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Sample records for single receptor subtype

  1. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  2. Agonist discrimination between AMPA receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquelle, T; Christensen, J K; Banke, T G

    2000-01-01

    The lack of subtype-selective compounds for AMPA receptors (AMPA-R) led us to search for compounds with such selectivity. Homoibotenic acid analogues were investigated at recombinant GluR1o, GluR2o(R), GluR3o and GluR1o + 3o receptors expressed in Sf9 insect cells and affinities determined in [3H...

  3. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  4. A novel subtype of endothelin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, M; Ambar, I; Galron, R

    1992-10-15

    A new subtype of endothelin receptors with binding properties typical of "super-high" affinity sites, i.e. with affinities in the picomolar range, were identified and characterized in several rat brain regions and atrium. The pharmacological profile of these sites is indicative of the endothelin receptor type B (ETB-R). These sites differ from the "conventional" high affinity sites (nanomolar range) in several respects; they do not induce phosphoinositide hydrolysis (whereas the high affinity sites do), and they are affected differently by deglycosylation. Thus, there appear to be at least two subtypes of the ETB-R, namely ETB1-R (super-high affinity sites) and ETB2-R (high affinity sites). We suggest the possibility that the super-high affinity sites are related to the vasodilatation property of endothelins, whereas the high affinity sites participate in their vasoconstrictive action.

  5. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  6. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brann, M R; Ellis, J; Jørgensen, H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the sequence of the five cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m5), subtype selective antibody and cDNA probes have been prepared. Use of these probes has demonstrated that each of the five subtypes has a markedly distinct distribution within the brain and among peripheral tissues. The...

  7. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brann, M R; Ellis, J; Jørgensen, H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the sequence of the five cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m5), subtype selective antibody and cDNA probes have been prepared. Use of these probes has demonstrated that each of the five subtypes has a markedly distinct distribution within the brain and among peripheral tissues....... The distributions of these subtypes and their potential physiological roles are discussed. By use of molecular genetic manipulation of cloned muscarinic receptor cDNAs, the regions of muscarinic receptors that specify G-protein coupling and ligand binding have been defined in several recent studies. Overall......, these studies have shown that amino acids within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptors define their selectivities for different G-proteins and that multiple discontinuous epitopes contribute to their selectivities for different ligands. The residues that contribute to ligand binding and G-protein coupling...

  8. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 [11-2-[[2-[diethylaminomethyl]- 1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one], hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of [3H]quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of [3H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated

  9. Identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of retinoid X and retinoic acid receptors via quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of a ligand is an important issue in the field of drug discovery. Using a combination of classical molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical calculations, this report assesses the receptor subtype selectivity for the human retinoid X receptor (hRXR) and retinoic acid receptor (hRAR) ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with retinoid ligands. The calculated energies show good correlation with the experimentally reported binding affinities. The technique proposed here is a promising method as it reveals the origin of the receptor subtype selectivity of selective ligands.

  10. Multiple estrogen receptor subtypes influence ingestive behavior in female rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal women are at an increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular-related diseases. This is attributable, at least in part, to loss of the ovarian hormone estradiol, which inhibits food and fluid intake in humans and laboratory animal models. Although the hypophagic and anti-dipsogenic effects of estradiol have been well documented for decades, the precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. An obvious step toward addressing this open question is identifying which estrogen receptor subtypes are involved and what intracellular processes are involved. This question, however, is complicated not only by the variety of estrogen receptor subtypes that exist, but also because many subtypes have multiple locations of action (i.e. in the nucleus or in the plasma membrane). This review will highlight our current understanding of the roles that specific estrogen receptor subtypes play in mediating estradiol's anorexigenic and anti-dipsogenic effects along with highlighting the many open questions that remain. This review will also describe recent work being performed by our laboratory aimed at answering these open questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seventh Symposium on Subtypes of Musccarinic Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    adrenergic glycogenolysis . Further evidence for the stimulation of the sympathetic system by talsaclidine is derived from some of its cardiovascular... CAT , D.M. McKAY, R. TINTNER, B. FRANGIONE and S.G. YOUNKIN, Science 258 126-129 (1992). 6. E.A. MILWARD, R. PAPADOPOULOS, S.J. FULLER, R.D. MOIR, D...acetyltransferase ( CAT ) activity in AD brain, subsequent investigations reported preservation of intact muscarinic receptor sites (4). These observations

  12. The G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, C; Smajilovic, S; Wellendorph, P

    2014-01-01

    GPRC6A (G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A) is a class C G protein-coupled receptor, that has been cloned from human, mouse and rat. Several groups have shown that the receptor is activated by a range of basic and small aliphatic L-α-amino acids of which L-arginine, L-lysine...

  13. Subtype Differences in Pre-Coupling of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Janíčková, Helena; Randáková, Alena; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2011), e27732 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine muscarinic receptors * G proteins * subtype differences Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  14. Subtype-Specific Agonists for NMDA Receptor Glycine Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex R.; Risgaard, Rune; Wang, Shuang Yan

    2017-01-01

    A series of analogues based on serine as lead structure were designed, and their agonist activities were evaluated at recombinant NMDA receptor subtypes (GluN1/2A-D) using two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) electrophysiology. Pronounced variation in subunit-selectivity, potency, and agonist...... efficacy was observed in a manner that was dependent on the GluN2 subunit in the NMDA receptor. In particular, compounds 15a and 16a are potent GluN2C-specific superagonists at the GluN1 subunit with agonist efficacies of 398% and 308% compared to glycine. This study demonstrates that subunit......-selectivity among glycine site NMDA receptor agonists can be achieved and suggests that glycine-site agonists can be developed as pharmacological tool compounds to study GluN2C-specific effects in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission....

  15. Gene specific actions of thyroid hormone receptor subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Z Lin

    Full Text Available There are two homologous thyroid hormone (TH receptors (TRs α and β, which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR family. While TRs regulate different processes in vivo and other highly related NRs regulate distinct gene sets, initial studies of TR action revealed near complete overlaps in their actions at the level of individual genes. Here, we assessed the extent that TRα and TRβ differ in target gene regulation by comparing effects of equal levels of stably expressed exogenous TRs +/- T(3 in two cell backgrounds (HepG2 and HeLa. We find that hundreds of genes respond to T(3 or to unliganded TRs in both cell types, but were not able to detect verifiable examples of completely TR subtype-specific gene regulation. TR actions are, however, far from identical and we detect TR subtype-specific effects on global T(3 response kinetics in HepG2 cells and many examples of TR subtype specificity at the level of individual genes, including effects on magnitude of response to TR +/- T(3, TR regulation patterns and T(3 dose response. Cycloheximide (CHX treatment confirms that at least some differential effects involve verifiable direct TR target genes. TR subtype/gene-specific effects emerge in the context of widespread variation in target gene response and we suggest that gene-selective effects on mechanism of TR action highlight differences in TR subtype function that emerge in the environment of specific genes. We propose that differential TR actions could influence physiologic and pharmacologic responses to THs and selective TR modulators (STRMs.

  16. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klagge, A; Krause, K; Schierle, K; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Fuhrer, D

    2010-04-01

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours. The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The majority of currently available somatostatin analogues show a higher binding affinity for the SSTR2 subtype. To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined. We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues. Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3. Weak SSTR4 mRNA expression was detected in some PTCs. Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC. In addition significant upregulation of SSTR3 was found in PTC. SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue. SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC . Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  17. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpicelli, Laura A; Levey, Allan I

    2004-01-01

    The M1, M2 and M4 subtypes of mAChRs are the predominant receptors in the CNS. These receptors activate a multitude of signaling pathways important for modulating neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and feedback regulation of ACh release. In addition, novel functions mediated by mAChRs are currently being discovered. These studies are greatly facilitated by the recent development of subtype selective toxins and mice lacking individual mAChR genes. Studies in cell culture and the rodent brain demonstrate that mAChR internalization and intracellular trafficking is an important component of mAChR regulation. Characterizing mAChR intracellular trafficking could help facilitate the development of selective mAChR ligands. For example, a selective M1 agonist would cause a shift in the distribution of M1 from the cell surface to an intracellular distribution, while M2 and M4 would remain on the cell surface. Characterizing mAChR intracellular trafficking is also important for understanding the cellular mechanisms that regulate mAChR cell surface expression and signaling. Furthermore, intracellular trafficking has recently been demonstrated to play a role in the development of tolerance to drugs (Whistler et al., 1999; He et al., 2002). Because individual mAChR subtypes are novel targets for treatments of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, understanding the mechanisms that regulate mAChR signaling and intracellular trafficking following acute and chronic stimulation might lead to the development of rational strategies.

  18. Comparative analysis of the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems in the leopard gecko: signaling crosstalk between multiple receptor subtypes in ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2007-02-01

    GnRH regulates reproductive functions through interaction with its pituitary receptor in vertebrates. The present study demonstrated that the leopard gecko possessed two and three genes for GnRH ligands and receptors, respectively, though one of the three receptor subtypes had long been thought not to exist in reptiles. Each receptor subtype showed a distinct pharmacology. All types of ligands and receptors showed different expression patterns, and were widely expressed both inside and outside the brain. This report also shows a comparison of the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems in the leopard gecko during and after the egg-laying season. All three receptor subtypes were expressed in both the whole pituitary and ovary; however, only one receptor subtype could be detected in the anterior pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed spatial expression patterns of ovarian receptors, and suggested co-expression of multiple receptor subtypes in granulosa cells of larger follicles. Co-transfection of receptor subtypes showed a distinct pharmacology in COS-7 cells compared with those of single transfections. These results suggest that distinct signaling mechanisms are involved in the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems. Seasonal and developmental variations in receptor expression in the anterior pituitary gland and ovarian follicles may contribute to the seasonal breeding of this animal.

  19. Development and validation of fluorescent receptor assays based on the human recombinant estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de boer, T; Otjens, D; Muntendam, A; Meulman, E; van Oostijen, M; Ensing, K

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of two fluorescent receptor assays for the hRec-estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta. As a labelled ligand an autofluorescent phyto-estrogen (coumestrol) has been used. The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to the nuclear receptor family, a

  20. Selective labeling and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari-Dileo, G; Waelbroeck, M; Mash, D C; Flynn, D D

    1994-12-01

    We report here a novel strategy for the selective labeling and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype, based on the distinct kinetics of the muscarinic antagonists dexetimide and N-methylscopolamine (NMS) and on the selectivity profile of guanylpirenzepine and AF-DX 116 for the m1-m5 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Incubation with 10 nM dexetimide, a nonselective antagonist, resulted in > 90% occupancy of each of the m1-m5 receptor subtypes. The relatively rapid rates of dexetimide dissociation from the m1, m2, and m4 receptor subtypes (t1/2 values of m4 receptor subtypes with short incubations with [3H]NMS. Inclusion of 200 nM guanylpirenzepine and 250 nM AF-DX 116 prevented the binding of [3H]NMS to the majority of the m1 and m2 receptor subtypes, respectively, resulting in primary labeling of the m4 receptor subtype. Brief dissociation of the radioligand in the presence of 1 microM atropine improved the ratio of m4 to m2 labeling by selectively removing [3H]NMS from the m2 subtype. Under these conditions, the ratio of [3H]NMS binding to the m4 versus m1, m2, m3, and m5 receptor subtypes was 4:1. In vitro autoradiography combined with these m4-selective labeling conditions demonstrated that the M4 (m4) receptor subtype was localized to the primary visual area (V1, area 17, occipital cortex) and the basal ganglia, a distribution distinct from that demonstrated for the M1 (m1), M2 (m2), and M3 (m3) receptor subtypes. These results demonstrate that a combination of the distinct kinetics of dexetimide and NMS and the receptor subtype selectivity of guanylpirenzepine and AF-DX 116 provides a valuable labeling strategy to examine the distribution and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype in brain, peripheral tissues, and cell lines.

  1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype expression in avian vestibular hair cells, nerve terminals and ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G Q; Kevetter, G A; Leonard, R B; Prusak, D J; Wood, T G; Correia, M J

    2007-04-25

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are widely expressed in the CNS and peripheral nervous system and play an important role in modulating the cell activity and function. We have shown that the cholinergic agonist carbachol reduces the pigeon's inwardly rectifying potassium channel (pKir2.1) ionic currents in native vestibular hair cells. We have cloned and sequenced pigeon mAChR subtypes M2-M5 and we have studied the expression of all five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) in the pigeon vestibular end organs (semicircular canal ampullary cristae and utricular maculae), vestibular nerve fibers and the vestibular (Scarpa's) ganglion using tissue immunohistochemistry (IH), dissociated single cell immunocytochemistry (IC) and Western blotting (WB). We found that vestibular hair cells, nerve fibers and ganglion cells each expressed all five (M1-M5) mAChR subtypes. Two of the three odd-numbered mAChRs (M1, M5) were present on the hair cell cilia, supporting cells and nerve terminals. And all three odd numbered mAChRs (M1, M3 and M5) were expressed on cuticular plates, myelin sheaths and Schwann cells. Even-numbered mAChRs were seen on the nerve terminals. M2 was also shown on the cuticular plates and supporting cells. Vestibular efferent fibers and terminals were not identified in our studies. Results from WB of the dissociated vestibular epithelia, nerve fibers and vestibular ganglia were consistent with the results from IH and IC. Our findings suggest that there is considerable co-expression of the subtypes on the neural elements of the labyrinth. Further electrophysiological and pharmacological studies should delineate the mechanisms of action of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on structures in the labyrinth.

  2. Classification of Dopamine Receptor Genes in Vertebrates: Nine Subtypes in Osteichthyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Fontaine, Romain; Pasqualini, Catherine; Vernier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission regulates various brain functions, and its regulatory roles are mediated by two families of G protein-coupled receptors: the D1 and D2 receptor families. In mammals, the D1 family comprises two receptor subtypes (D1 and D5), while the D2 family comprises three receptor subtypes (D2, D3 and D4). Phylogenetic analyses of dopamine receptor genes strongly suggest that the common ancestor of Osteichthyes (bony jawed vertebrates) possessed four subtypes in the D1 family and five subtypes in the D2 family. Mammals have secondarily lost almost half of the ancestral dopamine receptor genes, whereas nonmammalian species kept many of them. Although the mammalian situation is an exception among Osteichthyes, the current classification and characterization of dopamine receptors are based on mammalian features, which have led to confusion in the identification of dopamine receptor subtypes in nonmammalian species. Here we begin by reviewing the history of the discovery of dopamine receptors in vertebrates. The recent genome sequencing of coelacanth, gar and elephant shark led to the proposal of a refined scenario of evolution of dopamine receptor genes. We also discuss a current problem of nomenclature of dopamine receptors. Following the official nomenclature of mammalian dopamine receptors from D1 to D5, we propose to name newly identified receptor subtypes from D6 to D9 in order to facilitate the use of an identical name for orthologous genes among different species. To promote a nomenclature change which allows distinguishing the two dopamine receptor families, a nomenclature consortium is needed. This comparative perspective is crucial to correctly interpret data obtained in animal studies on dopamine-related brain disorders, and more fundamentally, to understand the characteristics of dopamine neurotransmission in vertebrates. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Resting sympathetic nerve activity is related to age, sex and arterial pressure but not to α2-adrenergic receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Azhar; West, Robert M; Galloway, Stacey L; Drinkhill, Mark J; Mary, David A S G; Greenwood, John P; Ball, Stephen G

    2010-10-01

    Sympathetic nerve hyperactivity has been associated with hypertension and heart failure and their cardiovascular complications. The α2-adrenergic receptors have been proposed to play a prominent role in the control of sympathetic neural output, and their malfunction to constitute a potential central mechanism for sympathetic hyperactivity of essential hypertension. Reports on the relationship between variant alleles of α2-adrenergic receptor subtypes and sympathetic drive or its effects, however, have not been consistent. Therefore, this study was planned to test the hypothesis that variant alleles of subtypes of α2-adrenergic receptors are associated with raised muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in man. One hundred and seventy-two individuals, with a wide range of arterial pressure, were prospectively examined. Resting MSNA was quantified from multiunit bursts and from single units, and α2-adrenergic receptor subtypes were genotyped from DNA extracted from leucocytes and quantified by spectrophotometry. No significant relationships between variant alleles of any of the α2A, α2B or α2C subtypes and raised muscle sympathetic activity were found. In contrast, MSNA showed a marked significant curvilinear relationship with age and systolic pressure; sex had a small but statistically significant effect. The α2-adrenergic receptor variants had a similar frequency when hypertensive and normotensive individuals were compared. Variant alleles of three α2-adrenergic receptor subtypes were not related to resting muscle sympathetic nerve hyperactivity, indicating that their functional differences shown in vitro are not reflected in sympathetic activity in man. Age had a marked effect likely influencing arterial pressure through sympathetic activity.

  4. Complex GABAB receptor complexes: how to generate multiple functionally distinct units from a single receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan eXU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, acts on both ligand-gated and G protein-coupled receptors, the GABAA/C and GABAB receptors, respectively. The later play important roles in modulating many synapses, both at the pre- and post-synaptic levels, and are then still considered as interesting targets to treat a number of brain diseases, including addiction. For many years, several subtypes of GABAB receptors were expected, but cloning revealed only two genes that work in concert to generate a single type of GABAB receptor composed of two subunits. Here we will show that the signaling complexity of this unit receptor type can be largely increased through various ways, including receptor stoichiometry, subunit isoforms, membrane expression and localization, crosstalk with other receptors or interacting proteins. These recent data revealed how complexity of a receptor unit can be increased, observation that certainly are not unique to the GABAB receptor.

  5. Role of histamine and its receptor subtypes in stimulation of conjunctival goblet cell secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Densen; Li, Dayu; Hayashi, Chisato; Shatos, Marie; Hodges, Robin R; Dartt, Darlene A

    2012-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine and its receptors on goblet cell secretion. Cultured rat and human goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugate was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Cultured rat goblet cells were homogenized and either RNA was isolated for RT-PCR or proteins were isolated for Western blot analysis for presence of histamine receptors subtypes H₁ through H₄. The localization of these receptors was determined in rat and human goblet cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. Histamine stimulated goblet cell secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. All four histamine receptors were present in cultured rat and human goblet cells. Use of agonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes indicated that the rank order of agonist stimulation was H₁ = H₃ > H₄ > H₂. Using antagonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes determined that H₂ and H₃, but not the H₁ and H₄, antagonists, inhibited histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Rat and human conjunctival goblet cells are a direct target of histamine, which induces secretion. All four histamine receptors are present in rat and human conjunctiva and are active in rat conjunctival goblet cells. These findings suggest that all four histamine receptor subtypes are important for conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Blockage of histamine receptor subtypes could prevent the excess mucus production associated with ocular allergy.

  6. Structural determinants for selective recognition of peptide ligands for endothelin receptor subtypes ETA and ETB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lättig, Jens; Oksche, Alexander; Beyermann, Michael; Rosenthal, Walter; Krause, Gerd

    2009-07-01

    The molecular basis for recognition of peptide ligands endothelin-1, -2 and -3 in endothelin receptors is poorly understood. Especially the origin of ligand selectivity for ET(A) or ET(B) is not clearly resolved. We derived sequence-structure-function relationships of peptides and receptors from mutational data and homology modeling. Our major findings are the dissection of peptide ligands into four epitopes and the delineation of four complementary structural portions on receptor side explaining ligand recognition in both endothelin receptor subtypes. In addition, structural determinants for ligand selectivity could be described. As a result, we could improve the selectivity of BQ3020 about 10-fold by a single amino acid substitution, validating our hypothesis for ligand selectivity caused by different entrances to the receptors' transmembrane binding sites. A narrow tunnel shape in ET(A) is restrictive for a selected group of peptide ligands' N-termini, whereas a broad funnel-shaped entrance in ET(B) accepts a variety of different shapes and properties of ligands.

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 and sst2A in human somatostatin receptor positive tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); Q. Liu; P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); J. Zuijderwijk; F. van der Ham (Frieda); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald); A. Schonbrunn; S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAlthough in situ hybridization has been used to examine the distribution of messenger RNA for somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst) in human tumors, the cellular localization of sst1 and sst2A receptors has not been reported. In this study, we describe the

  8. Stereostructure-activity studies on agonists at the AMPA and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tommy N; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2003-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu), the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, operates through ionotropic as well as metabotropic receptors and is considered to be involved in certain neurological disorders and degenerative brain diseases that are currently without any satisfactory...... design of ligands, especially for the AMPA and kainate subtypes of ionotropic Glu receptors. This mini-review will focus on structure-activity relationships on AMPA and kainate receptor agonists with special emphasis on stereochemical and three-dimensional aspects....

  9. Blockade of alcohol's amnestic activity in humans by an alpha5 subtype benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Besson, Marie; Wilson, Susan J; Dawson, Gerard R; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol produces many subjective and objective effects in man including pleasure, sedation, anxiolysis, plus impaired eye movements and memory. In human volunteers we have used a newly available GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist that is selective for the alpha5 subtype (a5IA) to evaluate the role of this subtype in mediating these effects of alcohol on the brain. After pre-treatment with a5IA, we found almost complete blockade of the marked impairment caused by alcohol (mean breath concentration 150mg/100ml) of word list learning and partial but non-significant reversal of subjective sedation without effects on other measures such as intoxication, liking, and slowing of eye movements. This action was not due to alterations in alcohol kinetics and so provides the first proof of concept that selectively decreasing GABA-A receptor function at a specific receptor subtype can offset some actions of alcohol in humans. It also supports growing evidence for a key role of the alpha5 subtype in memory. Inverse agonists at other GABA-A receptor subtypes may prove able to reverse other actions of alcohol, and so offer a new approach to understanding the actions of alcohol in the human brain and in the treatment of alcohol related disorders in humans.

  10. Expression of purinergic P2X receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 7 in equine laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboulis, Danae E; Senior, Mark; Clegg, Peter D; Milner, Peter I

    2013-11-01

    Tissue sensitisation and chronic pain have been described in chronic-active laminitis in the horse, making treatment of such cases difficult. Purinergic P2X receptors are linked to chronic pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of purinergic P2X receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 7 in the hoof, palmar digital vessels and nerve, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord in horses with chronic-active laminitis (n=5) compared to non-laminitic horses (n=5). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue sections using antibodies against P2X receptor subtypes 1-3 and 7. In horses with laminitis, there was a reduction in the thickness of the tunica media layer of the palmar digital vein as a proportion of the whole vessel diameter (0.48±0.05) compared to the non-laminitic group (0.57±0.04; P=0.02). P2X receptor subtype 3 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer (tunica media) of the palmar digital artery of horses with laminitis, but was absent in horses without laminitis. There was strong expression of P2X receptor subtype 7 in the proliferating, partially keratinised, epidermal cells of the secondary epidermal lamellae in the hooves of horses with laminitis, but no immunopositivity in horses without laminitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Repeated stressful experiences differently affect brain dopamine receptor subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Cabib, S.; Kempf, E.; Schleef, C.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of tritiated spiperone (D2 antagonist) and tritiated SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist), in vivo, was investigated in the caudatus putamen (CP) and nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) of mice submitted to ten daily restraint stress sessions. Mice sacrificed 24 hr after the last stressful experience presented a 64% decrease of D2 receptor density (Bmax) but no changes in D1 receptor density in the NAS. In the CP a much smaller (11%) reduction of D2 receptor density was accompanied by a 10% increase of D1 receptors. These results show that the two types of dopamine (DA) receptors adapt in different or even opposite ways to environmental pressure, leading to imbalance between them

  12. GABAB receptor subtypes differentially modulate synaptic inhibition in the dentate gyrus to enhance granule cell output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joshua D; Kitchen, Ian; Bettler, Bernhard; Chen, Ying

    2013-04-01

    Activation of GABAB receptors in the dentate gyrus (DG) enhances granule cell (GC) activity by reducing synaptic inhibition imposed by hilar interneurons. This disinhibitory action facilitates signal transfer from the perforant path to the hippocampus. However, as the two main molecular subtypes, GABA(B(1a,2)) and GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors, prefer axonal terminal and dendritic compartments, respectively, they may modulate the hilar pathways at different synaptic localizations. We examined their relative expression and functions in the DG. The localization of GABAB subtypes was revealed immunohistochemically using subunit-selective antibodies in GABA(B1a)(-/-) and GABA(B1b)(-/-) mice. Effects of subtype activation by the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, were examined on the perforant path-stimulated GC population activities in brain slices. GABA(B(1a,2)) receptors were concentrated in the inner molecular layer, the neuropil of the hilus and hilar neurons at the border zone; while GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors dominated the outer molecular layer and hilar neurons in the deep layer, showing their differential localization on GC dendrite and in the hilus. Baclofen enhanced the GC population spike to a larger extent in the GABA(B1b)(-/-) mice, demonstrating exclusively disinhibitory roles of the GABA(B(1a,2)) receptors. Conversely, in the GABA(B1a)(-/-) mice baclofen not only enhanced but also inhibited the population spike during GABAA blockade, revealing both disinhibitory and inhibitory effects of GABA(B(1b,2)) receptors. The GABA(B(1a,2)) and GABA(B(1b,2)) receptor subtypes differentially modulate GC outputs via selective axonal terminal and dendritic locations in the hilar pathways. The GABA(B(1a,2)) receptors exclusively mediate disinhibition, thereby playing a greater role in gating signal transfer for hippocampal spatial and pattern learning. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Development of radiotracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labas, R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop new radioactive tracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography. Several compounds including 4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidine and presenting interesting in vivo biological properties were the object of a labelling with a positrons emitter atom ( 11 C or 18 F)

  14. The N-terminal domain of GluR6-subtype glutamate receptor ion channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Janesh; Schuck, Peter; Jin, Rongsheng; Mayer, Mark L.; (NIH); (Burnham)

    2009-09-25

    The amino-terminal domain (ATD) of glutamate receptor ion channels, which controls their selective assembly into AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptor subtypes, is also the site of action of NMDA receptor allosteric modulators. Here we report the crystal structure of the ATD from the kainate receptor GluR6. The ATD forms dimers in solution at micromolar protein concentrations and crystallizes as a dimer. Unexpectedly, each subunit adopts an intermediate extent of domain closure compared to the apo and ligand-bound complexes of LIVBP and G protein-coupled glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and the dimer assembly has a markedly different conformation from that found in mGluRs. This conformation is stabilized by contacts between large hydrophobic patches in the R2 domain that are absent in NMDA receptors, suggesting that the ATDs of individual glutamate receptor ion channels have evolved into functionally distinct families.

  15. Differential regulation of mTOR-dependent S6 phosphorylation by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Barbara E; Blusztajn, Jan K

    2008-08-01

    Muscarinic receptors subserve many functions in both peripheral and central nervous systems. Some of these processes depend on increases in protein synthesis, which may be achieved by activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that regulates protein translation capacity. Here, we examined the regulation of mTOR-dependent signaling pathways by muscarinic receptors in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines transfected with individual muscarinic receptor subtypes. In SK-N-SH cells, the acetylcholine analog carbachol stimulated phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein, a downstream target of mTOR. The sensitivity of the response to subtype-selective muscarinic receptor antagonists indicated that it was mediated by M3 receptors. Carbachol-evoked S6 phosphorylation was blocked by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, but was independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. The response was significantly reduced by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, which also inhibited carbachol-evoked S6 phosphorylation in HEK cells expressing M2 receptors, but was ineffective in M3 receptor-expressing HEK cells, although carbachol activated MAPK in both transfected lines. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase has been implicated in mTOR regulation by phorbol esters, but was not activated by carbachol in any of the cell lines tested. The protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I reduced carbachol-stimulated S6 phosphorylation in SK-N-SH cells, and in HEK cells expressing M3 receptors, but not in HEK cells expressing M2 receptors. The results demonstrate that multiple muscarinic receptor subtypes regulate mTOR, and that both MAPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms may mediate the response in a cell context-specific manner.

  16. Racial Variations in Prostate Cancer Molecular Subtypes and Androgen Receptor Signaling Reflect Anatomic Tumor Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Farzana A; Sundi, Debasish; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Choeurng, Voleak; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Ross, Ashley E; Klein, Eric; Den, Robert; Dicker, Adam; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2016-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) subtypes based on ETS gene expression have been described. Recent studies suggest there are racial differences in tumor location, with PCa located anteriorly more often among African-American (AA) compared to Caucasian-American (CA) men. In this retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional cohort treated by radical prostatectomy (179 CA, 121 AA), we evaluated associations among molecular subtype, race, anatomic tumor location, and androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Subtype (m-ERG(+), m-ETS(+), m-SPINK1(+), or triple-negative) was determined using distribution-based outlier analysis. AR signaling was investigated using gene expression profiling of canonical AR targets. m-ERG(+) was more common in CA than AA men (47% vs 22%, pRacial differences in molecular subtypes did not persist when tumors were analyzed by location, suggesting a biologically important relationship between tumor location and subtype. Accordingly, anterior tumor location was associated with higher Decipher scores and lower global AR signaling. This study demonstrates associations among patient race, prostate cancer molecular subtypes, and tumor location. Location-specific differences in androgen regulation may further underlie these relationships. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Multiple subtypes of serotonin receptors in the feeding circuit of a pond snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Ryo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Fujito, Yutaka; Ito, Etsuro

    2011-07-01

    In the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, serotonergic transmission plays an important role in controlling feeding behavior. Recent electrophysiological studies have claimed that only metabotropic serotonin (5-HT(2)) receptors, and not ionotropic (5-HT(3)) receptors, are used in synapses between serotonergic neurons (the cerebral giant cells, CGCs) and the follower buccal motoneurons (the B1 cells). However, these data are inconsistent with previous results. In the present study, we therefore reexamined the serotonin receptors to identify the receptor subtypes functioning in the synapses between the CGCs and the B1 cells by recording the compound excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of the B1 cells evoked by a train of stimulation to the CGC in the presence of antagonists: cinanserin for 5-HT(2) and/or MDL72222 for 5-HT(3). The compound EPSP amplitude was partially suppressed by the application of these antagonists. The rise time of the compound EPSP was longer in the presence of MDL72222 than in that of cinanserin. These results suggest that these two subtypes of serotonin receptors are involved in the CGC-B1 synapses, and that these receptors contribute to compound EPSP. That is, the fast component of compound EPSP is mediated by 5-HT(3)-like receptors, and the slow component is generated via 5-HT(2)-like receptors.

  18. Estrogen stimulates adenosine receptor expression subtypes in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Azam; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Panjehpour, Mojtaba

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone that plays a key role in the development and regulation of reproductive system. It has been shown that estrogen is related to breast cancer development through binding to its receptors. In order to uncover the estrogen effects on adenosine receptor expression, estrogen-positive MCF-7 cells were used to treat with agonist and antagonist of estrogen and then the mRNA expression of adenosine receptor subtypes were evaluated. Estrogen-positive MCF-7 cells were treated with various concentrations of 17β estradiol (E2) as an estrogen agonist, and ICI 182,780 as an estrogen antagonist. The gene expression of adenosine receptor subtypes were detected by real time RT-PCR. The results of MTT assay showed that E2 increased cell viability in a dose dependent manner. The expression pattern of all adenosine receptor subtypes are as follow; A2b > A1 > A2a > A3 in untreated MCF-7 cells. Obtained results showed that E2 incubation at 0.001-0.01 μM led to up-regulation of A1ARs, A2aARs and A3ARs dose dependently. E2 at 0.001 μM also had no significant effect on A2bARs expression but, at higher doses induced a considerable decrease in mRNA A2bARs expression. Treatment with antagonist confirmed that up-regulation of these receptors is mediated by estrogen receptor. Taken together, our results indicate that treatment of MCF-7 cells with E2 led to up-regulation of adenosine receptors. However, these effects were partially restored by treatment with antagonist suggesting that such effects are mediated by estrogen receptors.

  19. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ava Yuan; Di Pizio, Antonella; Levit, Anat; Yarnitzky, Tali; Penn, Osnat; Pupko, Tal; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-01-01

    The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs) recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity.

  20. Independent Evolution of Strychnine Recognition by Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Yuan Xue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine. This analysis suggests that the common ancestor of hT2R10 and hT2R46 is unlikely to bind strychnine in the same mode as either of its two descendants. Estimation of relative divergence times shows that hT2R10 evolved earlier than hT2R46. Strychnine recognition was likely acquired first by the earliest common ancestor of the T2R10 clade before the separation of primates from other mammals, and was highly conserved within the clade. It was probably independently acquired by the common ancestor of T2R43-47 before the homo-ape speciation, lost in most T2Rs within this clade, but enhanced in the hT2R46 after humans diverged from the rest of primates. Our findings suggest hypothetical strychnine T2R receptors in several species, and serve as an experimental guide for further study. Improved understanding of how bitter taste receptors acquire the ability to be activated by particular ligands is valuable for the development of sensors for bitterness and for potential toxicity.

  1. Use of an α3-β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit concatamer to characterize ganglionic receptor subtypes with specific subunit composition reveals species-specific pharmacologic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    Drug development for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) is challenged by subtype diversity arising from variations in subunit composition. On-target activity for neuronal heteromeric receptors is typically associated with CNS receptors that contain α4 and other subunits, while off-target activity could be associated with ganglionic-type receptors containing α3β4 binding sites and other subunits, including β4, β2, α5, or α3 as a structural subunit in the pentamer. Additional interest in α3 β4 α5-containing receptors arises from genome-wide association studies linking these genes, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in α5 in particular, to lung cancer and heavy smoking. While α3 and β4 readily form receptors in expression system such as the Xenopus oocyte, since α5 is not required for function, simple co-expression approaches may under-represent α5-containing receptors. We used a concatamer of human α3 and β4 subunits to form ligand-binding domains, and show that we can force the insertions of alternative structural subunits into the functional pentamers. These α3β4 variants differ in sensitivity to ACh, nicotine, varenicline, and cytisine. Our data indicated lower efficacy for varenicline and cytisine than expected for β4-containing receptors, based on previous studies of rodent receptors. We confirm that these therapeutically important α4 receptor partial agonists may present different autonomic-based side-effect profiles in humans than will be seen in rodent models, with varenicline being more potent for human than rat receptors and cytisine less potent. Our initial characterizations failed to find functional effects of the α5 SNP. However, our data validate this approach for further investigations. PMID:22580377

  2. The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 mediates sensitivity to the sedative properties of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Chris; Marks, Michael J; Larson, Colin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-09-01

    Inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice (ILS and ISS) were selectively bred for differential sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. Lines of mice derived from these progenitors have been used to identify several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mediating loss of the righting reflex due to ethanol (LORE). This study investigated the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) as a candidate gene underlying Lore7, a QTL mediating differential LORE sensitivity. We used knockout mice, a quantitative complementation test, pharmacological antagonism of mGluR5, real-time quantitative PCR, radioligand binding, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics to examine the role of mGluR5 in ethanol-induced sedation. mGluR5 knockout mice had a significantly longer LORE duration than wildtype controls. Administration of the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethyl)-pyridine (MPEP) had differential effects on LORE in ILS and ISS mice. A quantitative complementation test also supported mGluR5 mediating LORE. Two intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms in mGluR5 were highly correlated with LORE in recombinant inbred mice derived from a cross between ILS and ISS (LXS RIs). Differences in mGluR5 mRNA level and receptor density were observed between ILS and ISS in distinct brain regions. Finally, data from WebQTL showed that mGluR5 expression was highly correlated with several LORE phenotypes in the LXS RIs. Altogether, this data provides convincing evidence that mGluR5 mediates differential sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. Studies from the human literature have also identified mGluR5 as a potential candidate gene for ethanol sensitivity.

  3. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo profiles of tolterodine with those of subtype-selective muscarinic receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, P G; Sundquist, S; Nilvebrant, L

    1998-05-22

    Tolterodine [(R)-N,N-diisopropyl-3-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3-phenylpropanamine ] is a new potent and competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist developed for the treatment of urinary urge incontinence and other symptoms of overactive bladder. In vivo, tolterodine exhibits functional selectivity for the urinary bladder over salivary glands, a profile that cannot be explained in terms of selectivity for a single muscarinic receptor subtype. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in vivo antimuscarinic profiles of tolterodine with those of muscarinic receptor antagonists with distinct receptor subtype-selectivity profiles: darifenacin [(S)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl]-2,2-d iphenylacetamide; selective for muscarinic M3 receptors]; UH-AH 37 (6-chloro-5,10-dihydro-5-[(1-methyl-4-piperidinyl)acetyl]-11H-dibenzo-[b ,e][1,4]diazepine-11-one; low affinity for muscarinic M2 receptors); and AQ-RA 741 (11-([4-[4-(diethylamino)butyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-py rido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one; high affinity for muscarinic M2 receptors). The in vitro profiles of these compounds were in agreement with previous reports; darifenacin and UH-AH 37 demonstrated selectivity for muscarinic M3/m3 over M2/m2 receptors, while the converse was observed for AQ-RA 741. In vivo, AQ-RA 741 was more potent (1.4-2.7-fold) in inhibiting urinary bladder contraction than salivation in the anaesthetised cat (i.e., a profile similar to that of tolterodine [2.5-3.3-fold]), while darifenacin and UH-AH 37 showed the reverse selectivity profile (0.6-0.8 and 0.4-0.5-fold, respectively). The results confirm that it is possible to separate the antimuscarinic effects on urinary bladder and salivary glands in vivo. The data on UH-AH 37 and darifenacin support the view that a selectivity for muscarinic M3/m3 over M2/m2 receptors may result in a more pronounced effect on salivation than on bladder contraction. The data on AQ-RA 741 may indicate

  4. Autoregulation of enterochromaffin-like cell histamine secretion via the histamine 3 receptor subtype.

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, M.; Tang, L. H.; Miu, K.; Lawton, G. P.; Sandor, A.; Modlin, I. M.

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The neuroendocrine histamine-secreting cell of the gastric fundus, the enferochromaffin-like cell, is the principal regulator of parietal cell acid secretion. We have proposed that histamine may regulate its own synthesis and release via an autocrine mechanism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the histamine receptor subtypes H1, H2 and H3 in the regulation of this phenomenon. METHODS: Purified ECL cells were isolated by pronase digestion and EDTA exposure of...

  5. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors subtypes in rat cerebellar cortex: light microscope autoradiography of age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebati, S K; Vitali, D; Scordella, S; Amenta, F

    2001-01-19

    Muscarinic cholinergic M1-M5 receptor subtypes were investigated in the cerebellar cortex of Fischer 344 rats aged 6 (young), 15 (adult) and 22 months (senescent) by combined kinetic and equilibrium binding and light microscope autoradiography. In young rats the rank order of receptor density was M5M4M4 in the molecular and granular layers, respectively. M1, M2, M4 and M5 receptors were also observed within Purkinje neurons. M1 receptor did not show age-related changes as well as the M2 receptor in the molecular layer. In this layer, M3-M5 receptors were increased in senescent compared to younger rats. In the granular layer the expression of M2 and M5 muscarinic receptors was similar in young and senescent rats and higher in adult rats. M3 and M4 receptors were more in adult and senescent rats compared to young animals. In Purkinje neurons, a slight-to-moderate age-related increase of M1 and M5 receptor expression was observed.

  6. Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes on Drosophila melanogaster larval heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Cole A; Ritter, Kyle; Robinson, Jonathan; English, Connor; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster heart is a popular model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. Progress has been made in understanding the role of endogenous compounds in regulating cardiac function in this model. It is well characterized that common neurotransmitters act on many peripheral and non-neuronal tissues as they flow through the hemolymph of insects. Many of these neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), have been shown to act directly on the D. melanogaster larval heart. ACh is a primary neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates and at the neuromuscular junctions on skeletal and cardiac tissue. In insects, ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of sensory neurons and is also prominent in the CNS. A full understanding regarding the regulation of the Drosophila cardiac physiology by the cholinergic system remains poorly understood. Here we use semi-intact D. melanogaster larvae to study the pharmacological profile of cholinergic receptor subtypes, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), in modulating heart rate (HR). Cholinergic receptor agonists, nicotine and muscarine both increase HR, while nAChR agonist clothianidin exhibits no significant effect when exposed to an open preparation at concentrations as low as 100 nM. In addition, both nAChR and mAChR antagonists increase HR as well but also display capabilities of blocking agonist actions. These results provide evidence that both of these receptor subtypes display functional significance in regulating the larval heart's pacemaker activity.

  7. Muscarinic M1 and M4 receptor subtypes in normal and patjhological conditions in the central nervous system : Studies on human and animal tissues using subtype selective ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta, Ezra

    2003-01-01

    Snake venoms from different mamba species contain toxins that bind to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR). The toxins MT-1 (selective for M1 after iodination), M1 toxin-1 (also known as MT7, selective for MI) and M4 toxin-1 (also known as MT3, selective for M4 receptors) were isolated and used to study M1 and M4 receptor subtypes in normal and pathological conditions. The pharmacological profile of M1 toxin-1 was determined in functional assays using cloned human M1- ...

  8. Co-expression of two subtypes of melatonin receptor on rat M1-type intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Long Sheng

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are involved in circadian and other non-image forming visual responses. An open question is whether the activity of these neurons may also be under the regulation mediated by the neurohormone melatonin. In the present work, by double-staining immunohistochemical technique, we studied the expression of MT1 and MT2, two known subtypes of mammalian melatonin receptors, in rat ipRGCs. A single subset of retinal ganglion cells labeled by the specific antibody against melanopsin exhibited the morphology typical of M1-type ipRGCs. Immunoreactivity for both MT1 and MT2 receptors was clearly seen in the cytoplasm of all labeled ipRGCs, indicating that these two receptors were co-expressed in each of these neurons. Furthermore, labeling for both the receptors were found in neonatal M1 cells as early as the day of birth. It is therefore highly plausible that retinal melatonin may directly modulate the activity of ipRGCs, thus regulating non-image forming visual functions.

  9. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism for blockade of angiotensin subtype 1 receptors to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P; Liu, I-M; Tzeng, T-F; Yang, T-L; Cheng, J-T

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism(s) by which valsartan, a selective antagonist of angiotensin subtype 1 (AT(1)) receptor, decreased plasma glucose in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The plasma glucose concentration was assessed by the glucose oxidase method. The concentration of beta-endorphin in plasma or medium incubating adrenal medulla was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA levels of the subtype 4 form of glucose transporter (GLUT4) in soleus muscle and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver were detected by Northern blotting analysis, while the protein levels of GLUT4 in isolated soleus muscle and hepatic PEPCK were investigated using Western blotting analysis. A single intravenous injection of valsartan dose-dependently increased plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) in parallel with the lowering of plasma glucose concentration in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Naloxone and naloxonazine inhibited the plasma glucose-lowering action of valsartan at doses sufficient to block opioid micro-receptors. In contrast to its action in wild-type diabetic mice, valsartan failed to modify plasma glucose in opioid micro-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Bilateral adrenalectomy in STZ-induced diabetic rats eliminated both the plasma glucose-lowering action and the plasma BER-elevating action of valsartan. In the isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-induced diabetic rats, angiotensin II (Ang II) or valsartan did not affect spontaneous BER secretion. Activation of cholinergic receptors by 1.0 micromol/l acetylcholine (ACh) enhanced BER secretion from the isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-induced diabetic rats, but not in the presence of 1.0 nmol/l Ang II, while valsartan reversed this inhibition by Ang II in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats with valsartan (0.2 mg/kg) three times daily for 3 days resulted in an increase in gene expression of GLUT4 in soleus muscle and impeded the

  11. Guanylpirenzepine distinguishes between neuronal ml and m4 muscarinic receptor subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monferini, E.; Cereda, E.; Ladinsky, H.; Donetti, A.; Giraldo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Guanylpirenzepine, a polar, non-quaternary analog of pirenzepine, exhibited a novel binding behavior in rat brain regions: in competition binding experiments against [3H]pirenzepine labeling the M1 receptor in membranes from cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, the compound, differently from pirenzepine, displayed heterogeneous binding curves. Computer assisted analysis of these curves, evidenced the existence of two populations of binding sites: a large proportion (84-89%) of high affinity receptors (KH = 64-92 nM) and a remainder with very low affinity (KL = 19-28 microM). Like pirenzepine, guanylpirenzepine showed low affinity for the glandular M3 and the cardiac M2 receptors when [3H]N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors in membranes from these two tissues; affinity values for guanylpirenzepine were 1336 and 5790 nM respectively, vs 323 and 683 nM for pirenzepine. We conclude that guanylpirenzepine is able to discriminate between m1 and m4 receptor subtypes and may represent a new tool for deeper studies on muscarinic receptors classification

  12. GABA regulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis via different GABA-A receptor alpha-subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Bundzikova, Jana; Larsen, Marianne Hald

    2008-01-01

    dependent on the composition of the GABA-A receptor subunits through which they act. We show here that positive modulators of alpha(1)-subtype containing GABA-A receptors with zolpidem (10 mg/kg) increase HPA activity in terms of increase in plasma corticosterone and induction of Fos in the PVN, whereas...

  13. Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed by CA1 pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kristin L; Doze, Van A; Porter, James E

    2005-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of the beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) using the selective beta-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) facilitates pyramidal cell long-term potentiation in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the rat hippocampus. We have previously analyzed beta-AR genomic expression patterns of 17 CA1 pyramidal cells using single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating that all samples expressed the beta2-AR transcript, with four of the 17 cells additionally expressing mRNA for the beta1-AR subtype. However, it has not been determined which beta-AR subtypes are functionally expressed in CA1 for these same pyramidal neurons. Using cell-attached recordings, we tested the ability of ISO to increase pyramidal cell action potential (AP) frequency in the presence of subtype-selective beta-AR antagonists. ICI-118,551 [(+/-)-1-[2,3-(dihydro-7-methyl-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol] and butoxamine [alpha-[1-(t-butylamino)ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol) hydrochloride], agents that selectively block the beta2-AR, produced significant parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves for ISO. From these curves, apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K(b)) values of 0.3 nM for ICI-118,551 and 355 nM for butoxamine were calculated using Schild regression analysis. Conversely, effective concentrations of the selective beta1-AR antagonists CGP 20712A [(+/-)-2-hydroxy-5-[2-([2-hydroxy-3-(4-[1-methyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]phenoxy)propyl]amino)ethoxy]-benzamide methanesulfonate] and atenolol [4-[2'-hydroxy-3'-(isopropyl-amino)propoxy]phenylacetamide] did not significantly affect the pyramidal cell response to ISO. However, at higher concentrations, atenolol significantly decreased the potency for ISO-mediated AP frequencies. From these curves, an apparent atenolol K(b) value of 3162 nM was calculated. This pharmacological profile for subtype-selective beta-AR antagonists

  14. Immunohistochemical Detection and Localization of Somatostatin Receptor Subtypes in Prostate Tissue from Patients with Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Montironi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim of the Study: Scant information on the cellular distribution of the five somatostatin receptor (SSTR subtypes in the normal prostate and in neoplasms of the prostate has been reported in very few studies in which techniques, such as in situ hybridization histochemistry, autoradiography, and more recently immunohistochemistry, have been applied. The aim of the study was to examine immunohistochemically the distribution and localization of these 5 subtypes in the various tissue components in normal prostate.

  15. Change of expression of renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor and angiotensin II receptor subtypes with aging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fang; Cao, Xiao-Jing; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Peng; Shi, Shu-Tian

    2010-04-01

    It has been considered that the functional decline of renal vasoconstriction during senescence is associated with an alteration in renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) expression. While alterations in renal angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression was considered to have an effect on renal structure and function, until now little information has been available concerning alpha1-AR and ATR expression variations over the entire aging continuum. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue during the spectrum running from young adulthood, to middle age, to the presenium, and to the senium. Semiquantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot were used to quantify the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue in 3-month-old (young adult), 12-month-old (middle age), 18-month-old (presenium) and 24-month-old (senium) Wistar rats. alpha1A-AR expression decreased gradually with aging: it was decreased during middle age, the presenium and the senium, compared, respectively, with young adult values (page and in the senium with respect to the presenium. alpha1B-AR and alpha1D-AR expression were unmodified during senescence. AT1R expression was unaffected by aging during young adulthood and middle age, but exhibited a remarkable downregulation in the presenium and senium periods (prenal alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes during aging. alpha1A-AR expression downregulation may account for the reduced reactivity of renal alpha1-AR to vasoconstrictors and to renal function decline in the senium. Both the downregulation of AT1R and the upregulation of AT2R may be influential in maintaining normal physiological renal function during aging.

  16. Crystal Structures of Human Orexin 2 Receptor Bound to the Subtype-Selective Antagonist EMPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suno, Ryoji; Kimura, Kanako Terakado; Nakane, Takanori; Yamashita, Keitaro; Wang, Junmei; Fujiwara, Takaaki; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Im, Dohyun; Horita, Shoichiro; Tsujimoto, Hirokazu; Tawaramoto, Maki S; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nango, Eriko; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Joti, Yasumasa; Yabashi, Makina; Shimamoto, Keiko; Yamamoto, Masaki; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Iwata, So; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Takuya

    2018-01-02

    Orexin peptides in the brain regulate physiological functions such as the sleep-wake cycle, and are thus drug targets for the treatment of insomnia. Using serial femtosecond crystallography and multi-crystal data collection with a synchrotron light source, we determined structures of human orexin 2 receptor in complex with the subtype-selective antagonist EMPA (N-ethyl-2-[(6-methoxy-pyridin-3-yl)-(toluene-2-sulfonyl)-amino]-N-pyridin-3-ylmethyl-acetamide) at 2.30-Å and 1.96-Å resolution. In comparison with the non-subtype-selective antagonist suvorexant, EMPA contacted fewer residues through hydrogen bonds at the orthosteric site, explaining the faster dissociation rate. Comparisons among these OX 2 R structures in complex with selective antagonists and previously determined OX 1 R/OX 2 R structures bound to non-selective antagonists revealed that the residue at positions 2.61 and 3.33 were critical for the antagonist selectivity in OX 2 R. The importance of these residues for binding selectivity to OX 2 R was also revealed by molecular dynamics simulation. These results should facilitate the development of antagonists for orexin receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeting to 5-HT1F Receptor Subtype for Migraine Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    The effective anti-migraine drugs triptans, all bind with high affinity to three serotonin (5-HT) subtypes, the 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F. 5- HT1B mRNA is densely localized within smooth muscle, and less in the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels. This vascular distribution of 5-HT1B receptor has...... is located both in vessels and within the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C), but with the difference that the 5-HT1F receptor lack vasoconstrictive properties, making it an attractive target for new anti-migraine drugs. Selective activation of 5-HT1F receptor potently...... inhibited markers associated with electrical stimulation of the TG. Thus 5-HT1F receptor represents an ideal target for anti-migraine drugs. So far two selective 5-HT1F agonists have been tested in human trials for migraine: LY334370 and lasmiditan. Both molecules were efficient in attenuating migraine...

  18. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L. (UIUC); (NIH)

    2008-10-27

    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  19. Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs, which belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, are likewise ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS and play a pivotal role in learning and memory. Despite its critical contribution to physiological and pathophysiological processes, few pharmacological interventions aimed directly at regulating NMDAR function have been developed to date. However, it is well established that NMDAR function is precisely regulated by cellular signalling cascades recruited downstream of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR stimulation. Accordingly, the downstream regulation of NMDARs likely represents an important determinant of outcome following treatment with neuropsychiatric agents that target selected GPCRs. Importantly, the functional consequence of such regulation on NMDAR function varies, based not only on the identity of the GPCR, but also on the cell type in which relevant receptors are expressed. Indeed, the mechanisms responsible for regulating NMDARs by GPCRs involve numerous intracellular signalling molecules and regulatory proteins that vary from one cell type to another. In the present article, we highlight recent findings from studies that have uncovered novel mechanisms by which selected GPCRs regulate NMDAR function and consequently NMDAR-dependent plasticity.

  20. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  1. Autoradiographic distribution of M1, M2, M3, and M4 muscarinic receptor subtypes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puertas, R; Pascual, J; Vilaró, T; Pazos, A

    1997-08-01

    We studied the autoradiographic densities of all pharmacologically characterised muscarinic receptors (MR) in frontal, temporal, and visual cortex, hippocampal formation, and striatum in autopsied brains from 19 histopathologically verified patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in matched controls. Almost all (16 of 19) of the AD cases were severe. In AD brains, total MR, M1, and M3 MR subtypes were found to be significantly decreased in entorhinal cortex and in most hippocampal strata. Total MR and M1 receptors were also significantly reduced in visual area and in frontal cortex of AD brains, respectively. M2 receptors were significantly reduced over hippocampal formation but increased significantly in striatum of AD brains as compared with controls. M3 receptors in AD were in the range of controls in neocortex and striatum, whereas the M4 receptor subtype was also preserved in all brain regions in AD brains when compared with controls. This is the first autoradiographic study analysing the distribution of all MR subtypes in AD brains. These changes in MR densities concur with the general pattern of neuronal degeneration occurring in AD brains and partly explain the poor response of AD cognitive decline to present cholinergic supplementation therapies. Although M3 and M4 MR were labelled with nonselective approaches, the preservation of M4 and to a lesser degree M3 MR subtypes in AD brains could open an alternative way for the symptomatic therapy of AD dementia.

  2. A possible new target in lung-cancer cells: The orphan receptor, bombesin receptor subtype-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Paola; Mantey, Samuel A; Lee, Suk H; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Moody, Terry W; Jensen, Robert T

    2018-03-01

    Human bombesin receptors, GRPR and NMBR, are two of the most frequently overexpressed G-protein-coupled-receptors by lung-cancers. Recently, GRPR/NMBR are receiving considerable attention because they act as growth factor receptors often in an autocrine manner in different lung-cancers, affect tumor angiogenesis, their inhibition increases the cytotoxic potency of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors reducing lung-cancer cellular resistance/survival and their overexpression can be used for sensitive tumor localization as well as to target cytotoxic agents to the cancer. The orphan BRS-3-receptor, because of homology is classified as a bombesin receptor but has received little attention, despite the fact that it is also reported in a number of studies in lung-cancer cells and has growth effects in these cells. To address its potential importance, in this study, we examined the frequency/relative quantitative expression of human BRS-3 compared to GRPR/NMBR and the effects of its activation on cell-signaling/growth in 13 different human lung-cancer cell-lines. Our results showed that BRS-3 receptor is expressed in 92% of the cell-lines and that it is functional in these cells, because its activation stimulates phospholipase-C with breakdown of phosphoinositides and changes in cytosolic calcium, stimulates ERK/MAPK and stimulates cell growth by EGFR transactivation in some, but not all, the lung-cancer cell-lines. These results suggest that human BRS-3, similar to GRPR/NMBR, is frequently ectopically-expressed by lung-cancer cells in which, it is functional, affecting cell signaling/growth. These results suggest that similar to GRPR/NMBR, BRS-3 should receive increased attention as possible approach for the development of novel treatments and/or diagnosis in lung-cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Characterization of the muscarinic receptor subtype(s) mediating contraction of the guinea-pig lung strip and inhibition of acetylcholine release in the guinea-pig trachea with the selective muscarinic receptor antagonist tripitramine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, A.F; Davids, J.H; Elzinga, C.R S; Wolf, D; Zaagsma, Hans; Kilbinger, H

    1 The muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating contraction of the guinea-pig lung strip and inhibition of the release of acetylcholine from cholinergic vagus nerve endings in the guinea-pig trachea in vitro have previously been characterized as M-2-like, i.e. having antagonist affinity profiles that

  4. Radiogenomic correlation in lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations: Imaging features and histological subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Su Jin [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Jung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won [Hanyang University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Soo [Dankook Universicity, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin-Haeng [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Won [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To correlate imaging features of resected lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification histological subtypes. In 250 consecutive patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutation status was correlated with demographics, imaging features including ground-glass opacity (GGO) proportion and the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification histological subtypes. EGFR mutations were significantly more frequent in women (54.5 % vs. 38.1 %, p = 0.011) and in never-smokers (54.7 % vs. 35.3 %, p = 0.003). GGO proportion was significantly higher in tumours with EGFR mutation than in those without (30.3 ± 33.8 % vs. 19.0 ± 29.3 %, p = 0.005). EGFR mutation was significantly more frequent in tumours with GGO ≥ 50 % and tumours with any GGO (p = 0.026 and 0.008, respectively). Adenocarcinomas with exon 19 or 21 mutation showed significantly higher GGO proportion than that in EGFR wild-type tumours (p = 0.009 and 0.029, respectively). Absence of GGO was an independent predictor of negative EGFR mutation (odds ratio, 1.81; 95 % confidence interval, 1.16-3.04; p = 0.018). GGO proportion in adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutation was significantly higher than that in EGFR wild-type tumours, and the absence of GGO on CT was an independent predictor of negative EGFR mutation. (orig.)

  5. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-06

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Koch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA and nine neuraminidase (NA subtypes (N1–N9. To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6 or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5 in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1 describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2 illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3 describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology.

  7. Contribution of 5-HT2 receptor subtypes to sleep-wakefulness and respiratory control, and functional adaptations in knock-out mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Daniela; Léna, Clément; Fabre, Véronique; Prenat, Caroline; Gingrich, Jay; Escourrou, Pierre; Hamon, Michel; Adrien, Joëlle

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) plays key roles in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Evidence indicates that 5-HT2 receptors are involved mainly in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) regulation and respiratory control. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C) receptor subtypes to NREMS and breathing during sleep, using 5-HT2 subtype-selective ligands in wild-type (5-HT(2A)+/+) and knock-out (5-HT(2A)-/-) mice that do not e...

  8. Structure-Based Prediction of Subtype Selectivity of Histamine H3 Receptor Selective Antagonists in Clinical Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Fristrup, Peter; Abrol, Ravinder

    2011-01-01

    applications, including treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and obesity.(1) However, many of these drug candidates cause undesired side effects through the cross-reactivity with other histamine receptor subtypes. In order to develop improved selectivity...

  9. Subtypes of muscarinic receptors in vagal inhibitory pathway to the lower esophageal sphincter of the opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, R J; Dodds, W J

    1987-10-01

    We assessed the characteristics of muscarinic neural transmission in the vagal inhibitory pathway to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) of anesthetized opossums. LES relaxation was induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. Measurements were made of LES relaxation before and after intravenous administration of nicotinic (hexamethonium), serotonergic (5-Meo-DMT), nonselective muscarinic (atropine), and selective muscarinic (pirenzepine-M1 and 4-DAMP-M2) antagonists. The latency of LES relaxation was increased substantially by pirenzepine and atropine, increased slightly by hexamethonium, but was not affected by 4-DAMP or 5-Meo-DMT. Given as concurrent intravenous infusions, hexamethonium, 5-Meo-DMT and 4-DAMP added to pirenzepine or atropine did not significantly increase LES relaxation latency above that caused by pirenzepine or atropine alone. None of the antagonists alone had a significant effect on percent LES relaxation. The combination of pirenzepine or 4-DAMP with hexamethonium and 5-Meo-DMT did not affect percent LES relaxation. The combination of atropine with hexamethonium and 5-Meo-DMT reduced LES relaxation to 18%. The combination of pirenzepine and 4-DAMP with hexamethonium and 5-Meo-DMT, however, had no effect on percent LES relaxation. We conclude that muscarinic participation in vagally induced LES relaxation exhibits two functional receptor subtypes: (1) M1 receptors that determine LES relaxation latency and are antagonized by pirenzepine or atropine, and (2) non-M1, non-M2 receptors (Mx receptors) that contribute to the magnitude of LES relaxation and are antagonized by atropine, but not by pirenzepine or 4-DAMP.

  10. Effects of LHRH and ANG II on prolactin stimulation are mediated by hypophysial AT1 receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Thyssen, S M; Díaz-Torga, G S; Libertun, C

    1994-02-01

    We have used the nonpeptide angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor antagonists losartan (receptor subtype AT1) and PD-123319 (AT2) to determine the participation of ANG II receptor subtypes in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-induced prolactin release in a perifusion study using intact pituitaries in vitro. LHRH (1.85 x 10(-7) M) released prolactin consistently, whereas losartan (10(-5) M) abolished prolactin response without modifying basal prolactin or luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release. PD-123319 (10(-5) M) had no effect on basal or LHRH-induced prolactin, LH, or FSH release. We also determined that the effect of ANG II on prolactin release was mediated by the same receptor subtype. In adenohypophysial cells dispersed in vitro ANG II (10(-8) M) released prolactin. Losartan (10(-7) and 10(-6) M), but not PD-123319, inhibited this effect. We conclude that in intact hypophyses of 15-day-old female rats the effect of LHRH on prolactin release is readily demonstrated. LHRH-induced prolactin release appears to be mediated by ANG II acting in a paracrine manner on AT1 receptors located on lactotrophs.

  11. Identification of 5-HT receptor subtypes enhancing inhibitory transmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Du-Jie; Uta, Daisuke; Feng, Peng-Yu; Wakita, Masahito; Shin, Min-Chul; Furue, Hidemasa; Yoshimura, Megumu

    2012-08-20

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the major neurotransmitters widely distributed in the CNS. Several 5-HT receptor subtypes have been identified in the spinal dorsal horn which act on both pre- and postsynaptic sites of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. However, the receptor subtypes and sites of actions as well as underlying mechanism are not clarified rigorously. Several electrophysiological studies have been performed to investigate the effects of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord. In the present study, to understand the effects of 5-HT on the inhibitory synaptic transmission and to identify receptor subtypes, the blind whole cell recordings were performed from SG neurons of rat spinal cord slices. Bath applied 5-HT (50 μM) increased the frequency but not amplitudes of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in 58% of neurons, and both amplitude and frequency in 23% of neurons. The frequencies of GABAergic and glycinergic mIPSCs were both enhanced. TTX (0.5 μM) had no effect on the increasing frequency, while the enhancement of amplitude of IPSCs was eliminated. Evoked-IPSCs (eIPSCs) induced by focal stimulation near the recording neurons in the presence of CNQX and APV were enhanced in amplitude by 5-HT. In the presence of Ba(2+) (1 mM), a potassium channel blocker, 5-HT had no effect on both frequency and amplitude. A 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, TCB-2 mimicked the 5-HT effect, and ketanserin, an antagonist of 5-HT(2A) receptor, inhibited the effect of 5-HT partially and TCB-2 almost completely. A 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist WAY 161503 mimicked the 5-HT effect and this effect was blocked by a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine. The amplitudes of sIPSCs were unaffected by 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C) agonists. A 5-HT(3) receptor agonist mCPBG enhanced both amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs. This effect was blocked by a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ICS-205,930. The perfusion of 5-HT(2B

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of new imaging agent for central nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo; Hatano, Kentaro; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoshitaka; Ito, Kengo; Magata, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α7 subtype (α 7 nAChR) is one of the major nAChR subtypes in the brain. We synthesized C-11 labeled α 7 nAChR ligands, (R)-2-[ 11 C]methylamino-benzoic acid 1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ester ([ 11 C](R)-MeQAA) and its isomer (S)-[ 11 C]MeQAA, for in vivo investigation with positron emission tomography (PET). Then, the potential of (R)- and (S)-[ 11 C]MeQAA for in vivo imaging of α 7 nAChR in the brain was evaluated in mice and monkeys. Methods: The binding affinity for α 7 nAChR was measured using rat brain. Biodistribution and in vivo receptor blocking studies were undertaken in mice. Dynamic PET scans were performed in conscious monkeys. Results: The affinity for α 7 nAChR was 41 and 182 nM for (R)- and (S)-MeQAA, respectively. The initial uptake in the mouse brain was high ([ 11 C](R)-MeQAA: 7.68 and [ 11 C](S)-MeQAA: 6.65 %dose/g at 5 min). The clearance of [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA was slow in the hippocampus (α 7 nAChR-rich region) but was rapid in the cerebellum (α 7 nAChR-poor region). On the other hand, the clearance was fast for [ 11 C](S)-MeQAA in all regions. The brain uptake of [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA was decreased by methyllycaconitine (α 7 nAChR antagonist) treatment. In monkeys, α 7 nAChRs were highly distributed in the thalamus and cortex but poorly distributed in the cerebellum. The high accumulation was observed in the cortex and thalamus for [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA, while the uptake was rather homogeneous for [ 11 C](S)-MeQAA. Conclusions: [ 11 C](R)-MeQAA was successfully synthesized and showed high uptake to the brain. However, since the in vivo selectivity for α 7 nAChR was not enough, further PET kinetic analysis or structure optimization is needed for specific visualization of brain α 7 nAChRs in vivo.

  13. Role of transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel in insulin secretion from rat β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kalaiselvan; Ma, Zuheng; Björklund, Anneli; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have reported that the transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 (TRPM5) channel, a Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel, is involved in the stimulus-secretion coupling in the mouse pancreatic β-cells. We have studied the role of the TRPM5 channel in regulating insulin secretion and cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the rat β-cells by using triphenylphosphine oxide, a selective inhibitor of the channel. Insulin secretion from islets from Sprague-Dawley rats was measured in batch incubations. Cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration was measured from single β-cells by fura-2-based microfluorometry. Triphenylphosphine oxide did not alter insulin secretion and [Ca(2+)](i) response triggered by KCl or fructose. It inhibited insulin secretion in response to glucose, L-arginine, and glucagon-like peptide 1. It also inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion by mechanisms that are independent of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and [Ca(2+)](i) increase. Our results suggest that in the rat islets, TRPM5 is involved in mediating insulin secretion by glucose and l-arginine and in potentiating the glucose-induced insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide 1.

  14. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3: A Novel Therapeutic Target of K-Ras Mutant Driven Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0346 TITLE: Sphingosine-1- Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3: A Novel Therapeutic Target of K-Ras Mutant Driven Non-Small...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2014 - 14 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sphingosine-1- Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3: A Novel Therapeutic Target of K-Ras...14. ABSTRACT: This award aims to characterize the functional role of sphingosine-1- phosphate receptor subtype 3 (S1PR3) in oncogenic K-Ras mutant

  15. Computational insights into the subtype selectivity and "message-address-efficacy" mechanisms of opioid receptors through JDTic binding and unbinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-Xin; Cheng, Tao; Li, Wei-Hua; Liu, Gui-Xia; Zhu, Wei-Liang; Tang, Yun

    2018-03-01

    In drug design and discovery, binding affinity and selectivity are two basic properties of a drug candidate. Opioid receptors (ORs) are the main targets of strong analgesics. Like some other class A members of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ORs exhibit complex selectivity on their ligands. The diversity of binding activity and selectivity among opioids has deeply attracted researchers for a long time. To investigate the subtype selectivity of μ, δ and κ ORs in detail, using the κ-selective antagonist JDTic as a probe, we performed a series of computational simulations, including molecular dynamics and metadynamics, on JDTic-μ/δ/κ-OR complexes. From the simulations, we found that the decisive factor of JDTic selectivity on the μ-subtype was the 2.63 position, which affected the efficacy of JDTic through changing the dynamics of the Q 2.60 residue. In addition to the 2.63-position residue, the 7.35 position was the other crucial aspect of JDTic selectivity for the δ-subtype. Based on the results, we suggest a new concept, the "message-address-efficacy" hypothesis, to explain the relationships among the affinity, selectivity and function between ORs and opioids. Thus, all the detailed dynamics of JDTic-bound ORs might be helpful to deeply understand the subtype selectivity and binding mechanisms of other GPCRs.

  16. Differential Expression of Dopamine D5 Receptors across Neuronal Subtypes in Macaque Frontal Eye Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Mueller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC is important for cognitive functions, yet very little is known about the expression of the D5 class of dopamine receptors (D5Rs in this region. To address this, we co-stained for D5Rs, pyramidal neurons (neurogranin+, putative long-range projection pyramidal neurons (SMI-32+, and several classes of inhibitory interneuron (parvalbumin+, calbindin+, calretinin+, somatostatin+ within the frontal eye field (FEF: an area within the PFC involved in the control of visual spatial attention. We then quantified the co-expression of D5Rs with markers of different cell types across different layers of the FEF. We show that: (1 D5Rs are more prevalent on pyramidal neurons than on inhibitory interneurons. (2 D5Rs are disproportionately expressed on putative long-range projecting pyramidal neurons. The disproportionately high expression of D5Rs on long-range projecting pyramidals, compared to interneurons, was particularly pronounced in layers II–III. Together these results indicate that the engagement of D5R-dependent mechanisms in the FEF varies depending on cell type and cortical layer, and suggests that non-locally projecting neurons contribute disproportionately to functions involving the D5R subtype.

  17. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M

    2016-01-01

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification...... to demonstrate that a water-soluble variant of human Lynx1 (Ws-Lynx1) isolates α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits from human and rat cortical extracts, and rat midbrain and olfactory bulb extracts, suggesting that Lynx1 forms complexes with multiple nAChR subtypes in the human and rodent brain....... Incubation with Ws-Lynx1 decreases nicotine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells and striatal neurons, indicating that binding of Ws-Lynx1 is sufficient to inhibit signaling downstream of nAChRs. The effect of nicotine in PC12 cells is independent of α7 or α4β2 nACh...

  18. Mice lacking prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 manifest disrupted lipid metabolism attributable to impaired triglyceride clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yin; Ying, Fan; Song, Erfei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Tang, Eva Hoi-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Upon high-fat feeding, prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4)-knockout mice gain less body weight than their EP4(+/+) littermates. We investigated the cause of the lean phenotype. The mice showed a 68.8% reduction in weight gain with diminished fat mass that was not attributable to reduced food intake, fat malabsorption, or increased energy expenditure. Plasma triglycerides in the mice were elevated by 244.9%. The increase in plasma triglycerides was independent of changes in hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride production or intestinal chylomicron-triglyceride synthesis. However, VLDL-triglyceride clearance was drastically impaired in the EP4-knockout mice. The absence of EP4 in mice compromised the activation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the key enzyme responsible for trafficking of plasma triglycerides into peripheral tissues. Deficiency in EP4 reduced hepatic mRNA expression of the transcriptional factor cAMP response element binding protein H (by 36.8%) and LPL activators, including apolipoprotein (Apo)a5 (by 40.2%) and Apoc2 (by 61.3%). In summary, the lean phenotype of EP4-deficient mice resulted from reduction in adipose tissue and accretion of other peripheral organs caused by impaired triglyceride clearance. The findings identify a new metabolic dimension in the physiologic role played by endogenous EP4. © FASEB.

  19. 4-Alkylated homoibotenic acid (HIBO) analogues: versatile pharmacological agents with diverse selectivity profiles towards metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulf; Pickering, Darryl S; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , and the series of 4-alkyl-HIBO analogues have been extended in this paper in the search for versatile agents. Pharmacological characterization of five new analogues, branched and unbranched 4-alkyl-HIBO analogues, have been carried out. The present compounds are all weak antagonists at Group I mGluRs (mGluR1......4-Alkylated analogues of homoibotenic acid (HIBO) have previously shown high potency and selectivity at ionotropic and metabotropic glutamic acid receptor (iGluR and mGluR) subtypes. Compounds with different selectivity profiles are valuable pharmacological tools for neuropharmacological studies...... and 5) presenting only small differences in potencies (Ki values ranging from 89 to 670 microM). Affinities were studied at native and cloned iGluRs, and the compounds described show preference for the AMPA receptor subtypes GluR1 and 2 over GluR3 and 4. However, compared to previous 4-alkyl...

  20. Establishment of a normal-derived estrogen receptor-positive cell line comparable to the prevailing human breast cancer subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkinson, Branden Michael; Klitgaard, Marie Christine; Petersen, Ole William

    2017-01-01

    Understanding human cancer increasingly relies on insight gained from subtype specific comparisons between malignant and non-malignant cells. The most frequent subtype in breast cancer is the luminal. By far the most frequently used model for luminal breast cancer is the iconic estrogen receptor......-positive (ERpos) MCF7 cell line. However, luminal specific comparisons have suffered from the lack of a relevant non-malignant counterpart. Our previous work has shown that transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) inhibition suffices to propagate prospectively isolated ERpos human breast luminal cells from...... reduction mammoplasties (HBEC). Here we demonstrate that transduction of these cells with hTERT/shp16 renders them immortal while remaining true to the luminal lineage including expression of functional ER (iHBECERpos). Under identical culture conditions a major difference between MCF7 and normal...

  1. Differential expression of the insulin-like growth factor receptor among early breast cancer subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Mountzios

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the level of protein expression of the critical components of the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR pathway and to evaluate their prognostic significance across the different early breast cancer subtypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Archival tumor tissue from 1,021 women with early, node positive breast cancer, who were prospectively evaluated within two randomized clinical trials, was used to construct tissue microarrays that were stained for hormone receptors (HR, Ki67, HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and cytokeratins 5/6, to classify tumors into five immunophenotypical subgroups. Immunohistochemical (IHC expression of IGF1R-alpha and beta subunits, IGF2R and IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2 was assessed using the immunoreactive score (IRS. Repeated internal cross-validation was performed to examine the statistical validity of the cut off points for all biomarkers. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 105.4 months, overall 370 women (36.2% had relapsed and 270 (26.4% had died. Tumors expressing IGF1R-alpha above the median IRS were significantly more frequently HR positive (luminal A+B+HER2, as compared to HER2-enriched and triple negative ones (p<0.001 for both comparisons. IGF2R was overexpressed significantly more frequently in HR negative tumors (p = 0.001 and had an inverse correlation with all other biomarkers. Patients with luminal A and B tumors with high IGF1R-alpha and negative EGFR expression (N = 190 had significantly higher 4-year survival rates, as compared to the rest (log-rank p = 0.046, as did patients with luminal A and B tumors with high IGF1R-alpha and low IGF2R expression, as compared to the rest (N = 91, (log-rank p = 0.035. After adjustment for significant variables, patients in the latter group had a relative 45% reduction in the risk of death, as compared to the rest (p = 0.035. CONCLUSION: Aberrant expression of components of the IGF1R

  2. Co-receptor tropism prediction among 1045 Indian HIV-1 subtype C sequences: Therapeutic implications for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttiatt Vijesh S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding co-receptor tropism of HIV-1 strains circulating in India will provide key analytical leverage for assessing the potential usefulness of newer antiretroviral drugs such as chemokine co-receptor antagonists among Indian HIV-infected populations. The objective of this study was to determine using in silico methods, HIV-1 tropism among a large number of Indian isolates both from primary clinical isolates as well as from database-derived sequences. Results R5-tropism was seen in 96.8% of a total of 1045 HIV-1 subtype C Indian sequences. Co-receptor prediction of 15 primary clinical isolates detected two X4-tropic strains using the C-PSSM matrix. R5-tropic HIV-1 subtype C V3 sequences were conserved to a greater extent than X4-tropic strains. X4-tropic strains were obtained from subjects who had a significantly longer time since HIV diagnosis (96.5 months compared to R5-tropic strains (20.5 months. Conclusions High prevalence of R5 tropism and greater homogeneity of the V3 sequence among HIV-1 subtype C strains in India suggests the potential benefit of CCR5 antagonists as a therapeutic option in India.

  3. Receptor mimicry by antibody F045–092 facilitates universal binding to the H3 subtype of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter S.; Ohshima, Nobuko; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Yu, Wenli; Iba, Yoshitaka; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-04-10

    Influenza viruses present a significant health challenge each year, as in the H3N2 epidemic of 2012–2013. Here we describe an antibody, F045–092, that possesses broadly neutralizing activity against the entire H3 subtype and accommodates the natural variation and additional glycosylation in all strains tested from 1963 to 2011. Crystal structures of F045–092 in complex with HAs from 1975 and 2011 H3N2 viruses reveal the structural basis for its neutralization breadth through insertion of its 23-residue HCDR3 into the receptor-binding site that involves striking receptor mimicry. F045–092 extends its recognition to divergent subtypes, including H1, H2 and H13, using the enhanced avidity of its IgG to overcome lower-affinity Fab binding, as observed with other antibodies that target the receptor-binding site. This unprecedented level of antibody cross-reactivity against the H3 subtype can potentially inform on development of a pan-H3 vaccine or small-molecule therapeutics.

  4. Molecular determinants of subtype-selective efficacies of cytisine and the novel compound NS3861 at heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Hald, Helle; Timmermann, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering which specific agonist-receptor interactions affect efficacy levels is of high importance, because this will ultimately aid in designing selective drugs. The novel compound NS3861 and cytisine are agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and both bind with high affinity...... electrophysiological measurements of efficacy levels at heteromeric combinations of a3- and a4-, with ß2- and ß4-subunits, and various chimeric constructs thereof. Compared with cytisine, which selectively activates receptors containing ß4- but not ß2-subunits, NS3861 displays the opposite ß-subunit preference...... and a complete lack of activation at a4-containing receptors. The maximal efficacy of NS3861 appeared solely dependent on the nature of the ligand-binding domain, whereas efficacy of cytisine was additionally affected by the nature of the ß-subunit transmembrane domain. Molecular docking to nAChR subtype...

  5. Negative Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Subtype 5 in Addiction: a Therapeutic Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abundant evidence at the anatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular levels implicates metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in addiction. Consistently, the effects of a wide range of doses of different mGluR5 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) have been tested in various animal models of addiction. Here, these studies were subjected to a systematic review to find out if mGluR5 NAMs have a therapeutic potential that can be translated to the clinic. Methods: Literature on consumption/self-administration and reinstatement of drug seeking as outcomes of interest published up to April 2015 was retrieved via PubMed. The review focused on the effects of systemic (i.p., i.v., s.c.) administration of the mGluR5 NAMs 3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) and 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) on paradigms with cocaine, ethanol, nicotine, and food in rats. Results: MTEP and MPEP were found to reduce self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine at doses ≥1mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg, respectively. Dose-response relationship resembled a sigmoidal curve, with low doses not reaching statistical significance and high doses reliably inhibiting self-administration of drugs of abuse. Importantly, self-administration of cocaine, ethanol, and nicotine, but not food, was reduced by MTEP and MPEP in the dose range of 1 to 2mg/kg and 2.5 to 3.2mg/kg, respectively. This dose range corresponds to approximately 50% to 80% mGluR5 occupancy. Interestingly, the limited data found in mice and monkeys showed a similar therapeutic window. Conclusion: Altogether, this review suggests a therapeutic window for mGluR5 NAMs that can be translated to the treatment of substance-related and addictive disorders. PMID:26802568

  6. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 relieves maladaptive chronic stress consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlik, Daniel; Stangl, Christina; Bauer, Amelie; Bludau, Anna; Keller, Jana; Grabski, Dominik; Killian, Tobias; Schmidt, Dominic; Zajicek, Franziska; Jaeschke, Georg; Lindemann, Lothar; Reber, Stefan O; Flor, Peter J; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Etiology and pharmacotherapy of stress-related psychiatric conditions and somatoform disorders are areas of high unmet medical need. Stressors holding chronic plus psychosocial components thereby bear the highest health risk. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is well studied in the context of acute stress-induced behaviors and physiology, virtually nothing is known about its potential involvement in chronic psychosocial stress. Using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator CTEP (2-chloro-4-[2-[2,5-dimethyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]imidazol-4yl]ethynyl]pyridine), a close analogue of the clinically active drug basimglurant - but optimized for rodent studies, as well as mGlu5-deficient mice in combination with a mouse model of male subordination (termed CSC, chronic subordinate colony housing), we demonstrate that mGlu5 mediates multiple physiological, immunological, and behavioral consequences of chronic psychosocial stressor exposure. For instance, CTEP dose-dependently relieved hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunctions, colonic inflammation as well as the CSC-induced increase in innate anxiety; genetic ablation of mGlu5 in mice largely reproduced the stress-protective effects of CTEP and additionally ameliorated CSC-induced physiological anxiety. Interestingly, CSC also induced an upregulation of mGlu5 in the hippocampus, a stress-regulating brain area. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that mGlu5 is an important mediator for a wide range of chronic psychosocial stress-induced alterations and a potentially valuable drug target for the treatment of chronic stress-related pathologies in man. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 by mouse type III taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yusuke; Eguchi, Kohgaku; Yoshii, Kiyonori; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Each taste bud cell (TBC) type responds to a different taste. Previously, we showed that an unidentified cell type(s) functionally expresses a muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype, M3, and we suggested the ACh-dependent modification of its taste responsiveness. In this study, we found that M3 is expressed by type III TBCs, which is the only cell type that possesses synaptic contacts with taste nerve fibers in taste buds. The application of ACh to the basolateral membrane of mouse fungiform TBCs in situ increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in 2.4 ± 1.4 cells per taste bud (mean ± SD, n = 14). After Ca 2+ imaging, we supravitally labeled type II cells (phospholipase C β2 [PLCβ2]-immunoreactive cells) with Lucifer yellow CH (LY), a fluorescent dye and investigated the positional relationship between ACh-responding cells and LY-labeled cells. After fixation, the TBCs were immunohistostained to investigate the positional relationships between immunohistochemically classified cells and LY-labeled cells. The overlay of the two positional relationships obtained by superimposing the LY-labeled cells showed that all of the ACh-responding cells were type III cells (synaptosomal-associated protein 25 [SNAP-25]-immunoreactive cells). The ACh responses required no added Ca 2+ in the bathing solution. The addition of 1 μM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, decreased the magnitude of the ACh response, whereas that of 1 μM U73343, a negative control, had no effect. These results suggest that type III cells respond to ACh and release Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. We also discuss the underlying mechanism of the Ca 2+ response and the role of M3 in type III cells.

  8. High expression of dopamine receptor subtype 2 in a large series of neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Veronese, Silvio; Ciaramella, Paolo Dalino; Pugliese, Raffaele; Boniardi, Marco; De Carlis, Luciano; Torre, Massimo; Ravini, Mario; Gambacorta, Marcello; Loli, Paola

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate by immumohistochemistry the presence of DR subtype 2 (D2R) in well differentiated NETs of different sites and in normal islet cells. Recent data in vitro and in vivo support that dopaminergic drugs might exert an inhibitory effect on hormone secretion and, possibly, on tumor growth in neuroendocrine tumors (NET)s. Their potential therapeutic role needs the demonstration of dopamine receptors (DR) in tumor cells. Little is known on the expression of DR in NETs. 85% of samples (100% of bronchial carcinoids and 93% of islet cell tumors) showed positivity for D2R; intensity of immunoreaction in NETs was similar or higher than in pituitary (54% and respectively 31% of cases). D2R positivity in more than 70% of tumor cells was observed in 46% of samples. Same intensity of D2R-immunoreactivity was found in pituitary and normal islet cells. No differences in D2R expression were recorded on considering tumor grading, size, proliferative activity, presence of metastases, endocrine activity and gender. A significant difference (62.5% vs 96.4%, p = 0.039) was observed in the prevalence of D2R expression between patients with more aggressive tumors and patients without recurrence/progression of disease during follow-up. 46 NET samples from 44 patients and normal endocrine pancreatic tissue were studied. D2R-staining was performed on NETs and compared with six non-secreting pituitary adenomas and related to clinical-pathological data. The present data demonstrate a high expression of D2R in NETs; this finding is of clinical relevance in view of the potential role of dopaminergic drugs in inhibiting secretion and/or cell proliferation in NETs.

  9. New 4-Functionalized Glutamate Analogues Are Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 or Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Group III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Tri H. V.; Erichsen, Mette N.; Tora, Amelie S.

    2016-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) play key roles in modulating excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. In all, eight subtypes have been identified and divided into three groups, group I (mGlu1,5), group II (mGlu2,3), and group III (mGlu4,6–8). In this article, we present a L-2...

  10. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  11. Inter-residue coupling contributes to high-affinity subtype-selective binding of α-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sine, Steven M.; Huang, Sun; Li, Shu-Xing; daCosta, Corrie J. B.; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    The crystal structure of a pentameric α7 ligand-binding domain chimaera with bound α-btx (α-bungarotoxin) showed that of the five conserved aromatic residues in α7, only Tyr184 in loop C of the ligand-binding site was required for high-affinity binding. To determine whether the contribution of Tyr184 depends on local residues, we generated mutations in an α7/5HT3A (5-hydroxytryptamine type 3A) receptor chimaera, individually and in pairs, and measured 125I-labelled α-btx binding. The results show that mutations of individual residues near Tyr184 do not affect α-btx affinity, but pairwise mutations decrease affinity in an energetically coupled manner. Kinetic measurements show that the affinity decreases arise through increases in the α-btx dissociation rate with little change in the association rate. Replacing loop C in α7 with loop C from the α-btx-insensitive α2 or α3 subunits abolishes high-affinity α-btx binding, but preserves acetylcholine-elicited single channel currents. However, in both the α2 and α3 construct, mutating either residue that flanks Tyr184 to its α7 counterpart restores high-affinity α-btx binding. Analogously, in α7, mutating both residues that flank Tyr184 to the α2 or α3 counterparts abolishes high-affinity α-btx binding. Thus interaction between Tyr184 and local residues contributes to high-affinity subtype-selective α-btx binding.

  12. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in cerebral cortex of Fisher 344 rats: a light microscope autoradiography study of age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Di Tullio, Maria Antonietta; Amenta, Francesco

    2006-02-01

    The density and localization of muscarinic cholinergic M1-M5 receptor subtypes was investigated in frontal and occipital cortex of male Fisher 344 rats aged 6 months (young-adult), 15 months (mature) and 22 months (senescent) by combined kinetic and equilibrium binding and light microscope autoradiography. In 6-month-old rats, the rank order density of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes was M1>M2>M4>M3>M5 both in frontal and occipital cortex. A not homogeneous distribution of different receptor subtypes throughout cerebrocortical layers of frontal or occipital cortex was found. In frontal cortex silver grains corresponding to the M1 and M2 receptor subtypes were decreased in 15- and 22-month-old groups. The M3 receptor density was remarkably and moderately decreased in layers II/III and V, respectively, of rats aged 15 and 22 months. A reduced M4 receptor density was observed in layer I and to a lesser extent in layer V of mature and senescent rats, whereas no age-related changes of M5 receptor were found. In occipital cortex a diminution of M1 receptor was observed in layers II/III and V of mature and senescent rats. The M2 receptor expression decreased in layer I of 15- and 22-month-old senescent rats, whereas M3-M5 receptors were unchanged with exception of a slight decrease of the M4 receptor in layer IV and of M5 receptor in layers II/III. These findings indicate a different sensitivity to aging of muscarinic receptor subtypes located in various cerebrocortical layers. This may account for the difficulty in obtaining relevant results in manipulating cholinoceptors to counter age-related impairment of cholinergic system.

  13. Immunohistochemical Localization of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 Angiotensin II Receptor Subtypes in the Rat Adrenal, Pituitary, and Brain with a Perspective Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Premer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II increases blood pressure and stimulates thirst and sodium appetite in the brain. It also stimulates secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal zona glomerulosa and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. The rat has 3 subtypes of angiotensin II receptors: AT1a, AT1b, and AT2. mRNAs for all three subtypes occur in the adrenal and brain. To immunohistochemically differentiate these receptor subtypes, rabbits were immunized with C-terminal fragments of these subtypes to generate receptor subtype-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence revealed AT1a and AT2 receptors in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla. AT1b immunofluorescence was present in the zona glomerulosa, but not the medulla. Ultrastructural immunogold labeling for the AT1a receptor in glomerulosa and medullary cells localized it to plasma membrane, endocytic vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and the nucleus. AT1b and AT2, but not AT1a, immunofluorescence was observed in the anterior pituitary. Stellate cells were AT1b positive while ovoid cells were AT2 positive. In the brain, neurons were AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 positive, but glia was only AT1b positive. Highest levels of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 receptor immunofluorescence were in the subfornical organ, median eminence, area postrema, paraventricular nucleus, and solitary tract nucleus. These studies complement those employing different techniques to characterize Ang II receptors.

  14. Establishment of Radiolabelling Method for the Development of Neurodegenerative Disease Imaging Agent Using 5-HT{sub 1A} Subtype of Receptor Anatagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Ju; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, On Hee; Hong, Young Don; Park, Kyung Bae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The 5-HT1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain. And it is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy and diagnosis of diseases. Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by sequential hydroxylation and decarboxylation. It is stored in presynaptic vesicles and released from nerve terminals during neuronal firing. One of the best-characterised binding sites for serotonin is the 5-HT1A receptor. This is mainly due to the relatively early discovery of a selective ligand, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) for this subpopulation. Thus, many researchers have tried to develop a radioligand capable of assessing in vivo changes in 5-HT1A receptors in depressed subjects, people with anxiety disorders, patients with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenics. In present study, we studied the radioligands which would play a role in visualization and quantification of this important neuroreceptor for single-photon emission tomography (SPET)

  15. Establishment of Radiolabelling Method for the Development of Neurodegenerative Disease Imaging Agent Using 5-HT1A Subtype of Receptor Anatagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Ju; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, On Hee; Hong, Young Don; Park, Kyung Bae

    2005-01-01

    The 5-HT1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain. And it is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy and diagnosis of diseases. Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan by sequential hydroxylation and decarboxylation. It is stored in presynaptic vesicles and released from nerve terminals during neuronal firing. One of the best-characterised binding sites for serotonin is the 5-HT1A receptor. This is mainly due to the relatively early discovery of a selective ligand, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) for this subpopulation. Thus, many researchers have tried to develop a radioligand capable of assessing in vivo changes in 5-HT1A receptors in depressed subjects, people with anxiety disorders, patients with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenics. In present study, we studied the radioligands which would play a role in visualization and quantification of this important neuroreceptor for single-photon emission tomography (SPET)

  16. Transmission of single and multiple viral variants in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Novitsky

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To address whether sequences of viral gag and env quasispecies collected during the early post-acute period can be utilized to determine multiplicity of transmitted HIV's, recently developed approaches for analysis of viral evolution in acute HIV-1 infection [1,2] were applied. Specifically, phylogenetic reconstruction, inter- and intra-patient distribution of maximum and mean genetic distances, analysis of Poisson fitness, shape of highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA were utilized for resolving multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission in a set of viral quasispecies collected within 50 days post-seroconversion (p/s in 25 HIV-infected individuals with estimated time of seroconversion. The decision on multiplicity of HIV infection was made based on the model's fit with, or failure to explain, the observed extent of viral sequence heterogeneity. The initial analysis was based on phylogeny, inter-patient distribution of maximum and mean distances, and Poisson fitness, and was able to resolve multiplicity of HIV transmission in 20 of 25 (80% cases. Additional analysis involved distribution of individual viral distances, highlighter plots, recombination analysis, and estimation of tMRCA, and resolved 4 of the 5 remaining cases. Overall, transmission of a single viral variant was identified in 16 of 25 (64% cases, and transmission of multiple variants was evident in 8 of 25 (32% cases. In one case multiplicity of HIV-1 transmission could not be determined. In primary HIV-1 subtype C infection, samples collected within 50 days p/s and analyzed by a single-genome amplification/sequencing technique can provide reliable identification of transmission multiplicity in 24 of 25 (96% cases. Observed transmission frequency of a single viral variant and multiple viral variants were within the ranges of 64% to 68%, and 32% to 36%, respectively.

  17. Differential responsiveness in VEGF receptor subtypes to hypoxic stress in various tissues of plateau animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui-Chun; Li, Jin-Gang; He, Jian-Ping

    2017-05-04

    With hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are elevated and their responses are altered in skeletal muscles of plateau animals [China Qinghai-Tibetan plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae)] as compared with control animals [normal lowland Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats]. The results indicate that HIF-1alpha and VEGF are engaged in physiological functions under hypoxic environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the protein levels of VEGF receptor subtypes (VEGFRs: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3) in the end organs, namely skeletal muscle, heart and lung in response to hypoxic stress. ELISA and Western blot analysis were employed to determine HIF-1alpha and the protein expression of VEGFRs in control animals and plateau pikas. We further blocked HIF-1alpha signal to determine if HIF-1alpha regulates alternations in VEGFRs in those tissues. We hypothesized that responsiveness of VEGFRs in the major end organs of plateau animals is differential with insult of hypoxic stress and is modulated by low oxygen sensitive HIF-1alpha. Our results show that hypoxic stress induced by exposure of lower O(2) for 6 h significantly increased the levels of VEGFR-2 in skeletal muscle, heart and lung and the increases were amplified in plateau pikas. Our results also demonstrate that hypoxic stress enhanced VEGFR-3 in lungs of plateau animals. Nonetheless, no significant alternations in VEGFR-1 were observed in those tissues with hypoxic stress. Moreover, we observed decreases of VEGFR-2 in skeletal muscle, heart and lung; and decreases of VEGFR-3 in lung following HIF-1alpha inhibition. Overall, our findings suggest that in plateau animals 1) responsiveness of VEGFRs is different under hypoxic environment; 2) amplified VEGFR-2 response appears in skeletal muscle, heart and lung, and enhanced VEGFR-3 response is mainly observed in lung; 3) HIF-1alpha plays a regulatory role in the levels of VEGFRs. Our results

  18. On homology modeling of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Doležal, Vladimír

    2013-06-01

    Twelve homology models of the human M2 muscarinic receptor using different sets of templates have been designed using the Prime program or the modeller program and compared to crystallographic structure (PDB:3UON). The best models were obtained using single template of the closest published structure, the M3 muscarinic receptor (PDB:4DAJ). Adding more (structurally distant) templates led to worse models. Data document a key role of the template in homology modeling. The models differ substantially. The quality checks built into the programs do not correlate with the RMSDs to the crystallographic structure and cannot be used to select the best model. Re-docking of the antagonists present in crystallographic structure and relative binding energy estimation by calculating MM/GBSA in Prime and the binding energy function in YASARA suggested it could be possible to evaluate the quality of the orthosteric binding site based on the prediction of relative binding energies. Although estimation of relative binding energies distinguishes between relatively good and bad models it does not indicate the best one. On the other hand, visual inspection of the models for known features and knowledge-based analysis of the intramolecular interactions allows an experimenter to select overall best models manually.

  19. The prognostic value of age for invasive lobular breast cancer depending on estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor-defined subtypes: A NCDB analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieqiong; Chen, Kai; Mao, Kai; Su, Fengxi; Liu, Qiang; Jacobs, Lisa K

    2016-02-02

    We aimed to assess the effect of age on survival according to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR)-defined lobular breast cancer subtype in a wide age range. 43,230 invasive lobular breast cancer women without comorbidities diagnosed between 2004 and 2011 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were analyzed. The effects of age on overall survival (OS) among different age groups were evaluated by log-rank test and Cox proportional model. Multivariate analysis showed that patients diagnosed at both young ( 0.1); and in ER-PR+ subgroup, the HRs were similar in patients younger than 70 (P > 0.1); thus, the plots of HRs in these three subtypes remained steady until the age of 60 or 70. Our findings identified that the effect of age on OS in lobular breast cancer varied with ER/PR-defined subtypes. Personalized treatment strategies should be developed to improve outcomes of breast cancer patients with different ages and ER/PR statuses.

  20. Low nanomolar GABA effects at extrasynaptic a4ß1/ß3delta GABAA receptor subtypes indicate a different binding mode for GABA at these receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karim, Nasiara; Wellendorph, Petrine; Absalom, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Ionotropic GABA(A) receptors are a highly heterogenous population of receptors assembled from a combination of multiple subunits. The aims of this study were to characterize the potency of GABA at human recombinant d-containing extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes using...... the two-electrode voltage clamp technique, and to investigate, using site-directed mutagenesis, the molecular determinants for GABA potency at a4ß3d GABA(A) receptors. a4/d-Containing GABA(A) receptors displayed high sensitivity to GABA, with mid-nanomolar concentrations activating a4ß1d (EC(50)=24n......M) and a4ß3d (EC(50)=12nM) receptors. In the majority of oocytes expressing a4ß3d subtypes, GABA produced a biphasic concentration-response curve, and activated the receptor with low and high concentrations (EC(50)(1)=16nM; EC(50)(2)=1.2µM). At a4ß2d, GABA had low micromolar activity (EC(50)=1µ...

  1. Single assay for simultaneous detection and differential identification of human and avian influenza virus types, subtypes, and emergent variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metzgar

    Full Text Available For more than four decades the cause of most type A influenza virus infections of humans has been attributed to only two viral subtypes, A/H1N1 or A/H3N2. In contrast, avian and other vertebrate species are a reservoir of type A influenza virus genome diversity, hosting strains representing at least 120 of 144 combinations of 16 viral hemagglutinin and 9 viral neuraminidase subtypes. Viral genome segment reassortments and mutations emerging within this reservoir may spawn new influenza virus strains as imminent epidemic or pandemic threats to human health and poultry production. Traditional methods to detect and differentiate influenza virus subtypes are either time-consuming and labor-intensive (culture-based or remarkably insensitive (antibody-based. Molecular diagnostic assays based upon reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR have short assay cycle time, and high analytical sensitivity and specificity. However, none of these diagnostic tests determine viral gene nucleotide sequences to distinguish strains and variants of a detected pathogen from one specimen to the next. Decision-quality, strain- and variant-specific pathogen gene sequence information may be critical for public health, infection control, surveillance, epidemiology, or medical/veterinary treatment planning. The Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM-Flu is a robust, highly multiplexed and target gene sequencing-based alternative to both traditional culture- or biomarker-based diagnostic tests. RPM-Flu is a single, simultaneous differential diagnostic assay for all subtype combinations of type A influenza viruses and for 30 other viral and bacterial pathogens that may cause influenza-like illness. These other pathogen targets of RPM-Flu may co-infect and compound the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with influenza. The informative specificity of a single RPM-Flu test represents specimen-specific viral gene sequences as determinants of virus type, A

  2. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based...... site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess......The neurotransmitter dopamine plays important roles in modulating cognitive, affective, and motor functions. Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson...

  3. Characterization of endothelin receptors on a human neuroblastoma cell line: evidence for the ETA subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, L C; Boarder, M R

    1991-11-01

    1. Specific binding sites for synthetic endothelin (ET) isoforms were studied on intact cells of the SK-N-MC cell line, derived from a human neuroblastoma. 2. [125I]-ET-1 (2.5 x 10(-11) M) specifically bound to a single class of binding sites on these cells (Hill coefficient of 1.06 +/- 0.04, n = 3) with an apparent Kd of 1.4 +/- 0.3 x 10(-9) M and a Bmax of 3.1 +/- 1.0 pmol mg-1 protein. [125I]-ET-3 (2.5 x 10(-11) M), did not specifically bind to SK-N-MC cells. 3. The binding of [125I]-ET-1 was competitively inhibited by other ET isoforms, the order of potency being ET-1 greater than sarafotoxin S6b greater than ET-3. 4. Association of 1 nM [125I]-ET-1 at 37 degrees C reached apparent equilibrium at 60-80 min, with half-maximal binding being achieved at 12 min. 5. Dissociation was measured after both 10 min and 60 min of association with 64% and 30% respectively of specifically bound [125I]-ET-1 dissociating. The actual amounts of [125I]-ET-1 dissociated were similar in both cases. 6. Incubation of [125I]-ET-3 with SK-N-MC cells at 37 degrees C for 60 min did not result in significant degradation of this peptide. However, [125I]-ET-1 was broken down by incubation with SK-N-MC cells, the pattern of degradation of dissociable [125I]-ET-1 (and that found in the supernatant) being different from that of non-dissociable [125I]-ET-1. 7. ET-1 concentration-dependently induced an increase in total inositol phosphate accumulation in subconfluent (but not in confluent) cultures of SK-N-MC cells (EC50 = 6.43 +/- 1.9 x 1010M). ET-3 was without effect. 8. These results show that ET-1 specifically binds to SK-N-MC cells with the characteristics of an ETA receptor. Our earlier finding that adrenal chromaffin cells express an ETB receptor indicates the existence of multiple ET receptor types on neuronal cells.

  4. Lysophosphatidic Acid Inhibits Insulin Signaling in Primary Rat Hepatocytes via the LPA3 Receptor Subtype and is Increased in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Fayyaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Obesity is a main risk factor for the development of hepatic insulin resistance and it is accompanied by adipocyte hypertrophy and an elevated expression of different adipokines such as autotaxin (ATX. ATX converts lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA and acts as the main producer of extracellular LPA. This bioactive lipid regulates a broad range of physiological and pathological responses by activation of LPA receptors (LPA1-6. Methods: The activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K signaling (Akt and GSK-3ß was analyzed via western blotting in primary rat hepatocytes. Incorporation of glucose into glycogen was measured by using radio labeled glucose. Real-time PCR analysis and pharmacological modulation of LPA receptors were performed. Human plasma LPA levels of obese (BMI > 30, n = 18 and normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5-25, n = 14 were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results: Pretreatment of primary hepatocytes with LPA resulted in an inhibition of insulin-mediated Gck expression, PI3K activation and glycogen synthesis. Pharmacological approaches revealed that the LPA3-receptor subtype is responsible for the inhibitory effect of LPA on insulin signaling. Moreover, human plasma LPA concentrations (16: 0 LPA of obese participants (BMI > 30 are significantly elevated in comparison to normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5-25. Conclusion: LPA is able to interrupt insulin signaling in primary rat hepatocytes via the LPA3 receptor subtype. Moreover, the bioactive lipid LPA (16: 0 is increased in obesity.

  5. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Subtypes of Muscarinic Receptors (5th), Held in Newport Beach, California, October 22-24, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-22

    Humana Press, Clifton (1989). 11. C. MELLIN, H.M. VARGAS and B. RINGDAHL, J. Med. Chem. 32 1590-1593 (1989). 121. B.M. NILSSON, H.M. VARGAS and U. HACKSELL...muscarinic receptor. References 1. B. RINGDAHL, The Muscarinic Receptor: J. H. Brown (ed), 151-218, The Humana Press, Clifton, New Jersey (1989) and...Istituto di Fisiologia Umana II, Universita di Milano, Milano, Italy Our previous papersý, 2 suggested that specific muscarinic receptor subtypes (M

  6. Identification of muscarinic receptor subtypes in RINm5F cells by means of polymerase chain reaction, subcloning, and DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S H; Sharp, G W

    1997-09-01

    Carbachol can stimulate insulin release in RINm5F cells by a mechanism that does not involve the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations or the activation of conventional protein kinase Cs (Mol Pharmacol 47:863-870, 1995). Thus, a novel signal transduction pathway links the muscarinic activation of the cells to increased insulin secretion. The question arises as to whether the pathway results from a novel receptor, different from the five established muscarinic receptors, or whether a "normal" receptor in the RINm5F cell activates a novel pathway. To distinguish between these two possibilities, the muscarinic receptors in the RINm5F cell were identified. Using polymerase chain reaction, combined with subcloning and DNA sequencing techniques, the cDNAs that encode the established M3 and M4 receptors were identified. The cDNAs for the Ml, M2, and M5 receptors were not found. Pharmacological studies showed a rank order of potency for muscarinic receptor subtype antagonists to inhibit carbachol-induced insulin release (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [pIC50] values given in parentheses): atropine (nonselective, 9.0) > 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl piperidine methiodide (M3/M1, 8.6) > para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladiphenidol (M3, 8.1) > hexahydrosiladiphenidol (M3, 8.0) > tropicamide (M4, 6.4) > pirenzepine (M1, 6.1) > methoctramine (M2, 5.9). This antagonist profile suggests that it is the M3 receptor that mediates carbachol-induced insulin release. In this case, the novel signaling involved in the unusual carbachol response would not be due to a novel receptor but to the well-characterized M3 receptor. It appears, therefore, that the novel portion of the signaling pathway lies downstream of the M3 receptor and may consist of products of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, other than inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol, resulting from the activation of phospholipase C. While a contributory role of the M4 receptor cannot be ruled out, there is no evidence in

  7. Receptor-binding profiles of H7 subtype influenza viruses in different host species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Gambaryan (Alexandra ); T.Y. Matrosovich (Tatyana); J. Philipp (Jennifer); V.J. Munster (Vincent); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); G. Cattoli (Giovanni); I. Capua (Ilaria); S.L. Krauss (Scott); R.G. Webster (Robert); J. Banks (James); N.V. Bovin (Nicolai); H.D. Klenk

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses of gallinaceous poultry and wild aquatic birds usually have distinguishable receptor-binding properties. Here we used a panel of synthetic sialylglycopolymers and solid-phase receptor-binding assays to characterize receptor-binding profiles of about 70 H7 influenza

  8. Characterization of the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the contraction of guinea-pig isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong-Tao; Liao, Zhi; Meng, Xian-Min; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Shu-Jie; Mo, Zheng-Ji

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to characterize the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride, which mediates the relaxation of guinea-pig isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle, on muscarinic receptor subtypes. Radioimmune assay was used to determine cAMP levels in isolated guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscle to compare the selective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on muscarinic receptor subtypes. The results indicated that the relaxing effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction induced by acetylcholine was stronger than that of atropine (based on PA2 values). In the radioimmune assay, penehyclidine hydrochloride increased the cAMP content in isolated guinea-pig stomach smooth muscle and decreased the cAMP content in isolated guinea-pig intestinal smooth muscle, but the difference was not statistically significant at a dose of 10 mumol/l. The results suggest that penehyclidine hydrochloride has little or no effect on M2 receptor subtypes in guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

  9. Identification of m3, m4 and m5 subtypes of muscarinic receptor mRNA in human blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P; Auger, C B; Traver, D J; Costa, L G

    1995-07-01

    In this study we made use of the Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of mRNA for the five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human blood mononuclear cells. mRNA for m3, m4 and m5 subtypes was detected, while mRNA for m1 and m2 muscarinic receptors was not found. Similar results were obtained for three different healthy human subjects studied. Interestingly, the m5 subtype was expressed at higher levels in blood mononuclear cells than in cerebral cortex. To our knowledge this is the first time that m5 muscarinic receptor mRNA has been found outside of the central nervous system.

  10. (S)-homo-AMPA, a specific agonist at the mGlu6 subtype of metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadian, H; Nielsen, B; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1997-01-01

    of the spectroscopic configurational assignments. The activities of 6 and 7 at ionotropic EAA (iGlu) receptors and at mGlu1-7 were studied. (S)-Homo-AMPA (6) was shown to be a specific agonist at mGlu6 (EC50 = 58 +/- 11 microM) comparable in potency with the endogenous mGlu agonist (S)-glutamic acid (EC50 = 20 +/- 3......Our previous publication (J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 3188-3194) described (RS)-2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid (Homo-AMPA) as a highly selective agonist at the mGlu6 subtype of metabotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. Homo-AMPA has already become a standard agonist...... microM). Although Homo-AMPA did not show significant effects at iGlu receptors, (R)-Homo-AMPA (7), which was inactive at mGlu1-7, turned out to be a weak N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist (IC50 = 131 +/- 18 microM)....

  11. Plasma metabolomic profiles in breast cancer patients and healthy controls: by race and tumor receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Yan, Li; Liu, Song; Ambrosone, Christine B; Zhao, Hua

    2013-12-01

    A few studies in the last several years have shown that metabolomics, the study of metabolites and small intermediate molecules, may help better understand the breast carcinogenesis. However, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with different subtypes. Additionally, there is a significant racial difference in terms of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Few, if any, metabolomics studies in breast cancer have considered race and tumor subtypes in the study design. We performed a global metabolomic profiling using mass spectrometry and samples from 60 breast cancer cases and 60 matched controls. A total of 375 named metabolites were observed, with 117 metabolites whose levels were significantly different between African American and Caucasian American women (P racial difference.

  12. Subtype-specific mechanisms for functional interaction between α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limapichat, Walrati; Dougherty, Dennis A; Lester, Henry A

    2014-09-01

    P2X receptors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) display functional and physical interactions in many cell types and heterologous expression systems, but interactions between α6β4-containing (α6β4*) nAChRs and P2X2 receptors and/or P2X3 receptors have not been fully characterized. We measured several types of crosstalk in oocytes coexpressing α6β4 nAChRs and P2X2, P2X3, or P2X2/3 receptors. A novel form of crosstalk occurs between α6β4 nAChRs and P2X2 receptors. P2X2 receptors were forced into a prolonged desensitized state upon activation by ATP through a mechanism that does not depend on the intracellular C terminus of the P2X2 receptors. Coexpression of α6β4 nAChRs with P2X3 receptors shifts the ATP dose-response relation to the right, even in the absence of acetylcholine (ACh). Moreover, currents become nonadditive when ACh and ATP are coapplied, as previously reported for other Cys-loop receptors interacting with P2X receptors, and this crosstalk is dependent on the presence of the P2X3 C-terminal domain. P2X2 receptors also functionally interact with α6β4β3 but through a different mechanism from α6β4. The interaction with P2X3 receptors is less pronounced for the α6β4β3 nAChR than the α6β4 nAChR. We also measured a functional interaction between the α6β4 nAChRs and the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor. Experiments with the nAChR channel blocker mecamylamine on P2X2-α6β4 oocytes point to the loss of P2X2 channel activity during the crosstalk, whereas the ion channel pores of the P2X receptors were fully functional and unaltered by the receptor interaction for P2X2-α6β4β3, P2X2/3-α6β4, and P2X2/3-α6β4β3. These results may be relevant to dorsal root ganglion cells and to other neurons that coexpress these receptor subunits. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Determinants Present in the Receptor Carboxy Tail Are Responsible for Differences in Subtype-Specific Coupling of β-Adrenergic Receptors to Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Simard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An agonist-occupied β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR recruits G protein receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is recruited to the membrane. Thus, the physical proximity of activated β2-AR and PI-3K allows the activation of the latter. In contrast, it has been observed that the β1-AR is unable to activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway. We hypothesized that the difference might be due to molecular determinants present in the carboxy termini of the two β-AR subtypes. Using transiently transfected HEK 293 cells expressing either β1- or β2-AR, we also observed that in presence of an agonist, β2-AR, but not β1-AR, is able to activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway. Switching the seventh transmembrane domain and the carboxy tail between the two receptors reverses this phenotype; that is, β1×β2-AR can activate the PI-3K/Akt pathway whereas β2×β1-AR cannot. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin abolished the activation of PI-3K by β2- or β1×β2-AR stimulation. Ligand-mediated internalization of the β2-AR induced by a 15-minute stimulation with agonist was abolished in the presence of a dominant negative of PI-3K or following pertussis toxin pretreatment. These results indicate that the subtype-specific differences in the coupling to PI-3K/Akt pathway are due to molecular determinants present in the carboxy tail of the receptor and further that β2-AR activates PI-3K via a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism.

  14. Assessment of structurally diverse philanthotoxin analogues for inhibitory activity on ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Sidsel; Bella, Angelo; Kristensen, Anders Skov

    2010-01-01

    -electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology employing Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GluA1(i) AMPA or GluN1/2A NMDA receptors. Several of the analogues showed significantly increased inhibition of the GluN1/2A NMDA receptor. Thus, an analogue containing N-(1-naphtyl)acetyl group showed an IC(50) value of 47 n...

  15. Endogenous ACh suppresses LTD induction and nicotine relieves the suppression via different nicotinic ACh receptor subtypes in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2014-08-28

    Studying the normal role of nicotinic cholinergic systems in hippocampal synaptic plasticity is critical for understanding how cholinergic loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tobacco use affect cognitive function. However, it is largely unknown how nicotinic cholinergic systems regulate the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Extracellular field potential recordings were performed in hippocampal slices prepared from wild-type, α2, α7, and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Effects of nicotine and nicotinic antagonists on LTD induction in wild-type, α2, α7, and β2 KO mice were compared. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) occurs during LTD-inducing stimulation to suppress LTD induction at CA3-CA1 synapses. Nicotine relieves this suppression, causing larger LTD. This nicotine effect was mediated by the activation of non-α7 nAChR subtypes, which were not activated by ACh released during LTD-inducing stimulation, and requires the presence of endogenous ACh-induced α7 nAChR activation. Furthermore, the effect of nicotine was prevented in the presence of mecamylamine, but not dihydro-β-erythroidine, and was still observed in both α2 KO and β2 KO mice. This is the first report to evaluate the involvement of different nAChR subtypes in LTD induction. Findings indicate the involvement of unique non-α7 nAChR subtypes, which have not been considered in the nicotinic modulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation, in the control of LTD induction. The implication of our results is that the loss of cholinergic projections to the hippocampus, which reduces ACh release as seen in AD patients, and nicotine from tobacco smoking can differentially affect LTD induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ERα and ERβ, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga; Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-01-01

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ERα selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ERα selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ERβ selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [ 3 H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ERα could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ERβ. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ERα. On the other hand, once blocked ERα with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ERβ. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ERβ, implying, furthermore

  17. Muscarinic receptor subtype-specific effects on cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Bos, I. S. T.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Wess, Juergen; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic tone contributes to airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Accordingly, anticholinergics are effective bronchodilators by blocking the muscarinic M-3 receptor on airway smooth muscle. Recent evidence indicates that acetylcholine also contributes to airway

  18. Expression of eicosanoid receptors subtypes and eosinophilic inflammation: implication on chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cauwenberge Paul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosanoid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors playing an important immunomodulatory role in airway diseases. However, there is little information on the expression of these receptors and their link with eosinophilic inflammation in paranasal sinus diseases. We aimed with this study to investigate the tissue expression of leukotrienes and prostaglandin E2 receptors in chronic rhinosinusitis patients and the link of this regulation with eosinophilic inflammation. Methods Samples were prepared from nasal tissue of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRS, n = 11, with nasal polyps (CRS-NP, n = 13 and healthy subjects (Controls, n = 6. mRNA expression of CysLT1, CysLT2, BLT1, BLT2, E-prostanoid receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4 and sol-IL-5Rα was determined by real-time PCR. Concentrations of PGE2, LTC4/D4/E4, LTB4 and sol-IL-5Rα were determined by ELISA and of ECP by ImmunoCap. Protein expression and tissue localization of eicosanoid receptors and activated eosinophils were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results CysLT1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in CRS-NP compared to CRS and controls, and CRS compared to controls, whereas CysLT2 mRNA was enhanced in both CRS groups without differences between them. Levels of both receptors correlated to the number of activated eosinophils, sol-IL-5Rα, ECP and LTC4/D4/E4 concentrations in the disease groups. PGE2 protein concentrations and prostanoid receptors EP1 and EP3 were down-regulated in the CRS-NP tissue vs. CRS and controls, whereas EP2 and EP4 expression was enhanced in CRS and CRS-NP patients vs. controls. No differences in BLT receptors were observed between patients and controls. Conclusion CyLTs receptors are up-regulated in nasal polyp tissue and their expression correlate with eosinophilic inflammation supporting previous results. Eicosanoid receptors mRNA pattern observed suggests that down-regulation of EP1 and EP3 in CRS-NP and

  19. Diet-induced regulation of bitter taste receptor subtypes in the mouse gastrointestinal tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Vegezzi

    Full Text Available Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138, selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108 are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment.

  20. Diet-Induced Regulation of Bitter Taste Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegezzi, Gaia; Anselmi, Laura; Huynh, Jennifer; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rozengurt, Enrique; Raybould, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2014-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors and signaling molecules, which detect bitter taste in the mouth, are expressed in the gut mucosa. In this study, we tested whether two distinct bitter taste receptors, the bitter taste receptor 138 (T2R138), selectively activated by isothiocyanates, and the broadly tuned bitter taste receptor 108 (T2R108) are regulated by luminal content. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that T2R138 transcript is more abundant in the colon than the small intestine and lowest in the stomach, whereas T2R108 mRNA is more abundant in the stomach compared to the intestine. Both transcripts in the stomach were markedly reduced by fasting and restored to normal levels after 4 hours re-feeding. A cholesterol-lowering diet, mimicking a diet naturally low in cholesterol and rich in bitter substances, increased T2R138 transcript, but not T2R108, in duodenum and jejunum, and not in ileum and colon. Long-term ingestion of high-fat diet increased T2R138 RNA, but not T2R108, in the colon. Similarly, α-gustducin, a bitter taste receptor signaling molecule, was reduced by fasting in the stomach and increased by lowering cholesterol in the small intestine and by high-fat diet in the colon. These data show that both short and long term changes in the luminal contents alter expression of bitter taste receptors and associated signaling molecules in the mucosa, supporting the proposed role of bitter taste receptors in luminal chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract. Bitter taste receptors might serve as regulatory and defensive mechanism to control gut function and food intake and protect the body from the luminal environment. PMID:25238152

  1. On homology modeling of the M-2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Doležal, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2013), s. 525-538 ISSN 0920-654X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptor * G-protein coupled receptor * homology energy estimation * MM-GBSA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.782, year: 2013

  2. Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasheverov, I.E.; Zhmak, M.N.; Vulfius, C.A.; Corbacheva, E.V.; Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Utkin, Y.N.; van Elk, R.; Smit, A.B.; Tsetlin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    α-Conotoxins from Conus snails are indispensable tools for distinguishing various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and synthesis of α-conotoxin analogs may yield novel antagonists of higher potency and selectivity. We incorporated additional positive charges into α-conotoxins

  3. Identification of four areas each enriched in a unique muscarinic receptor subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoss, W.; Ellerbrock, B.R.; Goldman, P.S.; Collins, D.A.; Messer, W.S. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The affinities of muscarinic agonists and antagonists were determined by autoradiography and image analysis in selected areas of the rat brain. IC 50 values and Hill coefficients for the inhibition of the binding of 0.2 nM [ 3 H]-QNB to dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, rhomboid thalamus and substantia nigra were measured in coronal sections. Pirenzepine displayed a high affinity for receptors in the dentate gyrus and AF-DX 116, the superior colliculus. Both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 had high affinities for the substantia nigra and low affinities for the rhomboid thalamus. Gallamine displayed a 50-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Amitriptyline was less selective, showing a modest preference for substantia nigra receptors and 4-DAMP was essentially nonselective. Carbachol was the most selective agonist with a 4000-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Other agonists except RS 86 were also selective for superior colliculus receptors in the order carbachol >> arecoline > bethanechol > McN A343 = oxotremorine = pilocarpine

  4. X-ray structure, symmetry and mechanism of an AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolevsky, Alexander I.; Rosconi, Michael P.; Gouaux, Eric; (Vollum)

    2010-02-02

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and function by opening a transmembrane ion channel upon binding of glutamate. Despite their crucial role in neurobiology, the architecture and atomic structure of an intact ionotropic glutamate receptor are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-sensitive, homotetrameric, rat GluA2 receptor at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a competitive antagonist. The receptor harbours an overall axis of two-fold symmetry with the extracellular domains organized as pairs of local dimers and with the ion channel domain exhibiting four-fold symmetry. A symmetry mismatch between the extracellular and ion channel domains is mediated by two pairs of conformationally distinct subunits, A/C and B/D. Therefore, the stereochemical manner in which the A/C subunits are coupled to the ion channel gate is different from the B/D subunits. Guided by the GluA2 structure and site-directed cysteine mutagenesis, we suggest that GluN1 and GluN2A NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors have a similar architecture, with subunits arranged in a 1-2-1-2 pattern. We exploit the GluA2 structure to develop mechanisms of ion channel activation, desensitization and inhibition by non-competitive antagonists and pore blockers.

  5. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype: a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Gils, Carla H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-02-08

    Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Circulating OPG and breast cancer risk has been examined in only one prior study. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 2008 incident invasive breast cancer cases (estrogen receptor (ER)+, n = 1622; ER-, n = 386), matched 1:1 to controls, were included in the analysis. Women were predominantly postmenopausal at blood collection (77%); postmenopausal women included users and non-users of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Serum OPG was quantified with an electrochemiluminescence assay. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The associations between OPG and ER+ and ER- breast cancer differed significantly. Higher concentrations of OPG were associated with increased risk of ER- breast cancer (top vs. bottom tertile RR = 1.93 [95% CI 1.24-3.02]; p trend  = 0.03). We observed a suggestive inverse association for ER+ disease overall and among women premenopausal at blood collection. Results for ER- disease did not differ by menopausal status at blood collection (p het  = 0.97), and we observed no heterogeneity by HT use at blood collection (p het  ≥ 0.43) or age at breast cancer diagnosis (p het  ≥ 0.30). This study provides the first prospective data on OPG and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype. High circulating OPG may represent a novel risk factor for ER- breast cancer.

  6. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Is Expressed by Most Ovarian Cancer Subtypes and Is a Safe and Effective Immunotherapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Rutkowski, Melanie R; Allegrezza, Michael J; Tesone, Amelia J; Payne, Kyle K; Wickramasinghe, Jayamanna; Nguyen, Jenny M; O'Brien, Shane W; Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Huang, Qihong; Cadungog, Mark G; Connolly, Denise C; Tchou, Julia; Curiel, Tyler J; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2017-01-15

    To define the safety and effectiveness of T cells redirected against follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)-expressing ovarian cancer cells. FSHR expression was determined by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and qPCR in 77 human ovarian cancer specimens from 6 different histologic subtypes and 20 human healthy tissues. The effectiveness of human T cells targeted with full-length FSH in vivo was determined against a panel of patient-derived xenografts. Safety and effectiveness were confirmed in immunocompetent tumor-bearing mice, using constructs targeting murine FSHR and syngeneic T cells. FSHR is expressed in gynecologic malignancies of different histologic types but not in nonovarian healthy tissues. Accordingly, T cells expressing full-length FSHR-redirected chimeric receptors mediate significant therapeutic effects (including tumor rejection) against a panel of patient-derived tumors in vivo In immunocompetent mice growing syngeneic, orthotopic, and aggressive ovarian tumors, fully murine FSHR-targeted T cells also increased survival without any measurable toxicity. Notably, chimeric receptors enhanced the ability of endogenous tumor-reactive T cells to abrogate malignant progression upon adoptive transfer into naïve recipients subsequently challenged with the same tumor. Interestingly, FSHR-targeted T cells persisted as memory lymphocytes without noticeable PD-1-dependent exhaustion during end-stage disease, in the absence of tumor cell immunoediting. However, exosomes in advanced tumor ascites diverted the effector activity of this and other chimeric receptor-transduced T cells away from targeted tumor cells. T cells redirected against FSHR + tumor cells with full-length FSH represent a promising therapeutic alternative against a broad range of ovarian malignancies, with negligible toxicity even in the presence of cognate targets in tumor-free ovaries. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 441-53. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Glucocorticoid-induced fetal programming alters the functional complement of angiotensin receptor subtypes within the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwathmey, TanYa M; Shaltout, Hossam A; Rose, James C; Diz, Debra I; Chappell, Mark C

    2011-03-01

    We examined the impact of fetal programming on the functional responses of renal angiotensin receptors. Fetal sheep were exposed in utero to betamethasone (BMX; 0.17 mg/kg) or control (CON) at 80 to 81 days gestation with full-term delivery. Renal nuclear and plasma membrane fractions were isolated from sheep age 1.0 to 1.5 years for receptor binding and fluorescence detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitric oxide (NO). Mean arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability were significantly higher in the BMX-exposed adult offspring versus CON sheep. The proportion of nuclear AT(1) receptors sensitive to losartan was 2-fold higher (67 ± 6% vs 27 ± 9%; Psheep (16 ± 3% vs 6 ± 4%; Pfetal programming.

  8. Glucocorticoid-Induced Fetal Programming Alters the Functional Complement of Angiotensin Receptors Subtypes within the Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Gwathmey, TanYa M.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Rose, James C.; Diz, Debra I.; Chappell, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of fetal programming on the functional responses of renal angiotensin receptors. Fetal sheep were exposed in utero to betamethasone (BMX; 0.17 mg/kg) or control (CON) at 80–81 days gestation with full term delivery. Renal nuclear and plasma membrane fractions were isolated from 1.0–1.5 year old sheep for receptor binding and fluorescence detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or nitric oxide (NO). Mean arterial blood pressure and blood pressure variability were sign...

  9. Thiochrome enhances acetylcholine affinity at muscarinic M4 receptors: receptor subtype selectivity via cooperativity rather than affinity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazareno, S.; Doležal, Vladimír; Popham, A.; Birdsall, N. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2004), s. 257-266 ISSN 0026-895X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/01/0283; GA ČR GA309/02/1331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * thiochrome * allosteric effect Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.080, year: 2004

  10. Electroacupuncture Inhibition of Hyperalgesia in Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis: Involvement of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Dopamine Receptor Subtypes in Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Shou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA has been regarded as an alternative treatment for inflammatory pain for several decades. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of EA have not been thoroughly clarified. Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors are related to pain relief. Accumulating evidence has shown that the CB1 and dopamine systems sometimes interact and may operate synergistically in rat striatum. To our knowledge, dopamine D1/D2 receptors are involved in EA analgesia. In this study, we found that repeated EA at Zusanli (ST36 and Kunlun (BL60 acupoints resulted in marked improvements in thermal hyperalgesia. Both western blot assays and FQ-PCR analysis results showed that the levels of CB1 expression in the repeated-EA group were much higher than those in any other group (P=0.001. The CB1-selective antagonist AM251 inhibited the effects of repeated EA by attenuating the increases in CB1 expression. The two kinds of dopamine receptors imparted different actions on the EA-induced CB1 upregulation in AA rat model. These results suggested that the strong activation of the CB1 receptor after repeated EA resulted in the concomitant phenomenon of the upregulation of D1 and D2 levels of gene expression.

  11. Non-selectivity of the monoclonal antibody M35 for subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CarsiGabrenas, JM; VanDerZee, EA; Luiten, PGM; Potter, LT; Carsi-Gabrenas, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody M35, one of the first monoclonal antibodies successfully raised against muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, has been widely used to study the distribution of this protein in a variety of tissues and cell types of different species. It is not fully known, however, to which

  12. Comparison of Receptor-Defined Breast Cancer Subtypes Between German and Sudanese Women: A Facility-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmerom Tesfamariam Sengal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare tumor characteristics, biomarkers, and surrogate subtypes of breast cancer between Sudanese and German women. Methods: Tumor characteristics and immunohistochemistry markers (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2] were collected from the routine assessment of consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 2010 to 2015 (Gezira University Pathology Laboratory, Gezira, Sudan and from 1999 to 2013 (Breast Centre, Martin-Luther-University, Halle, Germany. Results: A total of 2,492 patients (German [n = 1,932] and Sudanese [n = 560] were included. Age at diagnosis ranged from 20 to 94 years. Sudanese women were, on average, 10 years younger than German women, with a mean (± standard deviation age of 48.8 (13.5 and 58.6 (12.4 years, respectively. The Sudanese women had a higher grade, larger tumor, and more lymph node positivity compared with German women. ER-, PR-, and HER2-negative proportions were 55%, 61.8%, and 71.3%, respectively, for Sudanese women versus 22.7%, 32.3%, and 82.5%, respectively, for German women. The triple-negative subtype was more prevalent in Sudanese women (34.5% than in German women (14.2%. The strongest factor associated with ER-negative disease was grade III (odds ratio, 19.6; 95% CI 11.6 to 33.4; P < .001. Sudanese patients were at higher risk for ER-negative breast cancer, with an odds ratio of 2.01 (P = .001; adjusted for age, size, nodal status, histologic type, and grade. Stratified by grade, the influence of origin was observed in grade I and grade II tumors, but not in grade III tumors. Conclusion: Sudanese women had more aggressive tumor characteristics and unfavorable prognostic biomarkers. After adjustment, Sudanese origin was still associated with hormone receptor–negative disease, especially in grade I and II tumors. These findings suggest differences in tumor biology among

  13. Re-Appraisal of Estrogen Receptor Negative/Progesterone Receptor Positive (ER-/PR+) Breast Cancer Phenotype: True Subtype or Technical Artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Niamh M; Coll, J M; Lowery, A J; Hynes, S O; Kerin, M J; Sheehan, M; Brodie, C; Sweeney, K J

    2017-09-11

    Expression of the ER and PR receptors is routinely quantified in breast cancer as a predictive marker of response to hormonal therapy. Accurate determination of ER and PR status is critical to the optimal selection of patients for targeted therapy. The existence of an ER-/PR+ subtype is controversial, with debate centred on whether this represents a true phenotype or a technical artefact on immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim of this study was to investigate the true incidence and clinico-pathological features of ER-/PR+ breast cancers in a tertiary referral symptomatic breast unit. Clinico-pathological data were collected on invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2005. IHC for ER and PR receptors was repeated on all cases which were ER-/PR+, with the same paraffin block used for the initial diagnostic testing. Concordance between the diagnostic and repeat IHC was determined using validated testing. Complete data, including ER and PR status were available for 697 patients diagnosed during the study period. On diagnostic IHC, the immunophenotype of the breast tumours was: ER+/PR+ in 396 (57%), ER-/PR- in 157 (23%), ER+/PR- in 88 (12%) and ER-/PR+ in 56 (8.6%) patients. On repeat IHC of 48/56 ER-/PR+ tumours 45.8% were ER+/PR+, 6% were ER+/PR- and 43.7% were ER-/PR- None of the cases were confirmed to be ER-/PR+. The ER-/PR+ phenotypic breast cancer is likely to be the result of technical artefact. Prompt reassessment of patients originally assigned to this subtype who re-present with symptoms should be considered to ensure appropriate clinical management.

  14. Relief from detrimental consequences of chronic psychosocial stress in mice deficient for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlik, Daniel; Stangl, Christina; Bludau, Anna; Grabski, Dominik; Strasser, Robert; Schmidt, Dominic; Flor, Peter J; Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole

    2017-03-15

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric conditions and comorbid somatic pathologies are an enormous public health concern in modern society. The etiology of these disorders is complex, with stressors holding a chronic and psychosocial component representing the most acknowledged risk factor. During the last decades, research on the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) system advanced dramatically and much attention was given to the role of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGlu7) in acute stress-related behavior and physiology. However, virtually nothing is known about the potential involvement of mGlu7 in chronic psychosocial stress-related conditions. Using the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC, 19 days) in male mice, we addressed whether central mGlu7 is altered upon chronic psychosocial stressor exposure and whether genetic ablation of mGlu7 interferes with the multitude of chronic stress-induced alterations. CSC exposure resulted in a downregulation of mGlu7 mRNA transcript levels in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region relevant for stress-related behaviors and physiology. Interestingly, mGlu7 deficiency relieved multiple chronic stress-induced alterations including the CSC-induced anxiety-prone phenotype; mGlu7 ablation also ameliorated CSC-induced physiological and immunological consequences such as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions and colonic inflammation, respectively. Together, our findings provide first evidence for the involvement of mGlu7 in a wide range of behavioral and physiological alterations in response to chronic psychosocial stressor exposure. Moreover, the stress-protective phenotype of genetic mGlu7 ablation suggests mGlu7 pharmacological blockade to be a relevant option for the treatment of chronic stress-related emotional and somatic dysfunctions. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors, 5 years on'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of estradiol, estrogen receptor subtype-selective agonists and genistein on energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is dramatically increasing and thus constitutes a major risk factor for developing chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, and certain forms of cancer. High-caloric nutrition and a lack of physical activity are the main contributing factors for this global epidemic. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are recognized to be involved in many processes related to the control of energy homeostasis. In my studies, I investigated the impac...

  16. Differential distribution of glycine receptor subtypes at the rat calyx of Held synapse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrušková, Bohdana; Trojanová, Johana; Kulik, A.; Králíková, Michaela; Pysaněnko, Kateryna; Bureš, Zbyněk; Syka, Josef; Trussell, L. O.; Tureček, Rostislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 47 (2012), s. 17012-17024 ISSN 0270-6474 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0131 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) WT073966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : glycine receptor * calyx of Held * auditory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.908, year: 2012

  17. The Role of NMDA Receptor Subtypes in Short-Term Plasticity in the Rat Entorhinal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. L. Chamberlain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that spontaneous release of glutamate in the entorhinal cortex (EC is tonically facilitated via activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDAr containing the NR2B subunit. Here we show that the same receptors mediate short-term plasticity manifested by frequency-dependent facilitation of evoked glutamate release at these synapses. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from layer V pyramidal neurones in rat EC slices. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents showed strong facilitation at relatively low frequencies (3 Hz of activation. Facilitation was abolished by an NR2B-selective blocker (Ro 25-6981, but unaffected by NR2A-selective antagonists (Zn2+, NVP-AAM077. In contrast, postsynaptic NMDAr-mediated responses could be reduced by subunit-selective concentrations of all three antagonists. The data suggest that NMDAr involved in presynaptic plasticity in layer V are exclusively NR1/NR2B diheteromers, whilst postsynaptically they are probably a mixture of NR1/NR2A, NR1/NR2B diheteromers and NR1/NR2A/NR2B triheteromeric receptors.

  18. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of new imaging agent for central nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}{sub 7} subtype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Mikako [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo [PET Center, Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan); Hatano, Kentaro [National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu (Japan); Fuchigami, Takeshi [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Matsushima, Yoshitaka [Department of Chemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Ito, Kengo [National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu (Japan); Magata, Yasuhiro [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)], E-mail: magata@hama-med.ac.jp

    2010-04-15

    Introduction: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) {alpha}7 subtype ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR) is one of the major nAChR subtypes in the brain. We synthesized C-11 labeled {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR ligands, (R)-2-[{sup 11}C]methylamino-benzoic acid 1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ester ([{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA) and its isomer (S)-[{sup 11}C]MeQAA, for in vivo investigation with positron emission tomography (PET). Then, the potential of (R)- and (S)-[{sup 11}C]MeQAA for in vivo imaging of {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR in the brain was evaluated in mice and monkeys. Methods: The binding affinity for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR was measured using rat brain. Biodistribution and in vivo receptor blocking studies were undertaken in mice. Dynamic PET scans were performed in conscious monkeys. Results: The affinity for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR was 41 and 182 nM for (R)- and (S)-MeQAA, respectively. The initial uptake in the mouse brain was high ([{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA: 7.68 and [{sup 11}C](S)-MeQAA: 6.65 %dose/g at 5 min). The clearance of [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA was slow in the hippocampus ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR-rich region) but was rapid in the cerebellum ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR-poor region). On the other hand, the clearance was fast for [{sup 11}C](S)-MeQAA in all regions. The brain uptake of [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA was decreased by methyllycaconitine ({alpha}{sub 7} nAChR antagonist) treatment. In monkeys, {alpha}{sub 7} nAChRs were highly distributed in the thalamus and cortex but poorly distributed in the cerebellum. The high accumulation was observed in the cortex and thalamus for [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA, while the uptake was rather homogeneous for [{sup 11}C](S)-MeQAA. Conclusions: [{sup 11}C](R)-MeQAA was successfully synthesized and showed high uptake to the brain. However, since the in vivo selectivity for {alpha}{sub 7} nAChR was not enough, further PET kinetic analysis or structure optimization is needed for specific visualization of brain {alpha}{sub 7} nAChRs in vivo.

  20. Targeting to 5-HT1F Receptor Subtype for Migraine Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2012-01-01

    attacks with efficacy in the same range as oral sumatriptan 100mg, the gold standard for triptans. The LY334370 project withdrew because of toxicity in animals, while lasmiditan is still testing. In this review we present all the available preclinical and clinical data on the 5-HT1F agonists...... inhibited markers associated with electrical stimulation of the TG. Thus 5-HT1F receptor represents an ideal target for anti-migraine drugs. So far two selective 5-HT1F agonists have been tested in human trials for migraine: LY334370 and lasmiditan. Both molecules were efficient in attenuating migraine...

  1. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells using specific muscarinic receptor antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeskey, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In cerebellar granule cell cultures, two muscarinic receptor mediated responses were observed: inhibition of adenylate cyclase (M-AC) and stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis (M-PI). These responses were antagonized by three purported specific muscarinic antagonists: pirenzipine and (-)QNX (specific for M-PI) and methoctramine (specific for M-AC). However, the specificity for the three antagonists in blocking these responses is not comparable to the specificity observed in binding studies on these cells or to that quoted in the literature. Two peaks of molecular sizes were found in these cells corresponding to the two molecular sizes of muscarinic receptive proteins reported in the literature. Muscarinic receptive proteins were alkylated with 3 H-propylbenzilylcholine mustard followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Pirenzipine and (-)QNX were able to block alkylation of the high molecular size peak, which corresponds to the receptive protein m 3 reported in the literature. Methoctramine was able to block alkylation of a portion of the lower molecular size peak, possibly corresponding to the m 2 and/or m 4 receptive proteins reported in the literature. Studies attempting to show the presence of receptor reserve for either of the two biochemical responses present in these cells by alkylation of the receptive protein with nonradiolabeled propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM) were confounded by specificity of this agent for the lower molecular weight peak of muscarinic receptive protein. Thus the muscarinic receptive proteins coupled to M-AC were alkylated preferentially over the ones coupled to M-PI

  2. Clinicopathologic Analysis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in a Single Institution: Biphenotypic Acute Myeloid Leukemia May Not Be an Aggressive Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Lee

    2007-07-01

    Conclusion: This was a clinicopathologic study of AML in Taiwan. Histologic subtype plays a significant prognostic role. Multilineage dysplasia-and therapy-related AML have worse prognosis. Biphenotypic AML may not be an aggressive subtype.

  3. An NS5A single optimized method to determine genotype, subtype and resistance profiles of Hepatitis C strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Andre-Garnier

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a method of HCV genome sequencing that allowed simultaneous genotyping and NS5A inhibitor resistance profiling. In order to validate the use of a unique RT-PCR for genotypes 1-5, 142 plasma samples from patients infected with HCV were analysed. The NS4B-NS5A partial region was successfully amplified and sequenced in all samples. In parallel, partial NS3 sequences were analyzed obtained for genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis showed concordance of genotypes and subtypes with a bootstrap >95% for each type cluster. NS5A resistance mutations were analyzed using the Geno2pheno [hcv] v0.92 tool and compared to the list of known Resistant Associated Substitutions recently published. In conclusion, this tool allows determination of HCV genotypes, subtypes and identification of NS5A resistance mutations. This single method can be used to detect pre-existing resistance mutations in NS5A before treatment and to check the emergence of resistant viruses while undergoing treatment in major HCV genotypes (G1-5 in the EU and the US.

  4. Functional changes in the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 channel during and after acute desensitization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková-Toušová, Karolina; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Sušánková, Klára; Benedikt, Jan; Samad, Abdul; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 1 (2007), s. 144-154 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0319; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/07/0915; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Grant - others:PHOTOLYSIS(XE) LSHM-CT-2007-037765; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : capsaicin * vanilloid receptor * TRP channels Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.352, year: 2007

  5. Ablation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 3 impairs hippocampal neuron excitability in vitro and spatial working memory in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Weth-Malsch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of the bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P within the central nervous system has recently gained more and more attention, as it has been connected to major diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Even though much data about the functions of the five S1P receptors has been collected for other organ systems, we still lack a complete understanding for their specific roles, in particular within the brain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to further elucidate the role of S1P receptor subtype 3 (S1P3 in vivo and in vitro with a special focus on the hippocampus. Using an S1P3 knock-out mouse model we applied a range of behavioral tests, performed expression studies and whole cell patch clamp recordings in acute hippocampal slices. We were able to show that S1P3 deficient mice display a significant spatial working memory deficit within the T-maze test, but not in anxiety related tests. Furthermore, S1p3 mRNA was expressed throughout the hippocampal formation. Principal neurons in area CA3 lacking S1P3 showed significantly increased interspike intervals and a significantly decreased input resistance. Upon stimulation with S1P CA3 principal neurons from both wildtype and S1P3-/- mice displayed significantly increased evoked EPSC amplitudes and decay times, whereas rise times remained unchanged. These results suggest a specific involvement of S1P3 for the establishment of spatial working memory and neuronal excitability within the hippocampus.

  6. Analysis of the muscarinic receptor subtype mediating inhibition of the neurogenic contractions in rabbit isolated vas deferens by a series of polymethylene tetra-amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budriesi, R; Cacciaguerra, S; Di Toro, R; Bolognesi, M L; Chiarini, A; Minarini, A; Rosini, M; Spampinato, S; Tumiatti, V; Melchiorre, C

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic muscarinic receptor subtype, which mediates inhibition of the neurogenic contractions in the prostatic portion of rabbit vas deferens, have been investigated by using a series of polymethylene tetra-amines, which were selected for their ability to differentiate among muscarinic receptor subtypes. It was found that all tetra-amines antagonized McN-A-343-induced inhibition in electrically stimulated rabbit vas deferens in a competitive manner and with affinity values (pA2) ranging between 6.27±0.09 (spirotramine) and 8.51±0.02 (AM170). Competition radioligand binding studies, using native muscarinic receptors from rat tissues (M1, cortex; M2, heart; M3, submaxillary gland) or from NG 108-15 cells (M4) and human cloned muscarinic M1-M4 receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells, were undertaken with the same tetra-amines employed in functional assays. All antagonists indicated a one-site fit. The affinity estimates (pKi) of tetra-amines calculated in binding assays using native receptors were similar to those obtained using cloned receptors. Among these compounds some displayed selectivity between muscarinic receptor subtypes, indicating that they may be valuable tools in receptor characterization. Spirotramine was selective for M1 receptors versus all other subtypes (pKi native: M1, 7.32±0.10; M2, 6.50±0.11; M3, 6.02±0.13; M4, 6.28±0.16; pKi cloned: M1, 7.69±0.08; M2, 6.22±0.14; M3, 6.11±0.16; 6.35±0.11) whereas CC8 is highly selective for M2 receptors versus the other subtypes (pKi native: M1, 7.50±0.04; M2, 9.01±0.12; M3, 6.70±0.08; M4, 7.56±0.04; pKi cloned: M1, 7.90±0.20; M2, 9.04±0.08; M3, 6.40±0.07; M4, 7.40±0.04). Furthermore, particularly relevant for this investigation were tetra-amines dipitramine and AM172 for their ability to significantly differentiate M1 and M4 receptors. The apparent affinity values (pA2) obtained for tetra-amines in functional studies using the prostatic portion of

  7. Imaging for metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 in rat and monkey brains using PET with [{sup 18}F]FITM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Tomoteru [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Molecular Imaging Centre, Chiba (Japan); Tohoku University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai (Japan); Fujinaga, Masayuki; Maeda, Jun; Kawamura, Kazunori; Yui, Joji; Hatori, Akiko; Nagai, Yuji; Tokunaga, Masaki; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Fukumura, Toshimitsu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Molecular Imaging Centre, Chiba (Japan); Yoshida, Yuichiro [SHI Accelerator Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Zhang, Ming-Rong [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Molecular Imaging Centre, Chiba (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Department of Molecular Probes, Molecular Imaging Centre, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    In this study, we evaluate the utility of 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methylbenzamide ([{sup 18}F]FITM) as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for imaging of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) in rat and monkey brains. In vivo distribution of [{sup 18}F]FITM in brains was evaluated by PET scans with or without the mGluR1-selective antagonist (JNJ16259685). Kinetic parameters of monkey PET data were obtained using the two-tissue compartment model with arterial blood sampling. In PET studies in rat and monkey brains, the highest uptake of radioactivity was in the cerebellum, followed by moderate uptake in the thalamus, hippocampus and striatum. The lowest uptake of radioactivity was detected in the pons. These uptakes in all brain regions were dramatically decreased by pre-administration of JNJ16259685. In kinetic analysis of monkey PET, the highest volume of distribution (V{sub T}) was detected in the cerebellum (V{sub T} = 11.5). [{sup 18}F ]FITM has an excellent profile as a PET ligand for mGluR1 imaging. PET with [{sup 18}F ]FITM may prove useful for determining the regional distribution and density of mGluR1 and the mGluR1 occupancy of drugs in human brains. (orig.)

  8. Distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes mediate pre- and postsynaptic effects in rat neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigout Sylvain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic transmission has been implicated in learning, memory and cognition. However, the cellular effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs activation are poorly understood in the neocortex. We investigated the effects of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh and various agonists and antagonists on neuronal activity in rat neocortical slices using intracellular (sharp microelectrode and field potential recordings. Results CCh increased neuronal firing but reduced synaptic transmission. The increase of neuronal firing was antagonized by pirenzepine (M1/M4 mAChRs antagonist but not by AF-DX 116 (M2/M4 mAChRs antagonist. Pirenzepine reversed the depressant effect of CCh on excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP but had marginal effects when applied before CCh. AF-DX 116 antagonized the depression of EPSP when applied before or during CCh. CCh also decreased the paired-pulse inhibition of field potentials and the inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. The depression of paired-pulse inhibition was antagonized or prevented by AF-DX 116 or atropine but only marginally by pirenzepine. The inhibitory conductances were unaltered by xanomeline (M1/M4 mAChRs agonist, yet the CCh-induced depression was antagonized by AF-DX 116. Linopirdine, a selective M-current blocker, mimicked the effect of CCh on neuronal firing. However, linopirdine had no effect on the amplitude of EPSP or on the paired-pulse inhibition, indicating that M-current is involved in the increase of neuronal excitability but neither in the depression of EPSP nor paired-pulse inhibition. Conclusions These data indicate that the three effects are mediated by different mAChRs, the increase in firing being mediated by M1 mAChR, decrease of inhibition by M2 mAChR and depression of excitatory transmission by M4 mAChR. The depression of EPSP and increase of neuronal firing might enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas the

  9. Comparison of P2 purinergic receptors of aortic endothelial cells with those of adrenal medulla: evidence for heterogeneity of receptor subtype and of inositol phosphate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, D J; Boarder, M R

    1990-07-01

    Vascular endothelial cells from different parts of the circulation are known to show different functional responses, presumably corresponding to physiological roles. Previous studies have shown that ATP acts on P2 purinergic receptors of endothelial cells of major blood vessels, stimulating the formation of inositol phosphates. Here we have compared the action of ATP and congeners acting on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta with cells derived from the microvasculature of bovine adrenal medulla. With measurement of total inositol phosphates, cells from the aorta showed a rank order of agonist potency of 2-methylthio-ATP greater than adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) greater than ADP greater than ATP greater than beta, gamma-imido-ATP greater than beta, gamma-methylene-ATP, consistent with action at receptors of the P2Y subtype. However, with adrenal cells the rank order of potency was ATP gamma S greater than ATP greater than beta, gamma-imido-ATP greater than ADP greater than beta, gamma-methylene-ATP = 2-methylthio-ATP. This profile is not consistent with either P2X or P2Y receptors. When the nature of this inositol phosphate response was analyzed with anion exchange chromatography, it was found that the aortic cells showed an inositol trisphosphate stimulation that peaked within a few seconds and rapidly declined, whereas the response of the adrenal medulla cells continued to rise through 5 min. Analysis of isomers of inositol phosphates revealed a different pattern of metabolism between the two cell types, which may account for the different time course of response. With adrenal cells, ATP at low micromolar concentrations caused a dose-dependent increase in levels of cyclic AMP and had a greater than additive effect on cyclic AMP levels when combined with submaximal stimulation by prostaglandin E2. These results suggest the presence of a P2Y receptor on aortic endothelial cells, with an 'atypical' purinocepter, i.e., neither P2X nor P2Y

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in different subtypes of oral lichenoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Ramírez, Dionisio-Alejandro; Rodríguez-Tojo, María-Jose; Coca-Meneses, Juan-Carlos; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel

    2014-09-01

    The oral lichenoid disease (OLD) includes different chronic inflammatory processes such as oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), both entities with controversial diagnosis and malignant potential. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) is an important oral carcinogenesis biomarker and overexpressed in several oral potentially malignant disorders. To analyze the EGFR expression in the OLD to find differences between OLP and OLL, and to correlate it with the main clinical and pathological features. Forty-four OLD cases were studied and classified according to their clinical (Group C1: only papular lesions / Group C2: papular and other lesions) and histopathological features (Group HT: OLP-typical / Group HC: OLP-compatible) based in previous published criteria. Standard immunohistochemical identification of EGFR protein was performed. Comparative and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Thirty-five cases (79.5%) showed EGFR overexpression without significant differences between clinical and histopathological groups (p<0.05). Histological groups showed significant differences in the EGFR expression pattern (p=0.016). Conlusions: All OLD samples showed high EGFR expression. The type of clinical lesion was not related with EGFR expression; however, there are differences in the EGFR expression pattern between histological groups that may be related with a different biological profile and malignant risk.

  11. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP4 agonist serves better to protect cochlea than prostaglandin E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ryusuke; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Norio; Hamaguchi, Kiyomi; Ito, Juichi

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether an E-prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) agonist has superior protective effects to those of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in a guinea pig model of noise trauma. Drugs were locally applied on the round window membrane of guinea pig cochleae, followed by exposure of the test animals to intense noise. Protective effects mediated by an EP4 agonist were compared with those mediated by PGE1. Auditory function was monitored by measurements of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), and histological damage was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of cochlear specimens. Animals treated with an EP4 agonist exhibited significantly better hearing recovery than those pretreated with PGE1. Histologically, the numbers of remaining outer hair cells in cochleae treated with the EP4 agonist were significantly higher than in those treated with PGE1. The selective activation of EP4 has a stronger protective effect on cochleae against noise trauma than does the broad activation of EPs by PGE1. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Effect of a novel histamine subtype-3 receptor inverse agonist and modafinil on EEG power spectra during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep in male volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    James, LM; Iannone, R; Palcza, J; Renger, JJ; Calder, N; Cerchio, K; Gottesdiener, K; Hargreaves, R; Murphy, MG; Boyle, J; Dijk, DJ

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Histamine and dopamine contribute to the maintenance of wakefulness. Objective This study aims to conduct an exploratory analysis of the effects of 10 and 50 mg of MK-0249, a novel histamine subtype-3 receptor inverse agonist, and 200 mg of modafinil, a presumed dopaminergic compound, on EEG power spectra during sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep. Methods A total of 25 healthy men were recruited to a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. EEG power spectra,...

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of [125I]I-TSA as a brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subtype imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Tatsumi, Ryo; Fujio, Masakazu; Katayama, Jiro; Magata, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Some in vitro investigations have suggested that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α 7 subtype is implicated in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and others. Recently, we developed (R)-3'-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'-[1',3'] oxazolidin]-2'-one (Br-TSA), which has a high affinity and selectivity for α 7 nAChRs. Therefore we synthesized (R)-3'-(5-[ 125 I]iodothiophen-2-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'- [1',3']oxazolidin]-2'-one ([ 125 I]I-TSA) and evaluated its potential for the in vivo detection of α 7 nAChR in brain. Methods: In vitro binding affinity of I-TSA was measured in rat brain homogenates. Radioiodination was accomplished by a Br-I exchange reaction. Biodistribution studies were undertaken in mice by tail vein injection of [ 125 I]I-TSA. In vivo receptor blocking studies were carried out by treating mice with methyllycaconitine (MLA; 5 nmol/5 μl, i.c.v.) or nonradioactive I-TSA (50 μmol/kg, i.v.). Results: I-TSA exhibited a high affinity and selectivity for the α 7 nAChR (K i for α 7 nAChR=0.54 nM). Initial uptake in the brain was high (4.42 %dose/g at 5 min), and the clearance of radioactivity was relatively slow in the hippocampus (α 7 nAChR-rich region) and was rather rapid in the cerebellum (α 7 nAChR poor region). The hippocampus to cerebellum uptake ratio was 0.9 at 5 min postinjection, but it was increased to 1.8 at 60 min postinjection. Although the effect was not statistically significant, administration of I-TSA and MLA decreased the accumulation of radioactivity in hippocampus. Conclusion: Despite its high affinity and selectivity, [ 125 I]I-TSA does not appear to be a suitable tracer for in vivo α 7 nAChR receptor imaging studies due to its high nonspecific binding. Further structural optimization is needed

  14. Correlated receptor transport processes buffer single-cell heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberger, Stefan M; Unger, Anne L; Legewie, Stefan; Lymperopoulos, Konstantinos; Klingmüller, Ursula; Eils, Roland; Herten, Dirk-Peter

    2017-09-01

    Cells typically vary in their response to extracellular ligands. Receptor transport processes modulate ligand-receptor induced signal transduction and impact the variability in cellular responses. Here, we quantitatively characterized cellular variability in erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) trafficking at the single-cell level based on live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling. Using ensembles of single-cell mathematical models reduced parameter uncertainties and showed that rapid EpoR turnover, transport of internalized EpoR back to the plasma membrane, and degradation of Epo-EpoR complexes were essential for receptor trafficking. EpoR trafficking dynamics in adherent H838 lung cancer cells closely resembled the dynamics previously characterized by mathematical modeling in suspension cells, indicating that dynamic properties of the EpoR system are widely conserved. Receptor transport processes differed by one order of magnitude between individual cells. However, the concentration of activated Epo-EpoR complexes was less variable due to the correlated kinetics of opposing transport processes acting as a buffering system.

  15. Correlated receptor transport processes buffer single-cell heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Kallenberger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cells typically vary in their response to extracellular ligands. Receptor transport processes modulate ligand-receptor induced signal transduction and impact the variability in cellular responses. Here, we quantitatively characterized cellular variability in erythropoietin receptor (EpoR trafficking at the single-cell level based on live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling. Using ensembles of single-cell mathematical models reduced parameter uncertainties and showed that rapid EpoR turnover, transport of internalized EpoR back to the plasma membrane, and degradation of Epo-EpoR complexes were essential for receptor trafficking. EpoR trafficking dynamics in adherent H838 lung cancer cells closely resembled the dynamics previously characterized by mathematical modeling in suspension cells, indicating that dynamic properties of the EpoR system are widely conserved. Receptor transport processes differed by one order of magnitude between individual cells. However, the concentration of activated Epo-EpoR complexes was less variable due to the correlated kinetics of opposing transport processes acting as a buffering system.

  16. ERK, Akt, and STAT5 are differentially activated by the two growth hormone receptors subtypes of a teleost fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey eKittilson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the teleost fish, rainbow trout, possesses two growth hormone receptor (GHR subtypes that display distinct ligand binding and agonist-induced regulation features. In this study, we used Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells stably transfected individually with the two trout GHR subtypes, GHR1 and GHR2, to elucidate receptor-effector pathway linkages. Growth hormone (GH stimulated rapid (5-10 min phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, JAk2, and STAT5 in both GHR1- and GHR2-expressing cells; however; STAT5 was activated to a greater extent through GHR1 than through GHR2, whereas ERK and Akt were activated to a greater through GHR2 than through GHR1. Although blockade of the ERK pathway had no effect on the activation of Akt, inhibition of PI3k-Akt partially prevented activation of ERK, suggesting cross-talk between the ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways. JAK2 inhibition completely blocked activation of ERK, Akt, and STAT5, suggesting that all of these pathways link to GHR1 and GHR2 via JAK2. These findings establish important receptor-effector pathway linkages and suggest that the GHR subtypes of teleost fish may be functionally distinct.

  17. Long-Term Activation upon Brief Exposure to Xanomleline Is Unique to M1 and M4 Subtypes of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantrůčková, Eva; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, Esam E.; Jakubík, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Xanomeline is an agonist endowed with functional preference for M1/M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It also exhibits both reversible and wash-resistant binding to and activation of these receptors. So far the mechanisms of xanomeline selectivity remain unknown. To address this question we employed microfluorometric measurements of intracellular calcium levels and radioligand binding to investigate differences in the short- and long-term effects of xanomeline among muscarinic receptors expressed individually in Chinese hamster ovary cells. 1/One-min exposure of cells to xanomeline markedly increased intracellular calcium at hM1 and hM4, and to a lesser extent at hM2 and hM3 muscarinic receptors for more than 1 hour. 2/Unlike the classic agonists carbachol, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine 10-min exposure to xanomeline did not cause internalization of any receptor subtype. 3/Wash-resistant xanomeline selectively prevented further increase in intracellular calcium by carbachol at hM1 and hM4 receptors. 4/After transient activation xanomeline behaved as a long-term antagonist at hM5 receptors. 5/The antagonist N-methylscopolamine (NMS) reversibly blocked activation of hM1 through hM4 receptors by xanomeline. 6/NMS prevented formation of xanomeline wash-resistant binding and activation at hM2 and hM4 receptors and slowed them at hM1, hM3 and hM5 receptors. Our results show commonalities of xanomeline reversible and wash-resistant binding and short-time activation among the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. However long-term receptor activation takes place in full only at hM1 and hM4 receptors. Moreover xanomeline displays higher efficacy at hM1 and hM4 receptors in primary phasic intracellular calcium release. These findings suggest the existence of particular activation mechanisms specific to these two receptors. PMID:24558448

  18. Expression and distribution patterns of Mas-related gene receptor subtypes A-H in the mouse intestine: inflammation-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Leela Rani; Buckinx, Roeland; Favoreel, Herman; Cox, Eric; Adriaensen, Dirk; Van Nassauw, Luc; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors constitute a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that are implicated in nociception, and are as such considered potential targets for pain therapies. Furthermore, some Mrgs have been suggested to play roles in the regulation of inflammatory responses to non-immunological activation of mast cells and in mast cell-neuron communication. Except for MrgD, E and F, whose changed expression has been revealed during inflammation in the mouse intestine in our earlier studies, information concerning the remaining cloned mouse Mrg subtypes in the gastrointestinal tract during (patho) physiological conditions is lacking. Therefore, the present study aimed at identifying the presence and putative function of these remaining cloned Mrg subtypes (n = 19) in the (inflamed) mouse intestine. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, quantitative-PCR and multiple immunofluorescence staining with commercial and newly custom-developed antibodies, we compared the ileum and the related dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of non-inflamed mice with those of two models of intestinal inflammation, i.e., intestinal schistosomiasis and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis. In the non-inflamed ileum and DRG, the majority of the Mrg subtypes examined were sparsely expressed, showing a neuron-specific expression pattern. However, significant changes in the expression patterns of multiple Mrg subtypes were observed in the inflamed ileum; for instance, MrgA4, MrgB2and MrgB8 were expressed in a clearly increased number of enteric sensory neurons and in nerve fibers in the lamina propria, while de novo expression of MrgB10 was observed in enteric sensory neurons and in newly recruited mucosal mast cells (MMCs). The MrgB10 expressing MMCs were found to be in close contact with nerve fibers in the lamina propria. This is the first report on the expression of all cloned Mrg receptor subtypes in the (inflamed) mouse intestine. The observed changes in the expression and

  19. Same-Single-Cell Analysis of Pacemaker-Specific Markers in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Subtypes Classified by Electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechikov, Sergey; Copaciu, Raul; Gluck, Jessica M.; Deng, Wenbin; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chan, James W.; Lieu, Deborah K.

    2018-01-01

    Insights into the expression of pacemaker-specific markers in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocyte subtypes can facilitate the enrichment and track differentiation and maturation of hiPSC-derived pacemaker-like cardiomyocytes. To date, no study has directly assessed gene expression in each pacemaker-, atria-, and ventricular-like cardiomyocyte subtype derived from hiPSCs since currently the subtypes of these immature cardiomyocytes can only be identified by action potential profiles. Traditional acquisition of action potentials using patch-clamp recordings renders the cells unviable for subsequent analysis. We circumvented these issues by acquiring the action potential profile of a single cell optically followed by assessment of protein expression through immunostaining in that same cell. Our same-single-cell analysis for the first time revealed expression of proposed pacemaker-specific markers—hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN)4 channel and Islet (Isl)1—at the protein level in all three hiPSC-derived cardiomyocyte subtypes. HCN4 expression was found to be higher in pacemaker-like hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes than atrial- and ventricular-like subtypes but its downregulation over time in all subtypes diminished the differences. Isl1 expression in pacemaker-like hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes was initially not statistically different than the contractile subtypes but did become statistically higher than ventricular-like cells with time. Our observations suggest that although HCN4 and Isl1 are differentially expressed in hiPSC-derived pacemaker-like relative to ventricular-like cardiomyocytes, these markers alone are insufficient in identifying hiPSC-derived pacemaker-like cardiomyocytes. PMID:27434649

  20. Histamine induces the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human astrocytic cultures via H1-receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aarti; Vasanthan, Vishnu; Fu, Wen; Fahlman, Richard P; MacTavish, David; Jhamandas, Jack H

    2016-05-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein within the brain is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One strategy to facilitate Aβ clearance from the brain is to promote Aβ catabolism. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a member of the family of Zn(+2)-containing endoproteases, known to be expressed and secreted by astrocytes, is capable of degrading Aβ. Histamine, a major aminergic brain neurotransmitter, stimulates the production of MMP-9 in keratinocytes through the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). In the present study, we show that histamine evokes a concentration- and calcium-dependent release of MMP-9 from human astrocytic U373 cells and primary cultures of human and rat astrocytes through the H1R subtype. Activation of H1R on astrocytes elevated intracellular levels of Ca(2+) that was accompanied by time-dependent increases in MAP kinase p44/p42 and PKC. In-cell western blots revealed dose-dependent increases in both enzymes, confirming involvement of these signal transduction pathways. We next investigated the extent of recombinant human MMP-9 (rhMMP-9) proteolytic activity on soluble oligomeric Aβ (soAβ). Mass spectrometry demonstrated time-dependent cleavage of soAβ (20 μM), but not another amyloidogenic protein amylin, upon incubation with rhMMP-9 (100 nM) at 1, 4 and 17 h. Furthermore, Western blots showed a shift in soAβ equilibrium toward lower order, less toxic monomeric species. In conclusion, both MAPK p44/p42 and PKC pathways appear to be involved in histamine-upregulated MMP-9 release via H1Rs in astrocytes. Furthermore, MMP-9 appears to cleave soAβ into less toxic monomeric species. Given the key role of histamine in MMP-9 release, this neurotransmitter may serve as a potential therapeutic target for AD.

  1. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Subtype 8 Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension Through Ameliorating Vascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiqiang; Wang, Bin; Lin, Shaoyang; Zhang, Hexuan; Li, Yingsha; Wei, Xing; Cui, Yuanting; Wei, Xiao; Lu, Zongshi; Gao, Peng; Li, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2017-08-02

    Environmental cold-induced hypertension is common, but how to treat cold-induced hypertension remains an obstacle. Transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a mild cold-sensing nonselective cation channel that is activated by menthol. Little is known about the effect of TRPM8 activation by menthol on mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and the vascular function in cold-induced hypertension. Primary vascular smooth muscle cells from wild-type or Trpm8 -/- mice were cultured. In vitro, we confirmed that sarcoplasmic reticulum-resident TRPM8 participated in the regulation of cellular and mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis in the vascular smooth muscle cells. TRPM8 activation by menthol antagonized angiotensin II induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and excess reactive oxygen species generation by preserving pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, which hindered reactive oxygen species-triggered Ca 2+ influx and the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. In vivo, long-term noxious cold stimulation dramatically increased vasoconstriction and blood pressure. The activation of TRPM8 by dietary menthol inhibited vascular reactive oxygen species generation, vasoconstriction, and lowered blood pressure through attenuating excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediated the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase in a TRPM8-dependent manner. These effects of menthol were further validated in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. Long-term dietary menthol treatment targeting and preserving mitochondrial function may represent a nonpharmaceutical measure for environmental noxious cold-induced hypertension. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Lysophosphatidic Acid signals through specific lysophosphatidic Acid receptor subtypes to control key regenerative responses of human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Joju; Headen, Karmel V; Ogunleye, Afolabi O; Perry, Greg A; Wilwerding, Terrence M; Parrish, Lawrence C; McVaney, Timothy P; Mattson, John S; Cerutis, D Roselyn

    2009-08-01

    We showed that the pluripotent platelet growth factor and mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) controls key regenerative responses of human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs) and positively modulates their responses to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This study determined which LPA receptor (LPAR) subtype(s) LPA signals through to stimulate mitogenic extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling and chemotaxis and to elicit intracellular Ca(2+) increases in GFs and PDLFs because many healing responses are calcium-dependent. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase was determined using Western blotting with an antibody to phosphorylated ERK1/2. Migration responses were measured using a microchemotaxis chamber. GF and PDLF intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization responses to multiple LPA species and LPAR subtype-specific agonists were measured by using a cell-permeable fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator dye. LPA stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation via LPA(1)(-3). For GFs, LPA(1) preferentially elicited chemotaxis, and LPA(1-3) for PDLFs, as confirmed using subtype-specific agonists. Elevation of intracellular calcium seems to be mediated through LPA(1) and LPA(3), with little, if any, contribution from LPA(2). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that LPA signals through specific LPAR subtypes to stimulate human oral fibroblast regenerative responses. These data, in conjunction with our previous findings showing that LPA modulates GF and PDLF responses to PDGF, suggest that LPA is a factor of emerging importance to oral wound healing.

  3. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 has critical roles in regulation of the endocrine system and social behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi-Tokita, M; Yoshida, T; Kageyama, S; Kawata, M; Kawauchi, A

    2018-03-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGluR7) is one of the group III mGluRs, which are negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gi/Go proteins and localised to presynaptic active zones of the mammalian central nervous system. We previously reported that mGluR7 is essential for intermale aggression and amygdala-dependent fear learning. To elucidate the role of mGluR7 in the neuroendocrine system, we performed biochemical analyses and found a significant reduction of testosterone levels in mGluR7 knockout (KO) mice. Testosterone replacement restored intermale aggressive behaviour in castrated wild-type mice to the level of gonadally intact wild-type mice. However, given the same dosage of testosterone replacement, mGluR7 KO mice showed almost no aggressive behaviour. These results indicate that reduction of plasma testosterone is unrelated to the deficit in intermale aggression in mGluR7 KO mice. Social investigating behaviour of intact mGluR7 KO mice also differed from that of wild-type mice; e.g. the KO mice showing less frequent anogenital sniffing and more frequent grooming behaviour. Testosterone replacement increased anogenital sniffing and grooming behaviour in castrated mGluR7 KO mice, while the differences were still present between castrated wild-type mice and KO mice after both underwent testosterone replacement. These results imply that reduction of plasma testosterone may partially inhibit social investigating behaviours in intact mGluR7 KO mice. Furthermore, castrated mGluR7 KO mice have smaller seminal vesicles than those of castrated wild-type mice, although seminal vesicle weights were normal in intact mice. These observations suggest that, besides testicular testosterone, some other hormone levels may be dysregulated in mGluR7 KO mice, and indicate a critical role of mGluR7 in the endocrine system. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that mGluR7 is essential for the regulation of the endocrine system, in addition to innate behaviours

  4. The brain GABA-benzodiazepine receptor alpha-5 subtype in autism spectrum disorder: a pilot [(11)C]Ro15-4513 positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Maria Andreina; Horder, Jamie; Myers, Jim; Coghlan, Suzanne; Stokes, Paul; Erritzoe, David; Howes, Oliver; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Murphy, Declan; Nutt, David

    2013-05-01

    GABA (gamma-amino-butyric-acid) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It has been proposed that the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are the result of deficient GABA neurotransmission, possibly including reduced expression of GABAA receptors. However, this hypothesis has not been directly tested in living adults with ASD. In this preliminary investigation, we used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the benzodiazepine receptor PET ligand [(11)C]Ro15-4513 to measure α1 and α5 subtypes of the GABAA receptor levels in the brain of three adult males with well-characterized high-functioning ASD compared with three healthy matched volunteers. We found significantly lower [(11)C]Ro15-4513 binding throughout the brain of participants with ASD (p < 0.0001) compared with controls. Planned region of interest analyses also revealed significant reductions in two limbic brain regions, namely the amygdala and nucleus accumbens bilaterally. Further analysis suggested that these results were driven by lower levels of the GABAA α5 subtype. These results provide initial evidence of a GABAA α5 deficit in ASD and support further investigations of the GABA system in this disorder. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neurodevelopmental Disorders'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping ofSalmonellaTennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Boxrud, David; Rankin, Shelly; Downe, Francis; Lovchik, Judith; Gibson, Jim; Erdman, Matt; Saeed, A Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    In 2007, a nationwide Salmonella Tennessee outbreak occurred via contaminated peanut butter. Here, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing method for S . Tennessee to determine the clonal subtypes of S . Tennessee that were associated with the peanut butter outbreak. One seventy-six S . Tennessee isolates from various sources, including humans, animals, food, and the environment, were analyzed by using the SNP technique. Eighty-four representative SNP markers were selected by comparing the sequences of three representative S . Tennessee strains with different multi-locus sequence typing and variable number tandem repeats from our collection. The set of eighty-four SNP markers showed 100% typeability for the 176 strains, with the nucleotide diversity ranging from 0.011 to 0.107 (mean = 0.049 ± 0.018, median = 0.044) for each marker. Among the four clades and nine subtypes generated by the SNP typing, subtype 1, which comprised 142 S . Tennessee strains, was the most predominant. The dominance of single-strain clones in subtype 1 revealed that S . Tennessee is highly clonal regardless of outbreak-association, source, or period of isolation, suggesting the presence of an S . Tennessee strain prototype. Notably, a minimum 18 SNP set was able to determine clonal S . Tennessee strains with similar discrimination power, potentially allowing more rapid and economic strain genotyping for both outbreaks and sporadic cases. The SNP-typing method described here might aid the investigation of the epidemiology and microevolution of pathogenic bacteria by discriminating between outbreak-related and sporadic clinical cases. In addition, this approach enables us to understand the population structure of the bacterial subtypes involved in the outbreak.

  6. The Motion of a Single Molecule, the Lambda-Receptor, in the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Dreyer, Jakob Kisbye; Grego, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Using optical tweezers and single particle tracking, we have revealed the motion of a single protein, the lambda-receptor, in the outer membrane of living Escherichia coli bacteria. We genetically modified the lambda-receptor placing a biotin on an extracellular site of the receptor in vivo...

  7. Rescue of amyloid-Beta-induced inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by a peptide homologous to the nicotine binding domain of the alpha 7 subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur A Nery

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by brain accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ and by loss of cholinergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. Recent evidence indicates that memory loss and cognitive decline in AD correlate better with the amount of soluble Aβ than with the extent of amyloid plaque deposits in affected brains. Inhibition of nAChRs by soluble Aβ40 is suggested to contribute to early cholinergic dysfunction in AD. Using phage display screening, we have previously identified a heptapeptide, termed IQ, homologous to most nAChR subtypes, binding with nanomolar affinity to soluble Aβ40 and blocking Aβ-induced inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced currents in PC12 cells expressing α7 nAChRs. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis and whole-cell current recording, we have now defined the amino acids in IQ essential for reversal of Aβ40 inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced responses in PC12 cells, mediated by α7 subtypes and other endogenously expressed nAChRs. We further investigated the effects of soluble Aβ, IQ and analogues of IQ on α3β4 nAChRs recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. Results show that nanomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ40 potently inhibit the function of α3β4 nAChRs, and that subsequent addition of IQ or its analogues does not reverse this effect. However, co-application of IQ makes the inhibition of α3β4 nAChRs by Aβ40 reversible. These findings indicate that Aβ40 inhibits different subtypes of nAChRs by interacting with specific receptor domains homologous to the IQ peptide, suggesting that IQ may be a lead for novel drugs to block the inhibition of cholinergic function in AD.

  8. The ability of PAM50 risk of recurrence score to predict 10-year distant recurrence in hormone receptor-positive postmenopausal women with special histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Eriksen, Jens Ole

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has been validated in randomized clinical trials to predict 10-year distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Here, we examine the ability of Prosigna for predicting DR at 10 years in a subgroup of postmenop......INTRODUCTION: The Prosigna-PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) score has been validated in randomized clinical trials to predict 10-year distant recurrence (DR) in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Here, we examine the ability of Prosigna for predicting DR at 10 years in a subgroup......, mucinous, papillary, secretory, tubular, neuroendocrine) who were tested with Prosigna. Fine and Gray models were applied to determine the prognostic value of the Prosigna-PAM50 ROR score for DR special subtypes as compared to IDC. RESULTS: Median follow-up for DR was 9.2 year and for OS 15.2 year. The 10...... of the continuous ROR score with risk of DR for both IDC and the special subtypes (IDC: p PAM50 continuous ROR score added significant prognostic information for 10-year DR in postmenopausal patients with special...

  9. Characterization of the differential coregulator binding signatures of the Retinoic Acid Receptor subtypes upon (ant)agonist action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miro Estruch, Ignacio; Melchers, Diana; Houtman, René; Haan, de Laura H.J.; Groten, John P.; Louisse, Jochem; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha (RARα/NR1B1), Retinoic Acid Receptor beta (RARβ/NR1B2) and Retinoic Acid Receptor gamma (RARγ/NR1B3) are transcription factors regulating gene expression in response to retinoids. Within the RAR genomic pathways, binding of RARs to coregulators is a key intermediate

  10. Characterization of a series of anabaseine-derived compounds reveals that the 3-(4)-dimethylaminocinnamylidine derivative is a selective agonist at neuronal nicotinic alpha 7/125I-alpha-bungarotoxin receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Meyer, E M; Henry, J C; Muraskin, S I; Kem, W R; Papke, R L

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of the naturally occurring, nicotinic agonist anabaseine and novel derivatives has shown that these compounds have cytoprotective and memory-enhancing effects. The hypothesis that these arise at least in part through actions on brain nicotinic receptors was evaluated by examining the ability of these compounds to displace the binding of nicotinic ligands and to affect the function of the alpha 4 beta 2 and alpha 7 receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The derivative 3-(4)-dimethylaminocinnamylidine anabaseine (DMAC) was found to be a selective alpha 7 receptor agonist; it was more potent than nicotine, acetylcholine, anabaseine, and other derivatives at activating the alpha 7 receptor subtype, while displaying little agonist activity at alpha 4 beta 2 and other receptor subtypes. Compared with anabaseine and the other derivatives, DMAC was the most potent at displacing 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin binding (putative alpha 7) and the least potent at displacing [3H]cytisine binding (putative alpha 4 beta 2) to brain membranes. Independently of agonist activities, all of the novel compounds displayed secondary inhibitory activity at both receptor subtypes. At the alpha 4 beta 2 receptor subtype, inhibition by the 3-(2,4)-dimethoxybenzylidene derivative was enhanced by coapplication of acetylcholine, suggesting a noncompetitive form of inhibition. Anabaseine and nicotine prolonged the time course of activation of alpha 4 beta 2 receptors, compared with acetylcholine, suggesting sequential channel-blocking activity. As selective agonists, anabaseine derivatives such as DMAC may be useful for elucidating the function of alpha 7 nicotinic receptors, including their potential role(s) in the cytoprotective and memory-enhancing effects of nicotinic agents.

  11. [3H]WB4101 labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor subtype in rat brain. Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Creese, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask, [ 3 H]-2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane ([ 3 H]WB4101) can selectively label 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. Serotonin exhibits high affinity (Ki = 2.5 nM) and monophasic competition for [ 3 H] WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. We have found a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between the affinities of a number of serotonergic and nonserotonergic compounds at [ 3 H]WB4101-binding sites in the presence of 30 nM prazosin and [ 3 H] lysergic acid diethylamide ([ 3 H]LSD)-labeled 5-HT1 serotonin receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Despite similar pharmacological profiles, distribution studies indicate that, in the presence of 5 mM MgSO4, the Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 is significantly lower than the Bmax of [ 3 H]LSD in various brain regions. WB4101 competition for [ 3 H] LSD-labeled 5-HT1 receptors fits best to a computer-derived model assuming two binding sites, with the KH for WB4101 being similar to the KD of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding derived from saturation experiments. This suggests that [ 3 H]WB4101 labels only one of the subtypes of the 5-HT1 serotonin receptors labeled by [ 3 H]LSD. The selective 5-HT1A serotonin receptor antagonist, spiperone, and the selective 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline, exhibit high affinity and monophasic competition for [ 3 H]WB4101 but compete for multiple [ 3 H]LSD 5-HT1 binding sites. These data indicate that [ 3 H]WB4101 selectively labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, whereas [ 3 H] LSD appears to label both the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT1B serotonin receptor subtypes. The divalent cations, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were found to markedly increase the affinity and Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. Conversely, the guanine nucleotides guanylylimidodiphosphate and GTP, but not the adenosine nucleotide ATP, markedly reduce the Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding

  12. Application of a yeast estrogen screen in non-biomarker species Varicorhinus barbatulus fish with two estrogen receptor subtypes to assess xenoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Chen, Chung-Yuan; Chang, Whei-Meih

    2007-06-01

    Xenoestrogens can interfere with normal estrogen signaling by competitively binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) and activating transcription of target genes. In this study, we cloned the estrogen receptor alpha (vbERalpha) and beta 2 (vbERbeta2) genes from liver of the indigenous Taiwanese cyprinid fish Varicorhinus barbatulus and tested the direct impact of several xenoestrogens on these ERs. Transcriptional activity of xenoestrogens was measured by the enzymatic activity of estrogen responsive element (ERE)-containing beta-galactosidase in a yeast reporter system. The xenoestrogens tested were phenol derivatives, DDT-related substances, phthalic acid esters, and polychlorinated biphenyls, with 17beta-estradiol (E2) as a subjective standard. The phenol derivatives [4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) and bisphenol A (BPA)] exhibited significant dose-dependent responses in both ligand potency and ligand efficiency. Consistent with yeast assays using human or rainbow trout ERs, we observed a general subtype preference in that vbERalpha displayed higher relative potencies and efficiencies than vbERbeta2, although our assays induced a stronger response for xenoestrogens than did human or trout ERs. Whereas 4-NP and 4-t-OP have similar EC50 values relative to E2 for both ER subtypes, the strong estrogenic response of BPA markedly differentiates vbERalpha from vbERbeta2, suggesting possible species-specific BPA sensitivity. We report that the ameliorative yeast tool is readily applicable for indigenous wildlife studies of the bio-toxic influence of xenoestrogens with wildlife-specific estrogen receptors.

  13. Single Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Differential Identification of Human and Avian Influenza Virus Types, Subtypes, and Emergent Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes . Informational Specificity of RPM-Flu: Influenza Virus Genotypes and Resistance to Antiviral Agents Subtype A...Corynebacterium, Francisella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Legionella, Moraxella, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma, Neisseria, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus , Staphylococcus...catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus mitis, and

  14. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype : a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Van Gils, Carla H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17443068X; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

  15. Gene expression analyses of vitellogenin, choriogenin and estrogen receptor subtypes in the livers of male medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to equine estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Uchida, Masaya; Koyanagi, Akiko; Kagami, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Teruhiko; Nakao, Ayami; Yamamoto, Ryoko; Ichikawa, Nobuhiro; Tominaga, Nobuaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated transcriptional profiles of estrogen-responsive genes, such as vitellogenins (Vtg1 and Vtg2), choriogenins (ChgL and ChgH) and estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα, ERβ1, and ERβ2), in the liver of male medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) that were exposed to six equine estrogens (1-300 ng l(-1) ) for 3 days. Our quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that the expression levels of hepatic Vtg, Chg and ERα genes in male medaka responded to various types and concentrations of equine estrogens. The estrogenic potentials of the tested chemicals were in the order of equilin > 17β-estradiol > equilenin > 17β-dihydroequilin > 17β-dihydroequilenin > 17α-dihydroequilin > 17α-dihydroequilenin, showing the higher estrogenic potential of equilin than that of 17β-estradiol. Our results also showed that the estrogenicities of 17β-dihydroequilin and 17β-dihydroequilenin were more potent than that of 17α-dihydroequilin and 17α-dihydroequilenin. Furthermore, in gene expression analyses of hepatic ER subtypes, observations were made to note that 17β-estradiol and equilin induced ERα transcription in male medaka, and the ERα transcription level had significantly positive correlations with the expression of Vtg and Chg genes. In contrast, in the same 17β-estradiol and equilin treatment groups, it was shown that the transcription levels of hepatic ERβ1 and/or ERβ2 had significantly negative correlations with the expression of Vtg and Chg genes. These results suggested some potential involvement of the ER subtypes in the regulation of Vtg and Chg gene expressions in the liver. This is the first report describing the comprehensive analyses of in vivo estrogenicity of the equine estrogens in male medaka. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  17. Role of nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor subtypes in the learning and expression of alcohol-seeking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Emily A.; Dreumont, Sarah E.; Cunningham, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    These studies examined the roles of dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors within the nucleus accumbens (Acb) in the acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced (2 g/kg) conditioned place preference (CPP) in adult male DBA/2J mice. Bilateral intra-Acb infusions of the D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.05, 0.5 µg/side) or the D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride (0.5–5.0 µg/side) were administered 30 min before each ethanol conditioning trial (acquisition studies) or be...

  18. Acute alertness-promoting effects of a novel histamine subtype-3 receptor inverse agonist in healthy sleep-deprived male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, R; Palcza, J; Renger, J J; Calder, N; Cerchio, K; Gottesdiener, K; Hargreaves, R; Dijk, D J; Boyle, J; Murphy, M G

    2010-12-01

    The alertness-promoting effect of MK-0249 (10 or 50 mg), a histamine subtype-3 receptor (HRH3) inverse agonist (IA), was evaluated in the stimulant reference sleep deprivation model (SRSDM) using a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and modafinil- (200 mg) controlled, four-period crossover design in 24 healthy young men. The two primary hypotheses were related to sleep latency (first appearance of one epoch of stage 2, 3, or 4 or REM sleep, as detected using polysomnography (PSG)) at 8:00 AM on day 2. Statistically significant increases in sleep latency were observed in association with the use of modafinil 200 mg (9.07 min; P Sleep latency was higher when averaged over all MWT time points (P modafinil and for both doses of MK-0249). The alertness-promoting effect with the use of MK-0249 in the SRSDM suggests that HRH3 IAs may be effective in disorders involving excessive somnolence.

  19. Comparative distribution of nicotinic receptor subtypes during development, adulthood and aging: an autoradiographic study in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribollet, E; Bertrand, D; Marguerat, A; Raggenbass, M

    2004-01-01

    The distribution in the rat brain of high affinity nicotinic heteromeric acetylcholine receptors and of low affinity nicotinic, alpha7-containing, homomeric receptors was studied using in vitro light microscopic autoradiography. As ligands, we used [3H]epibatidine, or [125I]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin, respectively. In adult animals, the two types of binding sites were widely distributed in many different brain structures, including the brainstem, cerebellum, mesencephalic structures, limbic system and cortex, but their anatomical distribution differed markedly. Only in rare instances could a co-localization be observed, for example in the superficial layer of the superior colliculus. In developing animals, both types of labeling were strongly expressed during embryonic and postnatal phases. Their distributions were qualitatively similar to those observed in adult animals, with a few noticeable exceptions in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and brain stem. In aging animals, neither the distribution nor the density of nicotinic binding sites was significantly altered. Our conclusions are the following. (a) There is little overlap in the distribution of heteromeric and alpha7-containing homomeric nicotinic receptors in the rat brain. (b) The abundance of neuronal nicotinic receptors during embryonic and postnatal development suggests that they may play a role in the establishment of neuronal connectivity. (c) The expression of neuronal nicotinic receptors is unaltered in middle aged animals, suggesting that in the rat these receptors do not play any major role in aging process.

  20. Relationships Between MRI Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) Lexicon Descriptors and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Internal Enhancement is Associated with Luminal B Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Zhang, Jing; Baker, Jay A; Soo, Mary S; Johnson, Karen S; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between breast MRI findings using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon descriptors and breast cancer molecular subtypes. In this retrospective, IRB-approved, single institution study MRIs from 278 women with breast cancer were reviewed by one of six fellowship-trained breast imagers. Readers reported BI-RADS descriptors for breast masses (shape, margin, internal enhancement) and non-mass enhancement (distribution, internal enhancement). Pathology reports were reviewed for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Surrogates were used to categorize tumors by molecular subtype: ER/PR+, HER2- (luminal A); ER/PR+, HER2+ (luminal B); ER/PR-, HER2+ (HER2); ER/PR/HER2- (basal). A univariate logistic regression model was developed to identify associations between BI-RADS descriptors and molecular subtypes. Internal enhancement for mass and non-mass enhancement was combined for analysis. There was an association between mass shape and basal subtype (p = 0.039), which was more frequently round (17.1%) than other subtypes (range: 0-8.3%). In addition, there was an association between mass margin and HER2 subtype (p = 0.040), as HER2 cancers more frequently had a smooth margin (33.3%) than other subtypes (range: 4.2-17.1%). Finally, there was an association between internal enhancement and luminal B subtype (p = 0.003), with no cases of luminal B cancer demonstrating homogeneous internal enhancement versus a range of 10.9-23.5% for other subtypes. There are associations between breast cancer molecular subtypes and lesion appearance on MRI using the BI-RADS lexicon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Expression analysis of dopamine receptor subtypes in normal human pituitaries, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and somatotropinomas, and the association between dopamine and somatostatin receptors with clinical response to octreotide-LAR in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Leonardo Vieira; Machado, Evelyn de O; Luque, Raul M; Taboada, Giselle F; Marcondes, Jorge B; Chimelli, Leila M C; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Niemeyer, Paulo; de Carvalho, Denise P; Kineman, Rhonda D; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2009-06-01

    Dopamine receptor (DR) and somatostatin receptor subtype expression in pituitary adenomas may predict the response to postsurgical therapies. Our objectives were to assess and compare the mRNA levels of DR1-5 and somatostatin receptors 1-5 in normal pituitaries (NPs), nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), and somatotropinomas. In addition, we determined whether the level of DR expression correlates with the in vivo response to octreotide-LAR in acromegalic patients. Eight NPs, 30 NFPAs, and 39 somatotropinomas were analyzed for receptor mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. The DR2 short variant was estimated as the DR2 long/DR2 total (DR2T). The relationship between DR expression and the postsurgical response to octreotide-LAR was assessed in 19 of the acromegalic patients. DR3 was not detected. The relationship between expression levels of DR subtypes in NPs and somatotropinomas was DR2T>DR4>DR5>DR1, whereas in NFPAs, DR2T>DR4>DR1>DR5. The DR2 short variant was the predominant DR2 variant in the majority of samples. In acromegalics treated with octreotide-LAR, DR1 was negatively correlated with percent GH reduction (3 months: r = -0.67, P = 0.002; and 6 months: r = -0.58, P = 0.009), and DR5 was positively correlated with percent IGF-I reduction (3 months: r = 0.55, P = 0.01; and 6 months: r = 0.47, P = 0.04). DR2 is the predominant DR subtype in NPs, NFPAs, and somatotropinomas. The fact that DR1, DR4, and DR5 are also expressed in many adenomas tested suggests that these receptors might also play a role in the therapeutic impact of postsurgical medical therapies in patients with NFPA and acromegaly. This was supported by the finding that the in vivo response to octreotide-LAR was negatively associated with DR1 and positively associated with DR5.

  2. Development of radiotracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography; Developpement de radiotraceurs pour la visualisation des recepteurs NMDA de sous-type NR2B par tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labas, R

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop new radioactive tracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography. Several compounds including 4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidine and presenting interesting in vivo biological properties were the object of a labelling with a positrons emitter atom ({sup 11}C or {sup 18}F)

  3. Role of Dopamine Receptors Subtypes, D1-Like and D2-Like, within the Nucleus Accumbens Subregions, Core and Shell, on Memory Consolidation in the One-Trial Inhibitory Avoidance Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio; Oliverio, Alberto; Mele, Andrea; De Leonibus, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrated that dopamine within the nucleus accumbens mediates consolidation of both associative and nonassociative memories. However, the specific contribution of the nucleus accumbens subregions, core and shell, and of D1 and D2 receptors subtypes has not been yet clarified. The aim of this study was, therefore, to directly…

  4. Importance of Alpha-adrenergic Receptor Subtypes in Regulating of Airways Tonus at Patients with Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Pellumb; Ilazi, Ali; Jakupi, Arianit; Bexheti, Sadi; Islami, Hilmi

    2014-06-01

    In this work, effect of Tamsulosin hydrochloride as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B- adrenergic receptor and effect of Salbutamol as agonist of beta2- adrenergic receptor in patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactibility was studied. Parameters of the lung function are determined by Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was also calculated. Tamsulosin was administered in per os way as a preparation in the form of the capsules with a brand name of "Prolosin", producer: Niche Generics Limited, Hitchin, Herts. Results gained from this research show that blockage of alpha1A and alpha1B- adrenergic receptor with Tamsulosin hydrochloride (0.4 mg and 0.8 mg in per os way) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree in comparison to the inhalation of Salbutamol as agonist of beta2- adrenergic receptor (2 inh. x 0.2 mg), (p mechanism which causes reaction in patients with increased bronchial reactibility, in comparison to agonists of beta2 - adrenergic receptor which emphasizes their significant action in the reduction of specific resistance of airways.

  5. Role of toll like receptors in irritable bowel syndrome: differential mucosal immune activation according to the disease subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Belmonte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder whose pathogenesis is not completely understood. Its high prevalence and the considerable effects on quality of life make IBS a disease with high social cost. Recent studies suggest that low grade mucosal immune activation, increased intestinal permeability and the altered host-microbiota interactions that modulate innate immune response, contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS. However, the understanding of the precise molecular pathophysiology remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: In this study our objective was to evaluate the TLR expression as a key player in the innate immune response, in the colonic mucosa of IBS patients classified into the three main subtypes (with constipation, with diarrhea or mixed. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression was assessed by real time RT-PCR while TLRs protein expression in intestinal epithelial cells was specifically assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Mucosal inflammatory cytokine production was investigated by the multiplex technology. Here we report that the IBS-Mixed subgroup displayed a significant up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the colonic mucosa. Furthermore, these expressions were localized in the epithelial cells, opening new perspectives for a potential role of epithelial cells in host-immune interactions in IBS. In addition, the increased TLR expression in IBS-M patients elicited intracellular signaling pathways resulting in increased expression of the mucosal proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL1β. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first evidence of differential expression of TLR in IBS patients according to the disease subtype. These results offer further support that microflora plays a central role in the complex pathophysiology of IBS providing novel pharmacological targets for this chronic gastrointestinal disorder according to bowel habits.

  6. The detection of the non-M2 muscarinic receptor subtype in the rat heart atria and ventricles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mysliveček, J.; Klein, M.; Nováková, M.; Říčný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 378, č. 1 (2008), s. 103-116 ISSN 0028-1298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : heart * muscarinic receptors * PLC activity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.830, year: 2008

  7. Receptor specificity of subtype H1 influenza A viruses isolated from swine and humans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Rivailler, Pierre; Hossain, Jaber; Carney, Paul; Balish, Amanda; Perry, Ijeoma; Davis, C. Todd; Garten, Rebecca; Shu, Bo; Xu, Xiyan; Klimov, Alexander; Paulson, James C.; Cox, Nancy J.; Swenson, Sabrina; Stevens, James; Vincent, Amy; Gramer, Marie; Donis, Ruben O.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of classical swine influenza viruses receptor specificity preceding the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus was analyzed in glycan microarrays. Classical swine influenza viruses from the α, β, and γ antigenic clusters isolated between 1945 and 2009 revealed a binding profile very similar to that of 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses, with selectivity for α2-6-linked sialosides and very limited binding to α2-3 sialosides. Despite considerable genetic divergence, the ‘human-like’ H1N1 viruses circulating in swine retained strong binding preference for α2-6 sialylated glycans. Interspecies transmission of H1N1 influenza viruses from swine to humans or from humans to swine has not driven selection of viruses with distinct novel receptor binding specificities. Classical swine and human seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses have conserved specificity for similar α2-6-sialoside receptors in spite of long term circulation in separate hosts, suggesting that humans and swine impose analogous selection pressures on the evolution of receptor binding function. PMID:21333316

  8. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  9. Beta amyloid differently modulate nicotinic and muscarinic receptor subtypes which regulate in vitro and in vivo the release of glycine in the rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eZappettini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using both in vitro (hippocampal synaptosomes in superfusion and in vivo (microdialysis approaches we investigated whether and to what extent β amyloid peptide 1-40 (Aβ 1-40 interferes with the cholinergic modulation of the release of glycine (GLY in the rat hippocampus. The nicotine-evoked overflow of endogenous GLY in hippocampal synaptosomes in superfusion was significantly inhibited by Aβ 1-40 (10 nM while increasing the concentration to 100 nM the inhibitory effect did not further increase. Both the Choline (Ch (α7 agonist; 1 mM and the 5-Iodo-A-85380 dihydrochloride (5IA85380, α4β2 agonist; 10 nM-evoked GLY overflow were inhibited by Aβ1-40 at 100 nM but not at 10nM concentrations. The KCl evoked [3H]GLY and [3H]Acetylcholine (ACh overflow were strongly inhibited in presence of oxotremorine; however this inhibitory muscarinic effect was not affected by Aβ1-40. The effects of Aβ1-40 on the administration of nicotine, veratridine, 5IA85380 and PHA 543613 hydrochloride (PHA543613 (a selective agonist of α7 subtypes on hippocampal endogenous GLY release in vivo were also studied. Aβ 1-40 significantly reduced (at 10 μM but not at 1 μM the nicotine evoked in vivo release of GLY. Aβ 1-40 (at 10 μM but not at 1 μM significantly inhibited the PHA543613 (1 mM-elicited GLY overflow while was ineffective on the GLY overflow evoked by 5IA85380 (1 mM. Aβ 40-1 (10 μM did not produce any inhibitory effect on nicotine evoked GLY overflow both in the in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results indicate that a the cholinergic modulation of the release of GLY occurs by the activation of both α7 and α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs as well as by the activation of inhibitory muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and b Aβ 1-40 can modulate cholinergic evoked GLY release exclusively through the interaction with α7 and the α4β2 nAChR nicotinic receptors but not through mAChR subtypes.

  10. MRI kinetics with volumetric analysis in correlation with hormonal receptor subtypes and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Lester Chee Hao; Gombos, Eva C; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Fook-Chong, Stephanie Man Chung

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to assess whether computer-assisted detection-processed MRI kinetics data can provide further information on the biologic aggressiveness of breast tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We identified 194 newly diagnosed invasive breast cancers presenting as masses on contrast-enhanced MRI by a HIPAA-compliant pathology database search. Computer-assisted detection-derived data for the mean and median peak signal intensity percentage increase, most suspicious kinetic curve patterns, and volumetric analysis of the different kinetic patterns by mean percentage tumor volume were compared against the different hormonal receptor (estrogen-receptor [ER], progesterone-receptor [PR], ERRB2 (HER2/neu), and triple-receptor expressivity) and histologic grade subgroups, which were used as indicators of tumor aggressiveness. RESULTS. The means and medians of the peak signal intensity percentage increase were higher in ER-negative, PR-negative, and triple-negative (all p ≤ 0.001), and grade 3 tumors (p = 0.011). Volumetric analysis showed higher mean percentage volume of rapid initial enhancement in biologically more aggressive ER-negative, PR-negative, and triple-negative tumors compared with ER-positive (64% vs 53.6%, p = 0.013), PR-positive (65.4% vs 52.5%, p = 0.001), and nontriple-negative tumors (65.3% vs 54.6%, p = 0.028), respectively. A higher mean percentage volume of rapid washout component was seen in ERRB2-positive tumors compared with ERRB2-negative tumors (27.5% vs 17.9%, p = 0.020). CONCLUSION. Peak signal intensity percentage increase and volume analysis of the different kinetic patterns of breast tumors showed correlation with hormonal receptor and histologic grade indicators of cancer aggressiveness. Computer-assisted detection-derived MRI kinetics data have the potential to further characterize the aggressiveness of an invasive cancer.

  11. Risk Reduction of Breast Cancer by Childbirth, Breastfeeding, and Their Interaction in Korean Women: Heterogeneous Effects Across Menopausal Status, Hormone Receptor Status, and Pathological Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Hun Jeong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of childbirth, breastfeeding, and their interaction with breast cancer (BC risk reduction, and to evaluate the heterogeneity in the BC risk reduction effects of these factors by menopause, hormone receptor (HR status, and pathological subtype. Methods BC patients aged 40+ from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry in 2004-2012 and controls from the Health Examinee cohort participants were included in this study after 1:1 matching (12 889 pairs by age and enrollment year. BC risk according to childbirth, breastfeeding, and their interaction was calculated in logistic regression models using odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results BC risk decreased with childbirth (3+ childbirths relative to 1 childbirth: OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78 and OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95 in postmenopausal and premenopausal women, respectively; and the degree of risk reduction by the number of children was heterogeneous according to menopausal status (p-heterogeneity=0.04, HR status (p-heterogeneity<0.001, and pathological subtype (p-heterogeneity<0.001; whereas breastfeeding for 1-12 months showed a heterogeneous association with BC risk according to menopausal status, with risk reduction only in premenopausal women (p-heterogeneity<0.05. The combination of 2 more childbirths and breastfeeding for ≥13 months had a much stronger BC risk reduction of 49% (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.58. Conclusions This study suggests that the combination of longer breastfeeding and more childbirths reduces BC risk more strongly, and that women who experience both 2 or more childbirths and breastfeed for ≥13 months can reduce their BC risk by about 50%.

  12. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eStiedl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models. Drugs targeting the 5-HT system are widely used to treat mood disorders and anxiety-like behaviors. Among the fourteen 5-HT receptor (5-HTR subtypes, the 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and cognitive function linked to mechanisms of emotional learning and memory. In rodents fear conditioning and passive avoidance (PA are associative learning paradigms to study emotional memory. This review assesses the role of 5-HT1AR and 5-HT7R as well as their interplay at the molecular, neurochemical and behavioral level. Activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1ARs impairs emotional memory through attenuation of neuronal activity, whereas presynaptic 5-HT1AR activation reduces 5-HT release and exerts pro-cognitive effects on PA retention. Antagonism of the 5-HT1AR facilitates memory retention possibly via 5-HT7R activation and evidence is provided that 5HT7R can facilitate emotional memory upon reduced 5-HT1AR transmission. These findings highlight the differential role of these 5-HTRs in cognitive/emotional domains of behavior. Moreover, the results indicate that tonic and phasic 5-HT release can exert different and potentially opposing effects on emotional memory, depending on the states of 5-HT1ARs and 5-HT7Rs and their interaction. Consequently, individual differences due to genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role for the responsiveness to drug treatment, e.g., by SSRIs which increase intrasynaptic 5-HT levels thereby activating multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTR subtypes.

  13. Blockade of NMDA receptor subtype NR2B prevents seizures but not apoptosis of dentate gyrus neurons in bacterial meningitis in infant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Täuber Martin G

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitotoxic neuronal injury by action of the glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA subtype have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis. The most potent and selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit is (R,S-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl-1-piperid inepropanol (RO 25-6981. Here we evaluated the effect of RO 25-6981 on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in an infant rat model of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Animals were randomized for treatment with RO 25-6981 at a dosage of either 0.375 mg (15 mg/kg; n = 28 or 3.75 mg (150 mg/kg; n = 15 every 3 h or an equal volume of sterile saline (250 μl; n = 40 starting at 12 h after infection. Eighteen hours after infection, animals were assessed clinically and seizures were observed for a period of 2 h. At 24 h after infection animals were sacrificed and brains were examined for apoptotic injury to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Results Treatment with RO 25-6981 had no effect on clinical scores, but the incidence of seizures was reduced (P Conclusions Treatment with a highly selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit failed to protect hippocampal neurons from injury in this model of pneumococcal meningitis, while it had some beneficial effect on the incidence of seizures.

  14. Role of nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor subtypes in the learning and expression of alcohol-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Emily A; Dreumont, Sarah E; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2014-02-01

    These studies examined the roles of dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors within the nucleus accumbens (Acb) in the acquisition and expression of ethanol-induced (2g/kg) conditioned place preference (CPP) in adult male DBA/2J mice. Bilateral intra-Acb infusions of the D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.05, 0.5μg/side) or the D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride (0.5-5.0μg/side) were administered 30min before each ethanol conditioning trial (acquisition studies) or before preference tests (expression studies). CPP was conditioned to tactile cues using an unbiased apparatus and procedure. Intra-Acb infusion of SCH23390 prevented CPP acquisition, whereas intra-Acb infusion of raclopride did not. Intra-Acb infusion of both antagonists, however, dose-dependently reduced ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity during conditioning. In contrast, intra-Acb antagonist infusion had no effect on ethanol CPP expression, suggesting that dopamine's role in the Acb is limited to neurobiological processes engaged during the learning of the relationship between contextual cues and ethanol reward. Control experiments showed that intra-Acb injection of SCH23390 alone produced no place conditioning and did not interfere with the acquisition of conditioned place aversion induced by lithium chloride, suggesting that the antagonist's effect on ethanol CPP was not due to a more general detrimental effect on associative learning. Overall, these data suggest that D1-like (but not D2-like) dopamine Acb receptors play an important role in the learning of context-ethanol associations, either by modulating the magnitude of ethanol reward or the rate of learning about ethanol reward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracellular quaternary ammonium blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Schwarz, Stephan K W

    2012-01-01

    -dependent pore block. Alanine substitutions at Phe649 and Glu648, residues in the putative TRPV1 pore region, significantly abrogated the concentration-dependent TEA inhibition. The results suggest that large cations, shown previously to enter cells through activated transient receptor potential channels, can...... expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, whereas the neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, does not, suggesting that a titratable amine is required for high-affinity inhibition. Consistent with this possibility, extracellular tetraethylammonium (TEA) and tetramethylammonium application produces potent, voltage...

  16. New caged neurotransmitter analogs selective for glutamate receptor sub-types based on methoxynitroindoline and nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl caging groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palma-Cerda, F.; Auger, C.; Crawford, D.J.; Hodgson, A.C.C.; Reynolds, S.J.; Cowell, J.K.; Swift, K.A.D.; Cais, Ondřej; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Corrie, J.E.T.; Ogden, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 4 (2012), s. 624-634 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0271 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2007-037765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : photolysis * glutamate receptors * caged neurotransmitters Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.114, year: 2012

  17. Biodistribution studies of two 18F-labeled pyridinylphenyl amides as subtype selective radioligands for the dopamine D3 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocke, Carsten; Cumming, Paul; Maschauer, Simone; Kuwert, Torsten; Gmeiner, Peter; Prante, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dopamine D3 receptors are implicated in various neuropsychiatric diseases, drug abuse and alcoholism, but specific agents for D3 molecular imaging are lacking. We evaluated two in vitro selective fluorine-18-labeled radioligand candidates ([ 18 F]5 and [ 18 F]6) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of D3 receptor availability in the brain. Methods: Biodistribution was evaluated in Sprague–Dawley rats using ex vivo autoradiography and small-animal PET. Protein binding studies were conducted in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Results: [ 18 F]5 showed rapid blood–brain barrier penetration and fast washout after intravenous injection, whereas the rat brain penetration of [ 18 F]6 was lower. The total distribution volume (V T ) of [ 18 F]5 was 20–26 mL g −1 throughout brain. Co-injection with the D3 antagonist BP897 resulted in globally increased cerebral washout of [ 18 F]5 and [ 18 F]6, but SUV analysis and parametric mapping of binding potential (BP ND ) relative to the cerebellum did not reveal specific binding of either ligand in D3-rich brain regions, i.e. the ventral striatum. However, there was substantial displaceable binding of [ 18 F]5, and to a lesser extent [ 18 F]6, in the pituitary. Conclusion: These radioligands reveal dopamine D3 receptors in the pituitary, but are not suitable for PET imaging of in brain, possibly due to low specific signal relative to the globally high V T

  18. Evaluation of stereoisomers of 4-fluoroalkyl analogues of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate in in vivo competition studies for the M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Eckelman, William C.; Jaetae, Lee; Paik, Chang H.; Park, Seok G.

    1995-01-01

    To develop a subtype selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist for PET, fluorine-19 labeled alkyl analogues of quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) were synthesized by stereoselective reactions. To investigate these analogues for tissue subtype specificity, in vivo competitive binding studies were performed in rat brain using (R)-3-quinuclidinyl (R)-4-[ 125 I]Iodobenzilate (IQNB). Five, fifty, or five-hundred nmol of the non-radioactive ligands were coinjected intravenously with 8 pmol of the radioligand. Cold (R,R)-IQNB blocked (R,R)-[ 125 I]IQNB in a dose-dependent manner, without showing regional specificity. For the (R,S)-fluoromethyl, -fluoroethyl, and -fluoropropyl derivatives, a higher percent blockade was seen at 5 and 50 nmol levels in M2 predominant tissues (medulla, pons, and cerebellum) than in M1 predominant tissues (cortex, striatum and hippocampus). The blockade pattern of the radioligand also correlated qualitatively with the percentage of M2 receptors in the region. The S-quinuclidinyl analogues showed M2 selectivity but less efficient blockade of the radioligand, indicating lower affinities. Radioligand bound to the medulla was inversely correlated to the M2 relative binding affinity of the fluoroalkyl analogues. These results indicate that the nonradioactive ligand blocks the radioligand based on the affinity of the nonradioactive ligand for a particular receptor subtype compared to the affinity of the radioligand for the same receptor subtype. Of the seven compounds evaluated, (R,S)-fluoromethyl-QNB appears to show the most selectivity for the M2 subtypes in competition studies in vivo

  19. A single base-pair change in 2009 H1N1 hemagglutinin increases human receptor affinity and leads to efficient airborne viral transmission in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Jayaraman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus continues to circulate among the human population as the predominant H1N1 subtype. Epidemiological studies and airborne transmission studies using the ferret model have shown that the transmission efficiency of 2009 H1N1 viruses is lower than that of previous seasonal strains and the 1918 pandemic H1N1 strain. We recently correlated this reduced transmission efficiency to the lower binding affinity of the 2009 H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA to α2→6 sialylated glycan receptors (human receptors. Here we report that a single point mutation (Ile219→Lys; a base pair change in the glycan receptor-binding site (RBS of a representative 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, A/California/04/09 or CA04/09, quantitatively increases its human receptor-binding affinity. The increased human receptor-affinity is in the same range as that of the HA from highly transmissible seasonal and 1918 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Moreover, a 2009 H1N1 virus carrying this mutation in the RBS (generated using reverse genetics transmits efficiently in ferrets by respiratory droplets thereby reestablishing our previously observed correlation between human receptor-binding affinity and transmission efficiency. These findings are significant in the context of monitoring the evolution of the currently circulating 2009 H1N1 viruses.

  20. Somatostatin receptor subtype 4 activation is involved in anxiety and depression-like behavior in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheich, Bálint; Gaszner, Balázs; Kormos, Viktória; László, Kristóf; Ádori, Csaba; Borbély, Éva; Hajna, Zsófia; Tékus, Valéria; Bölcskei, Kata; Ábrahám, István; Pintér, Erika; Szolcsányi, János; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-02-01

    Somatostatin regulates stress-related behavior and its expression is altered in mood disorders. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, especially about the importance of its receptors (sst1-sst5) in anxiety and depression-like behavior. Here we analyzed the potential role of sst4 receptor in these processes, since sst4 is present in stress-related brain regions, but there are no data about its functional relevance. Genetic deletion of sst4 (Sstr4(-/-)) and its pharmacological activation with the newly developed selective non-peptide agonist J-2156 were used. Anxiety was examined in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and depression-like behavior in the forced swim (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Neuronal activation during the TST was monitored by Fos immunohistochemistry, receptor expression was identified by sst4(LacZ) immunostaining in several brain regions. Sstr4(-/-) mice showed increased anxiety in the EPM and enhanced depression-like behavior in the FST. J-2156 (100 μg/kg i.p.) exhibited anxiolytic effect in the EPM and decreased immobility in the TST. J-2156 alone did not influence Fos immunoreactivity in intact mice, but significantly increased the stress-induced Fos response in the dorsal raphe nucleus, central projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, the magnocellular, but not the parvocellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the amygdala. Notably, sst4(LacZ) immunoreactivity occurred in the central and basolateral amygdala. Together, these studies reveal that sst4 mediates anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects by enhancing the stress-responsiveness of several brain regions with special emphasis on the amygdala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, exerts biphasic effects on transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 channels in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera-Acevedo, Ricardo E; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Ahern, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) channels are important integrators of noxious stimuli with pronounced expression in nociceptive neurons. The experimental local anesthetic, QX-314, a quaternary (i.e., permanently charged) lidocaine derivative, recently...... concentrations (less than 1 mM), QX-314 potently inhibited capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents with an IC₅₀ of 8.0 ± 0.6 μM. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the quaternary lidocaine derivative QX-314 exerts biphasic effects on TRPV1 channels, inhibiting capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 currents at lower...

  2. Prorocentrolide-A from Cultured Prorocentrum lima Dinoflagellates Collected in Japan Blocks Sub-Types of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Amar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prorocentrolides are members of the cyclic imine phycotoxins family. Their chemical structure includes a 26-membered carbo-macrocycle and a 28-membered macrocyclic lactone arranged around a hexahydroisoquinoline that incorporates the characteristic cyclic imine group. Six prorocentrolides are already known. However, their mode of action remains undetermined. The aim of the present work was to explore whether prorocentrolide-A acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, using competition-binding assays and electrophysiological techniques. Prorocentrolide-A displaced [125I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes, expressing the muscle-type (α12β1γδ nAChR, and in HEK-293 cells, expressing the chimeric chick neuronal α7-5HT3 nAChR. Functional studies revealed that prorocentrolide-A had no agonist action on nAChRs, but inhibited ACh-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes that had incorporated the muscle-type α12β1γδ nAChR to their membranes, or that expressed the human α7 nAChR, as revealed by voltage-clamp recordings. Molecular docking calculations showed the absence of the characteristic hydrogen bond between the iminium group of prorocentrolide-A and the backbone carbonyl group of Trp147 in the receptor, explaining its weaker affinity as compared to all other cyclic imine toxins. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that prorocentrolide-A acts on both muscle and neuronal nAChRs, but with higher affinity on the muscle-type nAChR.

  3. Prorocentrolide-A from Cultured Prorocentrum lima Dinoflagellates Collected in Japan Blocks Sub-Types of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Muriel; Aráoz, Rómulo; Iorga, Bogdan I; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Servent, Denis; Molgó, Jordi

    2018-02-28

    Prorocentrolides are members of the cyclic imine phycotoxins family. Their chemical structure includes a 26-membered carbo-macrocycle and a 28-membered macrocyclic lactone arranged around a hexahydroisoquinoline that incorporates the characteristic cyclic imine group. Six prorocentrolides are already known. However, their mode of action remains undetermined. The aim of the present work was to explore whether prorocentrolide A acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), using competition-binding assays and electrophysiological techniques. Prorocentrolide-A displaced [ 125 I]α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo membranes, expressing the muscle-type (α1₂β1γδ) nAChR, and in HEK-293 cells, expressing the chimeric chick neuronal α7-5HT₃ nAChR. Functional studies revealed that prorocentrolide-A had no agonist action on nAChRs, but inhibited ACh-induced currents in Xenopus oocytes that had incorporated the muscle-type α1₂β1γδ nAChR to their membranes, or that expressed the human α7 nAChR, as revealed by voltage-clamp recordings. Molecular docking calculations showed the absence of the characteristic hydrogen bond between the iminium group of prorocentrolide-A and the backbone carbonyl group of Trp147 in the receptor, explaining its weaker affinity as compared to all other cyclic imine toxins. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that prorocentrolide-A acts on both muscle and neuronal nAChRs, but with higher affinity on the muscle-type nAChR.

  4. Effect of gsp oncogene on somatostatin receptor subtype 1 and 2 mRNA levels in GHRH-responsive GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Sohn, Sookjin; Lee, Mina; Park, Cheolyoung; Jung, Jeechang; Park, Seungjoon

    2005-01-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signals via G protein-coupled receptors (GHRH-R) to enhance intracellular Galphas/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling, which in turn has positive effects on GH synthesis and release, as well as proliferation of the GH-producing cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Some GH-producing pituitary tumors express a constitutively active mutant form of Galphas (gsp oncogene). It has been reported that these tumors are more responsive to octreotide therapy. In this study we used a rat GH-producing cell line (GH3) stably transfected with the human GHRH-R cDNA (GH3-GHRHR cells) as a model to study the effects of gsp oncogene on somatostatin (SRIH) receptor subtype 1 and 2 (sst1 and sst2) mRNA levels. Transient transfection of gsp oncogene in GH3-GHRHR cells for 48 h increased intracellular cAMP levels and GH release. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4, sst1 and sst2 mRNA levels were increased by G protein mutation as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Increased PDE mRNA levels in gsp-transfected cells may be a compensatory mechanism to the constitutive activation of cAMP-dependent pathway by G protein mutation and is consistent with reports of higher PDE expression in human pituitary tumor that express gsp. Our data suggest that higher expression of sst1 and sst2 mRNA induced by the gsp oncogene may be a mechanism by which gsp-positive tumors show a greater response to SRIH. GH3 cells permanently transfected with GHRH-R can be used for in vitro studies of actions of GHRH.

  5. Role of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP2 and EP4 in autocrine and paracrine functions of vascular endothelial growth factor in the inner ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamaguchi Kiyomi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 are mediated by the prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, and the respective agonists have been purified. PGE1 and PGE2 can increase the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, particularly through EP2 and EP4. The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by the phosphotyrosine kinase receptors fms-related tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1 and fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1. Here we examined the effects of EP2 and EP4 agonists on the production of VEGF proteins and VEGF messenger RNAs (mRNAs in the inner ear, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. We also examined the localization of EP2, VEGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1 in the cochlea by immunohistochemistry. Results The expression of EP2 occurred in the cochlea, and the local application of an EP2 or EP4 agonist increased VEGF protein and VEGF mRNA levels in the inner ear. Furthermore, the intensity of the VEGF immunoreactivity in the spiral ganglion appeared to be increased by the local EP2 or EP4 agonist treatment. Immunoreactivity for Flt-1, and Flk-1 was found in the cochlear sensory epithelium, spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and stria vascularis. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that EP2 and EP4 agonists stimulate VEGF production in the inner ear, particularly in the spiral ganglions. Moreover, the Flt-1 and Flk-1 expression observed in the present study suggests that VEGF has autocrine and paracrine actions in the cochlea. Thus, EP2 and EP4 might be involved in the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of PGE1 on acute sensorineural hearing loss via VEGF production.

  6. Role of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP2 and EP4 in autocrine and paracrine functions of vascular endothelial growth factor in the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Ryusuke; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Norio; Hamaguchi, Kiyomi; Ito, Juichi

    2010-03-11

    The physiological effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are mediated by the prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, and the respective agonists have been purified. PGE1 and PGE2 can increase the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), particularly through EP2 and EP4. The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by the phosphotyrosine kinase receptors fms-related tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1) and fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1). Here we examined the effects of EP2 and EP4 agonists on the production of VEGF proteins and VEGF messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the inner ear, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. We also examined the localization of EP2, VEGF, Flt-1, and Flk-1 in the cochlea by immunohistochemistry. The expression of EP2 occurred in the cochlea, and the local application of an EP2 or EP4 agonist increased VEGF protein and VEGF mRNA levels in the inner ear. Furthermore, the intensity of the VEGF immunoreactivity in the spiral ganglion appeared to be increased by the local EP2 or EP4 agonist treatment. Immunoreactivity for Flt-1, and Flk-1 was found in the cochlear sensory epithelium, spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and stria vascularis. These findings demonstrate that EP2 and EP4 agonists stimulate VEGF production in the inner ear, particularly in the spiral ganglions. Moreover, the Flt-1 and Flk-1 expression observed in the present study suggests that VEGF has autocrine and paracrine actions in the cochlea. Thus, EP2 and EP4 might be involved in the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of PGE1 on acute sensorineural hearing loss via VEGF production.

  7. Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Juan A.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Etchepare, Laetitia; Espana, Agnès; Cognet, Laurent; Groc, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule imaging has changed the way we understand many biological mechanisms, particularly in neurobiology, by shedding light on intricate molecular events down to the nanoscale. However, current single-molecule studies in neuroscience have been limited to cultured neurons or organotypic slices, leaving as an open question the existence of fast receptor diffusion in intact brain tissue. Here, for the first time, we targeted dopamine receptors in vivo with functionalized quantum dots and were able to perform single-molecule tracking in acute rat brain slices. We propose a novel delocalized and non-inflammatory way of delivering nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo to the brain, which allowed us to label and track genetically engineered surface dopamine receptors in neocortical neurons, revealing inherent behaviour and receptor activity regulations. We thus propose a NP-based platform for single-molecule studies in the living brain, opening new avenues of research in physiological and pathological animal models.

  8. Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 and 7 impairs extinction of social fear in a time-point-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Flor, Peter J; Zoicas, Iulia

    2017-06-15

    Pharmacological modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) and 7 (mGluR7) was shown to attenuate the acquisition and to facilitate the extinction of cued and contextual, non-social, fear. Using the allosteric mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and the allosteric mGluR7 agonist N,N'-dibenzyhydryl-ethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), we aimed to study how pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 and activation of mGluR7 influence acquisition and extinction of social fear in mice. We could show that when administered before social fear conditioning, neither MPEP nor AMN082 affected acquisition and extinction of social fear, suggesting that mGluR5 inactivation and mGluR7 activation do not alter social fear. However, when administered before social fear extinction, both MPEP and AMN082 impaired social fear extinction and extinction recall. These findings suggest that mGluR5 inactivation and mGluR7 activation are unlikely to prevent the formation of traumatic social memories. Furthermore, medication strategies aimed at augmenting exposure-based therapies for psychiatric disorders associated with social deficits via modulation of mGluR5 and mGluR7 must be pursued cautiously because of their potential to delay social fear extinction processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of nicotinic receptor subtypes following chronic nicotinic agonist exposure in M10 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warpman, U; Friberg, L; Gillespie, A

    1998-01-01

    The present study further investigated whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes differ in their ability to up-regulate following chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists. Seven nicotinic agonists were studied for their ability to influence the number of chick alpha4beta2 nACh......R binding sites stably transfected in fibroblasts (M10 cells) following 3 days of exposure. The result showed a positive correlation between the Ki values for binding inhibition and EC50 values for agonist-induced alpha4beta2 nAChR up-regulation. The effects of epibatidine and nicotine were further...... investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (expressing alpha3, alpha5, beta2, and beta4 nAChR subunits). Nicotine exhibited a 14 times lower affinity for the nAChRs in SH-SY5Y cells as compared with M10 cells, whereas epibatidine showed similar affinities for the nAChRs expressed in the two cell lines...

  10. Mutation-induced quisqualic acid and ibotenic acid affinity at the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4: ligand selectivity results from a synergy of several amino acid residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key modulators of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The eight mGluR subtypes are seven trans-membrane-spanning proteins that possess a large extracellular amino-terminal domain in which the endogenous ligand binding pocket...... resides. In this study, we have identified four non-conserved amino acid residues that are essential for differentiating mGluR1 from mGluR4. Our approach has been to increase the affinity of the classic mGluR1 agonists, quisqualic acid and ibotenic acid, at mGluR4 by making various point mutations......, the mutations K74Y and K317R induced dramatic triple-order-of-magnitude increases in the affinity of ibotenic acid at mGluR4, making the affinity equivalent to that of mGluR1. Furthermore, the affinity of quisqualic acid at mGluR4 was increased to the same level as mGluR1 by the two double mutations, K74Y/K317R...

  11. Promiscuity and the single receptor: NKG2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Trowsdale, John

    2007-09-01

    NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) is a powerful activating receptor expressed by natural killer (NK) cells and T cells that regulates immune responses during infection, cancer and autoimmunity. NKG2D ligands comprise a diverse array of MHC-class-I-related proteins that are upregulated by cellular stress. Why is it beneficial for the host to have so many ligands for the same receptor? In this Opinion article, we propose that although competition with viruses is the most likely evolutionary drive for this diversity, there might be other explanations.

  12. Differences in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the central nervous system of long sleep and short sleep mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.; Ming, X.; McArdle, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption have been noted in various inbred strains of mice and pharmacogenetic approaches have been used to study the mechanisms of action of many drugs such as ethanol. Long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, selectively bred for differences in ethanol induced narcosis, provide a method by which a relationship between the differential responsiveness of these geno-types and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) may be evaluated. Sleep times after injection of 3ml ethanol/kg (i.p.) verified the higher sensitivity of LS vs. SS. Mean body weights of LS (26.5g) vs. SS (22g) were also significantly (p 3 H](-) quinuclidinylbenzilate ([ 3 H](-)QNB), a specific but nonsubtype selective mAChR antagonist, [ 3 H]pirenzepine ([ 3 H]PZ), a specific M1 mAChR antagonist and [ 3 H]11-2-[[2-[(diethylamino) methyl]-1-piperidinyl] acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepine-6-one, ([ 3 H]AF-DX 116), an M2 selective antagonist were performed to determine mAChR affinity (K d ) and density (B max ) in CNS regions such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum and other areas. Significantly lower (30-40%) [ 3 H](-)QNB binding suggests that SS have fewer mAChR's than LS in many areas. These differences may relate to their differential ethanol sensitivity

  13. Evaluation of the Biological Activity of Opuntia ficus indica as a Tissue- and Estrogen Receptor Subtype-Selective Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byoung Ha; Jeong, Hyesoo; Zhou, Wenmei; Liu, Xiyuan; Kim, Soolin; Jang, Chang Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Sohn, Johann; Park, Hye-Jin; Sung, Na-Hye; Hong, Cheol Yi; Chang, Minsun

    2016-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) with potential for use in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to relieve peri/postmenopausal symptoms. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the SERM properties of the extract of Korean-grown Opuntia ficus-indica (KOFI). The KOFI extract induced estrogen response element (ERE)-driven transcription in breast and endometrial cancer cell lines and the expression of endogenous estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells. The flavonoid content of different KOFI preparations affected ERE-luciferase activities, implying that the flavonoid composition likely mediated the estrogenic activities in cells. Oral administration of KOFI decreased the weight gain and levels of both serum glucose and triglyceride in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Finally, KOFI had an inhibitory effect on the 17β-estradiol-induced proliferation of the endometrial epithelium in OVX rats. Our data demonstrate that KOFI exhibited SERM activity with no uterotrophic side effects. Therefore, KOFI alone or in combination with other botanical supplements, vitamins, or minerals may be an effective and safe alternative active ingredient to HRTs, for the management of postmenopausal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Blockade of NMDA receptor subtype NR2B prevents seizures but not apoptosis of dentate gyrus neurons in bacterial meningitis in infant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarova, Anna; Ringer, Ralph; Täuber, Martin G; Leib, Stephen L

    2003-01-01

    Background Excitotoxic neuronal injury by action of the glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype have been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain damage as a consequence of bacterial meningitis. The most potent and selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit is (R,S)-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperid inepropanol (RO 25-6981). Here we evaluated the effect of RO 25-6981 on hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in an infant rat model of meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Animals were randomized for treatment with RO 25-6981 at a dosage of either 0.375 mg (15 mg/kg; n = 28) or 3.75 mg (150 mg/kg; n = 15) every 3 h or an equal volume of sterile saline (250 μl; n = 40) starting at 12 h after infection. Eighteen hours after infection, animals were assessed clinically and seizures were observed for a period of 2 h. At 24 h after infection animals were sacrificed and brains were examined for apoptotic injury to the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. Results Treatment with RO 25-6981 had no effect on clinical scores, but the incidence of seizures was reduced (P < 0.05 for all RO 25-6981 treated animals combined). The extent of apoptosis was not affected by low or high doses of RO 25-6981. Number of apoptotic cells (median [range]) was 12.76 [3.16–25.3] in animals treated with low dose RO 25-6981 (control animals 13.8 [2.60–31.8]; (P = NS) and 9.8 [1.7–27.3] (controls: 10.5 [2.4–21.75]) in animals treated with high dose RO 25-6981 (P = NS). Conclusions Treatment with a highly selective blocker of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit failed to protect hippocampal neurons from injury in this model of pneumococcal meningitis, while it had some beneficial effect on the incidence of seizures. PMID:13129439

  15. Methoxyphenylethynyl, methoxypyridylethynyl and phenylethynyl derivatives of pyridine: synthesis, radiolabeling and evaluation of new PET ligands for metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Meixiang [Experimental PET Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)]. E-mail: myu@utmck.edu; Tueckmantel, Werner [Acenta Discovery Inc., Tucson, AZ 85747 (United States); Wang, Xukui [Experimental PET Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Zhu Aijun [Experimental PET Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kozikowski, Alan P. [Acenta Discovery Inc., Tucson, AZ 85747 (United States); [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Brownell, Anna-Liisa [Experimental PET Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)]. E-mail: abrownell@partners.org

    2005-08-01

    We have synthesized three different PET ligands to investigate the physiological function of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors (mGluR5) in vivo: 2-[{sup 11}C]methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine ([{sup 11}C]MPEP), 2-(2-(3-[{sup 11}C]methoxyphenyl)ethynyl)pyridine ([{sup 11}C]M-MPEP) and 2-(2-(5-[{sup 11}C]methoxypyridin-3-yl)ethynyl)pyridine ([{sup 11}C]M-PEPy). [{sup 11}C]Methyl iodide was used to label the compounds under basic conditions, and a Pd(0) catalyst was applied to label [{sup 11}C]MPEP in a Stille coupling reaction. In vivo microPET imaging studies of the functional accumulation of radiolabeled ligands were conducted in 35 rats (Sprague-Dawley, 8 weeks old male, weight of 300 g). Specific binding was tested using pre-administration of unlabeled mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(2-phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) (10 mg/kg iv 5 min before radioactivity injection). In the radiolabeling of [{sup 11}C]MPEP, [{sup 11}C]M-MPEP and [{sup 11}C]M-PEPy, a specific radioactivity of 700-1200 mCi/{mu}mol and over 97% radiochemical purity were obtained. The microPET studies showed these three radiolabeled mGluR5 antagonists having the highest binding in the olfactory bulb followed by striatum, hippocampus and cortex. Pre-administration of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP induced a 45.1% decrease in [{sup 11}C]MPEP binding, a 59.7% decrease in [{sup 11}C]M-MPEP binding and an 84.6% decrease in [{sup 11}C]M-PEPy binding in the olfactory bulb at 5 min. The feasibility of synthesizing high-affinity and high-selectivity ligands for mGluR5 receptors and their suitability as PET imaging ligands for mGluR5 receptors in vivo are demonstrated.

  16. Afferent input selects NMDA receptor subtype to determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP in freely behaving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Javier Ballesteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is critically involved in many forms of hippocampus-dependent memory that may be enabled by synaptic plasticity. Behavioral studies with NMDAR antagonists and NMDAR subunit (GluN2 mutants revealed distinct contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to rapidly and slowly acquired memory performance. Furthermore, studies of synaptic plasticity, in genetically modified mice in vitro, suggest that GluN2A and GluN2B may contribute in different ways to the induction and longevity of synaptic plasticity. In contrast to the hippocampal slice preparation, in behaving mice, the afferent frequencies that induce synaptic plasticity are very restricted and specific. In fact, it is the stimulus pattern, and not variations in afferent frequency that determine the longevity of long-term potentiation (LTP. Here, we explored the contribution of GluN2A and GluN2B to LTP of differing magnitudes and persistencies in freely behaving mice. We applied differing high-frequency stimulation (HFS patterns at 100 Hz to the hippocampal CA1 region, to induce NMDAR-dependent LTP in wild-type (WT mice, that endured for 24h (late (L-LTP. In GluN2A-KO mice, E-LTP (HFS, 50 pulses was significantly reduced in magnitude and duration, whereas LTP (HFS, 2 x 50 pulses and L-LTP (HFS, 4 x 50 pulses were unaffected compared to responses in WT animals. By contrast, pharmacological antagonism of GluN2B in WT had no effect on E-LTP but significantly prevented LTP. E- LTP and LTP were significantly impaired by GluN2B antagonism in GluN2A-KO mice. These data indicate that the pattern of afferent stimulation is decisive for the recruitment of distinct GluN2A and GluN2B signaling pathways that in turn determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP. Whereas brief bursts of patterned stimulation preferentially recruit GluN2A and lead to weak and short-lived forms of LTP, prolonged, more intense, afferent activation recruits GluN2B

  17. Small intestinal cannabinoid receptor changes following a single colonic insult with oil of mustard in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Kimball

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids are known to be clinically beneficial for control of appetite disorders and nausea/vomiting, with emerging data that they can impact other GI disorders, such as inflammation. Post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS is a condition of perturbed intestinal function that occurs subsequent to earlier periods of intestinal inflammation. Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R and CB2R alterations in GI inflammation have been demonstrated in both animal models and clinically, but their continuing role in the post-inflammatory period has only been implicated to date. Therefore, to provide direct evidence for CBR involvement in altered GI functions in the absence of overt inflammation, we used a model of enhanced upper GI transit that persists for up to 4 weeks after a single insult by intracolonic 0.5% oil of mustard (OM in mice. In mice administered OM, CB1R immunostaining in the myenteric plexus was reduced at day 7, when colonic inflammation is subsiding, and then increased at 28 days, compared to tissue from age-matched vehicle-treated mice. In the lamina propria CB2R immunostaining density was also increased at day 28. In mice tested 28 day after OM, either a CB1R-selective agonist, ACEA (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c. or a CB2R-selective agonist, JWH-133 (3 and 10 mg/kg, s.c. reduced the enhanced small intestinal transit in a dose-related manner. Doses of ACEA and JWH-133 (1 mg/kg, alone or combined, reduced small intestinal transit of OM-treated mice to a greater extent than control mice. Thus, in this post-colonic inflammation model, both CBR subtypes are up-regulated and there is increased efficacy of both CB1R and CB2R agonists. We conclude that CBR remodeling occurs not only during GI inflammation but continues during the recovery phase. Thus, either CB1R- or CB2-selective agonists could be efficacious for modulating GI motility in individuals experiencing diarrhea-predominant PI-IBS.

  18. Somatostatin receptors subtypes 2 and 5, dopamine receptor type 2 expression and gsp status as predictors of octreotide LAR responsiveness in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Neto, Leonardo; Taboada, Giselle Fernandes; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto

    2008-11-01

    We present two acromegalic patients in which clinical and molecular data are discussed in regard to their ability to predict long term octreotide LAR therapy response. Patient 1: female, 36 years old at diagnosis. Basal GH and IGF-I at diagnosis were 133 ng/mL and 181% above the upper limit of reference values (ULRV), respectively. Growth hormone during acute test with subcutaneous octreotide decreased from 133 to 13 ng/mL. Patient started on primary octreotide LAR therapy (20mg q28 days) and achieved biochemical parameters of disease control after 6 months. Molecular analysis of tumor fragments: gsp +; quantitative analysis of SSTR (somatostatin receptor) and DR (dopamine receptor) mRNA - SSTR2 23954; SSTR5 2407; DR2 total 17016 copies. Patient 2: male, 38 years old at diagnosis. Basal GH and IGF-I at diagnosis were 120 ng/mL and 114% ULRV, respectively. Patient underwent non-curative trans-sphenoidal surgery. Post-operative GH and IGF-I were 112 ng/mL and 137% ULRV, respectively. Growth hormone during acute test with subcutaneous octreotide decreased from 112 to 7 ng/mL. Octreotide LAR therapy (20 mg q28 days) was then initiated. After 6 months of treatment, patient did not attain biochemical control of disease and displayed increased tumor volume. Molecular analysis of tumor fragments: gsp not done; quantitative analysis of SSTR and DR mRNA - SSTR2 416; SSTR5 3767; DR2 total 3439 copies. In conclusion, these two cases illustrate how laboratory data can be conflicting as predictors of octreotide LAR responsiveness and how molecular analysis of tumor fragments can help explain different behaviors in clinically similar patients.

  19. αO-Conotoxin GeXIVA disulfide bond isomers exhibit differential sensitivity for various nicotinic acetylcholine receptors but retain potency and selectivity for the human α9α10 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangsun, Dongting; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Kaas, Quentin; Wu, Yong; Craik, David J; McIntosh, J Michael; Luo, Sulan

    2017-12-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes exhibit distinct neuropharmacological properties that are involved in a range of neuropathological conditions, including pain, addiction, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as many types of cancer. The α9α10 nAChR is a potential target in chronic pain, wound healing, the pathophysiology of the auditory system, and breast and lung cancers. αO-conotoxin GeXIVA is a potent antagonist of rat α9α10 nAChRs, with the 'bead' disulfide bond isomer displaying the lowest IC 50 of the three possible isomers. In the rat chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain, this isomer reduced mechanical hyperalgesia without affecting motor performance. Here, we report the effects of the three disulfide bond isomers of GeXIVA on human α9α10 nAChRs, other human nAChR subtypes, various rat nAChR subtypes, and 10 rat α9α10 nAChR mutants. The three isomers displayed only ∼5-fold difference in potency on the human vs rat α9α10 receptors and had similar affinities at wild-type rat α9α10 nAChRs and all 10 α9α10 receptor mutants. From these findings, the binding site and mechanism of action of GeXIVA on rat and human α9α10 nAChR was deduced to be different from that of other conotoxins targeting this nAChR subtype. GeXIVA is therefore a unique ligand that might prove useful for further probing of binding sites on the α9α10 nAChR. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) modulator, against behavioral, biochemical and structural damage in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayant, Shalini; Sharma, B M; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-07-01

    Alzheime's disease (AD) is an overwhelming neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by synaptic dysfunction, memory loss, neuro-inflammation and neural cell death. Very few treatments are in hand for the management of AD and they are only concentrating on peculiar aspects. Hence, an immense thrust is required to find utmost therapeutic targets to conquer this condition. This study investigates a potential role of vanillin, a selective agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in the experimental models of AD viz. intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose induced AD in mice. The i.c.v. administration of STZ and intraperitoneally administration of AlCl3+d-galactose have significantly impaired learning-memory (Morris water maze and attentional set-shifting test), brain structure (hematoxylin, eosin and Congo red staining), enhanced brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance - TBARS and glutathione - GSH), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), inflammation (MPO), and calcium levels (Ca(++)). Treatment with vanillin in different doses and donepezil have significantly ameliorated i.c.v. STZ and AlCl3+d-galactose induced reduction in executive function, impaired reversal learning, cognition, memory and brain damage. Treatment with these drugs has also reduced the brain oxidative stress (TBARS and GSH), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), and AChE, MPO, and Ca(++) levels. These results indicate that vanillin, a selective agonist of TRPV1 and donepezil, a potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor have attenuated i.c.v. STZ and AlCl3+d-galactose induced experimental AD. Hence, pharmacological positive modulation of TRPV1 channels may be a potential research target for mitigation of AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of a novel histamine subtype-3 receptor inverse agonist and modafinil on EEG power spectra during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep in male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lynette M; Iannone, Robert; Palcza, John; Renger, John J; Calder, Nicole; Cerchio, Kristine; Gottesdiener, Keith; Hargreaves, Richard; Murphy, M Gail; Boyle, Julia; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2011-06-01

    Histamine and dopamine contribute to the maintenance of wakefulness. This study aims to conduct an exploratory analysis of the effects of 10 and 50 mg of MK-0249, a novel histamine subtype-3 receptor inverse agonist, and 200 mg of modafinil, a presumed dopaminergic compound, on EEG power spectra during sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep. A total of 25 healthy men were recruited to a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. EEG power spectra, an electrophysiological marker of changes in sleepiness and vigilance, were obtained at the beginning of wake maintenance tests at two-hourly intervals throughout a night and day of sleep deprivation, which is an established model of excessive sleepiness. After placebo, sleep deprivation was associated with enhancements in delta and theta and reductions in alpha and beta activity. Following dosing at 02:00 h, MK-0249 and modafinil reduced delta and theta activity and enhanced alpha and beta activity, compared to placebo. During recovery sleep initiated at 21:00 h, latency to sleep onset and number of awakenings were not different from placebo for any of the active treatments. Wake after sleep onset and stage 1% was increased and total sleep time, SWS% and REM% were reduced after both doses of MK-0249. Compared to placebo, MK-0249, the 50-mg dose in particular, reduced activity in some delta and theta/alpha frequencies and enhanced beta activity during NREM sleep and REM sleep. After modafinil, no changes were observed for power spectra during sleep. Both MK-0249 and modafinil exert effects on the EEG which are consistent with wake promotion.

  2. Sepsis Markers Soluble IL-2 Receptor and Soluble CD14 Subtype as Potential Biomarkers for Complete Mucosal Healing in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Shuhei; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Itani, Shigehiro; Yukawa, Tomomi; Otani, Koji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Taira, Koichi; Kamata, Noriko; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-05

    Novel noninvasive biomarkers with high diagnostic accuracy are required to assess mucosal healing, which is associated with sustained clinical remission, in inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to explore sepsis markers as potential biomarkers for mucosal healing. Patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] or Crohn's disease [CD], who underwent blood tests for C-reactive protein [CRP], serum procalcitonin [PCT], soluble interleukin-2 receptor [sIL-2R], and plasma soluble CD14 subtype [sCD14-ST] within 2 weeks of endoscopy, were retrospectively recruited; and we assessed the relationship between marker levels and clinical features. Complete mucosal healing [cMH] was defined as a Mayo endoscopic subscore [MES] of 0 for UC and a simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease [SES-CD] of 0 for CD. In all, 68 UC patients and 33 CD patients were included in this study. In patients with UC, the sIL-2R level was significantly higher in patients without cMH than in those with cMH. The sIL-2R level had the highest diagnostic value for identifying cMH in UC. In patients with CD, CRP and sCD14-ST levels were significantly higher in patients without cMH than in those with cMH, and both CRP and sCD14-ST had good diagnostic values for identifying cMH. The sCD14-ST level had a high diagnostic value for identifying cMH even among CD patients with complete clinical remission, defined as a Harvey-Bradshaw index of 0. The sIL-2R and sCD14-ST levels in patients with UC and CD, respectively, can be useful surrogate markers for identifying mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  4. Characterization of the single transmembrane domain of human receptor activity-modifying protein 3 in adrenomedullin receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka; Nozaki, Naomi; Kato, Johji

    2012-04-13

    Two receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP2 and RAMP3) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) to function as two heterodimeric receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3) for adrenomedullin (AM), a potent cardiovascular protective peptide. Following AM stimulation, both receptors undergo rapid internalization through a clathrin-dependent pathway, after which CLR/RAMP3, but not CLR/RAMP2, can be recycled to the cell surface for resensitization. However, human (h)RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less efficiently than does hRAMP2. Therefore, the molecular basis of the single transmembrane domain (TMD) and the intracellular domain of hRAMP3 during AM receptor internalization was investigated by transiently transfecting various RAMP chimeras and mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCLR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that substituting the RAMP3 TMD with that of RAMP2 markedly enhanced AM-induced internalization of CLR. However, this replacement did not enhance the cell surface expression of CLR, [(125)I]AM binding affinity or AM-induced cAMP response. More detailed analyses showed that substituting the Thr(130)-Val(131) sequence in the RAMP3 TMD with the corresponding sequence (Ile(157)-Pro(158)) from RAMP2 significantly enhanced AM-mediated CLR internalization. In contrast, substituting the RAMP3 target sequence with Ala(130)-Ala(131) did not significantly affect CLR internalization. Thus, the RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization, and the aforementioned introduction of the Ile-Pro sequence into the RAMP3 TMD may be a strategy for promoting receptor internalization/resensitization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of radioiodinated receptor ligands for cerebral single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade the use of radiolabeled ligands for the imaging of cerebral receptors by emission computed tomography (ECT) has seen rapid growth. The opportunity to routinely perform cerebral single photon emission tomography (SPET) with iodine-123-labeled ligands depends on the availability of receptor ligands into which iodine can be introduced without decreasing the required high target receptor specificity. The use of iodine-123-labeled receptor-specific ligands also depends on the availability of high purity iodine-123 at reasonable costs and the necessary imaging instrumentation. In this paper, the development and current stage of evaluation of various iodine-123-labeled ligands for SPET imaging of dopaminergic, serotonergic and muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor classes are discussed

  6. QSAR of adenosine receptor antagonists. Part 3: Exploring physicochemical requirements for selective binding of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-i]purine derivatives with human adenosine A3 receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Leonard, J Thomas; Sengupta, Chandana

    2004-07-16

    Considering potential of selective adenosine A3 receptor antagonists in the development of prospective therapeutic agents, an attempt has been made to explore selectivity requirements of 1,2,4-triazolo[5,1-i]purine derivatives for binding with cloned human adenosine A3 receptor subtype. In this study, partition coefficient (logP) values of the molecules (calculated by Crippen's fragmentation method) and Wang-Ford charges of the common atoms of the triazolopurine nucleus (calculated from molecular electrostatic potential surface of energy minimized geometry using AM1 technique) were used as independent variables along with suitable dummy parameters. The best equation describing A3 binding affinity [n=29, Q2=0.796, Ra2=0.853, R2=0.874, R=0.935, s=0.342, F=41.5 (df 4,24), SDEP=0.396] showed parabolic relation with logP (optimum value being 4.134). Further, it was found that an aromatic substituent conjugated with the triazole nucleus should be present at R2 position for A3 binding affinity. Again, high negative charges on N2 and N4 are conducive to the binding affinity. While exploring selectivity requirements of the compounds for binding with A3 receptor over that with A2A receptor, the selectivity relation [n=23, Q2=0.909, Ra2=0.918, R2=0.933, R=0.966, s=0.401, F=62.4 (df 4,18), SDEP=0.412] showed that an aromatic R2 substituent conjugated with the triazole nucleus contributes significantly to the selectivity. Again, presence of a 4-substituted-phenyl ring (except 4-OH-phenyl and 4-CH3-phenyl) at R2 position also increases selectivity. Further, charge difference between N2 and N11 (negative charge on the former should be higher and that on the latter should be less) contributes significantly to the selectivity. In addition, negative charge on N7 is conducive while presence of substituents like propyl, butyl, pentyl or phenyl at R1 position is detrimental for the A3 selectivity.

  7. Immunohistochemical and cytochemical localization of the somatostatin receptor subtype sst1 in the somatostatinergic parvocellular neuronal system of the rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helboe, Lone; Stidsen, Cartsen E.; Møller, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor, sst1, immunohistochemistry, ultrastructure, autoreceptor, hypothalamus, median eminence, synapse......Somatostatin receptor, sst1, immunohistochemistry, ultrastructure, autoreceptor, hypothalamus, median eminence, synapse...

  8. Non-obligatory role of prostaglandin D2 receptor subtype 1 in rosacea: laropiprant in comparison to a placebo did not alleviate the symptoms of erythematoelangiectaic rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rajesh; Guo, Ying; Schulz, Valerie; Cord-Cruz, Evyan; Smith, Shanna; Hair, Suzanne; Nahm, Walter K; Draelos, Zoe D

    2015-02-01

    Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea shares facial flushing features with those seen after niacin. This study was performed to test the hypothesis whether prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor subtype 1 antagonist (laropiprant) will improve the symptoms of rosacea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laropiprant 100 mg administered once daily for 4 weeks on the signs and symptoms of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Subjects received laropiprant 100 mg once-daily (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 4 weeks. The primary pharmacodynamics endpoint was change in Clinician's Erythema Assessment (CEA) score from baseline to week 4. The patient self-assessment (PSA) was a secondary endpoint. Laropiprant was generally well tolerated in this study for the primary endpoint of change in CEA score from Baseline to Week 4, the least-squares mean of change from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was -3.7 and -3.4 for placebo and laropiprant (100 mg), respectively. The least-squares mean difference (placebo minus laropiprant) with 90% confidence interval of change in CEA score from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was estimated as -0.3 (-1.6, 1.0). For the secondary endpoint, the least-squares mean difference (placebo minus laropiprant) with 90% confidence interval of change from baseline to visit 4/week 4 was estimated as -0.7 (-7.7, 6.4) for PSA total score, -4.5 (-14.2, 5.3) for PSA emotion score, -1.3 (-7.8, 5.3) for PSA symptoms score, and 3.6 (-4.3, 11.4) for PSA functioning score. Laropiprant administered once daily for 4 weeks was generally well tolerated in this population of subjects with rosacea. However, there were no clinically meaningful changes in the primary endpoint of CEA given that the response to laropiprant could not be differentiated from that to placebo. There was also no clinically meaningful change in the secondary endpoint, PSA. A DP1 antagonist is not likely to be effective in rosacea. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Radiosynthesis of (E)-N-(2-[{sup 11}C]methoxybenzyl)-3-phenyl-acrylamidine, a novel subnanomolar NR2B subtype-selective NMDA receptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thominiaux, Cyrille [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bruin, Beatrice de [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bramoulle, Yann [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Hinnen, Francoise [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Demphel, Stephane [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Valette, Heric [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Bottlaender, Michel [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Besret, Laurent [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Departement de Recherche Medicale, URA CEA/CNRS 2210, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DSV, 4 Place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France); Kassiou, Michael [Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050 (Australia); Department of Pharmacology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dolle, Frederic [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Departement de Recherche Medicale, CEA/DSV, 4 place du General Leclerc, F-91401 Orsay (France)]. E-mail: frederic.dolle@cea.fr

    2006-03-15

    Recently, a novel series of amidines has been described, exhibiting high NR2B-subtype selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist activity with nanomolar or subnanomolar affinity. Within the styrylamidine subclass (E)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-3-phenyl-acrylamidine (1), displayed the highest affinity (Ki=0.7nM versus [{sup 3}H]ifenprodil) and was considered an appropriate candidate for isotopic labelling with carbon-11 (T{sub 1/2}: 20.38min) at its methoxy group for imaging of NMDA receptors with PET. Derivative 1 has been labelled from the corresponding nor-analogue using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate and the following experimental conditions : (1) trapping at -10{sup o}C of [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate in 300{mu}L of acetone containing 0.6-0.8mg of precursor 5 (2.4-3.2{mu}mol) and 5{mu}L of a 3M solution of NaOH in water (about 5eq.); (2) concentration to dryness of the reaction mixture (at 110{sup o}C, using a helium stream for 1-2min); (3) taking up the residue with 0.5mL of the HPLC mobile phase and (4) purification using semi-preparative HPLC (SymmetryPrep{sup (}R) C-18, Waters, 300x7.8mm). Typically, starting from a 1.5 Ci (55.5GBq) [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} production batch, 120-240m Ci (4.44-8.88GBq) of [{sup 11}C]-1 (20-40% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, n=5) was obtained within a total synthesis time of 25-30min. Specific radioactivities ranged from 0.8 to 1.2Ci/{mu}mol (29.6-44.4GBq/{mu}mol) at the end of radiosynthesis. No attempts were made to further optimise these reactions, as sufficient material was obtained to allow for preliminary pharmacological characterisation.

  10. Characterization of the single transmembrane domain of human receptor activity-modifying protein 3 in adrenomedullin receptor internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@fc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka [Division of Circulation and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Nozaki, Naomi; Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less effectively than does RAMP2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new strategy of promoting internalization and resensitization of the receptor was found. -- Abstract: Two receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP2 and RAMP3) enable calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) to function as two heterodimeric receptors (CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3) for adrenomedullin (AM), a potent cardiovascular protective peptide. Following AM stimulation, both receptors undergo rapid internalization through a clathrin-dependent pathway, after which CLR/RAMP3, but not CLR/RAMP2, can be recycled to the cell surface for resensitization. However, human (h)RAMP3 mediates CLR internalization much less efficiently than does hRAMP2. Therefore, the molecular basis of the single transmembrane domain (TMD) and the intracellular domain of hRAMP3 during AM receptor internalization was investigated by transiently transfecting various RAMP chimeras and mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hCLR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that substituting the RAMP3 TMD with that of RAMP2 markedly enhanced AM-induced internalization of CLR. However, this replacement did not enhance the cell surface expression of CLR, [{sup 125}I]AM binding affinity or AM-induced cAMP response. More detailed analyses showed that substituting the Thr{sup 130}-Val{sup 131} sequence in the RAMP3 TMD with the corresponding sequence (Ile{sup 157}-Pro{sup 158}) from RAMP2 significantly enhanced AM-mediated CLR internalization. In contrast, substituting the RAMP3 target sequence with Ala{sup 130}-Ala{sup 131} did not significantly affect CLR internalization. Thus, the RAMP3 TMD participates in the negative regulation of CLR/RAMP3 internalization, and the aforementioned introduction of the Ile-Pro sequence into the RAMP3 TMD may be a

  11. Correlation of breast cancer subtypes, based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, with functional imaging parameters from {sup 68}Ga-RGD PET/CT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook; Jeong, Jae Min; Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, In Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-Do (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Sunjoo [Dankook University, Department of Molecular Biology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Cheon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Imaging biomarkers from functional imaging modalities were assessed as potential surrogate markers of disease status. Specifically, in this prospective study, we investigated the relationships between functional imaging parameters and histological prognostic factors and breast cancer subtypes. In total, 43 patients with large or locally advanced invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) were analyzed (47.6 ± 7.5 years old). {sup 68}Ga-Labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were performed. The maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg}) from RGD PET/CT and SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub avg} from FDG PET/CT were the imaging parameters used. For histological prognostic factors, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression was identified using immunohistochemistry (IHC) or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Four breast cancer subtypes, based on ER/PR and HER2 expression (ER/PR+,Her2-, ER/PR+,Her2+, ER/PR-,Her2+, and ER/PR-,Her2-), were considered. Quantitative FDG PET parameters were significantly higher in the ER-negative group (15.88 ± 8.73 vs 10.48 ± 6.01, p = 0.02 for SUV{sub max}; 9.40 ± 5.19 vs 5.92 ± 4.09, p = 0.02 for SUV{sub avg}) and the PR-negative group (8.37 ± 4.94 vs 4.79 ± 3.93, p = 0.03 for SUV{sub avg}). Quantitative RGD PET parameters were significantly higher in the HER2-positive group (2.42 ± 0.59 vs 2.90 ± 0.75, p = 0.04 for SUV{sub max}; 1.60 ± 0.38 vs 1.95 ± 0.53, p = 0.04 for SUV{sub avg}) and showed a significant positive correlation with the HER2/CEP17 ratio (r = 0.38, p = 0.03 for SUV{sub max} and r = 0.46, p < 0.01 for SUV{sub avg}). FDG PET parameters showed significantly higher values in the ER/PR-,Her2- subgroup versus the ER/PR+,Her2- or ER/PR+,Her2+ subgroups, while RGD PET parameters showed significantly lower values in the ER

  12. Contribution of Hippocampal 5-HT3 Receptors in Hippocampal Autophagy and Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses after a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Min; Yang, Li-Hua; Cui, Rong; Ni, Gui-Lian; Wu, Feng-Tian; Liang, Yong

    2017-05-01

    One of the hypotheses about the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the dysfunction of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission. While certain 5-HT receptor subtypes are likely critical for the symptoms of PTSD, few studies have examined the role of 5-HT 3 receptor in the development of PTSD, even though 5-HT 3 receptor is critical for contextual fear extinction and anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, we hypothesized that stimulation of 5-HT 3 receptor in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) could prevent hippocampal autophagy and the development of PTSD-like behavior in animals. To this end, we infused SR57227, selective 5-HT 3 agonist, into the DH after a single prolonged stress (SPS) treatment in rats. Three weeks later, we evaluated the effects of this pharmacological treatment on anxiety-related behaviors and extinction of contextual fear memory. We also accessed hippocampal autophagy and the expression of 5-HT 3A subunit, Beclin-1, LC3-I, and LC3-II in the DH. We found that SPS treatment did not alter anxiety-related behaviors but prolonged the extinction of contextual fear memory, and such a behavioral phenomenon was correlated with increased hippocampal autophagy, decreased 5-HT 3A expression, and increased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. Furthermore, intraDH infusions of SR57227 dose-dependently promoted the extinction of contextual fear memory, prevented hippocampal autophagy, and decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in the DH. These results indicated that 5-HT 3 receptor in the hippocampus may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hippocampal autophagy, and is likely involved in the pathophysiology of PTSD.

  13. Expressions of Hippocampal Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) in the Single-Prolonged Stress-Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhe, Du; Fang, Han; Yuxiu, Shi

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus regulate HPA axis by glucocorticoid negative feedback. Abnormalities in negative feedback are found in PTSD, suggesting that GR and MR might be involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemistry and western blotting to examine the changes in hippocampal MR- and GR-expression after SPS. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased MR- and GR-immunoreactivity (ir) in the CA1 of hippocampus in SPS animals. Change in GR sub-distribution was also observed, where GR-ir was shifted from nucleus to cytoplasm in SPS rats. Western blotting showed that SPS induced significantly decreased MR- and GR-protein in the whole hippocampus, although the degree of decreased expression of both receptors was different. Meanwhile, we also found the MR/GR ratio decreased in SPS rats. In general, SPS induced down-regulation of MR- and GR-expression. These findings suggest that MR and GR play critical roles in affecting hippocampal function. Changes in MR/GR ratio may be relevant for behavioral syndrome in PTSD

  14. Progesterone receptor variation and risk of ovarian cancer is limited to the invasive endometrioid subtype: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C.L.; Wu, A.H.; Gayther, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    included in this analysis. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each SNP and ovarian cancer risk and two-sided P-values are reported. Overall, risk of ovarian cancer was not associated with any of the three variants studied. However, in histopathological subtype...

  15. The clinically-tested S1P receptor agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, demonstrate subtype-specific bradycardia (S1P₁ and hypertension (S1P₃ in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Fryer

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1P(X receptor agonist produces modest hypertension in patients (2-3 mmHg in 1-yr trial as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension, and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P₁,₅ agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P₁ mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls, BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P₃ receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P₁ receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P₃ receptor activation.

  16. Regulation of β2-adrenergic receptor function by conformationally selective single-domain intrabodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staus, Dean P; Wingler, Laura M; Strachan, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    . However, a monomeric single-domain antibody (nanobody) from the Camelid family was recently found to allosterically bind and stabilize an active conformation of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR). Here, we set out to study the functional interaction of 18 related nanobodies with the β2AR to investigate...... their roles as novel tools for studying GPCR biology. Our studies revealed several sequence-related nanobody families with preferences for active (agonist-occupied) or inactive (antagonist-occupied) receptors. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that all nanobodies bind to epitopes displayed...... on the intracellular receptor surface; therefore, we transiently expressed them intracellularly as "intrabodies" to test their effects on β2AR-dependent signaling. Conformational specificity was preserved after intrabody conversion as demonstrated by the ability for the intracellularly expressed nanobodies...

  17. Nevirapine resistance and breast-milk HIV transmission: effects of single and extended-dose nevirapine prophylaxis in subtype C HIV-infected infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Moorthy

    Full Text Available Daily nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the "six-week extended-dose nevirapine" (SWEN trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV infection during the first year of life.Standard population sequencing and cloning for viral subpopulations present at > or =5% frequency were used to determine HIV genotypes from 94% of the 79 infected Indian infants studied. Timing of infection was defined based on when an infant's blood sample first tested positive for HIV DNA. SWEN-exposed infants diagnosed with HIV by six weeks of age had a significantly higher prevalence of NVP-resistance than those who received SD-NVP, by both standard population sequencing (92% of 12 vs. 38% of 29; p = 0.002 and low frequency clonal analysis (92% of 12 vs. 59% of 29; p = 0.06. Likelihood of infection with NVP-resistant HIV through breast-milk among infants infected after age six weeks was substantial, but prevalence of NVP-resistance did not differ among SWEN or SD-NVP exposed infants by standard population sequencing (15% of 13 vs. 15% of 20; p = 1.00 and clonal analysis (31% of 13 vs. 40% of 20; p = 0.72. Types of NVP-resistance mutations and patterns of persistence at one year of age were similar between the two groups. NVP-resistance mutations did differ by timing of HIV infection; the Y181C variant was predominant among infants diagnosed in the first six weeks of life, compared to Y188C/H during late breast-milk transmission.Use of SWEN to prevent breast-milk HIV transmission carries a high likelihood of resistance if infection occurs in the first six weeks of life. Moreover, there was a continued risk of transmission of NVP-resistant HIV through breastfeeding during the first year of life, but did not differ between SD-NVP and SWEN groups. As with SD-NVP, the

  18. Calcium Domains around Single and Clustered IP3 Receptors and Their Modulation by Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Rüdiger, S.; Nagaiah, Ch.; Warnecke, G.; Shuai, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We study Ca2+ release through single and clustered IP3 receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains ...

  19. H-2 restriction: Independent recognition of H-2 and foreign antigen by a single receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F.; Zacharchuk, Charles M.; Shin, Hyun S.

    1980-01-01

    We describe two situations in which the recognition of hapten can compensate for the lack of recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products in hapten-specific, H-2 restricted, T lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. First, we show that although recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products is essential for the lysis of target cells bearing a low hapten density, significant hapten-specific lysis of H-2 inappropriate target cells is observed at high levels of target cell derivatization. Secondly, we show that hapten-conjugated anti-H-2 antibody inhibits cytolysis poorly even though its binding to target cell H-2 antigens is equivalent to that of underivatized antibody. These results suggest that hapten and H-2 are recognized independently and are therefore inconsistent with the altered-self model. Although our data do not exclude the dual-recognition model, we prefer to interpret them within the framework of a single-receptor model in which hapten and H-2 are recognized independently by receptors of identical idiotype on the T cell. We postulate that the affinity of these receptors for the relevant H-2 gene product is low enough so that the T cell is not activated by encounters with normal-self cells expressing that H-2 gene product. However, when self cells express in addition a foreign antigen that can also be recognized by the same receptor, then the force of T cell-target cell interaction may be increased sufficiently to activate T cell effector function. PMID:6966404

  20. PAM50 Breast Cancer Subtyping by RT-qPCR and Concordance with Standard Clinical Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Roy RL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methodologies have been used in research to identify the “intrinsic” subtypes of breast cancer commonly known as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-Enriched (HER2-E and Basal-like. The PAM50 gene set is often used for gene expression-based subtyping; however, surrogate subtyping using panels of immunohistochemical (IHC markers are still widely used clinically. Discrepancies between these methods may lead to different treatment decisions. Methods We used the PAM50 RT-qPCR assay to expression profile 814 tumors from the GEICAM/9906 phase III clinical trial that enrolled women with locally advanced primary invasive breast cancer. All samples were scored at a single site by IHC for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and Her2/neu (HER2 protein expression. Equivocal HER2 cases were confirmed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Single gene scores by IHC/CISH were compared with RT-qPCR continuous gene expression values and “intrinsic” subtype assignment by the PAM50. High, medium, and low expression for ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and proliferation were selected using quartile cut-points from the continuous RT-qPCR data across the PAM50 subtype assignments. Results ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 gene expression had high agreement with established binary IHC cut-points (area under the curve (AUC ≥ 0.9. Estrogen receptor positivity by IHC was strongly associated with Luminal (A and B subtypes (92%, but only 75% of ER negative tumors were classified into the HER2-E and Basal-like subtypes. Luminal A tumors more frequently expressed PR than Luminal B (94% vs 74% and Luminal A tumors were less likely to have high proliferation (11% vs 77%. Seventy-seven percent (30/39 of ER-/HER2+ tumors by IHC were classified as the HER2-E subtype. Triple negative tumors were mainly comprised of Basal-like (57% and HER2-E (30% subtypes. Single gene scoring for ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 was more prognostic than the corresponding IHC markers as

  1. Interaction of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M₂ subtype with G protein Gα(i/o) isotypes and Gβγ subunits as studied with the maltose-binding protein-M₂-Gα(i/o) fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Susumu; Nemoto, Reiko; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Haga, Tatsuya

    2014-11-01

    We expressed the fusion proteins of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype (M2 receptor) with a maltose-binding protein (MBP) and various G protein α subunits (Gα(i1-i3/o)) at its N- and C-terminals, respectively (MBP-M2-Gα(i/o)), in Escherichia coli, and examined the effect of G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) on the receptor-Gα interaction as assessed by agonist- and GDP-dependent [(35)S]GTPγS binding of the fusion proteins. We found that (i) Gβγ promoted both the agonist-dependent and -independent [(35)S]GTPγS binding with little effect on the guanine nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding, (ii) the specific [(35)S]GTPγS binding activity was much greater for MBP-M2-Gα(oA) than for MBP-M2-Gα(i1-i3) in the absence of Gβγ, whereas Gβγ preferentially promoted the agonist-dependent decrease in the affinity for GDP of MBP-M2-Gα(i1-i3) rather than of MBP-M2-Gα(oA), and (iii) the proportion of agonist-dependent [(35)S]GTPγS binding was roughly 50% irrespective of species of Gα and the presence or absence of Gβγ. These results demonstrate that receptor-Gα fusion proteins expressed in E. coli could be useful for studies of receptor-G interaction. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Single Particle Tracking reveals two distinct environments for CD4 receptors at the surface of living T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascalchi, Patrice; Lamort, Anne Sophie; Salomé, Laurence; Dumas, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the diffusion of single CD4 receptors on living lymphocytes. ► This study reveals that CD4 receptors have either a random or confined diffusion. ► The dynamics of unconfined CD4 receptors was accelerated by a temperature raise. ► The dynamics of confined CD4 receptors was unchanged by a temperature raise. ► Our results suggest the existence of two different environments for CD4 receptors. -- Abstract: We investigated the lateral diffusion of the HIV receptor CD4 at the surface of T lymphocytes at 20 °C and 37 °C by Single Particle Tracking using Quantum Dots. We found that the receptors presented two major distinct behaviors that were not equally affected by temperature changes. About half of the receptors showed a random diffusion with a diffusion coefficient increasing upon raising the temperature. The other half of the receptors was permanently or transiently confined with unchanged dynamics on raising the temperature. These observations suggest that two distinct subpopulations of CD4 receptors with different environments are present at the surface of living T lymphocytes.

  3. Enthalpy-Driven RNA Folding: Single-Molecule Thermodynamics of Tetraloop–Receptor Tertiary Interaction†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Julie L.; Kraemer, Benedikt; Koberling, Felix; Edmann, Rainer; Nesbitt, David J.

    2010-01-01

    RNA folding thermodynamics are crucial for structure prediction, which requires characterization of both enthalpic and entropic contributions of tertiary motifs to conformational stability. We explore the temperature dependence of RNA folding due to the ubiquitous GAAA tetraloop–receptor docking interaction, exploiting immobilized and freely diffusing single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) methods. The equilibrium constant for intramolecular docking is obtained as a function of temperature (T = 21–47 °C), from which a van’t Hoff analysis yields the enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) of docking. Tetraloop–receptor docking is significantly exothermic and entropically unfavorable in 1 mM MgCl2 and 100 mM NaCl, with excellent agreement between immobilized (ΔH° = −17.4 ± 1.6 kcal/mol, and ΔS° = −56.2 ± 5.4 cal mol−1 K−1) and freely diffusing (ΔH° = −17.2 ± 1.6 kcal/mol, and ΔS° = −55.9 ± 5.2 cal mol−1 K−1) species. Kinetic heterogeneity in the tetraloop–receptor construct is unaffected over the temperature range investigated, indicating a large energy barrier for interconversion between the actively docking and nondocking subpopulations. Formation of the tetraloop–receptor interaction can account for ~60% of the ΔH° and ΔS° of P4–P6 domain folding in the Tetrahymena ribozyme, suggesting that it may act as a thermodynamic clamp for the domain. Comparison of the isolated tetraloop–receptor and other tertiary folding thermodynamics supports a theme that enthalpy- versus entropy-driven folding is determined by the number of hydrogen bonding and base stacking interactions. PMID:19186984

  4. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungo, Esther; Herbert, Andrew S; Raaben, Matthijs; Obernosterer, Gregor; Biswas, Rohan; Miller, Emily Happy; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Carette, Jan E; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Chandran, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell's viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell's viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1's endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell's viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV cannot bind to

  5. Computational approach to radiogenomics of breast cancer: Luminal A and luminal B molecular subtypes are associated with imaging features on routine breast MRI extracted using computer vision algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Zhang, Jing; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2015-10-01

    To identify associations between semiautomatically extracted MRI features and breast cancer molecular subtypes. We analyzed routine clinical pre-operative breast MRIs from 275 breast cancer patients at a single institution in this retrospective, Institutional Review Board-approved study. Six fellowship-trained breast imagers reviewed the MRIs and annotated the cancers. Computer vision algorithms were then used to extract 56 imaging features from the cancers including morphologic, texture, and dynamic features. Surrogate markers (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 [HER2]) were used to categorize tumors by molecular subtype: ER/PR+, HER2- (luminal A); ER/PR+, HER2+ (luminal B); ER/PR-, HER2+ (HER2); ER/PR/HER2- (basal). A multivariate analysis was used to determine associations between the imaging features and molecular subtype. The imaging features were associated with both luminal A (P = 0.0007) and luminal B (P = 0.0063) molecular subtypes. No association was found for either HER2 (P = 0.2465) or basal (P = 0.1014) molecular subtype and the imaging features. A P-value of 0.0125 (0.05/4) was considered significant. Luminal A and luminal B molecular subtype breast cancer are associated with semiautomatically extracted features from routine contrast enhanced breast MRI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    therefore been acknowledged to be a third endogenous ligand at SRIF receptors. This review goes through mechanisms of signal transduction, pharmacology, and anatomical distribution of SRIF receptors. Structurally, SRIF receptors belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled (GPC) receptors, sharing....... The generation of knock-out (KO) mice, intended as a means to define the contributions made by individual receptor subtypes, necessarily marks but an approximation. Furthermore, we must now take into account the stunning complexity of receptor co-operation indicated by the observation of receptor homo......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  7. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  8. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  9. Role of endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptor subtypes in the regulation of intrarenal blood flow and oxygen tension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitescu, Nicoletta; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Herlitz, Hans; Guron, Gregor

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in the regulation of intrarenal blood flow and oxygen tension in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Thiobutabarbital anaesthetized rats were divided into four groups (n = 6-9 per group): (i) saline (4 mL/kg per h); (ii) BQ123; (iii) BQ788; and (iv) BQ123 + BQ788. After baseline measurements, the ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ-123 (30 nmol/kg per min, i.v.) and/or the ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ-788 (30 nmol/kg per min, i.v.), was administered for a period of 60 min. Total renal blood flow (RBF), cortical and outer medullary perfusion (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and Po(2) (Clark-type microelectrodes) were analysed throughout. At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups in mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, cortical and outer medullary perfusion and Po(2). Infusion of BQ-788 reduced RBF, cortical perfusion and outer medullary Po(2) (P < 0.05) and increased renal vascular resistance (P < 0.05) compared with saline-treated and BQ123 + BQ788-infused groups. BQ-123 and coinfusion of BQ-123 + BQ-788 increased outer medullary perfusion compared with the saline-treated group (P < 0.05) without significantly affecting outer medullary Po(2) and MAP. Neither selective nor combined ET(A) and ET(B) receptor antagonism significantly affected renal cortical Po(2). In conclusion, in normotensive rats, ET(B) receptor antagonism caused renal vasoconstriction and reduced RBF and cortical perfusion. Furthermore, ET(B) receptor antagonism decreased outer medullary Po(2). These effects were mediated by ET(A) receptor activation and are not due to a lack of ET(B) receptor activation per se. Finally, BQ-123 increased renal outer medullary perfusion, suggesting a tonic vasoconstrictor effect of ET(A) receptors in the medulla of normotensive rats.

  10. Carbachol-evoked suppression of excitatory neurotransmission in guinea-pig olfactory cortex slices is unlikely to involve an M4-muscarinic receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B; Libri, V; Constanti, A

    1992-01-01

    Depression of the electrically-evoked surface-negative field potential (N-Wave) by bath-superfusion of carbachol was measured in guinea-pig olfactory cortex slices maintained in vitro. The possibility that this response, previously proposed to be mediated via a presynaptic M1: muscarinic receptor, might in fact be due to M4 receptor activation, was investigated by testing the effectiveness of himbacine (a proposed M4-selective antagonist) on our cortical preparation. Himbacine (100 nM-1 microM) had no effect on the N-wave potential alone, but it induced a clear competitive-type inhibition of carbachol effects. Schild plot analysis (regression slope constrained to unity) of pooled data yielded a pA2 value of 7.2 for this antagonist (n = 7 slices). This value accords more with that expected for the interaction of himbacine with M1 receptors (approximately 7.2) than with functionally expressed M4 receptors (approximately 8.5-8.5). We therefore conclude that M4-type muscarinic receptors are unlikely to be involved in mediating this presynaptic carbachol response.

  11. Subtype activation and interaction of protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase controlling receptor expression in cerebral arteries and microvessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, S.; Edvinsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes in the pathophysiology of cerebral...... ischemia after SAH in cerebral arteries and microvessels and to examine temporal activation of the kinases. We hypothesize that treatment with a MAPK or PKC inhibitor will prevent the SAH-induced kinase activation in brain vessels. METHODS: SAH was induced by injecting 250 microL blood...... into the prechiasmatic cistern in the rat. The activation of different MAPK and PKC isotypes in large circle of Willis cerebral arteries and intracerebral microvessels was examined at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after SAH and after intrathecal treatment with PKC or MAPK inhibitor by use of Western blot. RESULTS...

  12. Carbachol-evoked suppression of excitatory neurotransmission in guinea-pig olfactory cortex slices is unlikely to involve an M4-muscarinic receptor subtype.

    OpenAIRE

    Das, B.; Libri, V.; Constanti, A.

    1992-01-01

    Depression of the electrically-evoked surface-negative field potential (N-Wave) by bath-superfusion of carbachol was measured in guinea-pig olfactory cortex slices maintained in vitro. The possibility that this response, previously proposed to be mediated via a presynaptic M1: muscarinic receptor, might in fact be due to M4 receptor activation, was investigated by testing the effectiveness of himbacine (a proposed M4-selective antagonist) on our cortical preparation. Himbacine (100 nM-1 micro...

  13. Quantitative super-resolution single molecule microscopy dataset of YFP-tagged growth factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeš, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Jakub; Fliegel, Karel; Lasser, Theo; Hagen, Guy M

    2018-01-19

    Super-resolution single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) is a method for achieving resolution beyond the classical limit in optical microscopes (approx. 200 nm laterally). Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) has been used for super-resolution single molecule localization microscopy, but less frequently than other fluorescent probes. Working with YFP in SMLM is a challenge because a lower number of photons are emitted per molecule compared to organic dyes which are more commonly used. Publically available experimental data can facilitate development of new data analysis algorithms. Four complete, freely available single molecule super-resolution microscopy datasets on YFP-tagged growth factor receptors expressed in a human cell line are presented including both raw and analyzed data. We report methods for sample preparation, for data acquisition, and for data analysis, as well as examples of the acquired images. We also analyzed the SMLM data sets using a different method: super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). The two modes of analysis offer complementary information about the sample. A fifth single molecule super-resolution microscopy dataset acquired with the dye Alexa 532 is included for comparison purposes. This dataset has potential for extensive reuse. Complete raw data from SMLM experiments has typically not been published. The YFP data exhibits low signal to noise ratios, making data analysis a challenge. These data sets will be useful to investigators developing their own algorithms for SMLM, SOFI, and related methods. The data will also be useful for researchers investigating growth factor receptors such as ErbB3. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Single-molecule resolution of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kim C; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C

    2016-01-01

    The organization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) into dimers and higher-order oligomers has provided a potential mechanistic system in defining complex GPCR responses. Despite being studied for nearly 20 years it has, and still is, been an area of controversy. Although technology has developed to quantitatively measure these associations in real time, identify the structural interfaces and even systems to understand the physiological significance of di/oligomerization, key questions remain outstanding including the role of each individual complex from the monomer to the higher-order oligomer, in their native system. Recently, single-molecule microscopy approaches have provided the tools to directly visualize individual GPCRs in dimers and oligomers, though as with any technological development each have their advantages and limitations. This chapter will describe these recent developments in single-molecule fluorescent microscopy, focusing on our recent application of super-resolution imaging of the GPCR for the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin to quantify GPCR monomers and formation of protomers in to dimers and distinct oligomeric forms. We present our approach, considerations, strategy, and challenges to visualize this receptor beyond the light diffraction limit via photoactivated localization microscopy with photoactivatable dyes. The addition of super-resolution approaches to the GPCR "nano-tool kit" will pave the way for novel avenues to answer outstanding questions regarding the existence and significance of these complexes to GPCR signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Controversial action of positive modulator of subtype 7 of metabotropic glutamate receptors AMN082 on cortical epileptic afterdischarges in immature rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szczurowska, Ewa; Mareš, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 623, 1-3 (2009), s. 37-40 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epileptic afterdischarges * glutamate receptors * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.585, year: 2009

  16. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics addressing the estrogen receptor subtype-mediated effects in T47D breast cancer cells exposed to the phytoestrogen genistein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotoca Covaleda, A.M.; Sollewijn Gelpke, M.D.; Boeren, S.; Ström, A.; Gustafsson, J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses, by transcriptomics and quantitative SILAC-based proteomics, the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and beta (ERß)-mediated effects on gene and protein expression in T47D breast cancer cells exposed to the phytoestrogen genistein. Using the T47D human breast cancer cell line

  17. Quantitation of mRNAs for M(1) to M(5) subtypes of muscarinic receptors in rat heart and brain cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Alena; Tuček, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2002), s. 1267-1272 ISSN 0026-895X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011910 Grant - others:Physiological Society(GB) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * mammalian heart Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.480, year: 2002

  18. Antagonism of the Ethanol-Like Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Ethanol, Pentobarbital, and Midazolam in Cynomolgus Monkeys Reveals Involvement of Specific GABAA Receptor SubtypesS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura S. M.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol were studied by comparing the potency of ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazol(1,5-a)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (Ro15-4513) and ethyl 8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazol(1,5-a)-benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (flumazenil, Ro15-1788) to antagonize ethanol, pentobarbital (PB), and midazolam substitution for ethanol. Ro15-4513 has high affinity for receptors containing α4/6 and α5 subunits and lower affinity for α1, α2, and α3 subunits. Flumazenil is nonselective for GABAA receptors containing α1, α2, α3, and α5 subunits and has low affinity for α4/6-containing receptors. Male (n = 9) and female (n = 8) cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to discriminate ethanol (1.0 or 2.0 g/kg i.g., 30-min pretreatment) from water. Ethanol, PB, and midazolam dose-dependently substituted for ethanol (80% ethanol-appropriate responding). Ro15-4513 (0.003–0.56 mg/kg i.m., 5-min pretreatment) shifted the ethanol, PB, and midazolam dose-response functions rightward in a vast majority of monkeys tested (15/15, 16/17, and 11/12, respectively). In contrast, flumazenil (0.30–10.0 mg/kg i.m., 5-min pretreatment) shifted the ethanol, PB, and midazolam dose-response functions rightward in 9 of 16, 12 of 16, and 7 of 9 monkeys tested, respectively. In the monkeys showing antagonism with both Ro15-4513 and flumazenil, ethanol and PB substitution were antagonized more potently by Ro15-4513 than by flumazenil, whereas midazolam substitution was antagonized with similar potency. There were no sex or training dose differences, with the exception that flumazenil failed to antagonize ethanol substitution in males trained to discriminate 2.0 g/kg ethanol. GABAA receptors with high affinity for Ro15-4513 (i.e., containing α4/6 and α5 subunits) may be particularly important mediators of the multiple discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol

  19. Brain receptor single-photon emission computer tomography with 123I Datscan in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchev, D.; Peshev, N.; Kostadinova, I.; Grigorova, O.; Trindev, P.; Shotekov, P.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical aspects of Parkinson's disease are not enough for the early diagnosis of the disease. Positron emission tomography and the receptor single - photon emission tomography can be used for imaging functional integrity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic structures. 24 patient (17 men and 7 women) were investigated. 20 of them are with Parkinson's disease and 4 are with essential tremor. The radiopharmaceutical - 123I-Datscan (ioflupane, bind with 123I) represent a cocaine analogue with selective affinity to dopamine transporters, located in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal terminals in the striatum. Single - photon emission computer tomography was performed with SPECT gamma camera (ADAC, SH Epic detector). The scintigraphic study was made 3 to 6 hours after intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical - 123I- Datscan in dose 185 MBq. 120 frames are registered with duration of each one 22 seconds and gamma camera rotation 360. After generation of transversal slices we generated two composites pictures. The first composite picture image the striatum, the second - the occipital region. Two ratios were calculated representing the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the left and right striatum. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were elaborated for evaluating the scintigraphic patterns. Decreased, nonhomogeneous and asymmetric uptake of the radiopharmaceutical coupled with low quantitative parameters in range from 1.44 to 2.87 represents the characteristic scintigraphic pattern for Parkinson's disease with clear clinical picture. Homogenous with high intensity and symmetric uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the striatum coupled with his clear frontier and with quantitative parameters up to 4.40 represent the scintigraphic pattern in two patients with essential tremor. Receptor single - photon emission computer tomography with 123I - Datscan represents an accurate nuclear-medicine method for precise diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and for its differentiation from

  20. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    therefore been acknowledged to be a third endogenous ligand at SRIF receptors. This review goes through mechanisms of signal transduction, pharmacology, and anatomical distribution of SRIF receptors. Structurally, SRIF receptors belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled (GPC) receptors, sharing......- and heterodimerisation, let alone oligomerisation. Theoretically, this phenomenon adds a novel series of functional megareceptors/super-receptors, with varied pharmacological profiles, to the catalogue of monomeric receptor subtypes isolated and cloned in the past. SRIF analogues include both peptides and non......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  1. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen K Bronsveld

    Full Text Available Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes.This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years, women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211 and women without diabetes (n = 101, irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55, HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22, and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60 tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45 and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67 tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general.We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes

  2. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2017-01-01

    Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated

  3. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Subclassification into Basal, Ductal, and Mixed Subtypes Based on Comparison of Clinico-pathologic Features and Expression of p53, Cyclin D1, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, p16, and Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ja Cho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma with distinct pathologic characteristics. The histogenesis of BSCC is not fully understood, and the cancer has been suggested to originate from a totipotent primitive cell in the basal cell layer of the surface epithelium or in the proximal duct of secretory glands. Methods Twenty-six cases of head and neck BSCC from Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, reported during a 14-year-period were subclassified into basal, ductal, and mixed subtypes according to the expression of basal (cytokeratin [CK] 5/6, p63 or ductal markers (CK7, CK8/18. The cases were also subject to immunohistochemical study for CK19, p53, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and p16 and to in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV, and the results were clinico-pathologically compared. Results Mixed subtype (12 cases was the most common, and these cases showed hypopharyngeal predilection, older age, and higher expression of CK19, p53, and EGFR than other subtypes. The basal subtype (nine cases showed frequent comedo-necrosis and high expression of cyclin D1. The ductal subtype (five cases showed the lowest expression of p53, cyclin D1, and EGFR. A small number of p16- and/or HPV-positive cases were not restricted to one subtype. BSCC was the cause of death in 19 patients, and the average follow-up period for all patients was 79.5 months. Overall survival among the three subtypes was not significantly different. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a heterogeneous pathogenesis of head and neck BSCC. Each subtype showed variable histology and immunoprofiles, although the clinical implication of heterogeneity was not determined in this study.

  4. Relationship between structure, conformational flexibility, and biological activity of agonists and antagonists at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Brehm, L; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1990-01-01

    receptors. Each of the three cyclic acidic amino acids showing NMDA agonist activities was found to exist as an equilibrium mixture of two conformers in aqueous solution. In contrast, the NMDA antagonists cis-2,3-PDA and cis-2,4-PDA as well as the inactive compounds trans-2,5-PDA and cis-2,6-PDA were shown...... spectroscopy and supported by computer simulations and molecular mechanics calculations. While the trans forms of 2,3-PDA and 2,4-PDA and cis-2,5-PDA show NMDA receptor agonist activities, cis-2,3-PDA and cis-2,4-PDA are NMDA antagonists. The compounds trans-2,5-PDA and cis-2,6-PDA did not interact with NMDA...

  5. Long-Term Activation upon Brief Exposure to Xanomleline Is Unique to M1 and M4 Subtypes of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Eva; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Jakubík, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), e88910 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * functional selectivity * xanomeline Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  6. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Subtypes of Muscarinic Receptors 2 (2nd) Held in Boston, Massachusetts on August 22-24 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-30

    mediate intrinsic gastrointestinal display uniform membrane properties,K 16.20 with the reflexes (e.g. peristalsis ) which underlie the co-ordinated...innervation to the gastrointestinal (Fig. I). The muscarinic depolarization in submucous epithelia is extrinsic, via sympathetic axons which come...termed M1 , while the receptors current in smooth muscle cells to a standard dose of ACh on gastrointestinal smooth muscle are designated K.3940

  7. Hypermethylation pattern of ESR and PgR genes and lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors in human breast cancer tumors: ER/PR subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Taleban, Forough-Azam; Mehdipour, Parvin; Sabour, Siamak; Atri, Morteza

    2018-02-14

    The option of endocrine therapy in breast cancer remains conventionally promising. We aimed to investigate how accurately the pattern of hypermethylation at estrogen receptor (ESR) and progesterone receptor (PgR) genes may associate with relative expression and protein status of ER, PR and the combinative phenotype of ER/PR. In this consecutive case-series, we enrolled 139 primary diagnosed breast cancer. Methylation specific PCR was used to assess the methylation status (individual test). Tumor mRNA expression levels were evaluated using real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry data was used to present hormonal receptor status of a tumor (as test reference). Methylation at ESR1 was comparably frequent in ER-breast tumors (83.0%, PPR- conditions (Cramer's V= 0.44, PPR (77.1%, PPR expressions (55.6%, PPR- (64.4%, PPR-, the hypermethylation of PgRb seem another epigenetic signalling variable actively associate with methylated ESR1 to show lack of ER+/PR+ tumors in breast cancer.

  8. Somatostatin receptors ligands in radionuclide diagnosis and therapy in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewinski, W.; Tarkowska, A.

    2002-01-01

    Various tumors, referred to as either neuroendocrine or non-neuroendocrine, express a high number of somatostatin receptors. The presence of these receptors has been shown to be of clinical importance since radio-labeled somatostatin analogues have been used for tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy while non-radioactive analogues are applied for the treatment of tumour-associated symptoms. Recently, five different types of human somatostatin receptors have been identified and named sst1-sst5. Each sst is the product of single gene and the expression of receptor subtypes has been reported to be dependent on the origin and type of tumor. A great majority of studies on sst receptors are based on molecular in vitro identification methods such as the very sensitive RY-PCR technique. A majority of tumors predominantly express the sst2 receptor subtype while only few express other subtypes alone.The introduction of labeled somatostatin analogues, more resistant to degradation than somatostatin itself, enabled in vivo visualization of tumors with high expression of somatostatin receptors. Recently many new stable somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide, lanreotide, vapreotide and depreotide have been introduced as diagnostic tracers. Pharmacological studies have shown a high affinity of somatostatin to all receptor subtypes, whereas somatostatin analogues bind to different subtypes with different affinity. The first studies used radioiodinated octreotide as the radioligand. Presently, indium-labeled octreotide is considered the golden standard. However new technetium-labeled analogues have been already used in clinical investigations. High expression of somatostatin receptors presented by certain tumors can be used for a receptor-mediated radiotherapy. Such therapy with high doses of indium-labeled analogues or with yttrium-labeled somatostatin analogues has been reported to be a promising method of treatment not only in case of neuroendocrine tumors. (author)

  9. Interferon α subtypes in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Kathrin; Dickow, Julia; Dittmer, Ulf

    2018-02-13

    Type I interferons (IFN), which are immediately induced after most virus infections, are central for direct antiviral immunity and link innate and adaptive immune responses. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to evade the IFN response by preventing IFN induction or blocking IFN signaling pathways. Thus, therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or agonists inducing type I IFN responses are a considerable option for future immunotherapies against chronic viral infections. An important part of the type I IFN family are 12 IFNα subtypes, which all bind the same receptor, but significantly differ in their biological activities. Up to date only one IFNα subtype (IFNα2) is being used in clinical treatment against chronic virus infections, however its therapeutic success rate is rather limited, especially during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Recent studies addressed the important question if other IFNα subtypes would be more potent against retroviral infections in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Indeed, very potent IFNα subtypes were defined and their antiviral and immunomodulatory properties were characterized. In this review we summarize the recent findings on the role of individual IFNα subtypes during HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infection. This includes their induction during HIV/SIV infection, their antiretroviral activity and the regulation of immune response against HIV by different IFNα subtypes. The findings might facilitate novel strategies for HIV cure or functional cure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Involvement of the alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor subtype in nicotine-induced attenuation of delta9-THC cerebellar ataxia: role of cerebellar nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron David; Dar, M Saeed

    2007-01-01

    We have recently reported that mediation of intracerebellar nicotine-induced attenuation of cerebellar delta9-THC ataxia was via the alpha4beta2 nAChR. The present study was meant to investigate the role of cerebellar nitric oxide (NO)-guanylyl cyclase (GC) signaling in the alpha4beta2-mediated attenuation in CD-1 male mice. Drugs were given via intracerebellar microinfusion using stereotaxically implanted guide cannulas, with ataxia evaluated by Rotorod. Intracerebellar microinfusion of SNP (sodium nitroprusside, NO donor; 15, 30, 60 pg) and SMT (S-methylisothiourea, inhibitor of inducible NO synthase; 70, 140, 280 fg) significantly enhanced and reduced, respectively, intracerebellar RJR-2403 (selective alpha4beta2 agonist)-induced attenuation of delta9-THC ataxia dose-dependently. Intracerebellar isoliquiritigenin (GC-activator; 1, 2, 4 pg) and ODQ (1H[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, GC inhibitor; 200, 400, 800 fg), significantly enhanced and reduced, respectively, intracerebellar RJR-2403-induced attenuation of delta9-THC ataxia dose-dependently. Further support for the role of NO was evidenced via increases in cerebellar NO(x) (nitrate+nitrite) levels following microinfusion of nicotine or RJR-2403 as compared to control, whereas delta9-THC significantly decreased NO(x) levels. "Nicotine/RJR-2403+delta9-THC" treated mice had cerebellar NO(x) levels significantly increased as compared to mice infused with delta9-THC alone. Results of the present investigation support the role of cerebellar NO-GC signaling in alpha4beta2 nAChR subtype-mediated attenuation of delta9-THC ataxia.

  11. A single extracellular amino acid in Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 defines antagonist species selectivity and G protein selection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Bolognini, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    that are able to block the human receptor. Docking of exemplar antagonists from two chemical series to homology models of both human and mouse Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 suggested that a single lysine - arginine variation at the extracellular face of the receptor might provide the basis for antagonist...... selectivity and mutational swap studies confirmed this hypothesis. Extending these studies to agonist function indicated that although the lysine - arginine variation between human and mouse orthologs had limited effect on G protein-mediated signal transduction, removal of positive charge from this residue...

  12. Single Channel Analysis of Isoflurane and Ethanol Enhancement of Taurine-Activated Glycine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

    2018-01-01

    The amino acid taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors (GlyRs), which is released by astrocytes in many brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Taurine is a partial agonist with an efficacy significantly lower than that of glycine. Allosteric modulators such as ethanol and isoflurane produce leftward shifts of glycine concentration-response curves but have no effects at saturating glycine concentrations. In contrast, in whole-cell electrophysiology studies these modulators increase the effects of saturating taurine concentrations. A number of possible mechanisms may explain these enhancing effects, including modulator effects on conductance, channel open times, or channel closed times. We used outside-out patch-clamp single channel electrophysiology to investigate the mechanism of action of 200 mM ethanol and 0.55 mM isoflurane in enhancing the effects of a saturating concentration of taurine. Neither modulator enhanced taurine-mediated conductance. Isoflurane increased the probability of channel opening. Isoflurane also increased the lifetimes of the two shortest open dwell times while both agents decreased the likelihood of occurrence of the longest-lived intracluster channel-closing events. The mechanism of enhancement of GlyR functioning by these modulators is dependent on the efficacy of the agonist activating the receptor and the concentration of agonist tested. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics addressing the estrogen receptor subtype-mediated effects in T47D breast cancer cells exposed to the phytoestrogen genistein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoca, Ana M; Gelpke, Maarten D Sollewijn; Boeren, Sjef; Ström, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Vervoort, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses, by transcriptomics and quantitative stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics, the estrogen receptor α (ERα) and β (ERβ)-mediated effects on gene and protein expression in T47D breast cancer cells exposed to the phytoestrogen genistein. Using the T47D human breast cancer cell line with tetracycline-dependent ERβ expression (T47D-ERβ), the effect of a varying intracellular ERα/ERβ ratio on genistein-induced gene and protein expression was characterized. Results obtained reveal that in ERα-expressing T47D-ERβ cells with inhibited ERβ expression genistein induces transcriptomics and proteomics signatures pointing at rapid cell growth and migration by dynamic activation of cytoskeleton remodeling. The data reveal an interplay between integrins, focal adhesion kinase, CDC42, and actin cytoskeleton signaling cascades, occurring upon genistein treatment, in the T47D-ERβ breast cancer cells with low levels of ERα and no expression of ERβ. In addition, data from our study indicate that ERβ-mediated gene and protein expression counteracts ERα-mediated effects because in T47D-ERβ cells expressing ERβ and exposed to genistein transcriptomics and proteomics signatures pointing at a clear down-regulation of cell growth and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were demonstrated. These results suggest that ERβ decreases cell motility and metastatic potential as well as cell survival of the breast cancer cell line. It is concluded that the effects of genistein on proteomics and transcriptomics end points in the T47D-ERβ cell model are comparable with those reported previously for estradiol with the ultimate estrogenic effect being dependent on the relative affinity for both receptors and on the receptor phenotype (ERα/ERβ ratio) in the cells or tissue of interest.

  14. Contribution of the putative inner-pore region to the gating of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subtype 1 Channel (TRPV1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sušánková, Klára; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Vyklický st., Ladislav; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 28 (2007), s. 7578-7585 ISSN 0270-6474 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0319; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/07/0915; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : capsaicin * vanilloid receptor * TRP channels Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.490, year: 2007

  15. Comparison of cloned and pharmacologically defined rat tissue alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Insel, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been defined by pharmacological and receptor cloning techniques, but the precise alignment of cloned and pharmacologically-defined subtypes is still unclear. We have compared the affinities of 8 subtype-selective compounds at three cloned alpha

  16. Limitations in predicting PAM50 intrinsic subtype and risk of relapse score with Ki67 in estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Martinez, Aranzazu; Pascual, Tomás; Perrone, Giuseppe; Morales, Serafin; de la Haba, Juan; González-Rivera, Milagros; Galván, Patricia; Zalfa, Francesca; Amato, Michela; Gonzalez, Lucia; Prats, Miquel; Rojo, Federico; Manso, Luis; Paré, Laia; Alonso, Immaculada; Albanell, Joan; Vivancos, Ana; González, Antonio; Matito, Judit; González, Sonia; Fernandez, Pedro; Adamo, Barbara; Muñoz, Montserrat; Viladot, Margarita; Font, Carme; Aya, Francisco; Vidal, Maria; Caballero, Rosalía; Carrasco, Eva; Altomare, Vittorio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Prat, Aleix; Martin, Miguel

    2017-03-28

    PAM50/Prosigna gene expression-based assay identifies three categorical risk of relapse groups (ROR-low, ROR-intermediate and ROR-high) in post-menopausal patients with estrogen receptor estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/ HER2-negative (HER2-) early breast cancer. Low risk patients might not need adjuvant chemotherapy since their risk of distant relapse at 10-years is below 10% with endocrine therapy only. In this study, 517 consecutive patients with ER+/HER2- and node-negative disease were evaluated for Ki67 and Prosigna. Most of Luminal A tumors (65.6%) and ROR-low tumors (70.9%) had low Ki67 values (0-10%); however, the percentage of patients with ROR-medium or ROR-high disease within the Ki67 0-10% group was 42.7% (with tumor sizes ≤2 cm) and 33.9% (with tumor sizes > 2 cm). Finally, we found that the optimal Ki67 cutoff for identifying Luminal A or ROR-low tumors was 14%. Ki67 as a surrogate biomarker in identifying Prosigna low-risk outcome patients or Luminal A disease in the clinical setting is unreliable. In the absence of a well-validated prognostic gene expression-based assay, the optimal Ki67 cutoff for identifying low-risk outcome patients or Luminal A disease remains at 14%.

  17. Pharmacological characterization of NMDA-like receptors in the single-celled organism Paramecium primaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoino, Paola; Candiani, Simona; Pittaluga, Anna Maria; Usai, Cesare; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ferrando, Sara; Milanese, Marco; Faimali, Marco; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2014-02-01

    Paramecium primaurelia is a unicellular eukaryote that moves in freshwater by ciliary beating and responds to environmental stimuli by altering motile behaviour. The movements of the cilia are controlled by the electrical changes of the cell membrane: when the intraciliary Ca(2+) concentration associated with plasma membrane depolarization increases, the ciliary beating reverses its direction, and consequently the swimming direction changes. The ciliary reversal duration is correlated with the amount of Ca(2+) influx. Here, we evaluated the effects due to the activation or blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors on swimming behaviour in Paramecium. Paramecia normally swim forward, drawing almost linear tracks. We observed that the simultaneous administration of NMDA and glycine induced a partial ciliary reversal (PaCR) leading to a continuous spiral-like swim. Furthermore, the duration of continuous ciliary reversal (CCR), triggered by high external KCl concentrations, was longer in NMDA+glycine-treated cells. NMDA action required the presence of Ca(2+), as the normal forward swimming was restored when the ion was omitted from the extracellular milieu. The PaCR and the enhancement of CCR duration significantly decreased when the antagonists of the glutamate site D-AP5 or CGS19755, the NMDA channel blocker MK-801 or the glycine site antagonist DCKA was added. The action of NMDA+glycine was also abolished by Zn(2+) or ifenprodil, the GluN2A and the GluN2B NMDA-containing subunit blockers, respectively. Searches of the Paramecium genome database currently available indicate that the NMDA-like receptor with ligand-binding characteristics of an NMDA receptor-like complex, purified from rat brain synaptic membranes and found in some metazoan genomes, is also present in Paramecium. These results provide evidence that functional NMDA receptors similar to those typical of mammalian neuronal cells are present in the single-celled organism Paramecium and thus

  18. DOTA-NOC, a high-affinity ligand of somatostatin receptor subtypes 2, 3 and 5 for labelling with various radiometals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Damian; Schmitt, Joerg S.; Ginj, Mihaela; Maecke, Helmut R.; Bernard, Bert F.; Krenning, Eric; Jong, Marion de; Wenger, Sandra; Reubi, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that modification of the octapeptide octreotide in positions 3 and 8 may result in compounds with increased somatostatin receptor affinity that, if radiolabelled, display improved uptake in somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. The aim of a recent research study in our laboratory was to employ the parallel peptide synthesis approach by further exchanging the amino acid in position 3 of octreotide and coupling the macrocyclic chelator DOTA(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) to these peptides for labelling with radiometals like gallium-67 or -68, indium-111, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The purpose was to find radiopeptides with an improved somatostatin receptor binding profile in order to extend the spectrum of targeted tumours. A first peptide, [ 111 In, 90 Y-DOTA]-1-Nal 3 -octreotide ( 111 In, 90 Y-DOTA-NOC), was isolated which showed an improved profile. In III -DOTA-NOC exhibited the following IC 50 values (nM) when studied in competition with [ 125 I][Leu 8 , d-Trp 22 , Tyr 25 ]somatostatin-28 (values for Y III -DOTA-NOC are shown in parentheses): sstr2, 2.9±0.1 (3.3±0.2); sstr3, 8±2 (26±1.9); sstr5, 11.2±3.5 (10.4±1.6). Affinity towards sstr1 and 4 was very low or absent. In III -DOTA-NOC is superior to all somatostatin-based radiopeptides having this particular type of binding profile, including DOTA-lanreotide, and has three to four times higher binding affinity to sstr2 than In III ,Y III -DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotide (In III ,Y III -DOTA-TOC). In addition, [ 111 In]DOTA-NOC showed a specific and high rate of internalization into AR4-2J rat pancreatic tumour cells which, after 4 h, was about two times higher than that of [ 111 In]DOTA-TOC and three times higher than that of [ 111 In]DOTA-octreotide ([ 111 In]DOTA-OC). The internalized radiopeptides were externalized intact upon 2 h of internalization followed by an acid wash. After 2-3 h of externalization a plateau is reached, indicating a steady

  19. Single molecule analysis of B cell receptor motion during signaling activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Suarez, Ivan; Koo, Peter; Zhou, Shu; Wheatley, Brittany; Song, Wenxia; Mochrie, Simon; Upadhyaya, Arpita

    B cells are an essential part of the adaptive immune system. They patrol the body for signs of infection in the form of antigen on the surface of antigen presenting cells. B cell receptor (BCR) binding to antigen induces a signaling cascade that leads to B cell activation and spreading. During activation, BCR form signaling microclusters that later coalesce as the cell contracts. We have studied the dynamics of BCRs on activated murine primary B cells using single particle tracking. The tracks are analyzed using perturbation expectation-maximization (pEM), a systems-level analysis, which allows identification of different short-time diffusive states from single molecule tracks. We identified four dominant diffusive states, two of which correspond to BCRs interacting with signaling molecules. For wild-type cells, the number of BCR in signaling states increases as the cell spreads and then decreases during cell contraction. In contrast, cells lacking the actin regulatory protein, N-WASP, are unable to contract and BCRs remain in the signaling states for longer times. These observations indicate that actin cytoskeleton dynamics modulate BCR diffusion and clustering. Our results provide novel information regarding the timescale of interaction between BCR and signaling molecules.

  20. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mariah R; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I

    2015-01-07

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca(2+) release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca(2+) release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants.

  1. Monitoring of Biodistribution and Persistence of Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus in a Murine Model of Ovarian Cancer Using Capsid-Incorporated mCherry and Expression of Human Somatostatin Receptor Subtype 2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor P. Dmitriev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant limiting factor to the human clinical application of conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd-based virotherapy is the inability to noninvasively monitor these agents and their potential persistence. To address this issue, we proposed a novel imaging approach that combines transient expression of the human somatostatin receptor (SSTR subtype 2 reporter gene with genetic labeling of the viral capsid with mCherry fluorescent protein. To test this dual modality system, we constructed the Ad5/3Δ24pIXcherry/SSTR CRAd and validated its capacity to generate fluorescent and nuclear signals in vitro and following intratumoral injection. Analysis of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE biodistribution in mice revealed reduced uptake in tumors injected with the imaging CRAd relative to the replication-incompetent, Ad-expressing SSTR2 but significantly greater uptake compared to the negative CRAd control. Optical imaging demonstrated relative correlation of fluorescent signal with virus replication as determined by viral genome quantification in tumors. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies demonstrated that we can visualize radioactive uptake in tumors injected with imaging CRAd and the trend for greater uptake by standardized uptake value analysis compared to control CRAd. In the aggregate, the plasticity of our dual imaging approach should provide the technical basis for monitoring CRAd biodistribution and persistence in preclinical studies while offering potential utility for a range of clinical applications.

  2. A single mutation in Taiwanese H6N1 influenza hemagglutinin switches binding to human-type receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, Robert P.; Tzarum, Netanel; Peng, Wenjie; Thompson, Andrew J.; Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de la Pena, Alba T. Torrents; van Breemen, Marielle J.; Bouwman, Kim M.; Zhu, Xueyong; McBride, Ryan; Yu, Wenli; Sanders, Rogier W.; Verheije, Monique H.; Wilson, Ian A.; Paulson, James C.

    2017-07-10

    In June 2013, the first case of human infection with an avian H6N1 virus was reported in a Taiwanese woman. Although this was a single non-fatal case, the virus continues to circulate in Taiwanese poultry. As with any emerging avian virus that infects humans, there is concern that acquisition of human-type receptor specificity could enable transmission in the human population. Despite mutations in the receptor-binding pocket of the human H6N1 isolate, it has retained avian-type (NeuAcα2-3Gal) receptor specificity. However, we show here that a single nucleotide substitution, resulting in a change from Gly to Asp at position 225 (G225D), completely switches specificity to human-type (NeuAcα2-6Gal) receptors. Significantly, G225D H6 loses binding to chicken trachea epithelium and is now able to bind to human tracheal tissue. Structural analysis reveals that Asp225 directly interacts with the penultimate Gal of the human-type receptor, stabilizing human receptor binding.

  3. Dynamic micro-organization of P2X7 receptors revealed by PALM based single particle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP-gated P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs are members of the purinergic receptor family that are expressed in several cell types including neurons. A high concentration of ATP is required for the channel opening of P2X7Rs compared to other members of this receptor family. Recent work suggests that ATP binding to members of the P2X receptor family determines the diffusion and localization of these receptors on the plasma membrane of neurons. Here, we employed single particle tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM to study the diffusion and ATP-dependence of rat P2X7Rs. Dendra2-tagged P2X7Rs were transfected in hippocampal neurons and imaged on proximal dendrites. Our results suggest the presence of two populations of P2X7Rs within the extra-synaptic membrane: a population composed of rapidly diffusing receptors and one stabilized within nanoclusters (~100 nm diameter. P2X7R trajectories were rarely observed at synaptic sites. P2X7R mutations in the ATP-binding site (K64A or the conserved phosphorylation site (K17A resulted in faster- and slower-diffusing receptors, respectively. Furthermore, ATP differentially accelerated wild type and K17A-mutant receptors but not K64A-mutant receptors. Our results indicate that receptor conformation plays a critical role in regulating ATP-mediated changes in P2X7R diffusion and micro-organization.

  4. Preclinical and the first clinical studies on [11C]ITMM for mapping metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Jun; Sakata, Muneyuki; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Oda, Keiichi; Ishii, Kenji; Zhang, Ming Rong; Moriguchi Jeckel, Cristina Maria; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Preclinical studies and first positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies were performed using N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-[ 11 C] methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ([ 11 C]ITMM) to map metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR1) in the human brain. Methods: [ 11 C]ITMM was synthesized by O-methylation of the desmethyl precursor with [ 11 C]methyl triflate in the presence of NaOH at room temperature. In vitro selectivity and brain distributions of [ 11 C]ITMM in mice were characterized. Radiation absorbed-dose by [ 11 C]ITMM in humans was calculated from mouse distribution data. Acute toxicity of ITMM at 4.72 mg/kg body weight (> 74,000-fold clinical equivalent dose of [ 11 C]ITMM) was evaluated. Mutagenicity of ITMM was studied by the Ames test. Clinical PET imaging of mGluR1 with [ 11 C] ITMM was performed in a healthy volunteer. Results: ITMM had low activity for a 28-standard receptor binding profile. Regional brain uptake of [ 11 C]ITMM in mice was heterogeneous and consistent with known mGluR1 distributions. The radiation absorbed-dose by [ 11 C]ITMM in humans was sufficiently low for clinical use, and no acute toxicity or mutagenicity of ITMM occurred. A 90-min dynamic PET scan with [ 11 C]ITMM in a healthy volunteer showed a gradual increase of radioactivity in the cerebellum. Total distribution volume of [ 11 C]ITMM was highest in the cerebellum, followed by thalamus, cerebral cortex, and striatum; regional differences in brain radioactivity corresponded to the mGluR1 distribution in the brain. Peripherally, [ 11 C]ITMM was stable in humans: 60% of the plasma radioactivity remained in the unchanged form for 60 min. Conclusions: [ 11 C] ITMM is a suitable radioligand for imaging mGluR1 in the human brain providing acceptable dosimetry and pharmacological safety at the dose required for PET

  5. Single Amino Acid Insertion in Loop 4 Confers Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Receptor Function upon Murine Pit1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorf, Mikkel D.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; O'Hara, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Pit1 is the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related human protein Pit2 is a receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). The A-MuLV-related isolate 10A1 can utilize both Pit1 and Pit2 as receptors. A stretch...... of amino acids named region A was identified in Pit1 (residues 550 to 558 in loop 4) as critical for GALV and FeLV-B receptor function. We have here investigated the role of region A in A-MuLV and 10A1 entry. Insertion of a single amino acid in region A of mouse Pit1 resulted in a functional A...

  6. Highly selective and sensitive detection of neurotransmitters using receptor-modified single-walled carbon nanotube sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-07-01

    We present receptor-modified carbon nanotube sensors for the highly selective and sensitive detection of acetylcholine (ACh), one kind of neurotransmitter. Here, we successfully expressed the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR), a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in E. coli and coated single-walled carbon nanotube (swCNT)-field effect transistors (FETs) with lipid membrane including the receptor, enabling highly selective and sensitive ACh detection. Using this sensor, we could detect ACh at 100 pM concentration. Moreover, we showed that this sensor could selectively detect ACh among other neurotransmitters. This is the first demonstration of the real-time detection of ACh using specific binding between ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs for various applications such as disease diagnosis and drug screening.

  7. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol, is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald, in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species

  8. Neuronal damage and changes in the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the neonatal rat cerebral cortical upon exposure to sparteine, a quinolizidine alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Soto, M E; Bañuelos-Pineda, J; Orozco-Suárez, S; Schliebs, R; Beas-Zárate, C

    2006-10-01

    Sparteine is a quinolizidine alkaloid (QA) produced by Lupine species that has generated much interest due to its anti-hypertensive, anti-pyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In the nervous system, sparteine has been shown to display anti-cholinergic and depressive activity, although how sparteine exerts its toxic effects in the brain remains unclear. We have addressed this issue by administering subcutaneous injections of sparteine (25 mg/kg of body weight) to rats on postnatal days 1 and 3, and then examining the expression of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subunits m1-m4 in the brains of the neonatal rats 14-60 days later. Administration of sparteine to neonatal rats caused neuronal damage in the cerebral motor cortex accompanied by transient changes in the expression of m1-m4 mAChR subunits as revealed by both RT-PCR and Western blotting. This effect could be prevented by pre-treatment with atropine (10 mg/kg) 1 h prior to the injection of sparteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic activity of sparteine is mediated through mAChRs.

  9. Neuropeptide Y Y(1) and Y(2) receptor mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of psychiatric subjects. Relationship of Y(2) subtype to suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caberlotto, L; Hurd, Y L

    2001-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorder. In this study, Y(1) and Y(2) receptor mRNA expression levels were analyzed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects affected with major depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia and compared to normal controls. No significant alterations in Y(1) or Y(2) mRNA expression levels were observed between the groups. However, the Y(2) mRNA expression was elevated in layer IV in subjects with suicide as a cause of death. For the Y(1) mRNA expression, there was a negative correlation with increasing subject age in the prefrontal cortex. Analysis of covariance revealed a significant elevation of the Y(1) mRNA expression levels in individuals with a current history of marijuana use but no other drug. In summary, the current results suggest distinct alterations of the prefrontal Y(1) and Y(2) neuronal populations in aging and suicide.

  10. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loram, L.C.; Strand, K.A.; Taylor, F.R.; Sloane, E.; van Dam, A.M.; Rieger, J.; Maier, S.F.; Watkins, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a

  11. Non-covalent conjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid for interaction with cells overexpressing folate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Novoa, Leidy V.

    2013-01-01

    We here present amethod to form a noncovalent conjugate of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid aimed to interact with cells over-expressing folate receptors. The bonding was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple, rapid “one pot” synthesis method. The zeta p...

  12. Risk of estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer and single-nucleotide polymorphism 2q35-rs13387042

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Benítez, Javier; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 2q35-rs13387042 as a marker of susceptibility to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We attempted to confirm this association using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: 2q35...

  13. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor pathway increase susceptibility to infections in severely injured trauma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.G.A. Bronkhorst (Maarten); N.D.A. Boyé (Nicole); M.A.Z. Lomax (Miranda); R. Vossen (Rolf); J. Bakker (Jan); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sepsis and subsequent multiple-organ failure are the predominant causes of late mortality in trauma patients. Susceptibility and response to infection is, in part, heritable. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cluster of differentiation 14

  14. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A

    2013-01-01

    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated...

  15. Effect of electroacupuncture on the expression of agrin and acetylcholine receptor subtypes in rats with tibialis anterior muscular atrophy induced by sciatic nerve injection injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianqi; Wang, Meng; Liu, Junying; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Shengbo

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on mRNA and protein expression of agrin, acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-ε and AChR-γ in a rat model of tibialis anterior muscle atrophy induced by sciatic nerve injection injury, and to examine the underlying mechanism of action. Fifty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: healthy control group (CON, n=6); sciatic nerve injury group (SNI, n=24), comprising rats euthanased at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively, after penicillin injection-induced SNI (n=6 each); CON+EA group (n=12), comprising healthy rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA at GB30 and ST36); and SNI+EA group, comprising rats euthanased at 4 and 6 weeks (after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, of EA). The sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), tibialis anterior muscle weight, muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), and changes in agrin, AChR-ε, and AChR-γ expression levels were analysed. Compared with the control group (CON), SNI rats showed decreased SFI. The weight of the tibialis anterior muscle and muscle fibre CSA decreased initially and recovered slightly over time. mRNA/protein expression of agrin and AChR-ε were downregulated and AChR-γ expression was detectable (vs zero expression in the CON/CON+EA groups). There were no significant differences in CON+EA versus CON groups. However, the SNI+EA group exhibited significant improvements compared with the untreated SNI group (patrophy induced by sciatic nerve injection injury by upregulating agrin and AChR-ε and downregulating AChR-γ. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Breast cancer subtype distribution is different in normal weight, overweight, and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, Victoria; Li, Yun R; Williams, Austin D; So, Alycia; Steel, Laura; Carrigan, Elena; Tchou, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with tumor promoting pathways related to insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation which have been linked to various disease states, including cancer. Many studies have focused on the relationship between obesity and increased estrogen production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. The link between obesity and other breast cancer subtypes, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and Her2/neu+ (Her2+) breast cancer, is less clear. We hypothesize that obesity may be associated with the pathogenesis of specific breast cancer subtypes resulting in a different subtype distribution than normal weight women. A single-institution, retrospective analysis of tumor characteristics of 848 patients diagnosed with primary operable breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 was performed to evaluate the association between BMI and clinical outcome. Patients were grouped based on their BMI at time of diagnosis stratified into three subgroups: normal weight (BMI = 18-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9), and obese (BMI > 30). The distribution of breast cancer subtypes across the three BMI subgroups was compared. Obese and overweight women were more likely to present with TNBC and normal weight women with Her2+ breast cancer (p = 0.008). We demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer subtype distribution varied significantly according to BMI status. Our results suggested that obesity might activate molecular pathways other than the well-known obesity/estrogen circuit in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Future studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive the variation in subtype distribution across BMI subgroups.

  17. A first-in-man PET study of [18F]PSS232, a fluorinated ABP688 derivative for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Geoffrey; Sommerauer, Michael; Mu, Linjing; Pla Gonzalez, Gloria; Geistlich, Susanne; Treyer, Valerie; Schibli, Roger; Buck, Alfred; Krämer, Stefanie D; Ametamey, Simon M

    2018-06-01

    Non-invasive imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu 5 ) in the brain using PET is of interest in e.g., anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Widespread application of the most widely used mGlu 5 tracer, [ 11 C]ABP688, is limited by the short physical half-life of carbon-11. [ 18 F]PSS232 is a fluorinated analog with promising preclinical properties and high selectivity and specificity for mGlu 5 . In this first-in-man study, we evaluated the brain uptake pattern and kinetics of [ 18 F]PSS232 in healthy volunteers. [ 18 F]PSS232 PET was performed with ten healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years. Seven of the subjects received a bolus injection and the remainder a bolus/infusion protocol. Cerebral blood flow was determined in seven subjects using [ 15 O]water PET. Arterial blood activity was measured using an online blood counter. Tracer kinetics were evaluated by compartment modeling and parametric maps were generated for both tracers. At 90 min post-injection, 59.2 ± 11.1% of total radioactivity in plasma corresponded to intact tracer. The regional first pass extraction fraction of [ 18 F]PSS232 ranged from 0.41 ± 0.06 to 0.55 ± 0.03 and brain distribution pattern matched that of [ 11 C]ABP688. Uptake kinetics followed a simple two-tissue compartment model. The volume of distribution of total tracer (V T , ml/cm 3 ) ranged from 1.18 ± 0.20 for white matter to 2.91 ± 0.51 for putamen. The respective mean distribution volume ratios (DVR) with cerebellum as the reference tissue were 0.88 ± 0.06 and 2.12 ± 0.10, respectively. The tissue/cerebellum ratios of a bolus/infusion protocol (30/70 dose ratio) were close to the DVR values. Brain uptake of [ 18 F]PSS232 matched the distribution of mGlu 5 and followed a two-tissue compartment model. The well-defined kinetics and the possibility to use reference tissue models, obviating the need for arterial blood sampling, make [ 18 F]PSS232 a promising fluorine-18 labeled

  18. A single glycine-alanine exchange directs ligand specificity of the elephant progestin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wierer

    Full Text Available The primary gestagen of elephants is 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP, which is unlike all other mammals studied until now. The level of DHP in elephants equals that of progesterone in other mammals, and elephants are able to bind DHP with similar affinity to progesterone indicating a unique ligand-binding specificity of the elephant progestin receptor (PR. Using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with in vitro binding studies we here report that this change in specificity is due to a single glycine to alanine exchange at position 722 (G722A of PR, which specifically increases DHP affinity while not affecting binding of progesterone. By conducting molecular dynamics simulations comparing human and elephant PR ligand-binding domains (LBD, we observed that the alanine methyl group at position 722 is able to push the DHP A-ring into a position similar to progesterone. In the human PR, the DHP A-ring position is twisted towards helix 3 of PR thereby disturbing the hydrogen bond pattern around the C3-keto group, resulting in a lower binding affinity. Furthermore, we observed that the elephant PR ligand-binding pocket is more rigid than the human analogue, which probably explains the higher affinity towards both progesterone and DHP. Interestingly, the G722A substitution is not elephant-specific, rather it is also present in five independent lineages of mammalian evolution, suggesting a special role of the substitution for the development of distinct mammalian gestagen systems.

  19. Social cognition, face processing, and oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylissa M. Slane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences between those with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals, but very little has been done to quantify the natural variation in ASD-like traits in the typical population. The present study examines this variation in TD children using a multidimensional perspective involving behavior assessment, neural electroencephalogram (EEG testing, and OXTR genotyping. Children completed a series of neurocognitive assessments, provided saliva samples for sequencing, and completed a face processing task while connected to an EEG. No clear pattern emerged for EEG covariates or genotypes for individual OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, SNPs rs2254298 and rs53576 consistently interacted such that the AG/GG allele combination of these SNPs was associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive measures. These results suggest that neither SNP in isolation is risk-conferring, but rather that the combination of rs2254298(A/G and rs53576(G/G confers a deleterious effect on SC across several neurocognitive measures.

  20. Calcium Domains around Single and Clustered IP3 Receptors and Their Modulation by Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, S.; Nagaiah, Ch.; Warnecke, G.; Shuai, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We study Ca2+ release through single and clustered IP3 receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains occur after closing of isolated channels and constitute an important part of the channel's feedback. They cause repeated openings (bursts) and mediate increased release due to Ca2+ buffering by immobile proteins. Stationary domains occur during prolonged activity of clustered channels, where the spatial proximity of IP3Rs produces a distinct [Ca2+] scale (0.5–10 μM), which is smaller than channel pore concentrations (>100 μM) but larger than transient levels. While immobile buffer affects transient levels only, mobile buffers in general reduce both transient and stationary domains, giving rise to Ca2+ evacuation and biphasic modulation of release amplitude. Our findings explain recent experiments in oocytes and provide a general framework for the understanding of calcium signals. PMID:20655827

  1. Calcium domains around single and clustered IP3 receptors and their modulation by buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, S; Nagaiah, Ch; Warnecke, G; Shuai, J W

    2010-07-07

    We study Ca(2+) release through single and clustered IP(3) receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains occur after closing of isolated channels and constitute an important part of the channel's feedback. They cause repeated openings (bursts) and mediate increased release due to Ca(2+) buffering by immobile proteins. Stationary domains occur during prolonged activity of clustered channels, where the spatial proximity of IP(3)Rs produces a distinct [Ca(2+)] scale (0.5-10 microM), which is smaller than channel pore concentrations (>100 microM) but larger than transient levels. While immobile buffer affects transient levels only, mobile buffers in general reduce both transient and stationary domains, giving rise to Ca(2+) evacuation and biphasic modulation of release amplitude. Our findings explain recent experiments in oocytes and provide a general framework for the understanding of calcium signals. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. μ-Opioid receptor activation and noradrenaline transport inhibition by tapentadol in rat single locus coeruleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Christie, MacDonald J

    2015-01-01

    Tapentadol is a novel analgesic that combines moderate μ-opioid receptor agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in a single molecule. Both mechanisms of action are involved in producing analgesia; however, the potency and efficacy of tapentadol in individual neurons has not been characterized. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) (KIR 3.x) currents were made from rat locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices to investigate the potency and relative efficacy of tapentadol and compare its intrinsic activity with other clinically used opioids. Tapentadol showed agonist activity at μ receptors and was approximately six times less potent than morphine with respect to KIR 3.x current modulation. The intrinsic activity of tapentadol was lower than [Met]enkephalin, morphine and oxycodone, but higher than buprenorphine and pentazocine. Tapentadol inhibited the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) with potency similar to that at μ receptors. The interaction between these two mechanisms of action was additive in individual LC neurons. Tapentadol displays similar potency for both µ receptor activation and NAT inhibition in functioning neurons. The intrinsic activity of tapentadol at the μ receptor lies between that of buprenorphine and oxycodone, potentially explaining the favourable profile of side effects, related to μ receptors. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Species differences in the localization and number of CNS beta adrenergic receptors: Rat versus guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booze, R.M.; Crisostomo, E.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The localization and number of beta adrenergic receptors were directly compared in the brains of rats and guinea pigs. The time course of association and saturability of [125I]cyanopindolol (CYP) binding to slide-mounted tissue sections was similar in rats (Kd = 17 pM) and guinea pigs (Kd = 20 pM). The beta-1 and beta-2 receptor subtypes were examined through the use of highly selective unlabeled receptor antagonists, ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and ICI 89,406 (70 nM). Dramatic species differences between rats and guinea pigs were observed in the neuroanatomical regional localization of the beta adrenergic receptor subtypes. For example, in the thalamus prominent beta-1 and beta-2 receptor populations were identified in the rat; however, the entire thalamus of the guinea pig had few, if any, beta adrenergic receptors of either subtype. Hippocampal area CA1 had high levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptors in both rats and guinea pigs but was accompanied by a widespread distribution of beta-2 adrenergic receptors only in rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analyses of 25 selected neuroanatomical regions (1) confirmed the qualitative differences in CNS beta adrenergic receptor localization, (2) determined that guinea pigs had significantly lower levels of beta adrenergic receptors than rats and (3) indicated a differential pattern of receptor subtypes between the two species. Knowledge of species differences in receptor patterns may be useful in designing effective experiments as well as in exploring the relationships between receptor and innervation patterns. Collectively, these data suggest caution be used in extrapolation of the relationships of neurotransmitters and receptors from studies of a single species

  4. NK1 receptor fused to beta-arrestin displays a single-component, high-affinity molecular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Holst, Birgitte; Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Marsh, Mark; Schwartz, Thue W

    2002-07-01

    Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that, upon stimulation of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors, terminate signaling by binding to the receptor, displacing the G protein and targeting the receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Fusion of beta-arrestin1 to the C-terminal end of the neurokinin NK1 receptor resulted in a chimeric protein that was expressed to some extent on the cell surface but also accumulated in transferrin-labeled recycling endosomes independently of agonist stimulation. As expected, the fusion protein was almost totally silenced with respect to agonist-induced signaling through the normal Gq/G11 and Gs pathways. The NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion construct bound nonpeptide antagonists with increased affinity but surprisingly also bound two types of agonists, substance P and neurokinin A, with high, normal affinity. In the wild-type NK1 receptor, neurokinin A (NKA) competes for binding against substance P and especially against antagonists with up to 1000-fold lower apparent affinity than determined in functional assays and in homologous binding assays. When the NK1 receptor was closely fused to G proteins, this phenomenon was eliminated among agonists, but the agonists still competed with low affinity against antagonists. In contrast, in the NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, all ligands bound with similar affinity independent of the choice of radioligand and with Hill coefficients near unity. We conclude that the NK1 receptor in complex with arrestin is in a high-affinity, stable, agonist-binding form probably best suited to structural analysis and that the receptor can display binding properties that are nearly theoretically ideal when it is forced to complex with only a single intracellular protein partner.

  5. Probing natural killer cell education by Ly49 receptor expression analysis and computational modelling in single MHC class I mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Johansson

    Full Text Available Murine natural killer (NK cells express inhibitory Ly49 receptors for MHC class I molecules, which allows for "missing self" recognition of cells that downregulate MHC class I expression. During murine NK cell development, host MHC class I molecules impose an "educating impact" on the NK cell pool. As a result, mice with different MHC class I expression display different frequency distributions of Ly49 receptor combinations on NK cells. Two models have been put forward to explain this impact. The two-step selection model proposes a stochastic Ly49 receptor expression followed by selection for NK cells expressing appropriate receptor combinations. The sequential model, on the other hand, proposes that each NK cell sequentially expresses Ly49 receptors until an interaction of sufficient magnitude with self-class I MHC is reached for the NK cell to mature. With the aim to clarify which one of these models is most likely to reflect the actual biological process, we simulated the two educational schemes by mathematical modelling, and fitted the results to Ly49 expression patterns, which were analyzed in mice expressing single MHC class I molecules. Our results favour the two-step selection model over the sequential model. Furthermore, the MHC class I environment favoured maturation of NK cells expressing one or a few self receptors, suggesting a possible step of positive selection in NK cell education. Based on the predicted Ly49 binding preferences revealed by the model, we also propose, that Ly49 receptors are more promiscuous than previously thought in their interactions with MHC class I molecules, which was supported by functional studies of NK cell subsets expressing individual Ly49 receptors.

  6. Design and Synthesis of a Series of L-trans-4-Substituted Prolines as Selective Antagonists for the Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors Including Functional and X-ray Crystallographic Studies of New Subtype Selective Kainic Acid Receptor Subtype 1 (GluK1) Antagonist (2S,4R)-4-(2-Carboxyphenoxy)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Delgar, Claudia; Koch, Karina

    2017-01-01

    to the structure with glutamate, consistent with 1b being an antagonist. A structure-activity relationship study showed that the chemical nature of the tethering atom (C,O, or S) linking the pyrrolidine ring and the phenyl ring plays a key role in the receptor selectivity profile and that substituents...

  7. Structure of the δ-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I; Kobilka, Brian K

    2012-05-16

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the µ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The δ-opioid receptor (δ-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the µ-OR and κ-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse δ-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the µ-OR and κ-OR, the δ-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the δ-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  8. Characterization of ryanodine receptor type 1 single channel activity using "on-nucleus" patch clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Larry E; Groom, Linda A; Dirksen, Robert T; Yule, David I

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we provide the first description of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) expressed in a native membrane using the on-nucleus configuration of the patch clamp technique. A stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR1 was established (HEK-RyR1) using the FLP-in 293 cell system. In contrast to untransfected cells, RyR1 expression was readily demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in HEK-RyR1 cells. In addition, the RyR1 agonists 4-CMC and caffeine activated Ca(2+) release that was inhibited by high concentrations of ryanodine. On nucleus patch clamp was performed in nuclei prepared from HEK-RyR1 cells. Raising the [Ca(2+)] in the patch pipette resulted in the appearance of a large conductance cation channel with well resolved kinetics and the absence of prominent subconductance states. Current versus voltage relationships were ohmic and revealed a chord conductance of ∼750pS or 450pS in symmetrical 250mM KCl or CsCl, respectively. The channel activity was markedly enhanced by caffeine and exposure to ryanodine resulted in the appearance of a subconductance state with a conductance ∼40% of the full channel opening with a Po near unity. In total, these properties are entirely consistent with RyR1 channel activity. Exposure of RyR1 channels to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) or dantrolene did not alter the single channel activity stimulated by Ca(2+), and thus, it is unlikely these molecules directly modulate RyR1 channel activity. In summary, we describe an experimental platform to monitor the single channel properties of RyR channels. We envision that this system will be influential in characterizing disease-associated RyR mutations and the molecular determinants of RyR channel modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multimodality imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors with nuclear and bioluminescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Pool (Stefan); T.L.M. ten Hagen (Timo); S. Koelewijn (Stuart); M. de Jong (Marcel); G.A. Koning (Gerben)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMultimodal bioluminescence (BLI) and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging were investigated as means to monitor somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SST 2)-positive neuroendocrine tumors as both a subcutaneously implanted and a liver metastasis

  10. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  11. High-throughput de novo screening of receptor agonists with an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Iijima, Masumi; Niimi, Tomoaki; Maturana, Andrés D; Fujii, Ikuo; Kondo, Akihiko; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2014-02-28

    Reconstitution of signaling pathways involving single mammalian transmembrane receptors has not been accomplished in yeast cells. In this study, intact EGF receptor (EGFR) and a cell wall-anchored form of EGF were co-expressed on the yeast cell surface, which led to autophosphorylation of the EGFR in an EGF-dependent autocrine manner. After changing from EGF to a conformationally constrained peptide library, cells were fluorescently labeled with an anti-phospho-EGFR antibody. Each cell was subjected to an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system that analyzed the fluorescent intensity of each cell and automatically retrieved each cell with the highest fluorescence. In ~3.2 × 10(6) peptide library, we isolated six novel peptides with agonistic activity of the EGFR in human squamous carcinoma A431 cells. The combination of yeast cells expressing mammalian receptors, a cell wall-anchored peptide library, and an automated single-cell analysis and isolation system might facilitate a rational approach for de novo drug screening.

  12. Characterization of rat cerebral cortical beta adrenoceptor subtypes using (-)-[125I]-iodocyanopindolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, A.H.; Richardson, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    (-)-[125I]-Iodocyanopindolol [-(ICYP)], used to characterize beta adrenoceptors on membrane preparations from rat cerebral cortex, was shown to have affinity for both beta adrenoceptors and serotonin receptors. Therefore, 10 microM serotonin was added to the assays to prevent (-)ICYP binding to serotonin receptors. Under these conditions, (-)ICYP binding to the cortical membrane preparation was reversible and saturable, and the association reaction was very slow. The dissociation reaction was also very slow, and revealed two affinity states corresponding to a high and a low affinity state. Scatchard analysis showed a single class of binding sites with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 20.7 pM, and a maximal density of binding sites (Bmax) of 95.1 fmol/mg membrane protein. Displacement binding analyses revealed a potency series of (-) isoproterenol greater than (-) epinephrine equal to (-) norepinephrine, suggesting a predominance of the beta 1 adrenoceptor subtype. Detailed competition ligand binding studies with the selective beta 1 adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-89406 and the selective beta 2 adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551, showed that about 70% of the beta adrenoceptor population in the rat cortex is of the beta 1 subtype with the remainder being of the beta 2 subtype. We conclude that since (-)ICYP binds to both beta adrenoceptors and serotonin receptors, it is important to prevent the binding of (-)ICYP to serotonin receptors by adding a suppressing ligand like excess cold serotonin when assaying beta adrenoceptors. We have presented the first such characterization of rat cerebral cortical beta adrenoceptors with (-)ICYP in this study

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptor 4 decrease the risk of development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Minmin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is a key innate immunity receptor that initiates an inflammatory response. Growing evidence suggests that mutation of TLR4 gene may play a role in the development of cancers. This study aimed to investigate the temporal relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms of TLR4 and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, a single center-based case-control study was conducted. METHODS: A systematic genetic analysis of sequence variants of TLR4 by evaluating ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms was performed from 216 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 228 controls. RESULTS: Six single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TLR4 in the 5'-untranslated region and intron were associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Individuals carrying the heterozygous genotypes for the rs10759930, rs2737190, rs10116253, rs1927914, rs12377632 and rs1927911 had significantly decreased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio [OR], from 0.527 to 0.578, P<0.01 comparing with those carrying wild-type homozygous genotypes. In haplotype analysis, one haplotype (GCCCTTAG of TLR4 was associated significantly with decrease of the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (OR, 0.556, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.407-0.758, P = 0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggested that the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with TLR4 sequence variation. TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms may play an important protective role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Single Molecule Imaging Deciphers the Relation between Mobility and Signaling of a Prototypical G Protein-coupled Receptor in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veya, Luc; Piguet, Joachim; Vogel, Horst

    2015-11-13

    Lateral diffusion enables efficient interactions between membrane proteins, leading to signal transmission across the plasma membrane. An open question is how the spatiotemporal distribution of cell surface receptors influences the transmembrane signaling network. Here we addressed this issue by studying the mobility of a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor, during its different phases of cellular signaling. Attaching a single quantum dot to individual neurokinin-1 receptors enabled us to follow with high spatial and temporal resolution over long time regimes the fate of individual receptors at the plasma membrane. Single receptor trajectories revealed a very heterogeneous mobility distribution pattern with diffusion constants ranging from 0.0005 to 0.1 μm(2)/s comprising receptors freely diffusing and others confined in 100-600-nm-sized membrane domains as well as immobile receptors. A two-dimensional representation of mobility and confinement resolved two major, broadly distributed receptor populations, one showing high mobility and low lateral restriction and the other showing low mobility and high restriction. We found that about 40% of the receptors in the basal state are already confined in membrane domains and are associated with clathrin. After stimulation with an agonist, an additional 30% of receptors became further confined. Using inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, we found that the fraction of confined receptors at the basal state depends on the quantity of membrane-associated clathrin and is correlated to a significant decrease of the canonical pathway activity of the receptors. This shows that the high plasticity of receptor mobility is of central importance for receptor homeostasis and fine regulation of receptor activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Improved estimation of receptor density and binding rate constants using a single tracer injection and displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.; Delforge, J.; Mazoyer, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving receptor model parameter estimation using a displacement experiment in which an excess of an unlabeled ligand (J) is injected after a delay (t D ) following injection of trace amounts of the β + - labeled ligand (J*) is investigated. The effects of varying t D and J/J* on parameter uncertainties are studied in the case of 11 C-MQNB binding to myocardial acetycholine receptor using parameters identified in a dog experiment

  16. Impact of human D398N single nucleotide polymorphism on intracellular calcium response mediated by α3β4α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimäki, Anne; Herder, Penelope; Li, Ping; Esch, Caroline; Laughlin, James R.; Akk, Gustav; Stitzel, Jerry A.

    2013-01-01

    The human CHRNA5 D398N polymorphism (rs16969968) causes an aspartic acid to asparagine change in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α5 subunit gene. The N398 variant of CHRNA5 is linked to increased risk for nicotine dependence. In this study, we explored the effect of the CHRNA5 D398N polymorphism on the properties of human α3β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Addition of either D398 or N398 variant of α5 subunit in the α3β4* receptor did not affect total [125I]-epibatidine binding or surface expression of the receptor. However, addition of α5D398 into α3β4* receptor decreased the maximal response to agonist without significantly affecting EC50 in aequorin intracellular calcium assay. α3β4α5N398 nAChRs showed further decreased maximal response. The differences in agonist efficacy between the receptor subtypes were found to be dependent upon the concentration of external calcium but independent of external sodium. Moreover, activation of α3β4α5 nAChRs led to significantly greater intracellular calcium release from IP3 stores relative to α3β4 nAChRs although no effect of the α5 polymorphism was observed. Finally, inclusion of the α5 variant caused a small shift to the left in IC50 for some of the antagonists tested, depending upon α5 variant but did not affect sensitivity of α3β4* receptors to desensitization in response to incubation with nicotine. In conclusion, addition of either variant of a5 into an α3β4α5 receptor similarly effects receptor pharmacology and function. However, the N398 variant exhibits a reduced response to agonists when extracellular calcium is high and it may lead to distinct downstream cellular signaling. PMID:22820273

  17. Reproductive profiles and risk of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka

    2017-01-01

    pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. METHODS: We used...

  18. Confined Diffusion Without Fences of a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor as Revealed by Single Particle Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumas, Frédéric; Destainville, Nicolas; Millot, Claire; Lopez, André; Dean, David; Salomé, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool for probing the organization and dynamics of the plasma membrane constituents. We used this technique to study the μ-opioid receptor belonging to the large family of the G-protein-coupled receptors involved with other partners in a signal transduction pathway. The specific labeling of the receptor coupled to a T7-tag at its N-terminus, stably expressed in fibroblastic cells, was achieved by colloidal gold coupled to a monoclonal anti T7-tag antibody. The lateral movements of the particles were followed by nanovideomicroscopy at 40 ms time resolution during 2 min with a spatial precision of 15 nm. The receptors were found to have either a slow or directed diffusion mode (10%) or a walking confined diffusion mode (90%) composed of a long-term random diffusion and a short-term confined diffusion, and corresponding to a diffusion confined within a domain that itself diffuses. The results indicate that the confinement is due to an effective harmonic potential generated by long-range attraction between the membrane proteins. A simple model for interacting membrane proteins diffusion is proposed that explains the variations with the domain size of the short-term and long-term diffusion coefficients. PMID:12524289

  19. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40...... oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell......-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were...

  20. Transmitted/founder and chronic subtype C HIV-1 use CD4 and CCR5 receptors with equal efficiency and are not inhibited by blocking the integrin α4β7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F Parrish

    Full Text Available Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 most often results from productive infection by a single transmitted/founder (T/F virus, indicating a stringent mucosal bottleneck. Understanding the viral traits that overcome this bottleneck could have important implications for HIV-1 vaccine design and other prevention strategies. Most T/F viruses use CCR5 to infect target cells and some encode envelope glycoproteins (Envs that contain fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites and shorter V1/V2 variable loops than Envs from chronic viruses. Moreover, it has been reported that the gp120 subunits of certain transmitted Envs bind to the gut-homing integrin α4β7, possibly enhancing virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. Here we sought to determine whether subtype C T/F viruses, which are responsible for the majority of new HIV-1 infections worldwide, share biological properties that increase their transmission fitness, including preferential α4β7 engagement. Using single genome amplification, we generated panels of both T/F (n = 20 and chronic (n = 20 Env constructs as well as full-length T/F (n = 6 and chronic (n = 4 infectious molecular clones (IMCs. We found that T/F and chronic control Envs were indistinguishable in the efficiency with which they used CD4 and CCR5. Both groups of Envs also exhibited the same CD4+ T cell subset tropism and showed similar sensitivity to neutralization by CD4 binding site (CD4bs antibodies. Finally, saturating concentrations of anti-α4β7 antibodies failed to inhibit infection and replication of T/F as well as chronic control viruses, although the growth of the tissue culture-adapted strain SF162 was modestly impaired. These results indicate that the population bottleneck associated with mucosal HIV-1 acquisition is not due to the selection of T/F viruses that use α4β7, CD4 or CCR5 more efficiently.

  1. Nicotine Activation of α4* Receptors: Sufficient for Reward, Tolerance, and Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Andrew R.; McKinney, Sheri L.; Nashmi, Raad; Schwarz, Johannes; Deshpande, Purnima; Labarca, Cesar; Whiteaker, Paul; Marks, Michael J.; Collins, Allan C.; Lester, Henry A.

    2004-11-01

    The identity of nicotinic receptor subtypes sufficient to elicit both the acute and chronic effects of nicotine dependence is unknown. We engineered mutant mice with α4 nicotinic subunits containing a single point mutation, Leu9' --> Ala9' in the pore-forming M2 domain, rendering α4* receptors hypersensitive to nicotine. Selective activation of α4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with low doses of agonist recapitulates nicotine effects thought to be important in dependence, including reinforcement in response to acute nicotine administration, as well as tolerance and sensitization elicited by chronic nicotine administration. These data indicate that activation of α4* receptors is sufficient for nicotine-induced reward, tolerance, and sensitization.

  2. Synthesis of [[sup 3]H]tert-butyl 8-chloro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodia zepine 3-carboxylate, a selective, high affinity ligand for the diazepam insensitive (DI) subtype of the benzodiazepine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziqiang Gu; Costa, B.R. de; Wong, Garry; Rice, K.C.; Skolnick, Phil (National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The preparation of [[sup 3]H]-labelled tert-butyl 8-chloro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a]benzodiazepine 3-carboxylate (TCIB, 6), a high affinity ligand for the diazepam insensitive (DI) subtype of the benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) is described. Synthesis of [[sup 3]H]TCIB was accomplished in 4 steps starting from 5-chloroisatoic anhydride. Tritium-label introduction was achieved in the final step by selective catalytic tritiolysis in 62% radiochemical yield with quantitative isotopic incorporation. (Author).

  3. Histamine influences body temperature by acting at H1 and H3 receptors on distinct populations of preoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundius, Ebba Gregorsson; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Ghochani, Yasmin; Klaus, Joseph; Tabarean, Iustin V

    2010-03-24

    The preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, a region that contains neurons that control thermoregulation, is the main locus at which histamine affects body temperature. Here we report that histamine reduced the spontaneous firing rate of GABAergic preoptic neurons by activating H3 subtype histamine receptors. This effect involved a decrease in the level of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and was not dependent on synaptic activity. Furthermore, a population of non-GABAergic neurons was depolarized, and their firing rate was enhanced by histamine acting at H1 subtype receptors. In our experiments, activation of the H1R receptors was linked to the PLC pathway and Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. This depolarization persisted in TTX or when fast synaptic potentials were blocked, indicating that it represents a postsynaptic effect. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of H3 receptors in a population of GABAergic neurons, while H1 receptors were expressed in non-GABAergic cells. Histamine applied in the median preoptic nucleus induced a robust, long-lasting hyperthermia effect that was mimicked by either H1 or H3 histamine receptor subtype-specific agonists. Our data indicate that histamine modulates the core body temperature by acting at two distinct populations of preoptic neurons that express H1 and H3 receptor subtypes, respectively.

  4. A camelid single-domain antibody neutralizes botulinum neurotoxin A by blocking host receptor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guorui; Lam, Kwok-ho; Weisemann, Jasmin; Peng, Lisheng; Krez, Nadja; Perry, Kay; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Dong, Min; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng (BCH); (Cornell); (Tufts CTSI); (UCI); (MHH)

    2017-08-07

    Antibody treatment is currently the only available countermeasure for botulism, a fatal illness caused by flaccid paralysis of muscles due to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication. Among the seven major serotypes of BoNT/A-G, BoNT/A poses the most serious threat to humans because of its high potency and long duration of action. Prior to entering neurons and blocking neurotransmitter release, BoNT/A recognizes motoneurons via a dual-receptor binding process in which it engages both the neuron surface polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Previously, we identified a potent neutralizing antitoxin against BoNT/A1 termed ciA-C2, derived from a camelid heavy-chain-only antibody (VHH). In this study, we demonstrate that ciA-C2 prevents BoNT/A1 intoxication by inhibiting its binding to neuronal receptor SV2. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structure of ciA-C2 in complex with the receptor-binding domain of BoNT/A1 (HCA1) at 1.68 Å resolution. The structure revealed that ciA-C2 partially occupies the SV2-binding site on HCA1, causing direct interference of HCA1 interaction with both the N-glycan and peptide-moiety of SV2. Interestingly, this neutralization mechanism is similar to that of a monoclonal antibody in clinical trials, despite that ciA-C2 is more than 10-times smaller. Taken together, these results enlighten our understanding of BoNT/A1 interactions with its neuronal receptor, and further demonstrate that inhibiting toxin binding to the host receptor is an efficient countermeasure strategy.

  5. Dopamine receptors - physiological understanding to therapeutic intervention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilien, G; Maloteaux, JM; Hoogenberg, K; Cragg, S

    1999-01-01

    There are two families of dopamine (DA) receptors, called D(1) and D(2), respectively. The D(1) family consists of D(1)- and D(5)-receptor subtypes and the D(2) family consists of D(2)-, D(3)-, and D(4)-receptor subtypes. The amino acid sequences of these receptors show that they all belong to a

  6. Retinal Ganglion Cell Diversity and Subtype Specification from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin B. Langer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are the projection neurons of the retina and transmit visual information to postsynaptic targets in the brain. While this function is shared among nearly all RGCs, this class of cell is remarkably diverse, comprised of multiple subtypes. Previous efforts have identified numerous RGC subtypes in animal models, but less attention has been paid to human RGCs. Thus, efforts of this study examined the diversity of RGCs differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs and characterized defined subtypes through the expression of subtype-specific markers. Further investigation of these subtypes was achieved using single-cell transcriptomics, confirming the combinatorial expression of molecular markers associated with these subtypes, and also provided insight into more subtype-specific markers. Thus, the results of this study describe the derivation of RGC subtypes from hPSCs and will support the future exploration of phenotypic and functional diversity within human RGCs. : In this article, Langer and colleagues present extensive characterization of RGC subtypes derived from human pluripotent stem cells, with multiple subtypes identified by subtype-specific molecular markers. Their results present a more detailed analysis of RGC diversity in human cells and yield the use of different markers to identify RGC subtypes. Keywords: iPSC, retina, retinal ganglion cell, RGC subtype, stem cell, ipRGC, alpha RGC, direction selective RGC, RNA-seq

  7. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    and murine mammary tumor virus (13-18), respectively). Jae and co-workers 76   demonstrated that chicken cells are resistant to infection by an...Rockx B, Donaldson E, Corti D, Baric R. 2008. Pathways of cross-species 435   transmission of synthetically reconstructed zoonotic severe acute...447   16. Wang E, Albritton L, Ross SR. 2006. Identification of the segments of the mouse trans-448   ferrin receptor 1 required for mouse mammary

  8. Genetically engineered T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed receptors harboring TAG-72-specific camelid single domain antibodies as targeting agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad A

    2013-01-01

    Despite the preclinical success of adoptive therapy with T cells bearing chimeric nanoconstructed antigen receptors (CARs), certain limitations of this therapeutic approach such as the immunogenicity of the antigen binding domain, the emergence of tumor cell escape variants and the blocking...... expressing tumor cells, the combination of CD3ζ, OX40, CD28 as well as the CH3-CH2-hinge-hinge domains most efficiently triggered T cell activation. Importantly, CAR mediated functions were not blocked by the soluble TAG-72 antigen at a supraphysiological concentration. Our approach may have the potential...... capacity of soluble antigen still remain. Here, we address these issues using a novel CAR binding moiety based on the oligoclonal camelid single domain antibodies. A unique set of 13 single domain antibodies were selected from an immunized camel phage library based on their target specificity and binding...

  9. Decrease in benzodiazepine receptor binding in a patient with Angelman syndrome detected by iodine-123 iomazenil and single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo [Dept. of Radiology, Niigata Univ. School of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Anezaki, Toshiharu [Dept. of Neurology, Brain Research Inst., Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan); Ohkubo, Masaki [Dept. of Radiology, Niigata Univ. School of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Nihon Medi-Physics Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Onishi, Yoshihiro [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical School, Fukui (Japan); Inuzuka, Takashi [Dept. of Neurology, Brain Research Inst., Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan); Takahashi, Makoto [Dept. of Radiology, Niigata Univ. School of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Tsuji, Shoji [Dept. of Neurology, Brain Research Inst., Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A receptor mapping technique using iodine-123 iomazenil and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) was employed to examine benzodiazepine receptor binding in a patient with Angelman syndrome (AS). AS is characterized by developmental delay, seizures, inappropriate laughter and ataxic movement. In this entity there is a cytogenic deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15q11-q13, where the gene encoding the GABA{sub A} receptor {beta}3 subunit (GABRB3) is located. Since the benzodiazepine receptor is constructed as a receptor-ionophore complex that contains the GABA{sub A} receptor, it is a suitable marker for GABA-ergic synapsis. To determine whether benzodiazepine receptor density, which indirectly indicates changes in GABA{sub A} receptor density, is altered in the brain in patients with AS, we investigated a 27-year-old woman with AS using {sup 123}I-iomazenil and SPET. Receptor density was quantitatively assessed by measuring the binding potential using a simplified method. Regional cerebral blood flow was also measured with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}]iodoamphetamine. We demonstrated that benzodiazepine receptor density is severely decreased in the cerebellum, and mildly decreased in the frontal and temporal cortices and basal ganglia, a result which is considered to indicate decreased GABA{sub A} receptor density in these regions. Although the deletion of GABRB3 was not observed in the present study, we indirectly demonstrated the disturbance of inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by the GABA{sub A} receptor in the investigated patient. {sup 123}I-iomazenil with SPET was useful to map benzodiazepine receptors, which indicate GABA{sub A} receptor distribution and their density. (orig.)

  10. A family of photoswitchable NMDA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Shai; Szobota, Stephanie; Reiner, Andreas; Carroll, Elizabeth C; Kienzler, Michael A; Guyon, Alice; Xiao, Tong; Trauner, Dirk; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors, which regulate synaptic strength and are implicated in learning and memory, consist of several subtypes with distinct subunit compositions and functional properties. To enable spatiotemporally defined, rapid and reproducible manipulation of function of specific subtypes, we engineered a set of photoswitchable GluN subunits ('LiGluNs'). Photo-agonism of GluN2A or GluN2B elicits an excitatory drive to hippocampal neurons that can be shaped in time to mimic synaptic activation. Photo-agonism of GluN2A at single dendritic spines evokes spine-specific calcium elevation and expansion, the morphological correlate of LTP. Photo-antagonism of GluN2A alone, or in combination with photo-antagonism of GluN1a, reversibly blocks excitatory synaptic currents, prevents the induction of long-term potentiation and prevents spine expansion. In addition, photo-antagonism in vivo disrupts synaptic pruning of developing retino-tectal projections in larval zebrafish. By providing precise and rapidly reversible optical control of NMDA receptor subtypes, LiGluNs should help unravel the contribution of specific NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission, integration and plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12040.001 PMID:26929991

  11. A family of photoswitchable NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Shai; Szobota, Stephanie; Reiner, Andreas; Carroll, Elizabeth C; Kienzler, Michael A; Guyon, Alice; Xiao, Tong; Trauner, Dirk; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-03-01

    NMDA receptors, which regulate synaptic strength and are implicated in learning and memory, consist of several subtypes with distinct subunit compositions and functional properties. To enable spatiotemporally defined, rapid and reproducible manipulation of function of specific subtypes, we engineered a set of photoswitchable GluN subunits ('LiGluNs'). Photo-agonism of GluN2A or GluN2B elicits an excitatory drive to hippocampal neurons that can be shaped in time to mimic synaptic activation. Photo-agonism of GluN2A at single dendritic spines evokes spine-specific calcium elevation and expansion, the morphological correlate of LTP. Photo-antagonism of GluN2A alone, or in combination with photo-antagonism of GluN1a, reversibly blocks excitatory synaptic currents, prevents the induction of long-term potentiation and prevents spine expansion. In addition, photo-antagonism in vivo disrupts synaptic pruning of developing retino-tectal projections in larval zebrafish. By providing precise and rapidly reversible optical control of NMDA receptor subtypes, LiGluNs should help unravel the contribution of specific NMDA receptors to synaptic transmission, integration and plasticity.

  12. Muscarinic receptors as model targets and antitargets for structure-based ligand discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Andrew C; Weiss, Dahlia R; Rossi, Mario; Hu, Jianxin; Hu, Kelly; Eitel, Katrin; Gmeiner, Peter; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K; Shoichet, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate virtually all aspects of human physiology and represent an important class of therapeutic drug targets. Many GPCR-targeted drugs resemble endogenous agonists, often resulting in poor selectivity among receptor subtypes and restricted pharmacologic profiles. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family exemplifies these problems; thousands of ligands are known, but few are receptor subtype-selective and nearly all are cationic in nature. Using structure-based docking against the M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, we screened 3.1 million molecules for ligands with new physical properties, chemotypes, and receptor subtype selectivities. Of 19 docking-prioritized molecules tested against the M2 subtype, 11 had substantial activity and 8 represented new chemotypes. Intriguingly, two were uncharged ligands with low micromolar to high nanomolar Ki values, an observation with few precedents among aminergic GPCRs. To exploit a single amino-acid substitution among the binding pockets between the M2 and M3 receptors, we selected molecules predicted by docking to bind to the M3 and but not the M2 receptor. Of 16 molecules tested, 8 bound to the M3 receptor. Whereas selectivity remained modest for most of these, one was a partial agonist at the M3 receptor without measurable M2 agonism. Consistent with this activity, this compound stimulated insulin release from a mouse β-cell line. These results support the ability of structure-based discovery to identify new ligands with unexplored chemotypes and physical properties, leading to new biologic functions, even in an area as heavily explored as muscarinic pharmacology.

  13. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  14. Two-dimensional probability density analysis of single channel currents from reconstituted acetylcholine receptors and sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, B U; Montal, M S; Hartshorne, R P; Montal, M

    1990-01-01

    Two-dimensional probability density analysis of single channel current recordings was applied to two purified channel proteins reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers: Torpedo acetylcholine receptors and voltage-sensitive sodium channels from rat brain. The information contained in the dynamic history of the gating process, i.e., the time sequence of opening and closing events was extracted from two-dimensional distributions of transitions between identifiable states. This approach allows one to identify kinetic models consistent with the observables. Gating of acetylcholine receptors expresses "memory" of the transition history: the receptor has two channel open (O) states; the residence time in each of them strongly depends on both the preceding open time and the intervening closed interval. Correspondingly, the residence time in the closed (C) states depends on both the preceding open time and the preceding closed time. This result confirms the scheme that considers, at least, two transition pathways between the open and closed states and extends the details of the model in that it defines that the short-lived open state is primarily entered from long-lived closed states while the long-lived open state is accessed mainly through short-lived closed states. Since ligand binding to the acetylcholine-binding sites is a reaction with channel closed states, we infer that the longest closed state (approximately 19 ms) is unliganded, the intermediate closed state (approximately 2 ms) is singly liganded and makes transitions to the short open state (approximately 0.5 ms) and the shortest closed state (approximately 0.4 ms) is doubly liganded and isomerizes to long open states (approximately 5 ms). This is the simplest interpretation consistent with available data. In contrast, sodium channels modified with batrachotoxin to eliminate inactivation show no correlation in the sequence of channel opening and closing events, i.e., have no memory of the transition history. This

  15. Molecular Subtyping of Tumors from Patients with Familial Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vanessa Y; Praska, Corinne E; Armstrong, Georgina; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Yamada, Seiji; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matthew L; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Consortium, The Gliogene; Lachance, Daniel H; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Melin, Beatrice S; Bondy, Melissa L; Jenkins, Robert B

    2017-10-10

    Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas, and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor was obtained for a subset of FG cases, and DNA was extracted. We analyzed tissue from 75 families, including 10 families containing a second affected family member. Copy number variation (CNV) data was obtained using a first-generation Affymetrix molecular inversion probe (MIP) array. Samples from 62 of 75 (83%) FG cases could be classified into the 3 subtypes. The prevalence of the molecular subtypes was: 30 (48%) IDH-wild type, 21 (34%) IDH-mutant non-codeleted, and 11 (19%) IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted. This distribution of molecular subtypes was not statistically different from that of sporadic gliomas (p=0.54). Of 10 paired FG samples, molecular subtypes were concordant for 7 (κ=0.59): 3 IDH-mutant non-codeleted, 2 IDH-wild type, and 2 IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted gliomas. Our data suggest that within individual families, patients develop gliomas of the same molecular subtype. However, we did not observe differences in the prevalence of the molecular subtypes in FG compared with sporadic gliomas. These observations provide further insight about the distribution of molecular subtypes in FG. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. A single tyrosine of the interleukin-9 (IL-9) receptor is required for STAT activation, antiapoptotic activity, and growth regulation by IL-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, J B; Uyttenhove, C; Van Roost, E; DeLestré, B; Donckers, D; Van Snick, J; Renauld, J C

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9), a T-cell-derived cytokine, interacts with a specific receptor associated with the IL-2 receptor gamma chain. In this report, we analyze the functional domains of the human IL-9 receptor transfected into mouse lymphoid cell lines. Three different functions were examined: growth stimulation in factor-dependent pro-B Ba/F3 cells, protection against dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, and Ly-6A2 induction in BW5147 lymphoma cells. The results indicated that a single tyrosine, at position 116 in the cytoplasmic domain, was required for all three activities. In addition, we observed that human IL-9 reduced the proliferation rate of transfected BW5147 cells, an effect also dependent on the same tyrosine. This amino acid was necessary for IL-9-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor and for STAT activation but not for IRS-2/4PS activation or for JAK1 phosphorylation, which depended on a domain closer to the plasma membrane. We also showed that JAK1 was constitutively associated with the IL-9 receptor. Activated STAT complexes induced by IL-9 were found to contain STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 transcription factors. Moreover, sequence homologies between human IL-9 receptor tyrosine 116 and tyrosines (of other receptors activating STAT3 and STAT5 were observed. Taken together, these data indicate that a single tyrosine of the IL-9 receptor, required for activation of three different STAT proteins, is necessary for distinct activities of this cytokine, including proliferative responses.

  17. Comparative biochemical analysis of recombinant reverse transcriptase enzymes of HIV-1 subtype B and subtype C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisi Daniella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 subtype C infections account for over half of global HIV infections, yet the vast focus of HIV-1 research has been on subtype B viruses which represent less than 12% of the global pandemic. Since HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT is a major target of antiviral therapy, and since differential drug resistance pathways have been observed among different HIV subtypes, it is important to study and compare the enzymatic activities of HIV-1 RT derived from each of subtypes B and C as well as to determine the susceptibilities of these enzymes to various RT inhibitors in biochemical assays. Methods Recombinant subtype B and C HIV-1 RTs in heterodimeric form were purified from Escherichia coli and enzyme activities were compared in cell-free assays. The efficiency of (- ssDNA synthesis was measured using gel-based assays with HIV-1 PBS RNA template and tRNA3Lys as primer. Processivity was assayed under single-cycle conditions using both homopolymeric and heteropolymeric RNA templates. Intrinsic RNase H activity was compared using 5'-end labeled RNA template annealed to 3'-end recessed DNA primer in a time course study in the presence and absence of a heparin trap. A mis-incorporation assay was used to assess the fidelity of the two RT enzymes. Drug susceptibility assays were performed both in cell-free assays using recombinant enzymes and in cell culture phenotyping assays. Results The comparative biochemical analyses of recombinant subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 reverse transcriptase indicate that the two enzymes are very similar biochemically in efficiency of tRNA-primed (- ssDNA synthesis, processivity, fidelity and RNase H activity, and that both enzymes show similar susceptibilities to commonly used NRTIs and NNRTIs. Cell culture phenotyping assays confirmed these results. Conclusions Overall enzyme activity and drug susceptibility of HIV-1 subtype C RT are comparable to those of subtype B RT. The use of RT inhibitors (RTIs

  18. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    . The underlying posttranscriptional and posttranslational remodeling of the individual K(+) channels changes their activity and significance relative to each other, and they must be viewed together to understand their role in keeping a stable heart rhythm, also under menacing conditions like attacks of reentry......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  19. Two Shiga toxin 2 subtypes in a single Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli analyzed by RT-qPCR, MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS and top-down proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are increasingly linked to outbreaks of foodborne illness worldwide. Shiga toxin (Stx) is an AB5 toxin with an A-subunit and five identical B-subunits. Amino acid sequence differences between Stx types and subtypes result in differences in toxicity. I...

  20. An ultraviolet absorbing pigment causes a narrow-band violet receptor and a single-peaked green receptor in the eye of the butterfly Papilio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikawa, K; Mizuno, S; Scholten, DGW; Kinoshita, M; Seki, T; Kitamoto, J; Stavenga, DG

    The distal photoreceptors in the tiered retina of Papilio exhibit different spectral sensitivities. There are at least two types of short-wavelength sensitive receptors: an ultraviolet receptor with a normal spectral shape and a violet receptor with a very narrow spectral bandwidth. Furthermore, a

  1. Psychopathy subtypes and psychopathic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses two main subtypes of psychopathy and its characteristic traits that allow to differ them from each other. Following that, the existence of more specific subtypes of psychopathy and sociopathy is argued on the basis of the recent researches. Also, the inclination of psychopaths and sociopaths to various kinds of violence is examined.

  2. Subclass mapping: identifying common subtypes in independent disease data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Hoshida

    Full Text Available Whole genome expression profiles are widely used to discover molecular subtypes of diseases. A remaining challenge is to identify the correspondence or commonality of subtypes found in multiple, independent data sets generated on various platforms. While model-based supervised learning is often used to make these connections, the models can be biased to the training data set and thus miss inherent, relevant substructure in the test data. Here we describe an unsupervised subclass mapping method (SubMap, which reveals common subtypes between independent data sets. The subtypes within a data set can be determined by unsupervised clustering or given by predetermined phenotypes before applying SubMap. We define a measure of correspondence for subtypes and evaluate its significance building on our previous work on gene set enrichment analysis. The strength of the SubMap method is that it does not impose the structure of one data set upon another, but rather uses a bi-directional approach to highlight the common substructures in both. We show how this method can reveal the correspondence between several cancer-related data sets. Notably, it identifies common subtypes of breast cancer associated with estrogen receptor status, and a subgroup of lymphoma patients who share similar survival patterns, thus improving the accuracy of a clinical outcome predictor.

  3. The discovery of quinoline based single-ligand human H1and H3receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopiou, Panayiotis A; Ancliff, Rachael A; Gore, Paul M; Hancock, Ashley P; Hodgson, Simon T; Holmes, Duncan S; Keeling, Steven P; Looker, Brian E; Parr, Nigel A; Rowedder, James E; Slack, Robert J

    2016-12-15

    A novel series of potent quinoline-based human H 1 and H 3 bivalent histamine receptor antagonists, suitable for intranasal administration for the potential treatment of allergic rhinitis associated nasal congestion, were identified. Compound 18b had slightly lower H 1 potency (pA 2 8.8 vs 9.7 for the clinical goldstandard azelastine), and H 3 potency (pK i 9.1vs 6.8 for azelastine), better selectivity over α 1A , α 1B and hERG, similar duration of action, making 18b a good back-up compound to our previous candidate, but with a more desirable profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex ligands and stress-induced hyperthermia in singly housed mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, B.; Bouwknecht, J.A.; Pattij, T.; Leahy, C.; Oorschot, R. van; Zethof, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) in singly housed mice, in which the rectal temperature of a mouse is measured twice with a 10-min interval, enables to study the effects of a drug on the basal (T(1)) and on the stress-enhanced temperature (T(2)), 10 min later, using the rectal procedure as

  5. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...

  6. Highly Selective and Sensitive Detection of Acetylcholine Using Receptor-Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihong; Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter in a human central nervous system and is related to various neural functions such as memory, learning and muscle contractions. Dysfunctional ACh regulations in a brain can induce several neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and myasthenia gravis. In researching such diseases, it is important to measure the concentration of ACh in the extracellular fluid of the brain. Herein, we developed a highly sensitive and selective ACh sensor based on single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (swCNT-FETs). In our work, M1 mAChR protein, an ACh receptor, was expressed in E.coli and coated on swCNT-FETs with lipid membranes. Here, the binding of ACh onto the receptors could be detected by monitoring the change of electrical currents in the underlying swCNT-FETs, allowing the real-time detection of ACh at a 100 pM concentration. Furthermore, our sensor could selectively detect ACh from other neurotransmitters. This is the first report of the real-time sensing of ACh utilizing specific binding between the ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs in various biomedical applications such as drug screening and disease diagnosis.

  7. Single prostacyclin receptor of gel-filtered platelets provides a correlation with antiaggregatory potency of PGI2 mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerman, T.L.; Hartzell, C.J.; Selfe, S.; Andersen, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Gel-filtered human platelets (GFP) display only a single binding site for [ 3 H]-PGI2: KD = 61nM, 234 fmol/10(8) platelets (1410 sites/platelet). Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) displays the same receptor density but the KD value increases to 123 nM due to protein binding of PGI2 which lowers its effective concentration. The [ 3 H]-PGI2/GFP binding assay has been used to evaluate the molecular basis of aggregation inhibition for prostacyclin analogs and mimics, three PGE type structures, and PGD2. Antiaggregatory IC50s and radioligand binding IC50s correlate for PGE2, E1, and six PGI2 analogs. PGD2, and to a lesser extent 6-oxo-PGE1, display greater antiaggregatory potency than expected based on PGI2-binding site affinity data

  8. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of a series of 2,4-syn-functionalized (S)-glutamate analogues: new insight into the structure-activity relation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 5, 6, and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagot, Emanuelle; Pickering, Darryl S; Pu, Xiaosui

    2008-01-01

    ( S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) activating the plethora of ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). In this paper, we present a chemo-enzymatic strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of five...

  9. Tweaking subtype-selectivity and agonist efficacy at (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in a small series of BnTetAMPA analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuang-Yan; Larsen, Younes; Navarrete, Cristina V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of analogues of the (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist BnTetAMPA (5b) were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically in radioligand binding assays at native and cloned AMPA receptors and functionally by two-electrode voltage clamp...

  10. Current Research on Opioid Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Chao, Dongman; Lazarus, Lawrence H.; Xia, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The use of opioid analgesics has a long history in clinical settings, although the comprehensive action of opioid receptors is still less understood. Nonetheless, recent studies have generated fresh insights into opioid receptor-mediated functions and their underlying mechanisms. Three major opioid receptors (μ-opioid receptor, MOR; δ-opioid receptor, DOR; and κ-opioid receptor, KOR) have been cloned in many species. Each opioid receptor is functionally sub-classified into several pharmacological subtypes, although, specific gene corresponding each of these receptor subtypes is still unidentified as only a single gene has been isolated for each opioid receptor. In addition to pain modulation and addiction, opioid receptors are widely involved in various physiological and pathophysiological activities, including the regulation of membrane ionic homeostasis, cell proliferation, emotional response, epileptic seizures, immune function, feeding, obesity, respiratory and cardiovascular control as well as some neurodegenerative disorders. In some species, they play an essential role in hibernation. One of the most exciting findings of the past decade is the opioid-receptor, especially DOR, mediated neuroprotection and cardioprotection. The up-regulation of DOR expression and DOR activation increase the neuronal tolerance to hypoxic/ischemic stress. The DOR signal triggers (depending on stress duration and severity) different mechanisms at multiple levels to preserve neuronal survival, including the stabilization of homeostasis and increased pro-survival signaling (e.g., PKC-ERK-Bcl 2) and anti-oxidative capacity. In the heart, PKC and KATP channels are involved in the opioid receptor-mediated cardioprotection. The DOR-mediated neuroprotection and cardioprotection have the potential to significantly alter the clinical pharmacology in terms of prevention and treatment of life-threatening conditions like stroke and myocardial infarction. The main purpose of this article

  11. Subtyping borderline personality disorder by suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2012-06-01

    Course and outcome of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are favorable for the vast majority of patients; however, up to 10% die by suicide. This discrepancy begs the question of whether there is a high lethality subtype in BPD, defined by recurrent suicidal behavior and increasing attempt lethality over time. In a prospective, longitudinal study, we sought predictors of high lethality among repeat attempters, and defined clinical subtypes by applying trajectory analysis to consecutive lethality scores. Criteria-defined subjects with BPD were assessed using standardized instruments and followed longitudinally. Suicidal behavior was assessed on the Columbia Suicide History, Lethality Rating Scale, and Suicide Intent Scale. Variables discriminating single and repeat attempters were entered into logistic regression models to define predictors of high and low lethality attempts. Trajectory analysis using three attempt and five attempt models identified discrete patterns of Lethality Rating Scale scores. A high lethality trajectory was associated with inpatient recruitment, and poor psychosocial function, a low lethality trajectory with greater Negativism, Substance Use Disorders, Histrionic and/or Narcissistic PD co-morbidity. Illness severity, older age, and poor psychosocial function are characteristics of a poor prognosis subtype related to suicidal behavior.

  12. A single amino acid substitution in the group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor abolishes TLF-1 binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E DeJesus

    Full Text Available Critical to human innate immunity against African trypanosomes is a minor subclass of human high-density lipoproteins, termed Trypanosome Lytic Factor-1 (TLF-1. This primate-specific molecule binds to a haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor (HpHbR on the surface of susceptible trypanosomes, initiating a lytic pathway. Group 1 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense causes human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, escaping TLF-1 killing due to reduced uptake. Previously, we found that group 1 T. b. gambiense HpHbR (TbgHpHbR mRNA levels were greatly reduced and the gene contained substitutions within the open reading frame. Here we show that a single, highly conserved amino acid in the TbgHpHbR ablates high affinity TLF-1 binding and subsequent endocytosis, thus evading TLF-1 killing. In addition, we show that over-expression of TbgHpHbR failed to rescue TLF-1 susceptibility. These findings suggest that the single substitution present in the TbgHpHbR directly contributes to the reduced uptake and resistance to TLF-1 seen in these important human pathogens.

  13. Computational Analysis of Damaging Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Their Structural and Functional Impact on the Insulin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabed Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with complex disorders can create, destroy, or modify protein coding sites. Single amino acid substitutions in the insulin receptor (INSR are the most common forms of genetic variations that account for various diseases like Donohue syndrome or Leprechaunism, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and type A insulin resistance. We analyzed the deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs in INSR gene based on different computational methods. Analysis of INSR was initiated with PROVEAN followed by PolyPhen and I-Mutant servers to investigate the effects of 57 nsSNPs retrieved from database of SNP (dbSNP. A total of 18 mutations that were found to exert damaging effects on the INSR protein structure and function were chosen for further analysis. Among these mutations, our computational analysis suggested that 13 nsSNPs decreased protein stability and might have resulted in loss of function. Therefore, the probability of their involvement in disease predisposition increases. In the lack of adequate prior reports on the possible deleterious effects of nsSNPs, we have systematically analyzed and characterized the functional variants in coding region that can alter the expression and function of INSR gene. In silico characterization of nsSNPs affecting INSR gene function can aid in better understanding of genetic differences in disease susceptibility.

  14. Alcoholic subtypes: are two sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Scheidt, Douglas M

    2004-12-01

    Guided by the literature on alcohol subtypes, cluster analytical solutions ranging from two to five were evaluated for a large (n = 802), ethnically diverse sample of alcoholic in-patients. Personal interview data were collected from in-patients regarding their substance abuse and psychiatric disorder status, risk factors for psychopathology and health outcomes. The data were collected at five alcohol in-patient treatment settings in New York; three settings were in New York City, one in Rochester and one in Buffalo. The sample included 802 participants (481 males and 321 females) with racial/ethnic group diversity (418 blacks, 180 whites, 187 Hispanics, 17 of other ethnic origin). Subjects were assessed with standardized measures of substance abuse and psychiatric disorders, family history of alcoholism, psychopathy, temperament, alcohol expectancies and clinical health variables. Based on internal and external criteria and compatibility with the existing literature, four subtypes were identified: mild course, polydrug, negative affect and chronic/antisocial. On external criteria, the polydrug subtype had the highest rate of family criminality, high-risk sexual behavior and intravenous drug use; the negative affect subtype had the highest rate of childhood sexual abuse, attempted suicide and childhood homelessness; the chronic/antisocial personality (ASP) subtype had the most severe pattern of drinking and antisocial behavior. Findings are discussed with regard to the etiological and clinical utility of the four-subtype formulation, and consistency with recent studies in molecular genetics and pharmacology.

  15. Peculiarities of diagnostics and clinical course of different immunohistochemical subtypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Khazhzh M.Kh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern global guidelines in oncology consider treatment of various forms of breast cancer according to molecular tumor subtype. Steroid receptors, epidermal growth factor receptors, p53, Ki67 proliferative activity index and others are the key indicators of aggressiveness of malignant breast tumors. The material for this study was the retrospective study of the standard set of breast cancer immuno¬histochemical markers (estrogen receptors, progesterone, epidermal growth factor type 2 in 8171 patients. 4 groups of patients - luminal A, luminal B, triple negative and HER2-neu positive subtypes of tumors were identified according to immunohistochemical status. We analyzed overall survival without relapse in 491 patients with breast cancer, clinical data and data of immunohistochemical studies were matched. Based on the investigation it was determined that in the early stages of the disease (1-2 luminal A subtype of cancer is often diagnosed. In the late stages the most common subtype is HER2-neu positive breast cancer. Herewith, patients with luminal A subtype of cancer have the best performance of the overall survival (OS (32,91±2,33 months, and the worst results were found in patients with HER2 - neu positive breast cancer (22,58±1,28 months. The data obtained determine HER2 - neu positive subtype as the most aggressive type of breast cancer, and the luminal A subtype – as the least aggressive one.

  16. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  17. Selectivity of the imidazoline alpha-adrenoceptor agonists (oxymetazoline and cirazoline) for human cloned alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, K.; Obika, K.; Foglar, R.; Tsujimoto, G.

    1995-01-01

    1. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists for the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, we have compared the imidazoline class of compounds, oxymetazoline and cirazoline, with the phenethylamine, noradrenaline, in their affinities and also in their intrinsic activities in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the cloned human alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1a-, alpha 1b-, and alpha 1d-subtypes). 2. Radioligand binding studies with [125I]-HEAT showed that cirazoline and oxymetazoline had higher affinities at alpha 1a-subtype than at alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-subtypes, while noradrenaline had higher affinity at the alpha 1d-subtype than at alpha 1a- and alpha 1b-subtypes. 3. In functional studies, cirazoline caused transients of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i response) in a concentration-dependent manner and developed a maximal response similar to that to noradrenaline in CHO cells expressing the alpha 1a-subtype, while it acted as a partial agonist at alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-adrenoceptors. Oxymetazoline, on the other hand, was a weak agonist at alpha 1a-adrenoceptors, and has no intrinsic activity at the other subtypes. 4. Using the phenoxybenzamine inactivation method, the relationships between receptor occupancy and noradrenaline-induced [Ca2+]i response for alpha 1a- and alpha 1d-subtypes were found to be linear, whereas it was moderately hyperbolic for the alpha 1b-subtype, indicating the absence of receptor reserves in CHO cells expressing alpha 1a- and alpha 1d-subtypes while there exists a small receptor reserve for CHO cells expressing the alpha 1b-subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564227

  18. Advances of Molecular Subtype and Targeted Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan SHAO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of multiple molecular mechanisms underlying the development, progression, and prognosis of lung cancer, has created new opportunities for targeted therapy. Each subtype is associated with molecular tests that define the subtype and drugs that may have potential therapeutic effect on lung cancer. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR gene were discovered in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC, especially in adenocarcinomas. And they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs. Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC, and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers. At present, multiple molecular subtype of lung cancer and relevant targeted drugs are undering study. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular subtype of lung cancer and the related targeted therapy.

  19. Response to treatment of myasthenia gravis according to clinical subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaishi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasushi; Imai, Tomihiro; Tsuda, Emiko; Minami, Naoya; Nagane, Yuriko; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Masuda, Masayuki; Konno, Shingo; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Murai, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Masashi; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki

    2016-11-17

    We have previously reported using two-step cluster analysis to classify myasthenia gravis (MG) patients into the following five subtypes: ocular MG; thymoma-associated MG; MG with thymic hyperplasia; anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab)-negative MG; and AChR-Ab-positive MG without thymic abnormalities. The objectives of the present study were to examine the reproducibility of this five-subtype classification using a new data set of MG patients and to identify additional characteristics of these subtypes, particularly in regard to response to treatment. A total of 923 consecutive MG patients underwent two-step cluster analysis for the classification of subtypes. The variables used for classification were sex, age of onset, disease duration, presence of thymoma or thymic hyperplasia, positivity for AChR-Ab or anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody, positivity for other concurrent autoantibodies, and disease condition at worst and current. The period from the start of treatment until the achievement of minimal manifestation status (early-stage response) was determined and then compared between subtypes using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. In addition, between subtypes, the rate of the number of patients who maintained minimal manifestations during the study period/that of patients who only achieved the status once (stability of improved status) was compared. As a result of two-step cluster analysis, 923 MG patients were classified into five subtypes as follows: ocular MG (AChR-Ab-positivity, 77%; histogram of onset age, skewed to older age); thymoma-associated MG (100%; normal distribution); MG with thymic hyperplasia (89%; skewed to younger age); AChR-Ab-negative MG (0%; normal distribution); and AChR-Ab-positive MG without thymic abnormalities (100%, skewed to older age). Furthermore, patients classified as ocular MG showed the best early-stage response to treatment and stability of improved status, followed by those classified as

  20. Preparation and functional studies of hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Yang,1,3,* Xiaoping Huang,1,3,* Fanghong Luo,1 Xiaofeng Cheng,3 Lianna Cheng,3 Bin Liu,4 Lihong Chen,2 Ruyi Hu,1,3 Chunyan Shi,1,3 Guohong Zhuang,1,3 Ping Yin2 1Anti-Cancer Research Center, Medical College, Xiamen University, Fujian, People's Republic of China, 2The Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, 3Organ transplantation institution, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, 4Jilin Vocational College of Industry and Technology, Jilin, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To prepare hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody, and study their characteristics, functions, and mechanisms of action. Materials and methods: The anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody was constructed and expressed. Protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles were prepared, and their size, morphology, particle-size distribution and surface zeta potential were measured by scanning electron microscopy and laser particle-size analysis. Mouse H22 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were cultured, and growth inhibition was examined using the CellTiter-Blue cell-viability assay. Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 were employed to measure cell apoptosis. Kunming mice with H22 tumor models were treated with protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles, and their body weight and tumor size were measured, while hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect antitumor effects in vivo and side effects from tumors. Results: The protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles had good stability; the zeta potential was -24.2±0.205, and the dispersion index was 0.203. The inhibition of the protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles on H22 growth was both time- and dose-dependent. Increased expressions of active caspase 8, active caspase 3, and BAX were detected

  1. Molecular subtypes of glioblastoma are relevant to lower grade glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Guan

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumors in adults with great heterogeneity in histopathology and clinical course. The intent was to evaluate the relevance of known glioblastoma (GBM expression and methylation based subtypes to grade II and III gliomas (ie. lower grade gliomas.Gene expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and clinical data were obtained for 228 GBMs and 176 grade II/II gliomas (GII/III from the publically available Rembrandt dataset. Two additional datasets with IDH1 mutation status were utilized as validation datasets (one publicly available dataset and one newly generated dataset from MD Anderson. Unsupervised clustering was performed and compared to gene expression subtypes assigned using the Verhaak et al 840-gene classifier. The glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP was assigned using prediction models by Fine et al.Unsupervised clustering by gene expression aligned with the Verhaak 840-gene subtype group assignments. GII/IIIs were preferentially assigned to the proneural subtype with IDH1 mutation and G-CIMP. GBMs were evenly distributed among the four subtypes. Proneural, IDH1 mutant, G-CIMP GII/III s had significantly better survival than other molecular subtypes. Only 6% of GBMs were proneural and had either IDH1 mutation or G-CIMP but these tumors had significantly better survival than other GBMs. Copy number changes in chromosomes 1p and 19q were associated with GII/IIIs, while these changes in CDKN2A, PTEN and EGFR were more commonly associated with GBMs.GBM gene-expression and methylation based subtypes are relevant for GII/III s and associate with overall survival differences. A better understanding of the association between these subtypes and GII/IIIs could further knowledge regarding prognosis and mechanisms of glioma progression.

  2. Association Between Imaging Characteristics and Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingxiang; Ma, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer can be divided into four major molecular subtypes based on the expression of hormone receptor (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HER2 status, and molecular proliferation rate (Ki67). In this study, we sought to investigate the association between breast cancer subtype and radiological findings in the Chinese population. Medical records of 300 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database: the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The imaging characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer were classified into four types: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressed (HER2), and basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the subtype (dependent variable) and mammography or 15 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators (independent variables). Luminal A and B subtypes were commonly associated with "clustered calcification distribution," "nipple invasion," or "skin invasion" (P cancers showed association with persistent enhancement in the delayed phase on MRI and "clustered calcification distribution" on mammography (P breast tumor, which are potentially useful tools in the diagnosis and subtyping of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproductive profiles and risk of breast cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouckaert, Olivier; Rudolph, Anja; Laenen, Annouschka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis. Methods: We used...... pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer...... more likely to be diagnosed with luminal and non-luminal HER2-like BCs and this effect was slightly more pronounced at an early age (p for interaction with age = 0.037 and 0.030, respectively). For instance, women diagnosed at age 35 were 1.48 (CI 1.01-2.16) more likely to have luminal HER2-like BC...

  4. Validation of quantitative brain dopamine D2 receptor imaging with a conventional single-head SPET camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, P.; Liewendahl, K.; Savolainen, S.; Launes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Phantom measurements were performed with a conventional single-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera in order to validate the relevance of the basal ganglia/frontal cortex iodine-123 iodobenzamide (IBZM) uptake ratios measured in patients. Inside a cylindrical phantom (diameter 22 cm), two cylinders with a diameter of 3.3 cm were inserted. The activity concentrations of the cylinders ranged from 6.0 to 22.6 kBq/ml and the cylinder/background activity ratios varied from 1.4 to 3.8. From reconstructed SPET images the cylinder/background activity ratios were calculated using three different regions of interest (ROIs). A linear relationship between the measured activity ratio and the true activity ratio was obtained. In patient studies, basal ganglia/frontal cortex IBZM uptake ratios determined from the reconstructed slices using attentuation correction prior to reconstruction were 1.30 ±0.03 in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 9), 1,33 ±0.09 in infantile and juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (n = 7) and 1.34 ±0.05 in narcolepsy (n = 8). Patients with Huntington's disease had significantly lower ratios (1.09 ±0.04, n = 5). The corrected basal ganglia/frontal cortex ratios, determined using linear regression, were about 80 % higher. The use of dual-window scatter correction increased the measured ratios by about 10 %. Although comprehensive correction methods can further improve the resolution in SPET images, the resolution of the SPET system used by us (1.5 - 2 cm) will determine what is achievable in basal ganglia D2 receptor imaging. (orig.)

  5. A Novel Diagnostic Tool for Selecting Patients With Mesenchymal-Type Colon Cancer Reveals Intratumor Subtype Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink, Inge; Elias, Sjoerd G; Moelans, CB; Laclé, Miangela M; van Grevenstein, Wilhelmina M U; van Diest, Paul J; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Kranenburg, OW

    2017-01-01

    Background: Consensus molecular subtype 4 (CMS4) is a recently identified aggressive colon cancer subtype for which platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) and KIT are potential therapeutic targets. We aimed to develop a clinically applicable CMS4 reverse transcription polymerase chain

  6. Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors are exceptionally sensitive toward the biophysical properties of the displayed single-chain Fv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Thorsten; Hanisch, Lydia J; Muth, Anke; Honegger, Annemarie; Abken, Hinrich; Plückthun, Andreas; Buchholz, Christian J; Schneider, Irene C

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of applications require the expression of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) fusion proteins in mammalian cells at the cell surface membrane. Here we assessed the CD30-specific scFv HRS3, which is used in immunotherapy, for its ability to retarget lentiviral vectors (LVs) to CD30 and to mediate selective gene transfer into CD30-positive cells. Fused to the C-terminus of the type-II transmembrane protein hemagglutinin (H) of measles virus and expressed in LV packaging cells, gene transfer mediated by the released LV particles was inefficient. A series of point mutations in the scFv framework regions addressing its biophysical properties, which substantially improved production and increased the melting temperature without impairing its kinetic binding behavior to CD30, also improved the performance of LV particles. Gene transfer into CD30-positive cells increased ∼100-fold due to improved transport of the H-scFv protein to the plasma membrane. Concomitantly, LV particle aggregation and syncytia formation in packaging cells were substantially reduced. The data suggest that syncytia formation can be triggered by trans-cellular dimerization of H-scFv proteins displayed on adjacent cells. Taken together, we show that the biophysical properties of the targeting ligand have a decisive role for the gene transfer efficiency of receptor-targeted LVs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Periplasmic expression of soluble single chain T cell receptors is rescued by the chaperone FkpA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogen Bjarne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient expression systems exist for antibody (Ab molecules, which allow for characterization of large numbers of individual Ab variants. In contrast, such expression systems have been lacking for soluble T cell receptors (TCRs. Attempts to generate bacterial systems have generally resulted in low yields and material which is prone to aggregation and proteolysis. Here we present an optimized periplasmic bacterial expression system for soluble single chain (sc TCRs. Results The effect of 1 over-expression of the periplasmic chaperon FkpA, 2 culture conditions and 3 molecular design was investigated. Elevated levels of FkpA allowed periplasmic soluble scTCR expression, presumably by preventing premature aggregation and inclusion body formation. Periplasmic expression enables disulphide bond formation, which is a prerequisite for the scTCR to reach its correct fold. It also enables quick and easy recovery of correctly folded protein without the need for time-consuming downstream processing. Expression without IPTG induction further improved the periplasmic expression yield, while addition of sucrose to the growth medium showed little effect. Shaker flask yield of mg levels of active purified material was obtained. The Vαβ domain orientation was far superior to the Vβα domain orientation regarding monomeric yield of functionally folded molecules. Conclusion The general expression regime presented here allows for rapid production of soluble scTCRs and is applicable for 1 high yield recovery sufficient for biophysical characterization and 2 high throughput screening of such molecules following molecular engineering.

  8. 3D Mapping of the SPRY2 domain of ryanodine receptor 1 by single-particle cryo-EM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Perálvarez-Marín

    Full Text Available The type 1 skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR1 is principally responsible for Ca(2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and for the subsequent muscle contraction. The RyR1 contains three SPRY domains. SPRY domains are generally known to mediate protein-protein interactions, however the location of the three SPRY domains in the 3D structure of the RyR1 is not known. Combining immunolabeling and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy we have mapped the SPRY2 domain (S1085-V1208 in the 3D structure of RyR1 using three different antibodies against the SPRY2 domain. Two obstacles for the image processing procedure; limited amount of data and signal dilution introduced by the multiple orientations of the antibody bound in the tetrameric RyR1, were overcome by modifying the 3D reconstruction scheme. This approach enabled us to ascertain that the three antibodies bind to the same region, to obtain a 3D reconstruction of RyR1 with the antibody bound, and to map SPRY2 to the periphery of the cytoplasmic domain of RyR1. We report here the first 3D localization of a SPRY2 domain in any known RyR isoform.

  9. Single photon emission computed tomography procedure improves accuracy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebtahi, R.; Genin, R.; Rouzet, F.; Bleicner-Perez, S.; Lievre, A.; Scigliano, S.; Vialle, C.; Le Guludec, D.; Cadiot, G.; Sobhani, I.; Mignon, M.

    2005-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors scintigraphy (SRS) is a sensitive method for the detection of endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of anterior and posterior planar associated to single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) compared to anterior and posterior planar associated to additional lateral and oblique views in the detection of abdominal endocrine tumors. One hundred and sixty four patients with endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors were included in this study. Scintigraphic images were performed after injection of 189 ± 23 MBq of 111 In-Pentetreotide. Abdominal planar images were performed 4 h and 24 hours after injection. Abdominal SPECT was performed at 24 hours. The combination of anterior and posterior abdominal planar images with SPECT using iterative reconstruction detected significantly more tumoral sites compared to multiple planar images (298 versus 280 for the liver, p = 0.01 and 90 versus 88 for coeliac area). In particular liver lesions were better delineated on tomographic slices. The combination of 111 In-Pentetreotide SPECT with anterior and posterior planar images is more sensitive than multiple planar images to detect abdominal endocrine tumors. (author)

  10. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. → These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. → The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  11. Single-domain antibodies that compete with the natural ligand fibroblast growth factor block the internalization of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veggiani, Gianluca; Ossolengo, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Marisa; Cavallaro, Ugo [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Marco, Ario de, E-mail: ario.demarco@ung.si [IFOM-IEO Campus, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milano (Italy); Dept. Environmental Sciences, University of Nova Gorica (UNG), Vipavska 13, P.O. Box 301-SI-5000, Rozna Dolina, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Recombinant antibodies for FGFR1 were isolated from a llama naive library in VHH format. {yields} These antibodies compete with the natural ligand FGF-2 for the same epitope on FGFR1. {yields} The antibody competition inhibits the FGF-2-dependent internalization of FGFR1. -- Abstract: Single-domain antibodies in VHH format specific for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were isolated from a phage-display llama naive library. In particular, phage elution in the presence of the natural receptor ligand fibroblast growth factor (FGF) allowed for the identification of recombinant antibodies that compete with FGF for the same region on the receptor surface. These antibodies posses a relatively low affinity for FGFR1 and were never identified when unspecific elution conditions favoring highly affine binders were applied to panning procedures. Two populations of competitive antibodies were identified that labeled specifically the receptor-expressing cells in immunofluorescence and recognize distinct epitopes. Antibodies from both populations effectively prevented FGF-dependent internalization and nuclear accumulation of the receptor in cultured cells. This achievement indicates that these antibodies have a capacity to modulate the receptor physiology and, therefore, constitute powerful reagents for basic research and a potential lead for therapeutic applications.

  12. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Son [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Tabarin, Thibault [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Rossy, Jérémie [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Böcking, Till [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Leis, Andrew [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Gaus, Katharina, E-mail: k.gaus@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Mak, Johnson, E-mail: j.mak@deakin.edu.au [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  13. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Son; Tabarin, Thibault; Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna; Rossy, Jérémie; Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex; Böcking, Till; Leis, Andrew; Gaus, Katharina; Mak, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  14. In vivo measurement of haloperidol affinity to dopamine D2/D3 receptors by [123I]IBZM and single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Toska, K; Friberg, L

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a steady-state bolus-integration method with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) tracer, [123I]IBZM, for determination of in vivo affinity of haloperidol. The nonspecific binding of [123I]IBZM was examined in the rat...... brain by infusion of haloperidol to plasma levels approximately 100 times the Kd level in man. In humans, Kd for haloperidol binding was measured in four healthy volunteers that were examined twice: once with partial dopamine D2/D3 receptor blockade obtained by a scheduled infusion of unlabeled...

  15. Association of Novelty Seeking Scores and Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability of Healthy Volunteers: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography With 123I-iodobenzamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Yu Huang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been speculated that novelty seeking (NS behavior is related to the dopaminergic system. Fifty-two subjects completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and underwent single photon emission computed tomography with 123I-iodobenzamide. A marginally positive correlation was noted between NS and striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (r = 0.25, p =0.07. A positive association was noted between the NS scores and left striatal D2/D3 receptor availability (r= 0.29, p =0.04. The results suggest that a relationship might exist between NS score and dopaminergic activity.

  16. Expression level, tissue distribution pattern, and prognostic impact of vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF and VEGF-C and their receptors Flt-1, KDR, and Flt-4 in different subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Judit M; Sørensen, Flemming B; Bendix, Knud

    2009-01-01

    155 patients with NHL (64 follicular lymphomas (FLs), 47 de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and 44 peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL)) were stained by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Tumor cell expression of VEGF, VEGF-C and their receptors was detected in most...... a significant adverse impact on OS (p

  17. Clinical Features Associated with Delirium Motor Subtypes in Older Inpatients: Results of a Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Meagher, David; Mazzone, Andrea; Bianchetti, Angelo; Ferrara, Nicola; Ferrari, Alberto; Musicco, Massimo; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To date motor subtypes of delirium have been evaluated in single-center studies with a limited examination of the relationship between predisposing factors and motor profile of delirium. We sought to report the prevalence and clinical profile of subtypes of delirium in a multicenter study. This is a point prevalence study nested in the "Delirium Day 2015", which included 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italy. Delirium was detected using the 4-AT and motor subtypes were measured with the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS). A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with delirium subtypes. Of 429 patients with delirium, the DMSS was completed in 275 (64%), classifying 21.5% of the patients with hyperactive delirium, 38.5% with hypoactive, 27.3% with mixed and 12.7% with the non-motor subtype. The 4-AT score was higher in the hyperactive subtype, similar in the hypoactive, mixed subtypes, while it was lowest in the non-motor subtype. Dementia was associated with all three delirium motor subtypes (hyperactive, OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2-8.7; hypoactive, OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2-6.5; mixed OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.2). Atypical antipsychotics were associated with hypoactive delirium (OR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7), while intravenous lines were associated with mixed delirium (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-6.9). The study shows that hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype among hospitalized older patients. Specific clinical features were associated with different delirium subtypes. The use of standardized instruments can help to characterize the phenomenology of different motor subtypes of delirium. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SIB-1553A, (+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride, a subtype-selective ligand for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with putative cognitive-enhancing properties: effects on working and reference memory performances in aged rodents and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, B; Whelan, K T; Risbrough, V B; Rao, T S; Buccafusco, J J; Lloyd, G K; Menzaghi, F

    2001-10-01

    Preclinical and clinical data have suggested the potential use of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands for treating cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. SIB-1553A, (+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride, a novel nAChR ligand with predominant agonist subtype selectivity for beta4 subunit-containing human neuronal nAChRs, was tested in a variety of cognitive paradigms in aged rodents and nonhuman primates after acute and repeated administration. Subcutaneous administration of SIB-1553A improved delayed nonmatching to place performance in aged mice. In aged rhesus monkeys, intramuscular and oral administration of SIB-1553A improved choice accuracy in a delayed matching to sample task. SIB-1553A improved performances in these spatial and nonspatial working memory tasks but was less effective at improving performances in spatial reference memory tasks (i.e., aged rodents exposed to a discrimination task in a T-maze or trained to locate a hidden platform in a water maze). These data suggest that SIB-1553A has a predominant effect on attention/working memory processes. SIB-1553A also induced the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus of aged rats and was equally effective whether administered acutely or repeatedly (6 weeks of daily subcutaneous administration). Thus, rats repeatedly treated with SIB-1553A exhibit neither tolerance nor sensitization to the effects of the compound. The SIB-1553A-induced cognitive improvement may be in part related to an increase in cholinergic function. The present study provides additional support for the use of subtype-selective nAChR ligands as a potential therapy for the symptomatic treatment of specific cognitive deficits (such as attention/working memory deficits) associated with aging and neurological diseases.

  19. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  20. Icatibant, an inhibitor of bradykinin receptor 2, for hereditary angioedema attacks: prospective experimental single-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Albuquerque Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hereditary angioedema (HAE with C1 inhibitor deficiency manifests as recurrent episodes of edema involving the skin, upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. It can be lethal due to asphyxia. The aim here was to evaluate the response to therapy for these attacks using icatibant, an inhibitor of the bradykinin receptor, which was recently introduced into Brazil.DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective experimental single-cohort study on the efficacy and safety of icatibant for HAE patients.METHODS: Patients with a confirmed HAE diagnosis were enrolled according to symptoms and regardless of the time since onset of the attack. Icatibant was administered in accordance with the protocol that has been approved in Brazil. Symptom severity was assessed continuously and adverse events were monitored.RESULTS: 24 attacks in 20 HAE patients were treated (female/male 19:1; 19-55 years; median 29 years of age. The symptoms were: subcutaneous edema (22/24; abdominal pain (15/24 and upper airway obstruction (10/24. The time taken until onset of relief was: 5-10 minutes (5/24; 20.8%; 10-20 (5/24; 20.8%; 20-30 (8/24; 33.4%; 30-60 (5/24; 20.8%; and 2 hours (1/24; 4.3%. The time taken for complete resolution of symptoms ranged from 4.3 to 33.4 hours. Adverse effects were only reported at injection sites. Mild to moderate erythema and/or feelings of burning were reported by 15/24 patients, itching by 3 and no adverse effects in 6.CONCLUSION: HAE type I patients who received icatibant responded promptly; most achieved improved symptom severity within 30 minutes. Local adverse events occurred in 75% of the patients.

  1. Explosive HIV-1 subtype B' epidemics in Asia driven by geographic and risk group founder events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Uenishi, Rie; Hase, Saiki; Liao, Huanan; Li, Xiao-Jie; Tsuchiura, Takayo; Tee, Kok Keng; Pybus, Oliver G; Takebe, Yutaka

    2010-07-05

    We explored the timescale, spatial spread, and risk group population structure of HIV-1 subtype B', the cause of explosive blood-borne HIV-1 epidemics among injecting drug users (IDUs) and former plasma donors (FPDs) in Asia. Sequences from FPDs in China formed a distinct monophyletic cluster within subtype B'. Further analysis revealed that subtype B' was founded by a single lineage of pandemic subtype B around 1985. Subsequently, the FPD cluster appears to have derived from a single subtype B' lineage around 1991, corroborating the hypothesis that FPD outbreaks stemmed from the preceding epidemic among IDUs in Southeast Asia, most likely from the Golden-Triangle region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of age, intrinsic subtype and local treatment on long-term local-regional recurrence and breast cancer mortality among low-risk breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Tinne; Alsner, Jan; Tramm, Trine

    2017-01-01

    -, HER2 receptor and Ki67.RESULTS: The majority of the tumors had a luminal subtype: 70% Luminal-A (LumA), 16% Luminal-B (LumB), and 10% Luminal-HER2 + (Lum-HER2+). The distribution of intrinsic subtypes between younger (≤45 years) and older (>45 years) patients was similar. Intrinsic subtypes had......, no distinct mortality pattern was observed, and the 20-year breast cancer mortality was not associated with intrinsic subtypes.CONCLUSION: Among low-risk patients, 96% of the tumors were Luminal and the distribution of intrinsic subtypes between younger (≤45 years) and older (>45 years) patients was similar...

  3. Increasing prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A in Greece: estimating epidemic history and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Sypsa, Vana; Paparizos, Vassilios; Lazanas, Marios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Panos, Georgios; Chrysos, Georgios; Sambatakou, Helen; Karafoulidou, Anastasia; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Kordossis, Theodoros; Koratzanis, Georgios; Theodoridou, Maria; Daikos, Georgios L; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Pybus, Oliver G; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2007-10-15

    In North America and Europe, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection has typically been dominated by subtype B transmission. More recently, however, non-B subtypes have been increasingly reported in Europe. We analyzed 1158 HIV-1-infected individuals in Greece by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of protease and partial reverse-transcriptase regions. We found that the prevalence of non-B subtypes has increased over time and that this significant trend can be mainly attributed to subtype A, which eventually surpassed subtype B in prevalence in 2004 (42% and 33%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the year of HIV diagnosis was independently associated with subtype A infection (odds ratio for being infected with subtype A for a 10-year increase in the time period of diagnosis, 2.09 [95% confidence interval, 1.36-3.24]; PGreece is the result of a single founder event. The date of the most recent common ancestor of the subtype A in Greece was estimated to be 1977.9 (95% highest posterior density interval, 1973.7-1981.9). Subtype A circulates among the long-term residents of Greece. This is in contrast to the situation in most European countries, in which infection with non-B genetic forms is associated either with being an immigrant or heterosexual or with intravenous drug use.

  4. Pleiotropic effects of Blastocystis spp. Subtypes 4 and 7 on ligand-specific toll-like receptor signaling and NF-κB activation in a human monocyte cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D W Teo

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. is a common enteric stramenopile parasite that colonizes the colon of hosts of a diverse array of species, including humans. It has been shown to compromise intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity and mediate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mucosal epithelial surfaces, including the intestinal epithelium, are increasingly recognized to perform a vital surveillance role in the context of innate immunity, through the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs. In this study, we use the human TLR reporter monocytic cell line, THP1-Blue, which expresses all human TLRs, to investigate effects of Blastocystis on TLR activation, more specifically the activation of TLR-2, -4 and -5. We have observed that live Blastocystis spp. parasites and whole cell lysate (WCL alone do not activate TLRs in THP1-Blue. Live ST4-WR1 parasites inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. In contrast, ST7-B WCL and ST4-WR1 WCL induced pleiotropic modulation of ligand-specific TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation, with no significant effects on flagellin-mediated TLR-5 activation. Real time-qPCR analysis on SEAP reporter gene confirmed the augmenting effect of ST7-B on LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. Taken together, this is the first study to characterize interactions between Blastocystis spp. and host TLR activation using an in vitro reporter model.

  5. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  6. Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Teter, Christian J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used three characteristics (i.e., motive, route of administration, and co-ingestion with alcohol) of nonmedical prescription drug misuse across four separate classes (i.e., pain, sedative/anxiety, sleeping and stimulant medications) to examine subtypes and drug related problems. A Web survey was self-administered by a randomly selected sample of 3,639 undergraduate students attending a large Midwestern 4-year U.S. university. Self-treatment subtypes were characterized by motives consistent with the prescription drug's pharmaceutical main indication, oral only routes of administration, and no co-ingestion with alcohol. Recreational subtypes were characterized by recreational motives, oral or non-oral routes, and co-ingestion. Mixed subtypes consisted of other combinations of motives, routes, and co-ingestion. Among those who reported nonmedical prescription drug misuse, approximately 13% were classified into the recreational subtype, while 39% were in the self-treatment subtype, and 48% were in the mixed subtype. There were significant differences in the subtypes in terms of gender, race and prescription drug class. Approximately 50% of those in subtypes other than self-treatment screened positive for drug abuse. The odds of substance use and abuse were generally lower among self-treatment subtypes than other subtypes. The findings indicate subtypes should be considered when examining nonmedical prescription drug misuse, especially for pain medication. PMID:19278795

  7. Using Force to Probe Single-Molecule Receptor-Cytoskeletal Anchoring Beneath the Surface of a Living Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Evan; Kinoshita, Koji

    2007-01-01

    , K. (2005). Nano-to-micro scale dynamics of P-selectin detachment from leukocyte interfaces: I. Separation of PSGL-1 from the cell cytoskeleton. Biophys. J. 88, 2288-2298]. Retracting cells from receptor-surface attachments at many different speeds revealed that the kinetic rate for receptor......The ligation of cell surface receptors often communicates a signal that initiates a cytoplasmic chemical cascade to implement an important cell function. Less well understood is how physical stress applied to a cell surface adhesive bond propagates throughout the cytostructure to catalyze...... or trigger important steps in these chemical processes. Probing the nanoscale impact of pulling on cell surface bonds, we discovered that receptors frequently detach prematurely from the interior cytostructure prior to failure of the exterior adhesive bond [Evans, E., Heinrich, V., Leung, A., and Kinoshita...

  8. Prognostic Value of Molecular Subtypes, Ki67 Expression and Impact of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selz, Jessica, E-mail: chaumontjessica@yahoo.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Stevens, Denise; Jouanneau, Ludivine [Department of Medical Statistics, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Labib, Alain [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Hopital Rene Huguenin, Saint Cloud (France); Le Scodan, Romuald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Prive Saint Gregoire, Saint Gregoire (France)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Ki67 expression and breast cancer subtypes could predict locoregional recurrence (LRR) and influence the postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) decision in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic negative lymph nodes (pN0) after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: A total of 699 BC patients with pN0 status after MRM, treated between 2001 and 2008, were identified from a prospective database in a single institution. Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular subtype as luminal A or B, HER2+, and triple-negative (TN) using estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of LRR associated with intrinsic subtypes and Ki67 expression, adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results: At a median follow-up of 56 months, 17 patients developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival and overall survival in the entire population were 97%, and 94.7%, respectively, with no difference between the PMRT (n=191) and no-PMRT (n=508) subgroups. No constructed subtype was associated with an increased risk of LRR. Ki67 >20% was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR (hazard ratio, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.11-15.77; P<.0215). However, PMRT was not associated with better locoregional control in patients with proliferative tumors. Conclusions: Ki67 expression but not molecular subtypes are predictors of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after MRM. The benefit of adjuvant RT in patients with proliferative tumors should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  9. Functional characterization of FLT3 receptor signaling deregulation in acute myeloid leukemia by single cell network profiling (SCNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Rosen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3 in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML has recently been incorporated into clinical guidelines based on correlations between FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD and decreased disease-free and overall survival. These mutations result in constitutive activation of FLT3, and FLT3 inhibitors are currently undergoing trials in AML patients selected on FLT3 molecular status. However, the transient and partial responses observed suggest that FLT3 mutational status alone does not provide complete information on FLT3 biological activity at the individual patient level. Examination of variation in cellular responsiveness to signaling modulation may be more informative. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using single cell network profiling (SCNP, cells were treated with extracellular modulators and their functional responses were quantified by multiparametric flow cytometry. Intracellular signaling responses were compared between healthy bone marrow myeloblasts (BMMb and AML leukemic blasts characterized as FLT3 wild type (FLT3-WT or FLT3-ITD. Compared to healthy BMMb, FLT3-WT leukemic blasts demonstrated a wide range of signaling responses to FLT3 ligand (FLT3L, including elevated and sustained PI3K and Ras/Raf/Erk signaling. Distinct signaling and apoptosis profiles were observed in FLT3-WT and FLT3-ITD AML samples, with more uniform signaling observed in FLT3-ITD AML samples. Specifically, increased basal p-Stat5 levels, decreased FLT3L induced activation of the PI3K and Ras/Raf/Erk pathways, decreased IL-27 induced activation of the Jak/Stat pathway, and heightened apoptotic responses to agents inducing DNA damage were observed in FLT3-ITD AML samples. Preliminary analysis correlating these findings with clinical outcomes suggests that classification of patient samples based on signaling profiles may more accurately reflect FLT3 signaling

  10. Development and Characterization of a Camelid Single Domain Antibody-Urease Conjugate That Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baomin; Wong, Wah Yau; Uger, Marni D; Wisniewski, Pawel; Chao, Heman

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21) and the enzyme urease. The conjugate specifically binds to VEGFR2 and urease converts endogenous urea into ammonia, which is toxic to tumor cells. Previously, we developed a similar antibody-urease conjugate, L-DOS47, which is currently in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. Although V21-DOS47 was designed from parameters learned from the generation of L-DOS47, additional optimization was required to produce V21-DOS47. In this study, we describe the expression and purification of two versions of the V21 antibody: V21H1 and V21H4. Each was conjugated to urease using a different chemical cross-linker. The conjugates were characterized by a panel of analytical techniques, including SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, Western blotting, and LC-MS E peptide mapping. Binding characteristics were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry assays. To improve the stability of the conjugates at physiologic pH, the pIs of the V21 antibodies were adjusted by adding several amino acid residues to the C-terminus. For V21H4, a terminal cysteine was also added for use in the conjugation chemistry. The modified V21 antibodies were expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) pT7 system. V21H1 was conjugated to urease using the heterobifunctional cross-linker succinimidyl-[( N -maleimidopropionamido)-diethyleneglycol] ester (SM(PEG) 2 ), which targets lysine resides in the antibody. V21H4 was conjugated to urease using the homobifunctional cross-linker, 1,8-bis(maleimido)diethylene glycol

  11. Development and Characterization of a Camelid Single Domain Antibody–Urease Conjugate That Targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baomin Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs. In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21 and the enzyme urease. The conjugate specifically binds to VEGFR2 and urease converts endogenous urea into ammonia, which is toxic to tumor cells. Previously, we developed a similar antibody–urease conjugate, L-DOS47, which is currently in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. Although V21-DOS47 was designed from parameters learned from the generation of L-DOS47, additional optimization was required to produce V21-DOS47. In this study, we describe the expression and purification of two versions of the V21 antibody: V21H1 and V21H4. Each was conjugated to urease using a different chemical cross-linker. The conjugates were characterized by a panel of analytical techniques, including SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, Western blotting, and LC-MSE peptide mapping. Binding characteristics were determined by ELISA and flow cytometry assays. To improve the stability of the conjugates at physiologic pH, the pIs of the V21 antibodies were adjusted by adding several amino acid residues to the C-terminus. For V21H4, a terminal cysteine was also added for use in the conjugation chemistry. The modified V21 antibodies were expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3 pT7 system. V21H1 was conjugated to urease using the heterobifunctional cross-linker succinimidyl-[(N-maleimidopropionamido-diethyleneglycol] ester (SM(PEG2, which targets lysine resides in the antibody. V21H4 was conjugated to urease using the homobifunctional cross-linker, 1,8-bis

  12. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  13. The α4β2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor agonist ispronicline induces c-Fos expression in selective regions of the rat forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie; Hansen, Henrik H; Kiss, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The dominant nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype in the brain is the pentameric receptor containing both α4 and β2 subunits (α4β2). Due to the lack of selective agonists it has not been ruled out what neuronal circuits that are stimulated after systemic administration with nicotine. We...... or indirectly involved in acute stress regulation after a single dose of ispronicline, supports earlier studies that the α4β2 receptors are strongly involved in nicotine-dependent activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical axis....

  14. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Fouzia; Banerji, Suneale; Howarth, Mark; Jackson, David G.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices.

  15. Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, Endale; Seifu, Daniel; Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu; Bokretsion, Yonas; Bekele, Abebe; Abebe, Markos; Sollie, Thomas; Merajver, Sofia D; Karlsson, Christina; Karlsson, Mats G

    2018-02-14

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several morphological and molecular subtypes. Widely accepted molecular classification system uses assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation marker Ki67. Few studies have been conducted on the incidence and molecular types of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies mainly from Western and Central Africa, showed breast cancer to occur at younger ages and to present with aggressive features, such as high-grade, advanced stage and triple-negative phenotype (negative for ER, PR and HER2). Limited data from East Africa including Ethiopia however shows hormone receptor negative tumors to account for a lower proportion of all breast cancers than has been reported from elsewhere in Africa. In this study from Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, 114 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 were enrolled. ER, PR, Ki67 and HER2 receptor status were assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays. FISH was used for assessment of gene amplification in all equivocal tumor samples and for confirmation in HER2-enriched cases. The distribution of molecular subtypes was: Luminal A: 40%; Luminal B: 26%; HER2-enriched: 10%; TNBC: 23%. ER were positive in 65% of all tumors and 43% the cases were positive for PR. There was statistically significant difference in median age at diagnosis between the molecular subtypes (P molecular subtypes in different age ranges with Luminal B subtype being more common at younger ages (median = 36) and Luminal A subtype more prevalent at older ages (median = 42). There were no statistically significant differences in tumor grade, histology, and stage between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The present study detected Luminal A breast cancer to be the most common subtype and reveals a relatively low rate of hormone receptor negative and TNBC. Our findings and

  16. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of dopamine D2 receptors in the course of dopamine replacement therapy in patients with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staedt, J.; Stoppe, G.; Riemann, H.; Hajak, G.; Ruether, E.; Koegler, A.; Emrich, D.

    1995-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography (SPET) permits the in vivo measurements of regional cerebral radioactivity in the human brain following the administration of compounds labeled with photon-emitting isotopes. According to our SPET findings of a reduced binding of [ 123 I]labeled (S)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6-methoxy-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl) benzamide (IBZM) (a highly selective CNS D 2 dopamine receptor ligand) to D 2 dopamine receptors in striatal structures in untreated patients with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS) it seemed to be of interest to investigate whether there are changes in D 2 receptor binding under dopamine replacement therapy or not. We studied the uptake and distribution of [ 123 I]IBZM before and in the course of dopamine replacement therapy in four patients with severe insomnia caused by nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS). We found an increase of the IBZM binding to D 2 receptors in the course of treatment, which was associated with an improvement of sleep quality. Reasons for this are discussed. The [ 123 I]IBZM SPET technique in conclusion offers an interesting tool for in vivo investigations of functional changes in the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in longitudinal studies. (author)

  17. Receptor webs: can the chunking theory tell us more about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonté, Cinzia; Amadio, Susanna; D'Ambrosi, Nadia

    2008-11-01

    Fundamental concepts shared by several classes of ionotropic and metabotropic cell surface receptors, such as receptor mosaic, cooperation, clustering, propensity to oligomerize, all finding expression in the dynamically structured mosaic membrane, will be revisited here in the light of the "combinatorial receptor web model" and the unifying information-processing mechanism defined as "chunking theory". Particularly the ubiquitous and phylogenetically most ancient P2 receptors for extracellular nucleotides will be regarded here as a prototype of receptor family. Whereas up to now we have mainly studied single receptors with the aim to make intelligible their participation to putative functions into wider biological contexts, from now on we should revise our perspective and look more thoroughly at the entire repertoire of expressed cellular receptors, in order to explain complex receptor-function relationships. A way of doing this, is to group the overall receptor web carried by a cell into patterned combinatorial clusters, the "chunks". We deem that the chunk, originally considered an information measure for cognitive systems, from computer science to linguistics, with applications into broad cognitive skills from pianists' finger tapping to chess players' memory retrieval, will rightly become an information measure for receptor webs, thus explaining the numerous receptor subtypes within the same receptor family that are simultaneously expressed on a single cell, as well as the plethora of different, even opposite, biological outputs often triggered by a single ligand. We are confident that the chunking theory will prove to be useful with receptor systems, and it will not be simply a mere speculative exercise.

  18. CRISPR typing and subtyping for improved laboratory surveillance of Salmonella infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Fabre

    Full Text Available Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats is highly polymorphic in Salmonella. We found that CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated with both serotype and multilocus sequence type. Furthermore, spacer microevolution discriminated between subtypes within prevalent serotypes, making it possible to carry out typing and subtyping in a single step. We developed a high-throughput subtyping assay for the most prevalent serotype, Typhimurium. An open web-accessible database was set up, providing a serotype/spacer dictionary and an international tool for strain tracking based on this innovative, powerful typing and subtyping tool.

  19. In vivo measurement of haloperidol affinity to dopamine D2/D3 receptors by [123I]IBZM and single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, C; Toska, K; Friberg, L

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a steady-state bolus-integration method with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) tracer, [123I]IBZM, for determination of in vivo affinity of haloperidol. The nonspecific binding of [123I]IBZM was examined in the rat...... brain by infusion of haloperidol to plasma levels approximately 100 times the Kd level in man. In humans, Kd for haloperidol binding was measured in four healthy volunteers that were examined twice: once with partial dopamine D2/D3 receptor blockade obtained by a scheduled infusion of unlabeled...... haloperidol (0.7 mg total dosage), and once in an unblocked state. Blood sampling and SPECT were performed intermittently during 6 hours after intravenous [123I]IBZM bolus injection. Plasma [123I]IBZM was determined by octane extraction. Plasma haloperidol was determined by a radioimmunoassay, and plasma...

  20. Effect of age and biological subtype on the risk and timing of brain metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Hsin Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain metastasis is a major complication of breast cancer. This study aimed to analyze the effect of age and biological subtype on the risk and timing of brain metastasis in breast cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast by determining estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 status. Time to brain metastasis according to age and cancer subtype was analyzed by Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: Of the 2248 eligible patients, 164 (7.3% developed brain metastasis over a median follow-up of 54.2 months. Age 35 or younger, HER2-enriched subtype, and triple-negative breast cancer were significant risk factors of brain metastasis. Among patients aged 35 or younger, the risk of brain metastasis was independent of biological subtype (P = 0.507. Among patients aged 36-59 or >60 years, those with triple-negative or HER2-enriched subtypes had consistently increased risk of brain metastasis, as compared with those with luminal A tumors. Patients with luminal B tumors had higher risk of brain metastasis than luminal A only in patients >60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer subtypes are associated with differing risks of brain metastasis among different age groups. Patients age 35 or younger are particularly at risk of brain metastasis independent of biological subtype.

  1. Preparation of quadri-subtype influenza virus-like particles using bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O. [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD (United States); Tumpey, Terrence M. [Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road N.E., Atlanta, GA (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150–200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. - Highlights: • BIV gag protein was configured as influenza VLP core component. • Recombinant influenza VLPs were prepared in Sf9 cells using baculovirus expression system. • Single- and quadri-subtype VLPs were prepared by using BIV gag as a VLP core. • Co-localization of H5, H7, H9, and H10 HA was confirmed within quadri-subtype VLP. • Content of HA subtypes within quadri-subtype VLP was determined. • Potential advantages of quadri-subtype VLPs as influenza vaccine are discussed.

  2. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M

    2013-01-01

    The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28-50) sequences per subject). Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84%) subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60%) subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69%) to 36 (82%) over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  3. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen E Kiwelu

    Full Text Available The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR of 38 (28-50 sequences per subject. Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84% subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60% subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69% to 36 (82% over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  4. Preparation of quadri-subtype influenza virus-like particles using bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Hidajat, Rachmat; Hamilton, Garrett; Horn, Noah; Nickols, Brian; Prather, Raphael O.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Pushko, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Influenza VLPs comprised of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M1) proteins have been previously used for immunological and virological studies. Here we demonstrated that influenza VLPs can be made in Sf9 cells by using the bovine immunodeficiency virus gag (Bgag) protein in place of M1. We showed that Bgag can be used to prepare VLPs for several influenza subtypes including H1N1 and H10N8. Furthermore, by using Bgag, we prepared quadri-subtype VLPs, which co-expressed within the VLP the four HA subtypes derived from avian-origin H5N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8 viruses. VLPs showed hemagglutination and neuraminidase activities and reacted with specific antisera. The content and co-localization of each HA subtype within the quadri-subtype VLP were evaluated. Electron microscopy showed that Bgag-based VLPs resembled influenza virions with the diameter of 150–200 nm. This is the first report of quadri-subtype design for influenza VLP and the use of Bgag for influenza VLP preparation. - Highlights: • BIV gag protein was configured as influenza VLP core component. • Recombinant influenza VLPs were prepared in Sf9 cells using baculovirus expression system. • Single- and quadri-subtype VLPs were prepared by using BIV gag as a VLP core. • Co-localization of H5, H7, H9, and H10 HA was confirmed within quadri-subtype VLP. • Content of HA subtypes within quadri-subtype VLP was determined. • Potential advantages of quadri-subtype VLPs as influenza vaccine are discussed.

  5. Origin and dynamics of HIV-1 subtype C infection in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengli Shen

    Full Text Available To investigate the geographical origin and evolution dynamics of HIV-1 subtype C infection in India.Ninety HIV-1 subtype C env gp120 subtype C sequences from India were compared with 312 env gp120 reference subtype C sequences from 27 different countries obtained from Los Alamos HIV database. All the HIV-1 subtype C env gp120 sequences from India were used for the geographical origin analysis and 61 subtype C env gp120 sequences with known sampling year (from 1991 to 2008 were employed to determine the origin of HIV infection in India.Phylogenetic analysis of HIV-1 env sequences was used to investigate the geographical origin and tMRCA of Indian HIV-1 subtype C. Evolutionary parameters including origin date and demographic growth patterns of Indian subtype C were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under relaxed molecular clock models.The majority of the analyzed Indian and South African HIV-1 subtype C sequences formed a single monophyletic cluster. The most recent common ancestor date was calculated to be 1975.56 (95% HPD, 1968.78-1981.52. Reconstruction of the effective population size revealed three phases of epidemic growth: an initial slow growth, followed by exponential growth, and then a plateau phase approaching present time. Stabilization of the epidemic growth phase correlated with the foundation of National AIDS Control Organization in India.Indian subtype C originated from a single South African lineage in the middle of 1970s. The current study emphasizes not only the utility of HIV-1 sequence data for epidemiological studies but more notably highlights the effectiveness of community or government intervention strategies in controlling the trend of the epidemic.

  6. Iodine-123 N-methyl-4-iododexetimide: a new radioligand for single-photon emission tomographic imaging of myocardial muscarinic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.J.; Kassiou, M.; Eu, P.; Katsifis, A.G.; Garra, M.; Power, J.; Najdovski, L.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Cardiac muscarinic receptor ligands suitable for positron emission tomography have previously been characterised. Attempts to develop radioligands of these receptors suitable for single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging have not been successful due to high lung retention and high non-specific binding of previously investigated potential tracers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and in vivo imaging characteristics of a new radiopharmaceutical, [ 123 I]N-methyl-4-iododexetimide. Biodistribution studies performed in rats showed high cardiac uptake (2.4% ID/g) 10 min after injection with a heart to lung activity ratio of 5:1. Specificity and stereoselectivity of cardiac binding were demonstrated using blocking experiments in rats. Dynamic imaging studies in anaesthetised greyhounds demonstrated rapid and high myocardial uptake and low lung binding with stable heart to lung activity ratios of >2.5:1 between 10 and 30 min, making SPET imaging feasible. Administration of an excess of an unlabelled muscarinic antagonist, methyl-quinuclidinyl benzylate rapidly displaced myocardial activity to background levels and the pharmacologically inactive enantiomer, [ 123 I]N-methyl-4-iodolevetimide, had no detectable cardiac uptake, indicating specific and stereoselective muscarinic receptor binding. SPET revealed higher activity in the inferior than in the anterior wall, this being consistent with previously described regional variation of cardiac parasympathetic innervation. [ 123 I]N-methyl-4-iododexetimide shows promise as an imaging agent for muscarinic receptor distribution in the heart and may be helpful in evaluating diverse cardiac diseases associated with altered muscarinic receptor function, including heart failure and diabetic heart disease. (orig.)

  7. The binding of multiple nuclear receptors to a single regulatory region is important for the proper expression of EDG84A in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Yuji; Kayashima, Yasunari; Takakura, Yusuke; Hirose, Susumu; Ueda, Hitoshi

    2013-01-09

    Nuclear receptor transcription factor family members share target sequence similarity; however, little is known about how these factors exert their specific regulatory control. Here, we examine the mechanism regulating the expression of the Drosophila EDG84A gene, a target gene of the orphan nuclear receptor βFTZ-F1, as a model to study the cooperative behavior among nuclear receptors. We show that the three nuclear receptors βFTZ-F1, DHR3, and DHR39 bind to a common element in the EDG84A promoter. The expression level of the EDG84A promoter-lacZ reporter genes in DHR39-induced and mutant animals, respectively, suggests that DHR39 works as a repressor. The activity of a reporter gene carrying a mutation preventing DHR3 binding was reduced in ftz-f1 mutants and rescued by the induced expression of βFTZ-F1, suggesting that DHR3 and βFTZ-F1 activate the EDG84A gene in a redundant manner. A reporter gene carrying a mutation that abolishes DHR39 and FTZ-F1 binding was prematurely expressed, and the expression level of the reporter gene carrying a mutation preventing DHR3 binding was reduced. These findings suggest that the temporal expression of this gene is mainly controlled by βFTZ-F1 but that the binding of DHR3 is also important. Comparison of the binding site sequence among Drosophila species suggests that DHR3 binding ability was gained after the melanogaster subgroup evolved, and this ability may contribute to the robust expression of this gene. These results show the complicated regulatory mechanisms utilized by multiple nuclear receptors to properly regulate the expression of their target gene through a single target site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of spontaneous activity in single rat olfactory receptor neurons are different in normally breathing and tracheotomized animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchamp-Viret, P.; Košťál, Lubomír; Chaput, M.; Lánský, Petr; Rospars, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2005), s. 97-114 ISSN 0022-3034 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET400110401 Grant - others:Barrande(FR) 9146 QL Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : olfactory neurons * unit activity * receptors Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.170, year: 2005

  10. The Single Kinin Receptor Signals to Separate and Independent Physiological Pathways in Malpighian Tubules of the Yellow Fever Mosquito

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    developing rat brain. J Comp Neurol 425: 45-57, 2000. 16. Bradley TJ. The Excretory System : Structure and Physiology. In: Comprehensive Insect...157, 2005. 49. Stout BD, Clarke WP, and Berg KA. Rapid desensitization of the serotonin(2C) receptor system : effector pathway and agonist

  11. Motoric subtypes of delirium in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Results: On amended DMSS, hyperactive subtype (N = 45; 45.9% was the most common motoric subtype of delirium, followed by hypoactive subtype (N = 23; 23.5%, and mixed subtype (N = 21; 21.4%. On DRS-R-98, all patients fulfilled the criteria of ′acute (temporal onset of symptoms′, ′presence of an underlying physical disorder′ and ′difficulty in attention′. In the total sample, >90% of the patients had disturbances in sleep-wake cycle, orientation and fluctuation of symptoms. The least common symptoms were delusions, visuospatial disturbances and motor retardation. When compared to hypoactive group, significantly higher proportion of patients with hyperactive subtype had delusions, perceptual disturbances, and motor agitation. Whereas, compared to hyperactive subtype, significantly higher proportion of patients with hypoactive subtype had thought process abnormality and motor retardation. When the hyperactive and mixed motoric subtype groups were compared, patients with mixed subtype group had significantly higher prevalence of thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Comparison of hypoactive and mixed subtype revealed significant differences in the frequency of perceptual disturbances, delusions and motor agitation and all these symptoms being found more commonly in patients with the mixed subtype. Severity of symptoms were found to be significantly different across the various motoric subtypes for some of the non-cognitive symptoms, but significant differences were not seen for the cognitive symptoms as assessed on DRS-R-98. Conclusion: In elderly patients, motor subtypes of delirium differ from each other on non-cognitive symptom profile in terms of frequency and severity.

  12. Single-cell genetic expression of mutant GABAA receptors causing Human genetic epilepsy alters dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation in a mutation-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eLachance-Touchette

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes encoding for GABAA receptor subunits is a well-established cause of genetic generalized epilepsy. GABA neurotransmission is implicated in several developmental processes including neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Alteration in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic activities plays a critical role in epilepsy, thus here we investigated whether mutations in α1 subunit of GABAA receptor may affect dendritic spine and GABAergic bouton formation. In particular, we examined the effects of three mutations of the GABRA1 gene (D219N, A322D and K353delins18X that were found in a cohort of families with genetic generalized epilepsy. We used a novel single-cell genetic approach, by preparing cortical organotypic cultures from GABRA1flox/flox mice and simultaneously inactivating endogenous GABRA1 and transfecting mutant α1 subunits in single glutamatergic pyramidal cells and basket GABAergic interneurons by biolistic transfection. We found that GABRA1-/- GABAergic cells showed reduced innervation field, which was rescued by co-expressing α1-A322D and α1-WT but not α1-D219N. We further found that the expression of the most severe GABRA1 missense mutation (α1-A322D induced a striking increase of spine density in pyramidal cells along with an increase in the number of mushroom-like spines. In addition, α1-A322D expression in GABAergic cells slightly increased perisomatic bouton density, whereas other mutations did not alter bouton formation. All together, these results suggest that the effects of different GABAAR mutations on GABAergic bouton and dendritic spine formation are specific to the mutation and cannot be always explained by a simple loss-of-function gene model. The use of single cell genetic manipulation in organotypic cultures may provide a better understanding of the specific and distinct neural circuit alterations caused by different GABAA receptor subunit mutations and will help define the pathophysiology of genetic

  13. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) and self-reported responses to alcohol in American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Lind, Penelope A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2008-04-23

    Variation in response to the hedonic and adverse effects of a substance is in part an inherited factor that may influence its use, abuse and dependence. The mu opioid receptor is the primary site of action for opiates and individuals with polymorphisms in this receptor appear to have variation in the CNS effects of opiates. Several studies have suggested that this receptor may also mediate some of the effects of non-opioid drugs, such as alcohol. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) with self-reported responses to alcohol, an endophenotype associated with the development of alcohol dependence, in American Indians living on eight contiguous reservations. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Additionally, response to alcohol was indexed using the expectation version of the subjective high assessment scale (SHAS-E). SNPs were genotyped in 251 participants and data analyses were conducted using SOLAR. The estimated heritability (h2) for the SHAS-E phenotypes ranged from 0.01 to 0.28. Endorsing the expectation of a more intense response on one or more of the following items from the SHAS-E: buzzed, clumsy, dizzy, drunk, effects, high, nausea, sleepy, talkative, terrible, and/or uncomfortable after imbibing 2-3 drinks was significantly associated with having at least one minor allele for at least one of 7 SNPs (p < 0.01) in the OPRM1 receptor gene. These studies provide data to suggest that the minor allele, for most of the polymorphisms in the OPRM1 receptor gene investigated, was found to be associated with a more intense, and/or more adverse, response to alcohol, traits that are significantly correlated with lowered quantity of alcohol consumption and less susceptibility to dependence in this Indian population. These data further suggest that making conclusions on the role of the mu opiod receptor gene in the

  14. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 and self-reported responses to alcohol in American Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmsen Kirk C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in response to the hedonic and adverse effects of a substance is in part an inherited factor that may influence its use, abuse and dependence. The mu opioid receptor is the primary site of action for opiates and individuals with polymorphisms in this receptor appear to have variation in the CNS effects of opiates. Several studies have suggested that this receptor may also mediate some of the effects of non-opioid drugs, such as alcohol. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 with self-reported responses to alcohol, an endophenotype associated with the development of alcohol dependence, in American Indians living on eight contiguous reservations. Methods Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Additionally, response to alcohol was indexed using the expectation version of the subjective high assessment scale (SHAS-E. SNPs were genotyped in 251 participants and data analyses were conducted using SOLAR. Results The estimated heritability (h2 for the SHAS-E phenotypes ranged from 0.01 to 0.28. Endorsing the expectation of a more intense response on one or more of the following items from the SHAS-E: buzzed, clumsy, dizzy, drunk, effects, high, nausea, sleepy, talkative, terrible, and/or uncomfortable after imbibing 2–3 drinks was significantly associated with having at least one minor allele for at least one of 7 SNPs (p OPRM1 receptor gene. Conclusion These studies provide data to suggest that the minor allele, for most of the polymorphisms in the OPRM1 receptor gene investigated, was found to be associated with a more intense, and/or more adverse, response to alcohol, traits that are significantly correlated with lowered quantity of alcohol consumption and less susceptibility to dependence in this Indian population. These data further suggest that making conclusions on the

  15. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  16. Rhinitis Subtypes, Endotypes, and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Guibas, George V

    2016-05-01

    Rhinitis is often seen as posing a small burden. However, rhinitis is a complex disease that is underpinned by a plethora of different mechanisms and causes. Rhinitis is frequently associated with other comorbid conditions but, by itself, is a source of considerable morbidity for patients and creates a significant financial burden on health systems worldwide. This article approaches this condition from both a phenotypic and mechanistic standpoint, focusing on the complexity of characterizing these subtypes. Developing a clearer demarcation of the currently obscure rhinitis phenotypes and endotypes will substantially improve their future prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Covalently {beta}-cyclodextrin modified single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel artificial receptor synthesized by 'click' chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhen; Liang Li [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China); Liang Jiajie; Ma Yanfeng; Yang Xiaoying [Nankai University, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China); Ren Dongmei [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China); Chen Yongsheng [Nankai University, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China); Zheng Jianyu, E-mail: jyzheng@nankai.edu.c [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China)

    2008-08-15

    Novel {beta}-cyclodextrin covalently modified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been synthesized via a 'click' coupling reaction. The product was fully characterized with Raman, FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis-NIR spectra as well as TEM and TGA measurements. The effective functionalization via 'click' coupling has set up a facile and versatile route for modular preparation of SWNTs based functional materials. The inclusion complexation behavior of this artificial receptor with quinine has been investigated in aqueous solution by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of salmonid alphavirus (SAV subtype 3 in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Mona D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreas disease (PD is a viral fish disease which in recent years has significantly affected Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. In Norway, the aetiological agent salmonid alphavirus (SAV has been found to be represented by the subtype 3 only. SAV subtype 3 has in previous analyses been found to show a lower genetic divergence than the subtypes found to cause PD in Ireland and Scotland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nucleotide (nt and amino acid divergence and the phylogenetic relationship of 33 recent SAV subtype 3 sequences. The samples from which the sequences were obtained originated from both PD endemic and non-endemic regions in an attempt to investigate agent origin/spread. Multiple samples throughout the seawater production phase from several salmonid populations were included to investigate genetic variation during an outbreak. The analyses were mainly based on partial sequences from the E2 gene. For some samples, additional partial 6 K and nsP3 gene sequences were available. Results The nucleotide divergence for all gene fragments ranged from total identity (0.0% divergence to 0.45% (1103 nt fragment of E2, 1.11% (451 nt fragment of E2, 0.94% (6 K and 0.28% (nsP3. This low nucleotide divergence corresponded well to previous reports on SAV 3 sequences; however the observed divergence for the short E2 fragment was higher than that previously reported. When compared to SAVH20/03 (AY604235, amino acid substitutions were detected in all assessed gene fragments however the in vivo significance of these on for example disease outbreak mortality could not be concluded on. The phylogenetic tree based on the 451 nt E2 fragment showed that the sequences divided into two clusters with low genetic divergence, representing only a single SAV subtype. Conclusions The analysed sequences represented two clusters of a single SAV subtype; however some of the observed sequence divergence was higher than that previously reported

  19. Characterization of melanocortin receptor ligands on cloned brain melanocortin receptors and on grooming behavior in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Adan, R.A.H.; Szklarczyk, A.W.; Oosterom, J.; Brakkee, J.H.; Nijenhuis, W.A.; Schaaper, W.M.; Meloen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the melanocortin MC3 and melanocortin MC4 receptors are the main melanocortin receptor subtypes expressed in rat brain, we characterized the activity and affinity of nine melanocortin receptor ligands using these receptors in vitro, as well as their activity in a well-defined

  20. Characterisation of the melanocortin 4 receptor by radioligand binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schioeth, H.B.; Wikberg, J.E.S. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology, Uppsala (Sweden); Muceniece, R. [Inst. of Organic Synthesis, Lab. of Pharmacology, Riga (Latvia)

    1996-09-01

    The DNA encoding the human melanocortin 4 receptor was expressed in COS (CV-1 origin, Sv 40) cells and its radioligand binding properties was tested by using the [{sup 124}I](Nle{sup 4}, D-Phe{sup 7}) {alpha}melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH). The radioligand was found to bind to a single saturable site with a K{sub d} of 3l84{+-}0.57 nmol/l in the MC4 receptor expressing cells. The order of potency of a number of substance competing for the [{sup 12}25I][Nle{sup 4}, D-Phe{sup 7}] {alpha}MSH binding was the following; [Nle{sup 4}, D-Phe{sup 7}] {alpha}-MSH>[Nle{sup e}]-{alpha}-MSH>{beta}-MSH>desacetyl-{alpha}-MSH >{alpha}-MSH>ACTH (1-39)>ACTH (4-10)>{gamma}2-MSH. This order of potency is unique for the melanocortin 4 receptor when compared to our previously published data for the other melanocortin receptor subtypes. Most notably the melanocortin 4 receptor shows highest affinity for {beta}-MSH, among the endogenous MSH-peptides. Furthermore the melanocortin 4 receptor shows very low affinity for the {gamma}-MSH peptides. This distinguishes the melanocortin 4 receptor from the melanocortin 3 receptor, which is the other major central nervous system melanocortin-receptor, as melanocortin 3 receptor shows high affinity for {gamma}-MSH. Our finding might indicate a specific role for {beta}-MSH for the melanocortin 4 receptor. (au) 31 refs.

  1. Modulation of cutaneous SP receptors in atopic dermatitis after UVA irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniek, V; Liebich, C; Vocks, E; Odia, S G; Doutremepuich, J D; Ring, J; Claudy, A; Schmitt, D; Misery, L

    1998-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a pruritic inflammatory skin disorder, involving immunological and non-immunological factors. Substance P seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Substance P-containing nerve fibers are increased in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis and a reduced weal and flare reaction to intradermal injection of substance P has been observed. We investigated the distribution of substance P receptors in the involved skin of patients before and after single or repetitive UVA irradiations. Our results indicate that substance P receptors of the NK-1 subtype are expressed on blood vessels and on epidermal keratinocytes of involved skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. UVA irradiations did not modify the epidermal distribution of substance P receptors but decreased their expression intensity on blood vessels. UVA irradiations seem to decrease skin inflammation through the modulation of NK-1 receptor expression on endothelial cells.

  2. Single-cell FRET imaging of transferrin receptor trafficking dynamics by Sfp-catalyzed, site-specific protein labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Lin, Alison J; Buckett, Peter D; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Golan, David E; Walsh, Christopher T

    2005-09-01

    Fluorescence imaging of living cells depends on an efficient and specific method for labeling the target cellular protein with fluorophores. Here we show that Sfp phosphopantetheinyl transferase-catalyzed protein labeling is suitable for fluorescence imaging of membrane proteins that spend at least part of their membrane trafficking cycle at the cell surface. In this study, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) was fused to peptide carrier protein (PCP), and the TfR1-PCP fusion protein was specifically labeled with fluorophore Alexa 488 by Sfp. The trafficking of transferrin-TfR1-PCP complex during the process of transferrin-mediated iron uptake was imaged by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorescently labeled transferrin ligand and TfR1 receptor. We thus demonstrated that Sfp-catalyzed small molecule labeling of the PCP tag represents a practical and efficient tool for molecular imaging studies in living cells.

  3. Hypertension Subtypes among Hypertensive Patients in Ibadan

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun M. Adeoye; Adewole Adebiyi; Bamidele O. Tayo; Babatunde L. Salako; Adesola Ogunniyi; Richard S. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% fema...

  4. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbins, Christopher; Weiss, Margaret D.; Goodman, David W.; Hodgkins, Paul S.; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST) study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI), inattentive (IA) and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and hea...

  5. Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian P2X7 Receptor Functions and Contributions in Diseases, Revealed by Structural Modeling and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin-Hua; Baldwin, Jocelyn M.; Roger, Sebastien; Baldwin, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), a member of the ionotropic P2X receptor family with distinctive functional properties, play an important part in mediating extracellular ATP signaling in health and disease. A clear delineation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the key receptor properties, such as ATP-binding, ion permeation, and large pore formation of the mammalian P2X7Rs, is still lacking, but such knowledge is crucial for a better understanding of their physiological functions and contributions in diseases and for development of therapeutics. The recent breakthroughs in determining the atomic structures of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in the closed and ATP-bound open states have provided the long-awaited structural information. The human P2RX7 gene is abundant with non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (NS-SNPs), which generate a repertoire of human P2X7Rs with point mutations. Characterizations of the NS-SNPs identified in patients of various disease conditions and the resulting mutations have informed previously unknown molecular mechanisms determining the mammalian P2X7R functions and diseases. In this review, we will discuss the new insights into such mechanisms provided by structural modeling and recent functional and genetic linkage studies of NS-SNPs. PMID:23675347

  6. Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying mammalian P2X7 receptor functions and contributions in diseases, revealed by structural modeling and single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Hua eJiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs, a member of the ionotropic P2X receptor family with distinctive functional properties, play an important part in mediating extracellular ATP signaling in health and disease. A clear delineation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the key receptor properties, such as ATP-binding, ion permeation, and large pore formation of the mammalian P2X7Rs, is still lacking, but such knowledge is crucial for a better understanding of their physiological functions and contributions in diseases and for development of therapeutics. The recent breakthroughs in determining the atomic structures of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in the closed and ATP-bound open states have provided the long-awaited structural information. The human P2RX7 gene is abundant with non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (NS-SNPs, which generate a repertoire of human P2X7Rs with point mutations. Characterizations of the NS-SNPs identified in patients of various disease conditions and the resulting mutations have informed previously unknown molecular mechanisms determining the mammalian P2X7R functions and diseases. In this review, we will discuss the new insights into such mechanisms provided by structural modeling and recent functional and genetic linkage studies of NS-SNPs.

  7. Effect of partial volume correction on muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging with single-photon emission tomography in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckesser, M.; Ziemons, K.; Griessmeier, M.; Sonnenberg, F.; Langen, K.J.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Hufnagel, A.; Elger, C.E.; Hacklaender, T.; Holschbach, M.

    1997-01-01

    Animal experiments and preliminary results in humans have indicated alterations of hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy often present with a reduction in hippocampal volume. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hippocampal atrophy on the quantification of mAChR with single photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Cerebral uptake of the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist [ 123 I]4-iododexetimide (IDex) was investigated by SPET in patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy of unilateral (n=6) or predominantly unilateral (n=1) onset. Regions of interest were drawn on co-registered magnetic resonance images. Hippocampal volume was determined in these regions and was used to correct the SPET results for partial volume effects. A ratio of hippocampal IDex binding on the affected side to that on the unaffected side was used to detect changes in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density. Before partial volume correction a decrease in hippocampal IDex binding on the focus side was found in each patient. After partial volume no convincing differences remained. Our results indicate that the reduction in hippocampal IDex binding in patients with epilepsy is due to a decrease in hippocampal volume rather than to a decrease in receptor concentration. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Demonstration of a reduction in muscarinic receptor binding in early Alzheimer's disease using iodine-123 dexetimide single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Dubois, E.A.; Booij, J.; Habraken, J.; Munck, J.C. van; Herk, M. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    Decreased muscarinic receptor binding has been suggested in single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies of Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear whether these changes are present in mildly demented patients, and the role of cortical atrophy in receptor binding assessment has not been investigated. We studied muscarinic receptor binding normalized to neostriatum with SPET using [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide in five mildly affected patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and in five age-matched control subjects. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in a consensus procedure blind to clinical diagnosis using matched magnetic resonance (MRI) images. Cortical atrophy was assessed by calculating percentages of cerebrospinal fluid in each ROI. An observer study with three observers was conducted to validate this method. Alzheimer patients showed statistically significantly less [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide binding in left temporal and right temporo-parietal cortex compared with controls, independent of age, sex and cortical atrophy. Mean intra-observer variability was 3.6% and inter-observer results showed consistent differences in [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide binding between observers. However, differences between patients and controls were comparable among observers and statistically significant in the same regions as in the consensus procedure. Using an MRI-SPET matching technique, we conclude that [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide binding is reduced in patients with mild probable Alzheimer's disease in areas of temporal and temporo-parietal cortex. (orig.). With 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. Meta-analytic framework for sparse K-means to identify disease subtypes in multiple transcriptomic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhiguang; Ding, Ying; Liu, Silvia; Oesterreich, Steffi; Tseng, George

    2016-01-01

    Disease phenotyping by omics data has become a popular approach that potentially can lead to better personalized treatment. Identifying disease subtypes via unsupervised machine learning is the first step towards this goal. In this paper, we extend a sparse K-means method towards a meta-analytic framework to identify novel disease subtypes when expression profiles of multiple cohorts are available. The lasso regularization and meta-analysis identify a unique set of gene features for subtype characterization. An additional pattern matching reward function guarantees consistent subtype signatures across studies. The method was evaluated by simulations and leukemia and breast cancer data sets. The identified disease subtypes from meta-analysis were characterized with improved accuracy and stability compared to single study analysis. The breast cancer model was applied to an independent METABRIC dataset and generated improved survival difference between subtypes. These results provide a basis for diagnosis and development of targeted treatments for disease subgroups. PMID:27330233

  10. In Vivo Quantification of 5-HT2A Brain Receptors in Mdr1a KO Rats with 123I-R91150 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Dumas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify suitable image quantification methods to image 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A receptors in vivo in Mdr1a knockout (KO rats (i.e., P-glycoprotein KO using 123I-R91150 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. The 123I-R91150 binding parameters estimated with different reference tissue models (simplified reference tissue model [SRTM], Logan reference tissue model, and tissue ratio [TR] method were compared to the estimates obtained with a comprehensive three-tissue/seven-parameter (3T/7k-based model. The SRTM and Logan reference tissue model estimates of 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND correlated well with the absolute receptor density measured with the 3T/7k gold standard (r > .89. Quantification of 5-HT2AR using the Logan reference tissue model required at least 90 minutes of scanning, whereas the SRTM required at least 110 minutes. The TR method estimates were also highly correlated to the 5-HT2AR density (r > .91 and only required a single 20-minute scan between 100 and 120 minutes postinjection. However, a systematic overestimation of the BPND values was observed. The Logan reference tissue method is more convenient than the SRTM for the quantification of 5-HT2AR in Mdr1a KO rats using 123I-R91150 SPECT. The TR method is an interesting and simple alternative, despite its bias, as it still provides a valid index of 5-HT2AR density.

  11. Intracellular β2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse skeletal muscle in response to single-dose β2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shogo; Shirato, Ken; Mitsuhashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Tachiyashiki, Kaoru; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the intracellular β2-adrenergic receptor signaling specificity in mouse slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, resulting from single-dose β2-agonist clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise. At 1, 4, and 24 h after single-dose treatment with clenbuterol or after acute running exercise, the soleus and TA muscles were isolated and subjected to analysis. The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment and acute exercise in the soleus muscle but not in the TA muscle. Although there was no change in the phosphorylation of Akt after acute exercise in either muscle, phosphorylation of Akt in the soleus muscle increased after single-dose clenbuterol treatment, whereas that in the TA muscle remained unchanged. These results suggest that p38 MAPK and Akt pathways play a functional role in the adaptation to clenbuterol treatment and exercise, particularly in slow-twitch muscles.

  12. Study of preparation of radioiodinated allyl diprenorphine as an single photon emission computed tomographic imaging agent for mapping opioid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaokun; Wang Rongfu; Zhang Chunli

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate radioiodinated allyl diprenorphine (DPN) as a new opioid receptor imaging agent for SPECT study. Methods: 7α-O-stannyl-DPN was obtained from DPN by acetylated it to protect the phenolic 3-OH group of DPN and then introduced the vinylstannane into the tertiary alcohol of the 7α-side chain. [ 125 I]-7α-O-iodoallyl diprenorphine (7α-O-IA-DPN) was prepared by radioiododestannylation under acidic condition using iodobead as an oxidant reagent, and in vitro and in vivo opioid receptor binding assays, metabolism were performed with Kunming mouse brains. Study of distribution in the Wistar rat's brain and naloxone inhibition was carried out. The data were analyzed by statistical method. Results: The radiochemical yields of I-125-7α-O-IA-DPN were more than 90%. In TLC, Rf of 7α-O-IA-DPN and I-125-7α-O-IA-DPN was 0.83 and 0.93, respectively. In ambient temperature the radiochemical purity of I-125-7α-O-IA-DPN in rats showed higher in anterior and posterior colliculi, striatum and hippocampus. It was low in frontal lobe, temporal lobe and brain stem and was low in cerebellum and the other parts of the brain. Among the clearance from the structures in brain, it was fastest in cerebellum. At 20 min when the uptake reached to the peak, the ratio of anterior and posterior colliculi, striatum and hippocampus to the cerebellum was 4.36, 3.7 and 3.12, respectively. There were significant differences between the inhibition experimental group using the naloxone and control. Conclusions: I-125-7α-O-IA-DPN appears to be a potential opioid receptor imaging agent for SPECT study. (authors)

  13. Impact of Molecular Subtypes in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer on Predicting Response and Survival after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Roland; Ashab, Hussam Al Deen; Erho, Nicholas; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Winters, Brian; Douglas, James; Van Kessel, Kim E; Fransen van de Putte, Elisabeth E; Sommerlad, Matthew; Wang, Natalie Q; Choeurng, Voleak; Gibb, Ewan A; Palmer-Aronsten, Beatrix; Lam, Lucia L; Buerki, Christine; Davicioni, Elai; Sjödahl, Gottfrid; Kardos, Jordan; Hoadley, Katherine A; Lerner, Seth P; McConkey, David J; Choi, Woonyoung; Kim, William Y; Kiss, Bernhard; Thalmann, George N; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Crabb, Simon J; North, Scott; Zwarthoff, Ellen C; Boormans, Joost L; Wright, Jonathan; Dall'Era, Marc; van der Heijden, Michiel S; Black, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    An early report on the molecular subtyping of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) by gene expression suggested that response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) varies by subtype. To investigate the ability of molecular subtypes to predict pathological downstaging and survival after NAC. Whole transcriptome profiling was performed on pre-NAC transurethral resection specimens from 343 patients with MIBC. Samples were classified according to four published molecular subtyping methods. We developed a single-sample genomic subtyping classifier (GSC) to predict consensus subtypes (claudin-low, basal, luminal-infiltrated and luminal) with highest clinical impact in the context of NAC. Overall survival (OS) according to subtype was analyzed and compared with OS in 476 non-NAC cases (published datasets). Gene expression analysis was used to assign subtypes. Receiver-operating characteristics were used to determine the accuracy of GSC. The effect of GSC on survival was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression models. The models generated subtype calls in expected ratios with high concordance across subtyping methods. GSC was able to predict four consensus molecular subtypes with high accuracy (73%), and clinical significance of the predicted consensus subtypes could be validated in independent NAC and non-NAC datasets. Luminal tumors had the best OS with and without NAC. Claudin-low tumors were associated with poor OS irrespective of treatment regimen. Basal tumors showed the most improvement in OS with NAC compared with surgery alone. The main limitations of our study are its retrospective design and comparison across datasets. Molecular subtyping may have an impact on patient benefit to NAC. If validated in additional studies, our results suggest that patients with basal tumors should be prioritized for NAC. We discovered the first single-sample classifier to subtype MIBC, which may be suitable for integration into routine clinical practice. Different molecular

  14. Eradication of large solid tumors by gene therapy with a T cell receptor targeting a single cancer-specific point mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisegang, Matthias; Engels, Boris; Schreiber, Karin; Yew, Poh Yin; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Idel, Christian; Arina, Ainhoa; Duraiswamy, Jaikumar; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Uckert, Wolfgang; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schreiber, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancers usually contain multiple unique tumor-specific antigens produced by single amino acid substitutions (AAS) and encoded by somatic non-synonymous single nucleotide substitutions. We determined whether adoptively transferred T cells can reject large, well-established solid tumors when engineered to express a single type of T cell receptor (TCR) that is specific for a single AAS. Experimental Design By exome and RNA sequencing of an UV-induced tumor, we identified an AAS in p68 (mp68), a co-activator of p53. This AAS seemed to be an ideal tumor-specific neoepitope because it is encoded by a trunk mutation in the primary autochthonous cancer and binds with highest affinity to the MHC. A high-avidity mp68-specific TCR was used to genetically engineer T cells as well as to generate TCR-transgenic mice for adoptive therapy. Results When the neoepitope was expressed at high levels and by all cancer cells, their direct recognition sufficed to destroy intra-tumor vessels and eradicate large, long-established solid tumors. When the neoepitope was targeted as autochthonous antigen, T cells caused cancer regression followed by escape of antigen-negative variants. Escape could be thwarted by expressing the antigen at increased levels in all cancer cells or by combining T cell therapy with local irradiation. Therapeutic efficacies of TCR-transduced and TCR-transgenic T cells were similar. Conclusions Gene therapy with a single TCR targeting a single AAS can eradicate large established cancer but a uniform expression and/or sufficient levels of the targeted neoepitope or additional therapy are required to overcome tumor escape. PMID:26667491

  15. Selection of single chain antibody fragments binding to the extracellular domain of 4-1BB receptor by phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Salman; Yousefi, Mehdi; Safaie Qamsari, Elmira; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Younesi, Vahid; Dorostkar, Ruhollah; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Sharifzadeh, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    The 4-1BB is a surface glycoprotein that pertains to the tumor necrosis factor-receptor family. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for 4-1BB in the immune response, including cell activation and proliferation and also cytokine induction. Because of encouraging results of different agonistic monoclonal antibodies against 4-1BB in the treatment of cancer, infectious, and autoimmune diseases, 4-1BB has been suggested as an attractive target for immunotherapy. In this study, single chain variable fragment phage display libraries, Tomlinson I+J, were screened against specific synthetic oligopeptides (peptides I and II) designed from 4-1BB extracellular domain. Five rounds of panning led to selection of four 4-1BB specific single chain variable fragments (PI.12, PI.42, PII.16, and PII.29) which showed specific reaction to relevant peptides in phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The selected clones were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami 2, and their expression was confirmed by western blot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments indicated that these antibodies were able to specifically recognize 4-1BB without any cross-reactivity with other antigens. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an acceptable specific binding of the single chain variable fragments to 4-1BB expressed on CCRF-CEM cells, while no binding was observed with an irrelevant antibody. Anti-4-1BB single chain variable fragments enhanced surface CD69 expression and interleukin-2 production in stimulated CCRF-CEM cells which confirmed the agonistic effect of the selected single chain variable fragments. The data from this study have provided a rationale for further experiments involving the biological functions of anti-4-1BB single chain variable fragments in future studies.

  16. Association of Blastocystis subtypes with diarrhea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfa, F.; Sari, I. P.; Kurniawan, A.

    2017-08-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal zoonotic protozoa that epidemiological surveys have shown, is highly prevalent among children and may cause chronic diarrhea. This study aimed to identify Blastocystis subtypes among children and associate those subtypes to pathology. The study’s population was children aged 6-12 years old divided into asymptomatic and symptomatic (diarrhea) groups. The asymptomatic samples were obtained from primary school students in the Bukit Duri area of South Jakarta, while the symptomatic samples were obtained from patients who visited nearby primary health centers (Puskesmas). Symptomatic stool samples were examined inParasitology Laboratory FKUI. Microscopic examination of the stool samples was performed to screen for single Blastocystic infection, followed by culture, PCR of 18S rRNA, and sequencing. In the study, 53.2% of children (n = 156) harbored intestinal parasites, Blastocysts sp. A single infection of Blastocystis sp. was present in 69 (44.23%) samples, comprised of 36 symptomatic and 33 asymptomatic participants. The Blastocystis subtypes (STs) identified in this study were STs 1-4 ST3 was the most dominant and was observed with statistically significant higher frequency in the symptomatic group. ST4 was only found in one sample in the symptomatic group. While ST1 and ST2 were found more frequently in the asymptomatic group, no statistical association was observed. ST3 is more likely to be associated with clinical symptoms than ST1 and ST2.

  17. Molecular Subtyping in Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithivong, Noikaseumsy; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Vongdouangchanh, Arounnapha; Phouthavane, Traykhouane; Chomlasak, Khampheng; Sisavath, Lay; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh; Sengkeopraseuth, Bounthanom; Vongprachanh, Phengta; Keosavanh, Onechanh; Southalack, Kongmany; Jiyoung, Lee; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A cholera outbreak in Laos in July 2010 involved 237 cases, including 4 deaths. Molecular subtyping indicated relatedness between the Vibrio cholerae isolates in this and in a 2007 outbreak, uncovering a clonal group of V. cholerae circulating in the Mekong basin. Our finding suggests the subtyping methods will affect this relatedness. PMID:22099098

  18. Transsexual subtypes : Clinical and theoretical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, YLS; van Goozen, SHM; Kuiper, AJ; Cohen-Kettenis, PT

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether transsexuals can be validly subdivided into subtypes on the basis of sexual orientation, and whether differences between subtypes of transsexuals are similar for male-to-female (ME) and female-to-male transsexuals (FMs). Within a large

  19. Probing Biased Signaling in Chemokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine system mediates leukocyte migration during homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Traditionally, it is described as redundant and promiscuous, with a single chemokine ligand binding to different receptors and a single receptor having several ligands. Signaling of chemokine receptor...

  20. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1 - adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH, contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m. Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05 in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE. LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05 inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05 α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  1. Influence of Biologic Subtype of Inflammatory Breast Cancer on Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy and Cancer Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieken, Tina J; Murphy, Brittany L; Boughey, Judy C; Degnim, Amy C; Glazebrook, Katrina N; Hoskin, Tanya L

    2017-10-07

    Few data exist on the influence of tumor biologic subtype on treatment response and outcomes for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). We examined a contemporary cohort of IBC patients treated with current targeted systemic therapies, selected on the basis of tumor biologic subtype, to evaluate pathologic treatment response and cancer outcomes across biologic subtypes. We studied 57 clinical stage T4dM0 IBC patients operated on at our institution from October 2008 to July 2015. Comparisons across biologic subtypes were performed by Wilcoxon rank-sum or chi-square tests; Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to analyze survival outcomes. All patients received neoadjuvant systemic therapy; 54 (95%) completed postmastectomy radiation. Ninety-one percent (52/57) had clinically node-positive disease at presentation. Pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in the breast and axilla differed significantly by approximated biologic subtype, defined as estrogen receptor (ER) positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) negative; and HER-2 positive and ER negative/HER-2 negative (all P biologic subtype. Five-year DFS was 46% for patients with ER-positive/HER-2-negative tumors, 82% for HER-2-positive tumors, and 33% for ER-negative/HER-2-negative tumors (P biologic subtypes. Multimodal treatment and modern systemic therapies have markedly improved DFS and BCSS. These data provide further evidence to suggest that IBC is not a distinct biologic entity transcending standard breast tumor marker subclassification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. Faraone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI, inattentive (IA and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and health-related quality of life. A consistent pattern of differences was found between the ADHD-I and combined subtypes, with the combined subtype being more likely to be diagnosed in childhood, more severe symptom severity and lower HRQL. Twenty-three patients out of the total sample of 691 patients (3% received a clinician diagnosis of ADHD - hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Review of the ratings on the ADHD-RS-IV demonstrated, however, that this group had ratings of inattention comparable to the inattentive group. There were no significant differences found between the ADHD-HI and the other subtypes in symptom severity, functioning or quality of life. The hyperactive/impulsive subtype group identified by clinicians in this study was not significantly different from the rest of the sample. By contrast, significant differences were found between the inattentive and combined types. This suggests that in adults, hyperactivity declines and inattention remains significant, making the hyperactive/impulsive subtype as defined by childhood criteria a very rare condition and raising questions as to the validity of the HI subtype in adults.

  3. Reducing the n-gram feature space of class C GPCRs to subtype-discriminating patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    König Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are a large and heterogeneous superfamily of receptors that are key cell players for their role as extracellular signal transmitters. Class C GPCRs, in particular, are of great interest in pharmacology. The lack of knowledge about their full 3-D structure prompts the use of their primary amino acid sequences for the construction of robust classifiers, capable of discriminating their different subtypes. In this paper, we investigate the use of feature selection techniques to build Support Vector Machine (SVM-based classification models from selected receptor subsequences described as n-grams. We show that this approach to classification is useful for finding class C GPCR subtype-specific motifs.

  4. Clinical significance of CD151 overexpression in subtypes of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, M J; Park, S; Choi, J Y; Oh, E; Kim, Y J; Park, Y-H; Cho, E Y; Kwon, M J; Nam, S J; Im, Y-H; Shin, Y K; Choi, Y-L

    2012-02-28

    CD151 is a member of the tetraspanin family, which interacts with laminin-binding integrins and other tetraspanins. This protein is implicated in motility, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells, but the prevalence of CD151 expression in subtypes of breast cancers and its influence on clinical outcome remains to be evaluated. The immunohistochemistry-based tissue microarray analysis showed that 127 (14.3%) cases overexpressed CD151 among 886 breast cancer patients. CD151 overexpression was found to be significantly associated with larger tumour size, higher nodal stage, advanced stage, absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression. CD151 overexpression resulted in poorer overall survival (OS) (Pbreast cancer (QNBC) subtypes, one subgroup of triple-negative breast cancer (P=0.0170). Multivariate analysis that included stage, subtype, and adjuvant chemotherapy showed that CD151 overexpression was independently associated with poor OS in invasive breast cancer. CD151 overexpression may be a potential molecular therapeutic target for breast cancer, especially in QNBC subtype and more advanced stages of breast cancer.

  5. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  6. Molecular Subtypes of Indonesian Breast Carcinomas - Lack of Association with Patient Age and Tumor Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Yeni; Setyawati, Yunita; Widodo, Irianiwati; Ghozali, Ahmad; Purnomosari, Dewajani

    2018-01-27

    Objective: Breast carcinoma (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that exhibits variation in biological behaviour, prognosis and response to therapy. Molecular classification is generally into Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2+ and triple negative/basal-like, depending on receptor characteristics. Clinical factors that determined the BC prognosis are age and tumor size. Since information on molecular subtypes of Indonesian BCs is limited, the present study was conducted, with attention to subtypes in relation to age and tumor size. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 247 paraffin-embedded samples of invasive BC from Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta in the year 2012- 2015 was performed. Immunohistochemical staining using anti- ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67 and CK 5/6 antibodies was applied to classify molecular subtypes. Associations with age and tumor size were analyzed using the Chi Square Test. Results: The Luminal A was the most common subtype of Indonesian BC (41.3%), followed by triple negative (25.5%), HER2 (19.4%) and luminal B (13.8%). Among the triple negative lesions, the basal-like subtype was more frequent than the non basal-like (58.8 % vs 41.2%). Luminal B accounted for the highest percentage of younger age cases (age (> 50 years old) patients. Triple negative/basal-like were commonly large in size. Age (p = 0.080) and tumor size (p = 0.462) were not significantly associated with molecular subtypes of BC. Conclusion: The most common molecular subtype of Indonesian BC is luminal A, followed by triple-negative, HER2+ and luminal B. The majority of triple-negative lesions are basal-like. There are no association between age and tumor size with molecular subtypes of Indonesian BCs. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 gene and pharmacological characterization of a P993S variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Patrick M; Petrò, Roberta; Simon, Jason S; Devlin, David; Lozza, Gianluca; Veltri, Alessio; Beltramo, Massimiliano; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Reggiani, Angelo

    2009-04-01

    mGluR1 receptors are believed to play major roles in the pathophysiology of diseases such as anxiety and chronic pain and are being actively investigated as targets for drug development. Sequence polymorphisms can potentially influence the efficacy of drugs in patient populations and are therefore an important consideration in the drug development process. To identify DNA sequence variants of the mGluR1 receptor, comparative DNA sequencing was performed on DNA samples (n=186) from apparently healthy subjects representing two ethnic groups. In total, eight non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and one SNP (c2977>T) was found to be particularly common, this SNP results in a proline to serine substitution at residue 993 (P993S). The WT (P993) and S993 variants were expressed in an inducible system which allowed us to titrate gene expression to equivalent levels and were pharmacologically characterized. We determined the potency and affinity of standard antagonist compounds as well as the potency and efficacy of the endogenous ligand glutamate and other agonist compounds at both receptor variants. Agonist evoked increases in intracellular Ca(2+) were measured by fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR). The potency of mGluR1 antagonists was evaluated by their ability to inhibit quisqualate induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+), while their affinities were determined by radio-ligand binding studies. This study demonstrates that the Pro993Ser amino acid exchange is highly frequent in the human mGluR1 gene. This polymorphism however, does not appear to affect the potency of agonist compounds or the potencies or affinities of small molecule antagonist compounds.

  8. The V1a and V1b, but not V2, vasopressin receptor genes are expressed in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat hypothalamus, and the transcripts are essentially colocalized in the vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurbin, A; Boissin-Agasse, L; Orcel, H; Rabié, A; Joux, N; Desarménien, M G; Richard, P; Moos, F C

    1998-11-01

    We have identified and visualized the vasopressin (VP) receptors expressed by hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. To do this, we used RT-PCR on total RNA extracts from supraoptic nuclei or on single freshly dissociated supraoptic neurons, and in situ hybridization on frontal sections of hypothalamus of Wistar rats. The RT-PCR on supraoptic RNA extracts revealed that mainly V1a, but also V1b, subtypes of VP receptors are expressed from birth to adulthood. No V2 receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected. Furthermore, the single-cell RT-nested PCR indicated that the V1a receptor mRNA is present in vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons. In light of these results, in situ hybridization was performed to visualize the V1a and V1b receptor mRNAs in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Simultaneously, we coupled this approach to: 1) in situ hybridization detection of oxytocin or VP mRNAs; or 2) immunocytochemistry to detect the neuropeptides. This provided a way of identifying the neurons expressing perceptible amounts of V1a or V1b receptor mRNAs as vasopressinergic neurons. Here, we suggest that the autocontrol exerted specifically by VP on vasopressinergic neurons is mediated through, at least, V1a and V1b subtype receptors.

  9. Functional characterization of serotonin receptor subtypes in human duodenal secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil Elisabeth; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) stimulates ion secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and the sensitivity for 5-HT might be altered in dyspeptic patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the 5-HT-induced electrogenic ion transport in the duodenum of dyspep......Serotonin (5-HT) stimulates ion secretion in the gastrointestinal tract and the sensitivity for 5-HT might be altered in dyspeptic patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the 5-HT-induced electrogenic ion transport in the duodenum...

  10. Emerging functions for neuropeptide Y5 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Y5 subtype of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors has raised considerable interest as a mediator of NPY-stimulated food intake, but with the advent of recent data, this hypothesis has come into question. Moreover, Y5 receptor-selective drugs might not be specific for food intake because additional

  11. Variation of types of alcoholism: review and subtypes identified in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-01-03

    Alcoholism, as it has been hypothesized, is caused by a highly heterogeneous genetic load. Since 1960, many reports have used the bio-psycho-social approach to subtype alcoholism; however, no subtypes have been genetically validated. We reviewed and compared the major single-gene, multiple-gene, and gene-to-gene interaction studies on alcoholism published during the past quarter-century, including many recent studies that have made contributions to the subtyping of alcoholism. Four subtypes of alcoholism have been reported: [1] pure alcoholism, [2] anxiety/depression alcoholism, [3] antisocial alcoholism, and [4] mixed alcoholism. Most of the important studies focused on three genes: DRD2, MAOA, and ALDH2. Therefore, our review focuses on these three genes. © 2013.

  12. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Elie; Hutchinson, Joy M; Krystia, Owen; Mirotta, Julia A; Mutch, David M; Buchholz, Andrea C; Duncan, Alison M; Darlington, Gerarda; Haines, Jess; Ma, David W L

    2018-01-30

    Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers' diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers' snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping ( n = 47). Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38 , and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.

  13. Striatal and extrastriatal imaging of dopamine D2receptors in the living human brain with [ 123I[epidepride single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.; Aakerman, K.K.; Hiltunen, J.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Raesaenen, P.; Vanninen, E.; Halldin, C.; Tiihonen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The iodine-123 labelled ligand benzamide epidepride was evaluated as a probe for in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D 2 receptor sites in the human brain. Four healthy males were imaged with a high-resolution single-photon emission tomography scanner. Striatal radioactivity peaked at 3 h after injection. The specific binding in the striatum was 0.91 ±0.03 at 3 h and this ratio steadily increased with time. Extrastriatal radioactivity was highest in the thalamus, in the midbrain and in the temporal cortex, and peaked at 45-60 min after injection of tracer. A smaller amount of radioactivity was found in the parietal, frontal and occipital cortices. Two radioactive metabolites were observed, of which one was more lipophilic than the parent compound. The radiation burden to the patient was 0.035 mSv/MBq (effective dose equivalent). The preliminary results showed that [ 123 I[epidepride can be used for imaging striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D 2 receptor sites in the living human brain. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Initial clinical experiences with dopamine D2 receptor imaging by means of 2'-iodospiperone and single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Saji, Hideo; Iwasaki, Yasushi

    1995-01-01

    Dopamine D 2 receptor imaging was performed with 123 I labeled 2'-iodospiperone (2'-ISP) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 9 patients: 4 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 2 with parkinsonism, 1 with Wilson's disease and 2 with pituitary tumor, and the results were compared with the data for 9 normal subjects. Following an intravenous injection of 123 I-2'-ISP, early (within 30 min) and late (between 2 and 4 hr) SPECT images were obtained by means of a multi-detector SPECT scanner or a rotating gamma camera. In normal subjects, early SPECT images demonstrated uniform distribution of radioactivity in the cerebral gray matter and cerebellum reflecting regional cerebral blood flow, whereas late SPECT images showed high radioactivity only in the basal ganglia. All the patients with Parkinson's disease also demonstrated symmetrical basal ganglia uptake in the late SPECT images, but it was diminished in parkinsonism and Wilson's disease. One patient with a growth hormone-producing pituitary tumor had a positive uptake in the tumor. These preliminary clinical data demonstrated that 2'-ISP can be used for SPECT imaging of D 2 dopamine receptors and may be of clinical value for the diagnosis and planning of the treatment of neurological diseases. (author)

  15. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Chamoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47. Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.

  16. A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the prolactin receptor gene is associated with fiber traits in Liaoning cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J P; Zhu, X P; Zhang, W; Qin, F; Zhang, S W; Jia, Z H

    2011-10-13

    The most important traits of Chinese Liaoning cashmere goat fiber are fiber diameter, weight, and length. We looked for polymorphisms and their possible association with cashmere fiber traits in the 5' upstream region (5' UTR) of the prolactin receptor gene (PRLR), which encodes an anterior pituitary peptide hormone involved in different physiological activities; it is the principal endocrine regulator in pelage replacement in mammals. A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in the 5' UTR of PRLR by PCR-RFLP in an analysis of 590 goats. Two genotypes (CC and CT) were observed. The frequencies of allele C and T were 0.93 and 0.07, respectively. Association analysis revealed that the PRLR 5' UTR polymorphism (SNP5) was significantly associated with cashmere fiber weight and diameter. This novel SNP in hircine PRLR has potential as a molecular marker for cashmere fiber weight and diameter in Liaoning cashmere goats.

  17. Production of two hemopoietic growth factors is differentially regulated in single T lymphocytes activated with an anti-T cell receptor antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelso, A; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure the production by single activated T lymphocytes of two hemopoietic growth factors, granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) and multipotential CSF (multi-CSF or IL-3). When individual cells of the L3T4 (CD4)+ F23.1+ T cell clone E9.D4 were transferred...... by micromanipulation into wells coated with the monoclonal anti-T cell receptor antibody F23.1, up to 90% of cells produced CSF as detected by CSF-dependent hemopoietic cell lines. Production occurred in the absence of proliferation and did not require the addition of accessory cells or IL-2. Both the frequency of CSF...

  18. The Origin and Evolutionary History of HIV-1 Subtype C in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Matthieu; Leye, Nafissatou; Vidal, Nicole; Fargette, Denis; Diop, Halimatou; Toure Kane, Coumba; Gascuel, Olivier; Peeters, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background The classification of HIV-1 strains in subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) has helped in tracking the course of the HIV pandemic. In Senegal, which is located at the tip of West Africa, CRF02_AG predominates in the general population and Female Sex Workers (FSWs). In contrast, 40% of Men having Sex with Men (MSM) in Senegal are infected with subtype C. In this study we analyzed the geographical origins and introduction dates of HIV-1 C in Senegal in order to better understand the evolutionary history of this subtype, which predominates today in the MSM population Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of phylogenetic analyses and a Bayesian coalescent-based approach, to study the phylogenetic relationships in pol of 56 subtype C isolates from Senegal with 3,025 subtype C strains that were sampled worldwide. Our analysis shows a significantly well supported cluster which contains all subtype C strains that circulate among MSM in Senegal. The MSM cluster and other strains from Senegal are widely dispersed among the different subclusters of African HIV-1 C strains, suggesting multiple introductions of subtype C in Senegal from many different southern and east African countries. More detailed analyses show that HIV-1 C strains from MSM are more closely related to those from southern Africa. The estimated date of the MRCA of subtype C in the MSM population in Senegal is estimated to be in the early 80's. Conclusions/Significance Our evolutionary reconstructions suggest that multiple subtype C viruses with a common ancestor originating in the early 1970s entered Senegal. There was only one efficient spread in the MSM population, which most likely resulted from a single introduction, underlining the importance of high-risk behavior in spread of viruses. PMID:22470456

  19. A uniquely prevalent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutation in Russian subtype A HIV-1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeets, Anna N; Varghese, Vici; Lemey, Philippe; Bobkova, Marina R; Shafer, Robert W

    2014-11-13

    The subtype A variant in the Former Soviet Union (A(FSU)) causes most of Russia's HIV-1 infections. However, the spectrum of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in antiretroviral experienced patients with this variant has not been studied. Between 2010 and 2013, genotypic resistance testing was performed on plasma samples from 366 antiretroviral-experienced patients in Siberia. Three-hundred patients (82%) had subtype A(FSU) and 55 (15%) had CRF02_AG viruses. The pattern of DRMs was consistent with patient antiretroviral history with one exception. G190S was the most common nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutation, occurring in 55 (33%) subtype A(FSU) viruses from 167 NNRTI-experienced patients compared with none of 37 CRF02_AG viruses from NNRTI-experienced patients (P viruses. Wild-type glycine (G) at position 190 is encoded by GGC in more than 99% of published A(FSU) strains. By contrast, G190 is encoded by GGA or GGG in 97% of other subtypes and in subtype A strains outside of the FSU. Therefore, G190S results from a single G→A transition: G (GGC) → S (AGC) almost exclusively in subtype A(FSU) viruses. The predisposition of subtype A(FSU) to G190S is concerning because G→A is the most common HIV-1 mutation and because G190S causes higher levels of nevirapine and efavirenz resistance than K103N. This study exemplifies the need for characterizing the genetic mechanisms of resistance in diverse populations and warrants studies to verify that NRTI/NNRTI regimens are as efficacious in treating subtype A(FSU) as viruses belonging to other subtypes.

  20. Modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by strychnine

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Colunga, Jesús; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Strychnine, a potent and selective antagonist at glycine receptors, was found to inhibit muscle (α1β1γδ, α1β1γ, and α1β1δ) and neuronal (α2β2 and α2β4) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AcChoRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Strychnine alone (up to 500 μM) did not elicit membrane currents in oocytes expressing AcChoRs, but, when applied before, concomitantly, or during superfusion of acetylcholine (AcCho), it rapidly and reversibly inhibited the current elicited by AcCho (AcCho-current). Although in the three cases the AcCho-current was reduced to the same level, its recovery was slower when the oocytes were preincubated with strychnine. The amount of AcCho-current inhibition depended on the receptor subtype, and the order of blocking potency by strychnine was α1β1γδ > α2β4 > α2β2. With the three forms of drug application, the Hill coefficient was close to one, suggesting a single site for the receptor interaction with strychnine, and this interaction appears to be noncompetitive. The inhibitory effects on muscle AcChoRs were voltage-independent, and the apparent dissociation constant for AcCho was not appreciably changed by strychnine. In contrast, the inhibitory effects on neuronal AcChoRs were voltage-dependent, with an electrical distance of ≈0.35. We conclude that strychnine regulates reversibly and noncompetitively the embryonic type of muscle AcChoR and some forms of neuronal AcChoRs. In the former case, strychnine presumably inhibits allosterically the receptor by binding at an external domain whereas, in the latter case, it blocks the open receptor-channel complex. PMID:10097172

  1. Molecular subtypes of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Catania, Marcella; Maderna, Emanuela; Ghidoni, Roberta; Benussi, Luisa; Tonoli, Elisa; Giaccone, Giorgio; Moda, Fabio; Paterlini, Anna; Campagnani, Ilaria; Sorrentino, Stefano; Colombo, Laura; Kubis, Adriana; Bistaffa, Edoardo; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2018-02-19

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is a central feature of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which assemblies of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides accumulate in the brain in the form of p