM, approximately matching the concentrations required to produce anesthetic and GABAergic responses. X-ray crystal structures were determined for the complexes of apoferritin with thiopental and pentobarbital at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures reveal that the barbiturates bind to a cavity in the apoferritin shell that also binds haloalkanes, halogenated ethers, and propofol. Unlike these other general anesthetics, however, which rely entirely upon van der Waals interactions and the hydrophobic effect for recognition, the barbiturates are recognized in the apoferritin site using a mixture of both polar and nonpolar interactions. These results suggest that any protein binding site that is able to recognize and respond to the chemically and structurally diverse set of compounds used as general anesthetics is likely to include a versatile mixture of both polar and hydrophobic elements.

  19. Simultaneous fluorescence light-up and selective multicolor nucleobase recognition based on sequence-dependent strong binding of berberine to DNA abasic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Shao, Yong; Ma, Kun; Cui, Qinghua; Liu, Guiying; Xu, Shujuan

    2012-04-28

    Label-free DNA nucleobase recognition by fluorescent small molecules has received much attention due to its simplicity in mutation identification and drug screening. However, sequence-dependent fluorescence light-up nucleobase recognition and multicolor emission with individual emission energy for individual nucleobases have been seldom realized. Herein, an abasic site (AP site) in a DNA duplex was employed as a binding field for berberine, one of isoquinoline alkaloids. Unlike weak binding of berberine to the fully matched DNAs without the AP site, strong binding of berberine to the AP site occurs and the berberine's fluorescence light-up behaviors are highly dependent on the target nucleobases opposite the AP site in which the targets thymine and cytosine produce dual emission bands, while the targets guanine and adenine only give a single emission band. Furthermore, more intense emissions are observed for the target pyrimidines than purines. The flanking bases of the AP site also produce some modifications of the berberine's emission behavior. The binding selectivity of berberine at the AP site is also confirmed by measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, excited-state lifetime, DNA melting and fluorescence quenching by ferrocyanide and sodium chloride. It is expected that the target pyrimidines cause berberine to be stacked well within DNA base pairs near the AP site, which results in a strong resonance coupling of the electronic transitions to the particular vibration mode to produce the dual emissions. The fluorescent signal-on and emission energy-modulated sensing for nucleobases based on this fluorophore is substantially advantageous over the previously used fluorophores. We expect that this approach will be developed as a practical device for differentiating pyrimidines from purines by positioning an AP site toward a target that is available for readout by this alkaloid probe. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  20. Genetic Algorithms for Models Optimization for Recognition of Translation Initiation Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Arturo Magana

    2011-06-01

    This work uses genetic algorithms (GA) to reduce the complexity of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and decision trees (DTs) for the accurate recognition of translation initiation sites (TISs) in Arabidopsis Thaliana. The Arabidopsis data was extracted directly from genomic DNA sequences. Methods derived in this work resulted in both reduced complexity of the predictors, as well as in improvement in prediction accuracy (generalization). Optimization through use of GA is generally a computationally intensive task. One of the approaches to overcome this problem is to use parallelization of code that implements GA, thus allowing computation on multiprocessing infrastructure. However, further improvement in performance GA implementation could be achieved through modification done to GA basic operations such as selection, crossover and mutation. In this work we explored two such improvements, namely evolutive mutation and GA-Simplex crossover operation. In this thesis we studied the benefit of these modifications on the problem of TISs recognition. Compared to the non-modified GA approach, we reduced the number of weights in the resulting model\\'s neural network component by 51% and the number of nodes in the model\\'s DTs component by 97% whilst improving the model\\'s accuracy at the same time. Separately, we developed another methodology for reducing the complexity of prediction models by optimizing the composition of training data subsets in bootstrap aggregation (bagging) methodology. This optimization is achieved by applying a new GA-based bagging methodology in order to optimize the composition of each of the training data subsets. This approach has shown in our test cases to considerably enhance the accuracy of the TIS prediction model compared to the original bagging methodology. Although these methods are applied to the problem of accurate prediction of TISs we believe that these methodologies have a potential for wider scope of application.

  1. Two-step interrogation then recognition of DNA binding site by Integration Host Factor: an architectural DNA-bending protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Vivas, Paula; Connolly, Mitchell; Kuznetsov, Serguei V; Rice, Phoebe A; Ansari, Anjum

    2018-02-28

    The dynamics and mechanism of how site-specific DNA-bending proteins initially interrogate potential binding sites prior to recognition have remained elusive for most systems. Here we present these dynamics for Integration Host factor (IHF), a nucleoid-associated architectural protein, using a μs-resolved T-jump approach. Our studies show two distinct DNA-bending steps during site recognition by IHF. While the faster (∼100 μs) step is unaffected by changes in DNA or protein sequence that alter affinity by >100-fold, the slower (1-10 ms) step is accelerated ∼5-fold when mismatches are introduced at DNA sites that are sharply kinked in the specific complex. The amplitudes of the fast phase increase when the specific complex is destabilized and decrease with increasing [salt], which increases specificity. Taken together, these results indicate that the fast phase is non-specific DNA bending while the slow phase, which responds only to changes in DNA flexibility at the kink sites, is specific DNA kinking during site recognition. Notably, the timescales for the fast phase overlap with one-dimensional diffusion times measured for several proteins on DNA, suggesting that these dynamics reflect partial DNA bending during interrogation of potential binding sites by IHF as it scans DNA.

  2. Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: From present to future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Verit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued effort of improving cosmesis and reducing morbidity in urologic surgery has given rise to novel alternatives to traditional minimally invasive techniques: Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES. Despite the development of specialized access devices and instruments, the performance of complex procedures using LESS has been challenging due to loss of triangulation and instrument clashing. A robotic interface may represent the key factor in overcoming the critical restrictions related to NOTES and LESS. Although encouraging, current clinical evidence related to R-LESS remains limited as the current da Vinci® robotic platform has not been specifically designed for LESS. Robotic innovations are imminent and are likely to govern major changes to the current landscape of scarless surgery.

  3. ICRPfinder: a fast pattern design algorithm for coding sequences and its application in finding potential restriction enzyme recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Phillip

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction enzymes can produce easily definable segments from DNA sequences by using a variety of cut patterns. There are, however, no software tools that can aid in gene building -- that is, modifying wild-type DNA sequences to express the same wild-type amino acid sequences but with enhanced codons, specific cut sites, unique post-translational modifications, and other engineered-in components for recombinant applications. A fast DNA pattern design algorithm, ICRPfinder, is provided in this paper and applied to find or create potential recognition sites in target coding sequences. Results ICRPfinder is applied to find or create restriction enzyme recognition sites by introducing silent mutations. The algorithm is shown capable of mapping existing cut-sites but importantly it also can generate specified new unique cut-sites within a specified region that are guaranteed not to be present elsewhere in the DNA sequence. Conclusion ICRPfinder is a powerful tool for finding or creating specific DNA patterns in a given target coding sequence. ICRPfinder finds or creates patterns, which can include restriction enzyme recognition sites, without changing the translated protein sequence. ICRPfinder is a browser-based JavaScript application and it can run on any platform, in on-line or off-line mode.

  4. Importance of the Sequence-Directed DNA Shape for Specific Binding Site Recognition by the Estrogen-Related Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Mohideen-Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nuclear receptors (NRs bind DNA as dimers, either as hetero- or as homodimers on DNA sequences organized as two half-sites with specific orientation and spacing. The dimerization of NRs on their cognate response elements (REs involves specific protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions. The estrogen-related receptor (ERR belongs to the steroid hormone nuclear receptor (SHR family and shares strong similarity in its DNA-binding domain (DBD with that of the estrogen receptor (ER. In vitro, ERR binds with high affinity inverted repeat REs with a 3-bps spacing (IR3, but in vivo, it preferentially binds to single half-site REs extended at the 5′-end by 3 bp [estrogen-related response element (ERREs], thus explaining why ERR was often inferred as a purely monomeric receptor. Since its C-terminal ligand-binding domain is known to homodimerize with a strong dimer interface, we investigated the binding behavior of the isolated DBDs to different REs using electrophoretic migration, multi-angle static laser light scattering (MALLS, non-denaturing mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance. In contrast to ER DBD, ERR DBD binds as a monomer to EREs (IR3, such as the tff1 ERE-IR3, but we identified a DNA sequence composed of an extended half-site embedded within an IR3 element (embedded ERRE/IR3, where stable dimer binding is observed. Using a series of chimera and mutant DNA sequences of ERREs and IR3 REs, we have found the key determinants for the binding of ERR DBD as a dimer. Our results suggest that the sequence-directed DNA shape is more important than the exact nucleotide sequence for the binding of ERR DBD to DNA as a dimer. Our work underlines the importance of the shape-driven DNA readout mechanisms based on minor groove recognition and electrostatic potential. These conclusions may apply not only to ERR but also to other members of the SHR family, such as androgen or glucocorticoid, for which a strong well-conserved half-site

  5. Multifunctional Single-Site Catalysts for Alkoxycarbonylation of Terminal Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingkun; Zhu, Hejun; Wang, Wenlong; Du, Hong; Wang, Tao; Yan, Li; Hu, Xiangping; Ding, Yunjie

    2016-09-08

    A multifunctional copolymer (PyPPh2 -SO3 H@porous organic polymers, POPs) was prepared by combining acidic groups and heterogeneous P,N ligands through the copolymerization of vinyl-functionalized 2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine (2-PyPPh2 ) and p-styrene sulfonic acid under solvothermal conditions. The morphology and chemical structure of the copolymer were evaluated using a series of characterization techniques. Compared with traditional homogeneous Pd(OAc)2 /2-PyPPh2 / p-toluenesulfonic acid catalyst, the copolymer supported palladium catalyst (Pd-PyPPh2 -SO3 H@POPs) exhibited higher activity for alkoxycarbonylation of terminal alkynes under the same conditions. This phenomenon could be attributed to the synergistic effect between the single-site Pd centers, 2-PyPPh2 ligands, and SO3 H groups, the outstanding swelling properties as well as the high enrichment of the reactant concentration by the porous catalyst. In addition, the catalyst could be reused at least 4 times without any apparent loss of activity. The excellent catalytic reactivity and good recycling properties make it an attractive catalyst for industrial applications. This work paves the way for advanced multifunctional porous organic polymers as a new type of platform for heterogeneous catalysis in the future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Laparoendoscopic single site cholecystectomy: the first 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jonathan M; Morton, Connor A; Ross, Sharona; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2009-08-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis and possibly less pain. However, given the small series reported to date, true estimates of the advantages and possible disadvantages of LESS surgery remain unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the first 100 patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy at our institution. Patients referred for cholecystectomy since November 2007 were considered for LESS cholecystectomy. Outcomes, including blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of stay, were recorded. Outcomes are compared with an uncontrolled concurrent group of patients undergoing multi-incision laparoscopic (i.e., conventional) cholecystectomy. One hundred patients with a median age of 44 years underwent LESS cholecystectomy; 30 patients with a median age of 46 years underwent conventional cholecystectomy over the same time period. Median operative time (70 vs 66 minutes, P = 0.67, Mann-Whitney) and hospital length of stay (1 vs 1 day, P = 0.81, Mann-Whitney) were not different for patients undergoing LESS or multi-incision cholecystectomies, respectively. Five patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy had postoperative complications: cystic duct stump leak (one), pain control issues (three), and urinary retention (one). LESS cholecystectomy is a safe and effective alternative to conventional cholecystectomy. It can be undertaken without added operative time and provides patients with minimal, if any, scarring.

  7. Fragment-based modelling of single stranded RNA bound to RNA recognition motif containing proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beauchene, Isaure Chauvot; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protein-RNA complexes are important for many biological processes. However, structural modeling of such complexes is hampered by the high flexibility of RNA. Particularly challenging is the docking of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). We have developed a fragment-based approach to model the structure of ssRNA bound to a protein, based on only the protein structure, the RNA sequence and conserved contacts. The conformational diversity of each RNA fragment is sampled by an exhaustive library of trinucleotides extracted from all known experimental protein–RNA complexes. The method was applied to ssRNA with up to 12 nucleotides which bind to dimers of the RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), a highly abundant eukaryotic RNA-binding domain. The fragment based docking allows a precise de novo atomic modeling of protein-bound ssRNA chains. On a benchmark of seven experimental ssRNA–RRM complexes, near-native models (with a mean heavy-atom deviation of <3 Å from experiment) were generated for six out of seven bound RNA chains, and even more precise models (deviation < 2 Å) were obtained for five out of seven cases, a significant improvement compared to the state of the art. The method is not restricted to RRMs but was also successfully applied to Pumilio RNA binding proteins. PMID:27131381

  8. Effects of aging and divided attention on recognition memory processes for single and associative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hikari

    2011-04-01

    In the divided attention paradigm to test age-related associative memory deficits, whether the effects of divided attention occur at encoding or retrieval has not been clarified, and the effect on retention has not been studied. This study explored whether and how much divided attention at either encoding, retention, or retrieval diminished accuracy in recognizing a single feature (object or location) and associated features (object+location) by 23 elderly people (13 women; M age = 70.6 yr., SD = 2.8) recruited from a neighborhood community circle, and 29 female college students (M age = 20.8 yr., SD = 1.1). The results showed a significant decline in memory performance for both age groups due to divided attention in location and associative memory at retention, suggesting that the retention process demands attentional resources. Overall, regardless of their relative deficiency in associative memory, older adults showed an effect of divided attention comparable to that of younger adults in a recognition task.

  9. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Michael [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM, UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Stutz, Hanno [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Molecular Biology, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Ebner, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.ebner@jku.at [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria)

    2016-08-03

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. - Highlights: • SMIL coating allows generation of homogeneous ultra-flat surfaces. • Molecular electrostatic adhesion forces can be determined in the inner wall of CZE capillary with picoNewton accuracy. • Topographical images and simultaneously acquired adhesion maps yield morphological and chemical information at the nanoscale.

  10. Robot-Assisted Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy With the Novel Da Vinci Single-Site Platform: Initial Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Kim, Dae Keun; Choi, Young Deuk; Chung, Byung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report our initial clinical cases of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) partial nephrectomy (PN) performed with the use of the novel Da Vinci R-LESS platform. Materials and Methods Three patients underwent R-LESS PN from November 2013 through February 2014. Perioperative and postoperative outcomes were collected and intraoperative difficulties were noted. Results Operative time and estimated blood loss volume ranged between 100 and 110 minutes and between 50 and 500 mL, respectively. None of the patients was transfused. All cases were completed with the off-clamp technique, whereas one case required conversion to the conventional (multiport) approach because of difficulty in creating the appropriate scope for safe tumor resection. No major postoperative complications occurred, and all tumors were resected in safe margins. Length of hospital stay ranged between 3 and 7 days. The lack of EndoWrist movements, the external collisions, and the bed assistant's limited working space were noticed to be the main drawbacks of this surgical method. Conclusions Our initial experience with R-LESS PN with the novel Da Vinci platform shows that even though the procedure is feasible, it should be applied in only appropriately selected patients. However, further improvement is needed to overcome the existing limitations. PMID:24955221

  11. Induction of prophage lambda by chlorinated organics: Detection of some single-species/single-site carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brooks, H.G. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight chlorinated organic compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce DNA damage using the Microscreen prophage-induction assay in Escherichia coli. Comparison of the performance characteristics of the prophage-induction and Salmonella assays to rodent carcinogenicity assays showed that the prophage-induction assay had a somewhat higher specificity than did the Salmonella assay (70% vs. 50%); sensitivity, concordance, and positive and negative predictivity were similar for the two microbial assays. The Microscreen prophage-induction assay failed to detect eight carcinogens, perhaps due to toxicity or other unknown factors; five of these eight carcinogens were detected by the Salmonella assay. However, the prophage-induction assay did detect six carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella assay, and five of these were single-species, single-site carcinogens, mostly mouse liver carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens, such as the chloroethanes, produce free radicals, which may be the basis for their carcinogenicity and ability to induce prophage. The prophage-induction (or other SOS) assay may be useful in identifying some genotoxic chlorinated carcinogens that induce DNA damage that do not revert the standard Salmonella tester strains.

  12. Olefin polymerization from single site catalysts confined within porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasi, Rajeswari M.

    Single Site Catalysts (SSCs) have been utilized for olefin polymerization. Altering the metal-ligand architecture in the SSCs, polyolefin properties can be enhanced in a rational manner. This influence of the ligands in the SSC on the property of polyolefins prepared can be referred to as the primary ligand influence. Extending this understanding and subsequent control of the metal-ligand framework to the interaction of SSCs within organic and inorganic supports is vital for the synthesis of polyolefins with tailored properties. The motivation behind this thesis was to explore the support influence on the reactivity of the SSC tethered to a support matrix during ethylene homo and copolymerization. In order to address this question of the support influence on the final polyolefin properties, synthetic routes to covalently bind SSCs on different matrices have been explored. Two distinct supported SSCs have been used to prepare branched polyethylenes. Branched polyethylenes can be prepared by either copolymerization (ethylene and alpha-olefin) or oligomerization/copolymerization processes (ethylene and in situ generated alpha-olefin). Synthetic routes to prepare precursor catalysts to Constrained Geometry Catalysts (CGCs) by silyl elimination chemistry have been developed (Chapter 2). Efficient synthetic protocols to assemble CGCs on aminomethylpolysytrene matrices (Chapter 3) and amine-functionalized mesoporous silica (Chapter 4) are also reported. These supported catalysts, with appropriate cocatalysts have been used to prepare ethylene homo and copolymers, the polymer thermal properties and microstructures were analyzed by various analytical techniques. Branched polyethylenes (LLDPE) can be prepared by copolymerization chemistry. It has been observed is that the influence of the support is seen in the production of lower crystalline forms of high density polyethylene (HDPE, 20--50% crystalline), while homogeneous polymerization of analogous soluble CGCs afford HDPE

  13. In-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-RGD receptor recognition sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) uses a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Previous sequence analyses of the 1D-encoding region of an FMDV field isolate (Asia1/JS/CHA/05) and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) or an Arg-Ser-Asp (RSD) triplet instead of the RGD integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution of field isolate in different biological environments. To examine the influence of single amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding site of the RDD-containing FMD viral genome on virus viability and the ability of non-RGD FMDVs to cause disease in susceptible animals, we constructed an RDD-containing FMDV full-length cDNA clone and derived mutant molecules with RGD or RSD receptor recognition motifs. Following transfection of BSR cells with the full-length genome plasmids, the genetically engineered viruses were examined for their infectious potential in cell culture and susceptible animals. Results Amino acid sequence analysis of the 1D-coding region of different derivatives derived from the Asia1/JS/CHA/05 field isolate revealed that the RDD mutants became dominant or achieved population equilibrium with coexistence of the RGD and RSD subpopulations at an early phase of type Asia1 FMDV quasispecies evolution. Furthermore, the RDD and RSD sequences remained genetically stable for at least 20 passages. Using reverse genetics, the RDD-, RSD-, and RGD-containing FMD viruses were rescued from full-length cDNA clones, and single amino acid substitution in RDD-containing FMD viral genome did not affect virus viability. The genetically engineered viruses replicated stably in BHK-21 cells and had similar growth properties to the parental virus. The RDD parental virus and two non-RGD recombinant viruses were virulent to pigs and bovines that developed typical

  14. In-vitro and in-vivo phenotype of type Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses utilizing two non-RGD receptor recognition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV uses a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Previous sequence analyses of the 1D-encoding region of an FMDV field isolate (Asia1/JS/CHA/05 and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD or an Arg-Ser-Asp (RSD triplet instead of the RGD integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution of field isolate in different biological environments. To examine the influence of single amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding site of the RDD-containing FMD viral genome on virus viability and the ability of non-RGD FMDVs to cause disease in susceptible animals, we constructed an RDD-containing FMDV full-length cDNA clone and derived mutant molecules with RGD or RSD receptor recognition motifs. Following transfection of BSR cells with the full-length genome plasmids, the genetically engineered viruses were examined for their infectious potential in cell culture and susceptible animals. Results Amino acid sequence analysis of the 1D-coding region of different derivatives derived from the Asia1/JS/CHA/05 field isolate revealed that the RDD mutants became dominant or achieved population equilibrium with coexistence of the RGD and RSD subpopulations at an early phase of type Asia1 FMDV quasispecies evolution. Furthermore, the RDD and RSD sequences remained genetically stable for at least 20 passages. Using reverse genetics, the RDD-, RSD-, and RGD-containing FMD viruses were rescued from full-length cDNA clones, and single amino acid substitution in RDD-containing FMD viral genome did not affect virus viability. The genetically engineered viruses replicated stably in BHK-21 cells and had similar growth properties to the parental virus. The RDD parental virus and two non-RGD recombinant viruses were virulent to pigs and bovines that

  15. Structural features of single-stranded integron cassette attC sites and their role in strand selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouvier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within attC sites. The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS, and the variable terminal structure (VTS to strand choice and recombination. Their roles have been evaluated in vivo in the attIxattC reaction context using the suicide conjugation assay we previously developed, but also in an attCxattC reaction using a deletion assay. Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. Our results show that strand choice is primarily directed by the first EHB, but the presence of the two other EHBs also serves to increase this strand selection. We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. Moreover, we have shown that the VTS has apparently no role in strand selectivity.

  16. Contrasting roles for DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases in single-item and associative recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hannah; Smith, Anna E; Barker, Gareth R; Uney, James B; Warburton, E Clea

    2017-03-01

    Recognition memory enables us to judge whether we have encountered a stimulus before and to recall associated information, including where the stimulus was encountered. The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is required for judgment of stimulus familiarity, while hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are additionally involved when spatial information associated with a stimulus needs to be remembered. While gene expression is known to be essential for the consolidation of long-term recognition memory, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the roles of two epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, in recognition memory. Infusion of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors into PRh impaired performance in novel object recognition and object-in-place tasks while infusions into HPC or mPFC impaired object-in-place performance only. In contrast, inhibition of histone deacetylases in PRh, but not mPFC, enhanced recognition memory. These results support the emerging role of epigenetic processes in learning and memory.

  17. Contrasting roles for DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases in single-item and associative recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Scott

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognition memory enables us to judge whether we have encountered a stimulus before and to recall associated information, including where the stimulus was encountered. The perirhinal cortex (PRh is required for judgment of stimulus familiarity, while hippocampus (HPC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are additionally involved when spatial information associated with a stimulus needs to be remembered. While gene expression is known to be essential for the consolidation of long-term recognition memory, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the roles of two epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, in recognition memory. Infusion of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors into PRh impaired performance in novel object recognition and object-in-place tasks while infusions into HPC or mPFC impaired object-in-place performance only. In contrast, inhibition of histone deacetylases in PRh, but not mPFC, enhanced recognition memory. These results support the emerging role of epigenetic processes in learning and memory.

  18. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Automatic Recognition of Patient Treatment Site in Portal Images Using Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, X; Yang, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the method to automatically recognize the treatment site in the X-Ray portal images. It could be useful to detect potential treatment errors, and to provide guidance to sequential tasks, e.g. automatically verify the patient daily setup. Methods: The portal images were exported from MOSAIQ as DICOM files, and were 1) processed with a threshold based intensity transformation algorithm to enhance contrast, and 2) where then down-sampled (from 1024×768 to 128×96) by using bi-cubic interpolation algorithm. An appearance-based vector space model (VSM) was used to rearrange the images into vectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to reduce the vector dimensions. A multi-class support vector machine (SVM), with radial basis function kernel, was used to build the treatment site recognition models. These models were then used to recognize the treatment sites in the portal image. Portal images of 120 patients were included in the study. The images were selected to cover six treatment sites: brain, head and neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis. Each site had images of the twenty patients. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance. Results: MATLAB image processing Toolbox and scikit-learn (a machine learning library in python) were used to implement the proposed method. The average accuracies using the AP and RT images separately were 95% and 94% respectively. The average accuracy using AP and RT images together was 98%. Computation time was ∼0.16 seconds per patient with AP or RT image, ∼0.33 seconds per patient with both of AP and RT images. Conclusion: The proposed method of treatment site recognition is efficient and accurate. It is not sensitive to the differences of image intensity, size and positions of patients in the portal images. It could be useful for the patient safety assurance. The work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System

  19. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Automatic Recognition of Patient Treatment Site in Portal Images Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, X; Yang, D [Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the method to automatically recognize the treatment site in the X-Ray portal images. It could be useful to detect potential treatment errors, and to provide guidance to sequential tasks, e.g. automatically verify the patient daily setup. Methods: The portal images were exported from MOSAIQ as DICOM files, and were 1) processed with a threshold based intensity transformation algorithm to enhance contrast, and 2) where then down-sampled (from 1024×768 to 128×96) by using bi-cubic interpolation algorithm. An appearance-based vector space model (VSM) was used to rearrange the images into vectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to reduce the vector dimensions. A multi-class support vector machine (SVM), with radial basis function kernel, was used to build the treatment site recognition models. These models were then used to recognize the treatment sites in the portal image. Portal images of 120 patients were included in the study. The images were selected to cover six treatment sites: brain, head and neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis. Each site had images of the twenty patients. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance. Results: MATLAB image processing Toolbox and scikit-learn (a machine learning library in python) were used to implement the proposed method. The average accuracies using the AP and RT images separately were 95% and 94% respectively. The average accuracy using AP and RT images together was 98%. Computation time was ∼0.16 seconds per patient with AP or RT image, ∼0.33 seconds per patient with both of AP and RT images. Conclusion: The proposed method of treatment site recognition is efficient and accurate. It is not sensitive to the differences of image intensity, size and positions of patients in the portal images. It could be useful for the patient safety assurance. The work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System.

  20. New Developments in Robotics and Single-site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Within the last 10 years there have been significant advances in minimal-access surgery. Although no emerging technology has demonstrated improved outcomes or fewer complications than standard laparoscopy, the introduction of the robotic surgical platform has significantly lowered abdominal hysterectomy rates. While operative time and cost were higher in robotic-assisted procedures when the technology was first introduced, newer studies demonstrate equivalent or improved robotic surgical efficiency with increased experience. Single-port hysterectomy has not improved postoperative pain or subjective cosmetic results. Emerging platforms with flexible, articulating instruments may increase the uptake of single-port procedures including natural orifice transluminal endoscopic cases.

  1. Oviposition site-selection by Bactrocera dorsalis is mediated through an innate recognition template tuned to γ-octalactone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available Innate recognition templates (IRTs in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest.

  2. Site characterization and validation - geophysical single hole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Per

    1989-05-01

    A total of 15 boreholes have been drilled for preliminary characterization of a previously unexplored site at the 360 and 385 m level in the Stripa mine. To adequately described the rock mass in the vicinity of these boreholes, a comprehensive program utilizing a large number of geophysical borehole methods has been carried out in 10 of these boreholes. The specific geophysical character of the rock mass and the major deformed units distinguished in the vicinity of the boreholes are recognized, and in certain cases also correlated between the boreholes. A general conclusion based on the geophysical logging results, made in this report, is that the preliminary predictions made in stage 2, of the site characterization and validation project (Olsson et.al, 1988), are adequate. The results from the geophysical logging can support the four predicted fracture/ fracture zones GHa, GHb, GA and GB whereas the predicted zones GC and GI are hard to confirm from the logging results. (author)

  3. Robotic single-access splenectomy using the Da Vinci Single-Site® platform: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, Francesco; Bracale, Umberto; Pirozzi, Felice; Cuccurullo, Diego; Angelini, Pier Luigi

    2014-03-01

    Single-access laparoscopic splenectomy can offer patients some advantages. It has many difficulties, such as instrument clashing, lack of triangulation, odd angles and lack of space. The Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery platform could decrease these difficulties. We present a case of single-access robotic splenectomy using this device. A 37 year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was operated on with a single-site approach, using the Da Vinci Single-Site robotic surgery device. The procedure was successfully completed in 140 min. No intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged from hospital on day 3. Single-access robotic splenectomy seems to be feasible and safe using the new robotic single-access platform, which seems to overcome certain limits of previous robotic or conventional single-access laparoscopy. We think that additional studies should also be performed to explore the real cost-effectiveness of the platform. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Surface science of single-site heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong H.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the surface science of the heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts. The specific focus is on how to prepare and characterize stereochemically specific heterogeneous model catalysts for the Ziegler–Natta polymerization. Under clean, ultra-high vacuum conditions, low-energy electron irradiation during the chemical vapor deposition of model Ziegler–Natta catalysts can be used to create a “single-site” catalyst film with a surface structure that produces only isotactic ...

  5. Supramolecular Recognition Allows Remote, Site-Selective C-H Oxidation of Methylenic Sites in Linear Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Giorgio; Farinelli, Giulio; Barbieri, Alessia; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Di Stefano, Stefano; Costas, Miquel

    2017-12-18

    Site-selective C-H functionalization of aliphatic alkyl chains is a longstanding challenge in oxidation catalysis, given the comparable relative reactivity of the different methylenes. A supramolecular, bioinspired approach is described to address this challenge. A Mn complex able to catalyze C(sp 3 )-H hydroxylation with H 2 O 2 is equipped with 18-benzocrown-6 ether receptors that bind ammonium substrates via hydrogen bonding. Reversible pre-association of protonated primary aliphatic amines with the crown ether selectively exposes remote positions (C8 and C9) to the oxidizing unit, resulting in a site-selective oxidation. Remarkably, such control of selectivity retains its efficiency for a whole series of linear amines, overriding the intrinsic reactivity of C-H bonds, no matter the chain length. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Electronic single-molecule identification of carbohydrate isomers by recognition tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jongone; Biswas, Sovan; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Yanan; Sen, Suman; Biswas, Sudipta; Ashcroft, Brian; Borges, Chad; Wang, Xu; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming

    2016-12-01

    Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which a hydroxy group at C-1 takes different orientations) and each pair of sugars can form different epimers (isomers around the stereocentres connecting the sugars). This leads to a vast combinatorial complexity, intractable to mass spectrometry and requiring large amounts of sample for NMR characterization. Combining measurements of collision cross section with mass spectrometry (IM-MS) helps, but many isomers are still difficult to separate. Here, we show that recognition tunnelling (RT) can classify many anomers and epimers via the current fluctuations they produce when captured in a tunnel junction functionalized with recognition molecules. Most importantly, RT is a nanoscale technique utilizing sub-picomole quantities of analyte. If integrated into a nanopore, RT would provide a unique approach to sequencing linear polysaccharides.

  7. Recognition of Novel Faces after Single Exposure is Enhanced during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla V. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective mechanisms in pregnancy include Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy (NVP (Fessler, 2002; Flaxman and Sherman, 2000, increased sensitivity to health cues (Jones et al., 2005, and increased vigilance to out-group members (Navarette, Fessler, and Eng, 2007. While common perception suggests that pregnancy results in decreased cognitive function, an adaptationist perspective might predict that some aspects of cognition would be enhanced during pregnancy if they help to protect the reproductive investment. We propose that a reallocation of cognitive resources from nonessential to critical areas engenders the cognitive decline observed in some studies. Here, we used a recognition task disguised as a health rating to determine whether pregnancy facilitates face recognition. We found that pregnant women were significantly better at recognizing faces and that this effect was particularly pronounced for own-race male faces. In human evolutionary history, and today, males present a significant threat to females. Thus, enhanced recognition of faces, and especially male faces, during pregnancy may serve a protective function.

  8. One-single physical exercise session after object recognition learning promotes memory persistence through hippocampal noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Neves, Ben-Hur Souto das; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2017-06-30

    Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Site characterization and validation - geophysical single hole logging. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridh, B.

    1987-12-01

    Five 'boundary boreholes' have been drilled for preliminary characterization of a previously unexplored site at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. Three of these boreholes are directed towards the North in the mine coordinate system, while two are directed towards the West. Furthermore, a vertical hole has been drilled at the end of the 3D-migration drift. To adequately describe the rock mass in the vicinity of these boreholes, a comprehensive program utilizing a large number of geophysical borehole methods has been carried out. The specific geophysical character of the rock mass and the major deformed units distinguished in the boreholes are recognized, and in certain cases also correlated between the boreholes. (orig.)

  10. OhioHealth web site wins awards. Draws leadership recognition for outstanding redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tom

    2004-01-01

    OhioHealth, Columbus, Ohio, has redesigned its web site, making it especially useful and appealing to women. For the collaborative effort, which included the Mayo Clinic and The VIA Group, Portland Maine, it has received numerous awards.

  11. Self-oriented nanoparticles for site-selective immunoglobulin G recognition via epitope imprinting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çorman, Mehmet Emin; Armutcu, Canan; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2014-11-01

    Molecular imprinting is a polymerization technique that provides synthetic analogs for template molecules. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have gained much attention due to their unique properties such as selectivity and specificity for target molecules. In this study, we focused on the development of polymeric materials with molecular recognition ability, so molecular imprinting was combined with miniemulsion polymerization to synthesize self-orienting nanoparticles through the use of an epitope imprinting approach. Thus, L-lysine imprinted nanoparticles (LMIP) were synthesized via miniemulsion polymerization technique. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was then bound to the cavities that specifically formed for L-lysine molecules that are typically found at the C-terminus of the Fc region of antibody molecules. The resulting nanoparticles makes it possible to minimize the nonspecific interaction between monomer and template molecules. In addition, the orientation of the entire IgG molecule was controlled, and random imprinting of the IgG was prevented. The optimum conditions were determined for IgG recognition using the imprinted nanoparticles. The selectivity of the nanoparticles against IgG molecules was also evaluated using albumin and hemoglobin as competitor molecules. In order to show the self-orientation capability of imprinted nanoparticles, human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto both the plain nanoparticles and immobilized nanoparticles by anti-human serum albumin antibody (anti-HSA antibody) was also carried out. Due to anti-HSA antibody immobilization on the imprinted nanoparticles, the adsorption capability of nanoparticles against HSA molecules vigorously enhanced. It is proved that the oriented immobilization of antibodies was appropriately succeeded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Site-Selection in Single-Molecule Junction for Highly Reproducible Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Murai, Daigo; Marqués-González, Santiago; Nakamura, Hisao; Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-02-03

    Adsorption sites of molecules critically determine the electric/photonic properties and the stability of heterogeneous molecule-metal interfaces. Then, selectivity of adsorption site is essential for development of the fields including organic electronics, catalysis, and biology. However, due to current technical limitations, site-selectivity, i.e., precise determination of the molecular adsorption site, remains a major challenge because of difficulty in precise selection of meaningful one among the sites. We have succeeded the single site-selection at a single-molecule junction by performing newly developed hybrid technique: simultaneous characterization of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The I-V response of 1,4-benzenedithiol junctions reveals the existence of three metastable states arising from different adsorption sites. Notably, correlated SERS measurements show selectivity toward one of the adsorption sites: "bridge sites". This site-selectivity represents an essential step toward the reliable integration of individual molecules on metallic surfaces. Furthermore, the hybrid spectro-electric technique reveals the dependence of the SERS intensity on the strength of the molecule-metal interaction, showing the interdependence between the optical and electronic properties in single-molecule junctions.

  13. Differential GC Content between Exons and Introns Establishes Distinct Strategies of Splice-Site Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Amit

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During evolution segments of homeothermic genomes underwent a GC content increase. Our analyses reveal that two exon-intron architectures have evolved from an ancestral state of low GC content exons flanked by short introns with a lower GC content. One group underwent a GC content elevation that abolished the differential exon-intron GC content, with introns remaining short. The other group retained the overall low GC content as well as the differential exon-intron GC content, and is associated with longer introns. We show that differential exon-intron GC content regulates exon inclusion level in this group, in which disease-associated mutations often lead to exon skipping. This group's exons also display higher nucleosome occupancy compared to flanking introns and exons of the other group, thus “marking” them for spliceosomal recognition. Collectively, our results reveal that differential exon-intron GC content is a previously unidentified determinant of exon selection and argue that the two GC content architectures reflect the two mechanisms by which splicing signals are recognized: exon definition and intron definition.

  14. Structural basis of carbohydrate recognition by lectin II from Ulex europaeus, a protein with a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loris, R; De Greve, H; Dao-Thi, M H; Messens, J; Imberty, A; Wyns, L

    2000-08-25

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are the language of choice for inter- cellular communication. The legume lectins form a large family of homologous proteins that exhibit a wide variety of carbohydrate specificities. The legume lectin family is therefore highly suitable as a model system to study the structural principles of protein-carbohydrate recognition. Until now, structural data are only available for two specificity families: Man/Glc and Gal/GalNAc. No structural data are available for any of the fucose or chitobiose specific lectins. The crystal structure of Ulex europaeus (UEA-II) is the first of a legume lectin belonging to the chitobiose specificity group. The complexes with N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucosylgalactose show a promiscuous primary binding site capable of accommodating both N-acetylglucos amine or galactose in the primary binding site. The hydrogen bonding network in these complexes can be considered suboptimal, in agreement with the low affinities of these sugars. In the complexes with chitobiose, lactose and fucosyllactose this suboptimal hydrogen bonding network is compensated by extensive hydrophobic interactions in a Glc/GlcNAc binding subsite. UEA-II thus forms the first example of a legume lectin with a promiscuous binding site and illustrates the importance of hydrophobic interactions in protein-carbohydrate complexes. Together with other known legume lectin crystal structures, it shows how different specificities can be grafted upon a conserved structural framework. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy: Without the use of a single port access device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dubey

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Transumbilical LESS-DN can be cost-effectively performed using conventional laparoscopy instruments and without the need for a single port access device. Warm ischemia times with this technique are comparable with that during conventional multiport laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  16. Theory on the Coupled Stochastic Dynamics of Transcription and Splice-Site Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Rajamanickam; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically split into exons that need to be spliced together to form the mature mRNA. The splicing process depends on the dynamics and interactions among transcription by the RNA polymerase II complex (RNAPII) and the spliceosomal complex consisting of multiple small nuclear ribonucleo proteins (snRNPs). Here we propose a biophysically plausible initial theory of splicing that aims to explain the effects of the stochastic dynamics of snRNPs on the splicing patterns of eukaryotic genes. We consider two different ways to model the dynamics of snRNPs: pure three-dimensional diffusion and a combination of three- and one-dimensional diffusion along the emerging pre-mRNA. Our theoretical analysis shows that there exists an optimum position of the splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA at which the time required for snRNPs to find the 5′ donor site is minimized. The minimization of the overall search time is achieved mainly via the increase in non-specific interactions between the snRNPs and the growing pre-mRNA. The theory further predicts that there exists an optimum transcript length that maximizes the probabilities for exons to interact with the snRNPs. We evaluate these theoretical predictions by considering human and mouse exon microarray data as well as RNAseq data from multiple different tissues. We observe that there is a broad optimum position of splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA and an optimum transcript length, which are roughly consistent with the theoretical predictions. The theoretical and experimental analyses suggest that there is a strong interaction between the dynamics of RNAPII and the stochastic nature of snRNP search for 5′ donor splicing sites. PMID:23133354

  17. Theory on the coupled stochastic dynamics of transcription and splice-site recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Murugan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genes are typically split into exons that need to be spliced together to form the mature mRNA. The splicing process depends on the dynamics and interactions among transcription by the RNA polymerase II complex (RNAPII and the spliceosomal complex consisting of multiple small nuclear ribonucleo proteins (snRNPs. Here we propose a biophysically plausible initial theory of splicing that aims to explain the effects of the stochastic dynamics of snRNPs on the splicing patterns of eukaryotic genes. We consider two different ways to model the dynamics of snRNPs: pure three-dimensional diffusion and a combination of three- and one-dimensional diffusion along the emerging pre-mRNA. Our theoretical analysis shows that there exists an optimum position of the splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA at which the time required for snRNPs to find the 5' donor site is minimized. The minimization of the overall search time is achieved mainly via the increase in non-specific interactions between the snRNPs and the growing pre-mRNA. The theory further predicts that there exists an optimum transcript length that maximizes the probabilities for exons to interact with the snRNPs. We evaluate these theoretical predictions by considering human and mouse exon microarray data as well as RNAseq data from multiple different tissues. We observe that there is a broad optimum position of splice sites on the growing pre-mRNA and an optimum transcript length, which are roughly consistent with the theoretical predictions. The theoretical and experimental analyses suggest that there is a strong interaction between the dynamics of RNAPII and the stochastic nature of snRNP search for 5' donor splicing sites.

  18. Learning curve for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Pao-Ling Torng; Kuan-Hung Lin; Jing-Shiang Hwang; Hui-Shan Liu; I-Hui Chen; Chi-Ling Chen; Su-Cheng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the learning curve and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery of gynecological surgeries. Materials and methods: Sixty-three women who underwent LESS surgery by a single experienced laparoscopic surgeon from February 2011 to August 2011 were included. Commercialized single-incision laparoscopic surgery homemade ports were used, along with conventional straight instruments. The learning curve has been defined as the additional surgical time with respect ...

  19. Site-controlled InGaN/GaN single-photon-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-04-11

    We report single-photon emission from electrically driven site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The device is fabricated from a planar light-emitting diode structure containing a single InGaN quantum well, using a top-down approach. The location, dimension, and height of each single-photon-emitting diode are controlled lithographically, providing great flexibility for chip-scale integration.

  20. Robust remediation strategies at gas-work sites: a case of source recognition and source characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, P.O. de

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands there have been gasworks at about 260 to 270 locations. Most of these locations are or were heavily polluted with tar, ashes and cyanides and many of them belong to the locations where remediation actions have already been executed. It seems however that many of them also belong to the locations where remediation actions were not quite as successful as was expected. So, for many gas-work sites that were already 'remedied' in the 80's and early 90's of the foregoing century, new programs for site remediation are planned. Of course the mistakes from the past should now be avoided. The current remediation strategy in The Netherlands for gas-work sites can be comprised in four steps: 1 - removing spots in the top soil, 2 - removing spots with mobile components in the shallow subsoil, 3 - controlling spots with mobile components in the deep subsoil, 4 - creating a 'steady endpoint situation' in the plume. At many former gas-work sites real sources, i.e. in a physico-chemical sense, are not very well known. This can easily lead to insufficient removal of some or part of these sources and cause a longer delivery of contaminants to the groundwater plume, with higher endpoint concentrations, higher costs and more restrictions for future use. The higher concentrations and longer deliveries originating from not recognized or not localized sources are often not sufficiently compensated by the proposed plume management in current remediation strategies. Remediation results can be improved by using knowledge about the processes that determine the delivery of contaminants to the groundwater, the materials that cause these delivery and the locations at the site where these are most likely found. When sources are present in the deep subsoil or the exact localization of sources is uncertain, robust remediation strategies should be chosen and wishful thinking about removing sources with in situ techniques should be avoided. Robust strategies are probably less

  1. (125I)LSD labels 5-TCsub(IC) recognition sites in pig choriod plexus membranes. Comparison with (3H)mesulergine and (3H)5-HT binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, D.; Srivatsa, S.; Pazos, A.; Engel, G.; Palacios, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The mammalian choroid plexus is enriched in a newly described serotonin recognition site, the binding characteristics of ( 125 I)LSD, ( 3 H)mesulergine and ( 3 H)serotonin to pig choroid plexus membranes were compared. These ligands labelled with high affinity a similar number of sites. The binding profiles of the sites labelled with these radioligands are indistinguishable as illustrated by highly significant correlation parameters. These sites are very similar to those labelled by Nsub(I)-methyl-2-( 125 I)LSD in pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. The data demonstrate that these ligands label 5-HTsub(IC) recognition sites in the pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. (author)

  2. Eight amino acids form the ATP recognition site of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubala, Martin; Teisinger, Jan; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Hofbauerová, Kateřina; Kopecký ml., Vladimír; Baumruk, V.; Krumscheid, R.; Plášek, J.; Schoner, W.; Amler, Evžen

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 21 (2003), s. 6446-6452 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0254; GA ČR GA204/01/1001; GA ČR GA309/02/1479 Grant - others:GA-(CZ) CZE00/033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 123100001; CEZ:MSM 113100001; CEZ:MSM 113200001 Keywords : sodium pump * ATP-binding site * TNP-ATP Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.922, year: 2003

  3. Robotic Laparoendoscopic Single-site Retroperitioneal Renal Surgery: Initial Investigation of a Purpose-built Single-port Surgical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Matthew J; Ramirez, Daniel; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2017-04-01

    Robotic single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery has the potential to minimize the morbidity of standard transperitoneal and multiport approaches. Traditionally, technological limitations of non-purpose-built robotic platforms have hindered the application of this approach. To assess the feasibility of retroperitoneal renal surgery using a new purpose-built robotic single-port surgical system. This was a preclinical study using three male cadavers to assess the feasibility of the da Vinci SP1098 surgical system for robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) retroperitoneal renal surgery. We used the SP1098 to perform retroperitoneal R-LESS radical nephrectomy (n=1) and bilateral partial nephrectomy (n=4) on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the kidney. Improvements unique to this system include enhanced optics and intelligent instrument arm control. Access was obtained 2cm anterior and inferior to the tip of the 12th rib using a novel 2.5-cm robotic single-port system that accommodates three double-jointed articulating robotic instruments, an articulating camera, and an assistant port. The primary outcome was the technical feasibility of the procedures, as measured by the need for conversion to standard techniques, intraoperative complications, and operative times. All cases were completed without the need for conversion. There were no intraoperative complications. The operative time was 100min for radical nephrectomy, and the mean operative time was 91.8±18.5min for partial nephrectomy. Limitations include the preclinical model, the small sample size, and the lack of a control group. Single-site retroperitoneal renal surgery is feasible using the latest-generation SP1098 robotic platform. While the potential of the SP1098 appears promising, further study is needed for clinical evaluation of this investigational technology. In an experimental model, we used a new robotic system to successfully perform major surgery on the kidney through a single small

  4. Selective labelling of 5-HT{sub 7} receptor recognition sites in rat brain using [{sup 3}H]5-carboxamidotryptamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, R.L.; Barnes, N.M. [Department of Pharmacology, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a radioligand binding assay to selectively label the native 5-HT{sub 7} receptor expressed in rat brain. In rat whole brain (minus cerebellum and striatum) homogenate, ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT ([{sup 3}H]5-carboxamidotryptamine; 0.5 nM) specific binding (defined by 5-HT, 10 {mu}M) displayed a pharmacological profile similar to the recombinant 5-HT{sub 7} receptor, although the Hill coefficients for competition curves generated by methiothepin, ritanserin, sumatriptan, clozapine and pimozide were significantly less than unity. In homogenates of rat hypothalamus, ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT recognition sites also resembled, pharmacologically, the 5-HT{sub 7} receptor, although pimozide still generated Hill coefficients significantly less than unity. Subsequent studies were performed in the additional presence of WAY100635 (100 nM) to prevent [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding to residual, possibly, 5-HT{sub 1A} sites. Competition for this [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding indicated the labelling in whole rat brain homogenate of a homogenous population of sites with the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT{sub 7} receptor. Saturation studies also indicated that ({+-})-pindolol (10 {mu}M)/WAY 100635 (100 nM)-insensitive [{sup 3}H]5-CT binding to homogenates of whole rat brain was saturable and to an apparently homogenous population of sites which were labelled with nanomolar affinity (B{sub max}=33.2{+-}0.7 fmol mg{sup -1} protein, pK{sub d}=8.78{+-}0.05, mean{+-}S.E.M., n=3). The development of this 5-HT{sub 7} receptor binding assay will aid investigation of the rat native 5-HT{sub 7} receptor. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Selective labelling of 5-HT7 receptor recognition sites in rat brain using [3H]5-carboxamidotryptamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowe, R.L.; Barnes, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a radioligand binding assay to selectively label the native 5-HT 7 receptor expressed in rat brain. In rat whole brain (minus cerebellum and striatum) homogenate, (±)-pindolol (10 μM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT ([ 3 H]5-carboxamidotryptamine; 0.5 nM) specific binding (defined by 5-HT, 10 μM) displayed a pharmacological profile similar to the recombinant 5-HT 7 receptor, although the Hill coefficients for competition curves generated by methiothepin, ritanserin, sumatriptan, clozapine and pimozide were significantly less than unity. In homogenates of rat hypothalamus, (±)-pindolol (10 μM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT recognition sites also resembled, pharmacologically, the 5-HT 7 receptor, although pimozide still generated Hill coefficients significantly less than unity. Subsequent studies were performed in the additional presence of WAY100635 (100 nM) to prevent [ 3 H]5-CT binding to residual, possibly, 5-HT 1A sites. Competition for this [ 3 H]5-CT binding indicated the labelling in whole rat brain homogenate of a homogenous population of sites with the pharmacological profile of the 5-HT 7 receptor. Saturation studies also indicated that (±)-pindolol (10 μM)/WAY 100635 (100 nM)-insensitive [ 3 H]5-CT binding to homogenates of whole rat brain was saturable and to an apparently homogenous population of sites which were labelled with nanomolar affinity (B max =33.2±0.7 fmol mg -1 protein, pK d =8.78±0.05, mean±S.E.M., n=3). The development of this 5-HT 7 receptor binding assay will aid investigation of the rat native 5-HT 7 receptor. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Distinct roles of beta1 metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS), and ligand-associated metal-binding site (LIMBS) cation-binding sites in ligand recognition by integrin alpha2beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdramidou, Dimitra; Humphries, Martin J; Mould, A Paul

    2008-11-21

    Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and previous studies have identified ligand-competent, stimulatory, and inhibitory cation-binding sites. In collagen-binding integrins, such as alpha2beta1, ligand recognition takes place exclusively at the alpha subunit I domain. However, activation of the alphaI domain depends on its interaction with a structurally similar domain in the beta subunit known as the I-like or betaI domain. The top face of the betaI domain contains three cation-binding sites: the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), the ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS), and LIMBS (ligand-associated metal-binding site). The role of these sites in controlling ligand binding to the alphaI domain has yet to be elucidated. Mutation of the MIDAS or LIMBS completely blocked collagen binding to alpha2beta1; in contrast mutation of the ADMIDAS reduced ligand recognition but this effect could be overcome by the activating monoclonal antibody TS2/16. Hence, the MIDAS and LIMBS appear to be essential for the interaction between alphaI and betaI, whereas occupancy of the ADMIDAS has an allosteric effect on the conformation of betaI. An activating mutation in the alpha2 I domain partially restored ligand binding to the MIDAS and LIMBS mutants. Analysis of the effects of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) on ligand binding to these mutants showed that the MIDAS is a ligand-competent site through which Mn(2+) stimulates ligand binding, whereas the LIMBS is a stimulatory Ca(2+)-binding site, occupancy of which increases the affinity of Mg(2+) for the MIDAS.

  7. Single site porphyrine-like structures advantages over metals for selective electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Alexander; Ju, Wen; Varela, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Currently, no catalysts are completely selective for the electrochemical CO2 Reduction Reaction (CO2RR). Based on trends in density functional theory calculations of reaction intermediates we find that the single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure has a simple advantage of limiting...... the competing Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The single metal site in a porphyrine-like structure requires an ontop site binding of hydrogen, compared to the hollow site binding of hydrogen on a metal catalyst surface. The difference in binding site structure gives a fundamental energy-shift in the scaling...... relation of ∼0.3eV between the COOH* vs. H* intermediate (CO2RR vs. HER). As a result, porphyrine-like catalysts have the advantage over metal catalyst of suppressing HER and enhancing CO2RR selectivity....

  8. Analysis of the substrate recognition state of TDP-43 to single-stranded DNA using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kitamura

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal function and abnormal aggregation of transactivation response (TAR DNA/RNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43 are directly associated with the lethal genetic diseases: cystic fibrosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. The binding of TDP-43 to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA or RNA is involved in transcriptional repression, regulation of RNA splicing, and RNA stabilization. Equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd of TDP-43 and ssDNA or RNA have been determined using various methods; however, methods that can measure Kd with high sensitivity in a short time using a small amount of TDP-43 in solution would be advantageous. Here, in order to determine the Kd of TDP-43 and fluorescence-labeled ssDNA as well as the binding stoichiometry, we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS, which detects the slowed diffusion of molecular interactions in solution with single-molecule sensitivity, in addition to electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. Using tandem affinity chromatography of TDP-43 dually tagged with glutathione-S-transferase and poly-histidine tags, highly purified protein was obtained. FCS successfully detected specific interaction between purified TDP-43 and TG ssDNA repeats, with a Kd in the nanomolar range. The Kd of the TDP-43 mutant was not different from the wild type, although mutant oligomers, which did not bind ssDNA, were observed. Analysis of the fluorescence brightness per dimerized TDP-43/ssDNA complex was used to evaluate their binding stoichiometry. The results suggest that an assay combining FCS and EMSA can precisely analyze ssDNA recognition mechanisms, and that FCS may be applied for the rapid and quantitative determination of the interaction strength between TDP-43 and ssDNA or RNA. These methods will aid in the elucidation of the substrate recognition mechanism of ALS- and FTLD-associated variants of TDP-43.

  9. Deciphering common recognition principles of nucleoside mono/di and tri-phosphates binding in diverse proteins via structural matching of their binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavat, Raghu; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-09-01

    Nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) ligands are of high biological importance and are essential for all life forms. A pre-requisite for them to participate in diverse biochemical processes is their recognition by diverse proteins. It is thus of great interest to understand the basis for such recognition in different proteins. Towards this, we have used a structural bioinformatics approach and analyze structures of 4677 NTP complexes available in Protein Data Bank (PDB). Binding sites were extracted and compared exhaustively using PocketMatch, a sensitive in-house site comparison algorithm, which resulted in grouping the entire dataset into 27 site-types. Each of these site-types represent a structural motif comprised of two or more residue conservations, derived using another in-house tool for superposing binding sites, PocketAlign. The 27 site-types could be grouped further into 9 super-types by considering partial similarities in the sites, which indicated that the individual site-types comprise different combinations of one or more site features. A scan across PDB using the 27 structural motifs determined the motifs to be specific to NTP binding sites, and a computational alanine mutagenesis indicated that residues identified to be highly conserved in the motifs are also most contributing to binding. Alternate orientations of the ligand in several site-types were observed and rationalized, indicating the possibility of some residues serving as anchors for NTP recognition. The presence of multiple site-types and the grouping of multiple folds into each site-type is strongly suggestive of convergent evolution. Knowledge of determinants obtained from this study will be useful for detecting function in unknown proteins. Proteins 2017; 85:1699-1712. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Robotic right colectomy using the Da Vinci Single-Site® platform: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Caprili, Giovanni; Di Candio, Giulio; Boggi, Ugo; Mosca, Franco

    2013-09-01

    While single-port laparoscopy for abdominal surgery is technically challenging, the Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery platform may help to overcome some of the difficulties of this rapidly evolving technique. The authors of this article present a case of single-incision, robotic right colectomy using this device. A 74-year-old female with malignant polyp of caecum was operated on with a single-site approach using the Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery device. Resection and anastomosis were performed extra-corporeally after undocking the robot. The procedure was successfully completed in 200 min. No surgical complications occurred during the intervention and the post-operative stay and no conversion to laparotomy or additional trocars were required. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of right colectomy using the Da Vinci Single-Site® robotic surgery platform to be reported. The procedure is feasible and safe and its main advantages are restoration of triangulation and reduced instrument clashes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Active Site Sharing and Subterminal Hairpin Recognition in a New Class of DNA Transposases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Donald R.; Guynet, Catherine; Ton-Hoang, Bao; Perez, Zhanita N.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Chandler, Michael; Dyda, Fred (Centre Nat); (NIH)

    2010-07-20

    Many bacteria harbor simple transposable elements termed insertion sequences (IS). In Helicobacter pylori, the chimeric IS605 family elements are particularly interesting due to their proximity to genes encoding gastric epithelial invasion factors. Protein sequences of IS605 transposases do not bear the hallmarks of other well-characterized transposases. We have solved the crystal structure of full-length transposase (TnpA) of a representative member, ISHp608. Structurally, TnpA does not resemble any characterized transposase; rather, it is related to rolling circle replication (RCR) proteins. Consistent with RCR, Mg{sup 2+} and a conserved tyrosine, Tyr127, are essential for DNA nicking and the formation of a covalent intermediate between TnpA and DNA. TnpA is dimeric, contains two shared active sites, and binds two DNA stem loops representing the conserved inverted repeats near each end of ISHp608. The cocrystal structure with stem-loop DNA illustrates how this family of transposases specifically recognizes and pairs ends, necessary steps during transposition.

  12. Structural analysis of substrate recognition by glucose isomerase in Mn2+ binding mode at M2 site in S. rubiginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Eun; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Nam, Ki Hyun

    2018-06-16

    Glucose isomerase (GI) catalyzes the reversible enzymatic isomerization of d-glucose and d-xylose to d-fructose and d-xylulose, respectively. This is one of the most important enzymes in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and biofuel. We recently determined the crystal structure of GI from S. rubiginosus (SruGI) complexed with a xylitol inhibitor in one metal binding mode. Although we assessed inhibitor binding at the M1 site, the metal binding at the M2 site and the substrate recognition mechanism for SruGI remains the unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the two metal binding modes of SruGI and its complex with glucose. This study provides a snapshot of metal binding at the SruGI M2 site in the presence of Mn 2+ , but not in the presence of Mg 2+ . Metal binding at the M2 site elicits a configuration change at the M1 site. Glucose molecule can only bind to the M1 site in presence of Mn 2+ at the M2 site. Glucose and Mn 2+ at the M2 site were bridged by water molecules using a hydrogen bonding network. The metal binding geometry of the M2 site indicates a distorted octahedral coordination with an angle of 55-110°, whereas the M1 site has a relatively stable octahedral coordination with an angle of 85-95°. We suggest a two-step sequential process for SruGI substrate recognition, in Mn 2+ binding mode, at the M2 site. Our results provide a better understanding of the molecular role of the M2 site in GI substrate recognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Structural basis of sterol recognition and nonvesicular transport by lipid transfer proteins anchored at membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Junsen; Manik, Mohammad Kawsar; Im, Young Jun

    2018-01-30

    Membrane contact sites (MCSs) in eukaryotic cells are hotspots for lipid exchange, which is essential for many biological functions, including regulation of membrane properties and protein trafficking. Lipid transfer proteins anchored at membrane contact sites (LAMs) contain sterol-specific lipid transfer domains [StARkin domain (SD)] and multiple targeting modules to specific membrane organelles. Elucidating the structural mechanisms of targeting and ligand recognition by LAMs is important for understanding the interorganelle communication and exchange at MCSs. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the yeast Lam6 pleckstrin homology (PH)-like domain and the SDs of Lam2 and Lam4 in the apo form and in complex with ergosterol. The Lam6 PH-like domain displays a unique PH domain fold with a conserved N-terminal α-helix. The Lam6 PH-like domain lacks the basic surface for phosphoinositide binding, but contains hydrophobic patches on its surface, which are critical for targeting to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrial contacts. Structures of the LAM SDs display a helix-grip fold with a hydrophobic cavity and a flexible Ω1-loop as a lid. Ergosterol is bound to the pocket in a head-down orientation, with its hydrophobic acyl group located in the tunnel entrance. The Ω1-loop in an open conformation is essential for ergosterol binding by direct hydrophobic interaction. Structural comparison suggested that the sterol binding mode of the Lam2 SD2 is likely conserved among the sterol transfer proteins of the StARkin superfamily. Structural models of full-length Lam2 correlated with the sterol transport function at the membrane contact sites.

  14. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  15. Da Vinci single site© surgical platform in clinical practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Luca; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Palmeri, Matteo; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco

    2016-12-01

    The Da Vinci single-site© surgical platform (DVSSP) is a set of single-site instruments and accessories specifically dedicated to robot-assisted single-site surgery. The PubMed database from inception to June 2015 was searched for English literature on the clinical use of DVSSP in general surgery, urology and gynecology. Twenty-nine articles involving the clinical application of DVSSP were identified; 15 articles on general surgery (561 procedures), four articles on urology (48 procedures) and 10 articles on gynecology (212 procedures). All studies have proven the safety and feasibility of the use of DVSSP. The principal reported advantage is the restoration of intra-abdominal triangulation, while the main reported limitation is the lack of the endowrist. Da Vinci systems have proven to be valuable assets in single-site surgery, owing to the combination of robot use with the dedicated single-incision platform. However, case-control or prospective trials are warranted to draw more definitive conc lusions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Single versus Two-Site Phacoemulsification and Mitomycin-C Trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafiee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of single-site versus two-site mitomycin-C (MMC augmented phacotrabeculectomy. METHODS: This matched randomized clinical trial included 34 eyes of 30 patients with visually significant cataracts and poorly controlled glaucoma. Equal numbers of eyes were randomly assigned to the single-site and two-site groups. In the single-site approach, phacoemulsification was performed under a superior scleral tunnel followed by trabeculectomy. The two-site approach included a temporal clear corneal phaco-emulsification combined with a separate superior trabeculectomy. MMC 0.2 mg/ml was similarly applied for one minute in both groups. RESULTS: Patients were followed for a mean period of 13±1.4 (range, 12 to 15 months. Mean best corrected visual acuity one year after surgery was 0.6±0.4 LogMAR in the single-site group and 0.4±0.28 LogMAR in the two-site group (P=0.12. In the single-site group, mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP was 26.4±6.6 mmHg which was decreased to 14.8±2.5 mmHg, one year after the operation (P < 0.001. Corresponding figures for the two-site group were 22.9±3.3 and 13.6±1.7 mmHg respectively (P < 0.001. At final follow up no significant difference in IOP existed between the study groups. Mean number of anti-glaucoma medications was 0.06±0.24 in the two-site group vs 0

  17. Functionalization of Probe Tips and Supports for Single-Molecule Recognition Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Andreas; Wildling, Linda; Zhu, Rong; Rankl, Christian; Haselgrübler, Thomas; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    The measuring tip of a force microscope can be converted into a monomolecular sensor if one or few "ligand" molecules are attached to the apex of the tip while maintaining ligand function. Functionalized tips are used to study fine details of receptor-ligand interaction by force spectroscopy or to map cognate "receptor" molecules on the sample surface. The receptor (or target) molecules can be present on the surface of a biological specimen; alternatively, soluble target molecules must be immobilized on ultraflat supports. This review describes the methods of tip functionalization, as well as target molecule immobilization. Silicon nitride tips, silicon chips, and mica have usually been functionalized in three steps: (1) aminofunctionalization, (2) crosslinker attachment, and (3) ligand/receptor coupling, whereby numerous crosslinkers are available to couple widely different ligand molecules. Gold-covered tips and/or supports have usually been coated with a self-assembled monolayer, on top of which the ligand/receptor molecule has been coupled either directly or via a crosslinker molecule. Apart from these general strategies, many simplified methods have been used for tip and/or support functionalization, even single-step methods such as adsorption or chemisorption being very efficient under suitable circumstances. All methods are described with the same explicitness and critical parameters are discussed. In conclusion, this review should help to find suitable methods for specific problems of tip and support functionalization.

  18. Ab initio calculations of partial molar properties in the single-site approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the application of the single-site approximation in calculations of partial molar quantities, e.g., impurity solution energy, segregation energy, and effective chemical potential, which are related to a variation of the composition of an alloy or its nonequivalent parts. We demonstrate...

  19. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery through an ostomy site: a natural approach by an unnatural orifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nicole E; Peterson, Carrie Y; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Sedrak, Michael F; Lowy, Andrew M; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark A; Sicklick, Jason K

    2015-02-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is gaining popularity for a wide variety of surgical operations and capitalizes on the benefits of traditional laparoscopic surgery without incurring multiple incision sites. Traditionally, SILS is performed by a midline periumbilical approach. However, such a minimally invasive approach may be utilized in patients who already have an abdominal incision. Our series retrospectively reviews 7 cases in which we utilized the fascial defect at the time of after ostomy reversal as our SILS incision site. In turn, we performed a variety of concurrent intra-abdominal procedures with excellent technical success and outcomes. Our study is the largest single-institution case series of this novel approach and suggests that utilizing an existing ostomy-site abdominal incision is a safe and effective location for SILS port placement and should be considered in patients undergoing concurrent procedures.

  20. Single cell analysis of innate cytokine responses to pattern recognition receptor stimulation in children across four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Kinga K; Cai, Bing; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Gelinas, Laura; Larsen, Martin; Speert, David P; Chamekh, Mustapha; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, and suppression of innate immunity is associated with increased risk for infection. We had previously shown that whole blood cellular components from a cohort of South African children secreted significantly lower levels of most cytokines following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) as compared to whole blood from cohorts of Ecuadorian, Belgian, or Canadian children. To begin dissecting the responsible molecular mechanisms, we now set out to identify the relevant cellular source of these differences. Across the four cohorts represented in our study, we identified significant variation in the cellular composition of whole blood; however, significant reduction of the intracellular cytokine production on the single cell level was only detected in South African childrens’ monocytes, cDC, and pDC. We also uncovered a marked reduction in polyfunctionality for each of these cellular compartments in South African children as compared to children from other continents. Together our data identify differences in cell composition as well as profoundly lower functional responses of innate cells in our cohort of South African children. A possible link between altered innate immunity and increased risk for infection or lower response to vaccines in South African infants needs to be explored. PMID:25135829

  1. Atomic force microscopy imaging and single molecule recognition force spectroscopy of coat proteins on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jilin; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhu, Rong; Ebner, Andreas; Cutting, Simon; Gruber, Hermann J; Barak, Imrich; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Coat assembly in Bacillus subtilis serves as a tractable model for the study of the self-assembly process of biological structures and has a significant potential for use in nano-biotechnological applications. In the present study, the morphology of B. subtilis spores was investigated by magnetically driven dynamic force microscopy (MAC mode atomic force microscopy) under physiological conditions. B. subtilis spores appeared as prolate structures, with a length of 0.6-3 microm and a width of about 0.5-2 microm. The spore surface was mainly covered with bump-like structures with diameters ranging from 8 to 70 nm. Besides topographical explorations, single molecule recognition force spectroscopy (SMRFS) was used to characterize the spore coat protein CotA. This protein was specifically recognized by a polyclonal antibody directed against CotA (anti-CotA), the antibody being covalently tethered to the AFM tip via a polyethylene glycol linker. The unbinding force between CotA and anti-CotA was determined as 55 +/- 2 pN. From the high-binding probability of more than 20% in force-distance cycles it is concluded that CotA locates in the outer surface of B. subtilis spores. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Development and validation of the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2018-04-01

    Empathy involves feeling compassion for others and imagining how they feel. In this article, we develop and validate the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), which contains only one item that takes seconds to complete. In seven studies (N=5,724), the SITES was found to be both reliable and valid. It correlated in expected ways with a wide variety of intrapersonal outcomes. For example, it is negatively correlated with narcissism, depression, anxiety, and alexithymia. In contrast, it is positively correlated with other measures of empathy, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and agreeableness. The SITES also correlates with a wide variety of interpersonal outcomes, especially compassion for others and helping others. The SITES is recommended in situations when time or question quantity is constrained.

  3. Role of IUCN WCPA Geoheritage Specialist Group for geoheritage conservation and recognition of World Heritage Sites, Global Geoparks and other protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung Sik

    2017-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service values. IUCN Resolutions at Barcelona (2008), at Jeju (2012) and at Hawaii (2016) clearly recognised that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised 'IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories'. All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories are applicable to the protection of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity. Recognising the wider values of geodiversity therefore provides opportunities to integrate geoheritage much more closely in protected area networks, as the approach advocated by the Geoheritage Specialist Group (GSG) of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such and only includes some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage values as UNESCO World Heritage sites has provided. GSG will pursue significant roles for geoheritage recognition and conservation as follows: 1) Establish the Best Practice Guideline of geoheritage sites for protected areas in the world, 2) Revise the Thematic Study on volcanic sites of Outstanding Universal Values and International Significance, 3) Revise Criterion (viii) for WH recognition, and 4) Initiate 'Key Geoheritage Site' concept in the future.

  4. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, 13 C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated

  5. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended

  6. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Pyelolithotomy With Use of a Carter-Thomason Needle Grasper

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Ill Young; Rim, Joung Sik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the feasibility and safety of the procedure, we present our early experience with laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) pyelolithotomy performed by use of a Carter-Thomason needle grasper. Materials and Methods Four patients underwent LESS pyelolithotomy for the removal of renal pelvic stones. The patients' mean age was 57.8 years, and their mean body mass index was 23.01. We used a homemade single-port device made with a surgical glove that was inserted into a 2.5-cm periumbil...

  7. Pyrazolone as a recognition site: Rhodamine 6G-based fluorescent probe for the selective recognition of Fe3+ in acetonitrile-aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Sanjay; Boricha, Vinod P; Jadeja, R N

    2015-03-01

    Two novel Rhodamine-pyrazolone-based colorimetric off-on fluorescent chemosensors for Fe(3+) ions were designed and synthesized using pyrazolone as the recognition moiety and Rhodamine 6G as the signalling moiety. The photophysical properties and Fe(3+) -binding properties of sensors L(1) and L(2) in acetonitrile-aqueous solution were also investigated. Both sensors successfully exhibit a remarkably 'turn-on' response, toward Fe(3+) , which was attributed to 1: 2 complex formation between Fe(3+) and L(1) /L(2) . The fluorescent and colorimetric response to Fe(3+) can be detected by the naked eye, which provides a facile method for the visual detection of Fe(3+) . Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Single-Site Tetracoordinated Aluminum Hydride Supported on Mesoporous Silica. From Dream to Reality!

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2016-09-26

    The reaction of mesoporous silica (SBA15) dehydroxylated at 700 °C with diisobutylaluminum hydride, i-Bu2AlH, gives after thermal treatment a single-site tetrahedral aluminum hydride with high selectivity. The starting aluminum isobutyl and the final aluminum hydride have been fully characterized by FT-IR, advanced SS NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, multiple quanta (MQ) 2D 1H-1H, and 27Al), and elemental analysis, while DFT calculations provide a rationalization of the occurring reactivity. Trimeric i-Bu2AlH reacts selectively with surface silanols without affecting the siloxane bridges. Its analogous hydride catalyzes ethylene polymerization. Indeed, catalytic tests show that this single aluminum hydride site is active in the production of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  9. Sites of termination of in vitro DNA synthesis on psoralen phototreated single-stranded templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Hearst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA has been photochemically induced to react with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) and used as substrate for DNA replication with E. coli DNA polymerase I large fragment. By using the dideoxy sequencing procedure, it is possible to map the termination sites on the template photoreacted with HMT. These sites occur at the nucleotides preceding each thymine residue (and a few cytosine residues), emphasizing the fact that in a single-stranded stretch of DNA, HMT reacts with each thymine residue without any specificity regarding the flanking base sequence of the thymine residues. In addition, termination of DNA synthesis due to psoralen-adducted thymine is not influenced by the efficiency of the 3'-5' exonuclease proof-reading activity of the DNA polymerase. (author)

  10. Single-Site Tetracoordinated Aluminum Hydride Supported on Mesoporous Silica. From Dream to Reality!

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of mesoporous silica (SBA15) dehydroxylated at 700 °C with diisobutylaluminum hydride, i-Bu2AlH, gives after thermal treatment a single-site tetrahedral aluminum hydride with high selectivity. The starting aluminum isobutyl and the final aluminum hydride have been fully characterized by FT-IR, advanced SS NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, multiple quanta (MQ) 2D 1H-1H, and 27Al), and elemental analysis, while DFT calculations provide a rationalization of the occurring reactivity. Trimeric i-Bu2AlH reacts selectively with surface silanols without affecting the siloxane bridges. Its analogous hydride catalyzes ethylene polymerization. Indeed, catalytic tests show that this single aluminum hydride site is active in the production of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang

    2018-04-04

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  12. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang; Guan, Erjia; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Junhao; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Yang, Ming; Cen, Cheng; Fu, Gang; Gates, Bruce C.; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2018-01-01

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  13. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  14. Well-defined single-site monohydride silica-supported zirconium from azazirconacyclopropane

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel

    2015-01-13

    The silica-supported azazirconacyclopropane ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(η2-NMeCH2)(NMe2) (1) leads exclusively under hydrogenolysis conditions (H2, 150°C) to the single-site monopodal monohydride silica-supported zirconium species ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(NMe2)2H (2). Reactivity studies by contacting compound 2 with ethylene, hydrogen/ethylene, propene, or hydrogen/propene, at a temperature of 200°C revealed alkene hydrogenation.

  15. Well-defined single-site monohydride silica-supported zirconium from azazirconacyclopropane

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel; El Eter, Mohamad; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Chen, Yin; Pelletier, Jeremie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The silica-supported azazirconacyclopropane ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(η2-NMeCH2)(NMe2) (1) leads exclusively under hydrogenolysis conditions (H2, 150°C) to the single-site monopodal monohydride silica-supported zirconium species ≡SiOZr(HNMe2)(NMe2)2H (2). Reactivity studies by contacting compound 2 with ethylene, hydrogen/ethylene, propene, or hydrogen/propene, at a temperature of 200°C revealed alkene hydrogenation.

  16. Candidate reagents and procedures for the dissolution of Hanford Site single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    At least some of the waste in the 149 single-shell tanks (SST) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be retrieved, treated, and disposed of. Although the importance of devising efficient and cost-effective sludge dissolution procedures has long been recognized, a concerted bench-scale effort to devise and test such procedures with actual solids representative of those in Hanford Site SSTs has not been performed. Reagents that might be used, either individually or serially, to dissolve sludges include HNO 3 , HNO 3 -oxalic acid, and HNO 3 -HF. This report consolidates and updates perspectives and recommendations concerning reagents and procedures for dissolving Hanford Site SST and selected double-shell tank (DST) sludges. The principal objectives of this report are as follows: (1) Compile and review existing experimental data on dissolution of actual Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. (2) Further inform Hanford Site engineers and scientists concerning the utility of combinations of thermally unstable complexants (TUCS) reagents and various reducing agents for dissolving SST and DST sludges. (This latter technology has recently been explored at the Argonne National Laboratory.) (3) Provide guidance in laying out a comprehensive experimental program to develop technology for dissolving all types of Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Housing Retention in Single-Site Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel K.; Clifasefi, Seema L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied housing retention and its predictors in the single-site Housing First model. Methods. Participants (n = 111) were chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems who lived in a single-site Housing First program and participated in a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (2005–2008) conducted in Seattle, Washington. At baseline, participants responded to self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, illness burden, alcohol and other drug use, and psychiatric variables. Housing status was recorded over 2 years. Results. Participants were interested in housing, although a sizable minority did not believe they would be able to maintain abstinence-based housing. Only 23% of participants returned to homelessness during the 2-year follow-up. Commonly cited risk factors—alcohol and other drug use, illness burden, psychiatric symptoms, and homelessness history—did not predict resumed homelessness. Active drinkers were more likely to stay in this housing project than nondrinkers. Conclusions. We found that single-site Housing First programming fills a gap in housing options for chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems. PMID:24148063

  18. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  19. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing, hip extension from a sitting position (sitting and gait (walking are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV, Root-Mean-Square (RMS, integrated EMG (iEMG, Zero Crossing (ZC and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF and Median Frequency (MDF are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0

  20. QSAR, docking, dynamic simulation and quantum mechanics studies to explore the recognition properties of cholinesterase binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Basurto, J; Bello, M; Rosales-Hernández, M C; Hernández-Rodríguez, M; Nicolás-Vázquez, I; Rojo-Domínguez, A; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Miranda, René; Flores-Sandoval, C A

    2014-02-25

    despite the multiple conformations obtained through MD simulations on both ChEs, the ligand recognition properties were conserved. In fact, the complex formed between ChEs and the best N-aryl compound reproduced the binding mode experimentally reported, where the ligand was coupled into the choline-binding site and stabilized through π-π interactions with Trp82 or Trp86 for BChE and AChE, respectively, suggesting that this compound could be an efficient inhibitor and supporting our model. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands. - Graphical abstract: The ligand-tailored silica supported “single site” titanium complexes were synthesized by SOMC strategy and fully characterized. Their catalytic activity were evaluated by benzaldehyde silylcyanation. - Highlights: • Single-site silica supported Ti active species was prepared by SOMC technique. • O-donor ligand tailored Ti surface species was synthesized. • The surface species was characterized by XPS, {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR, XANES etc. • Catalytic activity of the Ti active species in silylcyanation reaction was evaluated.

  2. A mathematical model of single target site location by Brownian movement in subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthan, Hartmut

    2003-03-07

    The location of distinct sites is mandatory for many cellular processes. In the subcompartments of the cell nucleus, only very small numbers of diffusing macromolecules and specific target sites of some types may be present. In this case, we are faced with the Brownian movement of individual macromolecules and their "random search" for single/few specific target sites, rather than bulk-averaged diffusion and multiple sites. In this article, I consider the location of a distant central target site, e.g. a globular protein, by individual macromolecules executing unbiased (i.e. drift-free) random walks in a spherical compartment. For this walk-and-capture model, the closed-form analytic solution of the first passage time probability density function (p.d.f.) has been obtained as well as the first and second moment. In the limit of a large ratio of the radii of the spherical diffusion space and central target, well-known relations for the variance and the first two moments for the exponential p.d.f. were found to hold with high accuracy. These calculations reinforce earlier numerical results and Monte Carlo simulations. A major implication derivable from the model is that non-directed random movement is an effective means for locating single sites in submicron-sized compartments, even when the diffusion coefficients are comparatively small and the diffusing species are present in one copy only. These theoretical conclusions are underscored numerically for effective diffusion constants ranging from 0.5 to 10.0 microm(2) s(-1), which have been reported for a couple of nuclear proteins in their physiological environment. Spherical compartments of submicron size are, for example, the Cajal bodies (size: 0.1-1.0 microm), which are present in 1-5 copies in the cell nucleus. Within a small Cajal body of radius 0.1 microm a single diffusing protein molecule (with D=0.5 microm(2) s(-1)) would encounter a medium-sized protein of radius 2.5 nm within 1 s with a probability near

  3. DISTINCT ROLES OF β1 MIDAS, ADMIDAS AND LIMBS CATION-BINDING SITES IN LIGAND RECOGNITION BY INTEGRIN α2β1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdramidou, Dimitra; Humphries, Martin J.; Mould, A. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Integrin-ligand interactions are regulated in a complex manner by divalent cations, and previous studies have identified ligand-competent, stimulatory, and inhibitory cation-binding sites. In collagen-binding integrins, such as α2β1, ligand recognition takes place exclusively at the α subunit I domain. However, activation of the αI domain depends on its interaction with a structurally similar domain in the β subunit known as the I-like or βI domain. The top face of the βI domain contains three cation-binding sites: the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), the ADMIDAS (adjacent to MIDAS) and LIMBS (ligand-associated metal binding site). The role of these sites in controlling ligand binding to the αI domain has yet to be elucidated. Mutation of the MIDAS or LIMBS completely blocked collagen binding to α2β1; in contrast mutation of the ADMIDAS reduced ligand recognition but this effect could be overcome by the activating mAb TS2/16. Hence, the MIDAS and LIMBS appear to be essential for the interaction between αI and βI whereas occupancy of the ADMIDAS has an allosteric effect on the conformation of βI. An activating mutation in the α2 I domain partially restored ligand binding to the MIDAS and LIMBS mutants. Analysis of the effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ on ligand binding to these mutants showed that the MIDAS is a ligand-competent site through which Mn2+ stimulates ligand binding, whereas the LIMBS is a stimulatory Ca2+-binding site, occupancy of which increases the affinity of Mg2+ for the MIDAS. PMID:18820259

  4. The heparin-binding site in tetranectin is located in the N-terminal region and binding does not involve the carbohydrate recognition domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentsen, R H; Graversen, J H; Caterer, N R; Thogersen, H C; Etzerodt, M

    2000-04-01

    Tetranectin is a homotrimeric plasma and extracellular-matrix protein that binds plasminogen and complex sulphated polysaccharides including heparin. In terms of primary and tertiary structure, tetranectin is related to the collectin family of Ca(2+)-binding C-type lectins. Tetranectin is encoded in three exons. Exon 3 encodes the carbohydrate recognition domain, which binds to kringle 4 in plasminogen at low levels of Ca(2+). Exon 2 encodes an alpha-helix, which is necessary and sufficient to govern the trimerization of tetranectin by assembling into a triple-helical coiled-coil structural element. Here we show that the heparin-binding site in tetranectin resides not in the carbohydrate recognition domain but within the N-terminal region, comprising the 16 amino acid residues encoded by exon 1. In particular, the lysine residues in the decapeptide segment KPKKIVNAKK (tetranectin residues 6-15) are shown to be of primary importance in heparin binding.

  5. Reactivity of a Carbon-Supported Single-Site Molybdenum Dioxo Catalyst for Biodiesel Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouat, Aidan R.; Lohr, Tracy L.; Wegener, Evan C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delferro, Massimiliano; Stair, Peter C.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2016-08-23

    A single-site molybdenum dioxo catalyst, (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C, was prepared via direct grafting of MoO2Cl2(dme) (dme = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) on high-surface- area activated carbon. The physicochemical and chemical properties of this catalyst were fully characterized by N2 physisorption, ICP-AES/OES, PXRD, STEM, XPS, XAS, temperature-programmed reduction with H2 (TPR-H2), and temperature-programmed NH3 desorption (TPD-NH3). The single-site nature of the Mo species is corroborated by XPS and TPR-H2 data, and it exhibits the lowest reported MoOx Tmax of reduction reported to date, suggesting a highly reactive MoVI center. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C catalyzes the transesterification of a variety of esters and triglycerides with ethanol, exhibiting high activity at moderate temperatures (60-90 °C) and with negligible deactivation. (Oc)2Mo(=O)2@C is resistant to water and can be recycled at least three times with no loss of activity. The transesterification reaction is determined experimentally to be first order in [ethanol] and first order in [Mo] with ΔH = 10.5(8) kcal mol-1 and ΔS = -32(2) eu. The low energy of activation is consistent with the moderate conditions needed to achieve rapid turnover. This highly active carbon-supported single-site molybdenum dioxo species is thus an efficient, robust, and lowcost catalyst with significant potential for transesterification processes.

  6. Left Transperitoneal Adrenalectomy with a Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery Combined Technique: Initial Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Sumino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is a step toward the development of minimally invasive surgery. It is initially difficult for surgeons with limited experience to perform the surgery. We describe two cases of left adrenalectomy with a LESS combined with the addition of an accessory port. After a 2.5-cm skin incision was made at the level of the paraumbilicus to insert the primary 12-mm trocar for the laparoscope, a 5-mm nonbladed trocar was placed through the skin incision side-by-side with the primary trocar. A second 3-mm nonbladed trocar was then placed along the anterior axillary line; a multichannel trocar was not used as a single port. Both adrenalectomies were completed successfully. In patients with a minor adrenal tumor, a combined technique using LESS and an additional port is easier than LESS alone and may, therefore, be a bridge between the conventional laparoscopic approach and LESS.

  7. Minimally invasive single-site surgery for the digestive system: A technological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhumane Parag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Single Site (MISS surgery is a better terminology to explain the novel concept of scarless surgery, which is increasingly making its way into clinical practice. But, there are some difficulties. We review the existing technologies for MISS surgery with regards to single-port devices, endoscope and camera, instruments, retractors and also the future perspectives for the evolution of MISS surgery. While we need to move ahead cautiously and wait for the development of appropriate technology, we believe that the "Ultimate form of Minimally Invasive Surgery" will be a hybrid form of MISS surgery and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, complimented by technological innovations from the fields of robotics and computer-assisted surgery.

  8. Single-port access laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection through the colostomy site: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Morten; Bulut, O

    2012-01-01

    Single-port access (SPA) laparoscopic surgery is emerging as an alternative to conventional laparoscopic and open surgery, although its benefits still have to be determined. We present the case of a 87-year-old woman who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) with SPA. The abdominal part...... of the operation was performed with a SILS port inserted through the marked colostomy site, and the specimen was removed through the perineum after intersphincteric dissection. Operating time was 317 min. Bleeding was negligible. The specimen measured 26 cm in length. Thirteen lymph nodes were found, 2...

  9. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS for a Large Ovarian Tumour: First Clinical Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Dong Chua

    2011-01-01

    Main Outcome Measure(s. Conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, estimated blood loss, operative time , extent of scarring, occurrence of intra- and perioperative surgical complications, technical adequacy, and clinical outcome. Result(s. No conversion to standard laparoscopic technique or laparotomy, and no intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Total operative time was 99 minutes. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day one. Conclusion(s. Laparoendoscopic single-site bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of a large ovarian tumour is feasible with standard laparoscopic instruments. It is safe and effective, with good results in terms of excellent cosmesis and minimal postoperative pain.

  10. Molecular Evolution of the CYP2D Subfamily in Primates: Purifying Selection on Substrate Recognition Sites without the Frequent or Long-Tract Gene Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene is a member of the CYP2D gene subfamily, along with the CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P pseudogenes. Although the CYP2D6 enzyme has been studied extensively because of its clinical importance, the evolution of the CYP2D subfamily has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to reveal the evolutionary process of the human drug metabolic system. Here, we investigate molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in primates by comparing 14 CYP2D sequences from humans to New World monkey genomes. Window analysis and statistical tests revealed that entire genomic sequences of paralogous genes were extensively homogenized by gene conversion during molecular evolution of CYP2D genes in primates. A neighbor-joining tree based on genomic sequences at the nonsubstrate recognition sites showed that CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes were clustered together due to gene conversion. In contrast, a phylogenetic tree using amino acid sequences at substrate recognition sites did not cluster the CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes, suggesting that the functional constraint on substrate specificity is one of the causes for purifying selection at the substrate recognition sites. Our results suggest that the CYP2D gene subfamily in primates has evolved to maintain the regioselectivity for a substrate hydroxylation activity between individual enzymes, even though extensive gene conversion has occurred across CYP2D coding sequences. PMID:25808902

  11. How to Say No: Single- and Dual-Process Theories of Short-Term Recognition Tested on Negative Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments with short-term recognition tasks are reported. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants decided whether a probe matched a list item specified by its spatial location. Items presented at study in a different location (intrusion probes) had to be rejected. Serial position curves of positive, new, and intrusion probes over the probed…

  12. Ligand-tailored single-site silica supported titanium catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and towards cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Yani; Yu, Bo; Yang, Jindou; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Ti(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on silica was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The silica, monitored by in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in-situ FT-IR), was pretreated at different temperatures (200, 500 and 800 °C). The ligand tailored silica-supported titanium complexes were characterized by in-situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface titanium species are single sited. The catalytic activity of the ligand tailored single-site silica supported titanium complexes was evaluated by a cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the dehydroxylation temperatures of silica and the configuration of the ligands.

  13. INITIAL SINGLE-SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  14. Differential recognition of syk-binding sites by each of the two phosphotyrosine-binding pockets of the Vav SH2 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hong; Piraner, Dan; Gorenstein, Nina M; Geahlen, Robert L; Beth Post, Carol

    2013-11-01

    The association of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a central tyrosine kinase in B cell signaling, with Vav SH2 domain is controlled by phosphorylation of two closely spaced tyrosines in Syk linker B: Y342 and Y346. Previous studies established both singly phosphorylated and doubly phosphorylated forms play a role in signaling. The structure of the doubly phosphorylated form identified a new recognition of phosphotyrosine whereby two phosphotyrosines bind simultaneously to the Vav SH2 domain, one in the canonical pTyr pocket and one in the specificity pocket on the opposite side of the central β-sheet. It is unknown if the specificity pocket can bind phosphotyrosine independent of phosphotyrosine binding the pTyr pocket. To address this gap in knowledge, we determined the structure of the complex between Vav1 SH2 and a peptide (SykLB-YpY) modeling the singly phosphorylated-Y346 form of Syk with unphosphorylated Y342. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data conclusively establish that recognition of phosphotyrosine is swapped between the two pockets; phosphorylated pY346 binds the specificity pocket of Vav1 SH2, and unphosphorylated Y342 occupies what is normally the pTyr binding pocket. Nearly identical changes in chemical shifts occurred upon binding all three forms of singly and doubly phosphorylated peptides; however, somewhat smaller shift perturbations for SykLB-YpY from residues in regions of high internal mobility suggest that internal motions are coupled to binding affinity. The differential recognition that includes this swapped binding of phosphotyrosine to the specificity pocket of Vav SH2 increases the repertoire of possible phosphotyrosine binding by SH2 domains in regulating protein-protein interactions in cellular signaling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe 2 ) 4 , cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15 -500 ) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15 -500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13 C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands

  16. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang, E-mail: gfzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Gao, Ziwei, E-mail: zwgao@snnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Ligand-modified signal-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts were synthesized by SOMC method and characterized by a variety of techniques. The zirconium surface complexes show high catalytic efficiency for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Some Zr active species have been anchored on the surface of SBA-15 by SOMC technique. • The structures of the Zr species have been characterized by a variety of techniques. • The anchored Zr species are single-sited surface complexes. • The Zr surface complexes are catalytic active for cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. - Abstract: A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15{sub -500}) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15{sub -500} supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, {sup 13}C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  17. Single-site properties of U impurities doped in La2Zn17 (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Anzai, K.; Takagi, S.

    1997-04-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of heavy Fermion (HF) U compounds show similar behavior to HF Ce compounds. Although most of the magnetic properties of HF Ce compounds can be qualitatively understood on the basis of the impurity Kondo model, no such consensus for HF U compounds has been reached. In addition to this, the single-site properties of U impurities are not understood so well, in contrast to the case of Ce impurities. Recent works for dilute U systems reported new features as are not seen in dilute Ce systems. We have investigated a dilute-U2Zn17 system of (La1-zUz)2Zn17 in order to reveal the single U ion site properties of this system by preparing single crystals. The impurity contributions to various physical quantities such as ρimp(T), χimp(T), and Cimp(T) can be scaled by the U concentration between z=0.025 and 0.05, and the system is considered as in the dilute limit still for z=0.05. The electrical resistivity shows the typical impurity-Kondo upturn at low temperatures. The electronic specific-heat coefficient is strongly enhanced (γimp≈1.5 J/K2 mole U) and about 4 times as large as that for dense U2Zn17. Suppressions of the Kondo effect by the magnetic field are seen in γimp(H) and magnetoresistance. The relatively large anisotropy in χimp(T) indicates an existence of the crystal field. These features of this system will be explained in terms of the Kondo effect in the presence of the crystal field.

  18. On-Site Chiropractic Care as an Employee Benefit: A Single-Location Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Salvatore J; Russell, Brent S

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the role of on-site chiropractic care in one corporate environment. A part-time chiropractic practice that provides services to a single company on site, 1 day per week, is described. Most care is oriented toward "wellness," is paid for by the employer, and is limited only by the chiropractor's few weekly hours of on-site availability. With approval from the company, the authors conducted an absenteeism analysis after obtaining ethics approval and consent from employee-patients who received care between 2012 and 2014. Comparisons of absenteeism rates of the sample were compared with lost worktime rates from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics' Labor Force Statistics. Of 40 current employees, 35 used chiropractic services; 17 employee-patients met the inclusion criteria. The lost worktime rates of those using chiropractic services (0.72%, 0.55%, and 0.67%, for 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively) were lower than corresponding rates from Labor Force Statistics (1.5%, 1.2%, and 1.1%). Absenteeism for the employee-patients was lower than equivalent national figures in this sample of workers. Though these results may or may not be related to the chiropractic care, these findings prompt further investigation into this relationship.

  19. Ground state properties of a spin chain within Heisenberg model with a single lacking spin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebrouki, M.

    2011-01-01

    The ground state and first excited state energies of an antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain with and without a single lacking spin site are computed using exact diagonalization method, within the Heisenberg model. In order to keep both parts of a spin chain with a lacking site connected, next nearest neighbors interactions are then introduced. Also, the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method is used, to investigate ground state energies of large system sizes; which permits us to inquire about the effect of large system sizes on energies. Other quantum quantities such as fidelity and correlation functions are also studied and compared in both cases. - Research highlights: → In this paper we compute ground state and first excited state energies of a spin chain with and without a lacking spin site. The next nearest neighbors are introduced with the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-half. → Exact diagonalization is used for small systems, where DMRG method is used to compute energies for large systems. Other quantities like quantum fidelity and correlation are also computed. → Results are presented in figures with comments. → E 0 /N is computed in a function of N for several values of J 2 and for both systems. First excited energies are also investigated.

  20. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter

    2017-12-01

    To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Catalysis by Design: Well-Defined Single-Site Heterogeneous Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Pelletier, Jeremie

    2016-03-09

    ConspectusHeterogeneous catalysis, a field important industrially and scientifically, is increasingly seeking and refining strategies to render itself more predictable. The main issue is due to the nature and the population of catalytically active sites. Their number is generally low to very low, their "acid strengths" or " redox properties" are not homogeneous, and the material may display related yet inactive sites on the same material. In many heterogeneous catalysts, the discovery of a structure-activity reationship is at best challenging. One possible solution is to generate single-site catalysts in which most, if not all, of the sites are structurally identical. Within this context and using the right tools, the catalyst structure can be designed and well-defined, to reach a molecular understanding. It is then feasible to understand the structure-activity relationship and to develop predictable heterogeneous catalysis. Single-site well-defined heterogeneous catalysts can be prepared using concepts and tools of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). This approach operates by reacting organometallic compounds with surfaces of highly divided oxides (or of metal nanoparticles). This strategy has a solid track record to reveal structure-activity relationship to the extent that it is becoming now quite predictable. Almost all elements of the periodical table have been grafted on surfaces of oxides (from simple oxides such as silica or alumina to more sophisticated materials regarding composition or porosity).Considering catalytic hydrocarbon transformations, heterogeneous catalysis outcome may now be predicted based on existing mechanistic proposals and the rules of molecular chemistry (organometallic, organic) associated with some concepts of surface sciences. A thorough characterization of the grafted metal centers must be carried out using tools spanning from molecular organometallic or surface chemistry. By selection of the metal, its ligand set, and the

  2. Laparoendoscopic single-site extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair: initial experience in 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Beatty, John; Haefner, Tim; Dunn, Ian; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2011-06-01

    Recent technical advances and a trend toward laparoscopic single incision surgery have led us to explore the feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) hernia repair. We present our technique and initial experience with LESS extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair in 10 consecutive men with unilateral inguinal hernias. Age range was 43.7 (28-64) years. Mean body mass index was 28 (range 24-30). Six were left inguinal hernias. There were six indirect and four direct hernias. Three patients had undergone previous open appendectomy. Incarcerated or bilateral hernias were excluded from our initial series. All cases were performed by three surgeons who were experienced in conventional totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair as well as experienced in LESS. A literature review of current single-port inguinal hernia repair data is also presented. The mean operative time was 53 minutes (range 45-65  min). The average length of skin incision was 2.8  cm (range 2.3-3.2  cm). No drain was necessary in any of the patients, while no recordable bleeding was observed. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. Hospitalization period was 2 days for all patients. After a limited follow-up of 1 month, there have been no recurrences and no complaints of testicular pain. The results of the current series compare favorably with those found in a literature review. LESS extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair is both feasible and safe, although more technically demanding than its conventional laparoscopic counterpart. Although the cosmetic result with the former approach may prove superior, there are standing questions regarding the complications and long-term outcome. Randomized and if possible blinded trials that compare conventional and single-incision laparoscopic hernia repair may help to distinguish the most advantageous technique.

  3. Siting analysis and risk assessment for small single-purpose heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjanne, R.

    1979-04-01

    Two alternative sites both 10km away from the centre of Helsinki are considered for reactor unit sizes of 400mw and 800mw. The risks associated with a small single-purpose heating reactor is evaluated for normal operation and accident conditions. The evaluation for accident condition is performed for three characteristics accidents. Three pathways are considered in the calculation of the radiation exposure: direct external gamma dose from the release plume, direct gamma radiation from deposited activity on the ground and dose due to inhalation. The risks are compared with the risks from alternative conventional fossil fuelled district heat production methods. The results show that the heating reactor alternative causes an unsignificant risk, which is far less than the risk caused by the fossil-fuelled alternatives

  4. Overview of the closure approach for the Hanford Site single-shell tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.H.

    1991-09-01

    The disposal of chemical and radioactive waste stored within the single-shell tanks (SST) represents one of the most significant waste management problems at the Hanford Site. A comprehensive program has been established to obtain analytical data regarding the chemical and radiological constituents within these tanks. This information will be used to support the development of a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) and ultimately to aid in the selection of a final disposal option. This paper discusses some of the technical options and major regulatory issues associated with SST waste retrieval and in situ waste treatment and disposal. Certain closure options and treatment technologies will require further development before they can be implemented or accepted as being useful. In addition, continued negotiations with the regulatory authorities will be required to determine the preferred closure option and the regulatory pathway to accommodate such closure

  5. Analytic observations for the d=1+ 1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.; Kang, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Some exact results for a reversible version of the d=1+1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model are presented. Exact steady-state properties are determined directly for finite systems with various mean slopes. These show explicitly how the asymptotic growth velocity and fluctuations are quenched as the slope approaches its maximum allowed value. Next, exact hierarchial equations for the dynamics are presented. For the special case of ''equilibrium growth,'' these are analyzed exactly at the pair-correlation level directly for an infinite system. This provided further insight into asymptotic scaling behavior. Finally, the above hierarchy is compared with one generated from a discrete form of the Kardar--Parisi--Zhang equations. Some differences are described

  6. [The LESS (Laparo-endoscopic Single-Site) procedure in urology. Technical and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, F; Cindolo, L; Gidaro, S; Schips, L

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive urology is rapidly advancing, and single-site laparoscopic surgery is being explored clinically. Such laparoscopic procedures are technically challenging and require an experienced laparoscopic surgeon due to the lack of port placement triangulation and instrument clashing. In the last years several surgeons all over the world have explored the feasibility and safety of LESS using several and different ports, approaches and devices. Hundreds of procedures have been described with overall favorable intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Our experience consists of more than 30 procedures successfully completed for adrenal, kidney disease and varicocele. To date, LESS could be considered feasible and effective using currently available devices, however it is to be considered as an initial status technique requiring further confirmatory studies and advanced laparoscopic skills.

  7. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  8. Laparoendoscopic single-site Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Linda; Ross, Sharona; Dahal, Sujat; Morton, Connor; Okpaleke, Chinyere; Rosas, Melissa; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2011-06-01

    Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is beginning to include advanced laparoscopic operations such as Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. However, the efficacy of LESS Heller myotomy has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the authors' initial experience with LESS Heller myotomy for achalasia. Transumbilical LESS Heller myotomy with concomitant anterior fundoplication for achalasia was undertaken for 66 patients after October 2007. Outcomes including operative time, complications, and length of hospital stay were recorded and compared with those for an earlier contiguous group of 66 consecutive patients undergoing conventional multi-incision laparoscopic Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. Symptoms before and after myotomy were scored by the patients using a Likert scale ranging from 0 (never/not severe) to 10 (always/very severe). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test, and Fisher's exact test where appropriate. Patients undergoing LESS Heller myotomy were similar to those undergoing conventional laparoscopic Heller myotomy in gender, age, body mass index (BMI), blood loss, and length of hospital stay. However, the patients undergoing LESS Heller myotomies had operations of significantly longer duration (median, 117 vs. 93 min with the conventional laparoscopic approach) (pHeller myotomy, additional ports/incisions were required. No patients were converted to "open" operations, and no patients had procedure-specific complications. Symptom reduction was dramatic and satisfying after both LESS and conventional laparoscopic myotomy with fundoplication. The symptom reduction was similar with the two procedures. The LESS approach left no apparent umbilical scar. Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication effectively treats achalasia. The findings showed LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication to be feasible, safe, and efficacious. Although the LESS approach increases operative

  9. The concept, reality and utility of single-site heterogeneous catalysts (SSHCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2014-05-07

    Very substantial advances have recently been made in the design and construction of solid catalysts and in elucidating both their mode of operation and the factors that determine their selectivity and longevity. This Perspective explains how and why such progress has been made. One important factor, the deployment of single-site heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysts, used either alone or in conjunction with other strategies, including metabolic engineering, enables a multitude of new products (for example, environmentally clean jet fuel) to be readily manufactured. In a practical sense SSHCs enable the advantages of homogeneous and to a lesser degree enzymatic catalysts to be united with those of heterogeneous ones. With the aid of the vastly increasing families of nanoporous solids, desired catalytically active sites may be engineered in atomic detail on their inner, accessible surfaces, thereby opening up new possibilities in synthetic organic chemistry - as in the smooth formation of C-C and C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bonds in a number of intermolecular reactions - as well as in photocatalysts and in fluidized catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons.

  10. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoura, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa; Sun, Shuyu, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa [Computational Transport Phenomena Laboratory, The Earth Sciences and Engineering Department, The Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Siripatana, Adil, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa; Hoteit, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.hoteit@kaust.edu.sa [Earth Fluid Modeling and Predicting Group, The Earth Sciences and Engineering Department, The Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Knio, Omar, E-mail: ahmad.kadoura@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: adil.siripatana@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: omar.knio@kaust.edu.sa [Uncertainty Quantification Center, The Applied Mathematics and Computational Science Department, The Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-07

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. The main advantage of such surrogates, once generated, is the capability of accurately computing the needed thermodynamic quantities in a few seconds, thus efficiently replacing the computationally expensive MC molecular simulations. Benefiting from the tremendous computational time reduction, the PC surrogates were used to conduct large-scale optimization in order to propose single-site LJ models for several simple molecules. Experimental data, a set of supercritical isotherms, and part of the two-phase envelope, of several pure components were used for tuning the LJ parameters (ε, σ). Based on the conducted optimization, excellent fit was obtained for different noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) and other small molecules (CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, and CO). On the other hand, due to the simplicity of the LJ model used, dramatic deviations between simulation and experimental data were observed, especially in the two-phase region, for more complex molecules such as CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2} H{sub 6}.

  11. A single splice site mutation in human-specific ARHGAP11B causes basal progenitor amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Namba, Takashi; Pääbo, Svante; Hiller, Michael; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2016-01-01

    The gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and is implicated in neocortex expansion. It arose on the human evolutionary lineage by partial duplication of ARHGAP11A, which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein (RhoGAP). However, a lack of 55 nucleotides in ARHGAP11B mRNA leads to loss of RhoGAP activity by GAP domain truncation and addition of a human-specific carboxy-terminal amino acid sequence. We show that these 55 nucleotides are deleted by mRNA splicing due to a single C→G substitution that creates a novel splice donor site. We reconstructed an ancestral ARHGAP11B complementary DNA without this substitution. Ancestral ARHGAP11B exhibits RhoGAP activity but has no ability to increase basal progenitors during neocortex development. Hence, a single nucleotide substitution underlies the specific properties of ARHGAP11B that likely contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex. PMID:27957544

  12. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in gynaecology: A new frontier in minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fader Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Review Objective: To review the recent developments and published literature on laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS surgery in gynaecology. Recent Findings: Minimally invasive surgery has become a standard of care for the treatment of many benign and malignant gynaecological conditions. Recent advances in conventional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted surgery have favorably impacted the entire spectrum of gynaecological surgery. With the goal of improving morbidity and cosmesis, continued efforts towards refinement of laparoscopic techniques have lead to minimization of size and number of ports required for these procedures. LESS surgery is a recently proposed surgical term used to describe various techniques that aim at performing laparoscopic surgery through a single, small-skin incision concealed within the umbilicus. In the last 5 years, there has been a surge in the developments in surgical technology and techniques for LESS surgery, which have resulted in a significant increase in utilisation of LESS across many surgical subspecialties. Recently published outcomes data demonstrate feasibility, safety and reproducibility for LESS in gynaecology. The contemporary LESS literature, extent of gynaecological procedures utilising these techniques and limitations of current technology will be reviewed in this manuscript. Conclusions: LESS surgery represents the newest frontier in minimally invasive surgery. Comparative data and prospective trials are necessary in order to determine the clinical impact of LESS in treatment of gynaecological conditions.

  13. Is Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Adrenalectomy a Feasible Alternative in Treating Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Hsiung Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS and conventional multiport adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA. Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed patients who had been clinically confirmed with unilateral APA and who underwent LESS or multiport adrenalectomy between 2009 and 2014. Perioperative data were obtained for all patients. Blood pressure and the levels of serum aldosterone, renin, and potassium were checked periodically. Results. We identified 45 APA patients in the LESS group and 71 in the multiport group. The baseline characteristics were matched between two groups. All adrenalectomies were completed successfully, except one with laparoscopic conversion in the single-port group and one open conversion in the multiport group. After a mean follow-up around one year, there were no significant group differences in the improvement of hypertension, number of types of medication taken, and cure of hypokalemia after operation. Conclusions. Our study confirm that LESS adrenalectomy achieved similar clinical and functional outcomes as conventional multiport adrenalectomy for management of unilateral APA.

  14. The learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) cholecystectomy: definable, short, and safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jonathan; Ross, Sharona; Morton, Connor; McFarlin, Kellie; Dahal, Sujat; Golkar, Farhaad; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    The applications of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery, including cholecystectomy, are occurring quickly, although little is generally known about issues associated with the learning curve of this new technique including operative time, conversion rates, and safety. We prospectively followed all patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy, and compared operations undertaken at our institutions in cohorts of 25 patients with respect to operative times, conversion rates, and complications. One-hundred fifty patients of mean age 46 years underwent LESS cholecystectomy. No significant differences in operative times were demonstrable between any of the 25-patient cohorts operated on at our institution. A significant reduction in operative times (p < 0.001) after completion of 75 LESS procedures was, however, identified with the experience of a single surgeon. No significant reduction in the number of procedures requiring an additional trocar(s) or conversion to open operations was observed after completion of 25 LESS cholecystectomies. Complication rates were low, and not significantly different between any 25-patient cohorts. For surgeons proficient with multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the learning curve for LESS cholecystectomy begins near proficiency. Operative complications and conversions were infrequent and unchanged across successive 25-patient cohorts, and were similar to those reported for multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy after the learning curve. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-06-01

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard-Jones (LJ) particles. The main advantage of such surrogates, once generated, is the capability of accurately computing the needed thermodynamic quantities in a few seconds, thus efficiently replacing the computationally expensive MC molecular simulations. Benefiting from the tremendous computational time reduction, the PC surrogates were used to conduct large-scale optimization in order to propose single-site LJ models for several simple molecules. Experimental data, a set of supercritical isotherms, and part of the two-phase envelope, of several pure components were used for tuning the LJ parameters (ε, σ). Based on the conducted optimization, excellent fit was obtained for different noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) and other small molecules (CH4, N2, and CO). On the other hand, due to the simplicity of the LJ model used, dramatic deviations between simulation and experimental data were observed, especially in the two-phase region, for more complex molecules such as CO2 and C2 H6.

  16. Smart dosimetry by pattern recognition using a single photon counting detector system in time over threshold mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza, S; Wong, W S; Fröjdh, E; Norlin, B; Fröjdh, C; Thungström, G; Thim, J

    2012-01-01

    The function of a dosimeter is to determine the absorbed dose of radiation, for those cases in which, generally, the particular type of radiation is already known. Lately, a number of applications have emerged in which all kinds of radiation are absorbed and are sorted by pattern recognition, such as the Medipix2 application in [1]. This form of smart dosimetry enables measurements where not only the total dosage is measured, but also the contributions of different types of radiation impacting upon the detector surface. Furthermore, the use of a photon counting system, where the energy deposition can be measured in each individual pixel, ensures measurements with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the pattern recognition. In this article a Timepix [2] detector system has been used in the creation of a smart dosimeter for Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation. When a radioactive particle hits the detector surface it generates charge clusters and those impacting upon the detector surface are read out and image processing algorithms are then used to classify each charge cluster. The individual clusters are calculated and as a result, the dosage for each type of radiation is given. In some cases, several particles can impact in roughly the same place, forming overlapping clusters. In order to handle this problem, a cluster separation method has been added to the pattern recognition algorithm. When the clusters have been separated, they are classified by shape and sorted into the correct type of radiation. The algorithms and methods used in this dosimeter have been developed so as to be simple and computationally effective, in order to enable implementation on a portable device.

  17. Communication between the Zinc and Nickel Sites in Dimeric HypA: Metal Recognition and pH Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.; Perovic, I.; Martin-Diaconescu, V.; O'Brien, K.; Chivers, P.; Sondej Pochapsky, S.; Pochapsky, T.; Maroney, M.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys) 4 site to a Zn(His) 2 (Cys) 2 site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the β-CH 2 protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys) 4 ) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model wherein HypA controls the

  18. Communication between the Zinc and Nickel Sites in Dimeric HypA: Metal Recognition and pH Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, R.; Perovic, I; Martin-Diaconescu, V; O’Brien, K; Chivers, P; Sondej Pochapsky, S; Pochapsky, T; Maroney, M

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys){sub 4} site to a Zn(His){sub 2}(Cys){sub 2} site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the {beta}-CH{sub 2} protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys){sub 4}) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model

  19. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias N E Forsell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3. Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4 rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  20. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Mattias N E; Dey, Barna; Mörner, Andreas; Svehla, Krisha; O'dell, Sijy; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Voss, Gerald; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Shaw, George M; Mascola, John R; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2008-10-03

    The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3). Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4) rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT) rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity) primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  1. Stabilization of bacterially expressed erythropoietin by single site-specific introduction of short branched PEG chains at naturally occurring glycosylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, E; Streichert, K; Nischan, N; Seitz, C; Brunner, T; Schwagerus, S; Hackenberger, C P R; Rubini, M

    2016-05-24

    The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutic proteins can improve their physicochemical properties. In this work we utilized the non-natural amino acid p-azidophenylalanine (pAzF) in combination with the chemoselective Staudinger-phosphite reaction to install branched PEG chains to recombinant unglycosylated erythropoietin (EPO) at each single naturally occurring glycosylation site. PEGylation with two short 750 or 2000 Da PEG units at positions 24, 38, or 83 significantly decreased unspecific aggregation and proteolytic degradation while biological activity in vitro was preserved or even increased in comparison to full-glycosylated EPO. This site-specific bioconjugation approach permits to analyse the impact of PEGylation at single positions. These results represent an important step towards the engineering of site-specifically modified EPO variants from bacterial expression with increased therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Well-Defined Silica Supported Aluminum Hydride: Another Step Towards the Utopian Single Site Dream?

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Sofack-Kreutzer, Julien; Jedidi, Abdesslem; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Cavallo, Luigi; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of triisobutylaluminum with SBA15700 at room temperature occurs by two parallel pathways involving either silanol or siloxane bridges. It leads to the formation of a well-defined bipodal [(≡SiO)2Al-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1a, silicon isobutyl [≡Si-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1b and a silicon hydride [≡Si-H] 1c. Their structural identity was characterized by FT-IR and advance solid-state NMR spectroscopies (1H, 13C, 29Si, 27Al and 2D multiple quantum), elemental and gas phase analysis, and DFT calculations. The reaction involves the formation of a highly reactive monopodal intermediate: [≡SiO-Al-[CH2CH(CH3)2]2], with evolution of isobutane. This intermediate undergoes two parallel routes: Transfer of either one isobutyl fragment or of one hydride to an adjacent silicon atom. Both processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, ≡Si-O-Si≡ but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a ß-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10-5 mbar) generates Al-H through a ß-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  3. Well-Defined Silica Supported Aluminum Hydride: Another Step Towards the Utopian Single Site Dream?

    KAUST Repository

    Werghi, Baraa

    2015-07-17

    Reaction of triisobutylaluminum with SBA15700 at room temperature occurs by two parallel pathways involving either silanol or siloxane bridges. It leads to the formation of a well-defined bipodal [(≡SiO)2Al-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1a, silicon isobutyl [≡Si-CH2CH(CH3)2] 1b and a silicon hydride [≡Si-H] 1c. Their structural identity was characterized by FT-IR and advance solid-state NMR spectroscopies (1H, 13C, 29Si, 27Al and 2D multiple quantum), elemental and gas phase analysis, and DFT calculations. The reaction involves the formation of a highly reactive monopodal intermediate: [≡SiO-Al-[CH2CH(CH3)2]2], with evolution of isobutane. This intermediate undergoes two parallel routes: Transfer of either one isobutyl fragment or of one hydride to an adjacent silicon atom. Both processes occur by opening of a strained siloxane bridge, ≡Si-O-Si≡ but with two different mechanisms, showing that the reality of “single site” catalyst may be an utopia: DFT calculations indicate that isobutyl transfer occurs via a simple metathesis between the Al-isobutyl and O-Si bonds, while hydride transfer occurs via a two steps mechanism, the first one is a ß-H elimination to Al with elimination of isobutene, whereas the second is a metathesis step between the formed Al-H bond and a O-Si bond. Thermal treatment of 1a (at 250 °C) under high vacuum (10-5 mbar) generates Al-H through a ß-H elimination of isobutyl fragment. These supported well-defined Al-H which are highly stable with time, are tetra, penta and octa coordinated as demonstrated by IR and 27Al–1H J-HMQC NMR spectroscopy. All these observations indicate that surfaces atoms around the site of grafting play a considerable role in the reactivity of a single site system.

  4. Exploiting nanospace for asymmetric catalysis: confinement of immobilized, single-site chiral catalysts enhances enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert

    2008-06-01

    In the mid-1990s, it became possible to prepare high-area silicas having pore diameters controllably adjustable in the range ca. 20-200 Å. Moreover, the inner walls of these nanoporous solids could be functionalized to yield single-site, chiral, catalytically active organometallic centers, the precise structures of which could be determined using in situ X-ray absorption and FTIR and multinuclear magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. This approach opened up the prospect of performing heterogeneous enantioselective conversions in a novel manner, under the spatial restrictions imposed by the nanocavities within which the reactions occur. In particular, it suggested an alternative method for preparing pharmaceutically and agrochemically useful asymmetric products by capitalizing on the notion, initially tentatively perceived, that spatial confinement of prochiral reactants (and transition states formed at the chiral active center) would provide an altogether new method of boosting the enantioselectivity of the anchored chiral catalyst. Initially, we anchored chiral single-site heterogeneous catalysts to nanopores covalently via a ligand attached to Pd(II) or Rh(I) centers. Later, we employed a more convenient and cheaper electrostatic method, relying in part on strong hydrogen bonding. This Account provides many examples of these processes, encompassing hydrogenations, oxidations, and aminations. Of particular note is the facile synthesis from methyl benzoylformate of methyl mandelate, which is a precursor in the synthesis of pemoline, a stimulant of the central nervous system; our procedure offers several viable methods for reducing ketocarboxylic acids. In addition to relying on earlier (synchrotron-based) in situ techniques for characterizing catalysts, we have constructed experimental procedures involving robotically controlled catalytic reactors that allow the kinetics of conversion and enantioselectivity to be monitored continually, and we have access to

  5. Deleted in malignant brain tumors-1 protein (DMBT1): a pattern recognition receptor with multiple binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Veerman, Enno C I

    2010-01-01

    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1(SAG)), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1(GP340)) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to SRCR domains, all DMBT1s contain two CUB domains and one zona pellucida domain. The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic streptococci, Helicobacter pylori and HIV. Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW). Adjacent to each individual SRCR domain are glycosylation domains, where the attached carbohydrate chains play a role in the binding of influenza A virus and Helicobacter pylori. The composition of the carbohydrate chains is not only donor specific, but also varies between different organs. These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding motifs.

  6. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 Protein (DMBT1: A Pattern Recognition Receptor with Multiple Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno C. I. Veerman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1, salivary agglutinin (DMBT1SAG, and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1GP340 are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. In addition to SRCR domains, all DMBT1s contain two CUB domains and one zona pellucida domain. The SRCR domains play a role in the function of DMBT1s, which is the binding of a broad range of pathogens including cariogenic streptococci, Helicobacter pylori and HIV. Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding (GRVEVLYRGSW. Adjacent to each individual SRCR domain are glycosylation domains, where the attached carbohydrate chains play a role in the binding of influenza A virus and Helicobacter pylori. The composition of the carbohydrate chains is not only donor specific, but also varies between different organs. These data demonstrate a role for DMBT1s as pattern recognition molecules containing various peptide and carbohydrate binding motifs.

  7. Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Markakis, N; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater recycling has been and continues to be practiced all over the world for a variety of reasons including: increasing water availability, combating water shortages and drought, and supporting environmental and public health protection. Nowadays, one of the most interesting issues for wastewater recycling is the on-site treatment and reuse of grey water. During this study the efficiency of a compact Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SMBR) system to treat real grey water in a single house in Crete, Greece, was examined. In the study, grey water was collected from a bathtub, shower and washing machine containing significant amounts of organic matter and pathogens. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the system was approximately 87%. Total suspended solids (TSS) were reduced from 95mgL(-1) in the influent to 8mgL(-1) in the effluent. The efficiency of the system to reduce anionic surfactants was about 80%. Fecal and total coliforms decreased significantly using the SMBR system due to rejection, by the membrane, used in the study. Overall, the SMBR treatment produces average effluent values that would satisfy international guidelines for indoor reuse applications such as toilet flushing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of segmental anesthesia for Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S B; Mangar, D; Karlnoski, R; Patel, R S; Camporesi, E M; Barry, L K; Luberice, K; Sprenker, C J; Rosemurgy, A S

    2012-06-01

    Transumbilical Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis, quick recovery, reduced postoperative pain and shorter length of hospital stay. Since only a simple umbilical incision is used, LESS surgery can be completed with segmental epidural anesthesia. This study describes the evolution of our technique of LESS cholecystectomy from a combination of spinal and epidural anesthesia to thoracic epidural alone and presents our experience with its safety, the observed morbidity, and the reported patient satisfaction. In August 2009, a prospective evaluation of LESS cholecystectomy with regional anesthesia was undertaken. We recruited patients with chronic cholecystitis or symptomatic cholelithasis. Blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of hospital stay were measured. Preoperatively and 14 days postoperatively, outcome and symptom resolution were scored. Fifteen consecutive patients underwent LESS cholecystectomy; first with combined spinal-epidural (CSE), and then with thoracic epidural anesthesia alone. Immediate postoperative pain and discomfort were well tolerated. VAS scores upon admission to PACU were 0.4 (1.7±2.2). At postoperative day 14, the patients scored high values for "Satisfaction", 10 (10±1.0) and "Cosmesis", 10 (9.3±1.5). LESS cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia can be undertaken safely. Patient satisfaction and cosmesis are particularly prominent amongst our patients. Our experience supports further utilization of epidural anesthesia for selected patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy.

  9. Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordt, Pascal

    2012-05-30

    I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)

  10. Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordt, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)

  11. Evidence that adaptation in Drosophila is not limited by mutation at single sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Karasov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation in eukaryotes is generally assumed to be mutation-limited because of small effective population sizes. This view is difficult to reconcile, however, with the observation that adaptation to anthropogenic changes, such as the introduction of pesticides, can occur very rapidly. Here we investigate adaptation at a key insecticide resistance locus (Ace in Drosophila melanogaster and show that multiple simple and complex resistance alleles evolved quickly and repeatedly within individual populations. Our results imply that the current effective population size of modern D. melanogaster populations is likely to be substantially larger (> or = 100-fold than commonly believed. This discrepancy arises because estimates of the effective population size are generally derived from levels of standing variation and thus reveal long-term population dynamics dominated by sharp--even if infrequent--bottlenecks. The short-term effective population sizes relevant for strong adaptation, on the other hand, might be much closer to census population sizes. Adaptation in Drosophila may therefore not be limited by waiting for mutations at single sites, and complex adaptive alleles can be generated quickly without fixation of intermediate states. Adaptive events should also commonly involve the simultaneous rise in frequency of independently generated adaptive mutations. These so-called soft sweeps have very distinct effects on the linked neutral polymorphisms compared to the standard hard sweeps in mutation-limited scenarios. Methods for the mapping of adaptive mutations or association mapping of evolutionarily relevant mutations may thus need to be reconsidered.

  12. Defining the learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site Heller myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona B; Luberice, Kenneth; Kurian, Tony J; Paul, Harold; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2013-08-01

    Initial outcomes suggest laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication provides safe, efficacious, and cosmetically superior outcomes relative to conventional laparoscopy. This study was undertaken to define the learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. One hundred patients underwent LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication. Symptom frequency and severity were scored using a Likert scale (0 = never/not bothersome to 10 = always/very bothersome). Symptom resolution, additional trocars, and complications were compared among patient quartiles. Median data are presented. Preoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 10/8 and regurgitation = 8/7. Additional trocars were placed in 12 patients (10%), of whom all were in the first two quartiles. Esophagotomy/gastrotomy occurred in three patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 9 per cent. No conversions to "open" operations occurred. Length of stay was 1 day. Postoperative frequency/severity scores were: dysphagia = 2/0 and regurgitation = 0/0; scores were less than before myotomy (P Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication well palliates symptoms of achalasia with no apparent scar. Placement of additional trocars only occurred early in the experience. For surgeons proficient with the conventional laparoscopic approach, the learning curve of LESS Heller myotomy with anterior fundoplication is short and safe, because proficiency is quickly attained.

  13. Single-site SBA-15 supported zirconium catalysts. Synthesis, characterization and toward cyanosilylation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Guofang; Gao, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    A successive anchoring of Zr(NMe2)4, cyclopentadiene and a O-donor ligand, 1-hydroxyethylbenzene (PEA), 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (Binol) or 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid diethyl ester (Tartrate), on dehydroxylated SBA-15 pretreated at 500 °C for 16 h (SBA-15-500) was conducted by SOMC strategy in moderate conditions. The dehydoxylation of SBA-15 was monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situ FT-IR). The ligand-modified SBA-15-500 supported zirconium complexes were characterized by in situ FT-IR, 13C CP MAS-NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MAS) and elemental analysis in detail, verifying that the surface zirconium species are single-sited. The catalytic activity of these complexes was evaluated by cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde. The results showed that the catalytic activity is dependent strongly on the structure of surface species and the configuration of the ligands.

  14. Single-Molecule Tethered Particle Motion: Stepwise Analyses of Site-Specific DNA Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fang Fan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tethered particle motion/microscopy (TPM is a biophysical tool used to analyze changes in the effective length of a polymer, tethered at one end, under changing conditions. The tether length is measured indirectly by recording the Brownian motion amplitude of a bead attached to the other end. In the biological realm, DNA, whose interactions with proteins are often accompanied by apparent or real changes in length, has almost exclusively been the subject of TPM studies. TPM has been employed to study DNA bending, looping and wrapping, DNA compaction, high-order DNA–protein assembly, and protein translocation along DNA. Our TPM analyses have focused on tyrosine and serine site-specific recombinases. Their pre-chemical interactions with DNA cause reversible changes in DNA length, detectable by TPM. The chemical steps of recombination, depending on the substrate and the type of recombinase, may result in a permanent length change. Single molecule TPM time traces provide thermodynamic and kinetic information on each step of the recombination pathway. They reveal how mechanistically related recombinases may differ in their early commitment to recombination, reversibility of individual steps, and in the rate-limiting step of the reaction. They shed light on the pre-chemical roles of catalytic residues, and on the mechanisms by which accessory proteins regulate recombination directionality.

  15. Individual single-site travel cost model for Czech paradise geopark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Špaček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotourism is a new phenomenon, which has emerged in the tourism literature during the past two decades, and whose meaning suffered from global census. Geotourism is still a new discipline and relatively little has been written about its demand side, demonstrated by a lack of studies in the literature This article studies the recreational value of geotourism areas, and focuses on the first geopark in the Czech Republic, namely the Czech Paradise Geopark. To assess the recreational value the travel cost method is applied, specifically the individual travel cost model. The necessary research data was gathered through intensive tourist surveys conducted in the study area. Data gathered in the respondents’ survey served to determine the consumer surplus as a measure of recreational value and to develop the single site travel cost model. The dependent variable in the conducted model is the number of visits in the area and among the independent variables, studied age, education, travel cost, family status, economic activity and income. The results were subsequently compared to findings in the available literature, research works and case studies.

  16. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Shyr, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits

  17. Regulatory Closure Options for the Residue in the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.R. Shyr, L.J.

    1998-10-05

    Liquid, mixed, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) located in tank farms on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The DOE is developing technologies to retrieve as much remaining HLW as technically possible prior to physically closing the tank farms. In support of the Hanford Tanks Initiative, Sandia National Laboratories has addressed the requirements for the regulatory closure of the radioactive component of any SST residue that may remain after physical closure. There is significant uncertainty about the end state of each of the 149 SSTS; that is, the nature and amount of wastes remaining in the SSTS after retrieval is uncertain. As a means of proceeding in the face of these uncertainties, this report links possible end-states with associated closure options. Requirements for disposal of HLW and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) are reviewed in detail. Incidental waste, which is radioactive waste produced incidental to the further processing of HLW, is then discussed. If the low activity waste (LAW) fraction from the further processing of HLW is determined to be incidental waste, then DOE can dispose of that incidental waste onsite without a license from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (NRC). The NRC has proposed three Incidental Waste Criteria for determining if a LAW fraction is incidental waste. One of the three Criteria is that the LAW fraction should not exceed the NRC's Class C limits.

  18. Exploring the role of water in molecular recognition: predicting protein ligandability using a combinatorial search of surface hydration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Sinisa; Brennan, Paul E.; Huggins, David J.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between any two biological molecules must compete with their interaction with water molecules. This makes water the most important molecule in medicine, as it controls the interactions of every therapeutic with its target. A small molecule binding to a protein is able to recognize a unique binding site on a protein by displacing bound water molecules from specific hydration sites. Quantifying the interactions of these water molecules allows us to estimate the potential of the protein to bind a small molecule. This is referred to as ligandability. In the study, we describe a method to predict ligandability by performing a search of all possible combinations of hydration sites on protein surfaces. We predict ligandability as the summed binding free energy for each of the constituent hydration sites, computed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory. We compared the predicted ligandability with the maximum observed binding affinity for 20 proteins in the human bromodomain family. Based on this comparison, it was determined that effective inhibitors have been developed for the majority of bromodomains, in the range from 10 to 100 nM. However, we predict that more potent inhibitors can be developed for the bromodomains BPTF and BRD7 with relative ease, but that further efforts to develop inhibitors for ATAD2 will be extremely challenging. We have also made predictions for the 14 bromodomains with no reported small molecule K d values by isothermal titration calorimetry. The calculations predict that PBRM1(1) will be a challenging target, while others such as TAF1L(2), PBRM1(4) and TAF1(2), should be highly ligandable. As an outcome of this work, we assembled a database of experimental maximal K d that can serve as a community resource assisting medicinal chemistry efforts focused on BRDs. Effective prediction of ligandability would be a very useful tool in the drug discovery process.

  19. Exploring the role of water in molecular recognition: predicting protein ligandability using a combinatorial search of surface hydration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Sinisa; Brennan, Paul E; Huggins, David J

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between any two biological molecules must compete with their interaction with water molecules. This makes water the most important molecule in medicine, as it controls the interactions of every therapeutic with its target. A small molecule binding to a protein is able to recognize a unique binding site on a protein by displacing bound water molecules from specific hydration sites. Quantifying the interactions of these water molecules allows us to estimate the potential of the protein to bind a small molecule. This is referred to as ligandability. In the study, we describe a method to predict ligandability by performing a search of all possible combinations of hydration sites on protein surfaces. We predict ligandability as the summed binding free energy for each of the constituent hydration sites, computed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory. We compared the predicted ligandability with the maximum observed binding affinity for 20 proteins in the human bromodomain family. Based on this comparison, it was determined that effective inhibitors have been developed for the majority of bromodomains, in the range from 10 to 100 nM. However, we predict that more potent inhibitors can be developed for the bromodomains BPTF and BRD7 with relative ease, but that further efforts to develop inhibitors for ATAD2 will be extremely challenging. We have also made predictions for the 14 bromodomains with no reported small molecule K d values by isothermal titration calorimetry. The calculations predict that PBRM1(1) will be a challenging target, while others such as TAF1L(2), PBRM1(4) and TAF1(2), should be highly ligandable. As an outcome of this work, we assembled a database of experimental maximal K d that can serve as a community resource assisting medicinal chemistry efforts focused on BRDs. Effective prediction of ligandability would be a very useful tool in the drug discovery process.

  20. Current status of natural orifice trans-endoscopic surgery (NOTES and laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS in urologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Sanchez-Salas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES represent novel approaches in urological surgery. To perform a review of the literature in order describe the current status of LESS and NOTES in Urology. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-02 to 15-05-09. Search terms included single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. A total of 412 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 64 manuscripts were selected based in their urological content. The manuscript features subheadings for experimental and clinical studies, as NOTES-LESS is a new surgical technique and its future evolution will probably rely in initial verified feasibility. A subheading for reviews presents information regarding common language and consensus for the techniques. The issue of complications published in clinical series and the future needs of NOTES-LESS, are also presented.

  1. Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang; Zhang, Jinhu; Dong, Guofeng; Shao, Hezhu; Ning, Bo-Yuan; Zhao, Li; Ning, Xi-Jing; Zhuang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.

  2. Screened Coulomb interactions in metallic alloys. II. Screening beyond the single-site and atomic-sphere approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Korzhavyi, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    -electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions...... for the ordinary single-site methods, including the generalized perturbation method, is still possible. We obtained such a parametrization for bulk and surface NiPt alloys, which allows one to obtain quantitatively accurate effective interactions in this system....

  3. Stereospecific recognition sites for [3H]inositol(1,4,5)-triphosphate in particulate preparations of rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcocks, A.L.; Cooke, A.M.; Potter, B.V.; Nahorski, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A very high density of stereospecific binding sites for inositol-(1,4,5)P3 have been identified in rat cerebellar membranes using [ 3 H]inositol-(1,4,5)P3 and a rapid centrifugation step to separate free and bound ligand. Binding was shown to be rapid and reversible and of relatively high affinity (KD 23 nM). Incubations were carried out at 4 degrees and under these conditions HPLC analysis demonstrated that there was no significant metabolism of [ 3 H]-(1,4,5)P3 in the presence or absence of ATP over 15 min. The specificity of the site has been carefully evaluated using both natural and novel synthetic inositol phosphates. The stereospecificity is very marked with the D-, DL- and L-isomers of Ins(1,4,5)P3 showing a 1:4:2000 ratio of affinity for the binding site. D-Ins(2,4,5)P3 was the only other phosphate to show relatively high affinity (KD 1500 nM). HPLC-pure Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 were substantially weaker and Ins(1,4)P2, Ins-2-P1, Ins-1-P1, Ins(1,2)-cyclic P1 and inositol were totally inactive at concentrations less than 50 microM. These data are discussed in relation to a putative receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum by which Ins(1,4,5)P3 can initiate the release of bound Ca 2+

  4. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Single Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Determinations of elemental and solid-phase compositions, and contaminant release studies have been applied in an ongoing study of residual tank wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from five of 149 underground single-shell storage tanks (241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This work is being conducted to support performance assessments that will be required to evaluate long-term health and safety risks associated with tank site closure. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions, solid phase properties, and contaminant release characteristics from these residual tank wastes. This variability is the result of differences in waste chemistry/composition of wastes produced from several different spent fuel reprocessing schemes, subsequent waste reprocessing to remove certain target constituents, tank farm operations that concentrated wastes and mixed wastes between tanks, and differences in retrieval processes used to remove the wastes from the tanks. Release models were developed based upon results of chemical characterization of the bulk residual waste, solid-phase characterization (see companion paper 9277 by Krupka et al.), leaching and extraction experiments, and geochemical modeling. In most cases empirical release models were required to describe contaminant release from these wastes. Release of contaminants from residual waste was frequently found to be controlled by the solubility of phases that could not be identified and/or for which thermodynamic data and/or dissolution rates have not been measured. For example, significant fractions of Tc-99, I-129, and Cr appear to be coprecipitated at trace concentrations in metal oxide phases that could not be identified unambiguously. In the case of U release from tank 241-C-103 residual waste, geochemical calculations indicated that leachate

  5. Quantifying the cognitive cost of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgeries: Gaze-based indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan Francisco; Rieiro, Héctor; Sanchez Carrion, Jose M; Catena, Andrés

    2017-11-01

    Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost. We expect that the assessment of surgeon's cognitive cost to improve patient safety by measuring fitness-for-duty and reducing surgeons overload. Using a wearable eye tracker device, we measured gaze entropy and velocity of surgical trainees and attending surgeons during two surgical procedures (LESS vs. multiport laparoscopy surgery [MPS]). None of the participants had previous experience with LESS. They performed two exercises with different complexity levels (Low: Pattern Cut vs. High: Peg Transfer). We also collected performance and subjective data. LESS caused higher cognitive demand than MPS, as indicated by increased gaze entropy in both surgical trainees and attending surgeons (exploration pattern became more random). Furthermore, gaze velocity was higher (exploration pattern became more rapid) for the LESS procedure independently of the surgeon's expertise. Perceived task complexity and laparoscopic accuracy confirmed gaze-based results. Gaze-based indices have great potential as objective and non-intrusive measures to assess surgeons' cognitive cost and fitness-for-duty. Furthermore, gaze-based indices might play a relevant role in defining future guidelines on surgeons' examinations to mark their achievements during the entire training (e.g. analyzing surgical learning curves). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Single site and conventional totally extraperitoneal techniques for uncomplicated inguinal hernia repair: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Felipe Brandão Corrêa; Starling, Eduardo Simão; Maricevich, Marco; Tobias-Machado, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of endoscopic extraperitoneal single site (EESS) inguinal hernia repair and compare it outcomes with the conventional totally extraperitoneal (TEP) technique. TEP inguinal hernia repair is a widely accepted alternative to conventional open technique with several perioperative advantages. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic singlesite surgery (LESS) is an emerging approach and has been reported for a number of surgical procedures with superior aesthetic results but other advantages need to be proven. Thirty-eight uncomplicated inguinal hernias were repaired by EESS approach between January 2010 and January 2011. All procedures were performed through a 25 cm infraumbilical incision using the Alexis wound retractor attached to a surgical glove and three trocars. Body mass index, age, operative time, blood loss, complications, conversion rate, analgesia requirement, hospital stay, return to normal activities and patient satisfaction with aesthetic results were analysed and compared with the last 38 matched-pair group of patients who underwent a conventional TEP inguinal hernia repair by the same surgeon. All procedures were performed successfully with no conversion. In both unilateral and bilateral EESS inguinal repairs, the mean operative time was longer than conventional TEP (55± 20 vs. 40± 15 min, P = 0.049 and 70± 15 vs. 55± 10 min, P = 0.014). Aesthetic result was superior in the EESS group (2.88± 0.43 vs. 2.79± 0.51, P = 0.042). There was no difference between the two approaches regarding blood loss, complications, hospital stay, time until returns to normal activities and analgesic requirement. EESS inguinal hernia repair is safe and effective, with superior cosmetic results in the treatment of uncomplicated inguinal hernias. Other advantages of this new technique still need to be proven.

  7. Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by a Homogeneous Copper Catalyst Disfavors Single-Site Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sara J; Light, Kenneth M; VanNatta, Peter E; Wiley, Keaton M; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T

    2017-06-28

    Deployment of solar fuels derived from water requires robust oxygen-evolving catalysts made from earth abundant materials. Copper has recently received much attention in this regard. Mechanistic parallels between Cu and single-site Ru/Ir/Mn water oxidation catalysts, including intermediacy of terminal Cu oxo/oxyl species, are prevalent in the literature; however, intermediacy of late transition metal oxo species would be remarkable given the high d-electron count would fill antibonding orbitals, making these species high in energy. This may suggest alternate pathways are at work in copper-based water oxidation. This report characterizes a dinuclear copper water oxidation catalyst, {[(L)Cu(II)] 2 -(μ-OH) 2 }(OTf) 2 (L = Me 2 TMPA = bis((6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) in which water oxidation proceeds with high Faradaic efficiency (>90%) and moderate rates (33 s -1 at ∼1 V overpotential, pH 12.5). A large kinetic isotope effect (k H /k D = 20) suggests proton coupled electron transfer in the initial oxidation as the rate-determining step. This species partially dissociates in aqueous solution at pH 12.5 to generate a mononuclear {[(L)Cu(II)(OH)]} + adduct (K eq = 0.0041). Calculations that reproduce the experimental findings reveal that oxidation of either the mononuclear or dinuclear species results in a common dinuclear intermediate, {[LCu(III)] 2 -(μ-O) 2 } 2+ , which avoids formation of terminal Cu(IV)═O/Cu(III)-O • intermediates. Calculations further reveal that both intermolecular water nucleophilic attack and redox isomerization of {[LCu(III)] 2 -(μ-O) 2 } 2+ are energetically accessible pathways for O-O bond formation. The consequences of these findings are discussed in relation to differences in water oxidation pathways between Cu catalysts and catalysts based on Ru, Ir, and Mn.

  8. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy and robotics training: should we start in the junior years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Reed I; Parrish, Aaron B; Dauphine, Christine E; Hari, Danielle M; Ozao-Choy, Junko J

    2018-04-01

    It has become increasingly important to expose surgical residents to robotic surgery as its applications continue to expand. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) is an excellent introductory case to robotics. Resident involvement in SSRC is known to be feasible. Here, we sought to determine whether it is safe to introduce SSRC to junior residents. A total of 98 SSRC cases were performed by general surgery residents between August 2015 and August 2016. Cases were divided into groups based on resident level: second- and third-years (juniors) versus fourth- and fifth-years (seniors). Patient age, gender, race, body mass index, and comorbidities were recorded. The number of prior laparoscopic cholecystectomies completed by participating residents was noted. Outcomes including operative time, console time, rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy, and complication rate were compared between groups. Juniors performed 54 SSRC cases, whereas seniors performed 44. There were no significant differences in patient age, gender, race, body mass index, or comorbidities between the two groups. Juniors had less experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference in mean operative time (92.7 min versus 98.0 min, P = 0.254), console time (48.7 min versus 50.8 min, P = 0.639), or complication rate (3.7% versus 2.3%, P = 0.68) between juniors and seniors. SSRC is an excellent way to introduce general surgery residents to robotics. This study shows that with attending supervision, SSRC is feasible and safe for both junior and senior residents with very low complication rates and no adverse effect on operative time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  10. Insulator protein Su(Hw) recruits SAGA and Brahma complexes and constitutes part of Origin Recognition Complex-binding sites in the Drosophila genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyeva, Nadezhda E.; Mazina, Marina U.; Golovnin, Anton K.; Kopytova, Daria V.; Gurskiy, Dmitriy Y.; Nabirochkina, Elena N.; Georgieva, Sofia G.; Georgiev, Pavel G.; Krasnov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing data on the properties of replication origins, molecular mechanisms underlying origin recognition complex (ORC) positioning in the genome are still poorly understood. The Su(Hw) protein accounts for the activity of best-studied Drosophila insulators. Here, we show that Su(Hw) recruits the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA and chromatin remodeler Brahma to Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, which gives rise to regions with low nucleosome density and creates conditions for ORC binding. Depletion in Su(Hw) leads to a dramatic drop in the levels of SAGA, Brahma and ORC subunits and a significant increase in nucleosome density on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, whereas artificial Su(Hw) recruitment itself is sufficient for subsequent SAGA, Brahma and ORC binding. In contrast to the majority of replication origins that associate with promoters of active genes, Su(Hw)-binding sites constitute a small proportion (6%) of ORC-binding sites that are localized preferentially in transcriptionally inactive chromatin regions termed BLACK and BLUE chromatin. We suggest that the key determinants of ORC positioning in the genome are DNA-binding proteins that constitute different DNA regulatory elements, including insulators, promoters and enhancers. Su(Hw) is the first example of such a protein. PMID:23609538

  11. Differential Recognition of Old World and New World Arenavirus Envelope Glycoproteins by Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/Site 1 Protease (S1P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J.; Ramos da Palma, Joel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses that includes several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans that represent serious public health problems. A crucial step of the arenavirus life cycle is maturation of the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P). Comparison of the currently known sequences of arenavirus GPCs revealed the presence of a highly conserved aromatic residue at position P7 relative to the SKI-1/S1P cleavage side in Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses but not in New World viruses of clades A and B or cellular substrates of SKI-1/S1P. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis, we found that residueY285 of SKI-1/S1P, distal from the catalytic triad, is implicated in the molecular recognition of the aromatic “signature residue” at P7 in the GPC of Old World Lassa virus. Using a quantitative biochemical approach, we show that Y285 of SKI-1/S1P is crucial for the efficient processing of peptides derived from Old World and clade C New World arenavirus GPCs but not of those from clade A and B New World arenavirus GPCs. The data suggest that during coevolution with their mammalian hosts, GPCs of Old World and clade C New World viruses expanded the molecular contacts with SKI-1/S1P beyond the classical four-amino-acid recognition sequences and currently occupy an extended binding pocket. PMID:23536681

  12. Laparoendoscopic single-site myomectomy and the use of fibrin sealant (Tisseel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelito Magno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Myomectomy remains the standard surgical treatment for women with uterine myoma, who wish to preserve their fertility. However, it is often associated with increased blood loss and adhesion formation. Laparoscopic myomectomy has multiple advantages over open myomectomy1. A newer approach, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, also known as LESS, has been developed and applied in gynecologic field.2 This is a case of a 41-year-old G2P1 patient, with the complaints of irregular menstrual cycles and lower abdominal pain for 6 months. Transvaginal ultrasound showed uterine myoma at the anterior corpus, measuring 6 × 5 cm2. The procedure is started by grasping the bilateral edges of the umbilicus with Allis forceps. A vertical incision, 1.5–2 cm, is made from the superficial skin of the umbilicus to the ventral peritoneum. A wound retractor of appropriate size is inserted and adjusted. A multiple instrument access port (LagisEndosurgical, Taichung, Taiwan is placed over the wound retractor (Figure 1. Prior to the procedure, inspection of the pelvic organs is performed to determine the pathology. Vasopressin is injected over the area of the myoma to decrease blood loss. Location of the myoma is then identified. Uterine incision is made on the serosa over the area of the myoma using the monopolar scissors. Using a bipolar instrument LigaSure®, ValleyLab, Inc., Boulder, Colorado, the incision is extended until the myoma is exposed. The myoma is grasped gently using the tenaculum forcep, and dissected bluntly along with it's pseudocapsule using the tip of suction irrigation gear. At the base of the myoma where feeding vessels may be located, coagulation by the advanced bipolar, is performed to prevent bleeding. The specimen is removed through the umbilicus. A sliding knot is made at the tail of one zero monofilament suture to fasten the anchor of the first knot. The uterus is then repaired with a continuous non-locking method. Hemostasis is

  13. Single-site community consultation for emergency research in a community hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Little, Charletta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate community member feedback from community consultation and public disclosure activities performed for a clinical investigation involving a device designed to treat traumatic brain injury in prehospital contexts. The clinical investigation of that device was to be performed under the federal regulations providing an exception from prospective informed consent requirements in emergency settings. Secondarily, we sought to assess the community consultation process by measuring the levels of outreach provided by the different communication methods used in these activities, with special attention to the effectiveness of social media for community outreach. The medical device investigation consists of a single-site pilot study based at a 345-bed community hospital in east central Illinois, which also serves as the area's only level I trauma center. Investigators, in collaboration with the local institutional review board, fulfilled community consultation and public disclosure requirements through four public town hall meetings, seven targeted focus groups, targeted mailings to 884 community leaders and researchers, a press conference and press release, internal and external websites, and multiple postings to the hospital's Facebook and Twitter accounts. Community members provided feedback by completing paper or electronic comment cards. A total of 428 community members attended the four town hall meetings and seven focus group sessions. Attendance at each meeting ranged from 4 to 20 attendees for the town hall meetings and 8 to 140 attendees for the focus groups. The investigation's external website received 626 unique visitors and the intranet website received 528 unique visits. Social media postings on Facebook and Twitter received six comments and eight "likes" to indicate that an individual read the posting. In total, attendees completed 175 comment cards to provide their feedback. Community member attitudes regarding the

  14. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  15. Single-trial EEG-informed fMRI reveals spatial dependency of BOLD signal on early and late IC-ERP amplitudes during face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsich, Jonathan; Bénar, Christian; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Descoins, Médéric; Soulier, Elisabeth; Le Troter, Arnaud; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Guye, Maxime

    2014-10-15

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI has opened up new avenues for improving the spatio-temporal resolution of functional brain studies. However, this method usually suffers from poor EEG quality, especially for evoked potentials (ERPs), due to specific artifacts. As such, the use of EEG-informed fMRI analysis in the context of cognitive studies has particularly focused on optimizing narrow ERP time windows of interest, which ignores the rich diverse temporal information of the EEG signal. Here, we propose to use simultaneous EEG-fMRI to investigate the neural cascade occurring during face recognition in 14 healthy volunteers by using the successive ERP peaks recorded during the cognitive part of this process. N170, N400 and P600 peaks, commonly associated with face recognition, were successfully and reproducibly identified for each trial and each subject by using a group independent component analysis (ICA). For the first time we use this group ICA to extract several independent components (IC) corresponding to the sequence of activation and used single-trial peaks as modulation parameters in a general linear model (GLM) of fMRI data. We obtained an occipital-temporal-frontal stream of BOLD signal modulation, in accordance with the three successive IC-ERPs providing an unprecedented spatio-temporal characterization of the whole cognitive process as defined by BOLD signal modulation. By using this approach, the pattern of EEG-informed BOLD modulation provided improved characterization of the network involved than the fMRI-only analysis or the source reconstruction of the three ERPs; the latter techniques showing only two regions in common localized in the occipital lobe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  17. Synthesis of a molecularly defined single-active site heterogeneous catalyst for selective oxidation of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing; Pang, Shaofeng; Wei, Zhihong; Jiao, Haijun; Dai, Xingchao; Wang, Hongli; Shi, Feng

    2018-04-13

    Generally, a homogeneous catalyst exhibits good activity and defined active sites but it is difficult to recycle. Meanwhile, a heterogeneous catalyst can easily be reused but its active site is difficult to reveal. It is interesting to bridge the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis via controllable construction of a heterogeneous catalyst containing defined active sites. Here, we report that a molecularly defined, single-active site heterogeneous catalyst has been designed and prepared via the oxidative polymerization of maleimide derivatives. These polymaleimide derivatives can be active catalysts for the selective oxidation of heterocyclic compounds to quinoline and indole via the recycling of -C=O and -C-OH groups, which was confirmed by tracing the reaction with GC-MS using maleimide as the catalyst and by FT-IR analysis with polymaleimide as the catalyst. These results might promote the development of heterogeneous catalysts with molecularly defined single active sites exhibiting a comparable activity to homogeneous catalysts.

  18. Anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint recognition system using single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amit; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-08-01

    Fingerprint is a unique, un-alterable and easily collected biometric of a human being. Although it is a 3D biological characteristic, traditional methods are designed to provide only a 2D image. This touch based mapping of 3D shape to 2D image losses information and leads to nonlinear distortions. Moreover, as only topographic details are captured, conventional systems are potentially vulnerable to spoofing materials (e.g. artificial fingers, dead fingers, false prints, etc.). In this work, we demonstrate an anti-spoof touchless 3D fingerprint detection system using a combination of single shot fringe projection and biospeckle analysis. For fingerprint detection using fringe projection, light from a low power LED source illuminates a finger through a sinusoidal grating. The fringe pattern modulated because of features on the fingertip is captured using a CCD camera. Fourier transform method based frequency filtering is used for the reconstruction of 3D fingerprint from the captured fringe pattern. In the next step, for spoof detection using biospeckle analysis a visuo-numeric algorithm based on modified structural function and non-normalized histogram is proposed. High activity biospeckle patterns are generated because of interaction of collimated laser light with internal fluid flow of the real finger sample. This activity reduces abruptly in case of layered fake prints, and is almost absent in dead or fake fingers. Furthermore, the proposed setup is fast, low-cost, involves non-mechanical scanning and is highly stable.

  19. Carbon monoxide adsorption on low-silica zeolites: from single to dual and to multiple cation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero Areán, C; Rodríguez Delgado, M; López Bauçà, C; Vrbka, L; Nachtigall, P

    2007-09-07

    Infrared spectra of CO adsorbed on the Al-rich Na-A zeolite were analysed by using a combined theoretical and experimental approach, showing that such spectra cannot be interpreted by assigning each IR band to CO interacting with a specific type of single cation site. This concept, which usually works well for high-silica zeolites, should not be uncritically extended to Al-rich zeolites that are crowded with cations in configurations which lead to preferential formation of CO adsorption complexes involving more than one cation site.

  20. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  1. Emotion Recognition from Single-Trial EEG Based on Kernel Fisher’s Emotion Pattern and Imbalanced Quasiconformal Kernel Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram-based emotion recognition (EEG-ER has received increasing attention in the fields of health care, affective computing, and brain-computer interface (BCI. However, satisfactory ER performance within a bi-dimensional and non-discrete emotional space using single-trial EEG data remains a challenging task. To address this issue, we propose a three-layer scheme for single-trial EEG-ER. In the first layer, a set of spectral powers of different EEG frequency bands are extracted from multi-channel single-trial EEG signals. In the second layer, the kernel Fisher’s discriminant analysis method is applied to further extract features with better discrimination ability from the EEG spectral powers. The feature vector produced by layer 2 is called a kernel Fisher’s emotion pattern (KFEP, and is sent into layer 3 for further classification where the proposed imbalanced quasiconformal kernel support vector machine (IQK-SVM serves as the emotion classifier. The outputs of the three layer EEG-ER system include labels of emotional valence and arousal. Furthermore, to collect effective training and testing datasets for the current EEG-ER system, we also use an emotion-induction paradigm in which a set of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS are employed as emotion induction stimuli. The performance of the proposed three-layer solution is compared with that of other EEG spectral power-based features and emotion classifiers. Results on 10 healthy participants indicate that the proposed KFEP feature performs better than other spectral power features, and IQK-SVM outperforms traditional SVM in terms of the EEG-ER accuracy. Our findings also show that the proposed EEG-ER scheme achieves the highest classification accuracies of valence (82.68% and arousal (84.79% among all testing methods.

  2. A conserved motif in the linker domain of STAT1 transcription factor is required for both recognition and release from high-affinity DNA-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntelmann, Bettina; Staab, Julia; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Binding to specific palindromic sequences termed gamma-activated sites (GAS) is a hallmark of gene activation by members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of cytokine-inducible transcription factors. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the signal-dependent finding of target genes by STAT dimers have not yet been very well studied. In this study, we have characterized a sequence motif in the STAT1 linker domain which is highly conserved among the seven human STAT proteins and includes surface-exposed residues in close proximity to the bound DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that a lysine residue in position 567 of the full-length molecule is required for GAS recognition. The substitution of alanine for this residue completely abolished both binding to high-affinity GAS elements and transcriptional activation of endogenous target genes in cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ), while the time course of transient nuclear accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation were virtually unchanged. In contrast, two glutamic acid residues (E559 and E563) on each monomer are important for the dissociation of dimeric STAT1 from DNA and, when mutated to alanine, result in elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as well as prolonged IFNγ-stimulated nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that the kinetics of signal-dependent GAS binding is determined by an array of glutamic acid residues located at the interior surface of the STAT1 dimer. These negatively charged residues appear to align the long axis of the STAT1 dimer in a position perpendicular to the DNA, thereby facilitating the interaction between lysine 567 and the phosphodiester backbone of a bound GAS element, which is a prerequisite for transient gene induction.

  3. Selective alkane activation with single-site atoms on amorphous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Adam S.; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hu, Bo

    2015-11-24

    The present invention relates generally to catalysts and methods for use in olefin production. More particularly, the present invention relates to novel amorphously supported single-center, Lewis acid metal ions and use of the same as catalysts.

  4. Single-site Lennard-Jones models via polynomial chaos surrogates of Monte Carlo molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Siripatana, Adil; Sun, Shuyu; Knio, Omar; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two Polynomial Chaos (PC) surrogates were generated to reproduce Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation results of the canonical (single-phase) and the NVT-Gibbs (two-phase) ensembles for a system of normalized structureless Lennard

  5. A Single-hole stone anchor from Kottapatnam: Early historic port site of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Rao, K.P.; Kumari, S.; Imsong, O.; Vanlalhruaitluangi, V.

    of Kottapatnam and this is the first stone anchor reported from Andhra coast. In this paper the single hole stone anchor has been detailed along with its probable period and the trade contacts of Kottapatnam as a port...

  6. Real-Time Visualization of Active Species in a Single-Site Metal–Organic Framework Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sizhuo [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Pattengale, Brian [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Lee, Sungsik [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60349, United States; Huang, Jier [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States

    2018-02-06

    In this work, we report a new single-site photocatalyst (Co-Ru-UIO- 67(bpy)) based on a metal-organic framework platform with incorporated molecular photosensitizer and catalyst. We show that this catalyst not only demonstrates exceptional activity for light-driven H2 production but also can be recycled without loss of activity. Using the combination of optical transient absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we not only captured the key CoI intermediate species formed after ultrafast charge transfer from the incorporated photosensitizer but also identified the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle, providing insight into the catalysis mechanism of these single-site metal-organic framework photocatalysts.

  7. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  8. Characterization of the corrosion behavior of the carbon steel liner in Hanford Site single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Schwenk, E.B.; Danielson, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    Six safety initiatives have been identified for accelerating the resolution of waste tank safety issues and closure of unreviewed safety questions. Safety Initiative 5 is to reduce safety and environmental risk from tank leaks. Item d of Safety Initiative 5 is to complete corrosion studies of single-shell tanks to determine failure mechanisms and corrosion control options to minimize further degradation by June 1994. This report has been prepared to fulfill Safety Initiative 5, Item d. The corrosion mechanisms that apply to Hanford Site single-shell tanks are stress corrosion cracking, pitting/crevice corrosion, uniform corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. The corrosion data relevant to the single-shell tanks dates back three decades, when results were obtained from in-situ corrosion coupons in a few single-shell tanks. Since that time there have been intertank transfers, evaporation, and chemical alterations of the waste. These activities have changed the character and the present composition of the waste is not well characterized. All conclusions and recommendations are made in the absence of relevant laboratory experimental data and tank inspection data. The report attempts to identify the failure mechanisms by a literature survey of carbon steel data in environments similar to the single-shell tank wastes, and by a review of the work performed at the Savannah River Site where similar wastes are stored in similar carbon steel tanks. Based on these surveys, and in the absence of data specific to Hanford single-shell tanks, it may be concluded that the single-shell tanks identified as leakers failed primarily by stress corrosion cracking due to the presence of high nitrate/low hydroxide wastes and residual stresses. In addition, some failures may be attributed to pitting under crevices in low hydroxide locations

  9. Laparoendoscopic single-site repair of bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device: initial experience of treatment for a traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Wook

    2012-06-01

    We report our initial experience with a laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) repair of a bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device. A 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complaints of voiding difficulty and gross hematuria after blunt trauma. Cystography and computed tomography revealed an intraperitoneal bladder rupture. The patient underwent LESS repair of a bladder rupture using the Alexis wound retractor, which was inserted through the umbilical incision. A home-made single-port device was made by fixing 6½ surgical gloves to the outer rim of the retractor and securing the glove finger to the end of 3 trocars with a tie. Using the flexible laparoscopic instruments and rigid instruments, LESS surgery was performed using a procedure similar to conventional laparoscopic surgery. The patient did not have any voiding problem after removal of the urethral Foley catheter on the 10th postoperative day. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of LESS repair of a traumatic bladder rupture using a home-made single-port device in the literature.

  10. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M

    1992-01-01

    -6972]. To further investigate the nature of this long-range electron transfer (LRET) proceeding within the protein matrix, we have now investigated it in two azurins where amino acids have been substituted by single-site mutation of the wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. In one mutated protein, a methionine...... the reorganization energy, lambda and electronic coupling factor, beta. The calculated values fit very well with a through-bond LRET mechanism....

  11. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan

    2017-05-01

    Single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assays have been a powerful approach to study various aspects on the mechanism of DNA replication for more than a decade. This technique depends on flow-induced force on a bead attached to a surface-tethered DNA. The difference in the elastic property between double-strand DNA (long) and single-strand DNA (short) at low regime force allows the observation of the beads motion when the dsDNA is converted to ssDNA by the replisome machinery during DNA replication. Here, I aim to develop an assay to track in real-time the encounter of the bacteriophage T7 replisome with abasic lesion site inserted on the leading strand template. I optimized methods to construct the DNA substrate that contains the abasic site and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image the encounter of the T7 replisome with abasic site and to characterize how the interactions between the helicase and the polymerase could influence the polymerase proofreading ability and its direct bypass of this highly common DNA damage type.

  12. Ionic Exchange of Metal-Organic Frameworks to Access Single Nickel Sites for Efficient Electroreduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changming; Dai, Xinyao; Yao, Tao; Chen, Wenxing; Wang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jian; Wei, Shiqiang; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2017-06-21

    Single-atom catalysts often exhibit unexpected catalytic activity for many important chemical reactions because of their unique electronic and geometric structures with respect to their bulk counterparts. Herein we adopt metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to assist the preparation of a catalyst containing single Ni sites for efficient electroreduction of CO 2 . The synthesis is based on ionic exchange between Zn nodes and adsorbed Ni ions within the cavities of the MOF. This single-atom catalyst exhibited an excellent turnover frequency for electroreduction of CO 2 (5273 h -1 ), with a Faradaic efficiency for CO production of over 71.9% and a current density of 10.48 mA cm -2 at an overpotential of 0.89 V. Our findings present some guidelines for the rational design and accurate modulation of nanostructured catalysts at the atomic scale.

  13. Comparison of different sets of instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in a surgical simulator with novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Shi, Long-Qing; Wang, Jing-Min; Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Ji, Zhen-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Given the parallel entry of working instruments through a single incision in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, loss of triangulation in the abdominal cavity and counteracting movements of the instruments are inevitable obstacles. Some specially designed devices have emerged to ameliorate these challenges. Twenty-four novice participants were randomized into four groups using assigned instruments, conventional straight instruments, single-curved instruments, double-curved instruments and articulating instruments, respectively, to perform two basic tasks (peg transferring and pattern cutting) 14 times in a modified simulator. A test of the tasks and a resection of the intestine segment of a rat were performed. The task scores and evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of the intestine segment were recorded. The instrument of modified National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was completed. The task scores of the groups using single-curved instruments and articulating instruments were better than the other two groups on the simulator tasks, consistent with the evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of intestine segment. As the proficiency with the instruments increased, the task scores improved, as demonstrated by the learning curve. The workload measured by the modified NASA-TLX tool demonstrated that the groups using articulating instruments and double-curved instruments had a heavier workload in most of the categories compared with the other two groups. Single-curved and articulating instruments are more effective than conventional straight and double-curved devices, and are favourable in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for novice learners. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Capillary electrophoretic enantioseparation of basic drugs using a new single-isomer cyclodextrin derivative and theoretical study of the chiral recognition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjing; Deng, Miaoduo; Yu, Jia; Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Xingjie

    2016-05-01

    A novel single-isomer cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis {2,6-di-O-[3-(1,3-dicarboxyl propylamino)-2-hydroxypropyl]}-β-cyclodextrin (glutamic acid-β-cyclodextrin) was synthesized and used as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis for the enantioseparation of 12 basic drugs, including terbutaline, clorprenaline, tulobuterol, clenbuterol, procaterol, carvedilol, econazole, miconazole, homatropine methyl bromide, brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and pheniramine. The primary factors affecting separation efficiency, which include the background electrolyte pH, the concentration of glutamic acid-β-cyclodextrin and phosphate buffer concentration, were investigated. Satisfactory enantioseparations were obtained using an uncoated fused-silica capillary of 50 cm (effective length 40 cm) × 50 μm id with 120 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5-4.0) containing 0.5-4.5 mM glutamic acid-β-cyclodextrin as background electrolyte. A voltage of 20 kV was applied and the capillary temperature was kept at 20°C. The results proved that glutamic acid-β-cyclodextrin was an effective chiral selector for studied 12 basic drugs. Moreover, the possible chiral recognition mechanism of brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and pheniramine on glutamic acid-β-cyclodextrin was investigated using the semi-empirical Parametric Method 3. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka L. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved.

  16. Site-Based Services for Residents of Single-Room Occupancy Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1997-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of an innovative site-based service program, the Growth and Achievement Program (GAP). Results show that GAP clients had significantly higher gain scores than did the comparison group and were less likely to rely on public financial assistance as their primary source of income. (RJM)

  17. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  18. Evaluation of accuracy in implant site preparation performed in single- or multi-step drilling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marheineke, Nadine; Scherer, Uta; Rücker, Martin; von See, Constantin; Rahlf, Björn; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Stoetzer, Marcus

    2018-06-01

    Dental implant failure and insufficient osseointegration are proven results of mechanical and thermal damage during the surgery process. We herein performed a comparative study of a less invasive single-step drilling preparation protocol and a conventional multiple drilling sequence. Accuracy of drilling holes was precisely analyzed and the influence of different levels of expertise of the handlers and additional use of drill template guidance was evaluated. Six experimental groups, deployed in an osseous study model, were representing template-guided and freehanded drilling actions in a stepwise drilling procedure in comparison to a single-drill protocol. Each experimental condition was studied by the drilling actions of respectively three persons without surgical knowledge as well as three highly experienced oral surgeons. Drilling actions were performed and diameters were recorded with a precision measuring instrument. Less experienced operators were able to significantly increase the drilling accuracy using a guiding template, especially when multi-step preparations are performed. Improved accuracy without template guidance was observed when experienced operators were executing single-step versus multi-step technique. Single-step drilling protocols have shown to produce more accurate results than multi-step procedures. The outcome of any protocol can be further improved by use of guiding templates. Operator experience can be a contributing factor. Single-step preparations are less invasive and are promoting osseointegration. Even highly experienced surgeons are achieving higher levels of accuracy by combining this technique with template guidance. Hereby template guidance enables a reduction of hands-on time and side effects during surgery and lead to a more predictable clinical diameter.

  19. Multiple nucleophilic elbows leading to multiple active sites in a single module esterase from Sorangium cellulosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D.B.R.K. Gupta; Madsen, Karina Marie; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic residues in carbohydrate esterase enzyme families constitute a highly conserved triad: serine, histidine and aspartic acid. This catalytic triad is generally located in a very sharp turn of the protein backbone structure, called the nucleophilic elbow and identified by the consensus...... sequence GXSXG. An esterase from Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 that contains five nucleophilic elbows was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the function of each nucleophilic elbowed site was characterized. In order to elucidate the function of each nucleophilic elbow, site directed mutagenesis....... To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting the role of multiple nucleophilic elbows in the catalytic promiscuity of an esterase. Further structural analysis at protein unit level indicates the new evolutionary trajectories in emerging promiscuous esterases....

  20. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery for the Treatment of Benign Adnexal Disease: A Prospective Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fagotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To validate feasibility, efficacy, and safeness of laparoscopic treatment of benign adnexal diseases through a single transumbilical access (LESS in a prospective series of patients. Methods. A prospective clinical trial including 30 women has been conducted at the Division of Gynecology of Catholic University of Sacred Hearth of Rome. Patients underwent different laparoscopic procedures by LESS utilizing a multiport trocar and conventional straight laparoscopic instrumentation. Intra and perioperative outcome has been reported. Results. Ten mono/bilateral adnexectomies and 20 cystectomies have been performed by LESS approach. Laparoscopic procedures were completed through a single access in 28 cases (93.4%. No major intra- or postoperative complications were observed. Mean hospital stay was 1.3 days. Conclusions. LESS approach is feasible to treat benign adnexal disease with a very low conversion rate and no early or late complications. More clinical data are needed to confirm these advantages compared to standard laparoscopic technique.

  1. Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.S.; Stout, L.A.; Napier, B.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented

  2. Photoemission and electron-stimulated desorption studies of H on W(110): Single- versus two-binding-site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, S.

    1982-01-01

    The chemisorption of H on W(110) at room temperature is studied with the use of angle-integrated photoemission and electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). The ESD cross sections of H + are found to be sol low that no significant H + signals with meaningful ion energy distributions are observed. The photoemission results show, however, two types of H adatoms, referred to as β 2 and β 1 states, for this chemisorptive system. Both states are found to appear simultaneously rather than sequentially as suggested by previous studies, and exhibit a simple 1-theta adsorption kinetics with different initial sticking coefficients. The β 2 state induces two binding energy levels at -2.0 and -6.0 eV, respectively, whereas the β 1 state induces a level at -3.8 eV. The work-function change (with a maximum value of -0.45 eV) is found to follow exactly with the intensity of the β 2 state. These results are found to be compatible with the two-binding-site model, inherently suggested by the reflection high-enery electron-diffraction data. However, the results can also be consistent with a single-binding-site model suggested by a recent angle-resolved photoemission and inelastic electron scattering study. A model based on the present results is proposed and critically compared with previous studies. Unresolved problems associated with both single- and two-binding-site models are also discussed

  3. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for the treatment of different urologic pathologies in pediatrics: single-center single-surgeon experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Aly M; Elmissery, Mostafa; Elsalmy, Salah; Moussa, Ahmed; Aboelfotoh, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Recently LESS has been reported as a valid minimally option for treatment of some urologic pathologies in pediatrics. However, the initial reports of pediatric LESS are still limited to case reports and initial case series. This may be due to the inherent technical difficulty of LESS and the currently available LESS instruments. In this report, we present the largest case series of pediatric LESS for treatment of different urologic pathologies in pediatrics. Included in this study are children who had LESS during the period of January 2011 to June 2013. Both Olympus TriPort (Olympus, New York, USA and Advance Surgical Concept, Wicklow, Ireland) and Covedien SILS access port (Covedien, Chicopec, Massachusetts, USA) were used and were inserted through the umbilicus. Exclusion criteria included children less than 3 years old, history of previous transperitoneal abdominal surgery, malignant indications, and complex urogenital congenital anomalies. All LESS procedures were done by a single experienced laparoscopist and data were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-two children had 39 LESS procedures without conversion to conventional laparoscopy or open surgery. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported and no extra-port was added in any of the patients. The following table shows the mean age, operative time, hospital stay, VAS as well as the overall mean of different LESS procedures. In all patients the umbilical scar was invisible and all patients and their parents had high wound satisfaction. At a mean follow up of 18.6 ± 6.4 months, all patients with UPJO had successful repair. Our study included 13 boys with undescended testis who were managed in different ways according to the length of spermatic vessels and the size of the testis. One of the arguments against LESS management of undescended testis is that it requires a 2.5-cm incision, which is collectively larger than a 5-mm camera and two 3-mm working ports of conventional laparoscopy. However

  4. Single cobalt sites in mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix for selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui

    2017-11-20

    A supported cobalt catalyst with atomically dispersed Co-Nx sites (3.5 wt% Co) in a mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix (named Co@mesoNC) is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) in a Zn/Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework (BIMZIF(Co,Zn)), followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and SiO2 leaching. A combination of TEM, XRD XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies confirm the absence of cobalt nanoparticles and indicate that these highly dispersed cobalt species are present in the form of Co-Nx. The exclusive formation of Co-Nx sites in the carbon matrix is attributed to the presence of a large amount of Zn and N in the BIMZIF precursor together with the presence of SiO2 in the pore space of this framework, extending the initial spatial distance between cobalt atoms and thereby impeding their agglomeration. The presence of SiO2 during high-temperature pyrolysis is proven crucial to create mesoporosity and a high BET area and pore volume in the N-doped carbon support (1780 m2 g−1, 1.54 cm3 g−1). This heterogeneous Co@mesoNC catalyst displays high activity and selectivity (>99%) for the selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline at mild conditions (0.5–3 MPa, 343–383 K). When more challenging substrates (functionalized nitroarenes) are hydrogenated, the catalyst Co@mesoNC displays an excellent chemoselectivity to the corresponding substituted anilines.The presence of mesoporosity improves mass transport of reactants and/or products and the accessibility of the active Co-Nx sites, and greatly reduces deactivation due to fouling.

  5. Single cobalt sites in mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix for selective catalytic hydrogenation of nitroarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiaohui; Olivos-Suarez, Alma I.; Osadchii, Dmitrii; Romero, Maria Jose Valero; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    A supported cobalt catalyst with atomically dispersed Co-Nx sites (3.5 wt% Co) in a mesoporous N-doped carbon matrix (named Co@mesoNC) is synthesized by hydrolysis of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) in a Zn/Co bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate framework (BIMZIF(Co,Zn)), followed by high-temperature pyrolysis and SiO2 leaching. A combination of TEM, XRD XPS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies confirm the absence of cobalt nanoparticles and indicate that these highly dispersed cobalt species are present in the form of Co-Nx. The exclusive formation of Co-Nx sites in the carbon matrix is attributed to the presence of a large amount of Zn and N in the BIMZIF precursor together with the presence of SiO2 in the pore space of this framework, extending the initial spatial distance between cobalt atoms and thereby impeding their agglomeration. The presence of SiO2 during high-temperature pyrolysis is proven crucial to create mesoporosity and a high BET area and pore volume in the N-doped carbon support (1780 m2 g−1, 1.54 cm3 g−1). This heterogeneous Co@mesoNC catalyst displays high activity and selectivity (>99%) for the selective hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline at mild conditions (0.5–3 MPa, 343–383 K). When more challenging substrates (functionalized nitroarenes) are hydrogenated, the catalyst Co@mesoNC displays an excellent chemoselectivity to the corresponding substituted anilines.The presence of mesoporosity improves mass transport of reactants and/or products and the accessibility of the active Co-Nx sites, and greatly reduces deactivation due to fouling.

  6. The development of a code of practice for single house on-site wastewater treatment in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W

    2011-01-01

    The performance of six separate percolation areas was intensively monitored to ascertain the attenuation effects of unsaturated subsoils with respect to on-site wastewater effluent: three sites receiving septic tank effluent, the other three sites receiving secondary treated effluent. The development of a biomat across the percolation areas receiving secondary treated effluent was restricted on these sites compared to those sites receiving septic tank effluent. This created significant differences in terms of the hydraulic loading on the percolation areas with implications for the transport and attenuation of indicator microorganisms and nitrogen down through the subsoils and into the groundwater. The results of this work have formed a large input into the production of a new Code of Practice Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems Serving Single Houses. This has led to changes in the design of on-site hydraulic loading from 180 L per capita per day (L/c.d) down to 150 L/c.d. The range of acceptable subsoils receiving septic tank effluent has narrowed for more highly permeable subsoils following a series of tracer studies using bacteriophages. However, the range has been extended for lower permeability subsoils (range 0.08 down to 0.06 m/d) receiving secondary treated effluent in order to encourage the effluent to spread further along the trenches. The maximum individual length of percolation trenches receiving secondary effluent has also been reduced to 10 m to encourage dispersion on a wider area. This paper thus highlights how research can directly feed into a Code of Practice.

  7. Hybrid Nanomaterials with Single-Site Catalysts by Spatially Controllable Immobilization of Nickel Complexes via Photoclick Chemistry for Alkene Epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dwaipayan; Febriansyah, Benny; Gupta, Disha; Ng, Leonard Kia-Sheun; Xi, Shibo; Du, Yonghua; Baikie, Tom; Dong, ZhiLi; Soo, Han Sen

    2018-05-22

    Catalyst deactivation is a persistent problem not only for the scientific community but also in industry. Isolated single-site heterogeneous catalysts have shown great promise to overcome these problems. Here, a versatile anchoring strategy for molecular complex immobilization on a broad range of semiconducting or insulating metal oxide ( e. g., titanium dioxide, mesoporous silica, cerium oxide, and tungsten oxide) nanoparticles to synthesize isolated single-site catalysts has been studied systematically. An oxidatively stable anchoring group, maleimide, is shown to form covalent linkages with surface hydroxyl functionalities of metal oxide nanoparticles by photoclick chemistry. The nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by techniques including UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The IR spectroscopic studies confirm the covalent linkages between the maleimide group and surface hydroxyl functionalities of the oxide nanoparticles. The hybrid nanomaterials function as highly efficient catalysts for essentially quantitative oxidations of terminal and internal alkenes and show molecular catalyst product selectivities even in more eco-friendly solvents. XAS studies verify the robustness of the catalysts after several catalytic cycles. We have applied the photoclick anchoring methodology to precisely control the deposition of a luminescent variant of our catalyst on the metal oxide nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate a general approach to use irradiation to anchor molecular complexes on oxide nanoparticles to create recyclable, hybrid, single-site catalysts that function with high selectivity in a broad range of solvents. We have achieved a facile, spatially and temporally controllable photoclick method that can potentially be extended to other ligands, catalysts, functional molecules, and surfaces.

  8. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk

  9. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  10. Evaluation of a Single-Beam Sonar System to Map Seagrass at Two Sites in Northern Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Finlayson, David P.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seagrass at two sites in northern Puget Sound, Possession Point and nearby Browns Bay, was mapped using both a single-beam sonar and underwater video camera. The acoustic and underwater video data were compared to evaluate the accuracy of acoustic estimates of seagrass cover. The accuracy of the acoustic method was calculated for three classifications of seagrass observed in underwater video: bare (no seagrass), patchy seagrass, and continuous seagrass. Acoustic and underwater video methods agreed in 92 percent and 74 percent of observations made in bare and continuous areas, respectively. However, in patchy seagrass, the agreement between acoustic and underwater video was poor (43 percent). The poor agreement between the two methods in areas with patchy seagrass is likely because the two instruments were not precisely colocated. The distribution of seagrass at the two sites differed both in overall percent vegetated and in the distribution of percent cover versus depth. On the basis of acoustic data, seagrass inhabited 0.29 km2 (19 percent of total area) at Possession Point and 0.043 km2 (5 percent of total area) at the Browns Bay study site. The depth distribution at the two sites was markedly different. Whereas the majority of seagrass at Possession Point occurred between -0.5 and -1.5 m MLLW, most seagrass at Browns Bay occurred at a greater depth, between -2.25 and -3.5 m MLLW. Further investigation of the anthropogenic and natural factors causing these differences in distribution is needed.

  11. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  12. Functionalization of silicon-doped single walled carbon nanotubes at the doping site: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chen; Xia Yueyuan; Zhao Mingwen; Liu Xiangdong; Li Feng; Huang Boda; Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Bingyun

    2006-01-01

    We performed ab initio calculations on the cytosine-functionalized silicon-doped single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The results show that silicon substitutional doping to SWNT can dramatically change the atomic and electronic structures of the SWNT. And more importantly, it may provide an efficient pathway for further sidewall functionalization to synthesize more complicated SWNT based complex materials, for example, our previously proposed base-functionalized SWNTs, because the doping silicon atom can improve the reaction activity of the tube at the doping site due to its preference to form sp3 hybridization bonding

  13. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  14. Repeated detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in dead bats found at a single roost site in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Ashley C; Johnson, N; Voller, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Hartley, M; Fooks, A R

    2009-01-01

    In August 2007, European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was isolated from a Daubenton's bat found at Stokesay Castle. In September 2008, another bat from the same vicinity of Stokesay Castle also tested positive for EBLV-2. This is the first occurrence of repeated detection of EBLV-2 from a single site. Here, we report the detection of low levels of viral RNA in various bat organs by qRT-PCR and detection of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry. We also report sequence data from both cases and compare data with those derived from other EBLV-2 isolations in the UK.

  15. Point-of-Care Determination of Acetaminophen Levels with Multi-Hydrogen Bond Manipulated Single-Molecule Recognition (eMuHSiR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Huang, Zhongyuan; Wang, Letao; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Changde; Wiese, Tomas; Wang, Guangdi; Riley, Kevin; Wang, Zhe

    2018-04-03

    This work aims to face the challenge of monitoring small molecule drugs accurately and rapidly for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis in current clinical settings. Overdose of acetaminophen (AP), a commonly used over the counter (OTC) analgesic drug, has been determined to be a major cause of acute liver failure in the US and the UK. However, there is no rapid and accurate detection method available for this drug in the emergency room. The present study examined an AP sensing strategy that relies on a previously unexplored strong interaction between AP and the arginine (Arg) molecule. It was found that as many as 4 hydrogen bonds can be formed between one Arg molecule and one AP molecule. By taking advantages of this structural selectivity and high tenability of hydrogen bonds, Arg, immobilized on a graphene surface via electrostatic interactions, was utilized to structurally capture AP. Interestingly, bonded AP still remained the perfect electrochemical activities. The extent of Arg-AP bonds was quantified using a newly designed electrochemical (EC) sensor. To verify the feasibility of this novel assay, based on multihydrogen bond manipulated single-molecule recognition (eMuHSiR), both pharmaceutical and serum sample were examined. In commercial tablet measurement, no significant difference was seen between the results of eMuHSiR and other standard methods. For measuring AP concentration in the mice blood, the substances in serum, such as sugars and fats, would not bring any interference to the eMuHSiR in a wide concentration range. This eMuHSiR method opens the way for future development of small molecule detection for the POC testing.

  16. Robotic-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS) in urology: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, E; Sanchez-Salas, R; Ercolani, M; Forgues, A; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (R-LESS). A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). All clinical and investigative reports for robotic LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A significant number of clinical urological procedures have been successfully completed utilizing R-LESS procedures. The available experience is limited to referral centers, where the case volume is sufficient to help overcome the challenges and learning curve of LESS surgery. The robotic interface remains the best fit for LESS procedures but its mode of use continues to evolve in attempts to improve surgical technique. We stand today at the dawn of R-LESS surgery, but this approach may well become the standard of care in the near future. Further technological development is needed to allow widespread adoption of the technique.

  17. Isospecific propylene polymerization with in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine)zirconium and hafnium single site catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makio, Haruyuki; Prasad, Aitha Vishwa; Terao, Hiroshi; Saito, Junji; Fujita, Terunori

    2013-07-07

    Bis(phenoxy-imine) Zr and Hf complexes were activated with (i)Bu3Al or (i)Bu2AlH in conjunction with Ph3CB(C6F5)4 and tested as catalysts for propylene polymerization with emphasis on the enantioselectivity of the isospecific species and the single site polymerization characteristics. The isoselective species was identified as the in situ generated bis(phenoxy-amine) complex whose isoselectivity was sensitive to subtle changes in ligand structure. By employing specific substituents at certain key positions the isotacticity reached an extremely high level comparable to high-end commercial isotactic polypropylenes (Tm > 160 °C). Single site polymerization characteristics depended upon the efficiency and selectivity of the in situ imine reduction which is sensitive to the substituent on the imine nitrogen and the reaction conditions. By using (i)Bu2AlH as a reducing agent, quantitative imine reduction can be achieved with a stoichiometric amount of the reducing agent. This lower alkylaluminum loading is beneficial for the catalyst and significantly enhances the polymerization activity and the molecular weight of the resultant polymer.

  18. Alkali-labile sites and post-irradiation effects in single-stranded DNA induced by H radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Heuvel, N. van; Woldhuis, J.; Loman, H.

    1978-01-01

    Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites were formed. One was lethal and gave rise to single-strand breaks by alkali and was most probably identical with post-irradiation heat damage and contributed about 33 per cent to the inactivation mentioned above. The other consisted of non-lethal damage, partly dihydropyrimidine derivatives, and was converted to lethal damage by alkali. This followed from experiments in which the DNA was treated with osmium-tetroxide, which oxidized thymine to 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine. Treatment with alkali of this DNA gave the same temperature dependence as found for the non-lethal alkali-labile sites in irradiated DNA. A similar temperature dependence was found for dihydrothymine and irradiated pyrimidines with alkali. (author)

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder: a single-site experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhou, Jin; Cai, Hongzhou; Xu, Ting; Xu, Zicheng; Zou, Qing; Gu, Min

    2015-01-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignancy. Radical surgery is suggested as the best available treatment for early-stage disease, but there is currently no consensus on standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced stage. We assessed the feasibility and effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) plus S-1 for patients with locally advanced primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder. Six patients with locally advanced urachal or non-urachal (n = 3, each) primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder were treated from October 2010 to October 2013 at a single center. All the patients were treated with 3 cycles (21d, each) of GC plus S-1 (gemcitabine, 1000 mg/m2, days 1 and 8; cisplatin, 70 mg/m2, day 2; and S-1, 50 mg bid, day 1-14). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, patients with urachal cancer were treated with en bloc radical cystectomy and umbilectomy; the remaining 3 patients were treated with cystectomy. All patients successfully completed the neoadjuvant chemotherapy without serious side effects. Two patients were assessed as complete response, 2 as partial response, 1 as stable disease and 1 as progressive disease. Despite the limitations of a small study population, the GC plus S-1 regimen for locally advanced primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder was effective, and facilitated the success of surgery to a certain extent. Short follow-up time was also a limitation of our study. More studies are needed to evaluate the results.

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of placental site trophoblastic tumor: experience of single institution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Joo; Shin, Wonkyo; Jang, Yun Jeong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2018-05-01

    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is the rarest form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and the optimum management is still controversial. In this study, we analyzed the clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of 6 consecutive patients with PSTT treated in our institution. The electronic medical record database of Samsung Medical Center was screened to identify patients with PSTT from 1994 to 2017. Medical records for the details of each patient's clinical features and treatment were extracted and reviewed. This study was approved Institutional Review Board of our hospital. A total of 418 cases of GTD, 6 (1.4%) patients with PSTT were identified. The median age of the patients was 31 years. The antecedent pregnancy was term in all 5 cases with available antecedent pregnancy information and the median interval from pregnancy to diagnosis of PSTT was 8 months. The median titer of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) at diagnosis was 190.9 mIU/mL. Five (83.3%) patients presented with irregular vaginal bleeding and one (16.7%) had amenorrhea. All patients had disease confined to the uterus without metastasis at diagnosis and were successfully treated by hysterectomy alone. All of them were alive without disease during the follow-up period. In this study, we observed low level serum β-hCG titer and irregular vaginal bleeding with varying interval after antecedent term pregnancy were most common presenting features of PSTT. In addition, we demonstrated hysterectomy alone was successful for the treatment of stage I disease of PSTT.

  1. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  2. Ovarian Suspension With Adjustable Sutures: An Easy and Helpful Technique for Facilitating Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Hu; Chen, Li-Ru; Seow, Kok-Min

    2015-01-01

    To describe a method of ovarian suspension with adjustable sutures (OSAS) for facilitating laparoendoscopic single-site gynecologic surgery (LESS) and to investigate the effect of OSAS on LESS. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification: II-2). University teaching hospital. One hundred seventy-eight patients with benign 5- to 15-cm cystic ovarian tumors who underwent LESS with OSAS (suspension group, n = 90) and without OSAS (control group, n = 88). For patients who underwent OSAS (suspension group), 1 end of double-head straight needles with a polypropylene suture was inserted into the pelvic cavity through the abdominal skin to penetrate the cyst or ovarian parenchyma and puncture outside the abdominal skin. After cutting off the needles, both sides of the remaining suture were held together by a clamp, without knotting, so that the manipulator could "lift," "loosen," or "fix" the stitches to adjust the tension. The average time to create OSAS was 2.9 min. For the suspension and control groups, the average blood loss was 81.4 and 131.8 mL (p < .001), and the operative time was 42.0 and 61.3 min (p < .001), respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of complications (5.6% vs 9.1%; p = .365), but there were significant differences in conversions to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (5.6% vs 15.9%; p = .025) and laparotomy (1.1% vs 6.8%; p = .040). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the ratios of conversion to standard non-single-site laparoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 0.126; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.311-0.508) and laparotomy (OR, 0.032; 95% CI, 0.002-0.479) were much lower in the suspension group; the risk of complications was comparable (OR, 0.346; 95% CI, 0.085-1.403). OSAS is an easy, safe, and feasible method that offers advantages during LESS. Although routine use of OSAS is not necessary, OSAS can be considered during LESS to facilitate the surgery. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Site-specific ligation of anthracene-1,8-dicarboxylates to an Mn12 core: a route to the controlled functionalisation of single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Mirko; Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio C; Zobbi, Laura; Bonacchi, Daniele; Caneschi, Andrea; Chastanet, Guillaume; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta

    2004-11-21

    A novel single-molecule magnet of the Mn12 family, [Mn12O12(O2CC6H5)8(L)4(H2O)4].8CH2Cl2, has been synthesised by site-specific ligand exchange using a tailor-made dicarboxylate (L2-), which leads to selective occupation of axial binding sites.

  4. Robust Bioinformatics Recognition with VLSI Biochip Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Jaw-Chyng L.; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2006-01-01

    A microsystem architecture for real-time, on-site, robust bioinformatic patterns recognition and analysis has been proposed. This system is compatible with on-chip DNA analysis means such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)amplification. A corresponding novel artificial neural network (ANN) learning algorithm using new sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on error backpropagation (EBP) algorithm is invented. Our results show the trained new ANN can recognize low fluorescence patterns better than the conventional sigmoidal ANN does. A differential logarithmic imaging chip is designed for calculating logarithm of relative intensities of fluorescence signals. The single-rail logarithmic circuit and a prototype ANN chip are designed, fabricated and characterized.

  5. Site characterization and validation - equipment design and techniques used in single borehole hydraulic testing, simulated drift experiment and crosshole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.C.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and techniques used to investigate the variation of hydrogeological parameters within a fractured crystalline rock mass. The testing program was performed during stage 3 of the site characterization and validation programme at the Stripa mine in Sweden. This programme used a multidisciplinary approach, combining geophysical, geological and hydrogeological methods, to determine how groundwater moved through the rock mass. The hydrogeological work package involved three components. Firstly, novel single borehole techniques (focused packer testing) were used to determine the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and head along individual boreholes. Secondly, water was abstracted from boreholes which were drilled to simulate a tunnel (simulated drift experiment). Locations and magnitudes of flows were measured together with pressure responses at various points in the SCV rock mass. Thirdly, small scale crosshole tests, involving detailed interference testing, were used to determine the variability of hydrogeological parameters within previously identified, significant flow zones. (au)

  6. Wegner estimate and localization for alloy-type models with sign-changing exponentially decaying single-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karsten; Peyerimhoff, Norbert; Tautenhahn, Martin; Veselić, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    We study Schrödinger operators on L2(ℝd) and ℓ2(ℤd) with a random potential of alloy-type. The single-site potential is assumed to be exponentially decaying but not necessarily of fixed sign. In the continuum setting, we require a generalized step-function shape. Wegner estimates are bounds on the average number of eigenvalues in an energy interval of finite box restrictions of these types of operators. In the described situation, a Wegner estimate, which is polynomial in the volume of the box and linear in the size of the energy interval, holds. We apply the established Wegner estimate as an ingredient for a localization proof via multiscale analysis.

  7. Current status and future perspectives in laparoendoscopic single-site and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic urological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autorino, Riccardo; Stein, Robert J; Lima, Estevão; Damiano, Rocco; Khanna, Rakesh; Haber, Georges-Pascal; White, Michael A; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2010-05-01

    Objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of scarless urological surgery. A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). In addition, experience with LESS and NOTES at our own institution has been considered. All clinical and investigative reports for LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A wide variety of clinical procedures in urology have been successfully completed by using LESS techniques. Thus far, experience with NOTES has largely been investigational, although early clinical reports are emerging. Further development of instrumentation and platforms is necessary for both techniques to become more widely adopted throughout the urological community.

  8. Anti-site defected MoS2 sheet-based single electron transistor as a gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Archana; Husain, Mushahid; Srivastava, Anurag; Khan, Mohd. Shahid

    2018-05-01

    To prevent harmful and poisonous CO gas molecules, catalysts are needed for converting them into benign substances. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to study the adsorption of CO and CO2 gas molecules on the surface of MoS2 monolayer with Mo atom embedded at S-vacancy site (MoS). The strong interaction between Mo metal with pristine MoS2 sheet suggests its strong binding nature. Doping Mo into MoS2 sheet enhances CO and CO2 adsorption strength. The sensing response of MoS-doped MoS2 system to CO and CO2 gas molecules is obtained in the single electron transistor (SET) environment by varying bias voltage. Doping reduces charging energy of the device which results in fast switching of the device from OFF to ON state.

  9. Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

  10. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  11. Substrate recognition by ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease MRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga; Perederina, Anna; Quan, Chao; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2011-02-01

    The ribonucleoprotein complex ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a site-specific endoribonuclease essential for the survival of the eukaryotic cell. RNase MRP closely resembles RNase P (a universal endoribonuclease responsible for the maturation of the 5' ends of tRNA) but recognizes distinct substrates including pre-rRNA and mRNA. Here we report the results of an in vitro selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP substrates starting from a pool of random sequences. The results indicate that RNase MRP cleaves single-stranded RNA and is sensitive to sequences in the immediate vicinity of the cleavage site requiring a cytosine at the position +4 relative to the cleavage site. Structural implications of the differences in substrate recognition by RNases P and MRP are discussed.

  12. Stability of detectability over 17 years at a single site and other lizard detection comparisons from Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Dean-Bradley, Kathryn; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Lardner, Bjorn; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain quantitative information about population dynamics from counts of animals, the per capita detectabilities of each species must remain constant over the course of monitoring. We characterized lizard detection constancy for four species over 17 yr from a single site in northern Guam, a relatively benign situation because detection was relatively easy and we were able to hold constant the site, habitat type, species, season, and sampling method. We monitored two species of diurnal terrestrial skinks (Carlia ailanpalai [Curious Skink], Emoia caeruleocauda [Pacific Bluetailed Skink]) using glueboards placed on the ground in the shade for 3 h on rainless mornings, yielding 10,286 skink captures. We additionally monitored two species of nocturnal arboreal geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus [Common House Gecko]; Lepidodactylus lugubris [Mourning Gecko]) on the basis of 15,212 sightings. We compared these count samples to a series of complete censuses we conducted from four or more total removal plots (everything removed to mineral soil) totaling 400 m2(about 1% of study site) in each of the years 1995, 1999, and 2012, providing time-stamped quantification of detectability for each species. Unfortunately, the actual population trajectories taken by the four species were masked by unexplained variation in detectability. This observation of debilitating latent variability in lizard detectability under nearly ideal conditions undercuts our trust in population estimation techniques that fail to quantify venue-specific detectability, rely on pooled detection probability estimates, or assume that modulation in predefined environmental covariates suffices for estimating detectability.

  13. Synthesis of a specific monolithic column with artificial recognition sites for L-glutamic acid via cryo-crosslinking of imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktürk, Ilgım; Üzek, Recep; Uzun, Lokman; Denizli, Adil

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new molecular imprinting (MIP)-based monolithic cryogel column was prepared using chemically crosslinked molecularly imprinted nanoparticles, to achieve a simplified chromatographic separation (SPE) for a model compound, L-glutamic acid (L-Glu). Cryogelation through crosslinking of imprinted nanoparticles forms stable monolithic cryogel columns. This technique reduces the leakage of nanoparticles and increases the surface area, while protecting the structural features of the cryogel for stable and efficient recognition of the template molecule. A non-imprinted monolithic cryogel column (NIP) was also prepared, using non-imprinted nanoparticles produced without the addition of L-Glu during polymerization. The molecularly imprinted monolithic cryogel column (MIP) indicates apparent recognition selectivity and a good adsorption capacity compared to the NIP. Also, we have achieved a significant increase in the adsorption capacity, using the advantage of high surface area of the nanoparticles.

  14. Face, content, and construct validity of four, inanimate training exercises using the da Vinci ® Si surgical system configured with Single-Site ™ instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Anthony M; Curet, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    Validated training exercises are essential tools for surgeons as they develop technical skills to use robot-assisted minimally invasive surgical systems. The purpose of this study was to show face, content, and construct validity of four, inanimate training exercises using the da Vinci (®) Si surgical system configured with Single-Site (™) instrumentation. New (N = 21) and experienced (N = 6) surgeons participated in the study. New surgeons (11 Gynecology [GYN] and 10 General Surgery [GEN]) had not completed any da Vinci Single-Site cases but may have completed multiport cases using the da Vinci system. They participated in this study prior to attending a certification course focused on da Vinci Single-Site instrumentation. Experienced surgeons (5 GYN and 1 GEN) had completed at least 25 da Vinci Single-Site cases. The surgeons completed four inanimate training exercises and then rated them with a questionnaire. Raw metrics and overall normalized scores were computed using both video recordings and kinematic data collected from the surgical system. The experienced surgeons significantly outperformed new surgeons for many raw metrics and the overall normalized scores derived from video review (p da Vinci Single-Site surgery and actually testing the technical skills used during da Vinci Single-Site surgery. In summary, the four training exercises showed face, content, and construct validity. Improved overall scores could be developed using additional metrics not included in this study. The results suggest that the training exercises could be used in an overall training curriculum aimed at developing proficiency in technical skills for surgeons new to da Vinci Single-Site instrumentation.

  15. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy and cystectomy with the aid of a transurethral port: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Zhu, Qingyi; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qingling; Wei, Yunfei

    2018-01-01

    To describe the surgical technique and report early outcomes of transurethral assisted laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) radical prostatectomy (RP) and LESS radical cystectomy (RC) in a single institution. Between December 2014 and March 2016, a total of 114 LESS RPs and RCs were performed, comprising 68 LESS RPs, 38 LESS RCs with cutaneous ureterostomy (CU) and eight LESS RCs with orthotopic ileal neobladder (OIN). Access was achieved via a single-port, with four channels placed through a transumblical incision. After the apex of prostate was separated from the urethra, a self-developed port ('Zhu's port') was inserted through the urethra to facilitate resection of prostate and urethrovesical anastomosis. The peri-operative and postoperative data were collected and analysed retrospectively. Patients were followed up postoperatively for evidence of long-term side effects. All the procedures were completed successfully. No conversion to conventional laparoscopic surgery was necessary. For LESS RP, the average operating time was 152 min. Estimated blood loss was 117 mL. The mean hospital stay was 16.4 days after surgery. For LESS RC with CU and LESS RC with OIN, the mean operating times were 215 and 328 min, mean estimated blood loss was 175 and 252 mL, and mean hospital stay was 9.4 and 18.2 days, respectively. Six patients required blood transfusion (5.26%). Intra-operative complications occurred in two patients (1.75%), and postoperative complications in nine (7.89%). Fourteen out of 68 (20.6%) patients who underwent LESS RP had positive surgical margins. Follow-up ranged from 10 to 30.6 months. In the prostate cancer cases, good urinary control was observed in 35.3%, 97.1% and 100% of patients at 1, 6 and 12 months after the operation, respectively, while biochemical recurrence was observed in 11.8% patients. In the bladder cancer cases, two patients had local recurrence and two patients had distant metastasis. Our results showed that LESS RP and LESS RC

  16. Case-Based Policy and Goal Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Policy and Goal Recognizer (PaGR), a case- based system for multiagent keyhole recognition. PaGR is a knowledge recognition component within a decision...However, unlike our agent in the BVR domain, these recognition agents have access to perfect information. Single-agent keyhole plan recognition can be...listed below: 1. Facing Target 2. Closing on Target 3. Target Range 4. Within a Target’s Weapon Range 5. Has Target within Weapon Range 6. Is in Danger

  17. Comparison between magnetic anchoring and guidance system camera-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy and conventional laparoendoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy in a porcine model: focus on ergonomics and workload profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woong Kyu; Tan, Yung K; Olweny, Ephrem O; Yin, Gang; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Faddegon, Stephen; Scott, Daniel J; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-01

    To compare surgeon-assessed ergonomic and workload demands of magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) nephrectomy with conventional LESS nephrectomy in a porcine model. Participants included two expert and five novice surgeons who each performed bilateral LESS nephrectomy in two nonsurvival animals using either the MAGS camera or conventional laparoscope. Task difficulty and workload demands of the surgeon and camera driver were assessed using the validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. Surgeons were also asked to score 6 parameters on a Likert scale (range 1=low/easy to 5=high/hard): procedure-associated workload, ergonomics, technical challenge, visualization, accidental events, and instrument handling. Each step of the nephrectomy was also timed and instrument clashing was quantified. Scores for each parameter on the Likert scale were significantly lower for MAGS-LESS nephrectomy. Mean number of internal and external clashes were significantly lower for the MAGS camera (pNASA-TLX workload ratings by the surgeon and camera driver showed that MAGS resulted in a significantly lower workload than the conventional laparoscope during LESS nephrectomy (p<0.05). The use of the MAGS camera during LESS nephrectomy lowers the task workload for both the surgeon and camera driver when compared to conventional laparoscope use. Subjectively, it appears to also improve surgeons' impressions of ergonomics and technical challenge. Pending approval for clinical use, further evaluation in the clinical setting is warranted.

  18. Single step synthesis of gold-amino acid composite, with the evidence of the catalytic hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction, for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Meenakshi; Siwal, Samarjeet; Nandi, Debkumar; Mallick, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    A composite architecture of amino acid and gold nanoparticles has been synthesized using a generic route of 'in-situ polymerization and composite formation (IPCF)' [1,2]. The formation mechanism of the composite has been supported by a model hydrogen atom (H•≡H++e-) transfer (HAT) type of reaction which belongs to the proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism. The 'gold-amino acid composite' was used as a catalyst for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin.

  19. Pattern recognition model to estimate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at crevices and pit sites of 304 SS in BWR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna [Penn State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Science Building, University Park, PA 16801 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Many publications have shown that crack growth rates (CGR) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of metals is dependent on many parameters related to the manufacturing process of the steel and the environment to which the steel is exposed. Those parameters include, but are not restricted to, the concentration of chloride, fluoride, nitrates, and sulfates, pH, fluid velocity, electrochemical potential (ECP), electrolyte conductivity, stress and sensitization applied to the steel during its production and use. It is not well established how combinations of each of these parameters impact the CGR. Many different models and beliefs have been published, resulting in predictions that sometimes disagree with experimental observations. To some extent, the models are the closest to the nature of IGSCC, however, there is not a model that fully describes the entire range of observations, due to the difficulty of the problem. Among the models, the Fracture Environment Model, developed by Macdonald et al., is the most physico-chemical model, accounting for experimental observations in a wide range of environments or ECPs. In this work, we collected experimental data on BWR environments and designed a data mining pattern recognition model to learn from that data. The model was used to generate CGR estimations as a function of ECP on a BWR environment. The results of the predictive model were compared to the Fracture Environment Model predictions. The results from those two models are very close to the experimental observations of the area corresponding to creep and IGSCC controlled by diffusion. At more negative ECPs than the potential corresponding to creep, the pattern recognition predicts an increase of CGR with decreasing ECP, while the Fracture Environment Model predicts the opposite. The results of this comparison confirm that the pattern recognition model covers 3 phenomena: hydrogen embrittlement at very negative ECP, creep at intermediate ECP, and IGSCC

  20. Pattern recognition model to estimate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at crevices and pit sites of 304 SS in BWR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    2004-01-01

    Many publications have shown that crack growth rates (CGR) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of metals is dependent on many parameters related to the manufacturing process of the steel and the environment to which the steel is exposed. Those parameters include, but are not restricted to, the concentration of chloride, fluoride, nitrates, and sulfates, pH, fluid velocity, electrochemical potential (ECP), electrolyte conductivity, stress and sensitization applied to the steel during its production and use. It is not well established how combinations of each of these parameters impact the CGR. Many different models and beliefs have been published, resulting in predictions that sometimes disagree with experimental observations. To some extent, the models are the closest to the nature of IGSCC, however, there is not a model that fully describes the entire range of observations, due to the difficulty of the problem. Among the models, the Fracture Environment Model, developed by Macdonald et al., is the most physico-chemical model, accounting for experimental observations in a wide range of environments or ECPs. In this work, we collected experimental data on BWR environments and designed a data mining pattern recognition model to learn from that data. The model was used to generate CGR estimations as a function of ECP on a BWR environment. The results of the predictive model were compared to the Fracture Environment Model predictions. The results from those two models are very close to the experimental observations of the area corresponding to creep and IGSCC controlled by diffusion. At more negative ECPs than the potential corresponding to creep, the pattern recognition predicts an increase of CGR with decreasing ECP, while the Fracture Environment Model predicts the opposite. The results of this comparison confirm that the pattern recognition model covers 3 phenomena: hydrogen embrittlement at very negative ECP, creep at intermediate ECP, and IGSCC

  1. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  2. Structural Basis of Mec1-Ddc2-RPA Assembly and Activation on Single-Stranded DNA at Sites of Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ishan; Seeber, Andrew; Shimada, Kenji; Keusch, Jeremy J; Gut, Heinz; Gasser, Susan M

    2017-10-19

    Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP) is a key DNA-damage-sensing kinase that is recruited through the single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding replication protein A (RPA) to initiate the DNA damage checkpoint response. Activation of ATR-ATRIP in the absence of DNA damage is lethal. Therefore, it is important that damage-specific recruitment precedes kinase activation, which is achieved at least in part by Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization. Here, we report a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of the yeast Mec1-Ddc2-RPA assembly. High-resolution co-crystal structures of Ddc2-Rfa1 and Ddc2-Rfa1-t11 (K45E mutant) N termini and of the Ddc2 coiled-coil domain (CCD) provide insight into Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization and damage-site targeting. Based on our structural and functional findings, we present a Mec1-Ddc2-RPA-ssDNA composite structural model. By way of validation, we show that RPA-dependent recruitment of Mec1-Ddc2 is crucial for maintaining its homodimeric state at ssDNA and that Ddc2's recruitment domain and CCD are important for Mec1-dependent survival of UV-light-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in ambient air and precipitation at a single site in Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaku, Samuel; Morris, Vernon; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Hosten, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric samples of precipitation and ambient air were collected at a single site in Washington, DC, for 7 months (for ambient air samples) and 1 year (for wet deposition samples) and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for 6-day wet deposition samples collected over the 1-year period were 0.20-1.3 μg/l, 0.060-5.1 μg/l, 0.062-4.6 μg/l and 0.11-3.2 μg/l for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 5% for more than 95% of the measurements. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for the 6-day ambient air samples were 0.800-15.7 ng/m 3 , 1.50-30.0 ng/m 3 , 16.8-112 ng/m 3 , and 2.90-137 ng/m 3 for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 10%. The spread in the heavy metal concentration over the observation period suggests a high seasonal variability for heavy metal content in both ambient air and wet deposition samples. - High seasonal variability of heavy metals were observed in both ambient air and wet deposition samples

  4. Multicenter Experience with Nonischemic Multiport Laparoscopic and Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy Utilizing Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation Coagulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Bazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate feasibility of multiport and laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS nonischemic laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (NI-LPN utilizing bipolar radiofrequency coagulator. Methods. Multicenter retrospective review of 60 patients (46 multiport/14 LESS undergoing NI-LPN between 4/2006 and 9/2009. Multiport and LESS NI-LPN utilized Habib 4X bipolar radiofrequency coagulator to form a hemostatic zone followed by nonischemic tumor excision and renorrhaphy. Demographics, tumor/perioperative characteristics, and outcomes were analyzed. Results. 59/60 (98.3% successfully underwent NI-LPN. Mean tumor size was 2.35 cm. Mean operative time was 160.0 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 131.4 mL. Preoperative/postoperative creatinine (mg/dL was 1.02/1.07 (=.471. All had negative margins. 12 (20% patients developed complications. 3 (5% developed urine leaks. No differences between multiport and LESS-PN were noted as regards demographics, tumor size, outcomes, and complications. Conclusion. Initial experience demonstrates that nonischemic multiport and LESS-PN is safe and efficacious, with excellent short-term preservation of renal function. Long-term data are needed to confirm oncological efficacy.

  5. CO Reduction to CH3OSiMe3: Electrophile-Promoted Hydride Migration at a Single Fe Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Meaghan M; Peters, Jonas C

    2017-02-22

    One of the major challenges associated with developing molecular Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is the design of systems that promote the formation of C-H bonds from H 2 and CO while also facilitating the release of the resulting CO-derived organic products. To this end, we describe the synthesis of reduced iron-hydride/carbonyl complexes that enable an electrophile-promoted hydride migration process, resulting in the reduction of coordinated CO to a siloxymethyl (L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 ) group. Intramolecular hydride-to-CO migrations are extremely rare, and to our knowledge the system described herein is the first example where such a process can be accessed from a thermally stable M(CO)(H) complex. Further addition of H 2 to L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 releases CH 3 OSiMe 3 , demonstrating net four-electron reduction of CO to CH 3 OSiMe 3 at a single Fe site.

  6. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  7. Investigation of the Causes of Breast Cancer at the Cellular Level: Isolation of In Vivo Binding Sites of the Human Origin Recognition Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendez, Juan

    2000-01-01

    ... of cellular life tipically lost in cancer. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms of human DNA replication in normal and cancer cells, we have started a search for human DNA sequences that serve as replicators", this is, binding sites...

  8. Laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy versus conventional laparoscopic surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhui; Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Mingmin; Cai, Chen; Liu, Bing; Yang, Qing; Sun, Yinghao

    2013-06-01

    To assess the surgical efficacy and potential advantages of laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy (LESS-AD) compared with conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy (CL-AD) based on published literature. An online systematic search in electronic databasesM including Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, as well as manual bibliography searches were performed. All studies that compared LESS-AD with CL-AD were included. The outcome measures were the patient demographics, tumor size, blood loss, operative time, time to resumption of oral intake, hospital stay, postoperative pain, cosmesis satisfaction score, rates of complication, conversion, and transfusion. A meta-analysis of the results was conducted. A total of 443 patients were included: 171 patients in the LESS-AD group and 272 patients in the CL-AD group (nine studies). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the demographic parameters expect for lesion size (age: P=0.24; sex: P=0.35; body mass index: P=0.79; laterality: P=0.76; size: P=0.002). There was no significant difference in estimated blood loss, time to oral intake resumption, and length of stay between the two groups. The LESS-AD patients had a significantly lower postoperative visual analog pain score compared with the CL-AD group, but a longer operative time was noted. Both groups had a comparable cosmetic satisfaction score. The two groups had a comparable rate of complication, conversion, and transfusion. In early experience, LESS-AD appears to be a safe and feasible alternative to its conventional laparoscopic counterpart with decreased postoperative pain noted, albeit with a longer operative time. As a promising and emerging minimally invasive technique, however, the current evidence has not verified other potential advantages (ie, cosmesis, recovery time, convalescence, port-related complications, etc.) of LESS-AD.

  9. pLoc-mAnimal: predict subcellular localization of animal proteins with both single and multiple sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Zhao, Shu-Guang; Lin, Wei-Zhong; Xiao, Xuan; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-11-15

    Cells are deemed the basic unit of life. However, many important functions of cells as well as their growth and reproduction are performed via the protein molecules located at their different organelles or locations. Facing explosive growth of protein sequences, we are challenged to develop fast and effective method to annotate their subcellular localization. However, this is by no means an easy task. Particularly, mounting evidences have indicated proteins have multi-label feature meaning that they may simultaneously exist at, or move between, two or more different subcellular location sites. Unfortunately, most of the existing computational methods can only be used to deal with the single-label proteins. Although the 'iLoc-Animal' predictor developed recently is quite powerful that can be used to deal with the animal proteins with multiple locations as well, its prediction quality needs to be improved, particularly in enhancing the absolute true rate and reducing the absolute false rate. Here we propose a new predictor called 'pLoc-mAnimal', which is superior to iLoc-Animal as shown by the compelling facts. When tested by the most rigorous cross-validation on the same high-quality benchmark dataset, the absolute true success rate achieved by the new predictor is 37% higher and the absolute false rate is four times lower in comparison with the state-of-the-art predictor. To maximize the convenience of most experimental scientists, a user-friendly web-server for the new predictor has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/pLoc-mAnimal/, by which users can easily get their desired results without the need to go through the complicated mathematics involved. xxiao@gordonlifescience.org or kcchou@gordonlifescience.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Very late complications of cervical arthroplasty: results of 2 controlled randomized prospective studies from a single investigator site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Francis M; Babcock, Rebecca M; Hacker, Robert J

    2013-12-15

    Prospective, single-site, randomized, Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational device exemption clinical trials of 2 cervical arthroplasty (CA) devices. To evaluate complications with CA occurring more than 4 years after the surgical procedure in Food and Drug Administration clinical trials of the Bryan and Prestige LP arthroplasty devices. Reports of several randomized clinical studies have shown CA to be a safe and effective alternative to anterior cervical fusion in the treatment of degenerative cervical disc disorders. A majority include follow-up intervals of 4 years or less. Between 2002 and 2006, 94 patients were enrolled in Food and Drug Administration studies of the Bryan and Prestige LP cervical disc devices. Charts, imaging studies, and hospital records were reviewed for those who underwent arthroplasty and returned more than 4 years after their surgical procedure with neck-related pain or dysfunction. Excluding adjacent segment disease that occurred with a similar rate for patients who underwent fusion and arthroplasty, 5 patients, all treated with arthroplasty, returned for evaluation of neck and arm symptoms between 48 and 72 months after surgery. Four patients had peridevice vertebral body bone loss. One patient had posterior device migration and presented with myelopathy. Three required revision surgery and 2 were observed. Four patients maintained follow-up and reported stabilization or improvement in symptoms. Despite their similarities, CA and fusion are not equivalent procedures in this study in regard to very late complications. Similar to large joint arthroplasty, delayed device-related complications may occur with CA. These complications commenced well beyond the time frame for complications associated with more traditional cervical spine procedures. Both patients and surgeons should be aware of the potential for very late device-related complications occurring with CA and the need for revision surgery. 1.

  11. Characterization of Solids in Residual Wastes from Single-Shell Tanks at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA - 9277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Heald, Steve M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Solid-phase characterization methods have been used in an ongoing study of residual wastes (i.e., waste remaining after final retrieval operations) from the underground single-shell storage tanks 241-C-103, 241-C-106, 241-C-202, 241-C-203, and 241-S-112 at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. The results of studies completed to date show significant variability in the compositions of those residual wastes and the compositions, morphologies, and crystallinities of the individual phases that make up these wastes. These differences undoubtedly result from the various waste types stored and transferred in and out each tank and the sluicing and retrieval operations used for waste retrieval. Our studies indicate that these residual wastes are chemically-complex assemblages of crystalline and amorphous solids that contain contaminants as discrete phases and/or co-precipitated within oxide phases. Depending on the specific tank, various solids (e.g., gibbsite; boehmite; dawsonite; cancrinite; Fe oxides such as hematite, goethite, and maghemite; rhodochrosite; lindbergite; whewellite; nitratine; and numerous amorphous or poorly crystalline phases) have been identified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in residual wastes studied to date. Our studies also show that contact of residual wastes with Ca(OH)2- and CaCO3-saturated aqueous solutions, which were used as surrogates for the compositions of pore-fluid leachants derived from young and aged cements respectively, may alter the compositions of solid phases present in the contacted wastes. Fe oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual wastes studied to date. They occur in these wastes as discrete particles, particles intergrown within a matrix of other phases, and surface coatings on other particles or particle aggregates. These Fe oxides/hydroxides typically contain trace concentrations of other transition metals, such Cr, Mn

  12. Isotope method for the recognition of groundwater formation in China's preselected high level radioactive waste disposal repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Wang Ju; Liu Shufen; Su Rui; Lu Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Yemaquan region in Beishan area. Gansu province, is one of the preselected sites of disposal repository for high level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Hydrogeological condition is an important aspect for site evaluation and the groundwater formation is a key factor to reflect the hydrogeological conditions for a certain area. Isotopic method is the one of the important means to determine the groundwater formation. Through the sampling and analysis of shallow groundwater isotopes of Yemaquan region, combined with geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics, the issue of groundwater formation in the study region was discussed. The main cognition is that the groundwater in the region was formed from the infiltration of modern rainfall and the strong evaporation was happened for the shallow groundwater, which indicates the circulation conditions were relatively good for the shallow groundwater. This cognition provides very important hydrogeological information and basis for the evaluation of Yemaquan preselected site. (authors)

  13. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan...

  14. Production of propylene from 1-butene on highly active "bi-functional single active site" catalyst: Tungsten carbene-hydride supported on alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Mazoyer, Etienne; Szeto, Kaï Chung; Norsic, Sé bastien; Garron, Anthony; Basset, Jean-Marie; Nicholas, Christopher P.; Taoufik, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    1-Butene is transformed in a continuous flow reactor over tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1, giving a promising yield into propylene at 150 °C and different pressures. Tungsten carbene-hydride single active site operates as a "bi

  15. Discovery of a novel site of opioid action at the innate immune pattern-recognition receptor TLR4 and its role in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Watkins, Linda R; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Opioids have historically, and continue to be, an integral component of pain management. However, despite pharmacokinetic and dynamic optimization over the past 100 years, opioids continue to produce many undesirable side effects such as tolerance, reward, and dependence. As such, opioids are liable for addiction. Traditionally, opioid addiction was viewed as a solely neuronal process, and while substantial headway has been made into understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this process, research has however, been relatively ambivalent to how the rest of the central nervous system (CNS) responds to opioids. Evidence over the past 20 years has clearly demonstrated the importance of the immunocompetent cells of the CNS (glia) in many aspects of opioid pharmacology. Particular focus has been placed on microglia and astrocytes, who in response to opioids, become activated and release inflammatory mediators. Importantly, the mechanism underlying immune activation is beginning to be elucidated. Evidence suggests an innate immune pattern-recognition receptor (toll-like receptor 4) as an integral component underlying opioid-induced glial activation. The subsequent proinflammatory response may be viewed akin to neurotransmission creating a process termed central immune signaling. Translationally, we are beginning to appreciate the importance of central immune signaling as it contributes to many behavioral actions of addiction including reward, withdrawal, and craving. As such, the aim of this chapter is to review and integrate the neuronal and central immune signaling perspective of addiction. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of the recognition site for adenine-specific methylase of Shigella sonnei 47 by hydazinolysis of DNA, followed by separation of the purine oligonucleotides by thin-layer chromatography on DEAE-cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatina, N.G.; Kirnos, M.D.; Suchkov, S.V.; Vanyushin, B.F.; Nikol'skaya, I.I.; Debov, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for the separation of oligopurine units according to length and composition by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on plates with DEAE-cellulose, permitting a comparative analysis of the content of various purine isopliths in DNA of different origin. In the case of the analysis of methylated DNA, the method permits a comparison of the substrate specificity of various enzymes of methylation of the adenine residues in DNA. In conjunction with enzymatic treatment of labeled methylated isopliths, the method permits determination of the methylatable sequence and in a number of cases an ascertainment of the recognition site for adenine-specific methylase as a whole. The proposed method was used to establish the fact that the methylase Ssol recognizes the sequence 5'...G-A-A-T-T-C...3' and methylates the adenine residue closest to its 5'-end

  17. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  18. A Single Case Design Evaluation of a Software and Tutor Intervention Addressing Emotion Recognition and Social Interaction in Four Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, Paul G.; Rankin, Ana; Mahlios, Emily; Cook, Katie; Simpson, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Many students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have delays learning to recognize emotions. Social behavior is also challenging, including initiating interactions, responding to others, developing peer relationships, and so forth. In this single case design study we investigated the relationship between use of computer software ("Mind Reading:…

  19. Real-time single-molecule tethered particle motion experiments reveal the kinetics and mechanisms of Cre-mediated site-specific recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine family recombinases (YRs) are widely utilized in genome engineering systems because they can easily direct DNA rearrangement. Cre recombinases, one of the most commonly used types of YRs, catalyze site-specific recombination between two loxP sites without the need for high-energy cofactors, other accessory proteins or a specific DNA target sequence between the loxP sites. Previous structural, analytical ultracentrifuge and electrophoretic analyses have provided details of the reaction kinetics and mechanisms of Cre recombinase activity; whether there are reaction intermediates or side pathways involved has been left unaddressed. Using tethered particle motion (TPM), the Cre-mediated site-specific recombination process has been delineated, from beginning to end, at the single-molecule level, including the formation of abortive complexes and wayward complexes blocking inactive nucleoprotein complexes from entering the recombination process. Reversibility in the strand-cleavage/-ligation process and the formation of a thermally stable Holliday junction intermediate were observed within the Cre-mediated site-specific recombination process. Rate constants for each elementary step, which explain the overall reaction outcomes under various conditions, were determined. Taking the findings of this study together, they demonstrate the potential of single-molecule methodology as an alternative approach for exploring reaction mechanisms in detail. PMID:22467208

  20. Spontaneous Ag-Nanoparticle Growth at Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Defect Sites: A Tool for In Situ Generation of SERS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Maley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were spontaneously formed on pristine and oxidized single-wall nanotubes. Nanoparticles were observed on carbon nanotubes with AFM, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles were confirmed by ESR experiments. Raman spectroscopy of the Ag-treated carbon nanotubes had a 4–10X enhancement of intensity compared to untreated carbon nanotubes. Ag nanoparticles formed at defect sites on the CNT surface, where free electrons located at the defect sites reduced Ag+ to Ag. A mechanism for the propagation of the nanoparticles is through a continual negative charge generation on the nanoparticle by electron transfer from doublet oxygen (O2−.

  1. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J

    2011-07-01

    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/IntFOLD/.

  2. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  3. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan

    2017-01-01

    and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image

  4. Redox-active on-surface polymerization of single-site divalent cations from pure metals by a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skomski, Daniel; Tempas, Christopher D.; Bukowski, Gregory S.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tait, Steven L., E-mail: tait@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Metallic iron, chromium, or platinum mixing with a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline ligand on a single crystal gold surface demonstrates redox activity to a well-defined oxidation state and assembly into thermally stable, one dimensional, polymeric chains. The diverging ligand geometry incorporates redox-active sub-units and bi-dentate binding sites. The gold surface provides a stable adsorption environment and directs growth of the polymeric chains, but is inert with regard to the redox chemistry. These systems are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The relative propensity of the metals to interact with the ketone group is examined, and it is found that Fe and Cr more readily complex the ligand than Pt. The formation and stabilization of well-defined transition metal single-sites at surfaces may open new routes to achieve higher selectivity in heterogeneous catalysts.

  5. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  6. Site-resolved neutralization of slow singly and multiply charged ions during large-angle backscattering collisions with RbI(1 0 0)

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, F W; Vane, C R

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported of projectile neutralization during 120 deg. backscattering from RbI[1 0 0] of singly and multiply charged incident ions in the keV energy range. Scattered charge fractions are reported for 4.4 keV Ne sup 8 sup + and 4.2 keV F sup + normally incident on the ionic crystal. Collisions associated with scattering from a Rb or I site can be clearly distinguished for each scattered final charge state. Significant differences are observed in the intensities of the higher scattered charge states resulting from collisions with Rb and I sites. In contrast, at the target azimuth orientation of the present measurement, only minor differences in F sup - yield are observed for hard scattering from the two lattice sites.

  7. Analysis of local symmetry and impurity location of Cu2+ ions doped C8H11KO8 single crystal through EPR technique for site I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subbulakshmi, N.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystals of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. Two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the lattice are identified, among them site I has been reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The co-ordination of the Cu2+ ion in this molecule is a distorted dodecahedron. From the calculated gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz and their directional cosines values, location of site I impurity ion Cu2+ could be identified as a substituitional one. Also the ground state wave function of the impurity ion was found to be d2z.

  8. No difference in incidence of port-site hernia and chronic pain after single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Brandt, Erik; Oehlenschläger, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    and matched 1:2 with patients subjected to CLC using pre-defined criteria. Follow-up data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, mailed patient questionnaires, and clinical examination. A port-site hernia was defined as a repair for a port-site hernia or clinical hernia located at one......BACKGROUND: Conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) is regarded as the gold standard for cholecystectomy. However, single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) has been suggested to replace CLC. This study aimed at comparing long-term incidences of port-site hernia and chronic pain...... after SLC versus CLC. METHODS: We conducted a matched cohort study based on prospective data (Jan 1, 2009-June 1, 2011) from the Danish Cholecystectomy Database with perioperative information and clinical follow-up. Consecutive patients undergoing elective SLC during the study period were included...

  9. Structural basis for ligand recognition at the benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA alpha 3 receptor, and pharmacophore-based virtual screening approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, R S K; Ghoshal, Nanda

    2008-10-01

    Given the heterogeneity of GABA(A) receptor, the pharmacological significance of identifying subtype selective modulators is increasingly being recognized. Thus, drugs selective for GABA(A) alpha(3) receptors are expected to display fewer side effects than the drugs presently in clinical use. Hence we carried out 3D QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship) studies on a series of novel GABA(A) alpha(3) subtype selective modulators to gain more insight into subtype affinity. To identify the 3D functional attributes required for subtype selectivity, a chemical feature-based pharmacophore, primarily based on selective ligands representing diverse structural classes was generated. The obtained pseudo receptor model of the benzodiazepine binding site revealed a binding mode akin to "Message-Address" concept. Scaffold hopping was carried out across multi-conformational May Bridge database for the identification of novel chemotypes. Further a focused data reduction approach was employed to choose a subset of enriched compounds based on "Drug likeness" and "Similarity-based" methods. These results taken together could provide impetus for rational design and optimization of more selective and high affinity leads with a potential to have decreased adverse effects.

  10. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  11. Survey package: Technical and contracting strategies for single-shell tank waste retrieval on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsower, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is interested in innovative, commercially available or adaptable retrieval system equipment, concepts, and contracting strategies that will ad to existing Hanford Site technology and significantly reduce cost and/or risk from the baseline retrieval approach of sluicing (hydraulically mining) the waste from the SSTs onsite. The objective of this request is to gather information from industry to identify and summarize a suite of retrieval-related components, systems, and contracting approaches. This information will be used to ensure that WHC understands the various waste retrieval alternative approaches, their risks, and their application on the Hanford Site tanks for those occasions when sluicing is not sufficiently effective, appropriate, or cost-effective. An additional objective is to facilitate industry's understanding of the tank and site interface requirements for SST waste retrieval and the complex statutory, legal, regulatory, labor, and other institutional standards being applied to the Hanford Site. This effort will identify and summarize retrieval solutions by the end of September 1996 so that a clear basis for future retrieval program decisions can be established

  12. Photopicking : In Situ Approach for Site-Specific Attachment of Single Multiprotein Nanoparticles to Atomic Force Microscopy Tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liashkovich, Ivan; Rosso, Gonzalo; Rangl, Martina; Ebner, Andreas; Hafezi, Wali; Kühn, Joachim; Schön, Peter; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Shahin, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Ligand–receptor interactions are fundamental in life sciences and include hormone–receptor, protein–protein, pathogen–host, and cell–cell interactions, among others. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) proved to be invaluable for scrutinizing ligand–receptor interactions at the single molecular level.

  13. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites : A RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    AimTo assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial aesthetic zone. Materials and methodsSixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and

  14. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  15. Optimizing CT angiography in patients with Fontan physiology: single-center experience of dual-site power injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, K.L.; Markham, L.W.; Mah, M.L.; Byrum, E.P.; Williams, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify adult patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease and Fontan procedure palliation who have been misdiagnosed with or incompletely evaluated for pulmonary embolism. Additionally, this study was designed to demonstrate that simultaneous, dual-injection of contrast medium into an upper and lower extremity vein is superior to single-injection protocols for CT angiography (CTA) of the chest in this population. Materials and methods: Patients included in the study were retrospectively selected from the Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) database. Search criteria included history of Fontan palliation and available chest CT examination. Patients were evaluated for (1) type of congenital heart disease and prior operations;(2) indication for initial CT evaluation;(3) route of contrast medium administration for the initial CT examination and resulting diagnosis;(4) whether or not anticoagulation therapy was initiated; and (5) final diagnosis and treatment plan. Results: The query of the ACHD database resulted in 28 individuals or patients with Fontan palliation (superior and inferior venae cavae anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries). Of these, 19 patients with Fontan physiology underwent CTA of the pulmonary circulation, and 17 had suboptimal imaging studies. Unfortunately, seven of these 17 patients (41%) were started on anticoagulation therapy due to a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism that was later excluded. Conclusion: Patients with single-ventricle/Fontan physiology are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Therefore, studies evaluating their complex anatomy must be performed with the optimal imaging protocol to ensure diagnostic accuracy, which is best achieved with dual-injection of an upper and lower extremity central vein. - Highlights: • The adult congenital heart disease population is growing. • Many of these patients have single ventricle/Fontan physiology. • Patients with Fontan physiology are at increased risk for

  16. The application of strand invasion phenomenon, directed by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) for the recognition of specific sequences of human endogenous retroviral HERV-W family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Grzegorz; Bułdak, Łukasz; Ruczyński, Jarosław; Gąsior, Tomasz; Huzarska, Małgorzata; Belowski, Dariusz; Alenowicz, Magdalena; Mucha, Piotr; Rekowski, Piotr; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-05-01

    The HERV-W family of human endogenous retroviruses represents a group of numerous sequences that show close similarity in genetic composition. It has been documented that some members of HERV-W-derived expression products are supposed to play significant role in humans' pathology, such as multiple sclerosis or schizophrenia. Other members of the family are necessary to orchestrate physiological processes (eg, ERVWE1 coding syncytin-1 that is engaged in syncytiotrophoblast formation). Therefore, an assay that would allow the recognition of particular form of HERV-W members is highly desirable. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated technique for the discrimination between multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and ERVWE1 sequence has been developed. The assay uses a PNA probe that, being fully complementary to the ERVWE1 but not to multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV) template, shows high selective potential. Single-stranded DNA binding protein facilitates the PNA-mediated, sequence-specific formation of strand invasion complex and, consequently, local DNA unwinding. The target DNA may be then excluded from further analysis in any downstream process such as single-stranded DNA-specific exonuclease action. Finally, the reaction conditions have been optimized, and several PNA probes that are targeted toward distinct loci along whole HERV-W env sequences have been evaluated. We believe that PNA/single-stranded DNA binding protein-based application has the potential to selectively discriminate particular HERV-W molecules as they are at least suspected to play pathogenic role in a broad range of medical conditions, from psycho-neurologic disorders (multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia) and cancers (breast cancer) to that of an auto-immunologic background (psoriasis and lupus erythematosus). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Site Selection Strategy of Single-Frequency Tuned R-APF for Background Harmonic Voltage Damping in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Jian; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    , and analyze the harmonic voltage propagation caused by the background harmonic voltage in power systems. Then, a new strategy is proposed for the site selection of resistive active power filter to damp the background harmonic voltage in power systems. Experiments have been performed to verify the theoretical......Series resonance between capacitance and line inductance may magnify background harmonic voltage and worsen the harmonic voltage distortion in power systems. To solve this problem, in this paper, the transmission line theory is used to set up the distributed parameter model of power system feeders...

  18. Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) bilateral hernioplasty using the Single Site® robotic da Vinci platform (DV-SS TEP): description of the technique and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, A; Galli, A C; Sangalli, M N; Zanoni, M; Ferrari, M; Roviaro, G

    2017-06-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair showed to be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic hernia repair; nevertheless single site surgery, with the loss of instruments triangulation can be a demanding procedure. To overcome those hurdles, the Single Site® (SS) platform of the da Vinci (DV) Si robotic system enables to perform surgical procedures through a 25-mm skin incision, with a stable 3D vision and restoring an adequate triangulation of the surgical instruments. We present in details the technique and the preliminary results of DV-SS TEP, to our knowledge the first cases reported in literature. In March 2016, three consecutive male patients (mean age 46.6 years-mean BMI 25.3) with bilateral symptomatic inguinal hernia were submitted to DV-SS TEP in our institutions. Feasibility, codification of the technique, operative time and perioperative outcomes were recorded. All the procedures were completed as scheduled, with no conversion to other techniques. Mean operative time was 98.6 min, ranging between 155 and 55 min, reflecting the learning curve of the operating room team on this new procedure. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were experienced and all the patients were discharged within 24 h after surgery. Patients reported satisfactory postoperative course, with no recurrence of inguinal hernia and satisfaction in cosmetic result at 6-month follow-up. DV-SS TEP inguinal hernia repair showed to be feasible and effective surgical option for bilateral groin hernia repair. Patients' outcome was uneventful, with optimal cosmetic results. Further studies comparing this innovative technique to TEP or LESS TEP should be promoted.

  19. Transport properties of PrxOs4Sb12 single crystals with high Pr-site filling fraction grown under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Namiki, Takahiro; Saito, Takashi; Tatsuoka, Sho; Imamura, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Keitaro; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We have succeeded in growing Pr x Os 4 Sb 12 single crystals under ∼4GPa with high Pr-site filling fraction x. The electrical resistance measurements clearly show that the superconducting (SC) transition is sharper and the onset temperatures is lower in the single crystal samples grown under high pressure compared to that of the sample grown under ambient pressure. These results suggest that the double SC transition ascribed to sample inhomogeneity is suppressed in the sample grown under high pressure. The change of 4f-electron crystalline electric field energy splitting between the Γ 1 ground state and the Γ 4 (2) first excited state in the sample made under high pressure is proposed as one of the possible origins of the suppression of the double SC transition.

  20. Production of propylene from 1-butene on highly active "bi-functional single active site" catalyst: Tungsten carbene-hydride supported on alumina

    KAUST Repository

    Mazoyer, Etienne

    2011-12-02

    1-Butene is transformed in a continuous flow reactor over tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1, giving a promising yield into propylene at 150 °C and different pressures. Tungsten carbene-hydride single active site operates as a "bi-functional catalyst" through 1-butene isomerization on W-hydride and 1-butene/2-butenes cross-metathesis on W-carbene. This active moiety is generated in situ at the initiation steps by insertion of 1-butene on tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1 followed by α-H and β-H abstraction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen M.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Coti, Karla K.; Bení tez, Diego S.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmieli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William Andrew III; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, Fraser Fraser Raser

    2009-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Recall, Recognition, and the Measurement of Memory for Print Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Bagozzi; Alvin J. Silk

    1983-01-01

    The recall and recognition of people for 95 print ads were examined with an aim toward investigating memory structure and decay processes. It was found that recall and recognition do not, by themselves, measure a single underlying memory state. Rather, memory is multidimensional, and recall and recognition capture only a portion of memory, while at the same time reflecting other mental states. When interest in the ads was held constant, however, recall and recognition did measure memory as a ...

  4. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell tank waste management Area U at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Area U (WMA U) includes the U Tank Farm, is currently regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations, and is scheduled for closure probably post-2030. Groundwater monitoring has been under an evaluation program that compared general contaminant indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from upgradient wells. One of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in one downgradient well triggering a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The objective of the first phase of this assessment program is to determine whether the increased concentrations of nitrate and chromium in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Based on the results of the first determination, if WMA U is not the source of contamination, then the site will revert to detection monitoring. If WMA U is the source, then a second part of the groundwater quality assessment plan will be prepared to define the rate and extent of migration of contaminants in the groundwater and their concentrations

  5. A single acidic residue can guide binding site selection but does not govern QacR cationic-drug affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Peters

    Full Text Available Structures of the multidrug-binding repressor protein QacR with monovalent and bivalent cationic drugs revealed that the carboxylate side-chains of E90 and E120 were proximal to the positively charged nitrogens of the ligands ethidium, malachite green and rhodamine 6G, and therefore may contribute to drug neutralization and binding affinity. Here, we report structural, biochemical and in vivo effects of substituting these glutamate residues. Unexpectedly, substitutions had little impact on ligand affinity or in vivo induction capabilities. Structures of QacR(E90Q and QacR(E120Q with ethidium or malachite green took similar global conformations that differed significantly from all previously described QacR-drug complexes but still prohibited binding to cognate DNA. Strikingly, the QacR(E90Q-rhodamine 6G complex revealed two mutually exclusive rhodamine 6G binding sites. Despite multiple structural changes, all drug binding was essentially isoenergetic. Thus, these data strongly suggest that rather than contributing significantly to ligand binding affinity, the role of acidic residues lining the QacR multidrug-binding pocket is primarily to attract and guide cationic drugs to the "best available" positions within the pocket that elicit QacR induction.

  6. Single-Tooth Morse Taper Connection Implant Placed in Grafted Site of the Anterior Maxilla: Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Guido Mangano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to achieve aesthetically pleasing soft tissue contours in a severely compromised tooth in the anterior region of the maxilla. For a right-maxillary central incisor with localized advanced chronic periodontitis a tooth extraction followed by reconstructive procedures and delayed implant placement was proposed and accepted by the patient. Guided bone regeneration (GBR technique was employed, with a biphasic calcium-phosphate (BCP block graft placed in the extraction socket in conjunction with granules of the same material and a resorbable barrier membrane. After 6 months of healing, an implant was installed. The acrylic provisional restoration remained in situ for 3 months and then was substituted with the definitive crown. This ridge reconstruction technique enabled preserving both hard and soft tissues and counteracting vertical and horizontal bone resorption after tooth extraction and allowed for an ideal three-dimensional implant placement. Localized severe alveolar bone resorption of the anterior maxilla associated with chronic periodontal disease can be successfully treated by means of ridge reconstruction with GBR and delayed implant insertion; the placement of an early-loaded, Morse taper connection implant in the grafted site was effective to create an excellent clinical aesthetic result and to maintain it along time.

  7. On-site detection of Phytophthora spp.—single-stranded target DNA as the limiting factor to improve on-chip hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenkbier, Lydia; Pollok, Sibyll; Popp, Jürgen; Weber, Karina; König, Stephan; Wagner, Stefan; Werres, Sabine; Weber, Jörg; Hentschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report on a lab-on-a-chip approach for on-site detection of Phytophthora species that allows visual signal readout. The results demonstrate the significance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation in terms of improving the intensity of the hybridization signal and to improve the reliability of the method. Conventional PCR with subsequent heat denaturation, sodium hydroxide-based denaturation, lambda exonuclease digestion and two asymmetric PCR methods were investigated for the species P. fragariae, P. kernoviae, and P. ramorum. The positioning of the capture probe within the amplified yeast GTP-binding protein (YPT1) target DNA was also of interest because it significantly influences the intensity of the signal. Statistical tests were used to validate the impact of the ssDNA generation methods and the capture-target probe position. The single-stranded target DNA generated by Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) was found to produce signal intensities comparable to post-PCR exonuclease treatment. The LATE-PCR is the best method for the on-site detection of Phytophthora because the enzymatic digestion after PCR is more laborious and time-consuming. (author)

  8. Improved localization of cellular membrane receptors using combined fluorescence microscopy and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, M; Pfleger, M; Chtcheglova, L A; Neundlinger, I; Bozna, B L; Ebner, A; Schuetz, G J; Hinterdorfer, P; Zhu, R; Mayer, B; Rankl, C; Moertelmaier, M; Kada, G; Kienberger, F; Salio, M; Shepherd, D; Polzella, P; Cerundolo, V; Dieudonne, M

    2010-01-01

    The combination of fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy has a great potential in single-molecule-detection applications, overcoming many of the limitations coming from each individual technique. Here we present a new platform of combined fluorescence and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) for improved localization of cellular receptors. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled human sodium-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) expressed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and endothelial cells (MyEnd) from mouse myocardium stained with phalloidin-rhodamine were used as cell systems to study AFM topography and fluorescence microscopy on the same surface area. Topographical AFM images revealed membrane features such as lamellipodia, cytoskeleton fibers, F-actin filaments and small globular structures with heights ranging from 20 to 30 nm. Combined fluorescence and TREC imaging was applied to detect density, distribution and localization of YFP-labeled CD1d molecules on α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer)-loaded THP1 cells. While the expression level, distribution and localization of CD1d molecules on THP1 cells were detected with fluorescence microscopy, the nanoscale distribution of binding sites was investigated with molecular recognition imaging by using a chemically modified AFM tip. Using TREC on the inverted light microscope, the recognition sites of cell receptors were detected in recognition images with domain sizes ranging from ∼ 25 to ∼ 160 nm, with the smaller domains corresponding to a single CD1d molecule.

  9. Improved localization of cellular membrane receptors using combined fluorescence microscopy and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, M; Pfleger, M; Chtcheglova, L A; Neundlinger, I; Bozna, B L; Ebner, A; Schuetz, G J; Hinterdorfer, P [Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Zhu, R; Mayer, B [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanoscopic Methods in Biophysics, Institute for Biophysics, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Rankl, C; Moertelmaier, M; Kada, G; Kienberger, F [Agilent Technologies Austria GmbH, Aubrunnerweg 11, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Salio, M; Shepherd, D; Polzella, P; Cerundolo, V [Cancer Research UK Tumor Immunology Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS (United Kingdom); Dieudonne, M, E-mail: ferry_kienberger@agilent.com [Agilent Technologies Belgium, Wingepark 51, Rotselaar, AN B-3110 (Belgium)

    2010-03-19

    The combination of fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy has a great potential in single-molecule-detection applications, overcoming many of the limitations coming from each individual technique. Here we present a new platform of combined fluorescence and simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) for improved localization of cellular receptors. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled human sodium-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) expressed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and endothelial cells (MyEnd) from mouse myocardium stained with phalloidin-rhodamine were used as cell systems to study AFM topography and fluorescence microscopy on the same surface area. Topographical AFM images revealed membrane features such as lamellipodia, cytoskeleton fibers, F-actin filaments and small globular structures with heights ranging from 20 to 30 nm. Combined fluorescence and TREC imaging was applied to detect density, distribution and localization of YFP-labeled CD1d molecules on {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}GalCer)-loaded THP1 cells. While the expression level, distribution and localization of CD1d molecules on THP1 cells were detected with fluorescence microscopy, the nanoscale distribution of binding sites was investigated with molecular recognition imaging by using a chemically modified AFM tip. Using TREC on the inverted light microscope, the recognition sites of cell receptors were detected in recognition images with domain sizes ranging from {approx} 25 to {approx} 160 nm, with the smaller domains corresponding to a single CD1d molecule.

  10. Thermal evaluation by infrared measurement of implant site preparation between single and gradual drilling in artificial bone blocks of different densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Abouridouane, M; Heussen, N; Hölzle, F; Klocke, F; Modabber, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bone density and drilling protocol on heat generation during implant bed preparation. Ten single and 10 gradual implant sites with diameters of 2.8, 3.5, and 4.2mm were prepared in four artificial bone blocks (density types I-IV; D1-D4). Drilling was done at constant speed (1500rpm) and with external irrigation (50ml/min); vertical speed was set at 2mm/s. An infrared camera was used for temperature measurements. Significantly higher temperatures for single drilling were found between 2.8-mm drills in D1 (P=0.0014) and D4 (P<0.0001) and between 3.5-mm drills in D3 (P=0.0087) and D4 (P<0.0001), as well as between 4.2-mm drills in D1 (P<0.0001) and D4 (P=0.0014). Low bone density led to a thermal decrease after single drilling and a thermal increase after gradual drilling. Burs with a large diameter always showed a higher temperature generation. In comparisons between 2.8- and 4.2-mm diameters for both single and gradual drills, significant differences (P<0.001) were noted for bone types II, III, and IV. Single drilling could generate more heat than traditional sequential drilling, and bone density, as well as drill diameter, influenced thermal increases. Particularly in lower-density bone, conventional sequential drilling seems to raise the temperature less. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RCRA Assessment Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area S-SX at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    A groundwater quality assessment plan was prepared for waste management area S-SX at the Hanford Site. Groundwater monitoring is conducted at this facility in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 265, Subpart F [and by reference of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-400(3)]. The facility was placed in assessment groundwater monitoring program status after elevated waste constituents and indicator parameter measurements (i.e., chromium, technetium-99 and specific conductance) in downgradient monitoring wells were observed and confirmed. A first determination, as allowed under 40 CFR 265.93(d), provides the owner/operator of a facility an opportunity to demonstrate that the regulated unit is not the source of groundwater contamination. Based on results of the first determination it was concluded that multiple source locations in the waste management area could account for observed spatial and temporal groundwater contamination patterns. Consequently, a continued investigation is required. This plan, developed using the data quality objectives process, is intended to comply with the continued investigation requirement. Accordingly, the primary purpose of the present plan is to determine the rate and extent of dangerous waste (hexavalent chromium and nitrate) and radioactive constituents (e.g., technetium-99) in groundwater and to determine their concentrations in groundwater beneath waste management area S-SX. Comments and concerns expressed by the Washington State Department of Ecology on the initial waste management area S-SX assessment report were addressed in the descriptive narrative of this plan as well as in the planned activities. Comment disposition is documented in a separate addendum to this plan

  12. Silica-supported, single-site titanium catalysts for olefin epoxidation. A molecular precursor strategy for control of catalyst structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupatrakorn, Jonggol; Don Tilley, T

    2002-07-17

    A molecular precursor approach involving simple grafting procedures was used to produce site-isolated titanium-supported epoxidation catalysts of high activity and selectivity. The tris(tert-butoxy)siloxy titanium complexes Ti[OSi(O(t)Bu)(3)](4) (TiSi4), ((i)PrO)Ti[OSi(O(t)Bu)(3)](3) (TiSi3), and ((t)BuO)(3)TiOSi(O(t)Bu)(3) (TiSi) react with the hydroxyl groups of amorphous Aerosil, mesoporous MCM-41, and SBA-15 via loss of HO(t)Bu and/or HOSi(O(t)Bu)(3) and introduction of titanium species onto the silica surface. Powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, infrared, and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet spectroscopies were used to investigate the structures and chemical natures of the surface-bound titanium species. The titanium species exist mainly in isolated, tetrahedral coordination environments. Increasing the number of siloxide ligands in the molecular precursor decreases the amount of titanium that can be introduced this way, but also enhances the catalytic activity and selectivity for the epoxidation of cyclohexene with cumene hydroperoxide as oxidant. In addition, the high surface area mesoporous silicas (MCM-41 and SBA-15) are more effective than amorphous silica as supports for these catalysts. Supporting TiSi3 on the SBA-15 affords highly active cyclohexene epoxidation catalysts (0.25-1.77 wt % Ti loading) that provide turnover frequencies (TOFs) of 500-1500 h(-1) after 1 h (TOFs are reduced by about half after calcination). These results demonstrate that oxygen-rich siloxide complexes of titanium are useful as precursors to supported epoxidation catalysts.

  13. Tuning of the Lethal Response to Multiple Stressors with a Single-Site Mutation during Clinical Infection by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The agr system of Staphylococcus aureus promotes invasion of host tissues, and as expected, agents that block agr quorum sensing have anti-infective properties. Paradoxically, agr-defective mutants are frequently recovered from patients, especially those persistently infected with S. aureus. We found that an agr deficiency increased survival of cultured bacteria during severe stress, such as treatment with gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, heat, or low pH. With daptomycin, deletion of agr decreased survival. Therefore, agr activity can be either detrimental or protective, depending on the type of lethal stress. Deletion of agr had no effect on the ability of the antimicrobials to block bacterial growth, indicating that agr effects are limited to lethal action. Thus, the effect of an agr deletion is on bacterial tolerance, not resistance. For gentamicin and daptomycin, activity can be altered by agr-regulated secreted factors. For ciprofloxacin, a detrimental function was downregulation of glutathione peroxidase (bsaA, an enzyme responsible for defense against oxidative stress. Deficiencies in agr and bsaA were epistatic for survival, consistent with agr having a destructive role mediated by reactive oxygen species. Enhanced susceptibility to lethal stress by wild-type agr, particularly antimicrobial stress, helps explain why inactivating mutations in S. aureus agr commonly occur in hospitalized patients during infection. Moreover, the agr quorum-sensing system of S. aureus provides a clinically relevant example in which a single-step change in the response to severe stress alters the evolutionary path of a pathogen during infection.

  14. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binds to guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils: A single class of binding sites with low affinity and high capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, H.; Shima, K.; Takamatsu, J.; Said, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    VIP binds to specific receptors on lymphocytes and mononuclear cells and exhibits antiinflammatory properties. Eosinophils (Eos) contribute to inflammatory reactions but the regulation of Eos function is incompletely understood. The authors examined the binding of monoradioiodinated VIP, [Tyr( 125 I) 10 ] VIP ( 125 I-VIP), to Eos in guinea pigs. The interaction of 125 i-VIP with Eos was rapid, reversible, saturable and linearly dependent on the number of cells. At equilibrium the binding was competitively inhibited by native peptide or by the related peptide helodermin. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of a single class of VIP binding sites with a low affinity and a high capacity. In the presence of isobutyl-methylxanthine, VIP, PHI or helodermin did not stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation in intact Eos, while PGE 2 or 1-isoproterenol did. VIP also did not inhibit superoxide anion generation from Eos stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. The authors conclude that: (1) VIP binds to low-affinity, specific sites on guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils; (2) this binding is not coupled to stimulation of adenylate cyclase; and (3) the possible function of these binding sites is at present unknown

  16. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  17. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ''beyond extremely unlikely'' frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  18. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  19. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  20. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB site and roadside (RS site in the city of Barcelona (Spain from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800 with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800–2000 nm at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100 with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300–700 nm at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7–58.9 % of total particles, fresh and aged sea salt (1.0–14.6 %, local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3–11.6 %, local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1–0.2 %, and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8–2.5 %. The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %, Saharan dust (1.3 %, vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %, and vegetative debris (1.7 %. By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle

  1. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  2. HuR binds to a single site on the C/EBPβ mRNA of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Heath; Carver, Melinda; Pekala, Phillip H.

    2007-01-01

    HuR is a ligand for nuclear mRNAs containing adenylate-uridylate rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Once bound to the mRNA, HuR is recognized by adapter proteins which then facilitate nuclear export of the complex. In the cytosol HuR is thought to function to control stability and translation of its ligand message. In the 3T3-L1 cells HuR is constitutively expressed and localized predominantly to the nucleus in the preadipocytes. However within 30 min of exposure to the differentiation stimulus, the HuR content in the cytosol increases consistent with HuR regulating the availability of relevant mRNAs for translation. Using in vitro RNA gel shifts, we have demonstrated that the C/EBPβ message is a ligand for HuR and that the single binding site is an adenylate-uridylate rich element in the 3'-untranslated region

  3. Activity Recognition for Personal Time Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prekopcsák, Zoltán; Soha, Sugárka; Henk, Tamás; Gáspár-Papanek, Csaba

    We describe an accelerometer based activity recognition system for mobile phones with a special focus on personal time management. We compare several data mining algorithms for the automatic recognition task in the case of single user and multiuser scenario, and improve accuracy with heuristics and advanced data mining methods. The results show that daily activities can be recognized with high accuracy and the integration with the RescueTime software can give good insights for personal time management.

  4. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45 degree to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence

  5. Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) in vivo suturing using a magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) camera in a porcine model: impact on ergonomics and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Han, Woong Kyu; Faddegon, Stephen; Tan, Yung Khan; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Olweny, Ephrem O; Scott, Daniel J; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the ergonomics and workload of the surgeon during single-site suturing while using the magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) camera vs a conventional laparoscope. Seven urologic surgeons were enrolled and divided into an expert group (n=2) and a novice group (n=5) according to their laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) experience. Each surgeon performed 2 conventional LESS and 2 MAGS camera-assisted LESS vesicostomy closures in a porcine model. A Likert scale (scoring 1-5) questionnaire assessing workload, ergonomics, technical difficulty, visualization, and needle handling, as well as a validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire were used to evaluate the tasks and workloads. MAGS LESS suturing was universally favored by expert and novice surgeons compared with conventional LESS in workload (3.4 vs 4.2), ergonomics (3.4 vs 4.4), technical challenge (3.3 vs 4.3), visualization (2.4 vs 3.3), and needle handling (3.1 vs 3.9 respectively; PNASA-TLX assessments found MAGS LESS suturing significantly decreased the workload in physical demand (P=.004), temporal demand (P=.017), and effort (P=.006). External instrument clashing was significantly reduced in MAGS LESS suturing (P<.001). The total operative time of MAGS LESS suturing was comparable to that of conventional LESS (P=.89). MAGS camera technology significantly decreased surgeon workload and improved ergonomics. Nevertheless, LESS suturing and knot tying remains a challenging task that requires training, regardless of which camera is used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  7. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes. PMID:27129245

  8. Alkylation of acetohydroxyacid synthase I from Escherichia coli K-12 by 3-bromopyruvate: evidence for a single active site catalyzing acetolactate and acetohydroxybutyrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, P M; Eoyang, L

    1987-01-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase I (AHAS I) purified from Escherichia coli K-12 was irreversibly inactivated by incubation with 3-bromopyruvate. Inactivation was specific, insofar as bromoacetate and iodoacetate were much less effective than bromopyruvate. Inactivation was accompanied by incorporation of radioactivity from 3-bromo[2-14C]pyruvate into acid-insoluble material. More than 95% of the incorporated radioactivity coelectrophoresed with the 60-kilodalton IlvB subunit of the enzyme through a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel; less than 5% coelectrophoresed with the 11.2-kilodalton IlvN subunit. The stoichiometry of incorporation at nearly complete inactivation was 1 mol of 14C per mol of IlvB polypeptide. These data indicate that bromopyruvate inactivates AHAS I by alkylating an amino acid at or near a single active site located in the IlvB subunit of the enzyme. We confirmed that this alkylation inactivated both AHAS reactions normally catalyzed by AHAS I. These results provide the first direct evidence that AHAS I catalyzes both acetohydroxybutyrate and acetolactate synthesis from the same active site. Images PMID:3294793

  9. Alkylation of acetohydroxyacid synthase I from Escherichia coli K-12 by 3-bromopyruvate: evidence for a single active site catalyzing acetolactate and acetohydroxybutyrate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, P.M.; Eoyang, L.

    1987-01-01

    Acetohyroxyacid synthease I (AHAS I) purified from Escherichia coli K-12 was irreversibly inactivated by incubation with 3-bromopyruvate. Inactivation was specific, insofar as bromoacetate and iodoacetate were much less effective than bromopyruvate. Inactivation was accompanied by incorporation of radioactivity from 3-bromo[2- 14 C]pyruvate into acid-insoluble material. More than 95% of the incorporated radioactivity coelectrophoresed with the 60-kilodalton IlvB subunit of the enzyme through a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel; less than 5% coelectrophoresed with the 11.2-kilodalton IlvN subunit. The stoichiometry of incorporation at nearly complete inactivation was 1 mol of 14 C per mol of IlvB polypeptide. These data indicate that bromopyruvate inactivates AHAS I by alkylating an amino acid at or near a single active site located in the IlvB subunit of the enzyme. The authors confirmed that this alkylation inactivated both AHAS reactions normally catalyzed by AHAS I. These results provide the first direct evidence that AHAS I catalyzes both acetohydroxybutyrate and acetolactate synthesis from the same active site

  10. Identification of a common single nucleotide polymorphism at the primer binding site of D2S1360 that causes heterozygote peak imbalance when using the Investigator HDplex Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Shota; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Kazuma; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuyuki

    2017-11-01

    Phenomena known as null alleles and peak imbalance can occur because of mutations in the primer binding sites used for DNA typing. In these cases, an accurate statistical evaluation of DNA typing is difficult. The estimated likelihood ratio is incorrectly calculated because of the null allele and allele dropout caused by mutation-induced peak imbalance. Although a number of studies have attempted to uncover examples of these phenomena, few reports are available on the human identification kit manufactured by Qiagen. In this study, 196 Japanese individuals who were heterozygous at D2S1360 were genotyped using an Investigator HDplex Kit with optimal amounts of DNA. A peak imbalance was frequently observed at the D2S1360 locus. We performed a sequencing analysis of the area surrounding the D2S1360 repeat motif to identify the cause for peak imbalance. A point mutation (G>A transition) 136 nucleotides upstream from the D2S1360 repeat motif was discovered in a number of samples. The allele frequency of the mutation was 0.0566 in the Japanese population. Therefore, human identification or kinship testing using the Investigator HDplex Kit requires caution because of the higher frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the primer binding site of D2S1360 locus in the Japanese population.

  11. The use of modern dressings in managing split-thickness skin graft donor sites: a single-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanavičius, M; Cepas, A; Kolaityte, V; Simoliuniene, R; Rimdeika, R

    2017-06-02

    To identify the most appropriate, most suitable and most efficient dressing for split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor sites. Comparing the wound healing rate, pain severity and duration, as well as the dressing change frequency in four randomised patient groups. A single-centre non-blinded randomised controlled trial was carried out during 2010-2014. All patients treated for skin defects/lesions (due to burns, trauma or ulcers) using STSG were included in the study. All patients were randomly allocated in four different donor site treatment groups; polyurethane (PU group, Mepilex); polyurethane with silicone membrane (PUSM group; Mepilex border,); transparent, breathable film (TBF group; Mepitel film) and cotton gauze dressings (CG group) using Excel 2007. We evaluated: wound healing time, pain severity and duration, the frequency of dressing change, donor site re-epithelialisation, donor site complications (signs of inflammation or infection). Patients were assessed on postoperative days: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. After random allocation of study participants the number of patients in each group were: PU group n=25; PUSM group n=24; TBF group n=24; CG group n=25. The groups were homogenous according to gender, age, main pathology, donor site area and wound size. The STSG donor site healing time varied from 9 to 21 days. The mean healing time in the CG group was 14.76 days, whereas in the PU, PUSM, and TBF group it was significantly shorter; 12.25 days, 11.63 days and 10 days, respectively. Patients in the TBF group demonstrated the most rapid healing time with 66.7% of STSG donor sites healed by postoperative day 9. The pain duration interval in modern dressing groups (PU, PUSM and TBF groups) was 0-9 days, whereas it was 6-18 day in the CS group. Pain intensity mean on postoperative day 1 was 2.21 in the PU group; 1.67 in the PUSM group; 1.46 in the TBF group and 3.04 in the CG group. The average pain duration in Group PU, PUSM, and TBF was 4.08 days; 2

  12. Single-Atom Mn Active Site in a Triol-Stabilized β-Anderson Manganohexamolybdate for Enhanced Catalytic Activity towards Adipic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adipic acid is an important raw chemical for the commercial production of polyamides and polyesters. The traditional industrial adipic acid production utilizes nitric acid to oxidize KA oil (mixtures of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol, leading to the emission of N2O and thus causing ozone depletion, global warming, and acid rain. Herein, we reported an organically functionalized β-isomer of Anderson polyoxometalates (POMs nanocluster with single-atom Mn, β-{[H3NC(CH2O3]2MnMo6O18}− (1, as a highly active catalyst to selectively catalyze the oxidation of cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, or KA oil with atom economy use of 30% H2O2 for the eco-friendly synthesis of adipic acid. The catalyst has been characterized by single crystal and powder XRD, XPS, ESI-MS, FT-IR, and NMR. A cyclohexanone (cyclohexanol conversion of >99.9% with an adipic acid selectivity of ~97.1% (~85.3% could be achieved over catalyst 1 with high turnover frequency of 2427.5 h−1 (2132.5 h−1. It has been demonstrated that the existence of Mn3+ atom active site in catalyst 1 and the special butterfly-shaped topology of POMs both play vital roles in the enhancement of catalytic activity.

  13. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  14. Finding protein sites using machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Leonardo Bobadilla Molina

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of protein three-dimensional (3D structures determined by x-ray and NMR technologies as well as structures predicted by computational methods results in the need for automated methods to provide inital annotations. We have developed a new method for recognizing sites in three-dimensional protein structures. Our method is based on a previosly reported algorithm for creating descriptions of protein microenviroments using physical and chemical properties at multiple levels of detail. The recognition method takes three inputs: 1. A set of control nonsites that share some structural or functional role. 2. A set of control nonsites that lack this role. 3. A single query site. A support vector machine classifier is built using feature vectors where each component represents a property in a given volume. Validation against an independent test set shows that this recognition approach has high sensitivity and specificity. We also describe the results of scanning four calcium binding proteins (with the calcium removed using a three dimensional grid of probe points at 1.25 angstrom spacing. The system finds the sites in the proteins giving points at or near the blinding sites. Our results show that property based descriptions along with support vector machines can be used for recognizing protein sites in unannotated structures.

  15. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  16. Success with voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  17. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  18. Second site escape of a T20-dependent HIV-1 variant by a single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of the envelope glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the selection of a T20-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 variant in a patient on T20 therapy. The fusion inhibitor T20 targets the viral envelope (Env protein by blocking a conformational switch that is critical for viral entry into the host cell. T20-dependent viral entry is the result of 2 mutations in Env (GIA-SKY, creating a protein that undergoes a premature conformational switch, and the presence of T20 prevents this premature switch and rescues viral entry. In the present study, we performed 6 independent evolution experiments with the T20-dependent HIV-1 variant in the absence of T20, with the aim to identify second site compensatory changes, which may provide new mechanistic insights into Env function and the T20-dependence mechanism. Results Escape variants with improved replication capacity appeared within 42 days in 5 evolution cultures. Strikingly, 3 cultures revealed the same single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of Env (glycine at position 431 substituted for arginine: G431R. This mutation was sufficient to abolish the T20-dependence phenotype and restore viral replication in the absence of T20. The GIA-SKY-G431R escape variant produces an Env protein that exhibits reduced syncytia formation and reduced cell-cell fusion activity. The escape variant was more sensitive to an antibody acting on an early gp41 intermediate, suggesting that the G431R mutation helps preserve a pre-fusion Env conformation, similar to T20 action. The escape variant was also less sensitive to soluble CD4, suggesting a reduced CD4 receptor affinity. Conclusion The forced evolution experiments indicate that the premature conformational switch of the T20-dependent HIV-1 Env variant (GIA-SKY can be corrected by a second site mutation in Env (GIA-SKY-G431R that affects the interaction with the CD4 receptor.

  19. Revisiting a many-body model for water based on a single polarizable site: from gas phase clusters to liquid and air/liquid water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel

    2013-09-21

    We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.

  20. Totally Transanal Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site ProctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J: An Experimental Study of a Novel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vahdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES has become a commonly considered novel approach in the surgical field. The NOTES provide possibility of operation through the natural orifice and decreases the intentional puncture of the systemic organ and subsequent complications. Totally transanal laparo-endoscopic single-site proctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J is a novel method in minimally invasive surgery for total colectomy. The main goal of this study is to perform this new method on an animal model, to assess probable complication and to resolve probable issues by using patients that are candidate for total colectomy. Method: Five dogs were prepared in lithotomy position. The TLPC-I procedure consists of endorectal technique with full thickness rectal dissection starting 1 cm orally from the dentate line above the peritoneal reflection and the proximal bowel was replaced into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, the TriPort system was inserted in the anal canal and mesentrial resection of the total colon, mobilization of a distal ileal segment and intracorporeal suture of an ileal J-loop was accomplished by this system. An incision in the J-loop was conducted transanally. The J-pouch was created with an Endo-GIA® and sutured to the rectal wall. Results: All animals survived and passed stool with clear post operation situation. There was no infection in site of anastomosis. Conclusion: The TLPC-I provides the possibility of surgery without abdominal wall incision and decreases post operation complication such as pain, abdominal wound infection and wound dehiscence. This technique increases the quality of life and surgeons can discharge the patients early.

  1. Results of Phase I groundwater quality assessment for single-shell tank waste management Area S-SX at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.G.; Chou, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Phase I, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater quality assessment for the Richland Field Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-RL), in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) S-SX has impacted groundwater quality. The WMA is located in the southern portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site and consists of the 241-S and 241-SX tank farms and ancillary waste systems. The unit is regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations (40 CFR 265, Subpart F) and was placed in assessment groundwater monitoring (40 CFR 265.93 [d]) in August 1996 because of elevated specific conductance and technetium-99, a non-RCRA co-contaminant, in downgradient monitoring wells. Major findings of the assessment are summarized below: (1) Distribution patterns for radionuclides and RCRA/dangerous waste constituents indicate WMA S-SX has contributed to groundwater contamination observed in downgradient monitoring wells. (2) Drinking water standards for nitrate and technetium-99 are currently exceeded in one RCRA-compliant well (299-W22-46) located at the southeastern comer of the SX tank farm. (3) Technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium concentrations in downgradient well 299-W22-46 (the well with the highest current concentrations) appear to be declining after reaching maximum concentrations in May 1997. (4) Cesium-137 and strontium-90, major constituents of concern in single-shell tank waste, were not detected in any of the RCRA-compliant wells in the WMA network, including the well with the highest current technetium-99 concentrations (299-W22-46). (5) Low but detectable strontium-90 and cesium-137 were found in one old well (2-W23-7), located inside and between the S and SX tank farms

  2. Textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest in affective computing (AC) brings a lot of valuable research topics that can meet different application demands in enterprise systems. The present study explores a sub area of AC techniques - textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing. Multi-label emotion recognition in text is able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of emotions than single label emotion recognition. A representation of 'emotion state in text' is proposed to encompass the multidimensional emotions in text. It ensures the description in a formal way of the configurations of basic emotions as well as of the relations between them. Our method allows recognition of the emotions for the words bear indirect emotions, emotion ambiguity and multiple emotions. We further investigate the effect of word order for emotional expression by comparing the performances of bag-of-words model and sequence model for multi-label sentence emotion recognition. The experiments show that the classification results under sequence model are better than under bag-of-words model. And homogeneous Markov model showed promising results of multi-label sentence emotion recognition. This emotion recognition system is able to provide a convenient way to acquire valuable emotion information and to improve enterprise competitive ability in many aspects.

  3. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  4. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER.

  5. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Truc, Phan Tran Ho

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER) has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER) system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER. PMID:24316568

  6. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachkowski, Brian F. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tano, Keizo [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Afonin, Valeriy [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Elder, Rhoderick H. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Greater Manchester (United Kingdom); Takeda, Shunichi [Department of Radiation Genetics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, Masami [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Swenberg, James A. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Nakamura, Jun, E-mail: ynakamur@email.unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase {beta}.

  7. Site-specific forest-assembly of single-wall carbon nanotubes on electron-beam patterned SiOx/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Haoyan; Kim, Sang Nyon; Kim, Sejong; Huey, Bryan D.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Marcus, Harris L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on electron-beam direct writing on the SiO x /Si substrates, favorable absorption sites for ferric cations (Fe 3+ ions) were created on the surface oxide layer. This allowed Fe 3+ -assisted self-assembled arrays of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) probes to be produced. Auger investigation indicated that the incident energetic electrons depleted oxygen, creating more dangling bonds around Si atoms at the surface of the SiO x layer. This resulted in a distinct difference in the friction forces from unexposed regions as measured by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) affirmed that the irradiated domains absorbed considerably more Fe 3+ ions upon immersion into pH 2.2 aqueous FeCl 3 solution. This rendered a greater yield of FeO(OH)/FeOCl precipitates, primarily FeO(OH), upon subsequent washing with lightly basic dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Such selective metal-functionalization established the basis for the subsequent patterned forest-assembly of SWNTs as demonstrated by resonance Raman spectroscopy

  8. Enhancement of Ag-Based Plasmonic Photocatalysis in Hydrogen Production from Ammonia Borane by the Assistance of Single-Site Ti-Oxide Moieties within a Silica Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2017-03-13

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have gained great attention owing to their interesting plasmonic properties and efficient catalysis under visible-light irradiation. In this study, an Ag-based plasmonic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica with isolated and tetrahedrally coordinated single-site Ti-oxide moieties, namely, Ag/Ti-SBA-15, was designed with the purpose of utilizing the broad spectral range of solar energy. The Ti-SBA-15 support allows the deposition of small Ag NPs with a narrow size distribution. The chemical structure, morphology, and optical properties of the prepared catalyst were characterized by techniques such as UV/Vis, FT extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission SEM, TEM, and N 2 physisorption studies. The catalytic activity of Ag/Ti-SBA-15 in hydrogen production from ammonia borane by hydrolysis was significantly enhanced in comparison with Ag/SBA-15 without Ti-oxide moieties and Ag/TiO 2 /SBA-15 involving agglomerated TiO 2 , both in the dark and under light irradiation. Improved electron transfer under light irradiation caused by the creation of heterojunctions between Ag NPs and Ti-oxide moieties explains the results obtained in the present study. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Development of an in vivo visual robot system with a magnetic anchoring mechanism and a lens cleaning mechanism for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haibo; Dong, Dinghui; Ma, Tengfei; Zhuang, Jinlei; Fu, Yili; Lv, Yi; Li, Liyi

    2017-12-01

    Surgical robot systems which can significantly improve surgical procedures have been widely used in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). For a relative complex surgical procedure, the development of an in vivo visual robot system for LESS can effectively improve the visualization for surgical robot systems. In this work, an in vivo visual robot system with a new mechanism for LESS was investigated. A finite element method (FEM) analysis was carried out to ensure the safety of the in vivo visual robot during the movement, which was the most important concern for surgical purposes. A master-slave control strategy was adopted, in which the control model was established by off-line experiments. The in vivo visual robot system was verified by using a phantom box. The experiment results show that the robot system can successfully realize the expected functionalities and meet the demands of LESS. The experiment results indicate that the in vivo visual robot with high manipulability has great potential in clinical application. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Comparative Study of 2D and 3D Optical Imaging Systems: Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery in an Ex Vivo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaça, Jaime; Pinto, José Pedro; Fernandes, Sandra; Costa, Patrício; Pinto, Jorge Correia; Leão, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    Usually laparoscopy is performed by means of a 2-dimensional (2D) image system and multiport approach. To overcome the lack of depth perception, new 3-dimensional (3D) systems are arising with the added advantage of providing stereoscopic vision. To further reduce surgery-related trauma, there are new minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed, such as LESS (laparoendoscopic single-site) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare 2D and 3D laparoscopic systems in LESS surgical procedures. All participants were selected from different levels of experience in laparoscopic surgery-10 novices, 7 intermediates, and 10 experts were included. None of the participants had had previous experience in LESS surgery. Participants were chosen randomly to begin their experience with either the 2D or 3D laparoscopic system. The exercise consisted of performing an ex vivo pork cholecystectomy through a SILS port with the assistance of a fixed distance laparoscope. Errors, time, and participants' preference were recorded. Statistical analysis of time and errors between groups was conducted with a Student's t test (using independent samples) and the Mann-Whitney test. In all 3 groups, the average time with the 2D system was significantly reduced after having used the 3D system ( P 3D system. This study suggests that the 3D system may improve the learning curve and that learning from the 3D system is transferable to the 2D environment. Additionally, the majority of participants prefer 3D equipment.

  11. Test Plan for the Demonstration of Geophysical Techniques for Single-Shell Tank Leak Detection at the Hanford Mock Tank Site: Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2001-07-31

    As part of the Leak Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation (LDMM) program conducted by CH2M HILL 105-A during FY 2001. These tests are being conducted to assess the applicability of these methods (Electrical Resistance Tomography [ERT], High Resolution Resistivity [HRR], Cross-Borehole Seismography [XBS], Cross-Borehole Radar [XBR], and Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction [CEMI]) to the detection and measurement of Single Shell Tank (SST) leaks into the vadose zone during planned sluicing operations. The testing in FY 2001 will result in the selection of up to two methods for further testing in FY 2002. In parallel with the geophysical tests, a Partitioning Interwell Tracer Test (PITT) study will be conducted simultaneously at the Mock Tank to assess the effectiveness of this technology in detecting and quantifying tank leaks in the vadose zone. Preparatory and background work using Cone Penetrometer methods (CPT) will be conducted at the Mock Tank site and an adjacent test area to derive soil properties for groundtruthing purposes for all methods.

  12. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian F; Tano, Keizo; Afonin, Valeriy; Elder, Rhoderick H; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase beta.

  13. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recognition of Cladosporium fulvum Ecp2 elicitor by non-host Nicotiana spp. is mediated by a single dominant gene that is not homologous to known Cf-genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, de M.J.D.; Iskandar, H.M.; Brandwagt, B.F.; Laugé, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Cladosporium fulvum is a fungal pathogen of tomato that grows exclusively in the intercellular spaces of leaves. Ecp2 is one of the elicitor proteins that is secreted by C. fulvum and is specifically recognized by tomato plants containing the resistance gene Cf-Ecp2. Recognition is followed by a

  15. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  16. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  17. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  18. Caulobacter crescentus Cell Cycle-Regulated DNA Methyltransferase Uses a Novel Mechanism for Substrate Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Clayton B; Yakubov, Aziz B; Reich, Norbert O

    2017-08-01

    Caulobacter crescentus relies on DNA methylation by the cell cycle-regulated methyltransferase (CcrM) in addition to key transcription factors to control the cell cycle and direct cellular differentiation. CcrM is shown here to efficiently methylate its cognate recognition site 5'-GANTC-3' in single-stranded and hemimethylated double-stranded DNA. We report the K m , k cat , k methylation , and K d for single-stranded and hemimethylated substrates, revealing discrimination of 10 7 -fold for noncognate sequences. The enzyme also shows a similar discrimination against single-stranded RNA. Two independent assays clearly show that CcrM is highly processive with single-stranded and hemimethylated DNA. Collectively, the data provide evidence that CcrM and other DNA-modifying enzymes may use a new mechanism to recognize DNA in a key epigenetic process.

  19. Quadcopter Control Using Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, H.; Darma, S.; Soekirno, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research reported a comparison from a success rate of speech recognition systems that used two types of databases they were existing databases and new databases, that were implemented into quadcopter as motion control. Speech recognition system was using Mel frequency cepstral coefficient method (MFCC) as feature extraction that was trained using recursive neural network method (RNN). MFCC method was one of the feature extraction methods that most used for speech recognition. This method has a success rate of 80% - 95%. Existing database was used to measure the success rate of RNN method. The new database was created using Indonesian language and then the success rate was compared with results from an existing database. Sound input from the microphone was processed on a DSP module with MFCC method to get the characteristic values. Then, the characteristic values were trained using the RNN which result was a command. The command became a control input to the single board computer (SBC) which result was the movement of the quadcopter. On SBC, we used robot operating system (ROS) as the kernel (Operating System).

  20. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  1. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  2. The Medial Dorsal Thalamic Nucleus and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat Function Together to Support Associative Recognition and Recency but Not Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Laura; Brown, Malcolm W.; Aggleton, John P.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2013-01-01

    In humans recognition memory deficits, a typical feature of diencephalic amnesia, have been tentatively linked to mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) damage. Animal studies have occasionally investigated the role of the MD in single-item recognition, but have not systematically analyzed its involvement in other recognition memory processes. In…

  3. Testing Theories of Recognition Memory by Predicting Performance Across Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David G.; Duncan, Matthew J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Signal-detection theory (SDT) accounts of recognition judgments depend on the assumption that recognition decisions result from a single familiarity-based process. However, fits of a hybrid SDT model, called dual-process theory (DPT), have provided evidence for the existence of a second, recollection-based process. In 2 experiments, the authors…

  4. A Hierarchical Model for Continuous Gesture Recognition Using Kinect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Moesgaard, Christoffer; Nielsen, Christoffer Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Human gesture recognition is an area, which has been studied thoroughly in recent years,and close to100% recognition rates in restricted environments have been achieved, often either with single separated gestures in the input stream, or with computationally intensive systems. The results are unf...

  5. Single- and Multi-Date Crop Identification Using PROBA-V 100 and 300 m S1 Products on Zlatia Test Site, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Roumenina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of crops is of vital importance for food and environmental security in a global and European context. The main goal of this study was to assess the crop mapping performance provided by the 100 m spatial resolution of PROBA-V compared to coarser resolution data (e.g., PROBA-V at 300 m for a 2250 km2 test site in Bulgaria. The focus was on winter and summer crop mapping with three to five classes. For classification, single- and multi-date spectral data were used as well as NDVI time series. Our results demonstrate that crop identification using 100 m PROBA-V data performed significantly better in all experiments compared to the PROBA-V 300 m data. PROBA-V multispectral imagery, acquired in spring (March was the most appropriate for winter crop identification, while satellite data acquired in summer (July was superior for summer crop identification. The classification accuracy from PROBA-V 100 m compared to PROBA-V 300 m was improved by 5.8% to 14.8% depending on crop type. Stacked multi-date satellite images with three to four images gave overall classification accuracies of 74%–77% (PROBA-V 100 m data and 66%–70% (PROBA-V 300 m data with four classes (wheat, rapeseed, maize, and sunflower. This demonstrates that three to four image acquisitions, well distributed over the growing season, capture most of the spectral and temporal variability in our test site. Regarding the PROBA-V NDVI time series, useful results were only obtained if crops were grouped into two broader crop type classes (summer and winter crops. Mapping accuracies decreased significantly when mapping more classes. Again, a positive impact of the increased spatial resolution was noted. Together, the findings demonstrate the positive effect of the 100 m resolution PROBA-V data compared to the 300 m for crop mapping. This has important implications for future data provision and strengthens the arguments for a second generation of this mission originally designed

  6. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-globin locus control region-hypersensitive Site 2: SPECIFICITY of Tunisian βs chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Moumni, Imen; Zorai, Amine; Douzi, Kaïs; Ghanem, Abderraouf; Abbes, Salem

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of sickle cell disease severity is attributed to several cis acting factors, among them the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (AT) rich region in the β-locus control region (β-LCR). This contains five DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located 6 to 22 kb upstream to the ϵ gene. The most important of these is the HS2 (5' β-LCR-HS2), characterized by the presence of three different SNPs and a microsatellite region known to be in association with β(S) chromosomes in various populations. The aim of this study was to present the molecular investigation of the 5' β-LCR-HS2 site in normal and sickle cell disease individuals in order to determine if there is any correlation or specificity between these molecular markers, the β(S) Tunisian chromosomes and phenotypical expression of sickle cell disease. One hundred and twenty-four chromosomes from Tunisian individuals (49 β(S) carriers and 13 normal individuals) were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for the polymorphic short tandem microsatellite repeats (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(Y) and the three SNPs (rs7119428, rs9736333 and rs60240093) of the 5' β-LCR-HS2. Twelve configurations of the microsatellite motif were found with an ancestral configuration elaborated by ClustalW software. Normal and mutated alleles were observed at the homozygous and heterozygous states for the three SNPs. Correlation between microsatellites and SNPs suggests that mutant SNP alleles were mainly associated, in the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, with the (AT)(8)N(12)GT(AT)(7) configuration, whereas, normal SNP alleles were associated with the (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(11) configurations in normal β(A) chromosomes. The correlation of these various configurations with Hb F expression was also investigated. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed the correlation between the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, mutated SNP alleles and the Benin microsatellite configuration (AT)(8)N(12)GT

  7. Transfer Learning for Rodent Behavior Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorbach, M.T.; Poppe, R.W.; van Dam, Elsbeth; Veltkamp, R.C.; Noldus, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Many behavior recognition systems are trained and tested on single datasets limiting their application to comparable datasets. While retraining the system with a novel dataset is possible, it involves laborious annotation effort. We propose to minimize the annotation effort by reusing the knowledge

  8. Emotion recognition a pattern analysis approach

    CERN Document Server

    Konar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Offers both foundations and advances on emotion recognition in a single volumeProvides a thorough and insightful introduction to the subject by utilizing computational tools of diverse domainsInspires young researchers to prepare themselves for their own researchDemonstrates direction of future research through new technologies, such as Microsoft Kinect, EEG systems etc.

  9. The single-particle mixing state and cloud scavenging of black carbon: a case study at a high-altitude mountain site in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Duohong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Brechtel, Fred J.; Chen, Jianxin; Yan, Weijun; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor (GCVI) was used to sample cloud droplet residual (cloud RES) particles, while a parallel PM2.5 inlet was used to sample cloud-free or cloud interstitial (cloud INT) particles. The mixing state of black carbon (BC)-containing particles and the mass concentrations of BC in the cloud-free, RES and INT particles were investigated using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and two aethalometers, respectively, at a mountain site (1690 m a. s. l. ) in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were extensively internally mixed with sulfate and were scavenged into cloud droplets (with number fractions of 0.05-0.45) to a similar (or slightly lower) extent as all the measured particles (0.07-0.6) over the measured size range of 0.1-1.6 µm. The results indicate the preferential activation of larger particles and/or that the production of secondary compositions shifts the BC-containing particles towards larger sizes. BC-containing particles with an abundance of both sulfate and organics were scavenged less than those with sulfate but limited organics, implying the importance of the mixing state on the incorporation of BC-containing particles into cloud droplets. The mass scavenging efficiency of BC with an average of 33 % was similar for different cloud events independent of the air mass. This is the first time that both the mixing state and cloud scavenging of BC in China have been reported. Our results would improve the knowledge on the concentration, mixing state, and cloud scavenging of BC in the free troposphere.

  10. Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgery for Radical and Cytoreductive Nephrectomy, Renal Vein Thrombectomy, and Partial Nephrectomy: A Prospective Pilot Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ithaar H. Derweesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS may diminish morbidity of laparoscopic surgery. We prospectively evaluated feasibility and outcomes of LESS-Radical Nephrectomy (LESS-RN and Partial Nephrectomy (LESS-PN. Methods. 10 patients underwent LESS-RN (6 and LESS-PN (4 between 2/2009-5/2009. LESS-RN included 2 with renal vein thrombectomy, one of which was also cytoreductive. Transperitoneal LESS access was obtained by periumbilical incision. Patient/tumor characteristics, oncologic, and quality of life (QoL outcomes were analyzed. Results. 3 Men/7 Women (mean age 58.7 years, median follow-up 9.8 months underwent LESS. 9/10 cases were completed successfully. All had negative margins. Mean operative time was 161 minutes, estimated blood loss was 125 mL, and incision size was 4.4 cm. Median tumor size for LESS-RN and -PN was 5.0 and 1.7 cm (=.045. Median LESS-PN ischemia time was 24 minutes; mean preoperative/postoperative creatinine were 0.7/0.8 mg/dL (=.19. Mean pain score at discharge was 1.3. Mean preoperative, 3-, and 6-month postoperative SF-36 QoL Score was 73.8, 74.4 and 77.1 (=.222. All patients are currently alive. Conclusions. LESS-RN, renal vein thrombectomy, and PN are technically feasible and safe while maintaining adherence to oncologic principles, with excellent QoL preservation and low discharge pain scores. Further study is requisite.

  11. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated With Enrolling People With Insomnia and High Blood Pressure Into an Online Behavioral Sleep Intervention: A Single-Site Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Faye S; Davis, Tara D; Dunbar, Sandra B

    Recruitment in clinical research is a common challenge and source of study failure. The reporting of recruitment methods and costs in hypertension trials is limited especially for smaller, single-site trials, online intervention trials, and trials using newer online recruitment strategies. The aims of this study are to describe and examine the feasibility of newer online-e-mail recruitment strategies and traditional recruitment strategies used to enroll participants with insomnia and high blood pressure into an online behavioral sleep intervention study (Sleeping for Heart Health). The 16 online-e-mail-based and traditional recruitment strategies used are described. Recruitment strategy feasibility was examined by study interest and enrollee yields, conversion rates, and costs (direct, remuneration, labor, and cost per enrollee). From August 2014 to October 2015, 183 people were screened and 58 (31.7%) enrolled in the study (51.1 ± 12.9 years, 63.8% female, 72.4% African American, 136 ± 12/88 ± 7 mm Hg, 87.9% self-reported hypertension, 67.2% self-reported antihypertensive medication use). The recruitment strategies yielding the highest enrollees were the university hospital phone waiting message system (25.4%), Craigslist (22.4%), and flyers (20.3%) at a per enrollee cost of $42.84, $98.90, and $128.27, respectively. The university hospital phone waiting message system (55.6%) and flyers (54.5%) had the highest interested participant to enrolled participant conversion rate of all recruitment strategies. Approximately 70% of all enrolled participants were recruited from the university hospital phone waiting message system, Craigslist, or flyers. Given the recruitment challenges that most researchers face, we encourage the documenting, assessing, and reporting of detailed recruitment strategies and associated recruitment costs so that other researchers may benefit.

  12. A Synthetic Single-Site Fe Nitrogenase: High Turnover, Freeze-Quench (57)Fe Mössbauer Data, and a Hydride Resting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Trevor J; Thompson, Niklas B; Peters, Jonas C

    2016-04-27

    The mechanisms of the few known molecular nitrogen-fixing systems, including nitrogenase enzymes, are of much interest but are not fully understood. We recently reported that Fe-N2 complexes of tetradentate P3(E) ligands (E = B, C) generate catalytic yields of NH3 under an atmosphere of N2 with acid and reductant at low temperatures. Here we show that these Fe catalysts are unexpectedly robust and retain activity after multiple reloadings. Nearly an order of magnitude improvement in yield of NH3 for each Fe catalyst has been realized (up to 64 equiv of NH3 produced per Fe for P3(B) and up to 47 equiv for P3(C)) by increasing acid/reductant loading with highly purified acid. Cyclic voltammetry shows the apparent onset of catalysis at the P3(B)Fe-N2/P3(B)Fe-N2(-) couple and controlled-potential electrolysis of P3(B)Fe(+) at -45 °C demonstrates that electrolytic N2 reduction to NH3 is feasible. Kinetic studies reveal first-order rate dependence on Fe catalyst concentration (P3(B)), consistent with a single-site catalyst model. An isostructural system (P3(Si)) is shown to be appreciably more selective for hydrogen evolution. In situ freeze-quench Mössbauer spectroscopy during turnover reveals an iron-borohydrido-hydride complex as a likely resting state of the P3(B)Fe catalyst system. We postulate that hydrogen-evolving reaction activity may prevent iron hydride formation from poisoning the P3(B)Fe system. This idea may be important to consider in the design of synthetic nitrogenases and may also have broader significance given that intermediate metal hydrides and hydrogen evolution may play a key role in biological nitrogen fixation.

  13. Results of Phase I groundwater quality assessment for single-shell tank waste management areas T and TX-TY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, F.N.

    1998-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Phase I, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) groundwater quality assessment for the Richland Field Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE-RL) under the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (WMAs) T and TX-TY have impacted groundwater quality. Waste Management Areas T and TX-TY, located in the northern part of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, contain the 241-T, 241-TX, and 241-TY tank farms and ancillary waste systems. These two units are regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations (under 40 CFR 265.93) and were placed in assessment groundwater monitoring because of elevated specific conductance in downgradient wells. Anomalous concentrations of technetium-99, chromium, nitrate, iodine-129, and cobalt-60 also were observed in some downgradient wells. Phase I assessment, allowed under 40 CFR 265, provides the owner-operator of a facility with the opportunity to show that the observed contamination has a source other than the regulated unit. For this Phase I assessment, PNNL evaluated available information on groundwater chemistry and past waste management practices in the vicinity of WMAs T and TX-TY. Background contaminant concentrations in the vicinity of WMAs T and TX-TY are the result of several overlapping contaminant plumes resulting from past-practice waste disposal operations. This background has been used as baseline for determining potential WMA impacts on groundwater

  14. Revealing Ligand Binding Sites and Quantifying Subunit Variants of Noncovalent Protein Complexes in a Single Native Top-Down FTICR MS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huilin; Wongkongkathep, Piriya; Van Orden, Steve L.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2014-12-01

    "Native" mass spectrometry (MS) has been proven to be increasingly useful for structural biology studies of macromolecular assemblies. Using horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (hADH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH) as examples, we demonstrate that rich information can be obtained in a single native top-down MS experiment using Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Beyond measuring the molecular weights of the protein complexes, isotopic mass resolution was achieved for yeast ADH tetramer (147 kDa) with an average resolving power of 412,700 at m/z 5466 in absorption mode, and the mass reflects that each subunit binds to two zinc atoms. The N-terminal 89 amino acid residues were sequenced in a top-down electron capture dissociation (ECD) experiment, along with the identifications of the zinc binding site at Cys46 and a point mutation (V58T). With the combination of various activation/dissociation techniques, including ECD, in-source dissociation (ISD), collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), 40% of the yADH sequence was derived directly from the native tetramer complex. For hADH, native top-down ECD-MS shows that both E and S subunits are present in the hADH sample, with a relative ratio of 4:1. Native top-down ISD of the hADH dimer shows that each subunit (E and S chains) binds not only to two zinc atoms, but also the NAD/NADH ligand, with a higher NAD/NADH binding preference for the S chain relative to the E chain. In total, 32% sequence coverage was achieved for both E and S chains.

  15. The Decline of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery: A Survey of the Endourological Society to Identify Shortcomings and Guidance for Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Igor; Canvasser, Noah E; Irwin, Brian; Autorino, Riccardo; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Rane, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the most recent temporal trends in the adoption of urologic laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS), to identify the perceived limitations associated with its decline, and to determine factors that might revive the role of LESS in the field of minimally invasive urologic surgery. A 15 question survey was created and sent to members of the Endourological Society in September 2016. Only members who performed LESS procedures in practice were asked to respond. In total, 106 urologists responded to the survey. Most of the respondents were from the United States (35%) and worked in an academic hospital (84.9%). Standard LESS was the most popular approach (78.1%), while 14.3% used robotics, and 7.6% used both. 2009 marked the most popular year to perform the initial (27.6%) and the majority (20%) of LESS procedures. The most common LESS procedure was a radical/simple nephrectomy (51%) followed by pyeloplasty (17.3%). In the past 12 months, 60% of respondents had performed no LESS procedures. Compared to conventional laparoscopy, respondents only believed cosmesis to be better, however, this enthusiasm waned over time. Worsening shifts in enthusiasm for LESS also occurred with patient desire, marketability, cost, safety, and robotic adaptability. The highest rated factor to help LESS regain popularity was a new robotic platform. The decline of LESS is apparent, with few urologists continuing to perform procedures attributed to multiple factors. The availability of a purpose-built robotic platform and better instrumentation might translate into a renewed future interest of LESS.

  16. Single thrombopoietin dose alleviates hematopoietic stem cells intrinsic short- and long-term ionizing radiation damage. In vivo identification of anatomical cell expansion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronik-Le Roux, Diana; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Vaigot, Pierre; Nurden, Paquita

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are essential for maintaining the integrity of complex and long-lived organisms. HSC, which are self-renewing, reconstitute the hematopoietic system through out life and facilitate long-term repopulation of myeloablated recipients. We have previously demonstrated that when mice are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, subsets of the stem/progenitor compartment are affected. In this study we examine the role of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the regenerative capacities of HSC after irradiation and report the first demonstration of efficacy of a single injection of TPO shortly after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation for reducing HSC injury and improving their functional outcome. Our results demonstrate that TPO treatment not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells but also induced a significant modification of their intrinsic characteristics. These findings were supported by transplantation assays with long-term HSC that were irradiated or unirradiated, TPO treated or untreated, in CD45.1/CD45.2 systems and by using luciferase-labeled HSC for direct bioluminescence imaging in living animals. Of particular importance, our data demonstrate the skull to be a highly favorable site for the TPO-induced emergence of hematopoietic cells after irradiation, suggesting a TPO-mediated relationship of primitive hematopoietic cells to an anatomical component. Together, the data presented here: provide novel findings about aspects of TPO action on stem cells, open new areas of investigation for therapeutic options in patients who are treated with radiation therapy, and show that early administration of a clinically suitable TPO-agonist counteracts the previously observed adverse effects.

  17. Ligand recognition by RAR and RXR receptors: binding and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Fredy; de Lera, Angel R

    2005-10-06

    Fundamental biological functions, most notably embriogenesis, cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis, are in part regulated by a complex genomic network that starts with the binding (and activation) of retinoids to their cognate receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors. We have studied ligand recognition of retinoic receptors (RXRalpha and RARgamma) using a molecular-mechanics-based docking method. The protocol used in this work is able to rank the affinity of pairs of ligands for a single retinoid receptor, the highest values corresponding to those that adapt better to the shape of the binding site and generate the optimal set of electrostatic and apolar interactions with the receptor. Moreover, our studies shed light onto some of the energetic contributions to retinoid receptor ligand selectivity. In this regard we show that there is a difference in polarity between the binding site regions that anchor the carboxylate in RAR and RXR, which translates itself into large differences in the energy of interaction of both receptors with the same ligand. We observe that the latter energy change is canceled off by the solvation energy penalty upon binding. This energy compensation is borne out as well by experiments that address the effect of site-directed mutagenesis on ligand binding to RARgamma. The hypothesis that the difference in binding site polarity might be exploited to build RXR-selective ligands is tested with some compounds having a thiazolidinedione anchoring group.

  18. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  19. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  20. Integration trumps selection in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Toni P.; Landy, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several “cues” (color, luminance, texture etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1–3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue-invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5–8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10,11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11,12], imaging [13–16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17,18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19–21]. Objects are among the suggested “units” of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19–21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near-optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. PMID:25802154

  1. Integration trumps selection in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Toni P; Landy, Michael S

    2015-03-30

    Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several "cues" (color, luminance, texture, etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1-3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5-8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10, 11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11, 12], imaging [13-16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17, 18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19-21]. Objects are among the suggested "units" of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19-21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in civil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    (CPC), rules on the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments ..... copy of the judgment to be executed; and a certificate signed by the President or ...... Convention has been praised as: “the single most important pillar on which the.

  3. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing. PMID:28638361

  4. Imidazopyridine/Pyrrole and hydroxybenzimidazole/pyrrole pairs for DNA minor groove recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneberg, Dorte; Dervan, Peter B

    2003-05-14

    The DNA binding properties of fused heterocycles imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ip) and hydroxybenzimidazole (Hz) paired with pyrrole (Py) in eight-ring hairpin polyamides are reported. The recognition profile of Ip/Py and Hz/Py pairs were compared to the five-membered ring pairs Im/Py and Hp/Py on a DNA restriction fragment at four 6-base pair recognition sites which vary at a single position 5'-TGTNTA-3', where N = G, C, T, A. The Ip/Py pair distinguishes G.C from C.G, T.A, and A.T, and the Hz/Py pair distinguishes T.A from A.T, G.C, and C.G, affording a new set of heterocycle pairs to target the four Watson-Crick base pairs in the minor groove of DNA.

  5. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  6. CASE Recognition Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  7. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  8. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  9. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  10. A Review on Video-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Ru Ke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article surveys extensively the current progresses made toward video-based human activity recognition. Three aspects for human activity recognition are addressed including core technology, human activity recognition systems, and applications from low-level to high-level representation. In the core technology, three critical processing stages are thoroughly discussed mainly: human object segmentation, feature extraction and representation, activity detection and classification algorithms. In the human activity recognition systems, three main types are mentioned, including single person activity recognition, multiple people interaction and crowd behavior, and abnormal activity recognition. Finally the domains of applications are discussed in detail, specifically, on surveillance environments, entertainment environments and healthcare systems. Our survey, which aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the field, also addresses several challenges associated with these systems and applications. Moreover, in this survey, various applications are discussed in great detail, specifically, a survey on the applications in healthcare monitoring systems.

  11. Programmable RNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mitchell R; Oakes, Benjamin L; Sternberg, Samuel H; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Kaplan, Matias; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-12-11

    The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease that uses RNA-DNA complementarity to identify target sites for sequence-specific double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage. In its native context, Cas9 acts on DNA substrates exclusively because both binding and catalysis require recognition of a short DNA sequence, known as the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), next to and on the strand opposite the twenty-nucleotide target site in dsDNA. Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for genome engineering and gene regulation in a large range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, and in whole organisms, but it has been thought to be incapable of targeting RNA. Here we show that Cas9 binds with high affinity to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) targets matching the Cas9-associated guide RNA sequence when the PAM is presented in trans as a separate DNA oligonucleotide. Furthermore, PAM-presenting oligonucleotides (PAMmers) stimulate site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage of ssRNA targets, similar to PAM-mediated stimulation of Cas9-catalysed DNA cleavage. Using specially designed PAMmers, Cas9 can be specifically directed to bind or cut RNA targets while avoiding corresponding DNA sequences, and we demonstrate that this strategy enables the isolation of a specific endogenous messenger RNA from cells. These results reveal a fundamental connection between PAM binding and substrate selection by Cas9, and highlight the utility of Cas9 for programmable transcript recognition without the need for tags.

  12. Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2018-04-04

    Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, avermectin for the glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH + ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Pyrethroids and other Na + channel modulator insecticides are generally poor radioligands due to lipophilicity and high nonspecific binding. For target site validation, the structure-activity relationships competing with the radioligand in the binding assays should be the same as that for insecticidal activity or toxicity except for rapidly detoxified or proinsecticide analogs. Once the radioligand assay is validated for relevance, it will often help define target site modifications on selection of resistant pest strains, selectivity between insects and mammals, and interaction with antidotes and other chemicals at modulator sites. Binding assays also serve for receptor isolation and photoaffinity labeling to characterize the interactions involved.

  13. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  14. An Initial Evaluation Of Characterization And Closure Options For Underground Pipelines Within A Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Farm-13210

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badden, Janet W.; Connelly, Michael P.; Seeley, Paul N.; Hendrickson, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Site includes 149 single-shell tanks, organized in 12 'tank farms,' with contents managed as high-level mixed waste. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that one tank farm, the Waste Management Area C, be closed by June 30, 2019. A challenge to this project is the disposition and closure of Waste Management Area C underground pipelines. Waste Management Area C contains nearly seven miles of pipelines and 200 separate pipe segments. The pipelines were taken out of service decades ago and contain unknown volumes and concentrations of tank waste residuals from past operations. To understand the scope of activities that may be required for these pipelines, an evaluation was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify what, if any, characterization methods and/or closure actions may be implemented at Waste Management Area C for closure of Waste Management Area C by 2019. Physical and analytical data do not exist for Waste Management Area C pipeline waste residuals. To develop estimates of residual volumes and inventories of contamination, an extensive search of available information on pipelines was conducted. The search included evaluating historical operation and occurrence records, physical attributes, schematics and drawings, and contaminant inventories associated with the process history of plutonium separations facilities and waste separations and stabilization operations. Scoping analyses of impacts to human health and the environment using three separate methodologies were then developed based on the waste residual estimates. All analyses resulted in preliminary assessments, indicating that pipeline waste residuals presented a comparably low long-term impact to groundwater with respect to soil, tank and other ancillary equipment residuals, but exceeded Washington State cleanup requirement values. In addition to performing the impact analyses, the assessment evaluated available sampling technologies and

  15. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  16. An Initial Evaluation of Characterization and Closure Options for Underground Pipelines within a Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Farm - 13210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badden, Janet W.; Connelly, Michael P. [Washington River Protection Services, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Seeley, Paul N. [Cenibark International, Inc., 104318 Nicole Drive, Kennewick, Washington, 99338-7596 (United States); Hendrickson, Michelle L. [Washington State Department of Ecology, 3100 Port of Benton Blvd, Richland, Washington, 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Site includes 149 single-shell tanks, organized in 12 'tank farms,' with contents managed as high-level mixed waste. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that one tank farm, the Waste Management Area C, be closed by June 30, 2019. A challenge to this project is the disposition and closure of Waste Management Area C underground pipelines. Waste Management Area C contains nearly seven miles of pipelines and 200 separate pipe segments. The pipelines were taken out of service decades ago and contain unknown volumes and concentrations of tank waste residuals from past operations. To understand the scope of activities that may be required for these pipelines, an evaluation was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify what, if any, characterization methods and/or closure actions may be implemented at Waste Management Area C for closure of Waste Management Area C by 2019. Physical and analytical data do not exist for Waste Management Area C pipeline waste residuals. To develop estimates of residual volumes and inventories of contamination, an extensive search of available information on pipelines was conducted. The search included evaluating historical operation and occurrence records, physical attributes, schematics and drawings, and contaminant inventories associated with the process history of plutonium separations facilities and waste separations and stabilization operations. Scoping analyses of impacts to human health and the environment using three separate methodologies were then developed based on the waste residual estimates. All analyses resulted in preliminary assessments, indicating that pipeline waste residuals presented a comparably low long-term impact to groundwater with respect to soil, tank and other ancillary equipment residuals, but exceeded Washington State cleanup requirement values. In addition to performing the impact analyses, the assessment evaluated available sampling technologies

  17. Prosody and Spoken Word Recognition in Early and Late Spanish-English Bilingual Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsen, Frank R.; Dvorak, Justin D.; Deweber, Derick D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the influence of word properties on gated single-word recognition in monolingual and bilingual individuals under conditions of native and nonnative accent and to determine whether word-form prosody facilitates recognition in bilingual individuals. Method: Word recognition was assessed in monolingual and…

  18. A Unified Approach to the Recognition of Complex Actions from Sequences of Zone-Crossings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanromà, G.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the recognition of complex actions. Our method combines automatic learning of simple actions and manual definition of complex actions in a single grammar. Contrary to the general trend in complex action recognition, that consists in dividing recognition into two stages, our

  19. Institutional Choice and Recognition in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh

    Abstract This thesis concerns the role of local institutions in fostering development including natural resource management, and how this role is shaped by relations with higher scale institutions such as development agencies and national governments. Specifically, it examines the choice of local...... objective of this thesis was to contribute to understanding processes and outcomes of institutional choice and recognition. It employed mixed methods but primarily semi structured interviews in multiple sites across Nepal. In responding to specific objectives, namely to better understand: i) the rationales...... behind choices of local institutional counterparts, ii) the belonging and citizenship available with local institutions, iii) the dynamics and mutuality of recognition between higher and lower scale institutions, and iv) the social outcomes of choice and recognition, this thesis shows that the way choice...

  20. Neural circuitry for rat recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, E.C.; Brown, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the roles of different brain regions in recognition memory processes is reviewed. The review concentrates on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rats, including memory for single objects, locations, object–location associations and temporal order. Particular emphasis is given to the potential roles of different regions in the circuit of interacting structures involving the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and medial dorsal thalamus in recognition memory for the association of objects and places. It is concluded that while all structures in this circuit play roles critical to such memory, these roles can potentially be differentiated and differences in the underlying synaptic and biochemical processes involved in each region are beginning to be uncovered. PMID:25315129

  1. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  2. Single molecule TPM analysis of the catalytic pentad mutants of Cre and Flp site-specific recombinases: contributions of the pentad residues to the pre-chemical steps of recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Cheng, Yong-Song; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-01-01

    Cre and Flp site-specific recombinase variants harboring point mutations at their conserved catalytic pentad positions were characterized using single molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) analysis. The findings reveal contributions of these amino acids to the pre-chemical steps of recombination. They suggest functional differences between positionally conserved residues in how they influence recombinase-target site association and formation of ‘non-productive’, ‘pre-synaptic’ and ‘synaptic’ complexes. The most striking difference between the two systems is noted for the single conserved lysine. The pentad residues in Cre enhance commitment to recombination by kinetically favoring the formation of pre-synaptic complexes. These residues in Flp serve a similar function by promoting Flp binding to target sites, reducing non-productive binding and/or enhancing the rate of assembly of synaptic complexes. Kinetic comparisons between Cre and Flp, and between their derivatives lacking the tyrosine nucleophile, are consistent with a stronger commitment to recombination in the Flp system. The effect of target site orientation (head-to-head or head-to-tail) on the TPM behavior of synapsed DNA molecules supports the selection of anti-parallel target site alignment prior to the chemical steps. The integrity of the synapse, whose establishment/stability is fostered by strand cleavage in the case of Flp but not Cre, appears to be compromised by the pentad mutations. PMID:25765648

  3. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  4. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  5. Clinical Strategies for Sampling Word Recognition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S; Carney, Edward

    2018-04-17

    Computer simulation was used to estimate the statistical properties of searches for maximum word recognition ability (PB max). These involve presenting multiple lists and discarding all scores but that of the 1 list that produced the highest score. The simulations, which model limitations inherent in the precision of word recognition scores, were done to inform clinical protocols. A secondary consideration was a derivation of 95% confidence intervals for significant changes in score from phonemic scoring of a 50-word list. The PB max simulations were conducted on a "client" with flat performance intensity functions. The client's performance was assumed to be 60% initially and 40% for a second assessment. Thousands of estimates were obtained to examine the precision of (a) single lists and (b) multiple lists using a PB max procedure. This method permitted summarizing the precision for assessing a 20% drop in performance. A single 25-word list could identify only 58.4% of the cases in which performance fell from 60% to 40%. A single 125-word list identified 99.8% of the declines correctly. Presenting 3 or 5 lists to find PB max produced an undesirable finding: an increase in the word recognition score. A 25-word list produces unacceptably low precision for making clinical decisions. This finding holds in both single and multiple 25-word lists, as in a search for PB max. A table is provided, giving estimates of 95% critical ranges for successive presentations of a 50-word list analyzed by the number of phonemes correctly identified.

  6. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  7. Risk factors for surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery: a review of 9296 procedures from a national database and comparison with a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Arynchyna, Anastasia A; Johnston, James M; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry; Rocque, Brandon G

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional data set specifically for better understanding SSI. METHODS The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012-2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations. SSI included deep (intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis) and superficial wound infections. The authors performed univariate analyses of SSI association with procedure, demographic, comorbidity, operative, and hospital variables, with subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent risk factors for SSI within 30 days of the index procedure. A similar analysis was performed using a detailed institutional infection database from Children's of Alabama (COA). RESULTS A total of 9296 nonshunt procedures were identified in NSQIP-P with an overall 30-day SSI rate of 2.7%. The 30-day SSI rate in the COA institutional database was similar (3.3% of 1103 procedures, p = 0.325). Postoperative time to SSI in NSQIP-P and COA was 14.6 ± 6.8 days and 14.8 ± 7.3 days, respectively (mean ± SD). Myelomeningocele (4.3% in NSQIP-P, 6.3% in COA), spine (3.5%, 4.9%), and epilepsy (3.4%, 3.1%) procedure categories had the highest SSI rates by procedure category in both NSQIP-P and COA. Independent SSI risk factors in NSQIP-P included postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.761, 95% CI 1.269-17.857, p = 0.021), immune disease/immunosuppressant use (OR 3.671, 95% CI 1.371-9.827, p = 0.010), cerebral palsy (OR 2.835, 95% CI 1.463-5.494, p = 0.002), emergency operation (OR 1

  8. Risk factors for surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery: a review of 9296 procedures from a national database and comparison with a single-center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, Brandon A.; Arynchyna, Anastasia A.; Johnston, James M.; Rozzelle, Curtis J.; Blount, Jeffrey P.; Oakes, W. Jerry; Rocque, Brandon G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional dataset specifically for better understanding SSI. Methods The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012–2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations. SSI included deep (intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis) and superficial wound infections. The authors performed univariate analyses of SSI association with procedure, demographic, comorbidity, operative, and hospital variables, with subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent risk factors for SSI within 30 days of the index procedure. A similar analysis was performed using a detailed institutional infection database from Children’s Hospital of Alabama (COA). Results A total of 9296 nonshunt procedures were identified in NSQIP-P with an overall 30-day SSI rate of 2.7%. The 30-day SSI rate in the COA institutional database was similar (3.3% of 1103 procedures, p = 0.325). Postoperative time to SSI in NSQIP-P and COA was 14.6 ± 6.8 days and 14.8 ± 7.3 days, respectively (mean ± SD). Myelomeningocele (4.3% in NSQIP-P, 6.3% in COA), spine (3.5%, 4.9%), and epilepsy (3.4%, 3.1%) procedure categoriess had the highest SSI rates by procedure category in both NSQIP-P and COA. Independent SSI risk factors in NSQIP-P included postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.761, 95% CI 1.269–17.857, p = 0.021), immune disease/immunosuppressant use (OR 3.671, 95% CI 1.371–9.827, p = 0.010), cerebral palsy (OR 2.835, 95% CI 1.463–5.494, p = 0.002), emergency

  9. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  10. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations

    OpenAIRE

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1-2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand brea...

  11. Spectral investigations and DFT studies of 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione (caffeine) interaction and recognition by single amino acid derived self-assembled nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindhan, R.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2018-03-01

    Recognition of xanthine alkaloid caffeine with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzylamine derived peptide nanotubes (BTTPNTs) through chemical interaction have been achieved through the host-guest like interaction. DFT simulation is carried out for caffeine interacted with BTTPNTs system and also experimentally characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorbance, confocal Raman spectra (CRS) with microscopic imaging (CRM), FT-Raman, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), UV-diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies. The results are used to examine the morphologies, size of the nanostructure and study of its interaction with the caffeine molecule. The results show that BTTPNTs is having potential for sensing the caffeine molecules through the binding occurred from the NH2 of tyrosine moiety of the BTTPNTs. This intermolecular association through face-to-face stacking of BTTPNTs is explained by detailed DFT calculations.

  12. Specific recognition of fungal pathogens by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knogge, W.; Gierlich, A.; Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding,; Van't Slot, K.A.E.; Papavoine, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Induction of plant defence reactions and, hence, genotype-specific disease resistance results from the interaction of highly specific plant resistance (R) genes with matching pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes (gene-for-gene interactions). More than thirty R genes acting against different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes) have been isolated from various plants species. However, with few exceptions it remains to be shown how their products recognise the complementary Avr gene products. To date, Avr genes and their products have been characterised from only three fungal species. These include the NIP1 gene from Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of barley leaf scald. It encodes a small, secreted protein, NIP1, that triggers defence reactions exclusively in barley cultivars expressing the R gene Rrs1. NIP1 also non-specifically stimulates the H + -ATPase activity in barley plasma membranes, suggesting that the host recognition system targets a putative fungal virulence factor. Virulent fungal strains lack the gene or carry an allele encoding a non-functional product. Four NIP1 iso-forms have been characterised; NIP1-I and NIP1-II although both elicitor-active display different levels of activity, whereas the isoforms NIP1-III and NIP1-IV are inactive. After establishing a heterologous expression system, the single amino acids specifying NIP1-III and NIP1-IV were integrated into the NIP1-I sequence and yielded the inactive mutant proteins NIP1-III* and NIP1-IV*. The elicitor-inactive isoforms were also unable to stimulate the H + -ATPase, suggesting that both functions of NIP1 are mediated by a single plant receptor. The 3D structure of NIP1-I has been elucidated by 1 H- and 15 N-NMR spectroscopy. Binding studies using 125 I-NIP1-I revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites on membranes from both Rrs1- and rrs1-cultivars, suggesting that NIP1-binding is not sufficient for defence triggering and that an

  13. Catalyst Architecture for Stable Single Atom Dispersion Enables Site-Specific Spectroscopic and Reactivity Measurements of CO Adsorbed to Pt Atoms, Oxidized Pt Clusters, and Metallic Pt Clusters on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRita, Leo; Dai, Sheng; Lopez-Zepeda, Kimberly; Pham, Nicholas; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing; Christopher, Phillip

    2017-10-11

    Oxide-supported precious metal nanoparticles are widely used industrial catalysts. Due to expense and rarity, developing synthetic protocols that reduce precious metal nanoparticle size and stabilize dispersed species is essential. Supported atomically dispersed, single precious metal atoms represent the most efficient metal utilization geometry, although debate regarding the catalytic activity of supported single precious atom species has arisen from difficulty in synthesizing homogeneous and stable single atom dispersions, and a lack of site-specific characterization approaches. We propose a catalyst architecture and characterization approach to overcome these limitations, by depositing ∼1 precious metal atom per support particle and characterizing structures by correlating scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and CO probe molecule infrared spectroscopy. This is demonstrated for Pt supported on anatase TiO 2 . In these structures, isolated Pt atoms, Pt iso , remain stable through various conditions, and spectroscopic evidence suggests Pt iso species exist in homogeneous local environments. Comparing Pt iso to ∼1 nm preoxidized (Pt ox ) and prereduced (Pt metal ) Pt clusters on TiO 2 , we identify unique spectroscopic signatures of CO bound to each site and find CO adsorption energy is ordered: Pt iso ≪ Pt metal atoms bonded to TiO 2 and that Pt iso exhibits optimal reactivity because every atom is exposed for catalysis and forms an interfacial site with TiO 2 . This approach should be generally useful for studying the behavior of supported precious metal atoms.

  14. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  15. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  16. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  17. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  18. Critical Determinants of Substrate Recognition by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-like 5 (CDKL5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Syouichi; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kameshita, Isamu

    2015-05-19

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase known to be associated with X-linked neurodevelopmental disorders. In a previous study, we identified amphiphysin 1 (Amph1) as a potential substrate for CDKL5 and identified a single phosphorylation site at Ser-293. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of substrate recognition by CDKL5 using Amph1 as a model substrate. Amph1 served as an efficient CDKL5 substrate, whereas Amph2, a structurally related homologue of Amph1, was not phosphorylated by CDKL5. The sequence around the Amph1 phosphorylation site is RPR(293)SPSQ, while the corresponding sequence in Amph2 is IPK(332)SPSQ. To define the amino acid sequence specificity of the substrate, various point mutants of Amph1 and Amph2 were prepared and phosphorylated by CDKL5. Both Amph2(I329R) and Amph1 served as efficient CDKL5 substrates, but Amph1(R290I) did not, indicating that the arginyl residue at the P -3 position is critical for substrate recognition. With regard to prolyl residues around the phosphorylation site of Amph1, Pro-291 at the P -2 position, but not Pro-294 at the P +1 position, is indispensable for phosphorylation by CDKL5. Phosphorylation experiments using various deletion mutants of Amph1 revealed that the proline-rich domain (PRD) (amino acids 247-315) alone was not phosphorylated by CDKL5. In contrast, Amph1(247-385), which comprised the PRD and CLAP domains, served as an efficient CDKL5 substrate. These results, taken together, suggest that both the phosphorylation site sequence (RPXSX) and the CLAP domain structure in Amph1 play crucial roles in recognition and phosphorylation by CDKL5.

  19. Random clustering ferns for multimodal object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar Vergel, Michael Alejandro; Garrell Zulueta, Anais; Sanfeliu Cortés, Alberto; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    The final publication is available at link.springer.com We propose an efficient and robust method for the recognition of objects exhibiting multiple intra-class modes, where each one is associated with a particular object appearance. The proposed method, called random clustering ferns, combines synergically a single and real-time classifier, based on the boosted assembling of extremely randomized trees (ferns), with an unsupervised and probabilistic approach in order to recognize efficient...

  20. A single mutation in the hepta-peptide active site of Aspergillus niger PhyA phytase leads to myriad of biochemical changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The active site motif of proteins belonging to ‘Histidine Acid Phosphatase’ (HAP) contains a hepta-peptide region, RHGXRXP. A close comparison among fungal and yeast HAPs has revealed the fourth residue of the hepta-peptide to be E instead of A, which is the case with A. niger phyA phytase. However,...

  1. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells ...

  2. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  3. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  4. Evaluation of SAR procedures for D-e determination using single aliquots of quartz from two archaeological sites in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, Z

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available stimulation between cycles in the SAR procedure were measured for dose recovery tests. The effects of these changes on measurement of D-e values for single aliquots of these two samples are reported. Both modifications improved D-e recovery, and the study...

  5. Genome sequences of thirty Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from a single dairy farm and its associated off-site heifer raising facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle are the primary reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most frequently isolated serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections among humans in North America. To evaluate the diversity of E. coli O157:H7 isolates within a single dairy herd the genomes of 30 isolates collected over a 7-ye...

  6. DNA looping by FokI: the impact of synapse geometry on loop topology at varied site orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusling, David A.; Laurens, Niels; Pernstich, Christian; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Halford, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Most restriction endonucleases, including FokI, interact with two copies of their recognition sequence before cutting DNA. On DNA with two sites they act in cis looping out the intervening DNA. While many restriction enzymes operate symmetrically at palindromic sites, FokI acts asymmetrically at a non-palindromic site. The directionality of its sequence means that two FokI sites can be bridged in either parallel or anti-parallel alignments. Here we show by biochemical and single-molecule biophysical methods that FokI aligns two recognition sites on separate DNA molecules in parallel and that the parallel arrangement holds for sites in the same DNA regardless of whether they are in inverted or repeated orientations. The parallel arrangement dictates the topology of the loop trapped between sites in cis: the loop from inverted sites has a simple 180° bend, while that with repeated sites has a convoluted 360° turn. The ability of FokI to act at asymmetric sites thus enabled us to identify the synapse geometry for sites in trans and in cis, which in turn revealed the relationship between synapse geometry and loop topology. PMID:22362745

  7. A REVIEW: OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  8. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  9. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  10. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  11. Virus-Clip: a fast and memory-efficient viral integration site detection tool at single-base resolution with annotation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel W H; Sze, Karen M F; Ng, Irene O L

    2015-08-28

    Viral integration into the human genome upon infection is an important risk factor for various human malignancies. We developed viral integration site detection tool called Virus-Clip, which makes use of information extracted from soft-clipped sequencing reads to identify exact positions of human and virus breakpoints of integration events. With initial read alignment to virus reference genome and streamlined procedures, Virus-Clip delivers a simple, fast and memory-efficient solution to viral integration site detection. Moreover, it can also automatically annotate the integration events with the corresponding affected human genes. Virus-Clip has been verified using whole-transcriptome sequencing data and its detection was validated to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. Marked advancement in performance was detected, compared to existing tools. It is applicable to versatile types of data including whole-genome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and targeted sequencing. Virus-Clip is available at http://web.hku.hk/~dwhho/Virus-Clip.zip.

  12. Substrate Recognition in the Escherichia coli Ammonia Channel AmtB: A QM/MM Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Thomas Pedersen; Alfonso-Prieto, M.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2010-01-01

    understood. The present computational study addresses the importance of intermolecular interactions with respect to substrate recruitment and recognition by means of ab initio QM/MM simulations. On the basis of calculations with substrates NH3, NH4+, Na+, and K+ positioned at the periplasmic binding site (Am......1) and NH3 and NH4+ at intraluminal binding sites (Am1a/b), we conclude that D160 is the single most important residue for substrate recruitment, whereas cation-pi interactions to W148 and F107 are found to be less important. Regarding substrate recruitment and recognition, we find that only NH4......+ and K+ reach the Am1 site. However, NH4+ has the largest affinity for this site due to its better dehydration compensation, while charge stabilization effects favor the binding of NH4+ over NH3 (i.e., if NH3 would enter the Am1 site, it is likely to be protonated). Therefore, we conclude that the Am1...

  13. Imbalanced multi-modal multi-label learning for subcellular localization prediction of human proteins with both single and multiple sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun He

    Full Text Available It is well known that an important step toward understanding the functions of a protein is to determine its subcellular location. Although numerous prediction algorithms have been developed, most of them typically focused on the proteins with only one location. In recent years, researchers have begun to pay attention to the subcellular localization prediction of the proteins with multiple sites. However, almost all the existing approaches have failed to take into account the correlations among the locations caused by the proteins with multiple sites, which may be the important information for improving the prediction accuracy of the proteins with multiple sites. In this paper, a new algorithm which can effectively exploit the correlations among the locations is proposed by using gaussian process model. Besides, the algorithm also can realize optimal linear combination of various feature extraction technologies and could be robust to the imbalanced data set. Experimental results on a human protein data set show that the proposed algorithm is valid and can achieve better performance than the existing approaches.

  14. Recognition of oral spelling is diagnostic of the central reading processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia. She was impaired relative to matched controls in spelling to dictation but unimpaired in recognition of oral spelling. Recognition of oral spelling for exception words (e.g., colonel) and pronounceable nonwords (e.g., larth) was intact. Our results were predicted by the hypothesis that recognition of oral spelling involves the central reading processes. We conclude that recognition of oral spelling is a useful tool for probing the integrity of the central reading processes.

  15. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality.

  16. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutovskih, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality

  17. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  18. Semantic Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thonnat , Monique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Extracting automatically the semantics from visual data is a real challenge. We describe in this paper how recent work in cognitive vision leads to significative results in activity recognition for visualsurveillance and video monitoring. In particular we present work performed in the domain of video understanding in our PULSAR team at INRIA in Sophia Antipolis. Our main objective is to analyse in real-time video streams captured by static video cameras and to recogniz...

  19. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  20. Combined robotic transanal total mesorectal excision (R-taTME) and single-site plus one-port (R-SSPO) technique for ultra-low rectal surgery-initial experience with a new operation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Tong, Yiu-Shun; Chen, Chia-Che

    2017-02-01

    Robot-assisted rectal surgery is gaining popularity, and robotic single-site surgery is also being explored clinically. We report our initial experience with robotic transanal total mesorectal excision (R-taTME) and radical proctectomy using the robotic single-site plus one-port (R-SSPO) technique for low rectal surgery. Between July 2015 and March 2016, 15 consecutive patients with ultra-low rectal lesions underwent R-taTME followed by radical proctectomy using the R-SSPO technique by a single surgeon. The clinical and pathological results were retrospectively analyzed. The median operative time was 473 (range, 335-569) min, and the estimated blood loss was 33 (range, 30-50) mL. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 12 (range, 8-18). The median distal resection margin was 1.4 (range, 0.4-3.5) cm, and all patients had clear circumferential resection margins. We encountered a left ureteric transection intraoperatively in one patient, and another patient required reoperation for postoperative adhesive intestinal obstruction. There was no 30-day mortality. R-taTME followed by radical proctectomy using the R-SSPO technique for patients with low rectal lesions is technically feasible and safe without compromising oncologic outcomes. However, there were considerable limitations and a steep learning curve using current robotic technology.

  1. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    Full Text Available Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  2. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  3. Syllabic Length Effect in Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ranjbar Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on visual word recognition have resulted in different and sometimes contradictory proposals as Multi-Trace Memory Model (MTM, Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC, and Parallel Distribution Processing Model (PDP. The role of the number of syllables in word recognition was examined by the use of five groups of English words and non-words. The reaction time of the participants to these words was measured using reaction time measuring software. The results indicated that there was syllabic effect on recognition of both high and low frequency words. The pattern was incremental in terms of syllable number. This pattern prevailed in high and low frequency words and non-words except in one syllable words. In general, the results are in line with the PDP model which claims that a single processing mechanism is used in both words and non-words recognition. In other words, the findings suggest that lexical items are mainly processed via a lexical route.  A pedagogical implication of the findings would be that reading in English as a foreign language involves analytical processing of the syllable of the words.

  4. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  5. Changes in implant stability using different site preparation techniques: twist drills versus piezosurgery. A single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchi, Claudio; Vercellotti, Tomaso; Torelli, Lucio; Furlan, Fabio; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to longitudinally monitor stability changes of implants inserted using traditional rotary instruments or piezoelectric inserts, and to follow their variations during the first 90 days of healing. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 20 patients. Each patient received two identical, adjacent implants in the upper premolar area: the test site was prepared with piezosurgery, and the control site was prepared using twist drills. Resonance frequency analysis measurements were taken by a blinded operator on the day of surgery and after 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 days. At 90 days, 39 out of 40 implants were osseointegrated (one failure in the control group). Both groups showed an initial decrease in mean implant stability quotient (ISQ) values: a shift in implant stability to increasing ISQ values occurred after 14 days in the test group and after 21 days in the control group. The lowest mean ISQ value was recorded at 14 days for test implants (97.3% of the primary stability) and at 21 days for the control implants (90.8% of the primary stability). ISQ variations with respect to primary stability differed significantly between the two groups during the entire period of observation: from day 14 to day 42, in particular, the differences were extremely significant (p < .0001). All 39 implants were in function successfully at the visit scheduled 1 year after insertion. The findings from this study suggest that ultrasonic implant site preparation results in a limited decrease of ISQ values and in an earlier shifting from a decreasing to an increasing stability pattern, when compared with the traditional drilling technique. From a clinical point of view, implants inserted with the piezoelectric technique demonstrated a short-term clinical success similar to those inserted using twist drills. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A single site for N-linked glycosylation in the envelope glycoprotein of feline immunodeficiency virus modulates the virus-receptor interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Ayman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV targets helper T cells by attachment of the envelope glycoprotein (Env to CD134, a subsequent interaction with CXCR4 then facilitating the process of viral entry. As the CXCR4 binding site is not exposed until CD134-binding has occurred then the virus is protected from neutralising antibodies targeting the CXCR4-binding site on Env. Prototypic FIV vaccines based on the FL4 strain of FIV contain a cell culture-adapted strain of FIV Petaluma, a CD134-independent strain of FIV that interacts directly with CXCR4. In addition to a characteristic increase in charge in the V3 loop homologue of FIVFL4, we identified two mutations in potential sites for N-linked glycosylation in the region of FIV Env analogous to the V1–V2 region of HIV and SIV Env, T271I and N342Y. When these mutations were introduced into the primary GL8 and CPG41 strains of FIV, the T271I mutation was found to alter the nature of the virus-CD134 interaction; primary viruses carrying the T271I mutation no longer required determinants in cysteine-rich domain (CRD 2 of CD134 for viral entry. The T271I mutation did not confer CD134-independent infection upon GL8 or CPG41, nor did it increase the affinity of the CXCR4 interaction, suggesting that the principal effect was targeted at reducing the complexity of the Env-CD134 interaction.

  7. A multistep damage recognition mechanism for global genomic nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugasawa, K; Okamoto, T; Shimizu, Y; Masutani, C; Iwai, S; Hanaoka, F

    2001-03-01

    A mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor, the XPC-HR23B complex, can specifically bind to certain DNA lesions and initiate the cell-free repair reaction. Here we describe a detailed analysis of its binding specificity using various DNA substrates, each containing a single defined lesion. A highly sensitive gel mobility shift assay revealed that XPC-HR23B specifically binds a small bubble structure with or without damaged bases, whereas dual incision takes place only when damage is present in the bubble. This is evidence that damage recognition for NER is accomplished through at least two steps; XPC-HR23B first binds to a site that has a DNA helix distortion, and then the presence of injured bases is verified prior to dual incision. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were hardly recognized by XPC-HR23B, suggesting that additional factors may be required for CPD recognition. Although the presence of mismatched bases opposite a CPD potentiated XPC-HR23B binding, probably due to enhancement of the helix distortion, cell-free excision of such compound lesions was much more efficient than expected from the observed affinity for XPC-HR23B. This also suggests that additional factors and steps are required for the recognition of some types of lesions. A multistep mechanism of this sort may provide a molecular basis for ensuring the high level of damage discrimination that is required for global genomic NER.

  8. Threshold models of recognition and the recognition heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Erdfelder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the recognition heuristic (RH theory, decisions follow the recognition principle: Given a high validity of the recognition cue, people should prefer recognized choice options compared to unrecognized ones. Assuming that the memory strength of choice options is strongly correlated with both the choice criterion and recognition judgments, the RH is a reasonable strategy that approximates optimal decisions with a minimum of cognitive effort (Davis-Stober, Dana, and Budescu, 2010. However, theories of recognition memory are not generally compatible with this assumption. For example, some threshold models of recognition presume that recognition judgments can arise from two types of cognitive states: (1 certainty states in which judgments are almost perfectly correlated with memory strength and (2 uncertainty states in which recognition judgments reflect guessing rather than differences in memory strength. We report an experiment designed to test the prediction that the RH applies to certainty states only. Our results show that memory states rather than recognition judgments affect use of recognition information in binary decisions.

  9. Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wen, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Changqing; Wu, Mingcai; Zhu, Guoping

    2017-06-19

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and photolyases belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). Reduced FAD is essential for photolyases to photorepair UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. In Drosophila CRY (dCRY, a type I animal CRY), FAD is converted to the anionic radical but not to the reduced state upon illumination, which might induce a conformational change in the protein to relay the light signal downstream. To explore the foundation of these differences, multiple sequence alignment of 650 CPF protein sequences was performed. We identified a site facing FAD (Ala377 in Escherichia coli CPD photolyase and Val415 in dCRY), hereafter referred to as "site 377", that was distinctly conserved across these sequences: CPD photolyases often had Ala, Ser, or Asn at this site, whereas animal CRYs had Ile, Leu, or Val. The binding affinity for reduced FAD, but not the photorepair activity of E. coli photolyase, was dramatically impaired when replacing Ala377 with any of the three CRY residues. Conversely, in V415S and V415N mutants of dCRY, FAD was photoreduced to its fully reduced state after prolonged illumination, and light-dependent conformational changes of these mutants were severely inhibited. We speculate that the residues at site 377 play a key role in the different preferences of CPF proteins for reduced FAD, which differentiate animal CRYs from CPD photolyases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Installation of a Hydrologic Characterization Network for Vadose Zone Monitoring of a Single-Shell Tank Farm at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.; Ritter, Jason C.; Sisson, James B.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Duratek Federal Services, deployed a suite of vadose-zone instruments at the B Tank Farm in the 200 E Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, during the last quarter of FY 2001. The purpose of the deployment was to obtain in situ hydrologic characterization data within the vadose zone of a high-level-waste tank farm. Eight sensor nests, ranging in depth from 67 m (220 ft) below ground surface (bgs) to 0.9 m (3 ft) bgs were placed in contact with vadose-zone sediments inside a recently drilled, uncased, borehole (C3360) located adjacent to Tank B-110. The sensor sets are part of the Vadose Zone Monitoring System and include advanced tensiometers, heat dissipation units, frequency domain reflectometers, thermal probes, and vadose zone solution samplers. Within the top meter of the surface, a water flux meter was deployed to estimate net infiltration from meteoric water (rain and snowmelt) sources. In addition, a rain gage was located within the tank farm to document on-site precipitation events. All sensor units, with the exception of the solution samplers, were connected to a solar-powered data logger located within the tank farm. Data collected from these sensors are currently being accessed by modem and cell phone and will be analyzed as part of the DOE RL31SS31 project during the coming year (FY 2001)

  11. Physical signals for protein–DNA recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Jia; Yan, Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper discovers consensus physical signals around eukaryotic splice sites, transcription start sites, and replication origin start and end sites on a genome-wide scale based on their DNA flexibility profiles calculated by three different flexibility models. These salient physical signals are localized highly rigid and flexible DNAs, which may play important roles in protein–DNA recognition by the sliding search mechanism. The found physical signals lead us to a detailed hypothetical view of the search process in which a DNA-binding protein first finds a genomic region close to the target site from an arbitrary starting location by three-dimensional (3D) hopping and intersegment transfer mechanisms for long distances, and subsequently uses the one-dimensional (1D) sliding mechanism facilitated by the localized highly rigid DNAs to accurately locate the target flexible binding site within 30 bp (base pair) short distances. Guided by these physical signals, DNA-binding proteins rapidly search the entire genome to recognize a specific target site from the 3D to 1D pathway. Our findings also show that current promoter prediction programs (PPPs) based on DNA physical properties may suffer from lots of false positives because other functional sites such as splice sites and replication origins have similar physical signals as promoters do

  12. Detection of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism at Position rs2735940 in the Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Gene by the Introduction of a New Restriction Enzyme Site for the PCR-RFLP Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihua; Ding, Mingcui; Duan, Xiaoran; Wang, Tuanwei; Feng, Xiaolei; Wang, Pengpeng; Yao, Wu; Wu, Yongjun; Yan, Zhen; Feng, Feifei; Yu, Songcheng; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    It has been shown that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the rs2735940 site in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase ( hTERT ) gene is associated with increased cancer risk. The traditional method to detect SNP genotypes is polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). However, there is a limitation to utilizing PCR-RFLP due to a lack of proper restriction enzyme sites at many polymorphic loci. This study used an improved PCR-RFLP method with a mismatched base for detection of the SNP rs2735940. A new restriction enzyme cutting site was created by created restriction site PCR (CRS-PCR), and in addition, the restriction enzyme Msp I for CRS-PCR was cheaper than other enzymes. We used this novel assay to determine the allele frequencies in 552 healthy Chinese Han individuals, and found the allele frequencies to be 63% for allele C and 37% for allele T In summary, the modified PCR-RFLP can be used to detect the SNP of rs2735940 with low cost and high efficiency. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Complicated Fermi-type vibronic resonance: Untangling of the single-site quasi-line fluorescence excitation spectra of a methylated dibenzoporphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabei, S.M.; Kuzmitsky, V.A.; Solovyov, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-line low-temperature (4.2 K) fluorescence excitation spectra of 2,3,12,13-tetramethyldibenzo[g,q]porphin introduced into an n-octane matrix have been measured in the range of the S 2 0 electronic transition at selective fluorescence monitoring for the two main types of impurity centers (sites). A characteristic feature of these spectra is that a conglomerate of quasi-lines - a structured complex band - is observed instead of one 0-0 quasi-line of the S 2 0 transition. In this band, the intensity distributions for the two main sites considerably differ from each other. The occurrence of such conglomerates is interpreted as a result of nonadiabatic vibrational-electronic interaction between the vibronic S 2 and S 1 states (the complex vibronic analogue of the Fermi resonance). The frequencies and intensities of individual transitions determined from the deconvolution of complex conglomerates are used as the initial data for solving the inverse spectroscopic problem: the determination of the unperturbed electronic and vibrational levels of states involved in the resonance and the vibronic-interaction matrix elements between them. This problem is solved with a method developed previously. The experimental results and their analysis are compared to the analogous data obtained earlier for meso-tetraazaporphin and meso-tetrapropylporphin. The energy intervals between the S 2 and S 1 electronic levels (ΔE S 2 S 1 ) of the two main types of impurity centers formed by molecules of a given porphyrin in the crystal matrix are found to significantly differ from each other, the values of this difference (δΔE S 2 S 1 ) being considerably greater for tetramethyldibenzoporphin, δΔE S 2 S 1 =228cm -1 , than for the two other porphyrins. At the same time, the energies of the unperturbed vibrational states of the S 1 electronic level participating in the resonance are very close to each other for these two sites

  14. In search of a recognition memory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.W.; Banks, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of data from human and animal studies using psychological, recording, imaging, and lesion techniques indicates that recognition memory involves at least two separable processes: familiarity discrimination and recollection. Familiarity discrimination for individual visual stimuli seems to be effected by a system centred on the perirhinal cortex of the temporal lobe. The fundamental change that encodes prior occurrence within the perirhinal cortex is a reduction in the responses of neurones when a stimulus is repeated. Neuronal network modelling indicates that a system based on such a change in responsiveness is potentially highly efficient in information theoretic terms. A review is given of findings indicating that perirhinal cortex acts as a storage site for recognition memory of objects and that such storage depends upon processes producing synaptic weakening. PMID:25280908

  15. Site-Specific Growth and in Situ Integration of Different Nanowire Material Networks on a Single Chip: Toward a Nanowire-Based Electronic Nose for Gas Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrachowina, Lukas; Domènech-Gil, Guillem; Pardo, Antonio; Seifner, Michael S; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Romano-Rodríguez, Albert; Barth, Sven

    2018-03-23

    A new method for the site-selective synthesis of nanowires has been developed to enable material growth with defined morphology and, at the same time, different composition on the same chip surface. The chemical vapor deposition approach for the growth of these nanowire-based resistive devices using micromembranes can be easily modified and represents a simple, adjustable fabrication process for the direct integration of nanowire meshes in multifunctional devices. This proof-of-concept study includes the deposition of SnO 2 , WO 3 , and Ge nanowires on the same chip. The individual resistors exhibit adequate gas sensing responses toward changing gas concentrations of CO, NO 2 , and humidity diluted in synthetic air. The data have been processed by principal component analysis with cluster responses that can be easily separated, and thus, the devices described herein are in principle suitable for environmental monitoring.

  16. Molecular recognition in protein modification with rhodium metallopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Zachary T.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical manipulation of natural, unengineered proteins is a daunting challenge which tests the limits of reaction design. By combining transition-metal or other catalysts with molecular recognition ideas, it is possible to achieve site-selective protein reactivity without the need for engineered recognition sequences or reactive sites. Some recent examples in this area have used ruthenium photocatalysis, pyridine organocatalysis, and rhodium(II) metallocarbene catalysis, indicating that the fundamental ideas provide opportunities for using diverse reactivity on complex protein substrates and in complex cell-like environments. PMID:25588960

  17. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  18. Determination of the utility of remote sensing data for land use/cover analysis in the lower Appalachia region: Assessing the utility of remote sensing data for archeological site recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were gathered by NASA/ERL over a portion of the lower Ohio River and the middle Mississippi River valleys on April 11, 1982. CIR imagery accompanied the 10 and 30 meter resolution TMS data sets. This area is somewhat unique archeologically as there exists a concentration of sites with major features such as mounds, earthworks, and villages. It was the primary purpose of this study to determine the utility of TMS data in identifying signatures which are distinctly archeological. TMS data were processed using the NASA/ERL software package ELAS. No signatures that were distinctly archeological were detected, due in large part to the complexity of the land cover and land use practices. However, as more sophisticated classification techniques were employed, the classes which were related to archeological features were narrowed. TMS data could certainly be of assistance to a trained archeologist/interpreter in narrowing an area which has to be field-surveyed as anomalous features can be recognized within a particular environmental context.

  19. First characterization and comparison of TEB model simulations with in situ measurements regarding radiation balance in a single urban canyon at the BOKU site (Vienna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Revesz, Michael; Nadeem, Imran; Masson, Valéry; Weihs, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Health Organization more than half of the world population lives in a city since 2010. Predictions foresee that by 2030 six out of ten people will live in an urban area. As a result, many cities are expanding in size. Almost 10% of all urban dwellers live in megacities (defined according to UN HABITAT as a city with a population of more than 10 million). There are several effects in cities which strongly influence human health. Visible influences like the severe emissions of air pollutants by industry and traffic (e.g. Mayer H., 1999, Grimmond et al., 2010) are obvious to people but thermal stress in urban areas is only recently recognized for its strong devastating effect on human health. As a consequence, the urban environment virtually influences all weather parameters that have an impact on human comfort and thermal stress. Within this study, we investigate effects of city growth and the development of outlying districts on the local climate of Vienna. We focus particularly on the influence of urban heat island and consequent the risk for heat related illnesses or thermal stress for people. To quantify radiation balance and other important meteorological factors, we performed an extensive field campaign with three types of net radiometer in three different heights at BOKU site in August 2016. The first results indicated a strong correlation (ρ=0.96) between the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model and the measurements of the top net radiometer regarding radiation balance at roof level, meanwhile the TEB results are slightly underestimated. Further check if the measurements are reasonable, a comparison of the input values (global and direct solar radiation) for the TEB simulation with Secondary Standard measurements of ARAD site Wien Hohe Warte shows a deviation under 2% concerning interquartile range on clear sky days. The next steps will enclose TEB simulations, coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for

  20. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  1. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  2. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  3. Interaction of water, alkyl hydroperoxide, and allylic alcohol with a single-site homogeneous Ti-Si epoxidation catalyst: A spectroscopic and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Atsushi; Bürgi, Thomas; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Baiker, Alfons

    2005-02-17

    Tetrakis(trimethylsiloxy)titanium (TTMST, Ti(OSiMe3)4) possesses an isolated Ti center and is a highly active homogeneous catalyst in epoxidation of various olefins. The structure of TTMST resembles that of the active sites in some heterogeneous Ti-Si epoxidation catalysts, especially silylated titania-silica mixed oxides. Water cleaves the Ti-O-Si bond and deactivates the catalyst. An alkyl hydroperoxide, TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide), does not cleave the Ti-O-Si bond, but interacts via weak hydrogen-bonding as supported by NMR, DOSY, IR, and computational studies. ATR-IR spectroscopy combined with computational investigations shows that more than one, that is, up to four, TBHP can undergo hydrogen-bonding with TTMST, leading to the activation of the O-O bond of TBHP. The greater the number of TBHP molecules that form hydrogen bonds to TTMST, the more electrophilic the O-O bond becomes, and the more active the complex is for epoxidation. An allylic alcohol, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, does not interact strongly with TTMST, but the interaction is prominent when it interacts with the TTMST-TBHP complex. On the basis of the experimental and theoretical findings, a hydrogen-bond-assisted epoxidation mechanism of TTMST is suggested.

  4. Analysis of the single and combined non-destructive test approaches for on-site concrete strength assessment: General statements based on a real case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoudja Ali-Benyahia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the compressive strength of concrete in existing structures by coring is expensive, technically difficult in certain cases, and even impossible in others. The use of non-destructive testing (NDT is an interesting alternative method (i.e. affordable cost, portable, fast, etc.. However, the NDT estimation of strength requires a procedure of calibration of the model between NDT and compressive strength. The robustness of this calibration is a crucial point allowing better choice of the optimal number of cores. Studies which treat the calibration of proposed models are often based on laboratory experiments or synthetic data. The present study aims at identifying and optimizing the methodology of the calibration model on site. This paper is based on a broad campaign of auscultation using NDT (Rebound and Ultrasound and coring on an existing construction with 205 triplets of data (strengths and NDT results. Statistical data analysis enables to quantify the role of: the number of cores (NC used for the calibration, the use of only one or two-combined NDT techniques and the calibration method. The conclusions are focused on the improvement of the relevance and the effectiveness of NDT techniques in such operational situations.

  5. Tapered, Double-Lead Threads Single Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Healed Sites of the Posterior Jaws: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial with 1 to 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Alessandro; Vignudelli, Elisabetta; Franco, Simonetta; Levrini, Luca; Castellani, Dario; Pagliani, Luca; Rea, Massimiliano; Modena, Claudio; Sandri, Giulio; Longhi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the survival, success, and complication rates of tapered double-lead threads single implants, placed in fresh extraction sockets and healed sites of the posterior jaws. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: in the test group (TG), all implants were inserted at the time of tooth extraction; in the control group (CG), all implants were placed 3 months after extraction. The implants were followed for a period of 1 to 3 years after loading. The main outcomes were implant survival, complications, and implant-crown success. Ninety-two patients had 97 installed implants (49 in the TG, 48 in the CG). Only two implants failed, in the TG; the survival rates were therefore 95.9% (47/49) and 100% (48/48) for TG and CG, respectively. In the surviving implants, no complications were reported, for an implant-crown success of 100%. Although a significant difference was found in the levels of primary stability between TG and CG, single implants placed in fresh extraction sockets and healed sites of the posterior jaws had similar survival and complication rates. Crestal bone levels and peri-implant bone resorption showed similar values. A longer follow-up period is however required, to confirm these positive outcomes.

  6. Chemical shift changes provide evidence for overlapping single-stranded DNA and XPA binding sites on the 70 kDa subunit of human replication protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughdrill, Gary W.; Buchko, Garry W.; Botuyan, Maria V.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Wold, Marc S.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Lowry, David F.

    2003-07-15

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein that can form a complex with the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA). This complex can preferentially recognize UV damaged DNA over undamaged DNA and has been implicated in the stabilization of open complex formation during nucleotide excision repair. In this report, NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the interaction between a fragment of the 70 kDa subunit of human RPA, residues 1-326 (hRPA701-326), and a fragment of the human XPA protein, residues 98-219 (XPA-MBD). Intensity changes were observed for amide resonances in the 1H-15N correlation spectrum of uniformly 15N-labeled hRPA701-326 after the addition of unlabeled XPA-MBD. The intensity changes observed were restricted to an ssDNA binding domain that is between residues 183 and 296 of the hRPA701-326 fragment. The hRPA701-326 residues with the largest resonance intensity reductions were mapped onto the structure of the ssDNA binding domain to identify the binding surface with XPA-MBD. The XPA-MBD binding surface showed significant overlap with an ssDNA binding surface that was previously identified using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

  7. Eye movements during object recognition in visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Leek, E; Patterson, Candy; Paul, Matthew A; Rafal, Robert; Cristino, Filipe

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the first ever detailed study about eye movement patterns during single object recognition in visual agnosia. Eye movements were recorded in a patient with an integrative agnosic deficit during two recognition tasks: common object naming and novel object recognition memory. The patient showed normal directional biases in saccades and fixation dwell times in both tasks and was as likely as controls to fixate within object bounding contour regardless of recognition accuracy. In contrast, following initial saccades of similar amplitude to controls, the patient showed a bias for short saccades. In object naming, but not in recognition memory, the similarity of the spatial distributions of patient and control fixations was modulated by recognition accuracy. The study provides new evidence about how eye movements can be used to elucidate the functional impairments underlying object recognition deficits. We argue that the results reflect a breakdown in normal functional processes involved in the integration of shape information across object structure during the visual perception of shape. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within......The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Odor Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anholt, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... We characterized the transduction pathway for the recognition of pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and also characterized subpopulations of olfactory neurons expressing different axonal G proteins...

  10. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  11. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  12. Molecular mechanism for differential recognition of membrane phosphatidylserine by the immune regulatory receptor Tim4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gregory T; Gong, Zhiliang; Chen, Chiu-Hao; Vargas, Ernesto; Crooks, James E; Cao, Kathleen D; Heffern, Charles T R; Henderson, J Michael; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Roux, Benot; Schlossman, Mark L; Steck, Theodore L; Lee, Ka Yee C; Adams, Erin J

    2014-04-15

    Recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids exposed on the extracellular leaflet of plasma membranes is implicated in both apoptotic cell removal and immune regulation. The PS receptor T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule 4 (Tim4) regulates T-cell immunity via phagocytosis of both apoptotic (high PS exposure) and nonapoptotic (intermediate PS exposure) activated T cells. The latter population must be removed at lower efficiency to sensitively control immune tolerance and memory cell population size, but the molecular basis for how Tim4 achieves this sensitivity is unknown. Using a combination of interfacial X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulations, and membrane binding assays, we demonstrate how Tim4 recognizes PS in the context of a lipid bilayer. Our data reveal that in addition to the known Ca(2+)-coordinated, single-PS binding pocket, Tim4 has four weaker sites of potential ionic interactions with PS lipids. This organization makes Tim4 sensitive to PS surface concentration in a manner capable of supporting differential recognition on the basis of PS exposure level. The structurally homologous, but functionally distinct, Tim1 and Tim3 are significantly less sensitive to PS surface density, likely reflecting the differences in immunological function between the Tim proteins. These results establish the potential for lipid membrane parameters, such as PS surface density, to play a critical role in facilitating selective recognition of PS-exposing cells. Furthermore, our multidisciplinary approach overcomes the difficulties associated with characterizing dynamic protein/membrane systems to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying Tim4's recognition properties, and thereby provides an approach capable of providing atomic-level detail to uncover the nuances of protein/membrane interactions.

  13. Single residue mutation in active site of serine acetyltransferase isoform 3 from Entamoeba histolytica assists in partial regaining of feedback inhibition by cysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar

    Full Text Available The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for survival of the protist pathogen Entamoeba histolytica, and functions by producing cysteine for countering oxidative attack during infection in human hosts. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS are involved in cysteine biosynthesis and are present in three isoforms each. While EhSAT1 and EhSAT2 are feedback inhibited by end product cysteine, EhSAT3 is nearly insensitive to such inhibition. The active site residues of EhSAT1 and of EhSAT3 are identical except for position 208, which is a histidine residue in EhSAT1 and a serine residue in EhSAT3. A combination of comparative modeling, multiple molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculation studies showed a difference in binding energies of native EhSAT3 and of a S208H-EhSAT3 mutant for cysteine. Mutants have also been generated in vitro, replacing serine with histidine at position 208 in EhSAT3 and replacing histidine 208 with serine in EhSAT1. These mutants showed decreased affinity for substrate serine, as indicated by K(m, compared to the native enzymes. Inhibition kinetics in the presence of physiological concentrations of serine show that IC50 of EhSAT1 increases by about 18 folds from 9.59 µM for native to 169.88 µM for H208S-EhSAT1 mutant. Similar measurements with EhSAT3 confirm it to be insensitive to cysteine inhibition while its mutant (S208H-EhSAT3 shows a gain of cysteine inhibition by 36% and the IC50 of 3.5 mM. Histidine 208 appears to be one of the important residues that distinguish the serine substrate from the cysteine inhibitor.

  14. Intelligent fault recognition strategy based on adaptive optimized multiple centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Li, Yan-Feng; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2018-06-01

    For the recognition principle based optimized single center, one important issue is that the data with nonlinear separatrix cannot be recognized accurately. In order to solve this problem, a novel recognition strategy based on adaptive optimized multiple centers is proposed in this paper. This strategy recognizes the data sets with nonlinear separatrix by the multiple centers. Meanwhile, the priority levels are introduced into the multi-objective optimization, including recognition accuracy, the quantity of optimized centers, and distance relationship. According to the characteristics of various data, the priority levels are adjusted to ensure the quantity of optimized centers adaptively and to keep the original accuracy. The proposed method is compared with other methods, including support vector machine (SVM), neural network, and Bayesian classifier. The results demonstrate that the proposed strategy has the same or even better recognition ability on different distribution characteristics of data.

  15. Active Multimodal Sensor System for Target Recognition and Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yufu; Zhang, Guirong; Zou, Zhaofan; Liu, Ziyue; Mao, Jiansen

    2017-06-28

    High accuracy target recognition and tracking systems using a single sensor or a passive multisensor set are susceptible to external interferences and exhibit environmental dependencies. These difficulties stem mainly from limitations to the available imaging frequency bands, and a general lack of coherent diversity of the available target-related data. This paper proposes an active multimodal sensor system for target recognition and tracking, consisting of a visible, an infrared, and a hyperspectral sensor. The system makes full use of its multisensor information collection abilities; furthermore, it can actively control different sensors to collect additional data, according to the needs of the real-time target recognition and tracking processes. This level of integration between hardware collection control and data processing is experimentally shown to effectively improve the accuracy and robustness of the target recognition and tracking system.

  16. Face recognition by combining eigenface method with different wavelet subbands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan; LI Shun-bao

    2006-01-01

    @@ A method combining eigenface with different wavelet subbands for face recognition is proposed.Each training image is decomposed into multi-subbands for extracting their eigenvector sets and projection vectors.In the recognition process,the inner product distance between the projection vectors of the test image and that of the training image