Transient Rayleigh scattering from single semiconductor nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montazeri, Mohammad; Jackson, Howard E.; Smith, Leigh M. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Yarrison-Rice, Jan M. [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Kang, Jung-Hyun; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2013-12-04
Transient Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy is a new pump-probe technique to study the dynamics and cooling of photo-excited carriers in single semiconductor nanowires. By studying the evolution of the transient Rayleigh spectrum in time after excitation, one can measure the time evolution of the density and temperature of photo-excited electron-hole plasma (EHP) as they equilibrate with lattice. This provides detailed information of dynamics and cooling of carriers including linear and bimolecular recombination properties, carrier transport characteristics, and the energy-loss rate of hot electron-hole plasma through the emission of LO and acoustic phonons.
Resonant Rayleigh light scattering of single Au nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes.
Truong, Phuoc Long; Ma, Xingyi; Sim, Sang Jun
2014-02-21
Scientific interest in nanotechnology is driven by the unique and novel properties of nanometer-sized metallic materials such as the strong interaction between the conductive electrons of the nanoparticles and the incident light, caused by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). In this article, we analysed the relationship of the Rayleigh scattering properties of a single Au nanoparticle with its size, shape, and local dielectric environment. We also provided a detailed study on the refractive index sensitivity of three types of differently shaped Au nanoparticles, which were nanospheres, oval-shaped nanoparticles and nanorods. This study helps one to differentiate the Rayleigh light scattering from individual nanoparticles of different sizes and/or shapes and precisely obtain quantitative data as well as the correlated optical spectra of single gold nanoparticles from the inherently inhomogeneous solution of nanoparticles. These results suggest that the shape, size and aspect ratio of Au nanoparticles are important structural factors in determining the resonant Rayleigh light scattering properties of a single Au nanoparticle such as its spectral peak position, scattering-cross-section and refractive index sensitivity, which gives a handle for the choice of gold nanoparticles for the design and fabrication of single nanosensors.
Finkelstein, N.; Gambogi, J.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.; Rines, G. A.; Finch, A.; Schwarz, R. A.
1995-01-01
We present the development of a flexible, high power, narrow line width, tunable ultraviolet source for diagnostic application. By frequency tripling the output of a pulsed titanium-sapphire laser, we achieve broadly tunable (227-360 nm) ultraviolet light with high quality spatial and spectral resolution. We also present the characterization of a mercury vapor cell which provides a narrow band, sharp edge absorption filter at 253.7 nm. These two components form the basis for the extension of the Filtered Rayleigh Scattering technique into the ultraviolet. The UV-FRS system is comprised of four pieces: a single frequency, cw tunable Ti:Sapphire seeding source; a high-powered pulsed Ti:Sapphire oscillator; a third harmonic generator system; and an atomic mercury vapor filter. In this paper we discuss the development and characterization of each of these elements.
Rayleigh scattering in coupled microcavities: theory.
Vörös, Zoltán; Weihs, Gregor
2014-12-03
In this paper we theoretically study how structural disorder in coupled semiconductor heterostructures influences single-particle scattering events that would otherwise be forbidden by symmetry. We extend the model of Savona (2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 295208) to describe Rayleigh scattering in coupled planar microcavity structures, and find that effective filter theories can be ruled out.
Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering
Liebl, Michael
2010-01-01
The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…
Rayleigh scattering in dense fluid helium
Rohrmann, René D.
2018-01-01
Iglesias et al. showed that the Rayleigh scattering from helium atoms decreases by collective effects in the atmospheres of cool white dwarf stars. Their study is here extended to consider an accurate evaluation of the atomic polarizability and the density effects involved in the Rayleigh cross-section over a wide density-temperature region. The dynamic dipole polarizability of helium atoms in the ground state is determinated with the oscillator-strength distribution approach. The spectral density of oscillator strength considered includes most significant single and doubly excited transitions to discrete and continuum energies. Static and dynamic polarizability results are confronted with experiments and other theoretical evaluations shown a very good agreement. In addition, the refractive index of helium is evaluated with the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and shows a satisfactory agreement with the most recent experiments. The effect of spatial correlation of atoms on the Rayleigh scattering is calculated with Monte Carlo simulations and effective energy potentials that represent the particle interactions, covering fluid densities between 0.005 and a few g cm-3 and temperatures between 1 000 and 15 000 K. We provide analytical fits from which the Rayleigh cross-section of fluid helium can be easily calculated at wavelength λ > 505.35 Å. Collision-induced light scattering was estimated to be the dominant scattering process at densities greater than 1-2 g cm-3 depending on the temperature.
Investigation of the coherence between Rayleigh scattering and resonant scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moine, Jean Jacques
1962-01-01
This academic work aims at the experimental verification of the coherence between Rayleigh scattering and resonant scattering processes. After some generalities about the Moessbauer Effect, and on thermal agitation and recoil, the author addresses the scattering of protons by atoms and nuclei in a solid body (Rayleigh atomic scattering and resonant nuclear scattering, and interaction between both). He presents the experimental apparatus: gamma ray source, photo detection, diffuser, electronic system. He discusses the expected counting and the experimental results [fr
Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in.
Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.
1988-01-01
Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt
Rayleigh scattering measurements of several fluorocarbon gases.
Zadoo, Serena; Thompson, Jonathan E
2011-11-01
Integrating nephelometers are commonly used to monitor airborne particulate matter. However, they must be calibrated prior to use. The Rayleigh scattering coefficients (b(RS), Mm(-1)), scattering cross sections (σ(RS), cm(2)), and Rayleigh multipliers for tetrafluoromethane (R-14), sulfur hexafluoride, pentafluoroethane (HFC-125), hexafluoropropene (HFC-216), 1,1,1,2,3,3,3,-heptafluoropropane (HFC-227ea), and octafluorocyclobutane (C-318) are reported from measurements made using a Radiance Research M903 integrating nephelometer operating at λ = 530 nm and calibration with gases of known scattering constants. Rayleigh multipliers (±90% conf. int.) were found to be 2.6 ± 0.5, 6.60 ± 0.07, 7.5 ± 1, 14.8 ± 0.9, 15.6 ± 0.5, and 22.3 ± 0.8 times that of air, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported values for R-14, HFC-216, HFC-125, and C-318. Experimental accuracy is supported through measurements of values for SF(6) and HFC-227ea which agree to within 3% of previous literature reports. In addition to documenting fundamental Rayleigh scattering data for the first time, the information presented within will find use for calibration of optical scattering sensors such as integrating nephelometers.
Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13.
Linear approximation of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra.
Binietoglou, Ioannis; Giampouras, Paris; Belegante, Livio
2016-09-20
Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering is the basis of many remote sensing techniques, including high spectral resolution lidar measurements of aerosols and wind. Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra can be accurately estimated using physics-based models like the so-called Tenti's S6 and Pan's S7 models. Unfortunately, these are computationally expensive and can be the bottleneck for real-time lidar processing and iterative parameter estimation problems. This short article describes a very efficient linear approximation of the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Using PCA, the outputs of the above models can be approximated with very high accuracy using a single matrix multiplication. The described method can be applied to the output of any detailed scattering model, thus it can be used for a wide range of problems, e.g., for scattering from different gases (Air, N2, O2,…) and for different ranges of temperature and pressure. The precision of the approximation can be adapted to the requirements of the studied problem, and can easily exceed the actual accuracy of the reference models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elm, Jonas; Norman, Patrick; Bilde, Merete
2014-01-01
and hyperpolarizability β tensors. Using density functional theory, we elucidate the effect of cluster morphology on the scattering properties using a combinatorial sampling approach. We find that the Rayleigh scattering intensity depends quadratically on the number of water molecules in the cluster and that a single...
Instantaneous Rayleigh scattering from excitons localized in monolayer islands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langbein, Wolfgang; Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis
2000-01-01
We show that the initial dynamics of Rayleigh scattering from excitons in quantum wells can be either instantaneous or delayed, depending on the exciton ensemble studied. For excitation of the entire exciton resonance, a finite rise time given by the inverse inhomogeneous broadening: of the exciton...
Measurement of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karr, T.J.; Rushford, M.C.; Murray, J.R.; Morris, J.R.
1989-04-01
Growth of perturbations due to stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering was observed on a laser beam propagating in a 1 meter cell of CC14. Initial sinusoidal irradiance perturbations were seeded onto the laser leam, and their amplification in the cell was recorded by a near field camera. The perturbation growth rate is in agreement with analytical predictions of linearized propagation theory
Fast sampling model for X-ray Rayleigh scattering
Grichine, V M
2013-01-01
A simple model for X-ray Rayleigh scattering is discussed in terms of the process total cross-section and the angular distribution of scattered X-ray photons. Comparisons with other calculations and experimental data are presented. The model is optimized for the simulation of X-ray tracking inside experimental setups with complex geometry where performance and memory volume are issues to be optimized. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-12-01
Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to k_{p}R = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.
Rayleigh-wave scattering by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method
Ávila-Carrera, R.; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Sánchez-Sesma, F. J.; Ortiz-Alemán, C.
2009-09-01
The scattering and diffraction of Rayleigh waves by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) are investigated. The detection of cracks is of interest because their presence may compromise structural elements, put technological devices at risk or represent economical potential in reservoir engineering. Shallow cracks may give rise to scattered body and surface waves. These waves are sensitive to the crack's geometry, size and orientation. Under certain conditions, amplitude spectra clearly show conspicuous resonances that are associated with trapped waves. Several applications based on the scattering of surface waves (e.g. Rayleigh and Stoneley waves), such as non-destructive testing or oil well exploration, have shown that the scattered fields may provide useful information to detect cracks and other heterogeneities. The subject is not new and several analytical and numerical techniques have been applied for the last 50 years to understand the basis of multiple scattering phenomena. In this work, we use the IBEM to calculate the scattered fields produced by single or multiple cracks near a free surface. This method is based upon an integral representation of the scattered displacement fields, which is derived from Somigliana's identity. Results are given in both frequency and time domains. The analyses of the displacement field using synthetic seismograms and snapshots reveal some important effects from various configurations of cracks. The study of these simple cases may provide an archetype to geoscientists and engineers to understand the fundamental aspects of multiple scattering and diffraction by cracks.
Rayleigh-wave scattering by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ávila-Carrera, R; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A; Ortiz-Alemán, C; Sánchez-Sesma, F J
2009-01-01
The scattering and diffraction of Rayleigh waves by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) are investigated. The detection of cracks is of interest because their presence may compromise structural elements, put technological devices at risk or represent economical potential in reservoir engineering. Shallow cracks may give rise to scattered body and surface waves. These waves are sensitive to the crack's geometry, size and orientation. Under certain conditions, amplitude spectra clearly show conspicuous resonances that are associated with trapped waves. Several applications based on the scattering of surface waves (e.g. Rayleigh and Stoneley waves), such as non-destructive testing or oil well exploration, have shown that the scattered fields may provide useful information to detect cracks and other heterogeneities. The subject is not new and several analytical and numerical techniques have been applied for the last 50 years to understand the basis of multiple scattering phenomena. In this work, we use the IBEM to calculate the scattered fields produced by single or multiple cracks near a free surface. This method is based upon an integral representation of the scattered displacement fields, which is derived from Somigliana's identity. Results are given in both frequency and time domains. The analyses of the displacement field using synthetic seismograms and snapshots reveal some important effects from various configurations of cracks. The study of these simple cases may provide an archetype to geoscientists and engineers to understand the fundamental aspects of multiple scattering and diffraction by cracks
Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safari, L., E-mail: laleh.safari@ist.ac.at [IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Santos, J. P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Amaro, P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jänkälä, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Fratini, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2015-05-15
Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.
Intracavity Rayleigh/Mie Scattering for Multipoint, Two-Component Velocity Measurement
Bivolaru, Daniel; Danehy, Paul M.; Lee, Joseph W.
2006-01-01
A simultaneous multi-point two-component Doppler velocimeter is described. The system uses two optical cavities: a Fabry-Perot etalon and an optical cavity for collecting and re-circulating the Rayleigh/Mie scattered light that is collected from the measurement volume in two parallel, but opposite directions. Single-pulse measurements of two orthogonal components of the velocity vector in a supersonic free jet were performed to demonstrate the technique. The re-circulation of the light rejected by the interferometer input mirror also increased the signal intensity by a factor of 3.5. 2005 Optical Society of America Interferometric Rayleigh scattering has previously been used for single-point velocity measurements in unseeded gas flow. However, this past work has generally been limited to probing with continuous-wave lasers resulting in time-averaged measurements of velocity. Multiple velocity components have been measured simultaneously by separate instruments.1,2 It has also been demonstrated that two orthogonal velocity components can be measured simultaneously at one point using one interferometer by reflecting back the probing laser beam, although this approach results in directional ambiguity of the flow velocity vector.3 This measurement ambiguity was removed by prior knowledge of the approximate magnitude and sign of the velocity components. Furthermore, it was shown that multiple points could be measured simultaneously with a Rayleigh scattering interferometric approach, but only one component of velocity was measured.4 Another method of performing multiple component velocity measurements with Rayleigh scattering uses a pair of cameras to image the flow, one of which views the flow through an iodine gas filter. This iodine-filter technique has the advantage of allowing high-resolution velocity imaging, but it generally has a lower dynamic range.
Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectral analysis based on Wiener filter
Shang, Jingcheng; Wu, Tao; Yang, Chuanyin; Yu, Huan; He, Xingdao
2017-10-01
In this paper, a spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectrometer is developed to measure the gaseous spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (SRBS) profiles over the pressure range 1 to 6 atm for a wavelength of 532nm at the constant room temperature of 296K and 900 scattering angle. The measured Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra are deconvolved using Wiener filtering to remove the effect of the Airy transmission function of the Fabry-Pérot scanning interferometer and get high resolution Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra. The root-mean-square error is less than 2% and χ 2 is less than 15 over the pressure range 1 to 6 atm. The comparison between theoretical spectra (Tenti S6 model) and deconvolved Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering spectra is made. Some factors that effected the deconvolution of accuracy are analyzed and discussed.
Thomson Scattering Density Calibration by Rayleigh and Rotational Raman Scattering on NSTX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B.P. LeBlanc
2008-07-16
The multi-point Thomson scattering (MPTS) diagnostic measures the profiles of the electron temperature Te(R) and density ne(R) on the horizontal midplane of NSTX. Normal operation makes use of Rayleigh scattering in nitrogen or argon to derive the density profile. While the Rayleigh scattering ne(R) calibration has been validated by comparison with other density measurements and through its correlation with plasma phenomena, it does require dedicated detectors at the laser wavelength in this filter polychromator based diagnostic. The presence of dust and/or stray laser light precludes routine use of these dedicated spectral channels for Thomson scattering measurement. Hence it is of interest to investigate the use of Raman scattering in nitrogen for the purpose of density calibration, since it could free up detection equipment, which could then be used for the instrumentation of additional radial channels. In this paper the viewing optics "geometrical factor" profiles obtained from Rayleigh and Raman scattering are compared. While both techniques agree nominally, residual effects on the order of 10% remain and will be discussed.
Rayleigh Scattering Measurements Using a Tunable Liquid Crystal Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.
2010-01-01
Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous density, velocity, and temperature measurements. The Fabry-Perot interferometer or etalon is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating these flow properties. This paper investigates the use of a tunable liquid crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot etalon in Rayleigh scattering experiments at NASA Glenn Research Center. The LC etalon provides a robust interferometry system that can be tuned rapidly by adjusting the voltage applied to the liquid crystal interface. Tuning the interferometer is often necessary to control the physical locations of the concentric interference fringes when Rayleigh light is imaged through the LC etalon. The LC etalon diagnostic system was tested in a 1-cm diameter nozzle flow in two different scattering configurations to evaluate its usefulness for Rayleigh measurements compared to a traditional non-tunable fused silica Fabry-Perot etalon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayer, Charles
1973-06-01
The experimental variation of the scattered light with the number of scattering centers and with the refraction index of gases is in agreement with the theoretical Rayleigh scattering. A direct calibration System gives the absolute value of the Rayleigh ratio. The experimental value appears to be half of the theoretical one. (author) [fr
Rayleigh scattering amplitudes for neon and carbon: 100 eV to 30 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, J.C.; Pratt, R.H.
1979-01-01
A tabulation is presented for the amplitudes and differential cross sections for Rayleigh scattering from neon and carbon in the energy range from 100 eV to 30 keV, at 5 0 intervals. At these energies Rayleigh scattering gives the only significant contribution to the total elastic scattering differential cross section for photon-atom scattering. The amplitudes and cross sections can now be calculated to better than 1% for all energies between 0.1 keV and 10 MeV. 7 references
Diode Laser Velocity Measurements by Modulated Filtered Rayleigh Scattering
Mach, J. J.; Varghese, P. L.; Jagodzinski, J. J.
1999-01-01
The ability of solid-state lasers to be tuned in operating frequency at MHz rates by input current modulation, while maintaining a relatively narrow line-width, has made them useful for spectroscopic measurements. Their other advantages include low cost, reliability, durability, compact size, and modest power requirements, making them a good choice for a laser source in micro-gravity experiments in drop-towers and in flight. For their size, they are also very bright. In a filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) experiment, a diode laser can be used to scan across an atomic or molecular absorption line, generating large changes in transmission at the resonances for very small changes in frequency. The hyperfine structure components of atomic lines of alkali metal vapors are closely spaced and very strong, which makes such atomic filters excellent candidates for sensitive Doppler shift detection and therefore for high-resolution velocimetry. In the work we describe here we use a Rubidium vapor filter, and work with the strong D(sub 2) transitions at 780 nm that are conveniently accessed by near infrared diode lasers. The low power output of infrared laser diodes is their primary drawback relative to other laser systems commonly used for velocimetry. However, the capability to modulate the laser frequency rapidly and continuously helps mitigate this. Using modulation spectroscopy and a heterodyne detection scheme with a lock-in amplifier, one can extract sub-microvolt signals occurring at a specific frequency from a background that is orders of magnitude stronger. The diode laser modulation is simply achieved by adding a small current modulation to the laser bias current. It may also be swept repetitively in wavelength using an additional lower frequency current ramp.
Rayleigh like scattering from silica–titania core-shell particles and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The theoretical scattering predictions do not match with the experimental findings and the reasons for the discrepancies are addressed. This Rayleigh-like scattering property of TCS particles can be used in cosmetic formulations as a replacement for nanoparticles to provide protection from harmful ultraviolet rays. This study ...
Spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering of ultraviolet light in nitrogen, dry and moist air
Witschas, B.; Vieitez, M.O.; van Duijn, E.-J.; Reitebuch, O.; Van de Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.
2010-01-01
Atmospheric lidar techniques for the measurement of wind, temperature, and optical properties of aerosols rely on the exact knowledge of the spectral line shape of the scattered laser light on molecules. We report on spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements in the ultraviolet at a
Jagodzinski, Jeremy James
2007-12-01
The development to date of a diode-laser based velocimeter providing point-velocity-measurements in unseeded flows using molecular Rayleigh scattering is discussed. The velocimeter is based on modulated filtered Rayleigh scattering (MFRS), a novel variation of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS), utilizing modulated absorption spectroscopy techniques to detect a strong absorption of a relatively weak Rayleigh scattered signal. A rubidium (Rb) vapor filter is used to provide the relatively strong absorption; alkali metal vapors have a high optical depth at modest vapor pressures, and their narrow linewidth is ideally suited for high-resolution velocimetry. Semiconductor diode lasers are used to generate the relatively weak Rayleigh scattered signal; due to their compact, rugged construction diode lasers are ideally suited for the environmental extremes encountered in many experiments. The MFRS technique utilizes the frequency-tuning capability of diode lasers to implement a homodyne detection scheme using lock-in amplifiers. The optical frequency of the diode-based laser system used to interrogate the flow is rapidly modulated about a reference frequency in the D2-line of Rb. The frequency modulation is imposed on the Rayleigh scattered light that is collected from the probe volume in the flow under investigation. The collected frequency modulating Rayleigh scattered light is transmitted through a Rb vapor filter before being detected. The detected modulated absorption signal is fed to two lock-in amplifers synchronized with the modulation frequency of the source laser. High levels of background rejection are attained since the lock-ins are both frequency and phase selective. The two lock-in amplifiers extract different Fourier components of the detected modulated absorption signal, which are ratioed to provide an intensity normalized frequency dependent signal from a single detector. A Doppler frequency shift in the collected Rayleigh scattered light due to a change
In situ nanoparticle diagnostics by multi-wavelength Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry
Gebauer, G
2003-01-01
We present and discuss the method of multiple-wavelength Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry for the in situ analysis of nanoparticles. It is applied to the problem of nanoparticles suspended in low-pressure plasmas. We discuss experimental results demonstrating that the size distribution and the complex refractive index can be determined with high accuracy and present a study on the in situ analysis of etching of melamine-formaldehyde nanoparticles suspended in an oxygen plasma. It is also shown that particles with a shell structure (core plus mantle) can be analysed by Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry. Rayleigh-Mie scattering ellipsometry is also applicable to in situ analysis of nanoparticles under high gas pressures and in liquids.
Calculating Rayleigh scattering amplitudes from 100 eV to 10 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, J.C.; Reynaud, G.W.; Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.
1979-01-01
An attempt is made to explain how to calculate the contribution to elastic photon-atom scattering due to Rayleigh scattering (the scattering off bound electrons) in the photon energy range 100 eV less than or equal to W less than or equal to 10 MeV. All intermediate calculations are described, including the calculation of the potential, bound state wave functions, matrix elements, and final cross sections. 12 references
Ultraviolet Rayleigh Scatter Imaging for Spatial Temperature Profiles in Atmospheric Microdischarges
2014-09-01
techniques that were being used at the time. Barat et al. (1991) repeated the technique introduced by Dibble and Hollenbach in a toroidal jet stirred...29] R.B. Bara, J.P. Longwell, A.F. Sarofim, S.P. Smith and E. Bar-Ziv, "Laser Rayleigh scattering for flame thermometry in a toroidal jet stirred
Temperature retrieval from Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles measured in air
Witschas, B.; Ubachs, W.M.G.
2014-01-01
In order to investigate the performance of two different algorithms for retrieving temperature from Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) line shapes, RB scattering measurements have been performed in air at a wavelength of 403 nm, for a temperature range from 257 K to 330 K, and atmospherically relevant
Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering profiles of air at different temperatures and pressures
Gu, Z.; Witschas, B.; van der Water, W.; Ubachs, W.M.G.
2013-01-01
Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering profiles for air have been recorded for the temperature range from 255 to 340 K and the pressure range from 640 to 3300 mbar, covering the conditions relevant for the Earth's atmosphere and for planned atmospheric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) missions. The
Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?
Poludniowski, G; Evans, PM; Webb, S
2009-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'inte...
Study of Fabry-Perot Etalon Stability and Tuning for Spectroscopic Rayleigh Scattering
Clem, Michelle M.; Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.
2010-01-01
The Fabry-Perot interferometer is a commonly employed instrument for resolving the spectrum of molecular Rayleigh scattered light for the purpose of evaluating flow properties such as gas velocity and temperature. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused laser beam can be directly imaged through a solid Fabry-Perot etalon onto a CCD detector to provide the spectral content of the scattered light. The spatial resolution of the measurements is governed by the locations of interference fringes. The location of the fringes can be changed by altering the etalon?s physical characteristics, such as thickness and index of refraction. For a fused silica solid etalon the physical properties can be adjusted by changing the etalon temperature; hence changing the order of the interference pattern and the physical fringe locations. Controlling the temperature of the etalon can provide for a slow time-response spatial scanning method for this type of etalon system. A custom designed liquid crystal Fabry-Perot (LCFP) can provide for a fast time-response method of scanning the etalon system. Voltage applied to the liquid crystal interface sets the etalon?s properties allowing Rayleigh measurements to be acquired at varying spatial locations across the image of the laser beam over a very short time period. A standard fused silica etalon and a tunable LCFP etalon are characterized to select the system that is best suited for Rayleigh scattering measurements in subsonic and supersonic flow regimes. A frequency-stabilized laser is used to investigate the apparent frequency stability and temperature sensitivity of the etalon systems. Frequency stability and temperature sensitivity data of the fused silica and LCFP etalon systems are presented in this paper, along with measurements of the LCFP etalon?s tuning capabilities. Rayleigh scattering velocity measurements with both etalon systems are presented, in an effort to determine which etalon is better suited to provide optical flow
Patterns in Mie scattering: evolution when normalized by the Rayleigh cross section.
Berg, Matthew J; Sorensen, Christopher M; Chakrabarti, Amit
2005-12-01
An alternative to using the traditional scattering angle theta to describe light scattering from a uniform dielectric sphere is the dimensionless parameter qR, where R is the radius of the sphere, q = 2k sin(theta/2), and k is the wavenumber of the incident light. Simple patterns appear in the scattered intensity if qR is used in place of theta. These patterns are characterized by the envelopes approximating the scattered intensity distributions and are quantified by the phase-shift parameter rho = 2kR/m - 1/, where m is the real refractive index of the sphere. Here we find new patterns in these envelopes when the scattered intensity is normalized to the Rayleigh differential cross section. Mie scattering is found to be similar to Rayleigh scattering when p 1, which evolve predictably as a function of p. These patterns allow us to present a unifying picture of the evolution of Mie scattering for changes in kR and m.
Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of High Frequency Temperature Fluctuations
Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.
2005-01-01
A novel technique for measurement of high frequency temperature fluctuations in unseeded gas flows using molecular Rayleigh scattering is investigated. The spectrum of laser light scattered from molecules in a gas flow is resolved using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The width of the spectral peak is broadened by thermal motion of the molecules and hence is related to gas temperature. The interference fringe pattern containing spectral information is divided into four concentric regions using a series of mirrors angled with respect to one another. Light from each of these regions is directed towards photomultiplier tubes and sampled at 10 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows measurement of gas temperature. Independently monitoring the total scattered intensity provides a measure of gas density. This technique also has the potential to simultaneously measure a single component of flow velocity by monitoring the spectral peak location. Measurements of gas temperature and density are demonstrated using a low speed heated air jet surrounded by an unheated air co-flow. Mean values of temperature and density are shown for radial scans across the jet flow at a fixed axial distance from the jet exit plane. Power spectra of temperature and density fluctuations at several locations in the jet are also shown. The instantaneous measurements have fairly high uncertainty; however, long data records provide highly accurate statistically quantities, which include power spectra. Mean temperatures are compared with thermocouple measurements as well as the temperatures derived from independent density measurements. The accuracy for mean temperature measurements was +/- 7 K.
RAYLEIGH SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE WARM EXO-NEPTUNE GJ 3470B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dragomir, Diana [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Benneke, Björn [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pearson, Kyle A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barman, Travis [Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Eastman, Jason [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Biddle, Lauren I., E-mail: diana@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
2015-12-01
GJ 3470b is a warm Neptune-size planet transiting an M dwarf star. Like the handful of other small exoplanets for which transmission spectroscopy has been obtained, GJ 3470b exhibits a flat spectrum in the near- and mid-infrared. Recently, a tentative detection of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere has been reported. This signal manifests itself as an observed increase of the planetary radius as a function of decreasing wavelength in the visible. We set out to verify this detection and observed several transits of this planet with the LCOGT network and the Kuiper telescope in four different bands (Sloan g, Sloan i, Harris B, and Harris V). Our analysis reveals a strong Rayleigh scattering slope, thus confirming previous results. This makes GJ 3470b the smallest known exoplanet with a detection of Rayleigh scattering. We find that the most plausible scenario is a hydrogen/helium-dominated atmosphere covered by clouds which obscure absorption features in the infrared and hazes which give rise to scattering in the visible. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of exoplanet atmospheric characterization from the ground, even with meter-class telescopes.
Rayleigh scattering in the atmospheres of hot stars
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fišák, J.; Krtička, J.; Munzar, D.; Kubát, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 590, June (2016), A95/1-A95/6 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02385S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : atomic processes * scattering * stars: chemically peculiar Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014
Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in SF6 in the kinetic regime
Wang, Yuanqing; Yu, Yin; Liang, Kun; Marques, Wilson; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim
2017-01-01
Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral profiles are measured with a laser-based scatterometry setup for a 90° scattering angle at a high signal-to-noise ratio (r.m.s. noise below 0.15% w.r.t. peak intensity) in sulfur-hexafluoride gas for pressures in the range 0.2–5 bar and for a wavelength of λ=403.0 nm. The
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Pfeiffer, L. N.
1999-01-01
Recent investigations of secondary emission from quantum well excitons following ultrafast resonant excitation have demonstrated an intricate interplay of coherent Rayleigh scattering and incoherent luminescence. We have very recently demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and time resolve t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.
2014-01-01
In the present work, a tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) was studied using computational simulation in order to assess its application to breast cancer diagnosis. In this preliminary study, some parameters that affect the image quality were evaluated, such as: (i) energy beam, (ii) size and glandularity of the breast, and (iii) statistical count noise. The results showed that the R/C contrast increases with increasing photon energy and decreases with increasing glandularity of the sample. The statistical noise showed to be a significant parameter, although the quality of the obtained images was acceptable for a considerable range of noise level. The preliminary results suggest that the R/C tomographic technique has a potential of being applied as a complementary tool in the breast cancer diagnostic. - Highlights: ► A tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio is proposed in order to study breast tissues. ► The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio technique is compared with conventional transmission technique. ► The influence of experimental parameters (energy, sample, detection system) is studied
Resonant Rayleigh scattering of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malpuech, Guillaume; Kavokin, Alexey; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner
2000-01-01
A theoretical concept of resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells (QWs) is presented. The optical coupling between excitons in different QWs can strongly affect the RRS dynamics, giving rise to characteristic temporal oscillations on a picosecond scale....... Bragg and anti-Bragg arranged QW structures with the same excitonic parameters are predicted to have drastically different RRS spectra. Experimental data on the RRS from multiple QWs show the predicted strong temporal oscillations at small scattering angles, which are well explained by the presented...... theory....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiwei Zhu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The interaction of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles [(CdSn] with proteins has been studied by resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra (RRS. Below the isoelectric point, proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA, human serum albumin (HSA, lysozyme (Lys, hemoglobin (HGB, and ovalbumin (OVA can bind with CdSn to form macromolecules by virtue of electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic force. It can result in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra (RRS intensity. Their maximum scattering peaks were 280 nm, and there was a smaller peak at 370 nm. The scattering enhancement (ΔIRRS is directly proportional to the concentration of proteins. A new RRS method for the determination of trace proteins using uncapped CdSn nanoparticles probe has been developed. The detection limits are 19.6 ng/mL for HSA, 16.7 ng/mL for BSA, 18.5 ng/mL for OVA, 80.2 ng/mL for HGB, and 67.4 ng/mL for Lys, separately. In this work, the optimum condition of reaction, the effect of foreign, and the analytical application had been investigated.
Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in NH4Cl under hydrostatic pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hikita, Tomoyuki; Kitabatake, Makoto; Ikeda, Takuro
1981-01-01
Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in NH 4 Cl has been studied under hydrostatic pressure. Brillouin shifts of the longitudinal phonons propagating along the and directions and of the transverse phonons propagating along the direction are measured as a function of temperature at four fixed pressures up to 2.3 kbar. All components increase almost linearly with decreasing temperature in the disordered phase and show incremental increases similar to the temperature dependence of the long range order parameter in the ordered phase. It was found that the longitudinal modes exhibit large despersion effect even at high pressures. On the other hand, the transverse mode appears to give no dispersion effect. The intensity of the Rayleigh component in the VV polarization condition increases as the temperature approaches the transition point, while that in the VH polarization does not show such anomalous increase. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flanagan, Gene [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
2016-02-17
Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) coated conductors are known for their ability to operate in the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures, even above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). When these same conductors are operated at lower temperatures, they are able to operate in much higher magnetic fields than traditional superconductors like NiTi or Nb_{3}Sn. Thus, YBCO superconducting magnets are one of the primary options for generating the high magnetic fields needed for future high energy physics devices. Due to slow quench propagation, quench detection remains one of the primary limitations to YBCO magnets. Fiber optic sensing, based upon Rayleigh scattering, has the potential for spatial resolution approaching the wavelength of light, or very fast temporal resolution at low spatial resolution, and a continuum of combinations in between. This project has studied, theoretically and experimentally, YBCO magnets and Rayleigh scattering quench detection systems to demonstrate feasibility of the systems for YBCO quench protection systems. Under this grant an experimentally validated 3D quench propagation model was used to accurately define the acceptable range of spatial and temporal resolutions for effective quench detection in YBCO magnets and to evaluate present-day and potentially improved YBCO conductors. The data volume and speed requirements for quench detection via Rayleigh scattering required the development of a high performance fiber optic based quench detection/data acquisition system and its integration with an existing voltage tap/thermo-couple based system. In this project, optical fibers are tightly co-wound into YBCO magnet coils, with the fiber on top of the conductor as turn-to-turn insulation. Local changes in the temperature or strain of the conductor are sensed by the optical fiber, which is in close thermal and mechanical contact with the conductor. Intrinsic imperfections in the fiber reflect Rayleigh
Diagnostic of the Symbiotic Stars Environment by Thomson, Raman and Rayleigh Scattering Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sekeráš
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Symbiotic stars are long-period interacting binaries consisting of a cool giant as the donor star and a white dwarf as the acretor. Due to acretion of the material from the giant’s stellar wind, the white dwarf becomes very hot and luminous. The circumstellar material partially ionized by the hot star, represents an ideal medium for processes of scattering. To investigate the symbiotic nebula we modeled the wide wings of the resonance lines OVI λ1032 Å, λ1038 Å and HeII λ1640 Å emission line in the spectrum of AG Dra, broadened by Thomson scattering. On the other hand, Raman and Rayleigh scattering arise in the neutral part of the circumstellar matter around the giant and provide a powerful tool to probe e.g. the ionization structure of the symbiotic systems and distribution of the neutral hydrogen atoms in the giant’s wind.
Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?
Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P. M.; Webb, S.
2009-11-01
Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'interference function' model into a custom-written Monte Carlo code. First, we conduct simulations of scatter from isolated voxels of soft tissue, adipose, cortical bone and spongiosa. Then, we simulate scatter profiles from a cylinder of water and from phantoms of a patient's head, thorax and pelvis, constructed from diagnostic-quality CT data sets. Lastly, we reconstruct CT numbers from simulated sets of projection images and investigate the quantitative effects of the approximation. We show that the IAA can produce errors of several per cent of the total scatter, across a projection image, for typical x-ray beams and patients. The errors in reconstructed CT number, however, for the phantoms simulated, were small (typically < 10 HU). The IAA can therefore be considered sufficient for the modelling of scatter correction in CT imaging. Where accurate quantitative estimates of scatter in individual projection images are required, however, the appropriate interference functions should be included.
Estimating the location of scatterers using correlation of scattered rayleigh waves
Harmankaya, U.; Kaslilar, A.; Van Wijk, K.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.
2015-01-01
Inspired by a technique called seismic interferometry, we estimate the location of scatterers in a scaled model, where many near-surface scatterers are present. We isolate the scattered wavefield and evaluate correlation of scattered waves at different receiver locations. The cross-correlation
Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Dynamic Temperature, Velocity, and Density Measurements
Mielke, Amy R.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chi-Jen
2006-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 16 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in an air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 16 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. A low speed heated jet is used to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations and an acoustically excited nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements. Power spectral density calculations of the property fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are presented. Temperature fluctuation results are compared with constant current anemometry measurements and velocity fluctuation results are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements at the same locations.
Witschas, Benjamin; Reitebuch, Oliver; Lemmerz, Christian; Kableka, Pau Gomez; Kondratyev, Sergey; Gu, Z.; Ubachs, Wim
2016-01-01
In this letter, we suggest a new method for measuring tropospheric temperature profiles using Rayleigh-Brillouin (RB) scattering. We report on laboratory RB scattering measurements in air, demonstrating that temperature can be retrieved from RB spectra with an absolute accuracy of better than 2 K.
Effect of Rayleigh-scattering distributed feedback on multiwavelength Raman fiber laser generation.
El-Taher, A E; Harper, P; Babin, S A; Churkin, D V; Podivilov, E V; Ania-Castanon, J D; Turitsyn, S K
2011-01-15
We experimentally demonstrate a Raman fiber laser based on multiple point-action fiber Bragg grating reflectors and distributed feedback via Rayleigh scattering in an ~22-km-long optical fiber. Twenty-two lasing lines with spacing of ~100 GHz (close to International Telecommunication Union grid) in the C band are generated at the watt level. In contrast to the normal cavity with competition between laser lines, the random distributed feedback cavity exhibits highly stable multiwavelength generation with a power-equalized uniform distribution, which is almost independent on power.
Water-water correlations in electrolyte solutions probed by hyper-Rayleigh scattering
Shelton, David P.
2017-12-01
Long-range ion-induced correlations between water molecules have been observed by second-harmonic or hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiments with conflicting results. The most recent work observed a large difference between the results for H2O and D2O, and large discrepancies with the previously proposed theory. However, the present observations are in quantitative agreement with the model where the ion electric field induces second harmonic generation by the water molecules, and ion-ion correlations given by the Debye-Huckel theory account for intensity saturation at high ion concentration. This work compares experimental results with theory and addresses the apparent discrepancies with previous experiments.
Lock, James A.; Seasholtz, Richard G.; John, W. T.
1992-01-01
Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra for heated nitrogen gas were measured by imaging the output of a Fabry-Perot interferometer onto a CCD array. The spectra were compared with the theoretical 6-moment model of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering convolved with the Fabry-Perot instrument function. Estimates of the temperature and a dimensionless parameter proportional to the number density of the gas as functions of position in the laser beam were calculated by least-squares deviation fits between theory and experiment.
Zhou, Abel; White, Graeme L.; Davidson, Rob
2018-02-01
Anti-scatter grids are commonly used in x-ray imaging systems to reduce scatter radiation reaching the image receptor. Anti-scatter grid performance and validation can be simulated through use of Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Our recently reported work has modified existing MC codes resulting in improved performance when simulating x-ray imaging. The aim of this work is to validate the transmission of x-ray photons in grids from the recently reported new MC codes against experimental results and results previously reported in other literature. The results of this work show that the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), the transmissions of primary (T p), scatter (T s), and total (T t) radiation determined using this new MC code system have strong agreement with the experimental results and the results reported in the literature. T p, T s, T t, and SPR determined in this new MC simulation code system are valid. These results also show that the interference effect on Rayleigh scattering should not be neglected in both mammographic and general grids’ evaluation. Our new MC simulation code system has been shown to be valid and can be used for analysing and evaluating the designs of grids.
Otugen, M. Volkan
1997-01-01
Non-intrusive techniques for the dynamic measurement of gas flow properties such as density, temperature and velocity, are needed in the research leading to the development of new generation high-speed aircraft. Accurate velocity, temperature and density data obtained in ground testing and in-flight measurements can help understand the flow physics leading to transition and turbulence in supersonic, high-altitude flight. Such non-intrusive measurement techniques can also be used to study combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels in aircraft engines. Reliable, time and space resolved temperature measurements in various combustor configurations can lead to a better understanding of high temperature chemical reaction dynamics thus leading to improved modeling and better prediction of such flows. In view of this, a research program was initiated at Polytechnic University's Aerodynamics Laboratory with support from NASA Lewis Research Center through grants NAG3-1301 and NAG3-1690. The overall objective of this program has been to develop laser-based, non-contact, space- and time-resolved temperature and velocity measurement techniques. In the initial phase of the program a ND:YAG laser-based dual-line Rayleigh scattering technique was developed and tested for the accurate measurement of gas temperature in the presence of background laser glare. Effort was next directed towards the development of a filtered, spectrally-resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering technique with the objective of developing an interferometric method for time-frozen velocity measurements in high-speed flows utilizing the uv line of an ND:YAG laser and an appropriate molecular absorption filter. This effort included both a search for an appropriate filter material for the 266 nm laser line and the development and testing of several image processing techniques for the fast processing of Fabry-Perot images for velocity and temperature information. Finally, work was also carried out for the development of
Elucidating the contribution of Rayleigh scattering to the bluish appearance of veins
Van Leeuwen, Spencer R.; Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.
2018-02-01
The bluish appearance of veins located immediately beneath the skin has long been a topic of interest for biomedical optics researchers. Despite this interest, a thorough identification of the specific optical processes responsible for this phenomenon remains to be achieved. We employ controlled in silico experiments to address this enduring open problem. Our experiments, which are supported by measured data available in the scientific literature, are performed using first-principles models of light interaction with human skin and blood. Using this investigation approach, we quantitatively demonstrate that Rayleigh scattering caused by collagen fibrils present in the papillary dermis, a sublayer of the skin, can play a pivotal role in the bluish appearance of veins as suggested by previous works in this area. Moreover, also taking color perception aspects into account, we systematically assess the effects of variations in fibril radius and papillary dermis thickness on the coloration of veins under different illuminants. Notably, this assessment indicates that Rayleigh scattering elicited by reticulin fibrils, another type of fibril found in the papillary dermis, is unlikely to significantly contribute to the bluish appearance of veins. By strengthening the current understanding of light attenuation mechanisms affecting the appearance of skin and blood, our investigation contributes to the development of more effective technologies aimed at the noninvasive measurement of the physiological properties of these tissues.
Two-dimensional interferometric Rayleigh scattering velocimetry using multibeam probe laser
Sheng, Wang; Jin-Hai, Si; Jun, Shao; Zhi-yun, Hu; Jing-feng, Ye; Jing-Ru, Liu
2017-11-01
In order to achieve the two-dimensional (2-D) velocity measurement of a flow field at extreme condition, a 2-D interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) velocimetry using a multibeam probe laser was developed. The method using a multibeam probe laser can record the reference interference signal and the flow interference signal simultaneously. What is more, this method can solve the problem of signal overlap using the laser sheet detection method. The 2-D IRS measurement system was set up with a multibeam probe laser, aspherical lens collection optics, and a solid Fabry-Perot etalon. A multibeam probe laser with 0.5-mm intervals was formed by collimating a laser sheet passing through a cylindrical microlens arrays. The aspherical lens was used to enhance the intensity of the Rayleigh scattering signal. The 2-D velocity field results of a Mach 1.5 air flow were obtained. The velocity in the flow center is about 450 m/s. The reconstructed results fit well with the characteristic of flow, which indicate the validity of this technique.
Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy of nitrous oxide (N2O)
Wang, Y.; Liang, K.; van de Water, W.; Marques, W.; Ubachs, W.
2018-02-01
High signal-to-noise and high-resolution light scattering spectra are measured for nitrous oxide (N2O) gas at an incident wavelength of 403.00 nm, at 90° scattering, at room temperature and at gas pressures in the range 0.5 - 4 bar. The resulting Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering spectra are compared to a number of models describing in an approximate manner the collisional dynamics and energy transfer in this gaseous medium of this polyatomic molecular species. The Tenti-S6 model, based on macroscopic gas transport coefficients, reproduces the scattering profiles in the entire pressure range at less than 2% deviation at a similar level as does the alternative kinetic Grad's 6-moment model, which is based on the internal collisional relaxation as a decisive parameter. A hydrodynamic model fails to reproduce experimental spectra for the low pressures of 0.5-1 bar, but yields very good agreement ( viscosity of ηb ∼(6 ± 2) ×10-5 Pa · s. A 'rough-sphere' model, previously shown to be effective to describe light scattering in SF6 gas, is not found to be suitable, likely in view of the non-sphericity and asymmetry of the N-N-O structured linear polyatomic molecule.
Rayleigh scattering of a cylindrical sound wave by an infinite cylinder.
Baynes, Alexander B; Godin, Oleg A
2017-12-01
Rayleigh scattering, in which the wavelength is large compared to the scattering object, is usually studied assuming plane incident waves. However, full Green's functions are required in a number of problems, e.g., when a scatterer is located close to the ocean surface or the seafloor. This paper considers the Green's function of the two-dimensional problem that corresponds to scattering of a cylindrical wave by an infinite cylinder embedded in a homogeneous fluid. Soft, hard, and impedance cylinders are considered. Exact solutions of the problem involve infinite series of products of Bessel functions. Here, simple, closed-form asymptotic solutions are derived, which are valid for arbitrary source and receiver locations outside the cylinder as long as its diameter is small relative to the wavelength. The scattered wave is given by the sum of fields of three linear image sources. The viability of the image source method was anticipated from known solutions of classical electrostatic problems involving a conducting cylinder. The asymptotic acoustic Green's functions are employed to investigate reception of low-frequency sound by sensors mounted on cylindrical bodies.
Rayleigh theory of ultrasound scattering applied to liquid-filled contrast nanoparticles.
Flegg, M B; Poole, C M; Whittaker, A K; Keen, I; Langton, C M
2010-06-07
We present a novel modified theory based upon Rayleigh scattering of ultrasound from composite nanoparticles with a liquid core and solid shell. We derive closed form solutions to the scattering cross-section and have applied this model to an ultrasound contrast agent consisting of a liquid-filled core (perfluorooctyl bromide, PFOB) encapsulated by a polymer shell (poly-caprolactone, PCL). Sensitivity analysis was performed to predict the dependence of the scattering cross-section upon material and dimensional parameters. A rapid increase in the scattering cross-section was achieved by increasing the compressibility of the core, validating the incorporation of high compressibility PFOB; the compressibility of the shell had little impact on the overall scattering cross-section although a more compressible shell is desirable. Changes in the density of the shell and the core result in predicted local minima in the scattering cross-section, approximately corresponding to the PFOB-PCL contrast agent considered; hence, incorporation of a lower shell density could potentially significantly improve the scattering cross-section. A 50% reduction in shell thickness relative to external radius increased the predicted scattering cross-section by 50%. Although it has often been considered that the shell has a negative effect on the echogeneity due to its low compressibility, we have shown that it can potentially play an important role in the echogeneity of the contrast agent. The challenge for the future is to identify suitable shell and core materials that meet the predicted characteristics in order to achieve optimal echogenity.
Filtered Rayleigh scattering velocimetry—accuracy investigation in a M=2.2 axisymmetric jet
Gustavsson, J. P. R.; Segal, C.
2005-01-01
The present study is a quantitative evaluation of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) axial velocity measurements in a M=2.2 axisymmetric jet. The FRS setup used a frequency-doubled, injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser, an iodine vapor cell and two intensified CCD cameras. The goal was to evaluate the FRS accuracy in a practical flow case and assess the relative uncertainty contributions of different sources. Despite the use of dried air and co-flow, water condensation produced uneven seeding of the flow, making particle scattering dominate over molecular scattering. The time-averaged velocity measurements showed fair agreement between the FRS and pressure probe data acquired in the same setup with deviations of up to 50 m/s. The analysis of uncertainty sources showed that laser drift dominated with an estimated contribution of 35 m/s. Several other sources, shot noise, iodine cell calibration, image misalignment and non-monochromatic scattered light were found to contribute O(10 m/s) each, bringing the total uncertainty estimate to ±50 m/s, in agreement with the experimental data.
Loranger, Sébastien; Parent, François; Lambin-Iezzi, Victor; Kashyap, Raman
2016-02-01
Rayleigh scatter in optical fiber communication systems has long been considered a nuisance as a loss mechanism, although applications have used such scatter to probe the fiber for faults and propagation loss using time domain reflectometry (OTDR). It is however only with the development of Frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and coherent-phase OTDR that Rayleigh scatter has been probed to its deepest and can now be used to measure strain and temperature along a fiber, leading to the first distributed sensing applications. However, Rayleigh scatter remains very weak giving rise to very small signals which limits the technique for sensing. We show here a new technique to significantly enhance the Rayleigh scatter signal by at least two orders of magnitude, in a standard optical fiber with simple UV exposure of the core. A study of various exposures with different types of fibers has been conducted and a phenomenological description developed. We demonstrate that such an increase in signal can enhance the temperature and strain sensitivity by an order of magnitude for distributed sensing with an OFDR technique. Such improved performance can lead to temperature/strain RMS noise levels of 6 mK and 50 nɛ for 1 cm spatial resolution in UV exposed SMF-28, compared to the typical noise level of 100 mK for the same spatial resolution in the similar unexposed fiber.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. A. Shapovalov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper concerns the light scattering problem of biological objects of complicated structure.It considers optically “soft” (having a refractive index close to that of a surrounding medium homogeneous cylindrical capsules, composed of three parts: central one that is cylindrical and two symmetrical rounding end caps. Such capsules can model more broad class of biological objects than the ordinary shapes of a spheroid or sphere. But, unfortunately, if a particle has other than a regular geometrical shape, then it is very difficult or impossible to solve the scattering problem analytically in its most general form that oblige us to use numerical and approximate analytical methods. The one of such approximate analytical method is the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation (or the first Born approximation.So, the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is valid for different objects having size from nanometer to millimeter and depending on wave length and refractive index of an object under small phase shift of central ray.The formulas for light scattering amplitude of cylindrical capsule with arbitrary end caps in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation in scalar form are obtained. Then the light scattering phase function [or element of scattering matrix f11] for natural incident light (unpolarized or arbitrary polarized light is calculated.Numerical results for light scattering phase functions of cylindrical capsule with conical, spheroidal, paraboloidal ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation are compared. Also numerical results for light scattering phase function of cylindrical capsule with conical ends in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation and in the method of Purcell-Pennypacker (or Discrete Dipole method are compared. The good agreement within an application range of the RayleighGans-Debye approximation is obtained.Further continuation of the work, perhaps, is a consideration of multilayer cylindrical capsule in the Rayleigh
Bisyarin, M A; Kotov, O I; Hartog, A H; Liokumovich, L B; Ushakov, N A
2017-06-01
The recently developed diffraction technique of analytical investigation of the Rayleigh backscattering produced by an incident fundamental mode in a multimode optical fiber with an arbitrary refractive index profile is supplemented by taking into account the Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient, which could be variable within the fiber cross section. The relative changes in various radial and azimuthal modes' excitation levels, due to some typical radial dependences of this coefficient, are computed for the quadratic- and step-index fibers. It is stated that the excitation efficiency could either rise or decay for different modes. The effect of the variable Rayleigh scattering-loss coefficient is shown to be more noticeable in the fibers with a quadratic refractive index profile, whereas it is negligible in actual multimode step-index fibers.
Annunziata, Onofrio; Buzatu, Daniela; Albright, John G
2005-12-20
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is extensively used for measuring macromolecule diffusion coefficients. Contrary to classical techniques based on macroscopic concentration gradients, DLS probes microscopic fluctuations in concentration. DLS accuracy and its concordance with macroscopic-gradient techniques remains an outstanding important issue. We measured lysozyme diffusion coefficients in aqueous salt using both DLS and Rayleigh interferometry, a highly accurate macroscopic-gradient technique. The precision of our results is unprecedented. We find that our DLS values were systematically 2% higher than interferometry values. We believe that our interferometric measurements have produced the most accurate diffusion data ever reported for a protein, providing a new standard for quality control of DLS measurements. Furthermore, by interferometry, we have determined the whole diffusion coefficient matrix required for rigorously describing lysozyme-salt coupled diffusion. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate that DLS does not provide the protein diffusion coefficient but one eigenvalue of the diffusion coefficient matrix.
Loranger, Sébastien; Gagné, Mathieu; Lambin-Iezzi, Victor; Kashyap, Raman
2015-06-16
We present a technique to improve signal strength, and therefore sensitivity in distributed temperature and strain sensing (DTSS) using Frequency domain Rayleigh scatter. A simple UV exposure of a hydrogen loaded standard SMF-28 fibre core is shown to enhance the Rayleigh back-scattered light dramatically by ten-fold, independent of the presence of a Bragg grating, and is therefore created by the UV exposure alone. This increase in Rayleigh back-scatter allows an order-of-magnitude increase in temperature and strain resolution for DTSS compared to un-exposed SMF-28 fibre used as a sensing element. This enhancement in sensitivity is effective for cm range or more sensor gauge length, below which is the theoretical cross-correlation limit. The detection of a 20 mK temperature rise with a spatial resolution of 2 cm is demonstrated. This gain in sensitivity for SMF-28 is compared with a high Ge doped photosensitive fibre with a characteristically high NA. For the latter, the UV enhancement is also present although of lower amplitude, and enables an even lower noise level for sensing, due to the fibre's intrinsically higher Rayleigh scatter signal.
Zhu, Jiangang; Özdemir, Şahin K.; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Peng, Bo; Dong, Mark; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal; Yang, Lan
2014-01-01
Whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) take advantage of strong light confinement and long photon lifetime for applications in sensing, optomechanics, microlasers and quantum optics. However, their rotational symmetry and low radiation loss impede energy exchange between WGMs and the surrounding. As a result, free-space coupling of light into and from WGMRs is very challenging. In previous schemes, resonators are intentionally deformed to break circular symmetry to enable free-space coupling of carefully aligned focused light, which comes with bulky size and alignment issues that hinder the realization of compact WGMR applications. Here, we report a new class of nanocouplers based on cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering from nano-scatterer(s) on resonator surface, and demonstrate whispering gallery microlaser by free-space optical pumping of an Ytterbium doped silica microtoroid via the scatterers. This new scheme will not only expand the range of applications enabled by WGMRs, but also provide a possible route to integrate them into solar powered green photonics. PMID:25227918
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohidar, H.; Berland, T.; Boger, F.; Joessang, T.; Feder, J.
1987-01-01
The development of a Multipass Fabry-Perot interforometer assembly for use in Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments is reported. The optical alignment and the scattered signal data acquisition have been completely computerized. Digital scanning and alignment strategies of the Fabry-Perot resonator have been incorporated, which makes this instrument quite unique in this respect. The high contrast (∼10 10 ) and finesse (∼50) offered by this instrument makes it possible to detect Brillouin peaks from samples that have a small Brillouin scattering cross-section. As part of this system a compatible and precision sample chamber has been constructed, which has been designed to operate in the pressure and temperature ranges of 1-1000B and 20-150 o C, respectively. The cell has been constructed to be small and compact, but it still has a large heat capacity (∼250J/K) which ensures easy and stable temperature control of the liquid sample volume which has a size of 40 mm 3 . The achievable temperature stability is +-1mK and +-2mK for operating temperatures below and above 100 o C, respectively. The pressure stability is in the range of +-0.05B of the set pressure for pressures below 100B and it is +-0.05% for higher pressures up to 1000B. Both pressure and temperature are remotely monitored and controlled by a ND/100 computer. Special care has been taken in designing the optics of the pressure cell to ensure that both the primary and secondary reflections from the entrance window, as well as the main beam, go out of the scattering region in order to achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio in actual experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Tamitake; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Ihama, Takashi; Masuhara, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
We report that hyper-Rayleigh scattering, surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering, and two-photon excited luminescence occur intermittently by focusing a continuous-wave near-infrared (cw-NIR) laser into a colloidal silver solution including rhodamine 6G (R6G) and sodium chloride (NaCl). On the other hand, continuous hyper-Rayleigh scattering is observed from colloidal silver free from R6G and NaCl, demonstrating that hyper-Raman scattering and two-photon excited luminescence are attributed to R6G and their intermittent features are dependent on the colloidal dispersion. These results suggest that the cw-NIR laser has three roles; the source of the nonlinear response, optical trapping of nanoparticles, and making nanoparticle aggregates possessing the high activity for the nonlinear response
Highly efficient and two-photon excited stimulated Rayleigh-Bragg scattering in organic solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Guang S., E-mail: gshe@buffalo.edu; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-3000 (United States); Kannan, Ramamurthi; Tan, Loon-Seng [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, AFRL/RX, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7750 (United States)
2015-07-21
The properties of backward stimulated Rayleigh-Bragg scattering (SRBS) in three highly two-photon active AF-chromophores solutions in tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been investigated using 816-nm and 8-ns pump laser beam. The nonlinear reflectivity R, spectral structure, temporal behavior, and phase-conjugation capability of the backward SRBS output have been measured, respectively. Under the same experimental condition, the pump threshold for SRBS in three solution samples can be significantly (∼one order of magnitude) lower than that for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the pure solvent (THF). With the optimized concentration value and at a moderate pump energy (∼1.5 mJ) level, the measured nonlinear reflectivity was R ≥ 35% for the 2 cm-long solution sample, while for the SBS from a pure solvent sample of the same length was R ≈ 4.7%. The peculiar features of very low pump threshold, no spectral shift, tolerant pump spectral linewidth requirement (≤1 cm{sup −1}), and phase-conjugation capability are favorable for those nonlinear photonics applications, such as highly efficiency phase-conjugation reflectors for high-brightness laser oscillator/amplifier systems, special imaging through turbid medium, self-adaptive remote optical sensing, as well as for optical rangefinder and lidar systems.
Resonance Rayleigh scattering methods for the determination of chitosan with Congo red as probe.
Ma, Caijuan; Zhang, Weiai; Guo, Yaohui; Su, Zhengquan; Bai, Yan
2017-12-01
Two methods were presented for the sensitive and selective determination of chitosan (CTS) with Congo red (CR) as probe based on resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensities in health products. In weakly acidic buffer solution, the binding of CTS to CR, could result in the enhancement of the RRS intensities. Moreover, after adding OP emulsifier (octyl-phenyl polyoxyethylene ether) to the system, the RRS intensities showed more significantly enhancement. The maximum RRS signals for the CTS-CR system and the CTS-CR-OP system were located at 380 nm and 376 nm, respectively. Under optimum experimental conditions, the increased RRS intensities (ΔI) of these two systems were linear to CTS concentration in the range of 0.40-8.00 μg/ml and 0.05-1.00 μg/ml. Their limits of detection (LOD) were 44.81 ng/ml and 6.99 ng/ml, which indicated that the latter system was more sensitive than the former. In this work, the optimum conditions and the effects of some foreign substances on the determination were studied. In addition, the effect of the molecular weight of CTS and the reasons for the enhancement of resonance light scattering were discussed. Finally, these two methods were applied to the determination of chitosan in health products with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in SF6 in the kinetic regime
Wang, Yuanqing; Yu, Yin; Liang, Kun; Marques, Wilson; van de Water, Willem; Ubachs, Wim
2017-02-01
Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral profiles are measured with a laser-based scatterometry setup for a 90° scattering angle at a high signal-to-noise ratio (r.m.s. noise below 0.15% w.r.t. peak intensity) in sulfur-hexafluoride gas for pressures in the range 0.2-5 bar and for a wavelength of λ = 403.0 nm. The high quality data are compared to a number of light scattering models in order to address the effects of rotational and vibrational relaxation. While the vibrational relaxation rate is so slow that vibration degrees of freedom remain frozen, rotations relax on time scales comparable to those of the density fluctuations. Therefore, the heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the bulk viscosity are all frequency-dependent transport coefficients. This is relevant for the Tenti model that depends on the values chosen for these transport coefficients. This is not the case for the other two models considered: a kinetic model based on rough-sphere interactions, and a model based on fluctuating hydrodynamics. The deviations with the experiment are similar between the three different models, except for the hydrodynamic model at pressures p≲ 2bar . As all models are in line with the ideal gas law, we hypothesize the presence of real gas effects in the measured spectra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Alpers
2004-01-01
Full Text Available For the first time, three different temperature lidar methods are combined to obtain time-resolved complete temperature profiles with high altitude resolution over an altitude range from the planetary boundary layer up to the lower thermosphere (about 1–105 km. The Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E operates two lidar instruments, using three different temperature measurement methods, optimized for three altitude ranges: (1 Probing the spectral Doppler broadening of the potassium D1 resonance lines with a tunable narrow-band laser allows atmospheric temperature profiles to be determined at metal layer altitudes (80–105 km. (2 Between about 20 and 90 km, temperatures were calculated from Rayleigh backscattering by air molecules, where the upper start values for the calculation algorithm were taken from the potassium lidar results. Correction methods have been applied to account for, e.g. Rayleigh extinction or Mie scattering of aerosols below about 32 km. (3 At altitudes below about 25 km, backscattering in the Rotational Raman lines is strong enough to obtain temperatures by measuring the temperature dependent spectral shape of the Rotational Raman spectrum. This method works well down to about 1 km. The instrumental configurations of the IAP lidars were optimized for a 3–6 km overlap of the temperature profiles at the method transition altitudes. We present two night-long measurements with clear wave structures propagating from the lower stratosphere up to the lower thermosphere.
Single scattering properties of hydrosols
Mukherjee, L.; Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.
2017-12-01
The single scattering or inherent optical properties (IOPs) of hydrosols play an important role in the complete study of ocean optics, ocean color remote sensing, and ocean biogeochemistry research. Measurements show that hydrosols can be of various sizes and shapes, which suggests that general non-spherical models should be considered for the study of IOPs of hydrosols. In this work, the IOPs of randomly oriented non-spherical hydrosols of both absorbing and non-absorbing types are modeled using the Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation (ADDA). We have defined the degree of optical non-sphericity (DONS) and investigated the dependence of DONS on refractive indices, sizes, and aspect ratios. For particles with non-unit aspect ratios, the magnitude of DONS increases with an increase of refractive index and aspect ratio. In general, the value of DONS increases with increase in particle size. The variation of DONS with respect to refractive indices and aspect ratios of the hydrosols makes it an important parameter in the study of ocean optics. Dependence of backscattering fraction on non-sphericity, size, and aspect ratio of the hydrosols is also demonstrated. The modeling of single scattering properties of hydrosols with different microphysical parameters would help to interpret the ocean radiation field measured by in situ or remote sensing sensors. Understanding the IOPs of hydrosols would lead to better radiative transfer models in ocean waters and new remote sensing technologies of hydrosol compositions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patkowski, A.; Fischer, E. W.; Steffen, W.; Glaser, H.; Baumann, M.; Ruths, T.; Meier, G.
2001-01-01
A new feature of glass-forming liquids, i.e., long-range density fluctuations of the order of 100 nm, has been extensively characterized by means of static light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy and Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy in orthoterphenyl (OTP) and 1,1-di(4 # prime#-methoxy-5 # prime#methyl-phenyl)-cyclohexane (BMMPC). These long-range density fluctuations result in the following unusual features observed in a light scattering experiment, which are not described by the existing theories: (i) strong q-dependent isotropic excess Rayleigh intensity, (ii) additional slow component in the polarized photon correlation function, and (iii) high Landau-Placzek ratio. These unusual features are equilibrium properties of the glass-forming liquids and depend only on temperature, provided that the sample has been equilibrated long enough. The temperature-dependent equilibration times were measured for BMMPC and are about 11 orders of magnitude longer than the α process. It was found that the glass-forming liquid OTP may occur in two states: with and without long-range density fluctuations ('clusters'). We have characterized the two states by static and dynamic light scattering in the temperature range from T g to T g +200 K. The relaxation times of the α process as well as the parameters of the Brillouin line are identical in both OTP with and without clusters. The α process (density fluctuations) in OTP was characterized by measuring either the polarized (VV) or depolarized (VH) correlation function, which are practically identical and q-independent. This feature, which is commonly observed in glass-forming liquids, is not fully explained by the existing theories
Rayleigh Scattering Density Measurements, Cluster Theory, and Nucleation Calculations at Mach 10
Balla, R. Jeffrey; Everhart, Joel L.
2012-01-01
In an exploratory investigation, quantitative unclustered laser Rayleigh scattering measurements of density were performed in the air in the NASA Langley Research Center's 31 in. Mach 10 wind tunnel. A review of 20 previous years of data in supersonic and Mach 6 hypersonic flows is presented where clustered signals typically overwhelmed molecular signals. A review of nucleation theory and accompanying nucleation calculations are also provided to interpret the current observed lack of clustering. Data were acquired at a fixed stagnation temperature near 990Kat five stagnation pressures spanning 2.41 to 10.0 MPa (350 to 1454 psi) using a pulsed argon fluoride excimer laser and double-intensified charge-coupled device camera. Data averaged over 371 images and 210 pixels along a 36.7mmline measured freestream densities that agree with computed isentropic-expansion densities to less than 2% and less than 6% at the highest and lowest densities, respectively. Cluster-free Mach 10 results are compared with previous clustered Mach 6 and condensation-free Mach 14 results. Evidence is presented indicating vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen molecules are absorbed as the clusters form, release their excess energy, and inhibit or possibly reverse the clustering process. Implications for delaying clustering and condensation onset in hypersonic and hypervelocity facilities are discussed.
Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung
2015-01-01
Detection of salt- and analyte-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) mostly relies on costly and bulky analytical instruments. To response this drawback, a portable, miniaturized, sensitive, and cost-effective detection technique is urgently required for rapid field detection and monitoring of target analyte via the use of AuNP-based sensor. This study combined a miniaturized spectrometer with a 532-nm laser to develop a laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique, allowing the sensitive and selective detection of Rayleigh scattering from the aggregated AuNPs. Three AuNP-based sensing systems, including salt-, thiol- and metal ion-induced aggregation of the AuNPs, were performed to examine the sensitivity of laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique. Salt-, thiol-, and metal ion-promoted NP aggregation were exemplified by the use of aptamer-adsorbed, fluorosurfactant-stabilized, and gallic acid-capped AuNPs for probing K(+), S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase-induced hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine, and Pb(2+), in sequence. Compared to the reported methods for monitoring the aggregated AuNPs, the proposed system provided distinct advantages of sensitivity. Laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique was improved to be convenient, cheap, and portable by replacing a diode laser and a miniaturized spectrometer with a laser pointer and a smart-phone. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we can determine whether or not the Pb(2+) concentration exceed the maximum allowable level of Pb(2+) in drinking water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
What is measured by hyper-Rayleigh scattering from a liquid?
Rodriquez, Micheal B.; Shelton, David P.
2018-04-01
Polarization and angle dependence of hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) measured for liquid acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is analyzed in terms of contributions from randomly oriented molecules and additional contributions produced during intermolecular collisions and induced by the electric field of dissolved ions. All three contributions show the effect of long-range correlation, and the correlation functions are determined using the HRS observations combined with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. HRS from acetonitrile is polarized transverse to the scattering vector. This is due to long-range molecular orientation correlation produced by the dipole-dipole interaction, and correlation at distances r > 100 nm must be included to account for the HRS observations. Analysis of the HRS measurements for acetonitrile determines the length scale a = 0.185 nm for the long-range longitudinal and transverse orientation correlation functions BL=-2 BT=a3/r3. Transverse polarized collision-induced HRS is also observed for acetonitrile, indicating long-range correlation of intermolecular modes. Strong longitudinal HRS is induced by the radial electric field of dissolved ions in acetonitrile. For DMSO, the angle between the molecular dipole and the vector part of the first hyperpolarizability tensor is about 100°. As a result, HRS from the randomly oriented molecules in DMSO is nearly unaffected by dipole correlation, and ion-induced HRS is weak. The strong longitudinal polarized HRS observed for DMSO is due to the collision-induced contribution, indicating long-range correlation of intermolecular modes. The HRS observations require correlation that has r-3 long-range asymptotic form, for molecular orientation and for intermolecular vibration and libration, for both acetonitrile and DMSO.
Servali, A.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M.
2017-12-01
The eastern margin of North America has been affected by a series of mountain building and rifting events that have likely shaped the deep structure of the lithosphere. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insight into lithospheric deformation associated with these past tectonic events, as well as into present-day patterns of mantle flow beneath the passive margin. Previous work on SKS splitting beneath eastern North America has revealed fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian orogen in the central and southern Appalachians. A major challenge to the interpretation of SKS splitting measurements, however, is the lack of vertical resolution; isolating anisotropic structures at different depths is therefore difficult. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves. In this study, we analyze the scattering of Love wave energy to Rayleigh waves, which is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the ray path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depend on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the angle between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. We analyze data collected by the dense MAGIC seismic array across the central Appalachians. We examine teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and greater over a range of backazimuths, and isolate surface waves at periods between 100 and 500 seconds. We compare the data to synthetic seismograms generated by the Princeton Global ShakeMovie initiative to identify anomalous QL arrivals. We find evidence significant QL arrivals at MAGIC stations, with amplitudes depending on propagation azimuth and station location. Preliminary results are consistent with a sharp lateral gradient in seismic anisotropy across the Appalachian Mountains in the depth range between 100-200 km.
Combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability bubble growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Rahul; Mandal, Labakanta; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M. R.
2011-01-01
The combined effect of viscosity and vorticity on the growth rate of the bubble associated with single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. It is shown that the effect of viscosity on the motion of the lighter fluid associated with vorticity accumulated inside the bubble due to mass ablation may be such as to reduce the net viscous drag on the bubble exerted by the upper heavier fluid as the former rises through it.
Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Welberry
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Diffuse neutron scattering has become a valuable tool for investigating local structure in materials ranging from organic molecular crystals containing only light atoms to piezo-ceramics that frequently contain heavy elements. Although neutron sources will never be able to compete with X-rays in terms of the available flux the special properties of neutrons, viz. the ability to explore inelastic scattering events, the fact that scattering lengths do not vary systematically with atomic number and their ability to scatter from magnetic moments, provides strong motivation for developing neutron diffuse scattering methods. In this paper, we compare three different instruments that have been used by us to collect neutron diffuse scattering data. Two of these are on a spallation source and one on a reactor source.
SEARCH FOR RAYLEIGH SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF GJ1214b
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Mooij, E. J. W.; Jayawardhana, R.; Brogi, M.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Hoekstra, H.; Otten, G. P. P. L.; Bekkers, D. H.; Haffert, S. Y.; Van Houdt, J. J.; De Kok, R. J.; Croll, B.
2013-01-01
We investigate the atmosphere of GJ1214b, a transiting super-Earth planet with a low mean density, by measuring its transit depth as a function of wavelength in the blue optical portion of the spectrum. It is thought that this planet is either a mini-Neptune, consisting of a rocky core with a thick, hydrogen-rich atmosphere, or a planet with a composition dominated by water. Most observations favor a water-dominated atmosphere with a small scale-height, however, some observations indicate that GJ1214b could have an extended atmosphere with a cloud layer muting the molecular features. In an atmosphere with a large scale-height, Rayleigh scattering at blue wavelengths is likely to cause a measurable increase in the apparent size of the planet toward the blue. We observed the transit of GJ1214b in the B band with the FOcal Reducing Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope and in the g band with both ACAM on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). We find a planet-to-star radius ratio in the B band of 0.1162 ± 0.0017, and in the g band 0.1180 ± 0.0009 and 0.1174 ± 0.0017 for the WHT and INT observations, respectively. These optical data do not show significant deviations from previous measurements at longer wavelengths. In fact, a flat transmission spectrum across all wavelengths best describes the combined observations. When atmospheric models are considered, a small scale-height water-dominated model fits the data best.
Rayleigh scattering of 66Dy-K X-rays in elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90
Singh, Gurjot; Upmanyu, Arun; Singh, Prem; Kainth, H. S.; Shahi, J. S.; Singh, Ranjit; Kumar, Sanjeev
2017-12-01
Rayleigh scattering differential cross sections for the 45.2 keV (66Dy Kα2), 46.0 keV (66Dy Kα1) and 52.1 keV (66Dy Kβ1,3) X-rays have been measured at 139° in 44 elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90. The measurements were performed using a radiation source consisting of an annular 66Dy foil excited by the 59.54 keV γ-ray photons from 241Am radioactive source. Intensity of the incident photons along with other geometrical factors were determined by measuring the isotropically emitted K X-ray yields from targets and knowledge of the corresponding K X-ray fluorescence cross sections. The measured Rayleigh scattering cross sections are compared with those based on various form factor formalisms and the state-of-the-art S-matrix calculations to differentiate between their relative efficacies. The scattering cross sections based on the modified form factor (MF) formalism exhibit large deviations for the elements with electron binding energies in vicinity of the incident photon energy, and these deviations smooth out on inclusion of the anomalous scattering factors (ASFs) to the MF values. The cross sections based on the MF after including ASF's are found to be on an average higher by 8% as compared to the measured ones. The S-matrix values exhibit in general good agreement with the measured cross sections for the elements with 22 ≤ Z ≤ 90.
Three-dimensional single-mode nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, R.; Aluie, H.; Betti, R.; Sanz, J.; Liu, B.; Frank, A.
2016-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in three dimensions. As the mode wavelength approaches the cutoff of the linear spectrum (short-wavelength modes), it is found that the three-dimensional (3D) terminal bubble velocity greatly exceeds both the two-dimensional (2D) value and the classical 3D bubble velocity. Unlike in 2D, the 3D short-wavelength bubble velocity does not saturate. The growing 3D bubble acceleration is driven by the unbounded accumulation of vorticity inside the bubble. The vorticity is transferred by mass ablation from the Rayleigh-Taylor spikes to the ablated plasma filling the bubble volume
Mukherjee, Lipi; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Hu, Yongxiang; Winker, David M
2017-05-10
Polarized radiation fields in a turbid medium are influenced by single-scattering properties of scatterers. It is common that media contain two or more types of scatterers, which makes it essential to properly mix single-scattering properties of different types of scatterers in the vector radiative transfer theory. The vector radiative transfer solvers can be divided into two basic categories: the stochastic and deterministic methods. The stochastic method is basically the Monte Carlo method, which can handle scatterers with different scattering properties explicitly. This mixture scheme is called the external mixture scheme in this paper. The deterministic methods, however, can only deal with a single set of scattering properties in the smallest discretized spatial volume. The single-scattering properties of different types of scatterers have to be averaged before they are input to deterministic solvers. This second scheme is called the internal mixture scheme. The equivalence of these two different mixture schemes of scattering properties has not been demonstrated so far. In this paper, polarized radiation fields for several scattering media are solved using the Monte Carlo and successive order of scattering (SOS) methods and scattering media contain two types of scatterers: Rayleigh scatterers (molecules) and Mie scatterers (aerosols). The Monte Carlo and SOS methods employ external and internal mixture schemes of scatterers, respectively. It is found that the percentage differences between radiances solved by these two methods with different mixture schemes are of the order of 0.1%. The differences of Q/I, U/I, and V/I are of the order of 10 -5 ∼10 -4 , where I, Q, U, and V are the Stokes parameters. Therefore, the equivalence between these two mixture schemes is confirmed to the accuracy level of the radiative transfer numerical benchmarks. This result provides important guidelines for many radiative transfer applications that involve the mixture of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tor eNordam
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A formalism is introduced for the non-perturbative, purely numerical, solution of the reduced Rayleigh equation for the scattering of light from two-dimensional penetrable rough surfaces. Implementation and performance issues of the method, and various consistency checks of it, are presented and discussed. The proposed method is found, within the validity of the Rayleigh hypothesis, to give reliable results. For a non-absorbing metal surface the conservation of energy was explicitly checked, and found to be satisfied to within 0.03%, or better, for the parameters assumed. This testifies to the accuracy of the approach and a satisfactory discretization. As an illustration, we calculate the full angular distribution of the mean differential reflection coefficient for the scattering of p- or s-polarized light incident on two-dimensional dielectric or metallic randomly rough surfaces defined by (isotropic or anisotropic Gaussian and cylindrical power spectra. Simulation results obtained by the proposed method agree well with experimentally measured scattering data taken from similar well-characterized, rough metal samples, or to results obtained by other numerical methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Wakil, S.A.; Sallah, M.; Degheidy, A.R.
2005-01-01
The time-dependent radiation transfer equation in plane geometry with Rayleigh scattering is studied. The traveling wave transformation is used to obtain the corresponding stationary-like equation. Pomraning-Eddington approximation is then used to calculate the radiation intensity in finite plane-parallel media. Numerical results and shielding calculations are shown for reflectivity and transmissivity at different times. The medium is assumed to have specular-reflecting boundaries. For the sake of comparison, two different weight functions are introduced and to force the boundary conditions to be fulfilled
Ground, Cody R.; Gopal, Vijay; Maddalena, Luca
2018-04-01
By introducing large-scale streamwise vortices into a supersonic flow it is possible to enhance the rate of mixing between two fluid streams. However, increased vorticity content alone does not explicitly serve as a predictor of mixing enhancement. Additional factors, particularly the mutual interactions occurring between neighboring vortical structures, affect the underlying fundamental physics that influence the rate at which the fluids mix. As part of a larger systematic study on supersonic streamwise vortex interactions, this work experimentally quantifies the average rate of mixing of helium and air in the presence of two separate modes of vortex interaction, the merging and non-merging of a pair of co-rotating vortices. In these experiments vortex-generating expansion ramps are placed on a strut injector. The freestream Mach number is set at 2.5 and helium is injected as a passive scalar. Average injectant mole fractions at selected flow planes downstream of the injector are measured utilizing the filtered Rayleigh scattering technique. The filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements reveal that, in the domain surveyed, the merging vortex interaction strongly displaces the plume from its initial horizontal orientation while the non-merging vortex interaction more rapidly mixes the helium and air. The results of the current experiments are consistent with associated knowledge derived from previous analyses of the two studied configurations which have included the detailed experimental characterization of entrainment, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity of both modes of vortex interaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Shao
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership (SNPP uses a solar diffuser (SD as its radiometric calibrator for the reflective solar band calibration. The SD is made of Spectralon™ (one type of fluoropolymer and was chosen because of its controlled reflectance in the Visible/Near-Infrared/Shortwave-Infrared region and its near-Lambertian reflectance property. On-orbit changes in VIIRS SD reflectance as monitored by the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor showed faster degradation of SD reflectance for 0.4 to 0.6 µm channels than the longer wavelength channels. Analysis of VIIRS SD reflectance data show that the spectral dependent degradation of SD reflectance in short wavelength can be explained with a SD Surface Roughness (length scale << wavelength based Rayleigh Scattering (SRRS model due to exposure to solar UV radiation and energetic particles. The characteristic length parameter of the SD surface roughness is derived from the long term reflectance data of the VIIRS SD and it changes at approximately the tens of nanometers level over the operational period of VIIRS. This estimated roughness length scale is consistent with the experimental result from radiation exposure of a fluoropolymer sample and validates the applicability of the Rayleigh scattering-based model. The model is also applicable to explaining the spectral dependent degradation of the SDs on other satellites. This novel approach allows us to better understand the physical processes of the SD degradation, and is complementary to previous mathematics based models.
Conti, C. C.; Anjos, M. J.; Salgado, C. M.
2014-09-01
X-ray fluorescence technique plays an important role in nondestructive analysis nowadays. The development of equipment, including portable ones, enables a wide assortment of possibilities for analysis of stable elements, even in trace concentrations. Nevertheless, despite of the advantages, one important drawback is radiation self-attenuation in the sample being measured, which needs to be considered in the calculation for the proper determination of elemental concentration. The mass attenuation coefficient can be determined by transmission measurement, but, in this case, the sample must be in slab shape geometry and demands two different setups and measurements. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio, determined from the X-ray fluorescence spectrum, provides a link to the mass attenuation coefficient by means of a polynomial type equation. This work presents a way to construct a Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio versus mass attenuation coefficient curve by using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code. The comparison between the calculated and literature values of the mass attenuation coefficient for some known samples showed to be within 15%. This calculation procedure is available on-line at www.macx.net.br.
Calculating Rayleigh scattering amplitudes from 100 eV to 10 MeV. [100 eV to 10 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parker, J.C.; Reynaud, G.W.; Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.
1979-05-01
An attempt is made to explain how to calculate the contribution to elastic photon-atom scattering due to Rayleigh scattering (the scattering off bound electrons) in the photon energy range 100 eV less than or equal to W less than or equal to 10 MeV. All intermediate calculations are described, including the calculation of the potential, bound state wave functions, matrix elements, and final cross sections. 12 references. (JFP)
Estimating the location of a tunnel using interferometric times of Rayleigh-wave scattering
Kaslilar, A.; Harmankaya, U.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.
2015-01-01
Inspired by a technique called seismic interferometry, we estimate the location of a scatterer using scattered waves. We isolate the scattered wavefield and evaluate the result of correlating scattered waves at different receiver locations. The cross-correlation eliminates the travel path between a
Data driven modeling of the low-Atwood single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Hutchinson, Maxwell
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is one of the most common and well studied phenomena in fluid dynamics. Despite research dating to the late 19th century, the non-linear dynamics of the interfacial instability are still not fully understood, particularly in the case when the two fluids have nearly the same density. It was recently demonstrated in this, the low-Atwood regime, that the idealized single-mode problem departs from established potential flow models in the form of a re-acceleration beyond the predicted terminal interface velocity. This thesis is an attempt to model that re-acceleration and, more broadly, the late time dynamics of the single-mode low-Atwood Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The approach taken here is based on buoyancy-drag models, which express a force balance between buoyancy and parasitic drag. The dynamical buoyancy-drag model is supplemented with a mixing model that dilutes the buoyant force over time. These models are written deliberately generally, with 8 unique coefficients. Three of these coefficients are solved for by equating the early time behavior with that of well established linear theories. The remaining 5 coefficients are estimated by relating them to drag coefficients, friction factors, and geometric ratios in the interface shape. To evaluate the model and compute the 5 unknown coefficients more precisely, a set of direct numerical simulations are performed over the relevant parameter space. These simulations are first validated against experimental data. Then they are shown to converge and their resolutions are chosen such as to minimize computational cost given the accuracy scale of the model. The 5 coefficients are fit to the resulting data set, and the model achieves better than 2% error in the bubble height and 4% error in the volume of mixed fluid. Three coefficients are nominally independent of the parameterization of the problem, while two are shown to vary with the Rayleigh number and the diffusivity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Saeed Akhter
2009-01-01
Full Text Available As common as the normal distribution is the Rayleigh distribution which occurs in works on radar, properties of sine wave plus-noise, etc. Rayleigh (1880 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many important sources. The Rayleigh distribution is widely used in communication engineering, reliability analysis and applied statistics. Since the Rayleigh distribution has linearly increasing rate, it is appropriate for components which might not have manufacturing defects but age rapidly with time. Several types of electro-vacum devices have this feature. It is connected with one dimension and two dimensions random walk and is some times referred to as a random walk frequency distribution. It is a special case of Weibull distribution (1951 of wide applicability. It can be easily derived from the bivariate normal distribution with and p = 0. For further application of Rayleigh distribution, we refer to Johnson and Kotz (1994. Adatia (1995 has obtained the best linear unbiased estimator of the Rayleigh scale parameter based on fairly large censored samples. Dyer and Whisend (1973 obtained the BLUE of scale parameter based on type II censored samples for small N = 2(15. With the advance of computer technology it is now possible to obtain BLUE for large samples. Hirai (1978 obtained the estimate of the scale parameter from the Rayleigh distribution singly type II censored from the left side and right side and variances of the scale parameter. In this paper, we estimate the scale parameter of type II singly and doubly censored data from the Rayleigh distribution using Blom’s (1958 unbiased nearly best estimates and compare the efficiency of this estimate with BLUE and MLE.
Particle optics in the Rayleigh regime.
Moosmüller, Hans; Arnott, W Patrick
2009-09-01
Light scattering and absorption by particles suspended in the atmosphere modifies the transfer of solar energy in the atmosphere, thereby influencing global and regional climate change and atmospheric visibility. Of particular interest are the optical properties of particles in the Rayleigh regime, where particles are small compared with the wavelength of the scattered or absorbed light, because these particles experience little gravitational settlement and may have long atmospheric lifetimes. Optical properties of particles in the Rayleigh regime are commonly derived from electromagnetic theory using Maxwell's equations and appropriate boundary conditions. The size dependence of particle scattering and absorption are derived here from the most basic principles for coherent processes such as Rayleigh scattering (i.e., add amplitudes if in phase) and incoherent processes such as absorption (i.e., add cross sections), at the same time yielding understanding of the upper particle size limit for the Rayleigh regime. The wavelength dependence of Rayleigh scattering and absorption are also obtained by adding a basic scale invariance for particle optics. Simple consequences for particle single-scattering albedo ("whiteness") and the optical measurement of particle mass densities are explained. These alternative derivations complement the conventional understanding obtained from electromagnetic theory.
Hua, Dengxin; Uchida, Masaru; Kobayashi, Takao
2005-03-01
A Rayleigh-Mie-scattering lidar system at an eye-safe 355-nm ultraviolet wavelength that is based on a high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is demonstrated for measuring the vertical temperature profile of the troposphere. Two Rayleigh signals, which determine the atmospheric temperature, are filtered with two Fabry-Perot etalon filters. The filters are located on the same side of the wings of the Rayleigh-scattering spectrum and are optically constructed with a dual-pass optical layout. This configuration achieves a high rejection rate for Mie scattering and reasonable transmission for Rayleigh scattering. The Mie signal is detected with a third Fabry-Perot etalon filter, which is centered at the laser frequency. The filter parameters were optimized by numerical calculation; the results showed a Mie rejection of approximately -45 dB, and Rayleigh transmittance greater than 1% could be achieved for the two Rayleigh channels. A Mie correction method is demonstrated that uses an independent measure of the aerosol scattering to correct the temperature measurements that have been influenced by the aerosols and clouds. Simulations and preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the performance of the dual-pass etalon and Mie correction method is highly effective in practical applications. Simulation results have shown that the temperature errors that are due to noise are less than 1 K up to a height of 4 km for daytime measurement for 300 W m(-2) sr(-1) microm(-1) sky brightness with a lidar system that uses 200 mJ of laser energy, a 3.5-min integration time, and a 25-cm telescope.
Balla, R. Jeffrey
1994-01-01
Planar Rayleigh scattering (PRS) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) were used to investigate the vitiated air component of a coaxial hydrogen/vitiated air nonpremixed turbulent jet flame that is ejected at a Mach number of 2. All experiments were performed with a xenon chloride tunable excimer laser. Planar information for both techniques was obtained using laser sheets 6 cm high, 5 cm wide, and 300 micron thick. In this flow field, the effective Rayleigh cross section of the components in the vitiated air was assumed to be independent of composition. Therefore, the PRS technique produced signals which were proportional to total density. When the flow field was assumed to be at a known and uniform pressure, the PRS signal data for the vitiated air could be converted to temperature information. Also, PLIF images were generated by probing the OH molecule. These images contain striation patterns attributed to small localized instantaneous temperature nonuniformities. The results from the PLIF and PRS techniques were used to show that this flow field contains a nongaseous component, most likely liquid water that can be reduced by increasing the settling chamber wall temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.
2011-01-01
The aim of this work was to develop a new method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E B O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and MgO) of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of Am-241(59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 155 7B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) , in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples. (author)
Rayleigh like scattering from silica–titania core-shell particles and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of light with these kind of particles. 2. Theory of scattering of light from core-shell particles. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with particles is well studied. The classical theory by Mie (1908) gives an analy- tical solution for scattering from homogenous particles. Theoretical studies to characterize the optical properties of.
Ma, Caijuan; Sun, Zijun; Liu, Guihua; Su, Zhengquan; Bai, Yan
2018-02-01
The method was presented for the sensitive and selective determination of chitosan (CTS) in health products with Brilliant Blue (BB) as a probe, based on dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (DWO-RRS). In weakly acidic buffer solution, the binding of CTS and BB could result in the RRS intensities getting enhanced significantly at RRS peaks of 344 nm and 452 nm, and the scattering intensities of the two peaks were proportional to the concentration of CTS within a certain range. When the RRS intensities of the two wavelengths were superposed, the results showed higher sensitivity. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the total of the two increased RRS intensities was linear to the CTS concentration in the range of 0.02-1.80 μg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.45 ng/mL. In this work, the optimum conditions and the effects of some foreign substances were studied. Accordingly, the new method based on DWO-RRS for the determination of CTS was developed. In addition, the effect of the molecular weight and the deacetylation degree between different chitosan molecules was discussed. Finally, this assay was applied to determine the concentration of CTS in health products with satisfactory results.
Collision-induced hyper-Rayleigh light scattering in gaseous dihydrogen-neon mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glaz, W.; Bancewicz, T. [Nonlinear Optics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, PL-61-614 Poznan (Poland); Godet, J.-L. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, EA 4464, Universite d' Angers, 2 boulevard Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Haskopoulos, A.; Maroulis, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)
2011-07-15
Cartesian components of the collision-induced (CI) hyperpolarizability {Delta}{beta} tensor are computed for the linear, T-shaped, and 45 deg. configurations of the H{sub 2}-Ne pair in the intermolecular range 3 to 14 bohr. Symmetry-adapted components {Delta}{beta}{sub {lambda}L}{sup (K)}(R) of the vector (K=1) part, as well as the septor (K=3) part, of the H{sub 2}-Ne CI hyperpolarizability are calculated starting from the ab initio Cartesian hyperpolarizability tensor values transformed into their spherical counterparts. By applying these quantities, the vector together with the septor collision-induced hyper-Rayleigh (CIHR) spectra for the H{sub 2}-Ne binary gas mixture are determined in the frequency range from -1250 to 2500 cm{sup -1}. The profiles are partially employed as a benchmarking device to estimate the importance of the short intermolecular distance part of the {Delta}{beta}(R) dependence. The depolarization ratio of the CIHR spectra in the whole frequency range is also calculated. The nature of the CIHR signal and the feasibility of the related experiments are discussed and analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, M.R.; Deeney, C.; Roderick, N.F.
1998-01-01
A series of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations have been carried out to investigate single and multimode growth and mode coupling for magnetically-driven Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities in Z pinches. Wavelengths ranging from 5.0 mm down to 1.25 mm were considered. Such wavelengths are comparable to those observed at stagnation using a random density open-quotes seedingclose quotes method. The calculations show that wavelengths resolved by less than 10 cells exhibit an artificial decrease in initial Fourier spectrum amplitudes and a reduction in the corresponding amplitude growth. Single mode evolution exhibits linear exponential growth and the development of higher harmonics as the mode transitions into the nonlinear phase. The mode growth continues to exponentiate but at a slower rate than determined by linear hydrodynamic theory. In the two and three mode case, there is clear evidence of mode coupling and inverse cascade. In addition, distinct modal patterns are observed late in the implosion, resulting from finite shell thickness and magnetic field effects. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics. thinsp
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hödemann, S., E-mail: siim.hodemann@ut.ee; Möls, P.; Kiisk, V.; Saar, R.; Kikas, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Wilhelm Ostwald st., Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Murata, T. [Nippon Electric Glass Co., 7-1 Seiran 2-chome, Otsu-shi, Shiga 520-8639 (Japan)
2015-12-28
A new optical method is presented for evaluation of the stress profile in chemically tempered (chemically strengthened) glass based on confocal detection of scattered laser beam. Theoretically, a lateral resolution of 0.2 μm and a depth resolution of 0.6 μm could be achieved by using a confocal microscope with high-NA immersion objective. The stress profile in the 250 μm thick surface layer of chemically tempered lithium aluminosilicate glass was measured with a high spatial resolution to illustrate the capability of the method. The confocal method is validated using transmission photoelastic and Na{sup +} ion concentration profile measurement. Compositional influence on the stress-optic coefficient is calculated and discussed. Our method opens up new possibilities for three-dimensional scattered light tomography of mechanical imaging in birefringent materials.
Single-Mode Deceleration Stage Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Growth in Cylindrical Implosions
Sauppe, J. P.; Palaniyappan, S.; Bradley, P. A.; Batha, S. H.; Loomis, E. N.; Kline, J. L.; Srinivasan, B.; Bose, A.; Malka, E.; Shvarts, D.
2017-10-01
We present design calculations demonstrating the feasibility of measuring single-mode deceleration stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) growth at a factor of four convergence. RTI growth rates are modified as a result of convergence [Bell LA-1321, 1951], and cylindrical targets are considered here, as they allow direct diagnostic access along the interface. The 2D computations, performed with the radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE [Gittings et al., CSD 2008] utilizing a new laser ray-tracing package, predict growth factors of 6 to 10 for mode 10 and 4 to 6 for mode 4, both of high interest in evaluating inertial confinement fusion capsule degradation mechanisms [Bose et al., this conference]. These results compare favorably to a linear theory [Epstein, PoP 2004] and to a buoyancy-drag model [Srebro et al., LPB 2003], which accounts for the linear and non-linear stages. Synthetic radiographs, produced by combining 2D computations of axial and transverse cross-sections, indicate this growth will be observable, and these will be compared to experimental data obtained at the OMEGA laser facility. Work performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396 for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy. (LA-UR-17-25608).
Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements with the OMEGA laser system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knauer, J.P.; Verdon, C.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Ofer, D.; McKenty, P.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Watt, R.G.; Gobby, P.L.; Willi, O.; Taylor, R.J.
1997-01-01
The results from a series of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five to six 351-nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3-ns ramp and 3-ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%endash 7% over a 600-μm-diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using through-foil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets with and without a foam buffer. The growth of both 31-μm and 60-μm wavelength perturbations was found to be in good agreement with ORCHID simulations when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The addition of a 30-mg/cc, 100-μm-thick polystyrene foam buffer layer resulted in reduced growth of the 31-μm perturbation and essentially unchanged growth for the 60-μm case when compared to targets without foam. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Casamayou-Boucau, Yannick; Ryder, Alan G.
2017-09-01
Anisotropy resolved multidimensional emission spectroscopy (ARMES) provides valuable insights into multi-fluorophore proteins (Groza et al 2015 Anal. Chim. Acta 886 133-42). Fluorescence anisotropy adds to the multidimensional fluorescence dataset information about the physical size of the fluorophores and/or the rigidity of the surrounding micro-environment. The first ARMES studies used standard thin film polarizers (TFP) that had negligible transmission between 250 and 290 nm, preventing accurate measurement of intrinsic protein fluorescence from tyrosine and tryptophan. Replacing TFP with pairs of broadband wire grid polarizers enabled standard fluorescence spectrometers to accurately measure anisotropies between 250 and 300 nm, which was validated with solutions of perylene in the UV and Erythrosin B and Phloxine B in the visible. In all cases, anisotropies were accurate to better than ±1% when compared to literature measurements made with Glan Thompson or TFP polarizers. Better dual wire grid polarizer UV transmittance and the use of excitation-emission matrix measurements for ARMES required complete Rayleigh scatter elimination. This was achieved by chemometric modelling rather than classical interpolation, which enabled the acquisition of pure anisotropy patterns over wider spectral ranges. In combination, these three improvements permit the accurate implementation of ARMES for studying intrinsic protein fluorescence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Chao; Lee Panetta, R.; Yang, Ping
2013-01-01
Effects of surface roughness on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals are investigated using a random wave superposition model of roughness that is a simplification of models used in studies of scattering by surface water waves. Unlike previous work with models of rough surfaces applicable only in limited size ranges, such as surface perturbation methods in the small particle regime or the tilted-facet (TF) method in the large particle regime, ours uses a single roughness model to cover a range in sizes extending from the Rayleigh to the geometric optics regimes. The basic crystal shape we examine is the hexagonal column but our roughening model can be used for a wide variety of particle geometries. To compute scattering properties over the range of sizes we use the pseudo-spectral time domain method (PSTD) for small to moderate sized particles and the improved geometric optics method (IGOM) for large ones. Use of the PSTD with our roughness model is straightforward. By discretizing the roughened surface with triangular sub-elements, we adapt the IGOM to give full consideration of shadow effects, multiple reflections/refractions at the surface, and possible reentrance of the scattered beams. We measure the degree of roughness of a surface by the variance (σ 2 ) of surface slopes occurring on the surfaces. For moderately roughened surfaces (σ 2 ≤0.1) in the large particle regime, the scattering properties given by the TF and IGOM agree well, but differences in results obtained with the two methods become noticeable as the surface becomes increasingly roughened. Having a definite, albeit idealized, roughness model we are able to use the combination of the PSTD and IGOM to examine how a fixed degree of surface roughness affects the scattering properties of a particle as the size parameter of the particle changes. We find that for moderately rough surfaces in our model, as particle size parameter increases beyond about 20 the influence of surface
Kazantsev, I. G.; Olsen, U. L.; Poulsen, H. F.; Hansen, P. C.
2018-02-01
We investigate the idealized mathematical model of single scatter in PET for a detector system possessing excellent energy resolution. The model has the form of integral transforms estimating the distribution of photons undergoing a single Compton scattering with a certain angle. The total single scatter is interpreted as the volume integral over scatter points that constitute a rotation body with a football shape, while single scattering with a certain angle is evaluated as the surface integral over the boundary of the rotation body. The equations for total and sample single scatter calculations are derived using a single scatter simulation approximation. We show that the three-dimensional slice-by-slice filtered backprojection algorithm is applicable for scatter data inversion provided that the attenuation map is assumed to be constant. The results of the numerical experiments are presented.
Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knauer, J. P.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Verdon, C. P.
2000-01-01
The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 μm diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 μm wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kazantsev, I.G.; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Poulsen, Henning Friis
2018-01-01
scatter is interpreted as the volume integral over scatter points that constitute a rotation body with a football shape, while single scattering with a certain angle is evaluated as the surface integral over the boundary of the rotation body. The equations for total and sample single scatter calculations...... are derived using a single scatter simulation approximation. We show that the three-dimensional slice-by-slice filtered backprojection algorithm is applicable for scatter data inversion provided that the attenuation map is assumed to be constant. The results of the numerical experiments are presented....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, H.; Mizutani, K.; Saito, t. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-10-22
Discussions were given on the possibility of estimating Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio utilizing phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements by using a three-component single-station seismograph. The test has selected as an observation point a location in the city of Kushiro where a pulp and paper mill generating microtremors is the focal point, and the underground structure at that point has been estimated by using the vertical array observation method. The observation system has used three components of a velocity type seismograph having a natural period of one second, an amplifier and an analog data recorder. As a result of the discussions, the following matters were made clear: the spectral ratio with a phase difference of 90 degrees agrees with the frequency at a peak trough of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio; the values of the spectral ratio at the phase difference of 90 degrees and the values of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio correspond well excepting in frequency bands of the peak trough; and these results suggest that the Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio may be estimated by utilizing the phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements. Estimation of the underground structure by using the inverse analysis of this Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio is expected in the future. 6 refs., 5 figs., tab.
El-Kader, M. S. A.; Godet, J.-L.; Gustafsson, M.; Maroulis, G.
2018-04-01
Quantum mechanical lineshapes of collision-induced absorption (CIA), collision-induced light scattering (CILS) and collision-induced hyper-Rayleigh scattering (CIHR) at room temperature (295 K) are computed for gaseous mixtures of molecular hydrogen with neon, krypton and xenon. The induced spectra are detected using theoretical values for induced dipole moment, pair-polarizability trace and anisotropy, hyper-polarizability and updated intermolecular potentials. Good agreement is observed for all spectra when the literature and the present potentials which are constructed from the transport and thermo-physical properties are used.
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.; Al-Arifi, Nassir S.
2018-01-01
Rayleigh waves often propagate according to complex mode excitation so that the proper identification and separation of specific modes can be quite difficult or, in some cases, just impossible. Furthermore, the analysis of a single component (i.e., an inversion procedure based on just one objective function) necessarily prevents solving the problems related to the non-uniqueness of the solution. To overcome these issues and define a holistic analysis of Rayleigh waves, we implemented a procedure to acquire data that are useful to define and efficiently invert the three objective functions defined from the three following "objects": the velocity spectra of the vertical- and radial-components and the Rayleigh-wave particle motion (RPM) frequency-offset data. Two possible implementations are presented. In the first case we consider classical multi-offset (and multi-component) data, while in a second possible approach we exploit the data recorded by a single three-component geophone at a fixed offset from the source. Given the simple field procedures, the method could be particularly useful for the unambiguous geotechnical exploration of large areas, where more complex acquisition procedures, based on the joint acquisition of Rayleigh and Love waves, would not be economically viable. After illustrating the different kinds of data acquisition and the data processing, the results of the proposed methodology are illustrated in a case study. Finally, a series of theoretical and practical aspects are discussed to clarify some issues involved in the overall procedure (data acquisition and processing).
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Puzzilli, L.M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 4 (2017), s. 431-444 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface wave analysis * Rayleigh wave dispersion * joint inversion * Vs30 Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016
Cai, Zhaoxia; Yu, Haifen; Ma, Meihu
2011-04-01
A new method for determination of lysozyme with high sensitivity based on Resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) by using Au nanoparticles as a probe was proposed in this experiment. The RRS spectrum, nonlinear scattering (second-order scattering (SOS), frequency doubling scattering (FDS)) spectra and absorption spectrum of the Au nanoparticles-lysozyme system have been analyzed. In addition, the effects of several factors on scattering intensities were investigated, including pH value of solution, amount of Au nanoparticles, mixing sequence of each reagent and the coexisting substances. The results showed that the coexisting substances have little influence on the RRS intensities of the systems. Moreover, the possible mechanism for the RRS enhancement of Au nanoparticles-lysozyme system was preliminary discussed. The RRS method for determination of lysozyme has good sensitivity and selectivity with the detection limits 30.1 ng/ml. The contents of lysozyme were determined with recoveries of 98.2-105.4% and relativity relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.3-3.7%, respectively. It proved that the method established in our study is suitable for the determination of lysozyme in synthetic sample and natural chicken egg white sample.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roderick, N.F.; Cochrane, K.; Douglas, M.R.
1998-01-01
Previous investigations carried out to study various methods of seeding the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations showed features similar to those seen in hydrodynamic calculations. For periodic single-mode initiations the results showed the appearance of harmonics as the single modes became nonlinear. For periodic multi-mode initiations new modes developed that indicated the presence of mode coupling. The MHD simulations used parameters of the high velocity large radius z-pinch experiments performed in the Z-accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The cylindrical convergent geometry and variable acceleration of these configurations made comparison with analytic, developed for planar geometry with constant acceleration, difficult. A set of calculations in planar geometry using constant current to produce acceleration and parameters characteristic of the cylindrical implosions has been performed to allow a better comparison. Results of these calculations, comparison with analytic theory, and comparison with the cylindrical configuration calculations will be discussed
Afridi, Muhammad Idrees; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yong-li; Latif, Abdul; Niazi, Shahab Ahmed
2013-01-01
A time interleaved differential phase shift keying (DPSK) remodulation technique is proposed to mitigate the effect of Rayleigh backscattering (RBS)-induced noise in a single fiber colorless wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON). In order to achieve a cost effective optical network unit (ONU) solution without dedicated laser sources for upstream signals to provide optimum symmetric capacity in a colorless WDM-PON, remodulation becomes the core attraction. Also as the performance of colorless WDM-PON systems suffers from the transmission impairments due to RBS, it is mitigated by using this remodulation scheme. Simulation results show that downstream and upstream signals achieve the error-free performance at 10 Gbit/s with negligible penalty, and enhance the tolerance to RBS-induced noise over a 25 km single-mode fiber.
Expressive Single Scattering for Light Shaft Stylization
Kol, T.R.; Klehm, O.; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Eisemann, E.
2017-01-01
Light scattering in participating media is a natural phenomenon that is increasingly featured in movies and games, as it is visually pleasing and lends realism to a scene. In art, it may further be used to express a certain mood or emphasize objects. Here, artists often rely on stylization when
Zhong, Caijun
2010-09-01
This paper studies the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with a single co-channel interferer in the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. Two MIMO models namely Rician and Rayleigh-product channels are investigated. Exact analytical expressions for the minimum energy per information bit, {Eb/N0min, and wideband slope, S0, are derived for both channels. Our results show that the minimum energy per information bit is the same for both channels while their wideband slopes differ significantly. Further, the impact of the numbers of transmit and receive antennas, the Rician K factor, the channel mean matrix and the interference-to-noise-ratio (INR) on the capacity, is addressed. Results indicate that interference degrades the capacity by increasing the required minimum energy per information bit and reducing the wideband slope. Simulation results validate our analytical results. © 2010 IEEE.
Compton-scatter tissue densitometry: calculation of single and multiple scatter photon fluences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battista, J.J.; Bronskill, M.J.
1978-01-01
The accurate measurement of in vivo electron densities by the Compton-scatter method is limited by attenuations and multiple scattering in the patient. Using analytic and Monte Carlo calculation methods, the Clarke tissue density scanner has been modelled for incident monoenergetic photon energies from 300 to 2000 keV and for mean scattering angles of 30 to 130 degrees. For a single detector focussed to a central position in a uniform water phantom (25 x 25 x 25 cm 3 ) it has been demonstrated that: (1) Multiple scatter contamination is an inherent limitation of the Compton-scatter method of densitometry which can be minimised, but not eliminated, by improving the energy resolution of the scattered radiation detector. (2) The choice of the incident photon energy is a compromise between the permissible radiation dose to the patient and the tolerable level of multiple scatter contamination. For a mean scattering angle of 40 degrees, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio decreases from 64 to 35%, and the radiation dose (per measurement) increases from 1.0 to 4.1 rad, as the incident photon energy increases from 300 to 2000 keV. These doses apply to a sampled volume of approximately 0.3 cm 3 and an electron density precision of 0.5%. (3) The forward scatter densitometer configuration is optimum, minimising both the dose and the multiple scatter contamination. For an incident photon energy of 1250 keV, the intrinsic multiple-single scatter ratio reduces from 122 to 27%, and the dose reduces from 14.3 to 1.2 rad, as the mean scattering angle decreases from 130 to 30 degrees. These calculations have been confirmed by experimental measurements. (author)
Single and Multiple Scattering in UWB Bicone Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raffaele D'Errico
2008-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis of interactions between radiators in a UWB biconical array, drawing attention to single and multiple scatterings, is carried out. The complementarity between electrical coupling and radiation scattering is argued. The point source approximation is discussed and shown to be insufficient. An approximation of radiation scattering based on angular averaging of the scattering coefficient is proposed. This approach yields a reduction of the problem complexity, which is especially interesting in UWB multiple antenna systems, because of the large bandwidth. Multiple scattering between radiators is shown to be a second-order effect. Finally, a time domain approach is used in order to investigate pulse distortion and quantify the exactness of the proposed scattering model.
Bode, Peter; Bueno, Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira; Bortoleto, Gisele G; Hoffmann, Gaby; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Rothuizen, Jan
2008-03-01
The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu concentrations in hair and nail samples. However, hair and nail samples were also analyzed by X-ray tube excitation, taking advantage of the X-ray Compton, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering which reflects the organic components such as the type of melanin. Principal component analysis provided first indications that some differentiation between healthy and sick dogs could indeed be obtained from hair and nail analysis.
Hu, Zhongwei; Autschbach, Jochen; Jensen, Lasse
2014-09-28
Resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) of molecules and metal clusters have been simulated based on a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The resonance first-order hyperpolarizability (β) is obtained by implementing damped quadratic response theory using the (2n + 1) rule. To test this implementation, the prototypical dipolar molecule para-nitroaniline (p-NA) and the octupolar molecule crystal violet are used as benchmark systems. Moreover, small silver clusters Ag 8 and Ag 20 are tested with a focus on determining the two-photon resonant enhancement arising from the strong metal transition. Our results show that, on a per atom basis, the small silver clusters possess two-photon enhanced HRS comparable to that of larger nanoparticles. This finding indicates the potential interest of using small metal clusters for designing new nonlinear optical materials.
Importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
2011-01-01
Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature....... This paper provides the details of several different techniques for importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function, and it includes a comparison of their performance as well as hints toward efficient implementation....
Chen, Fang; Peng, Jingdong; Liu, Shaopu; Peng, Huanjun; Pan, Ziyu; Bu, Lingli; Xiao, Huan; Zhang, Ruiwen
2017-04-15
A highly sensitive detection approach of resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra (RRS) is firstly applied to analyzing nootropic drugs including piracetam (PIR) and oxiracetam (OXI). In HCl-NaAc buffer solution (pH=3.0), the OXI chelated with palladium (II) to form the chelate cation [Pd 2 ·OXI] 2+ , and then reacted with Congo red (CGR) by virtue of electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic force to form binary complex [Pd 2 ·OXI]. CGR 2 , which could result in the great enhancement of RRS. The resonance Rayleigh scattering signal was recorded at λ ex =λ em =375nm. This mixture complex not only has higher RRS, but also makes contribution to significant increase of fluorescence, and the same phenomena also were discovered in PIR. The enhanced RRS intensity is in proportion to the PIR and OXI concentration in the range of 0.03-3.0μgmL -1 , and the detection limit (DL) of RRS method for PIR and OXI is 2.3ngmL -1 and 9.7ngmL -1 . In addition, the DL of fluorescence method for PIR and OXI is 8.4μgmL -1 and 19.5μgmL -1 . Obviously, the RRS is the highly sensitive method, and the recoveries of the two kinds of nootropic drugs were range from 100.4% to 101.8.0% with RSD (n=5) from 1.1% to 3.1% by RRS method. This paper not only investigated the optimum conditions for detecting nootropics with using RRS method, but also focused on the reasons for enhancing RRS intensity and the reaction mechanism, which in order to firm and contract the resultant. Finally, The RRS method has been applied to detect nootropic drugs in human urine samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matsuura, H.; Nagasaka, Y.
2018-02-01
We describe an instrument for the measurement of the Soret and thermodiffusion coefficients in ternary systems based on the transient holographic grating technique, which is called Soret forced Rayleigh scattering (SFRS) or thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (TDFRS). We integrated the SFRS technique and the two-wavelength detection technique, which enabled us to obtain two different signals to determine the two independent Soret coefficients and thermodiffusion coefficients in ternary systems. The instrument has been designed to read the mass transport simultaneously by two-wavelength lasers with wavelengths of λ = 403 nm and λ = 639 nm. The irradiation time of the probing lasers is controlled to reduce the effect of laser absorption to the sample with dye (quinizarin), which is added to convert the interference pattern of the heating laser of λ = 532 nm to the temperature grating. The result of the measurement of binary benchmark mixtures composed of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (THN), isobutylbenzene (IBB), and n-dodecane (nC12) shows that the simultaneous two-wavelength observation of the Soret effect and the mass diffusion are adequately performed. To evaluate performance in the measurement of ternary systems, we carried out experiments on the ternary benchmark mixtures of THN/IBB/nC12 with the mass fractions of 0.800/0.100/0.100 at a temperature of 298.2 K. The Soret coefficient and thermodiffusion coefficient agreed with the ternary benchmark values within the range of the standard uncertainties (23% for the Soret coefficient of THN and 30% for the thermodiffusion coefficient of THN).
Integrated Raman and angular scattering of single biological cells
Smith, Zachary J.
2009-12-01
Raman, or inelastic, scattering and angle-resolved elastic scattering are two optical processes that have found wide use in the study of biological systems. Raman scattering quantitatively reports on the chemical composition of a sample by probing molecular vibrations, while elastic scattering reports on the morphology of a sample by detecting structure-induced coherent interference between incident and scattered light. We present the construction of a multimodal microscope platform capable of gathering both elastically and inelastically scattered light from a 38 mum2 region in both epi- and trans-illumination geometries. Simultaneous monitoring of elastic and inelastic scattering from a microscopic region allows noninvasive characterization of a living sample without the need for exogenous dyes or labels. A sample is illuminated either from above or below with a focused 785 nm TEM00 mode laser beam, with elastic and inelastic scattering collected by two separate measurement arms. The measurements may be made either simultaneously, if identical illumination geometries are used, or sequentially, if the two modalities utilize opposing illumination paths. In the inelastic arm, Stokes-shifted light is dispersed by a spectrograph onto a CCD array. In the elastic scattering collection arm, a relay system images the microscope's back aperture onto a CCD detector array to yield an angle-resolved elastic scattering pattern. Post-processing of the inelastic scattering to remove fluorescence signals yields high quality Raman spectra that report on the sample's chemical makeup. Comparison of the elastically scattered pupil images to generalized Lorenz-Mie theory yields estimated size distributions of scatterers within the sample. In this thesis we will present validations of the IRAM instrument through measurements performed on single beads of a few microns in size, as well as on ensembles of sub-micron particles of known size distributions. The benefits and drawbacks of the
Rayleigh scattering from single-site polysylane adsorbed on silicon: Theory
Wijers, Christianus M.J.
1986-01-01
An ordered set of dipoles with mutual interaction in the close vicinity of a dielectric surface is studied. The solution of that particular theoretical problem is given rigorously both for the static and dynamic case. It can serve as a description of the polysylane molecules formed at the surface of
Single crystal surface structure by bragg scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens
1985-01-01
X-ray diffraction is becoming an important tool in the measurements of surface structures. Single crystalline samples are used as in Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)-studies. The X-ray technique is somewhat more involved due to the need of bright, collimated photon sources, in general...
Mie scatter corrections in single cell infrared microspectroscopy.
Konevskikh, Tatiana; Lukacs, Rozalia; Blümel, Reinhold; Ponossov, Arkadi; Kohler, Achim
2016-06-23
Strong Mie scattering signatures hamper the chemical interpretation and multivariate analysis of the infrared microscopy spectra of single cells and tissues. During recent years, several numerical Mie scatter correction algorithms for the infrared spectroscopy of single cells have been published. In the paper at hand, we critically reviewed existing algorithms for the correction of Mie scattering and suggest improvements. We developed an iterative algorithm based on Extended Multiplicative Scatter Correction (EMSC), for the retrieval of pure absorbance spectra from highly distorted infrared spectra of single cells. The new algorithm uses the van de Hulst approximation formula for the extinction efficiency employing a complex refractive index. The iterative algorithm involves the establishment of an EMSC meta-model. While existing iterative algorithms for the correction of resonant Mie scattering employ three independent parameters for establishing a meta-model, we could decrease the number of parameters from three to two independent parameters, which reduced the calculation time for the Mie scattering curves for the iterative EMSC meta-model by a factor of 10. Moreover, by employing the Hilbert transform for evaluating the Kramers-Kronig relations based on a FFT algorithm in Matlab, we further improved the speed of the algorithm by a factor of 100. For testing the algorithm we simulate distorted apparent absorbance spectra by utilizing the exact theory for the scattering of infrared light at absorbing spheres, taking into account the high numerical aperture of infrared microscopes employed for the analysis of single cells and tissues. In addition, the algorithm was applied to measured absorbance spectra of single lung cancer cells.
Single particle analysis with a 3600 light scattering photometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartholdi, M.F.
1979-06-01
Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 μm and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360 0 light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5 0 to 177.5 0 at phi = 0 0 and 180 0 is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3 0 in scattering angle on 6 0 centers around 360 0 . 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells
Wang, Yaqiong; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli
2013-03-01
In 0.1 mol L-1 HCl medium, antiemetic drugs (ATM), such as granisetron hydrochloride (GS) and tropisetron hydrochloride (TS), reacted with H3PW12O40·nH2O and formed 3:1 ion-association complex of [(ATM)3PW12O40], then self-aggregated into nanoparticles-[(ATM)3PW12O40]n with an average size of 100 nm. The reaction resulted in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and the absorption spectra. The increments of scattering intensity (ΔIRRS) and the change of absorbance (ΔA) were both directly proportional to the concentrations of ATM in certain ranges. Accordingly, two new RRS and spectrophotometric methods were proposed for ATM detection. The detection limits (3σ) of GS and TS were 3.2 ng mL-1 and 4.0 ng mL-1(RRS method), 112.5 ng mL-1 and 100.0 ng mL-1(spectrophotometric method). These two methods were applied to determine GS in orally disintegrating tablets and the results were in good agreement with the official method. The ground-state geometries and electronic structures of GS and TS were optimized by the hybrid density functional theory (DFT) method and the shape of [(ATM)3PW12O40]n was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Take the RRS method with higher sensitivity as an example, the reaction mechanism and the reasons for enhancement of scattering were discussed.
Fotiadi, Andrei A.; Mégret, Patrice; Blondel, Michel
2004-05-01
Backward light scattering can cause passive Q switching in fiber lasers. We propose a self-consistent description of the laser dynamics. Our model quantitatively reproduces the temporal structure of pulsation and is also attractive for analysis of laser stability and statistics. The validity of the model is directly verified in an experiment.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bairamov, Bakhysh
2004-01-01
...: As detailed in an on-line proposal the contractor will: 1) develop and build an optical device, fitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, to perform high-resolution quasieleastic light scattering spectroscopy; 2...
Effective single scattering albedo estimation using regional climate model
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Tesfaye, M
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, by modifying the optical parameterization of Regional Climate model (RegCM), the authors have computed and compared the Effective Single-Scattering Albedo (ESSA) which is a representative of VIS spectral region. The arid, semi...
Liang, Aihui; Peng, Jing; Liu, Qingye; Wen, Guiqing; Lu, Zhujun; Jiang, Zhiliang
2015-08-15
In pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution, fluorine ions react with fluorine reagent (FR) and La(III) to generate blue ternary complex that exhibited strong absorption at about 370 nm. Upon addition of graphene oxide/nanogold (GO/NG) as resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectral probe with strong RRS peak at 370 nm, the color changed to gray, and the RRS intensity decreased with the increase of fluorine ion concentration due to the RRS energy transfer (RRSET) from GO/NG to the complex. Under the selected condition, the decreased RRS peak ΔI370 nm was linear to fluorine ion concentration in the range of 6.0 × 10(-8)-1.3 × 10(-5)mol/L, with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(-8)mol/L F(-). This RRSET method was applied to the analysis of fluorine in toothpaste and water samples, with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Yu
2014-06-01
A novel method with high sensitivity was designed for the determination of trace nucleic acids by using cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and camellia sinensis (CS) as resonance Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) probes. It was found DNA could combine with CS and CPC in Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 7.4). Under optimum conditions, the RLS intensity of DNA can be enhanced by CPC-CS obviously at 294 nm, and the enhanced RLS intensity was directly proportional to DNA concentration in the range from 0.024 to 3.48 μg mL-1 with a good linear relationship (r = 0.9940). The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.49 ng mL-1 (S/N = 3). In addition, the effects of some interferences including K+, Na+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+ and glucose on the determination were studied. The developed RLS assay was successfully applied to three synthetic samples to measure DNA, the recovery was 94.7-106.3% and RSD was 0.58-3.33%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong, L.; Liu, Z.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.; Li, W.
2012-01-01
The interaction of insulin with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) leads to a complex that displays remarkably enhanced resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS). The complex and its formation were investigated by atomic force microscopy and by absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. We show that the Tyr B16, Tyr B26 and Phe B24 amino acids near the active center (Phe B25) were influenced by the interaction, whereas Tyr A14, Tyr A19 and Phe B1 (which are located far away from the active center) were less influenced. The interaction provide a way in the quantitation of both ctDNA and insulin with high sensitivity. When ctDNA is used as a probe to quantify insulin, the detection limit (3σ) is 6.0 ng mL -1 . If, inversely, insulin is used as a probe to quantify ctDNA, the detection limit (3σ) is 7.2 ng mL -1 . The analysis of synthetic DNA samples and an insulin infection sample provided satisfactory results. (author)
Paolantoni, Marco; Sassi, Paola; Morresi, Assunta; Santini, Sergio
2007-07-01
The effect of glucose on the relaxation process of water at picosecond time scales has been investigated by depolarized Rayleigh scattering (DRS) experiments. The process is assigned to the fast hydrogen bonding dynamics of the water network. In DRS spectra this contribution can be safely separated from the slower relaxation process due to the sugar. The detected relaxation time is studied at different glucose concentrations and modeled considering bulk and hydrating water contributions. As a result, it is found that in diluted conditions the hydrogen bond lifetime of proximal water molecules becomes about three times slower than that of the bulk. The effect of the sugar on the hydrogen bond water structure is investigated by analyzing the low-frequency Raman (LFR) spectrum sensitive to intermolecular modes. The addition of glucose strongly reduces the intensity of the band at 170cm-1 assigned to a collective stretching mode of water molecules arranged in cooperative tetrahedral domains. These findings indicate that proximal water molecules partially lose the tetrahedral ordering typical of the bulk leading to the formation of high density environments around the sugar. Thus the glucose imposes a new local order among water molecules localized in its hydration shell in which the hydrogen bond breaking dynamics is sensitively retarded. This work provides new experimental evidences that support recent molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamics results.
Pfadler, Sebastian; Löffler, Micha; Dinkelacker, Friedrich; Leipertz, Alfred
2005-08-01
The turbulence and temperature field of Bunsen-type turbulent lean methane/air flames has been investigated using planar laser Rayleigh scattering (PLRS) and stereo particle image velocimetry (stereo PIV). Temporally averaged reaction progress variable plots have been computed from PLRS measurements in order to provide a basis with regards to the verification of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Turbulence was characterised by stereo PIV in one plane for all three velocity components. Averaged velocity fields have been calculated, as well as Reynolds-decomposed fluctuation vector fields. Conditioned root mean square (RMS) values of the turbulent fluctuations in terms of unburnt and burnt gas could be determined by making use of the information gained from a threshold setting procedure in the PIV raw images. Furthermore, several length scales were measured indirectly from PIV vector plots. In this context, all integral length scales being accessible with stereo PIV were computed separately for the burnt and unburnt regions and were compared to each other. It could be observed that all integral length scales increased in the burnt zone. Additionally, the conditioned Taylor and Kolmogorov lengths have been extracted from the PIV field data, derived either from the zero-radius curvature of the correlation function or from common turbulence theory relations.
SCAP-82, Single Scattering, Albedo Scattering, Point-Kernel Analysis in Complex Geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disney, R.K.; Vogtman, S.E.
1987-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: SCAP solves for radiation transport in complex geometries using the single or albedo scatter point kernel method. The program is designed to calculate the neutron or gamma ray radiation level at detector points located within or outside a complex radiation scatter source geometry or a user specified discrete scattering volume. Geometry is describable by zones bounded by intersecting quadratic surfaces within an arbitrary maximum number of boundary surfaces per zone. Anisotropic point sources are describable as pointwise energy dependent distributions of polar angles on a meridian; isotropic point sources may also be specified. The attenuation function for gamma rays is an exponential function on the primary source leg and the scatter leg with a build- up factor approximation to account for multiple scatter on the scat- ter leg. The neutron attenuation function is an exponential function using neutron removal cross sections on the primary source leg and scatter leg. Line or volumetric sources can be represented as a distribution of isotropic point sources, with un-collided line-of-sight attenuation and buildup calculated between each source point and the detector point. 2 - Method of solution: A point kernel method using an anisotropic or isotropic point source representation is used, line-of-sight material attenuation and inverse square spatial attenuation between the source point and scatter points and the scatter points and detector point is employed. A direct summation of individual point source results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The SCAP program is written in complete flexible dimensioning so that no restrictions are imposed on the number of energy groups or geometric zones. The geometric zone description is restricted to zones defined by boundary surfaces defined by the general quadratic equation or one of its degenerate forms. The only restriction in the program is that the total
Strong paramagnon scattering in single atom Pd contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schendel, V.; Barreteau, Cyrille; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-01-01
Among all transition metals, palladium (Pd) has the highest density of states at the Fermi energy at low temperatures yet does not fulfill the Stoner criterion for ferromagnetism. However, close proximity to magnetism renders it a nearly ferromagnetic metal, which hosts paramagnons, strongly damp...... adatoms locally induce magnetic order, and transport through single cobalt atoms remains unaffected by paramagnon scattering, consistent with theory....... spin fluctuations. Here we compare the total and the differential conductance of monoatomic contacts consisting of single Pd and cobalt (Co) atoms between Pd electrodes. Transport measurements reveal a conductance for Co of 1G(0), while for Pd we obtain 2G(0). The differential conductance of monoatomic...
Chen, Fang; Peng, Jingdong; Liu, Shaopu; Peng, Huanjun; Pan, Ziyu; Bu, Lingli; Xiao, Huan; Zhang, Ruiwen
2017-04-01
A highly sensitive detection approach of resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra (RRS) is firstly applied to analyzing nootropic drugs including piracetam (PIR) and oxiracetam (OXI). In HCl-NaAc buffer solution (pH = 3.0), the OXI chelated with palladium (II) to form the chelate cation [Pd2·OXI]2 +, and then reacted with Congo red (CGR) by virtue of electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic force to form binary complex [Pd2·OXI]. CGR2, which could result in the great enhancement of RRS. The resonance Rayleigh scattering signal was recorded at λex = λem = 375 nm. This mixture complex not only has higher RRS, but also makes contribution to significant increase of fluorescence, and the same phenomena also were discovered in PIR. The enhanced RRS intensity is in proportion to the PIR and OXI concentration in the range of 0.03-3.0 μg mL- 1, and the detection limit (DL) of RRS method for PIR and OXI is 2.3 ng mL- 1 and 9.7 ng mL- 1. In addition, the DL of fluorescence method for PIR and OXI is 8.4 μg mL- 1 and 19.5 μg mL- 1. Obviously, the RRS is the highly sensitive method, and the recoveries of the two kinds of nootropic drugs were range from 100.4% to 101.8.0% with RSD (n = 5) from 1.1% to 3.1% by RRS method. This paper not only investigated the optimum conditions for detecting nootropics with using RRS method, but also focused on the reasons for enhancing RRS intensity and the reaction mechanism, which in order to firm and contract the resultant. Finally, The RRS method has been applied to detect nootropic drugs in human urine samples with satisfactory results. Fig. S2. The effect of ionic strength: Pd (II)-CGR system (curve a); Pd (II)-OXI-CGR system (curve b); Pd (II)-PIR- CGR system (curve c). Pd (II): 2.0 × 10- 4 mol L- 1; CGR: 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1; OXI: 1.5 μg mL- 1; PIR: 2 μg mL- 1; NaCl: 1 mol L- 1. Fig. S3. The effect of time: Pd (II)-OXI-CGR system (curve a); Pd (II)-PIR-CGR system (curve b). Pd (II): 2.0 × 10- 4 mol L- 1; CGR: 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1
Airflow Characterization by Rayleigh-Mie Lidars
Cézard, N.; Besson, C.; Dolfi-Bouteyre, A.; Lombard, L.
2009-01-01
International audience; This paper deals with lidar systems applied to airflow measurements. The properties of the two main light scattering processes, Rayleigh and Mie scattering, are presented and correlated to general but important rules for lidar design. The Rayleigh lidar developed at Onera for short-range wind speed measurements is also presented, and the Doppler analysis technique using Michelson fringe imagery is briefly discussed.
Single Scattering Detection in Turbin Media Using Single-Phase Structured Illumination Filtering
Berrocal, E.; Johnsson, J.; Kristensson, E.; Alden, M.
2012-05-01
This work shows a unique possibility of visualizing the exponential intensity decay due to light extinction, when laser adiation propagates through a homogeneous scattering edium. This observation implies that the extracted intensity mostly riginates from single scattering events. The filtering of this single light scattering intensity is performed by means of a single-phase structured illumination filtering approach. Results from numerical Monte Carlo simulation confirm the experimental findings for an extinction coefficient of μ_e = 0.36 mm^-1. This article demonstrates an original and reliable way of measuring the extinction coefficient of particulate turbid media based on sidescattering imaging. Such an approach has capabilities to replace the commonly used transmission measurement within the intermediate single-to multiple scattering regime where the optical depth ranges between 1 procedure and set-up. Applications of the technique has potential in probing challenging homogeneous scattering media, such as biomedical tissues, turbid emulsions, etc, in situations where dilution cannot be applied and where conventional transmission measurements fail.
The single-angle neutron scattering facility at Pelindaba
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmeyr, C.; Mayer, R.M.; Tillwick, D.L.; Starkey, J.R.
1978-05-01
The small-angle neutron scattering facility at the SAFARI-1 reactor is described in detail, and with reference to theoretical and practical design considerations. Inexpensive copper microwave guides used as a guide-pipe for slow neutrons provided the basis for a useful though comparatively simple facility. The neutron-spectrum characteristics of the final facility in different configurations of the guide-pipe (both S and single-curved) agree wel with expected values based on results obtained with a test facility. The design, construction, installation and alignment of various components of the facility are outlined, as well as intensity optimisation. A general description is given of experimental procedures and data-aquisition electronics for the four-position sample holder and counter array of up to 18 3 He detectors and a beam monitor [af
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of single nanodiamonds.
Pope, Iestyn; Payne, Lukas; Zoriniants, George; Thomas, Evan; Williams, Oliver; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola
2014-11-01
Nanoparticles have attracted enormous attention for biomedical applications as optical labels, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents in vivo. In the quest for superior photostability and biocompatibility, nanodiamonds are considered one of the best choices due to their unique structural, chemical, mechanical and optical properties. So far, mainly fluorescent nanodiamonds have been utilized for cell imaging. However, their use is limited by the efficiency and costs in reliably producing fluorescent defect centres with stable optical properties. Here, we show that single non-fluorescing nanodiamonds exhibit strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at the sp(3) vibrational resonance of diamond. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, the relationship between CARS signal strength and nanodiamond size is quantified. The calibrated CARS signal in turn enables the analysis of the number and size of nanodiamonds internalized in living cells in situ, which opens the exciting prospect of following complex cellular trafficking pathways quantitatively.
Retrievals and uncertainty analysis of aerosol single scattering albedo from MFRSR measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin, Bangsheng; Min, Qilong; Joseph, Everette
2015-01-01
Aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) can be retrieved from the ratio of diffuse horizontal and direct normal fluxes measured from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR). In this study, the measurement channels at 415 nm and 870 nm are selected for aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom coefficient retrievals, and the measurements at 415 nm are used for aerosol SSA retrievals with the constraint of retrieved Angstrom coefficient. We extensively assessed various issues impacting on the accuracy of SSA retrieval from measurements to input parameters and assumptions. For cloud-free days with mean aerosol loading of 0.13–0.60, our sensitivity study indicated that: (1) 1% calibration uncertainty can result in 0.8–3.7% changes in retrieved SSA; (2) without considering the cosine respond correction and/or forward scattering correction will result in underestimation of 1.1–3.3% and/or 0.73% in retrieved SSA; (3) an overestimation of 0.1 in asymmetry factor can result in an underestimation of 2.54–3.4% in retrieved SSA; (4) for small aerosol loading (e.g., 0.13), the uncertainty associated with the choice of Rayleigh optical depth value can result in non-negligible change in retrieved SSA (e.g., 0.015); (5) an uncertainty of 0.05 for surface albedo can result in changes of 1.49–5.4% in retrieved SSA. We applied the retrieval algorithm to the MFRSR measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The retrieved results of AOD, Angstrom coefficient, and SSA are basically consistent with other independent measurements from co-located instruments at the site. - Highlights: • Aerosol SSA is derived from MFRSR measured diffuse to direct normal irradiance ratio. • We extensively assessed various issues impacting on the accuracy of SSA retrieval. • The issues are mainly from measurements and model input parameters and assumptions. • We applied the retrieval algorithm to the MFRSR measurements at ARM SGP
On Spectral Invariance of Single Scattering Albedo for Weakly Absorbing Wavelengths
Marshak, Alexander
2012-01-01
The single scattering albedo omega (sub 0 lambda) in atmospheric radiative transfer is the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the total extinction coefficient. For cloud water droplets both the scattering and absorption coefficients, thus the single scattering albedo, are functions of wavelength A and droplet size r. In this presentation we will show that for water droplets at weakly absorbing wavelengths, the ratio omega (sub 0 lambda)(r). The slope and intercept of the linear function are wavelength independent and sum to unity. This relationship allows for a representation of any single scattering albedo omega (sub 0 lambda) via one known spectrum omega (sub 0 lambda)(r(sub o)). We will provide a simple physical explanation of the discovered relationship. In addition to water droplets, similar linear relationships were found for the single scattering albedo of non-spherical ice crystals. The single scattering albedo $\\omega _ {0\\lambda }$ in atmospheric radiative transfer is the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the total extinction coefficient. For cloud water droplets both the scattering and absorption coefficients, and thus the single scattering albedo, are functions of wavelength $\\lambda $ and droplet size $r$. We show that for water droplets at weakly absorbing wavelengths, the ratio $\\omega _ {0\\lambda } (r)$/$\\omega _ {0\\lambda } (r_{0})$ of two single scattering albedo spectra for two different droplet sizes is a linear function of $\\omega _{0\\lambda }(r)$. The slope and intercept of the linear function are wavelength independent and sum to unity. This relationship allows for a representation of any single scattering albedo $\\omega_{0\\lambda }(r)$ via one known spectrum $\\omega_{0\\lambda }(r_{0})$. We provide a simple physical explanation of the discovered relationship. Similar linear relationships characterize the single scattering albedo of non-spherical ice crystals.
A Study of Multiple Scattering in BGO and LYSO Single Crystal Scintillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kittipong Seingsanoh
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The angular distribution of multiple Compton scatterings from BGO and LYSO single crystal scintillators was studied at various scattering angles. Gamma photons with 662 keV energy, acquired from a 137Cs source, were used. The scattered photons were detected by a 51mm × 51mm NaI(Tl scintillation detector. The overall energy correlated to the total number of scattered incidents was analytically reconstructed. The research found that the multiply scattered incidents had the same energy as received from the singly scattered distribution, as the attribution of multiply scattered incidents near the 90° scattering angle revealed. The research results were in agreement with the theoretical calculations.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moustafa, S.S.R.; Al-Arifi, N.
2018-01-01
Roč. 175, č. 1 (2018), s. 67-88 ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface wave dispersion * joint inversion of seismic data * Rayleigh waves * holistic analysis of surface waves Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016
Upmanyu, Arun; Singh, Gurjot; Duggal, Heena; Kainth, H S; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sanjeev
2017-10-01
The present work reports Rayleigh scattering cross section measurements for the 39.5keV (Sm- Kα 2 ), 40.1keV (Sm-Kα 1 ) and 45.4keV (Sm-Kβ 1,3 ) X-ray photons in 35 elements with 26 ≤ Z ≤ 83 at backward angle of 139°. The scattering measurements were performed in reflection mode geometrical set up involving a secondary photon source consisting of Samarium ( 62 Sm) target excited by the 59.54keV γ-rays from the 241 Am radioactive source. The scattered photons were detected using a low energy germanium (LEGe) detector. The product of detector efficiency, intensity of incident photons and other geometrical factors were determined by measuring the K X-ray yields from targets with 47 ≤ Z ≤ 59 and knowledge of the respective K X-ray fluorescence cross sections. The measured cross sections are compared with the theoretical cross sections based on the modified form factor (MF) formalisms and the second-order S-matrix approach. The experimental results demonstrate large deviations from the MF values for the elements with K shell binding energy (B K ) in vicinity of the incident photon energy (E in ), which smooth out with inclusion of the anomalous scattering factors (ASFs). The S-matrix values, in general, agree with the measured cross sections for all the elements under investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decoupling single nanowire mobilities limited by surface scattering and bulk impurity scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanal, D. R.; Levander, A. X.; Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the isolation of two free carrier scattering mechanisms as a function of radial band bending in InN nanowires via universal mobility analysis, where effective carrier mobility is measured as a function of effective electric field in a nanowire field-effect transistor. Our results show that Coulomb scattering limits effective mobility at most effective fields, while surface roughness scattering only limits mobility under very high internal electric fields. High-energy α particle irradiation is used to vary the ionized donor concentration, and the observed decrease in mobility and increase in donor concentration are compared to Hall effect results of high-quality InN thin films. Our results show that for nanowires with relatively high doping and large diameters, controlling Coulomb scattering from ionized dopants should be given precedence over surface engineering when seeking to maximize nanowire mobility.
Single perturbative splitting diagrams in double parton scattering
Gaunt, Jonathan R.
2013-01-01
We present a detailed study of a specific class of graph that can potentially contribute to the proton-proton double parton scattering (DPS) cross section. These are the `2v1' or `single perturbative splitting' graphs, in which two `nonperturbatively generated' ladders interact with two ladders that have been generated via a perturbative 1 → 2 branching process. Using a detailed calculation, we confirm the result written down originally by Ryskin and Snigirev — namely, that the 2v1 graphs in which the two nonperturbatively generated ladders do not interact with one another do contribute to the leading order proton-proton DPS cross section, albeit with a different geometrical prefactor to the one that applies to the `2v2'/`zero perturbative splitting' graphs. We then show that 2v1 graphs in which the `nonperturbatively generated' ladders exchange partons with one another also contribute to the leading order proton-proton DPS cross section, provided that this `crosstalk' occurs at a lower scale than the 1 → 2 branching on the other side of the graph. Due to the preference in the 2v1 graphs for the x value at which the branching occurs, and crosstalk ceases, to be very much larger than the x values at the hard scale, the effect of crosstalk interactions is likely to be a decrease in the 2v1 cross section except at exceedingly small x values (≲ 10-6). At moderate x values ≃ 10-3 -10-2, the x value at the splitting is in the region ≃ 10-1 where PDFs do not change much with scale, and the effect of crosstalk interactions is likely to be small. We give an explicit formula for the contribution from the 2v1 graphs to the DPS cross section, and combine this with a suggestion that we made in a previous publication, that the `double perturbative splitting'/`1v1' graphs should be completely removed from the DPS cross section, to obtain a formula for the DPS cross section. It is pointed out that there are two potentially concerning features in this equation, that
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G [Materials Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Botha, J R, E-mail: Lesias.Kotane@wits.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)
2011-01-01
Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs{sub 0.91}Sb{sub 0.09}. The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44} of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.
Surface Brillouin scattering measurement of the elastic constants of single crystal InAs0.91Sb0.09
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotane, L M; Comins, J D; Every, A G; Botha, J R
2011-01-01
Surface Brillouin scattering of light has been used to measure the angular dependence of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), pseudo surface acoustic wave (PSAW) and longitudinal lateral wave (LLW) speeds in a (100)-oriented single crystal of the ternary semiconductor alloy InAs 0.91 Sb 0.09 . The wave speed measurements have been used to determine the room temperature values of the elastic constants C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of the alloy. A simple and robust fitting procedure has been implemented for recovering the elastic constants, in which the merit function is constructed from explicit secular functions that determine the surface and lateral wave speeds in the [001] and [011] crystallographic directions. In the fitting, relatively larger weighting factors have been assigned to the SAW and PSAW data because of the greater precision with which the surface modes can be measured as compared with the lateral wave.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guennadi Saiko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Various scenarios of light propagation paths in turbid media (single backward scattering, multiple backward scattering, banana shape are discussed and their contributions to reflectance spectra are estimated. It has been found that a single backward or multiple forward scattering quasi-1D paths can be the major contributors to reflected spectra in wide area illumination scenario. Such a single backward scattering (SBS approximation allows developing of an analytical approach which can take into account refractive index mismatched boundary conditions and multilayer geometry and can be used for real-time spectral processing. The SBS approach can be potentially applied for the distances between the transport and reduced scattering domains. Its validation versus the Kubelka-Munk model, path integrals, and diffusion approximation of the radiation transport theory is discussed.
An algorithm to determine backscattering ratio and single scattering albedo
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Nayak, S.R.; Naik, P.
and backscattering coefficients and the remote sensing reflectance are used to obtain a relationship for the backscattering ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the total backscattering to the total scattering in terms of the remote sensing reflectance of two...
Inverse scattering solution for the spatially heterogeneous compliance of a single fracture
Minato, S.; Ghose, R.
2013-01-01
Characterizing the spatially heterogeneous fracture compliance through use of elastic waves has the potential to illuminate the hydraulic and mechanical properties along a fracture. We formulate the inverse scattering problem to estimate the heterogeneous compliance distribution along a single
Single scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles: A compendium of calculations
Wiscombe, W. J.; Mugnai, A.
1986-01-01
A large set of exact calculations of the scattering from a class of nonspherical particles known as Chebyshev particles' has been performed. Phase function and degree of polarization in random orientation, and parallel and perpendicular intensities in fixed orientations, are plotted for a variety of particles shapes and sizes. The intention is to furnish a data base against which both experimental data, and the predictions of approximate methods, can be tested. The calculations are performed with the widely-used Extended Boundary Condition Method. An extensive discussion of this method is given, including much material that is not easily available elsewhere (especially the analysis of its convergence properties). An extensive review is also given of all extant methods for nonspherical scattering calculations, as well as of the available pool of experimental data.
Ma, Shufen; Liu, Haiguang
2016-04-01
X-ray free-electron lasers generate intense femtosecond X-ray pulses, so that high-resolution structure determination becomes feasible from noncrystalline samples, such as single particles or single molecules. At the moment, the orientation of sample particles cannot be precisely controlled, and consequently the unknown orientation needs to be recovered using computational algorithms. This delays the model reconstruction until all the scattering patterns have been re-oriented, which often entails a long elapse of time and until the completion of the experiment. The scattering patterns from single particles or multiple particles can be summed to form a virtual powder diffraction pattern, and the low-resolution region, corresponding to the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) regime, can be analysed using existing SAXS methods. This work presents a pipeline that converts single-particle data sets into SAXS data, from which real-time model reconstruction is achieved using the model retrieval approach implemented in the software package SASTBX [Liu, Hexemer & Zwart (2012). J. Appl. Cryst. 45 , 587-593]. To illustrate the applications, two case studies are presented with real experimental data sets collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, J.; Kuikka, J.T.; Vanninen, E.; Laensimies, E.; Kauppinen, T.; Patomaeki, L.
1999-01-01
Photon scatter is one of the most important factors degrading the quantitative accuracy of SPECT images. Many scatter correction methods have been proposed. The single isotope method was proposed by us. Aim: We evaluate the scatter correction method of improving the quality of images by acquiring emission and transmission data simultaneously with single isotope scan. Method: To evaluate the proposed scatter correction method, a contrast and linearity phantom was studied. Four female patients with fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome and four with chronic back pain (BP) were imaged. Grey-to-cerebellum (G/C) and grey-to-white matter (G/W) ratios were determined by one skilled operator for 12 regions of interest (ROIs) in each subject. Results: The linearity of activity response was improved after the scatter correction (r=0.999). The y-intercept value of the regression line was 0.036 (p [de
Fast analytical scatter estimation using graphics processing units.
Ingleby, Harry; Lippuner, Jonas; Rickey, Daniel W; Li, Yue; Elbakri, Idris
2015-01-01
To develop a fast patient-specific analytical estimator of first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in cone-beam computed tomography, implemented using graphics processing units. The authors developed an analytical estimator for first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in a cone-beam computed tomography geometry. The estimator was coded using NVIDIA's CUDA environment for execution on an NVIDIA graphics processing unit. Performance of the analytical estimator was validated by comparison with high-count Monte Carlo simulations for two different numerical phantoms. Monoenergetic analytical simulations were compared with monoenergetic and polyenergetic Monte Carlo simulations. Analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates were compared both qualitatively, from visual inspection of images and profiles, and quantitatively, using a scaled root-mean-square difference metric. Reconstruction of simulated cone-beam projection data of an anthropomorphic breast phantom illustrated the potential of this method as a component of a scatter correction algorithm. The monoenergetic analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates showed very good agreement. The monoenergetic analytical estimates showed good agreement for Compton single scatter and reasonable agreement for Rayleigh single scatter when compared with polyenergetic Monte Carlo estimates. For a voxelized phantom with dimensions 128 × 128 × 128 voxels and a detector with 256 × 256 pixels, the analytical estimator required 669 seconds for a single projection, using a single NVIDIA 9800 GX2 video card. Accounting for first order scatter in cone-beam image reconstruction improves the contrast to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. The analytical scatter estimator, implemented using graphics processing units, provides rapid and accurate estimates of single scatter and with further acceleration and a method to account for multiple scatter may be useful for practical scatter correction schemes.
Absorption line profiles in a moving atmosphere - A single scattering linear perturbation theory
Hays, P. B.; Abreu, V. J.
1989-01-01
An integral equation is derived which linearly relates Doppler perturbations in the spectrum of atmospheric absorption features to the wind system which creates them. The perturbation theory is developed using a single scattering model, which is validated against a multiple scattering calculation. The nature and basic properties of the kernels in the integral equation are examined. It is concluded that the kernels are well behaved and that wind velocity profiles can be recovered using standard inversion techniques.
Single particle analysis with a 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartholdi, M.F.
1979-06-01
Light scattering by single spherical homogeneous particles in the diameter range 1 to 20 ..mu..m and relative refractive index 1.20 is measured. Particle size of narrowly dispersed populations is determined and a multi-modal dispersion of five components is completely analyzed. A 360/sup 0/ light scattering photometer for analysis of single particles has been designed and developed. A fluid stream containing single particles intersects a focused laser beam at the primary focal point of an ellipsoidal reflector ring. The light scattered at angles theta = 2.5/sup 0/ to 177.5/sup 0/ at phi = 0/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ is reflected onto a circular array of photodiodes. The ellipsoidal reflector is situated in a chamber filled with fluid matching that of the stream to minimize refracting and reflecting interfaces. The detector array consists of 60 photodiodes each subtending 3/sup 0/ in scattering angle on 6/sup 0/ centers around 360/sup 0/. 32 measurements on individual particles can be acquired at rates of 500 particles per second. The intensity and angular distribution of light scattered by spherical particles are indicative of size and relative refractive index. Calculations, using Lorenz--Mie theory, of differential scattering patterns integrated over angle corresponding to the detector geometry determined the instrument response to particle size. From this the expected resolution and experimental procedures are determined.Ultimately, the photometer will be utilized for identification and discrimination of biological cells based on the sensitivity of light scattering to size, shape, refractive index differences, internal granularity, and other internal morphology. This study has demonstrated the utility of the photometer and indicates potential for application to light scattering studies of biological cells.
Diffuse neutron scattering from an in situ grown α-AgI single crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keen, D.A.; Nield, V.M.; McGreevy, R.L.
1994-01-01
A large single crystal of α-AgI was grown in situ from the melt on the SXD single-crystal neutron time-of-flight Laue diffractometer using a specially designed furnace. A wide range of reciprocal space was accessed with minimal rotation of the arbitrarily aligned sample. Weak rings of diffuse scattering were observed together with strong scattering around some Bragg peaks. The results are discussed with reference to earlier powder diffraction data and indicate significant correlations between the motion of the silver ions and the vibrations of the iodide ions. (orig.)
Comparison of scatter doses from a multislice and a single slice CT scanner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrage, J. W.; Causer, D. A.
2006-01-01
During shielding calculations for a new multislice CT (MSCT) scanner it was found that the manufacturer's data indicated significantly higher external scatter doses than would be generated for a single slice CT (SSCT). Even allowing for increased beam width, the manufacturer's data indicated that the scatter dose per scan was higher by a factor of about 3 to 4. The magnitude of the discrepancy was contrary to expectations and also contrary to a statement by the UK ImPACT group, which indicated that when beam width is taken into account, the scatter doses should be similar. The matter was investigated by comparing scatter doses from an SSCT and an MSCT. Scatter measurements were performed at three points using a standard perspex CTDI phantom, and CT dose indices were also measured to compare scanner output. MSCT measurements were performed with a 40 mm wide beam, SSCT measurements with a 10 mm wide beam. A film badge survey was also performed after the installation of the MSCT scanner to assess the adequacy of lead shielding in the room. It was found that the scatter doses from the MSCT were lower than indicated by the manufacturer's data. MSCT scatter doses were approximately 4 times higher than those from the SSCT, consistent with expectations due to beam width differences. The CT dose indices were similar, and the film badge survey indicated that the existing shielding, which had been adequate for the SSCT, was also adequate for the MSCT
Mimicking multichannel scattering with single-channel approaches
Grishkevich, Sergey; Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Vanne, Yulian V.; Saenz, Alejandro
2010-02-01
The collision of two atoms is an intrinsic multichannel (MC) problem, as becomes especially obvious in the presence of Feshbach resonances. Due to its complexity, however, single-channel (SC) approximations, which reproduce the long-range behavior of the open channel, are often applied in calculations. In this work the complete MC problem is solved numerically for the magnetic Feshbach resonances (MFRs) in collisions between generic ultracold Li6 and Rb87 atoms in the ground state and in the presence of a static magnetic field B. The obtained MC solutions are used to test various existing as well as presently developed SC approaches. It was found that many aspects even at short internuclear distances are qualitatively well reflected. This can be used to investigate molecular processes in the presence of an external trap or in many-body systems that can be feasibly treated only within the framework of the SC approximation. The applicability of various SC approximations is tested for a transition to the absolute vibrational ground state around an MFR. The conformance of the SC approaches is explained by the two-channel approximation for the MFR.
Mimicking multichannel scattering with single-channel approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishkevich, Sergey; Schneider, Philipp-Immanuel; Vanne, Yulian V.; Saenz, Alejandro
2010-01-01
The collision of two atoms is an intrinsic multichannel (MC) problem, as becomes especially obvious in the presence of Feshbach resonances. Due to its complexity, however, single-channel (SC) approximations, which reproduce the long-range behavior of the open channel, are often applied in calculations. In this work the complete MC problem is solved numerically for the magnetic Feshbach resonances (MFRs) in collisions between generic ultracold 6 Li and 87 Rb atoms in the ground state and in the presence of a static magnetic field B. The obtained MC solutions are used to test various existing as well as presently developed SC approaches. It was found that many aspects even at short internuclear distances are qualitatively well reflected. This can be used to investigate molecular processes in the presence of an external trap or in many-body systems that can be feasibly treated only within the framework of the SC approximation. The applicability of various SC approximations is tested for a transition to the absolute vibrational ground state around an MFR. The conformance of the SC approaches is explained by the two-channel approximation for the MFR.
Single-scattering properties of Platonic solids in geometrical-optics regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhibo; Yang Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Wiscombe, Warren J.
2007-01-01
We investigate the single-scattering properties of the Platonic solids with size parameters in the geometrical-optics regime at wavelengths 0.66 and 11 μm using the geometrical-optics method. The comparisons between the results for the Platonic solids and four types of spherical equivalence show that the equal-surface-area spherical equivalence has the smallest errors in terms of the extinction cross section at both wavelengths. At a wavelength of 0.66 μm, all the spherical equivalences substantially overestimate the asymmetry factors of the Platonic solids; and in the case of strong absorption, they underestimate the single-scattering albedo. The comparisons also show that the spherical equivalences cannot be used to describe the spatial distribution of scattered intensity associated with a prismatic polyhedron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broome, J.
1965-11-01
The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)
Lattice and Molecular Vibrations in Single Crystal I2 at 77 K by Inelastic Neutron Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, H. G.; Nielsen, Mourits; Clark, C. B.
1975-01-01
Phonon dispersion curves of single crystal iodine at 77 K have been measured by one-phonon coherent inelastic neutron scattering techniques. The data are analysed in terms of two Buckingham-six intermolecular potentials; one to represent the shortest intermolecular interaction (3.5 Å) and the other...
Kwon Ho Lee; Zhanqing Li; Man Sing Wong; Jinyuan Xin; Wang Yuesi; Wei Min Hao; Fengsheng Zhao
2007-01-01
Single scattering albedo (SSA) governs the strength of aerosols in absorbing solar radiation, but few methods are available to directly measure this important quantity. There currently exist many ground-based measurements of spectral transmittance from which aerosol optical thickness (AOT) are retrieved under clear sky conditions. Reflected radiances at the top of the...
Spatial distribution of mineral dust single scattering albedo based on DREAM model
Kuzmanoski, Maja; Ničković, Slobodan; Ilić, Luka
2016-04-01
Mineral dust comprises a significant part of global aerosol burden. There is a large uncertainty in estimating role of dust in Earth's climate system, partly due to poor characterization of its optical properties. Single scattering albedo is one of key optical properties determining radiative effects of dust particles. While it depends on dust particle sizes, it is also strongly influenced by dust mineral composition, particularly the content of light-absorbing iron oxides and the mixing state (external or internal). However, an assumption of uniform dust composition is typically used in models. To better represent single scattering albedo in dust atmospheric models, required to increase accuracy of dust radiative effect estimates, it is necessary to include information on particle mineral content. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of dust single scattering albedo based on the Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) with incorporated particle mineral composition. The domain of the model covers Northern Africa, Middle East and the European continent, with horizontal resolution set to 1/5°. It uses eight particle size bins within the 0.1-10 μm radius range. Focusing on dust episode of June 2010, we analyze dust single scattering albedo spatial distribution over the model domain, based on particle sizes and mineral composition from model output; we discuss changes in this optical property after long-range transport. Furthermore, we examine how the AERONET-derived aerosol properties respond to dust mineralogy. Finally we use AERONET data to evaluate model-based single scattering albedo. Acknowledgement We would like to thank the AERONET network and the principal investigators, as well as their staff, for establishing and maintaining the AERONET sites used in this work.
Scattering of atomic and molecular ions from single crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zoest, J.M. van.
1986-01-01
This thesis deals with analysis of crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe with Low Energy Ion scattering Spectroscopy (LEIS). Different atomic and molecular ions with fixed energies below 7 keV are scattered by a metal single crystal (with adsorbates). The energy and direction of the scattered particles are analysed for different selected charge states. In that way information can be obtained concerning the composition and atomic and electronic structure of the single crystal surface. Energy spectra contain information on the composition of the surface, while structural atomic information is obtained by direction measurements (photograms). In Ch.1 a description is given of the experimental equipment, in Ch.2 a characterization of the LEIS method. Ch.3 deals with the neutralization of keV-ions in surface scattering. Two different ways of data interpretation are presented. First a model is treated in which the observed directional dependence of neutralization action of the first atom layer of the surface is presented by a laterally varying thickness of the neutralizing layer. Secondly it is shown that the data can be reproduced by a more realistic, physical model based on atomic transition matrix elements. In Ch.4 the low energy hydrogen scattering is described. The study of the dissociation of H 2 + at an Ag surface r0230ted in a model based on electronic dissociation, initialized by electron capture into a repulsive (molecular) state. In Ch.5 finally the method is applied to the investigation of the surface structure of oxidized Fe. (Auth.)
Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure
Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo
2017-11-01
Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.
Ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering by single-crystal Al deformed in situ
Long, Gabrielle; Levine, Lyle
1997-03-01
Among the earliest small-angle x-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering experiments were attempts to study dislocation structures. These structures have proven to be very difficult to measure because of the intrinsically low contrast of the microstructure, and the requirement that multiple Bragg diffraction be strictly avoided. Thus, many attempts to measure dislocation structures have been compromised by these difficulties. We present results from ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering measurements on single-crystal Al, deformed in situ on beam line X23A3 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Radiographic images, which are in the O-beam position for diffraction, were taken of the scattering volume. The Al crystal was also rotated to ensure that the scattering data would be accumulated in a region sufficiently distant from accidental Bragg diffractions. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously with the x-ray scattering data. We report on the evolution of dislocation structures from 0% strain to 18% strain.
Discrete ordinate theory of radiative transfer. 2: Scattering from maritime haze
Kattawar, G. W.; Plass, G. N.; Catchings, F. E.
1971-01-01
Discrete ordinate theory was used to calculate the reflected and transmitted radiance of photons which have interacted with plane parallel maritime haze layers. The results are presented for three solar zenith angles, three values of the surface albedo, and a range of optical thicknesses from very thin to very thick. The diffuse flux at the lower boundary and the cloud albedo were tabulated. The forward peak and other features in the single scattered phase function caused the radiance in many cases to be very different from that for Rayleigh scattering. The variation of the radiance with both the zenith or nadir angle and the azimuthal angle is more marked, and the relative limb darkening under very thick layers is greater, for haze than for Rayleigh scattering. The downward diffuse flux at the lower boundary for A = O is always greater and the cloud albedo is always less for haze than for Rayleigh layers.
Azimuthal and single spin asymmetry in deep-inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, Zuo-tang; Wang, Xin-Nian
2006-09-21
The collinear expansion technique is generalized to thefactorization of unintegrated parton distributions and other higher twistparton correlations from the corresponding collinear hard parts thatinvolve multiple parton final state interaction. Such a generalizedfactorization provides a consistent approach to the calculation ofinclusive and semi-inclusive cross sections of deep-inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering. As an example, the azimuthal asymmetry iscalculated to the order of 1/Q in semi-inclusive deeply inelasticlepton-nucleon scattering with transversely polarized target. Anon-vanishing single-spin asymmetry in the "triggered inclusive process"is predicted to be 1/Q suppressed with a part of the coefficient relatedto a moment of the Sivers function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu, H.X.; Yin, L.; DuBois, D.F.; Bezzerides, B.; Dodd, E.S.
2005-01-01
Simulations are reported of the Thomson scatter spectrum of electrostatic waves (ESWs) excited in single laser hot spots by backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS). Under conditions similar those in the recent experiments of Kline et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 175003 (2005)], a spectral streak, resulting from the trapping-induced frequency shift of the ESW, is found for high wave-number ESWs, similar to the observations. This shift and parametric frequency matching lead to isolated BSRS pulses. Modes with acoustic dispersion, resulting from the trapping-modified electron velocity distribution, can enhance the frequency range of the streak
Son, Taehwang; Kim, Donghyun
2015-03-01
We present a theoretical approach to single nanoparticle detection using surface plasmon scattering microscopy. Through rigorous coupled wave analysis assuming light incidence on a gold coated BK7 glass substrate under total internal reflection condition for a 200-nm polystyrene as targets attached to the gold film, it was found that surface plasmon polariton induced by incident light on the gold thin film is perturbed. As a result, parabolic waves were observed in the reflection plane. By varying angles of incidence and wavelengths, optimum incident conditions for surface plasmon scattering microscopy were obtained.
Zhu, Liang; Li, Guohua; He, Yonghong; Tan, Hui; Sun, Shuqing
2018-02-01
A highly sensitive homogeneous method for DNA detection has been developed. The system relies on two kinds of gold nanorod (AuNR) probes with complementary DNA sequences to the target DNA. In the presence of the target DNA, two kinds of AuNR probes are assembling into dimers or small aggregates. The target-induced AuNR aggregate has higher scattering intensity than that of a single AuNR because of the plasmonic coupling effect. Dark field microscopy was utilized to image the single particle and measure its scattering intensity. We wrote our own Matlab code and used it to extract the scattering signal of all particles. Difference in distribution of scattering intensity between the single AuNR and its aggregate provides a quantitative basis for the detection of target DNA. A linear dynamic range spanning from 0.1pM to 1nM and a detection limit of ~ 30fM were achieved for the detection of DNA in serum sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Determining Complex Structures using Docking Method with Single Particle Scattering Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiguang Liu
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Protein complexes are critical for many molecular functions. Due to intrinsic flexibility and dynamics of complexes, their structures are more difficult to determine using conventional experimental methods, in contrast to individual subunits. One of the major challenges is the crystallization of protein complexes. Using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, it is possible to collect scattering signals from non-crystalline protein complexes, but data interpretation is more difficult because of unknown orientations. Here, we propose a hybrid approach to determine protein complex structures by combining XFEL single particle scattering data with computational docking methods. Using simulations data, we demonstrate that a small set of single particle scattering data collected at random orientations can be used to distinguish the native complex structure from the decoys generated using docking algorithms. The results also indicate that a small set of single particle scattering data is superior to spherically averaged intensity profile in distinguishing complex structures. Given the fact that XFEL experimental data are difficult to acquire and at low abundance, this hybrid approach should find wide applications in data interpretations.
Determining Complex Structures using Docking Method with Single Particle Scattering Data.
Wang, Hongxiao; Liu, Haiguang
2017-01-01
Protein complexes are critical for many molecular functions. Due to intrinsic flexibility and dynamics of complexes, their structures are more difficult to determine using conventional experimental methods, in contrast to individual subunits. One of the major challenges is the crystallization of protein complexes. Using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), it is possible to collect scattering signals from non-crystalline protein complexes, but data interpretation is more difficult because of unknown orientations. Here, we propose a hybrid approach to determine protein complex structures by combining XFEL single particle scattering data with computational docking methods. Using simulations data, we demonstrate that a small set of single particle scattering data collected at random orientations can be used to distinguish the native complex structure from the decoys generated using docking algorithms. The results also indicate that a small set of single particle scattering data is superior to spherically averaged intensity profile in distinguishing complex structures. Given the fact that XFEL experimental data are difficult to acquire and at low abundance, this hybrid approach should find wide applications in data interpretations.
Frontiers of surface-enhanced Raman scattering single nanoparticles and single cells
Ozaki, Yukihiro; Aroca, Ricardo
2014-01-01
A comprehensive presentation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) theory, substrate fabrication, applications of SERS to biosystems, chemical analysis, sensing and fundamental innovation through experimentation. Written by internationally recognized editors and contributors. Relevant to all those within the scientific community dealing with Raman Spectroscopy, i.e. physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists, physicians and biomedical scientists. SERS applications are widely expanding and the technology is now used in the field of nanotechnologies, applications to biosystems, nonosensors, nanoimaging and nanoscience.
Imaging through scattering media by Fourier filtering and single-pixel detection
Jauregui-Sánchez, Y.; Clemente, P.; Lancis, J.; Tajahuerce, E.
2018-02-01
We present a novel imaging system that combines the principles of Fourier spatial filtering and single-pixel imaging in order to recover images of an object hidden behind a turbid medium by transillumination. We compare the performance of our single-pixel imaging setup with that of a conventional system. We conclude that the introduction of Fourier gating improves the contrast of images in both cases. Furthermore, we show that the combination of single-pixel imaging and Fourier spatial filtering techniques is particularly well adapted to provide images of objects transmitted through scattering media.
Small-angle neutron-scattering studies on oriented single-crystal superalloys
Gilles, R.; Mukherji, D.; Strunz, P.; Wiedenmann, A.; Wahi, R. P.
A single-crystal nickel-base superalloy SC16, recently developed for blade applications in land-based gas turbines, was investigated using the SANS instrument (V4) at the BERII reactor in HMI Berlin. The two-dimensional scattering patterns were measured as a function of the crystallographic orientation and analysed by comparing with iso-intensity profiles simulated on the base of a microstructural model of the SC16. Sizes, interparticle distances, volume fraction and morphology of precipitates were determined. Depending on the heat treatment conditions different scattering patterns were observed corresponding to different morphologies of γ‧ precipitates. Additionally some samples showed streaks in the two-dimensional scattering patterns, indicating the presence of precipitates other than γ‧. This was also confirmed by TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction studies.
Polarized Raman scattering study of PSN single crystals and epitaxial thin films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Pokorný
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a detailed analysis of the dependence of Raman scattering intensity on the polarization of the incident and inelastically scattered light in PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (PSN single crystals and epitaxially compressed thin films grown on (100-oriented MgO substrates. It is found that there are significant differences between the properties of the crystals and films, and that these differences can be attributed to the anticipated structural differences between these two forms of the same material. In particular, the scattering characteristics of the oxygen octahedra breathing mode near 810 cm-1 indicate a ferroelectric state for the crystals and a relaxor state for the films, which is consistent with the dielectric behaviors of these materials.
Mie Scattering by a Conducting Sphere Coated Uniaxial Single-Negative Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
You-Lin Geng
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an accurate analytical method to compute the electromagnetic scattering from three-dimensional (3D conducting sphere coated uniaxial anisotropic single-negative (SNG medium. Based on the spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs in uniaxial anisotropic medium, the electromagnetic field in homogeneous uniaxial SNG medium and free space can be expressed by the SVWFs in uniaxial SNG medium and free space. The continued boundary conditions of electromagnetic fields between the uniaxial SNG medium and free space are applied, and the tangential electrical field is vanished in the surface of conducting sphere, the coefficients of scattering fields in free space can be derived, and then the character of scattering of conducting sphere coated homogeneous uniaxial SNG medium can be obtained. Some numericals are given in the end.
Zhou, L.; Gong, Z. R.; Liu, Y. X.; Sun, C. P.; Nori, F.
2010-03-01
We analyze the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide and is scattered by a controllable two-level system located inside one of the resonators of this waveguide. Our approach, which uses discrete coordinates, unifies low and high energy effective theories for single-photon scattering. We show that the controllable two-level system can behave as a quantum switch for the coherent transport of a single photon. This study may inspire new electro-optical single-photon quantum devices. We also suggest an experimental setup based on superconducting transmission line resonators and qubits. References: L. Zhou, Z.R. Gong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008). L. Zhou, H. Dong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Quantum super-cavity with atomic mirrors, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063827 (2008).
Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel
2005-01-01
When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime
Sizing of single evaporating droplet with Near-Forward Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy
Woźniak, M.; Jakubczyk, D.; Derkachov, G.; Archer, J.
2017-11-01
We have developed an optical setup and related numerical models to study evolution of single evaporating micro-droplets by analysis of their spectral properties. Our approach combines the advantages of the electrodynamic trapping with the broadband spectral analysis with the supercontinuum laser illumination. The elastically scattered light within the spectral range of 500-900 nm is observed by a spectrometer placed at the near-forward scattering angles between 4.3 ° and 16.2 ° and compared with the numerically generated lookup table of the broadband Mie scattering. Our solution has been successfully applied to infer the size evolution of the evaporating droplets of pure liquids (diethylene and ethylene glycol) and suspensions of nanoparticles (silica and gold nanoparticles in diethylene glycol), with maximal accuracy of ± 25 nm. The obtained results have been compared with the previously developed sizing techniques: (i) based on the analysis of the Mie scattering images - the Mie Scattering Lookup Table Method and (ii) the droplet weighting. Our approach provides possibility to handle levitating objects with much larger size range (radius from 0.5 μm to 30 μm) than with the use of optical tweezers (typically radius below 8 μm) and analyse them with much wider spectral range than with commonly used LED sources.
Microwave single-scattering properties of randomly oriented soft-ice hydrometeors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Casella
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Large ice hydrometeors are usually present in intense convective clouds and may significantly affect the upwelling radiances that are measured by satellite-borne microwave radiometers – especially, at millimeter-wavelength frequencies. Thus, interpretation of these measurements (e.g., for precipitation retrieval requires knowledge of the single scattering properties of ice particles. On the other hand, shape and internal structure of these particles (especially, the larger ones is very complex and variable, and therefore it is necessary to resort to simplifying assumptions in order to compute their single-scattering parameters.
In this study, we use the discrete dipole approximation (DDA to compute the absorption and scattering efficiencies and the asymmetry factor of two kinds of quasi-spherical and non-homogeneous soft-ice particles in the frequency range 50–183 GHz. Particles of the first kind are modeled as quasi-spherical ice particles having randomly distributed spherical air inclusions. Particles of the second kind are modeled as random aggregates of ice spheres having random radii. In both cases, particle densities and dimensions are coherent with the snow hydrometeor category that is utilized by the University of Wisconsin – Non-hydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS cloud-mesoscale model. Then, we compare our single-scattering results for randomly-oriented soft-ice hydrometeors with corresponding ones that make use of: a effective-medium equivalent spheres, b solid-ice equivalent spheres, and c randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders. Finally, we extend to our particles the scattering formulas that have been developed by other authors for randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders.
Decoherence due to elastic rayleigh scattering
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Uys, H
2010-11-01
Full Text Available jui ¼ j þ 12i and jdi ¼ j � 12i corre- sponding to the valence electron spin states parallel and antiparallel to an applied magnetic field are split by �z=ð2�Þ ¼ 124:1 GHz. Also shown are the first excited P state levels jJ;MJi, J ¼ 32 , 12 . We... consider a nonresonant light field ðP1�¼�1 b��^�ÞE0 cosðk0 � x�!0tÞ, where b� is the amplitude of the corresponding polarization compo- nent �^� of the light, and derive a master equation for the time evolution of the j � 12i ground-state sublevels...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buckman, S.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences; Brunger, M.J. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Physical Sciences
1996-07-01
Electron scattering cross sections (elastic, rotational and vibrational excitation) for a number of atomic and (relatively) single molecular systems are examined. Particular reference is made to the level of agreement which is obtained from the application of the completely different measurement philosophies embodied in `beam` and `swarm` techniques. The range of energies considered is generally restricted to the region below 5 eV. 142 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.
Small angle neutron scattering study of isolated single wall carbon nano tubes in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doe, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Min; Kline, Steven R.
2007-01-01
As an effort to provide more practical approaches to a wide range of potential applications of carbon nano tubes, we report a new type of noncovalently functionalized isolated single-walled carbon nano tube(SWNT) which is easily dispersible in water by only ten minutes of mild vortex mixing. The structure and quality of dispersion have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique
Xiao, Yongchuan; Guo, Jing; Wu, Kui; Qu, Pengfei; Qi, Huajuan; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou; Dong, Wei
2013-02-11
A single passband microwave photonic filter with ultrawide tunable range based on stimulated Brillouin scattering is theoretically analyzed. Combining the gain and loss spectrums, tuning range with 44GHz is obtained without crosstalk by introducing two pumps. Adding more pumps, Tuning range multiplying with the multiplication factor equaling to the total quantity of pump can be achieved, which has potential application in microwave and millimeter wave wireless communication systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckman, S.J.; Brunger, M.J.
1996-07-01
Electron scattering cross sections (elastic, rotational and vibrational excitation) for a number of atomic and (relatively) single molecular systems are examined. Particular reference is made to the level of agreement which is obtained from the application of the completely different measurement philosophies embodied in 'beam' and 'swarm' techniques. The range of energies considered is generally restricted to the region below 5 eV. 142 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, J.; Kuikka, J.T.; Vanninen, E.; Laensimies, E. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine; Kauppinen, T.; Patomaeki, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Applied Physics
1999-05-01
Photon scatter is one of the most important factors degrading the quantitative accuracy of SPECT images. Many scatter correction methods have been proposed. The single isotope method was proposed by us. Aim: We evaluate the scatter correction method of improving the quality of images by acquiring emission and transmission data simultaneously with single isotope scan. Method: To evaluate the proposed scatter correction method, a contrast and linearity phantom was studied. Four female patients with fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome and four with chronic back pain (BP) were imaged. Grey-to-cerebellum (G/C) and grey-to-white matter (G/W) ratios were determined by one skilled operator for 12 regions of interest (ROIs) in each subject. Results: The linearity of activity response was improved after the scatter correction (r=0.999). The y-intercept value of the regression line was 0.036 (p<0.0001) after scatter correction and the slope was 0.954. Pairwise correlation indicated the agreement between nonscatter corrected and scatter corrected images. Reconstructed slices before and after scatter correction demonstrate a good correlation in the quantitative accuracy of radionuclide concentration. G/C values have significant correlation coefficients between original and corrected data. Conclusion: The transaxial images of human brain studies show that the scatter correction using single isotope in simultaneous transmission and emission tomography provides a good scatter compensation. The contrasts were increased on all 12 ROIs. The scatter compensation enhanced details of physiological lesions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Photonenstreuung gehoert zu den wichtigsten Faktoren, die die quantitative Genauigkeit von SPECT-Bildern vermindern. Es wurde eine ganze Reihe von Methoden zur Streuungskorrektur vorgeschlagen. Von uns wurde die Einzelisotopen-Methode empfohlen. Ziel: Wir untersuchten die Streuungskorrektur-Methode zur Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet durch simultane Gewinnung von Emissions
Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Slutsker, I.
2002-05-01
Monitoring of the optical properties of primarily biomass burning aerosols in Mongu, Zambia was initiated in 1995, when an AERONET sun/sky radiometer site was established at the Mongu airport. For the biomass burning season months (July-November), we present monthly means of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals utilizing the algorithm of Dubovik and King (2000). The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from July (0.845) to October (0.93). The slope of the spectral dependence of aerosol single scattering albedo with wavelength decreased as SSA increased from July to October. However, there was no significant change in particle size in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months. Similarly, seasonal SSA retrievals for Etosha Pan, Namibia also show increasing values through the burning season in 2000. We also analyze the seasonality of SSA for sites in biomass burning regions of Amazonia. We show maps of satellite detected fire counts which indicate that the regions of primary biomass burning shift significantly from July to October. Possible reasons for the seasonal changes in observed SSA include differences in aging to due transport speed and distance from source regions, differences in biomass fuel types in different regions (fraction of woody biomass versus grasses), and differences in fuel moisture content (October is the beginning of the rainy season on both continents).
Pitch-angle scattering driven by a single wave in Tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu Yunqing; Xia Mengfen
1988-01-01
The interaction of particles with a single wave in a Tokamak plasma is investigated. It is pointed out that the stochastic pitch-angle scattering across the trapped/passing boundary may be driven by a single wave. The characteristics of such separatrix crossings are discussed. It is also found that the wave-driven separatrix crossings are accompanied by a radial flow of particles, which is composed of a directional flow and a diffusional flow. The resultant pitch-angle and radial fluxes are calculated. (author)
Patel, Dhananjay; Dalal, U. D.
2017-05-01
A novel m-QAM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Single Sideband (SSB) architecture is proposed for centralized light source (CLS) bidirectional Radio over Fiber (RoF) - Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) - Passive Optical Network (PON). In bidirectional transmission with carrier reuse over the single fiber, the Rayleigh Backscattering (RB) noise and reflection (RE) interferences from optical components can seriously deteriorate the transmission performance of the fiber optic systems. These interferometric noises can be mitigated by utilizing the optical modulation schemes at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) such that the spectral overlap between the optical data spectrum and the RB and RE noise is minimum. A mathematical model is developed for the proposed architecture to accurately measure the performance of the transmission system and also to analyze the effect of interferometric noise caused by the RB and RE. The model takes into the account the different modulation schemes employed at the OLT and the ONU using a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM), the optical launch power and the bit-rates of the downstream and upstream signals, the gain of the amplifiers at the OLT and the ONU, the RB-RE noise, chromatic dispersion of the single mode fiber and optical filter responses. In addition, the model analyzes all the components of the RB-RE noise such as carrier RB, signal RB, carrier RE and signal RE, thus providing the complete representation of all the physical phenomena involved. An optical m-QAM OFDM SSB signal acts as a test signal to validate the model which provides excellent agreement with simulation results. The SSB modulation technique using the MZM at the OLT and the ONU differs in the data transmission technique that takes place through the first-order higher and the lower optical sideband respectively. This spectral gap between the downstream and upstream signals reduces the effect of Rayleigh backscattering and
Johns, Maureen; Liu, Hanli
2003-07-01
When light interacts with tissue, it can be absorbed, scattered or reflected. Such quantitative information can be used to characterize the optical properties of tissue, differentiate tissue types in vivo, and identify normal versus diseased tissue. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm that determines the reduced scattering coefficient (μs") of tissues from a single optical reflectance spectrum with a small source-detector separation. The basic relationship between μs" and optical reflectance was developed using Monte Carlo simulations. This produced an analytical equation containing μs" as a function of reflectance. To experimentally validate this relationship, a 1.3-mm diameter fiber optic probe containing two 400-micron diameter fibers was used to deliver light to and collect light from Intralipid solutions of various concentrations. Simultaneous measurements from optical reflectance and an ISS oximeter were performed to validate the calculated μs" values determined by the reflectance measurement against the 'gold standard" ISS readings. The calculated μs" values deviate from the expected values by approximately -/+ 5% with Intralipid concentrations between 0.5 - 2.5%. The scattering properties within this concentration range are similar to those of in vivo tissues. Additional calculations are performed to determine the scattering properties of rat brain tissues and to discuss accuracy of the algorithm for measured samples with a broad range of the absorption coefficient (μa).
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, D L
2011-01-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre–Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
Andrews, D. L.
2011-06-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre-Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle.
Cannaday, Ashley E.; Draham, Robert; Berger, Andrew J.
2016-04-01
The goal of this project is to estimate non-nuclear organelle size distributions in single cells by measuring angular scattering patterns and fitting them with Mie theory. Simulations have indicated that the large relative size distribution of organelles (mean:width≈2) leads to unstable Mie fits unless scattering is collected at polar angles less than 20 degrees. Our optical system has therefore been modified to collect angles down to 10 degrees. Initial validations will be performed on polystyrene bead populations whose size distributions resemble those of cell organelles. Unlike with the narrow bead distributions that are often used for calibration, we expect to see an order-of-magnitude improvement in the stability of the size estimates as the minimum angle decreases from 20 to 10 degrees. Scattering patterns will then be acquired and analyzed from single cells (EMT6 mouse cancer cells), both fixed and live, at multiple time points. Fixed cells, with no changes in organelle sizes over time, will be measured to determine the fluctuation level in estimated size distribution due to measurement imperfections alone. Subsequent measurements on live cells will determine whether there is a higher level of fluctuation that could be attributed to dynamic changes in organelle size. Studies on unperturbed cells are precursors to ones in which the effects of exogenous agents are monitored over time.
Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit due to single-photon scattering in a waveguide
Fang, Yao-Lung L.; Ciccarello, Francesco; Baranger, Harold U.
2018-04-01
We investigate the open dynamics of a qubit due to scattering of a single photon in an infinite or semi-infinite waveguide. Through an exact solution of the time-dependent multi-photon scattering problem, we find the qubit's dynamical map. Tools of open quantum systems theory allow us then to show the general features of this map, find the corresponding non-Linbladian master equation, and assess in a rigorous way its non-Markovian nature. The qubit dynamics has distinctive features that, in particular, do not occur in emission processes. Two fundamental sources of non-Markovianity are present: the finite width of the photon wavepacket and the time delay for propagation between the qubit and the end of the semi-infinite waveguide.
Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Chiu, J. Christine; Wiscombe, Warren J.
2012-01-01
The single scattering albedo omega(sub O lambda) in atmospheric radiative transfer is the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the extinction coefficient. For cloud water droplets both the scattering and absorption coefficients, thus the single scattering albedo, are functions of wavelength lambda and droplet size r. This note shows that for water droplets at weakly absorbing wavelengths, the ratio omega(sub O lambda)(r)/omega(sub O lambda)(r (sub O)) of two single scattering albedo spectra is a linear function of omega(sub O lambda)(r). The slope and intercept of the linear function are wavelength independent and sum to unity. This relationship allows for a representation of any single scattering albedo spectrum omega(sub O lambda)(r) via one known spectrum omega(sub O lambda)(r (sub O)). We provide a simple physical explanation of the discovered relationship. Similar linear relationships were found for the single scattering albedo spectra of non-spherical ice crystals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kareema Abed Al-Kadim
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper Rayleigh Pareto distribution have introduced denote by( R_PD. We stated some useful functions. Therefor we give some of its properties like the entropy function, mean, mode, median , variance , the r-th moment about the mean, the rth moment about the origin, reliability, hazard functions, coefficients of variation, of sekeness and of kurtosis. Finally, we estimate the parameters so the aim of this search is to introduce a new distribution
Scattering of a vortex pair by a single quantum vortex in a Bose–Einstein condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, L. A., E-mail: smirnov-lev@allp.sci-nnov.ru; Smirnov, A. I., E-mail: smirnov@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Mironov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)
2016-01-15
We analyze the scattering of vortex pairs (the particular case of 2D dark solitons) by a single quantum vortex in a Bose–Einstein condensate with repulsive interaction between atoms. For this purpose, an asymptotic theory describing the dynamics of such 2D soliton-like formations in an arbitrary smoothly nonuniform flow of a ultracold Bose gas is developed. Disregarding the radiation loss associated with acoustic wave emission, we demonstrate that vortex–antivortex pairs can be put in correspondence with quasiparticles, and their behavior can be described by canonical Hamilton equations. For these equations, we determine the integrals of motion that can be used to classify various regimes of scattering of vortex pairs by a single quantum vortex. Theoretical constructions are confirmed by numerical calculations performed directly in terms of the Gross–Pitaevskii equation. We propose a method for estimating the radiation loss in a collision of a soliton-like formation with a phase singularity. It is shown by direct numerical simulation that under certain conditions, the interaction of vortex pairs with a core of a single quantum vortex is accompanied by quite intense acoustic wave emission; as a result, the conditions for applicability of the asymptotic theory developed here are violated. In particular, it is visually demonstrated by a specific example how radiation losses lead to a transformation of a vortex–antivortex pair into a vortex-free 2D dark soliton (i.e., to the annihilation of phase singularities).
Monte Carlo Modelling of Single-Crystal Diffuse Scattering from Intermetallics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darren J. Goossens
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS reveals detailed structural insights into materials. In particular, it is sensitive to two-body correlations, whereas traditional Bragg peak-based methods are sensitive to single-body correlations. This means that diffuse scattering is sensitive to ordering that persists for just a few unit cells: nanoscale order, sometimes referred to as “local structure”, which is often crucial for understanding a material and its function. Metals and alloys were early candidates for SCDS studies because of the availability of large single crystals. While great progress has been made in areas like ab initio modelling and molecular dynamics, a place remains for Monte Carlo modelling of model crystals because of its ability to model very large systems; important when correlations are relatively long (though still finite in range. This paper briefly outlines, and gives examples of, some Monte Carlo methods appropriate for the modelling of SCDS from metallic compounds, and considers data collection as well as analysis. Even if the interest in the material is driven primarily by magnetism or transport behaviour, an understanding of the local structure can underpin such studies and give an indication of nanoscale inhomogeneity.
Seasonal Trend of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo at Biomass Burning Sites in Southern Africa
Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Ward, D.; Mukelabai, M. M.; Piketh, S.; Hyer, E. J.; Dubovik, O.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.
2011-12-01
A database of the optical properties of primarily biomass burning aerosols in Mongu, Zambia from multi-year monitoring at an AERONET sun-sky radiometer site was examined. For the biomass burning season months (July-November), we investigate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol size distributions, and refractive indices from almucantar sky scan retrievals utilizing the algorithm of Dubovik and King (2000). The monthly mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm in Mongu was found to increase significantly from ~0.84 in July to ~0.93 in November (from 0.78 to 0.90 at 675 nm in these same months). There was no significant change in particle size, in either the dominant accumulation or secondary coarse modes during these months, nor any significant trend in the Angstrom Exponent (440-870 nm; r2=0.02). A significant downward seasonal trend in imaginary refractive index (r2=0.43) suggests a trend of decreasing black carbon content in the aerosol composition as the burning season progresses. Similarly, seasonal SSA retrievals for both the Etosha Pan, Namibia and Skukuza, South Africa AERONET sites also show increasing single scattering albedo values through the burning season. We show maps of satellite detected fire counts, which indicate that the regions of primary biomass burning in southern Africa shift significantly from July to October. Possible reasons for the seasonal changes in observed SSA include differences in biomass fuel types in different regions and seasons (fraction of woody biomass versus grasses), agricultural practices (Chitemene: in which woody fuels are burned at the end of the dry season), differences in fuel moisture content (as mid-October is the typical beginning of the rainy season) and differences in aging due to transport speed and distance from varying source regions. We also analyze the seasonality of SSA for sites in biomass burning regions of southern Amazonia, where no significant seasonal trend in SSA was detected.
Short Rayleigh Range Free Electron Laser Amplifiers
Yu, L H; Murphy, J B; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Wang, X J; Watanabe, T
2005-01-01
An important requirement for a high average power laser system is a manageable power density on the first optical element. One possibility to achieve this is a single pass amplifier which generates a short Rayleigh range (SRL) light beam. We present design parameters and calculated performances for several SRL configurations. These include a simulation of the optically guided (pinched) MW class FEL [1], the scalloped beam FEL amplifier [2] and high gain TOK amplifiers we propose to explore at our SDL facility.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, M.; Miskowiec, A.; Hansen, F. Y.
2012-01-01
High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to elucidate the diffusion of water molecules in proximity to single bilayer lipid membranes supported on a silicon substrate. By varying sample temperature, level of hydration, and deuteration, we identify three different types...... of diffusive water motion: bulk-like, confined, and bound. The motion of bulk-like and confined water molecules is fast compared to those bound to the lipid head groups (7-10 H2O molecules per lipid), which move on the same nanosecond time scale as H atoms within the lipid molecules. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2012...
Nonideal Rayleigh-Taylor mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharp, David Howland [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lin, Hyun K [STONY BROOK UNIV.; Iwerks, Justin G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gliman, James G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; [NON LANL
2009-01-01
Rayleigh-Taylor mixing is a classical hydrodynamic Instability, which occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. The two main sources of nonideal behavior in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing are regularizations (physical and numerical) which produce deviations from a pure Euler equation, scale Invariant formulation, and non Ideal (i.e. experimental) initial conditions. The Kolmogorov theory of turbulence predicts stirring at all length scales for the Euler fluid equations without regularization. We Interpret mathematical theories of existence and non-uniqueness in this context, and we provide numerical evidence for dependence of the RT mixing rate on nonideal regularizations, in other words indeterminacy when modeled by Euler equations. Operationally, indeterminacy shows up as non unique solutions for RT mixing, parametrized by Schmidt and Prandtl numbers, In the large Reynolds number (Euler equation) limit. Verification and validation evidence is presented for the large eddy simulation algorithm used here. Mesh convergence depends on breaking the nonuniqueness with explicit use of the laminar Schmidt and PrandtJ numbers and their turbulent counterparts, defined in terms of subgrid scale models. The dependence of the mixing rate on the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers and other physical parameters will be illustrated. We demonstrate numerically the influence of initial conditions on the mixing rate. Both the dominant short wavelength Initial conditions and long wavelength perturbations are observed to playa role. By examination of two classes of experiments, we observe the absence of a single universal explanation, with long and short wavelength initial conditions, and the various physical and numerical regularizations contributing In different proportions In these two different contexts.
Extended Rayleigh Damping Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naohiro Nakamura
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In dynamic analysis, frequency domain analysis can be used if the entire structure is linear. However, time history analysis is generally used if nonlinear elements are present. Rayleigh damping has been widely used in time history response analysis. Many articles have reported the problems associated with this damping and suggested remedies. A basic problem is that the frequency area across which the damping ratio is almost constant is too narrow. If the area could be expanded while incurring only a small increase in computational cost, this would provide an appropriate remedy for this problem. In this study, a novel damping model capable of expanding the constant frequency area by more than five times was proposed based on the study of a causal damping model. This model was constructed by adding two terms to the Rayleigh damping model and can be applied to the linear elements in the time history analysis of a nonlinear structure. The accuracy and efficiency of the model were confirmed using example analyses.
Neutron Brillouin scattering in dense fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verkerk, P. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); FINGO Collaboration
1997-04-01
Thermal neutron scattering is a typical microscopic probe for investigating dynamics and structure in condensed matter. In contrast, light (Brillouin) scattering with its three orders of magnitude larger wavelength is a typical macroscopic probe. In a series of experiments using the improved small-angle facility of IN5 a significant step forward is made towards reducing the gap between the two. For the first time the transition from the conventional single line in the neutron spectrum scattered by a fluid to the Rayleigh-Brillouin triplet known from light-scattering experiments is clearly and unambiguously observed in the raw neutron data without applying any corrections. Results of these experiments are presented. (author).
Mao, Aiqin; Jin, Xia; Gu, Xiaolong; Wei, Xiaoqing; Yang, Guojing
2012-08-01
Single-crystal silver (Ag) nanocubes have been synthesized by a rapid and green method at room temperature by adding sodium hydroxide solution to the mixed solutions of silver nitrate, glucose and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the phase composition and morphology. The results showed that the as-prepared particles were single-crystal Ag nanocubes with edge lengths of around 77 nm and a growing direction along {1 0 0} facets. As substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiment on crystal violet (CV), the SERS enhancement factor of the as-prepared Ag nanocubes were measured to be 5.5 × 104, indicating potential applications in chemical and biological analysis.
Studies of isotopic defined hydrogen beams scattering from Pd single-crystal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varlam, Mihai; Steflea, Dumitru
2001-01-01
An experimental investigation of hydrogen isotopes interaction with Pd single-crystal surface has been carried out using molecular beam technique. The energy dependence of the sticking probability and its relation with the trapping probability into the precursor state is studied by integrating the scattered angular distribution of hydrogen Isotopic defined beams from Pd (111) surface in the 40-400 K surface temperature range. The dependence has been evaluated by defining hydrogen molecular beams with different isotopic concentration - from the natural one to the 5% D/(D+H) ratio - and for different incident energies. The beam was directed onto a single-crystal Pd (111) surface. In the paper, we report the experimental results and some considerations related to it. (authors)
Studies of isotopic defined hydrogen beams scattering from Pd single-crystal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varlam, Mihai; Steflea, Dumitru
1999-01-01
An experimental investigation of hydrogen isotopes interaction with Pd single-crystal surfaces has been carried out using molecular beam technique. The energy dependence of the sticking probability and its relation with the trapping probability into the precursor state is studied by integrating the scattered angular distribution of hydrogen isotopic defined beams from Pd (111) surfaces in the 40 - 400 K surface temperature range. The dependence has been evaluated by defining hydrogen molecular beams with different isotopic concentration - from the natural one until 5% D/(D + H) and different incident energies and directed onto a single - crystal Pd (111) surface. In the paper, we report the experimental results and some considerations related to them. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haldipur, P.; Margetan, F. J.; Thompson, R. B.
2006-01-01
Single-crystal elastic stiffness constants are important input parameters for many calculations in material science. There are well established methods to measure these constants using single-crystal specimens, but such specimens are not always readily available. The ultrasonic properties of metal polycrystals, such as velocity, attenuation, and backscattered grain noise characteristics, depend in part on the single-crystal elastic constants. In this work we consider the estimation of elastic constants from UT measurements and grain-sizing data. We confine ourselves to a class of particularly simple polycrystalline microstructures, found in some jet-engine Nickel alloys, which are single-phase, cubic, equiaxed, and untextured. In past work we described a method to estimate the single-crystal elastic constants from measured ultrasonic velocity and attenuation data accompanied by metallographic analysis of grain size. However, that methodology assumes that all attenuation is due to grain scattering, and thus is not valid if appreciable absorption is present. In this work we describe an alternative approach which uses backscattered grain noise data in place of attenuation data. Efforts to validate the method using a pure copper specimen are discussed, and new results for two jet-engine Nickel alloys are presented
Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.
1981-08-01
Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)
Persistent Scatterer Aided Facade Lattice Extraction in Single Airborne Optical Oblique Images
Schack, L.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.
2015-03-01
We present a new method to extract patterns of regular facade structures from single optical oblique images. To overcome the missing three-dimensional information we incorporate structural information derived from Persistent Scatter (PS) point cloud data into our method. Single oblique images and PS point clouds have never been combined before and offer promising insights into the compatibility of remotely sensed data of different kinds. Even though the appearance of facades is significantly different, many characteristics of the prominent patterns can be seen in both types of data and can be transferred across the sensor domains. To justify the extraction based on regular facade patterns we show that regular facades appear rather often in typical airborne oblique imagery of urban scenes. The extraction of regular patterns is based on well established tools like cross correlation and is extended by incorporating a module for estimating a window lattice model using a genetic algorithm. Among others the results of our approach can be used to derive a deeper understanding of the emergence of Persistent Scatterers and their fusion with optical imagery. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we present a concept for data fusion aiming at facade lattices extraction in PS and optical data.
Investigation of snow single scattering properties based on first order Legendre phase function
Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar; Casselgren, Johan; Wåhlin, Johan; Sjödahl, Mikael
2017-04-01
Angularly resolved bidirectional reflectance measurements were modelled by approximating a first order Legendre expanded phase function to retrieve single scattering properties of snow. The measurements from 10 different snow types with known density and specific surface area (SSA) were investigated. A near infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used to measure reflected light above the snow surface over the hemisphere in the wavelength region of 900-1650 nm. A solver based on discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) model was used to retrieve the estimated Legendre coefficients of the phase function and a correlation between the coefficients and physical properties of different snow types is investigated. Results of this study suggest that the first two coefficients of the first order Legendre phase function provide sufficient information about the physical properties of snow where the latter captures the anisotropic behaviour of snow and the former provides a relative estimate of the single scattering albedo of snow. The coefficients of the first order phase function were compared with the experimental data and observed that both the coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental data. These findings suggest that our approach can be applied as a qualitative tool to investigate physical properties of snow and also to classify different snow types.
Effect of near-surface topography on high-frequency Rayleigh-wave propagation
Wang, Limin; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe
2015-05-01
Rayleigh waves, which are formed due to interference of P- and Sv-waves near the free surface, propagate along the free surface and vanish exponentially in the vertical direction. Their propagation is strongly influenced by surface topography. Due to the high resolution and precision requirements of near-surface investigations, the high-frequency Rayleigh waves are usually used for near-surface structural detecting. Although there are some numerical studies on high-frequency Rayleigh-wave propagation on topographic free surface, detailed analysis of characters of high-frequency Rayleigh-wave propagation on topographic free surface remains untouched. Hence, research of propagation of Rayleigh waves on complex topographic surface becomes critical for Rayleigh-wave methods in near-surface applications. To study the propagation of high-frequency Rayleigh waves on topographic free surface, two main topographic models are designed in this study. One of the models contains a depressed topographic surface, and another contains an uplifted topographic surface. We numerically simulate the propagation of high-frequency Rayleigh waves on these two topographic surfaces by finite-difference method. Soon afterwards, we analyze the propagation character of high-frequency Rayleigh waves on such topographic models, and compare the variations on its energy and frequency before and after passing the topographic region. At last, we discuss the relationship between the variations and topographical steepness of each model. Our numerical results indicate that influence of depressed topography for high-frequency Rayleigh waves is more distinct than influence of uplifted topography. Rayleigh waves produce new scattering body waves during passing the depressed topography with reduction of amplitude and loss of high-frequency components. Moreover, the steeper the depressed topography is, the more energy of Rayleigh waves is lost. The uplifted topography with gentle slope produces similar
Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces.
Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu
2016-09-15
A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in three-dimensional free space. It is built upon the one-dimensional scattering theory developed in waveguide quantum electrodynamics. The theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states and uses a non-perturbative method to calculate the scattering matrix.
Nowell, H.; Liu, G.
2012-12-01
With the advent of satellites, we can now observe areas of the globe that have sparse to no ground data coverage. Both active and passive satellite sensors aboard satellites including CloudSat's Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), Aqua's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement's (GPM) Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) study ice and snow particles. A good retrieval algorithm for these satellite sensors can only be developed when the single scattering properties of the snowflakes are accurately calculated in radiative transfer models. This becomes crucial at frequencies at and above the W-band when aggregate ice crystals become detectable by satellite radiometers. Snowflakes are often modeled as spheres or oblate spheroids to ease the complexity of calculations, despite the fact that they are typically aggregates of crystals. For improved accuracy in satellite remote sensing, it is important to model snowflakes as close to nature as possible. Several recent studies model flakes as pristine crystal types [Liu, 2008], generate aggregate flakes as fractals [Ishimoto, 2008] or via the Monte Carlo method [Maruyama and Fujioshi, 2005]. Modeling snowflakes as pristine crystals, however, has the drawback of not accurately reflecting snowflakes as most tend to be aggregates of different crystal types. Other studies where aggregates are generated tend to overlook size-density relationships of aggregate flakes or other studied statistical parameters such as aspect ratio. In an effort to improve available single-scattering properties of aggregate flakes, we developed a new method of generating flakes. Starting out with a six-bullet rosette crystal of accurate size and density, aggregate flakes are generated with two different bullet rosette crystal sizes of 200 and/or 400 microns in maximum dimension. The flakes similarly follow size-density relationships of aggregate as determined from
Photon scattering by isolated isotopic impurities in single crystals of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, D.T.
1972-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements of oriented single crystals of hexagonal close-packed 4 He have been made in order to study the scattering of phonons by isotopic impurities. The samples, all grown at a constant pressure of 85.1 atmospheres, contained 3 He concentrations ranging from less than 10 - 6 to 2 x 10 - 5 . Apparatus and techniques have been developed which allow the growth of crystals at preferred orientations: c-axis orientations of 0 and 90 0 with respect to the direction of heat flow were chosen for this study. Quality and orientation of the sample crystals were determined from the thermal conductivity measurements themselves. In the 90 0 crystals an isotopic concentration of 2 x 10 - 5 reduces the thermal conductivity peak by a factor of 2.8. A model using the dominant phonon approximation to define an average isotope cross section for phonon scattering fits these data well. The cross section thus obtained is larger than can be explained by scattering from the mass defect alone, and provides a measure of the lattice distortion accompanying an isotopic substitution. Relevant theories are examined in the light of these results. The data for 0 0 crystals are consistent with the same cross section if samples displaying the same effective phonon mean free path in the low temperature limit are compared. Variations in this limiting mean free path are attributed to specular reflection of phonons at the sample chamber walls. At the lowest 3 He concentrations Poiseuille flow of phonons causes a peak in the effective mean free path a factor of 4.6 higher than the low temperature limit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annepu Venkata Naga Vamsi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We have reported the measurement of temperature by using coherent anti-Stroke and coherent Stroke Raman scattering using superconducting nano wire single-photon detector. The measured temperatures by both methods (Coherent Anti-Raman scattering & Coherent Stroke Raman scattering and TC 340 are in good accuracy of ± 5 K temperature range. The length of the pipe line under test can be increased by increasing the power of the pump laser. This methodology can be widely used to measure temperatures at instantaneous positions in test pipe line or the entire temperature of the pipe line under test.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigor'ev, A.N.; Dikij, N.P.; Matyash, P.P.; Nikolajchuk, L.I.; Pivovar, L.I.
1974-01-01
The radiation defects in semiconducting CdS single crystals induced during doping with 140 keV Na ions (10 15 -2.10 16 ion/cm 2 ) were studied by the orientation dependence of 700 keV proton backscattering. The absence of discrete peaks in the scattered proton eneryg spectra indicates a small contribution of direct scattering at large angles. The defects formed during doping increase the fractionof dechanneled particles, which are then scattered at large anlges. No amorphization of CdS was observed at high Na ion dose 2x10 16 ion/cm 2
Preliminary study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in wire-array Z-pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Kaihui; Feng Kaiming; Li Qiang; Gao Chunming
2000-01-01
It is important to research into the MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability developed in Z-pinch implosion. A snowplough model of the single wire Z-pinch is presented. The perturbation amplitude of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the wire-array Z-pinch is analyzed quantitatively. Sheared axial flow is put forward to mitigate and reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. And other approaches used to mitigate MHD instability in such a super-fast process are explored
Resonant anti-Stokes Raman scattering in single-walled carbon nanotubes
Gordeev, Georgy; Jorio, Ado; Kusch, Patryk; Vieira, Bruno G. M.; Flavel, Benjamin; Krupke, Ralph; Barros, Eduardo B.; Reich, Stephanie
2017-12-01
The dependence of the anti-Stokes Raman intensity on the excitation laser energy in carbon nanotubes is studied by resonant Raman spectroscopy. The complete resonant anti-Stokes and Stokes Raman profiles of the high-energy longitudinal phonon (G+) are obtained for (8,3), (7,5), (6,4), and (6,5) single chirality enriched samples. A high asymmetry between the intensity of the incoming and outgoing resonance is observed in the resonant Raman profiles. In contrast to Stokes scattering, anti-Stokes scattering is more intense at the outgoing resonance then at the incoming resonance. The resonance profiles are explained by a Raman process that includes the phonon-mediated interactions with the dark excitonic state. The chirality dependence of the Raman profiles is due to the variation in the exciton-phonon matrix elements, in agreement with tight-binding calculations. Based on the asymmetric Raman profiles we present the resonance factors for the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratios in carbon nanotubes.
Using Single-Scattering Albedo Spectral Curvature to Characterize East Asian Aerosol Mixtures
Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.
2015-01-01
Spectral dependence of aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) has been used to infer aerosol composition. In particular, aerosol mixtures dominated by dust absorption will have monotonically increasing SSA with wavelength while that dominated by black carbon absorption has monotonically decreasing SSA spectra. However, by analyzing SSA measured at four wavelengths, 440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm from the Aerosol Robotic Network data set, we find that the SSA spectra over East Asia are frequently peaked at 675 nm. In these cases, we suggest that SSA spectral curvature, defined as the negative of the second derivative of SSA as a function of wavelength, can provide additional information on the composition of these aerosol mixtures. Aerosol SSA spectral curvatures for East Asia during fall and winter are considerably larger than those found in places primarily dominated by biomass burning or dust aerosols. SSA curvature is found to increase as the SSA magnitude decreases. The curvature increases with coarse mode fraction (CMF) to a CMF value of about 0.4, then slightly decreases or remains constant at larger CMF. Mie calculations further verify that the strongest SSA curvature occurs at approx. 40% dust fraction, with 10% scattering aerosol fraction. The nonmonotonic SSA spectral dependence is likely associated with enhanced absorption in the shortwave by dust, absorption by black carbon at longer wavelengths, and also the flattened absorption optical depth spectral dependence due to the increased particle size.
Four-jet production in single- and double-parton scattering within high-energy factorization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kutak, Krzysztof; Maciula, Rafal; Serino, Mirko [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Szczurek, Antoni [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów,ul. Pigonia 1, 35-310 Rzeszów (Poland); Hameren, Andreas van [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)
2016-04-28
We perform a first study of 4-jet production in a complete high-energy factorization (HEF) framework. We include and discuss contributions from both single-parton scattering (SPS) and double-parton scattering (DPS). The calculations are performed for kinematical situations relevant for two experimental measurements (ATLAS and CMS) at the LHC. We compare our results to those reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations for different sets of kinematical cuts. The results of the HEF approach are compared with their counterparts for collinear factorization. For symmetric cuts the DPS HEF result is considerably smaller than the one obtained with collinear factorization. The mechanism leading to this difference is of kinematical nature. We conclude that an analysis of inclusive 4-jet production with asymmetric p{sub T}-cuts below 50 GeV would be useful to enhance the DPS contribution relative to the SPS contribution. In contrast to the collinear approach, the HEF approach nicely describes the distribution of the ΔS variable, which involves all four jets and their angular correlations.
Single-site Green function of the Dirac equation for full-potential electron scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kordt, Pascal
2012-05-30
I present an elaborated analytical examination of the Green function of an electron scattered at a single-site potential, for both the Schroedinger and the Dirac equation, followed by an efficient numerical solution, in both cases for potentials of arbitrary shape without an atomic sphere approximation. A numerically stable way to calculate the corresponding regular and irregular wave functions and the Green function is via the angular Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations. These are solved based on an expansion in Chebyshev polynomials and their recursion relations, allowing to rewrite the Lippmann-Schwinger equations into a system of algebraic linear equations. Gonzales et al. developed this method for the Schroedinger equation, where it gives a much higher accuracy compared to previous perturbation methods, with only modest increase in computational effort. In order to apply it to the Dirac equation, I developed relativistic Lippmann-Schwinger equations, based on a decomposition of the potential matrix into spin spherical harmonics, exploiting certain properties of this matrix. The resulting method was embedded into a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker code for density functional calculations. As an example, the method is applied by calculating phase shifts and the Mott scattering of a tungsten impurity. (orig.)
Polarization Dependence of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Dielectric Nanowire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Qi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Our measurements of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS on Ga2O3 dielectric nanowires (NWs core/silver composites indicate that the SERS enhancement is highly dependent on the polarization direction of the incident laser light. The polarization dependence of the SERS signal with respect to the direction of a single NW was studied by changing the incident light angle. Further investigations demonstrate that the SERS intensity is not only dependent on the direction and wavelength of the incident light, but also on the species of the SERS active molecule. The largest signals were observed on an NW when the incident 514.5 nm light was polarized perpendicular to the length of the NW, while the opposite phenomenon was observed at the wavelength of 785 nm. Our theoretical simulations of the polarization dependence at 514.5 nm and 785 nm are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Potenza, M A C; Krpetić, Ž; Sanvito, T; Cai, Q; Monopoli, M; de Araújo, J M; Cella, C; Boselli, L; Castagnola, V; Milani, P; Dawson, K A
2017-02-23
The shape and size of nanoparticles are important parameters affecting their biodistribution, bioactivity, and toxicity. The high-throughput characterisation of the nanoparticle shape in dispersion is a fundamental prerequisite for realistic in vitro and in vivo evaluation, however, with routinely available bench-top optical characterisation techniques, it remains a challenging task. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of a single particle extinction and scattering (SPES) technique for the in situ detection of the shape of nanoparticles in dispersion, applied to a small library of anisotropic gold particles, with a potential development for in-line detection. The use of SPES paves the way to the routine quantitative analysis of nanoparticles dispersed in biologically relevant fluids, which is of importance for the nanosafety assessment and any in vitro and in vivo administration of nanomaterials.
Proton resonance elastic scattering of $^{30}$Mg for single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg
The single particle structure of $^{31}$Mg, which is located in the so-called “island of inversion”, will be studied through measuring Isobaric Analog Resonances (IARs) of bound states of $^{31}$Mg. They are located in the high excitation energy of $^{31}$Al. We are going to determine the spectroscopic factors and angular momenta of the parent states by measuring the excitation function of the proton resonance elastic scattering around 0 degrees in the laboratory frame with around 3 MeV/nucleon $^{30}$Mg beam. The present study will reveal the shell evolution around $^{32}$Mg. In addition, the spectroscopic factor of the (7/2)$^{−}$ state which was not yet determined experimentally, may allow one to study the shape coexistence in this nucleus.
Valdés, Felipe
2013-03-01
Single-source time-domain electric-and magnetic-field integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects are presented. Their temporal discretization is effected by using shifted piecewise polynomial temporal basis functions and a collocation testing procedure, thus allowing for a marching-on-in-time (MOT) solution scheme. Unlike dual-source formulations, single-source equations involve space-time domain operator products, for which spatial discretization techniques developed for standalone operators do not apply. Here, the spatial discretization of the single-source time-domain integral equations is achieved by using the high-order divergence-conforming basis functions developed by Graglia alongside the high-order divergence-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions of Valdés The combination of these two sets allows for a well-conditioned mapping from div-to curl-conforming function spaces that fully respects the space-mapping properties of the space-time operators involved. Numerical results corroborate the fact that the proposed procedure guarantees accuracy and stability of the MOT scheme. © 2012 IEEE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.
1996-01-01
Levinson close-quote s theorem relates the zero-energy phase shift δ for potential scattering in a given partial wave l, by a spherically symmetric potential that falls off sufficiently rapidly, to the number of bound states of that l supported by the potential. An extension of this theorem is presented that applies to single-channel scattering by a compound system initially in its ground state. As suggested by Swan [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 228, 10 (1955)], the extended theorem differs from that derived for potential scattering; even in the absence of composite bound states δ may differ from zero as a consequence of the Pauli principle. The derivation given here is based on the introduction of a continuous auxiliary open-quote open-quote length phase close-quote close-quote η, defined modulo π for l=0 by expressing the scattering length as A=acotη, where a is a characteristic length of the target. Application of the minimum principle for the scattering length determines the branch of the cotangent curve on which η lies and, by relating η to δ, an absolute determination of δ is made. The theorem is applicable, in principle, to single-channel scattering in any partial wave for e ± -atom and nucleon-nucleus systems. In addition to a knowledge of the number of composite bound states, information (which can be rather incomplete) concerning the structure of the target ground-state wave function is required for an explicit, absolute, determination of the phase shift δ. As for Levinson close-quote s original theorem for potential scattering, no additional information concerning the scattering wave function or scattering dynamics is required. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
A hybrid approach to simulate multiple photon scattering in X-ray imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freud, N. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: nicolas.freud@insa-lyon.fr; Letang, J.-M. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Babot, D. [CNDRI, Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiations, INSA-Lyon Scientific and Technical University, Bat. Antoine de Saint-Exupery, 20, avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)
2005-01-01
A hybrid simulation approach is proposed to compute the contribution of scattered radiation in X- or {gamma}-ray imaging. This approach takes advantage of the complementarity between the deterministic and probabilistic simulation methods. The proposed hybrid method consists of two stages. Firstly, a set of scattering events occurring in the inspected object is determined by means of classical Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly, this set of scattering events is used as a starting point to compute the energy imparted to the detector, with a deterministic algorithm based on a 'forced detection' scheme. For each scattering event, the probability for the scattered photon to reach each pixel of the detector is calculated using well-known physical models (form factor and incoherent scattering function approximations, in the case of Rayleigh and Compton scattering respectively). The results of the proposed hybrid approach are compared to those obtained with the Monte Carlo method alone (Geant4 code) and found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence of the results when the number of scattering events increases is studied. The proposed hybrid approach makes it possible to simulate the contribution of each type (Compton or Rayleigh) and order of scattering, separately or together, with a single PC, within reasonable computation times (from minutes to hours, depending on the number of pixels of the detector). This constitutes a substantial benefit, compared to classical simulation methods (Monte Carlo or deterministic approaches), which usually requires a parallel computing architecture to obtain comparable results.
Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian
2018-03-01
An asymptotic quadratic true-amplitude inversion method for isotropic elastic P waves is proposed to invert medium parameters. The multicomponent P-wave scattered wavefield is computed based on a forward relationship using second-order Born approximation and corresponding high-frequency ray theoretical methods. Within the local double scattering mechanism, the P-wave transmission factors are elaborately calculated, which results in the radiation pattern for P-waves scattering being a quadratic combination of the density and Lamé's moduli perturbation parameters. We further express the elastic P-wave scattered wavefield in a form of generalized Radon transform (GRT). After introducing classical backprojection operators, we obtain an approximate solution of the inverse problem by solving a quadratic non-linear system. Numerical tests with synthetic data computed by finite-differences scheme demonstrate that our quadratic inversion can accurately invert perturbation parameters for strong perturbations, compared with the P-wave single-scattering linear inversion method. Although our inversion strategy here is only syncretized with P-wave scattering, it can be extended to invert multicomponent elastic data containing both P-wave and S-wave information.
Zhao, Feng; Zou, Kai; Shang, Hong; Ji, Zheng; Zhao, Huijie; Huang, Wenjiang; Li, Cunjun
2010-10-01
In this paper we present an analytical model for the computation of radiation transfer of discontinuous vegetation canopies. Some initial results of gap probability and bidirectional gap probability of discontinuous vegetation canopies, which are important parameters determining the radiative environment of the canopies, are given and compared with a 3- D computer simulation model. In the model, negative exponential attenuation of light within individual plant canopies is assumed. Then the computation of gap probability is resolved by determining the entry points and exiting points of the ray with the individual plants via their equations in space. For the bidirectional gap probability, which determines the single-scattering contribution of the canopy, a gap statistical analysis based model was adopted to correct the dependence of gap probabilities for both solar and viewing directions. The model incorporates the structural characteristics, such as plant sizes, leaf size, row spacing, foliage density, planting density, leaf inclination distribution. Available experimental data are inadequate for a complete validation of the model. So it was evaluated with a three dimensional computer simulation model for 3D vegetative scenes, which shows good agreement between these two models' results. This model should be useful to the quantification of light interception and the modeling of bidirectional reflectance distributions of discontinuous canopies.
Huang, Bin; Yan, Shuai; Xiao, Lin; Ji, Rong; Yang, Liuyan; Miao, Ai-Jun; Wang, Ping
2018-03-01
Imaging and quantification of nanoparticles in single cells in their most natural condition are expected to facilitate the biotechnological applications of nanoparticles and allow for better assessment of their biosafety risks. However, current imaging modalities either require tedious sample preparation or only apply to nanoparticles with specific physicochemical characteristics. Here, the emerging hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, as a label-free and nondestructive imaging method, is used for the first time to investigate the subcellular distribution of nanoparticles in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. The two frequently studied nanoparticles, polyacrylate-coated α-Fe 2 O 3 and TiO 2 , are found to have different subcellular distribution pattern as a result of their dissimilar uptake routes. Significant uptake competition between these two types of nanoparticles is further discovered, which should be paid attention to in future bioapplications of nanoparticles. Overall, this study illustrates the great promise of hyperspectral SRS as an analytical imaging tool in nanobiotechnology and nanotoxicology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Sakai
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Inverse Compton scattering (ICS is a unique mechanism for producing fast pulses—picosecond and below—of bright photons, ranging from x to γ rays. These nominally narrow spectral bandwidth electromagnetic radiation pulses are efficiently produced in the interaction between intense, well-focused electron and laser beams. The spectral characteristics of such sources are affected by many experimental parameters, with intense laser effects often dominant. A laser field capable of inducing relativistic oscillatory motion may give rise to harmonic generation and, importantly for the present work, nonlinear redshifting, both of which dilute the spectral brightness of the radiation. As the applications enabled by this source often depend sensitively on its spectra, it is critical to resolve the details of the wavelength and angular distribution obtained from ICS collisions. With this motivation, we present an experimental study that greatly improves on previous spectral measurement methods based on x-ray K-edge filters, by implementing a multilayer bent-crystal x-ray spectrometer. In tandem with a collimating slit, this method reveals a projection of the double differential angular-wavelength spectrum of the ICS radiation in a single shot. The measurements enabled by this diagnostic illustrate the combined off-axis and nonlinear-field-induced redshifting in the ICS emission process. The spectra obtained illustrate in detail the strength of the normalized laser vector potential, and provide a nondestructive measure of the temporal and spatial electron-laser beam overlap.
Trunk, M; Lübben, J F; Popp, J; Schrader, B; Kiefer, W
1997-05-20
Light-scattering measurements of optically levitated microdroplets containing three components, glycerin, water, and ammonium sulfate, are presented. Evaporation of the microdroplet is studied by means of morphology-dependent resonances observed in both Raman spectra as well as elastically scattered light and by the simultaneous measurement of the laser power. The phase transition from the liquid to the solid state of ammonium sulfate inside the microdroplet is observed by means of morphology-dependent resonances and Raman scattering.
Geilhufe, Matthias; Achilles, Steven; Köbis, Markus Arthur; Arnold, Martin; Mertig, Ingrid; Hergert, Wolfram; Ernst, Arthur
2015-11-01
For a reliable fully-relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method, an accurate solution of the underlying single-site scattering problem is necessary. We present an extensive discussion on numerical solutions of the related differential equations by means of standard methods for a direct solution and by means of integral equations. Our implementation is tested and exemplarily demonstrated for a spherically symmetric treatment of a Coulomb potential and for a Mathieu potential to cover the full-potential implementation. For the Coulomb potential we include an analytic discussion of the asymptotic behaviour of irregular scattering solutions close to the origin (r\\ll 1 ).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos; Harris, D. A. [Fermilab; Tanaka, H. A. [British Columbia U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Zeller, G. P. [Fermilab
2015-06-15
The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Han Kyu; Kim, Zee Hwan
2015-01-01
The electromagnetic (EM) enhancement mechanism of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been well established through 30 years of extensive investigation: molecules adsorbed on resonantly driven silver or gold nanoparticles (NPs) experience strongly enhanced field and thus show enhanced Raman scattering. Even stronger SERS enhancement is possible with a gap structure in which two or more NPs form assemblies with gap sizes of 1 nm or less. We have theoretically shown that the measurement of SERS angular distribution can reveal the position of a single molecule near the gap with 1-nm accuracy, even though the spatial extent of the enhanced field is ~10 nm. Real implementation of such experiment requires extremely well-defined (preferably a single crystal) dimeric junctions. Nevertheless, the experiment will provide spatial as well as frequency domain information on single-molecule dynamics at metallic surfaces
Wind reversals in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Fontenele Araujo Junior, F.; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
2005-01-01
The phenomenon of irregular cessation and subsequent reversal of the large-scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-Be´nard convection is theoretically analyzed. The force and thermal balance on a single plume detached from the thermal boundary layer yields a set of coupled nonlinear equations, whose
Aerosol single-scattering albedo retrieval over North Africa using critical reflectance
Wells, Kelley C.
The sign and magnitude of the aerosol radiative forcing over bright surfaces is highly dependent on the absorbing properties of the aerosol. Thus, the determination of aerosol forcing over desert regions requires accurate information about the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). However, the brightness of desert surfaces complicates the retrieval of aerosol optical properties using passive space-based measurements. The aerosol critical reflectance is one parameter that can be used to relate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance changes over land to the aerosol absorption properties, without knowledge of the underlying surface properties or aerosol loading. Physically, the parameter represents the TOA reflectance at which increased aerosol scattering due to increased aerosol loading is balanced by increased absorption of the surface contribution to the TOA reflectance. It can be derived by comparing two satellite images with different aerosol loading, assuming that the surface reflectance and background aerosol are similar between the two days. In this work, we explore the utility of the critical reflectance method for routine monitoring of spectral aerosol absorption from space over North Africa, a region that is predominantly impacted by absorbing dust and biomass burning aerosol. We derive the critical reflectance from Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 1B reflectances in the vicinity of two Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations: Tamanrasset, a site in the Algerian Sahara, and Banizoumbou, a Sahelian site in Niger. We examine the sensitivity of the critical reflectance parameter to aerosol physical and optical properties, as well as solar and viewing geometry, using the Santa Barbara DISORT Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model, and apply our findings to retrieve SSA from the MODIS critical reflectance values. We compare our results to AERONET-retrieved estimates, as well as to measurements of the TOA albedo and surface fluxes from the
Characterization of single particle aerosols by elastic light scattering at multiple wavelengths
Lane, P. A.; Hart, M. B.; Jain, V.; Tucker, J. E.; Eversole, J. D.
2018-03-01
We describe a system to characterize individual aerosol particles using stable and repeatable measurement of elastic light scattering. The method employs a linear electrodynamic quadrupole (LEQ) particle trap. Charged particles, continuously injected by electrospray into this system, are confined to move vertically along the stability line in the center of the LEQ past a point where they are optically interrogated. Light scattered in the near forward direction was measured at three different wavelengths using time-division multiplexed collinear laser beams. We validated our method by comparing measured silica microsphere data for four selected diameters (0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 μm) to a model of collected scattered light intensities based upon Lorenz-Mie scattering theory. Scattered light measurements at the different wavelengths are correlated, allowing us to distinguish and classify inhomogeneous particles.
Two-tone frequency-modulation stimulated Rayleigh spectroscopy.
Faris, Gregory W; Markosyan, Ashot; Porter, Christina L; Doshay, Sage
2014-08-01
We have demonstrated two-tone frequency-modulation (FM) stimulated Rayleigh spectroscopy. This method can provide high spectral resolution (∼1 MHz), excellent pump/probe detuning accuracy, and near-shot-noise-limited signal-to-noise ratios using a single narrowband laser as the master oscillator. Pump/probe detuning and FM sideband generation are produced with an electro-optic modulator. A double-pass two-rod Nd:YAG amplifier provides peak powers near 1 kW for the pump beam. Unlike with two-tone FM absorption spectroscopy, the phase signal is retained for two-tone FM Rayleigh spectroscopy. Measurements confirm that the shape of the phase component of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh peak agrees with theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Min, Jonghwan; Pua, Rizza; Cho, Seungryong, E-mail: scho@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Insoo; Han, Bumsoo [EB Tech, Co., Ltd., 550 Yongsan-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-500 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-15
Purpose: A beam-blocker composed of multiple strips is a useful gadget for scatter correction and/or for dose reduction in cone-beam CT (CBCT). However, the use of such a beam-blocker would yield cone-beam data that can be challenging for accurate image reconstruction from a single scan in the filtered-backprojection framework. The focus of the work was to develop an analytic image reconstruction method for CBCT that can be directly applied to partially blocked cone-beam data in conjunction with the scatter correction. Methods: The authors developed a rebinned backprojection-filteration (BPF) algorithm for reconstructing images from the partially blocked cone-beam data in a circular scan. The authors also proposed a beam-blocking geometry considering data redundancy such that an efficient scatter estimate can be acquired and sufficient data for BPF image reconstruction can be secured at the same time from a single scan without using any blocker motion. Additionally, scatter correction method and noise reduction scheme have been developed. The authors have performed both simulation and experimental studies to validate the rebinned BPF algorithm for image reconstruction from partially blocked cone-beam data. Quantitative evaluations of the reconstructed image quality were performed in the experimental studies. Results: The simulation study revealed that the developed reconstruction algorithm successfully reconstructs the images from the partial cone-beam data. In the experimental study, the proposed method effectively corrected for the scatter in each projection and reconstructed scatter-corrected images from a single scan. Reduction of cupping artifacts and an enhancement of the image contrast have been demonstrated. The image contrast has increased by a factor of about 2, and the image accuracy in terms of root-mean-square-error with respect to the fan-beam CT image has increased by more than 30%. Conclusions: The authors have successfully demonstrated that the
Min, Jonghwan; Pua, Rizza; Kim, Insoo; Han, Bumsoo; Cho, Seungryong
2015-11-01
A beam-blocker composed of multiple strips is a useful gadget for scatter correction and/or for dose reduction in cone-beam CT (CBCT). However, the use of such a beam-blocker would yield cone-beam data that can be challenging for accurate image reconstruction from a single scan in the filtered-backprojection framework. The focus of the work was to develop an analytic image reconstruction method for CBCT that can be directly applied to partially blocked cone-beam data in conjunction with the scatter correction. The authors developed a rebinned backprojection-filteration (BPF) algorithm for reconstructing images from the partially blocked cone-beam data in a circular scan. The authors also proposed a beam-blocking geometry considering data redundancy such that an efficient scatter estimate can be acquired and sufficient data for BPF image reconstruction can be secured at the same time from a single scan without using any blocker motion. Additionally, scatter correction method and noise reduction scheme have been developed. The authors have performed both simulation and experimental studies to validate the rebinned BPF algorithm for image reconstruction from partially blocked cone-beam data. Quantitative evaluations of the reconstructed image quality were performed in the experimental studies. The simulation study revealed that the developed reconstruction algorithm successfully reconstructs the images from the partial cone-beam data. In the experimental study, the proposed method effectively corrected for the scatter in each projection and reconstructed scatter-corrected images from a single scan. Reduction of cupping artifacts and an enhancement of the image contrast have been demonstrated. The image contrast has increased by a factor of about 2, and the image accuracy in terms of root-mean-square-error with respect to the fan-beam CT image has increased by more than 30%. The authors have successfully demonstrated that the proposed scanning method and image
Létourneau, Pierre-David
2016-09-19
We present a wideband fast algorithm capable of accurately computing the full numerical solution of the problem of acoustic scattering of waves by multiple finite-sized bodies such as spherical scatterers in three dimensions. By full solution, we mean that no assumption (e.g. Rayleigh scattering, geometrical optics, weak scattering, Born single scattering, etc.) is necessary regarding the properties of the scatterers, their distribution or the background medium. The algorithm is also fast in the sense that it scales linearly with the number of unknowns. We use this algorithm to study the phenomenon of super-resolution in time-reversal refocusing in highly-scattering media recently observed experimentally (Lemoult et al., 2011), and provide numerical arguments towards the fact that such a phenomenon can be explained through a homogenization theory.
Potenza, Marco; Villa, Stefano; Sanvito, Tiziano; Albani, Samuel; Delmonte, Barbara; Maggi, Valter
2015-04-01
From the point of view of light scattering each particle is characterized by several parameters, the size being by far the most important in determining the amount of radiated power. Nevertheless, composition, internal structure, shape do slightly affect the way light is scattered, and in turn also prevent the possibility to extract the correct size. Recovering the whole information is of paramount difficulty, if not impossibile for single particles. A trade off can be obtained by introducing the optical thickness, i.e. the product of the size and the refractive index, which determines the optical properties. Here we focus at studying the optical thickness of dust particles from the EPICA Dome C ice core. We provide for the first time a direct measurement of dust optical parameters that is the most direct information needed by climate models, and highlight important differences among samples. The SPES method is named after its capability to access both the extinction cross section and the forward scattered field amplitude for each particle. This method is well working with extremely dilute suspensions, such as Antarctic ice core samples. The SPES method is based upon combined and simultaneous measurements of the power reduction of a laser beam in presence of the particle (extinction by definition) and the interference between the intense transmitted beam and the much fainter forward scattered wave (scattering). In such a way it is possible to access both the amplitude and phase of the scattered wave, which means both the real and imaginary parts of the complex field amplitude. This makes the difference with traditional approaches. We show some preliminary results from glacial and interglacial samples from the EPICA ice core and suggest a method to extract information which is important for the light scattering properties of the ensemble of dust particles contained in each sample.
Measurement of fluorophore concentration in scattering media by a single optical fiber
Stepp, Herbert; Beck, Tobias; Beyer, Wolfgang; Pfaller, Christian; Sroka, Ronald; Baumgartner, Reinhold
2006-02-01
Motivation: Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) with interstitial light delivery by multiple fibers for the treatment of large tissue volumes requires measurement of sensitizer distribution for dosimetric considerations. For stereotactic interstitial PDT of malignant glioma, for instance, a pre-irradiation comparison of the contrast enhancing tissue volume in MR-imaging with the photosensitized volume as assessed by fluorescence detection is desirable. For PDT of prostate cancer, the quantitative measurement of the selectivity of sensitizer uptake in cancer versus normal prostate parenchyma is important. Methods: It has previously been shown by others that the fluorescence intensity measured by a thin single optical fiber for excitation and detection is largely independent on optical parameters of the tissue that contains the fluorochrome. However, the investigators assumed similar values for excitation and emission wavelengths. This study concerned liquid phantom measurements (absorber: ink or hemoglobin, fluorochrome: Na-fluorescein) and Monte Carlo calculations, with extended conditions, where the absorption differs by a factor of 10 between excitation (426 nm) and emission (530 nm) wavelengths. The absorption coefficient (μ a') was varied between 0.01 - 0.3 mm-1 (@ 426 nm), the effective scattering coefficient (μ s') between 0.6 - 2.5 mm-1. A 200 μm and a 1000 μm core fiber were used. Results: Fluorescence intensity measured at 530 nm via a thin optical fiber (core diameter small compared to light penetration depth) depends minimally on optical tissue parameters. This result is valid for ink as absorber (μa identical at excitation and emission) as well as for hemoglobin (μa different). Fluorochrome concentration measurements seem possible with a 200 μm core fiber, but not with the 1000 μm core fiber.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kazadzis
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The possibility of measuring aerosol optical absorption properties in the UV spectral range such as single scattering albedo (SSA, using remote sensing techniques, is currently an open scientific issue. We investigate the limitations on calculating column average SSA using a combination of global UV spectral measurements (that are comon in various UV monitoring stations worldwide with radiative transfer modeling. To point out the difficulties in such a retrieval we have used the travelling reference spectroradiometer QASUME (Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe results from 27 visits to UV monitoring stations around Europe. We have used the QASUME instrument as relative reference, analyzing absolute differences and also temporal and spectral deviations of UV irraidances, that are used as basic input for the SSA retrieval.
The results comparing the mean SSA derived by all instruments, measuring synchronous UV spectra, showed that 5 were within ± 0.02 difference from the SSA calculated from the QASUME instrument, while 17 were within ± 0.04, for the Solar zenith angle of 60 degrees. As for the uncertainty that has been calculated using the 2σ standard deviation of the spectral measurements, a mean 0.072 and 0.10 (2σ uncertainties have been calculated for 60° and 30°, respectively. Based on the fact that additional uncertainties would be introduced in the SSA retrieval from AOD model input accuracy, assymetry parameter assumptions, we show that only very few instrumnents could be able to detect long term SSA changes. However, such measurements/results ar useful in order to retrieve SSA at UV wavelengths, a product needed for various applications such as, inputs for modeling radiative forcing studies and satellite retrieval algorithms.
Wibking, Benjamin D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Krumholz, Mark R.
2018-04-01
The radiation force on dust grains may be dynamically important in driving turbulence and outflows in rapidly star-forming galaxies. Recent studies focus on the highly optically-thick limit relevant to the densest ultra-luminous galaxies and super star clusters, where reprocessed infrared photons provide the dominant source of electromagnetic momentum. However, even among starburst galaxies, the great majority instead lie in the so-called "single-scattering" limit, where the system is optically-thick to the incident starlight, but optically-thin to the re-radiated infrared. In this paper we present a stability analysis and multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations exploring the stability and dynamics of isothermal dusty gas columns in this regime. We describe our algorithm for full angle-dependent radiation transport based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. For a range of near-Eddington fluxes, we show that the medium is unstable, producing convective-like motions in a turbulent atmosphere with a scale height significantly inflated compared to the gas pressure scale height and mass-weighted turbulent energy densities of ˜0.01 - 0.1 of the midplane radiation energy density, corresponding to mass-weighted velocity dispersions of Mach number ˜0.5 - 2. Extrapolation of our results to optical depths of 103 implies maximum turbulent Mach numbers of ˜20. Comparing our results to galaxy-averaged observations, and subject to the approximations of our calculations, we find that radiation pressure does not contribute significantly to the effective supersonic pressure support in star-forming disks, which in general are substantially sub-Eddington. We further examine the time-averaged vertical density profiles in dynamical equilibrium and comment on implications for radiation-pressure-driven galactic winds.
Kaina, Nadège; Lemoult, Fabrice; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy
2015-09-03
Metamaterials, man-made composite media structured on a scale much smaller than a wavelength, offer surprising possibilities for engineering the propagation of waves. One of the most interesting of these is the ability to achieve superlensing--that is, to focus or image beyond the diffraction limit. This originates from the left-handed behavior--the property of refracting waves negatively--that is typical of negative index metamaterials. Yet reaching this goal requires the design of 'double negative' metamaterials, which act simultaneously on the permittivity and permeability in electromagnetics, or on the density and compressibility in acoustics; this generally implies the use of two different kinds of building blocks or specific particles presenting multiple overlapping resonances. Such a requirement limits the applicability of double negative metamaterials, and has, for example, hampered any demonstration of subwavelength focusing using left-handed acoustic metamaterials. Here we show that these strict conditions can be largely relaxed by relying on media that consist of only one type of single resonant unit cell. Specifically, we show with a simple yet general semi-analytical model that judiciously breaking the symmetry of a single negative metamaterial is sufficient to turn it into a double negative one. We then demonstrate that this occurs solely because of multiple scattering of waves off the metamaterial resonant elements, a phenomenon often disregarded in these media owing to their subwavelength patterning. We apply our approach to acoustics and verify through numerical simulations that it allows the realization of negative index acoustic metamaterials based on Helmholtz resonators only. Finally, we demonstrate the operation of a negative index acoustic superlens, achieving subwavelength focusing and imaging with spot width and resolution 7 and 3.5 times better than the diffraction limit, respectively. Our findings have profound implications for the
Abbiendi, G; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Groll, M.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, G.W.; Wilson, D.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2003-01-01
A search for single production of doubly-charged Higgs bosons has been performed using 600.7 pb^-1 of e+e- collision data with sqrt(s)=189--209GeV collected by the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for the existence of H++/-- is observed. Upper limits on the Yukawa coupling of the H++/-- to like-signed electron pairs are derived. Additionally, indirect constraints on the Yukawa coupling from Bhabha scattering, where the H++/-- would contribute via t-channel exchange, are derived for M(H++/--) < 2TeV. These are the first results for both a single production search and constraints from Bhabha scattering reported from LEP.
Okamoto, Toshihiro; Fukuta, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Fukui, Masuo
2011-04-11
We succeeded in making a silver split-ring (SR) structure of approximately 130 nm in diameter on a glass substrate using a nanosphere lithography technique. The light scattering spectrum in visible near-infrared region of a single, isolated SR was measured using a microscope spectroscopy optical system. The electromagnetic field enhancement spectrum and distribution of the SR structure were simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method, and the excitation modes were clarified. The long wavelength peak in the light scattering spectra corresponded to a fundamental LC resonance mode excited by an incident electric field. It was shown that a single SR structure fabricated as abovementioned can operate as a resonator and generate a magnetic dipole. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Bayesian Predictive Models for Rayleigh Wind Speed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shahirinia, Amir; Hajizadeh, Amin; Yu, David C
2017-01-01
predictive model of the wind speed aggregates the non-homogeneous distributions into a single continuous distribution. Therefore, the result is able to capture the variation among the probability distributions of the wind speeds at the turbines’ locations in a wind farm. More specifically, instead of using...... a wind speed distribution whose parameters are known or estimated, the parameters are considered as random whose variations are according to probability distributions. The Bayesian predictive model for a Rayleigh which only has a single model scale parameter has been proposed. Also closed-form posterior......One of the major challenges with the increase in wind power generation is the uncertain nature of wind speed. So far the uncertainty about wind speed has been presented through probability distributions. Also the existing models that consider the uncertainty of the wind speed primarily view...
Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. B. Colson
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.
Kuo, K.; Clune, T.; Pearson, C.; Olson, W. S.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Gravner, J.; Griffeath, D.
2010-12-01
This study improves upon an earlier, preliminary study using only three size bins based on maximum diameter in which it is found that the single-scattering properties of ensembles of non-spherical precipitation particles can be better characterized by considering the non-convexity of these particles. The difficulty of retrievals involving non-spherical particles stems not only from the fact that these particles are not spherical but also the fact that the shape composition of an ensemble of particles is usually unknown and the possibility of its mixture is infinite. Being able to adequately characterize the single-scattering properties of ensembles involving these non-spherical particles with as few parameters as possible is at the heart of solving this thorny remote sensing problem. Inspired by how well three parameters, i.e. water content, effective radius, and effective variance (or their equivalent), characterize the single-scattering properties of an ensemble of spherical particles of varying sizes, we set out to find additional parameters that generalize these three for ensembles of non-spherical particles. We find that a non-convexity measure appears to be one of these additional parameters. Non-convexity is expressed as a ratio of two effective radii derived from the moments of a given particle size distribution (PSD), each of which is in essence a ratio of ensemble particle volume to area. The effective radius in the numerator (denoted as rA) of the non-convexity ratio is based on the projection area of the particle ensemble whereas the one in the denominator (denoted as rS) is based on the surface area. In the preliminary study with PSDs having only three size bins, it is found that variations in the single-scattering properties, such as the scattering and extinction coefficients, the asymmetry factor, and even the scattering phase function, of a particle ensemble with a specified water content are very limited (practically non-existent), if 1) the habit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia; Ionescu, Remus A.
2004-01-01
The quasiresonant scattering consists from a single channel resonance coupled by direct interaction transitions to some competing reaction channels. A description of quasiresonant Scattering, in terms of generalized reduced K-, R- and S- Matrix, is developed in this work. The quasiresonance's decay width is, due to channels coupling, smaller than the width of the ancestral single channel resonance (resonance's direct compression). (author)
Valdés, Felipe
2011-06-01
A new regularized single source equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects is presented. The proposed equation is a linear combination of a Calderón-preconditioned single source electric field integral equation and a single source magnetic field integral equation. The equation is immune to low-frequency and dense-mesh breakdown, and free from spurious resonances. Unlike dual source formulations, this equation involves operator products that cannot be discretized using standard procedures for discretizing standalone electric, magnetic, and combined field operators. Instead, the single source equation proposed here is discretized using a recently developed technique that achieves a well-conditioned mapping from div- to curl-conforming function spaces, thereby fully respecting the space mapping properties of the operators involved, and guaranteeing accuracy and stability. Numerical results show that the proposed equation and discretization technique give rise to rapidly convergent solutions. They also validate the equation\\'s resonant free character. © 2006 IEEE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Collaud Coen
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Scattering and absorption coefficients have been measured continuously at several wavelengths since March 2001 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch (3580ma.s.l.. From these data, the wavelength dependences of the Ångström exponent and particularly of the single scattering albedo are determined. While the exponent of the single scattering albedo usually increases with wavelength, it decreases with wavelength during Saharan dust events (SDE due to the greater size of the mineral aerosol particles and their different chemical composition. This change in the sign of the single scattering exponent turns out to be a sensitive means for detecting Saharan dust events. The occurrence of SDE detected by this new method was confirmed by visual inspection of filter colors and by studying long-range back-trajectories. An examination of SDE over a 22-month period shows that SDE are more frequent during the March-June period as well as during October and November. The trajectory analysis indicated a mean traveling time of 96.5h, with the most important source countries situated in the northern and north-western part of the Saharan desert. Most of the SDE do not lead to a detectable increase of the 48-h total suspended particulate matter (TSP concentration at the Jungfraujoch. During Saharan dust events, the average contribution of this dust to hourly TSP at the Jungfraujoch is 16µg/m3, which corresponds to an annual mean of 0.8µg/m3 or 24% of TSP.
Room temperature single-crystal diffuse scattering and ab initio lattice dynamics in CaTiSiO5.
Gutmann, M J; Refson, K; Zimmermann, M V; Swainson, I P; Dabkowski, A; Dabkowska, H
2013-08-07
Single-crystal diffuse scattering data have been collected at room temperature on synthetic titanite using both neutrons and high-energy x-rays. A simple ball-and-springs model reproduces the observed diffuse scattering well, confirming its origin to be primarily due to thermal motion of the atoms. Ab initio phonons are calculated using density-functional perturbation theory and are shown to reproduce the experimental diffuse scattering. The observed diffuse x-ray and neutron scattering patterns are consistent with a summation of mode frequencies and displacement eigenvectors associated with the entire phonon spectrum, rather than with a simple, short-range static displacement. A band gap is observed between 600 and 700 cm(-1) with only two modes crossing this region, both associated with antiferroelectric Ti-O motion along a. One of these modes (of Bu symmetry), displays a large LO-TO mode-splitting (562-701.4 cm(-1)) and has a dominant component coming from Ti-O bond-stretching and, thus, the mode-splitting is related to the polarizability of the Ti-O bonds along the chain direction. Similar mode-splitting is observed in piezo- and ferroelectric materials. The calculated phonon dispersion model may be of use to others in future to understand the phase transition at higher temperatures, as well as in the interpretation of measured phonon dispersion curves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Dagnac, R. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre de Physique Atomique)
1992-06-14
We studied the single-electron capture as well as the direct processes occurring when a He[sup 2+] ion is scattered by a He target. Doubly differential cross sections were measured for single-electron capture with a collision energy ranging from 2 to 8 keV and a scattering angle varying from 10' to 3[sup o]30' (laboratory frame). Single-electron capture into excited states of He[sup +] was found to be the dominant process, confirming a previous experimental study. Elastic scattering and ionization differential cross sections were measured for E = 6 keV. (Author).
Δ33 resonance in pion nucleus elastic, single, and double charge exchange scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, M.B.
1983-01-01
The Δ 33 resonance is strongly excited in pion-nucleon scattering, but there is clearly only a limited amount of information that can be learned in scattering the pion from an isolated nucleon. One learns that there is a resonance of mass 1232 MeV, width 115 MeV, and, if one is willing to introduce a dynamical model, something about the off-shell extension of the amplitude. One stands to learn much more from pion-nucleus scattering because in this case the Δ 33 resonance has an opportunity to scatter from nucleons, and how this occurs is not well understood. What do we know about the Δ-N interaction for pion-nucleus scattering. The isobar-hole model was invented to deal directly with the Δ 33 -nucleus dynamics, and a phenomenological determination of the isobar shell-model potential was attempted. The unknown dynamics deltaU/sub Δ/ is contained in a central isoscalar spreading potential of strength W 0 and a spin orbit potential deltaU 0 = W 0 rho + spin-orbit. The real part of W 0 rho is measured relative to the nucleon-nucleus potential. From a more theoretical point of view, one would like to be able to calculate deltaU/sub Δ/, including its isospin dependence, from an underlying dynamical model which is formulated in terms of the basic effective meson-baryon couplings. Some salient properties of these couplings can be determined from models of quark-bag structure, which raises the exciting possibility of learning about these fundamental issues from pion scattering. Attempts at Los Alamos to build a theoretical framework to deal with these and other issues are described
The structural and compositional analysis of single crystal surfaces using low energy ion scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armour, D.G.; Van der Berg, J.A.; Verheij, IL.K.
1979-01-01
The use of ion scattering for surface composition and structure analysis has been reviewed. The extreme surface specificity of this technique has been widely used to obtain quitative information in a straightforward way, but the/aolc/currence of charge exchange processes, thermal lattice vibrations and multiple scattering have precluded quantitative analysis of experimental data. Examples are quoted to illustrate the progress that has been made in understanding these fundamental processes and in applying this knowledge to the development of the analytical capabilities of the technique. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schleger, P.; Casalta, H.; Hadfield, R.
1995-01-01
We present measurements of Ortho-III phase correlations in an untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.77 by neutron scattering and the novel method of hard (95 keV) X-ray scattering. The Ortho-III ordering is essentially two-dimensional, exhibiting Lorentzian peak shapes in the a-b plane. At room...
Energy loss of light ions scattered off Al(110) single crystal surfaces at low energy
Hausmann, S; Hofner, C; Schlathölter, Thomas; Franke, H; Narmann, A; Heiland, W
We present energy loss data taken after grazing incidence scattering of H+, H-0, He2+, He+, and He-0 off an Al(110) surface, The data is evaluated by means of a procedure that allows to extract surface electron density parameters. The obtained density parameters will be compared to those obtained
Polarized Raman scattering study of PSN single crystals and epitaxial thin films
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pokorný, Jan; Rafalovskyi, Iegor; Gregora, Ivan; Borodavka, Fedir; Savinov, Maxim; Drahokoupil, Jan; Tyunina, Marina; Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bing, Y.; Ye, Z. -G.; Hlinka, Jiří
2015-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 2 (2015), "1550013-1"-"1550013-6" ISSN 2010-135X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S; GA ČR GA15-15123S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : PSN * relaxors * ferroelectrics * complex perovskites * Raman scattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bacchetta, A.; Bailey, P.; Balin, D.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Borysenko, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brüll, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Capitani, G. P.; Cappiluppi, M.; Chen, T.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Leo, R. De; Demey, M.; Nardo, L. De; Sanctis, E. De; Devitsin, E.; Nezza, P. Di; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garrow, K.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Grebeniouk, O.; Gregor, I. M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Henoch, M.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Hristova, I.; Iarygin, G.; Ilyichev, A.; Ivanilov, A.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, H.; Lu, J.; Lu, S.; Ma, B.-Q.; Maiheu, B.; Makins, N. C.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Michler, T.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Osborne, A.; Pickert, N.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Sinram, K.; Sommer, W.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Tait, P.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Vogel, C.; Volmer, J.; Wang, S.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Smit, G. Ybeles; Ye, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.
2005-01-01
Single-spin asymmetries for semi-inclusive electroproduction of charged pions in deep-inelastic scattering of positrons are measured for the first time with transverse target polarization. The asymmetry depends on the azimuthal angles of both the pion (ϕ) and the target spin axis (ϕS) about the virtual-photon direction and relative to the lepton scattering plane. The extracted Fourier component πUT is a signal of the previously unmeasured quark transversity distribution, in conjunction with the Collins fragmentation function, also unknown. The component πUT arises from a correlation between the transverse polarization of the target nucleon and the intrinsic transverse momentum of quarks, as represented by the previously unmeasured Sivers distribution function. Evidence for both signals is observed, but the Sivers asymmetry may be affected by exclusive vector meson production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehtinen, Ossi; Geiger, Dorin; Lee, Zhongbo; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Chen, Ming-Wei; Kis, Andras; Kaiser, Ute
2015-01-01
Here, we present a numerical post-processing method for removing the effect of anti-symmetric residual aberrations in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of weakly scattering 2D-objects. The method is based on applying the same aberrations with the opposite phase to the Fourier transform of the recorded image intensity and subsequently inverting the Fourier transform. We present the theoretical justification of the method, and its verification based on simulated images in the case of low-order anti-symmetric aberrations. Ultimately the method is applied to experimental hardware aberration-corrected HRTEM images of single-layer graphene and MoSe 2 resulting in images with strongly reduced residual low-order aberrations, and consequently improved interpretability. Alternatively, this method can be used to estimate by trial and error the residual anti-symmetric aberrations in HRTEM images of weakly scattering objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Asadi, H A; Mahdi, M A; Bakar, A A A; Adikan, F R Mahamd
2011-01-01
We present a theoretical study of nonlinear phase shift through stimulated Brillouin scattering in single mode optical fiber. Analytical expressions describing the nonlinear phase shift for the pump and Stokes waves in the pump power recycling technique have been derived. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the optical fiber length, the reflectivity of the optical mirror and the frequency detuning coefficient have been analyzed for different input pump power values. We found that with the recycling pump technique, the nonlinear phase shift due to stimulated Brillouin scattering reduced to less than 0.1 rad for 5 km optical fiber length and 0.65 reflectivity of the optical mirror, respectively, at an input pump power equal to 30 mW
A portable high-field pulsed-magnet system for single-crystal x-ray scattering studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, Zahirul; Lang, Jonathan C.; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Ross, Kathryn A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Qu Zhe
2009-01-01
We present a portable pulsed-magnet system for x-ray studies of materials in high magnetic fields (up to 30 T). The apparatus consists of a split-pair of minicoils cooled on a closed-cycle cryostat, which is used for x-ray diffraction studies with applied field normal to the scattering plane. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling the sample to near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields (∼1 ms in total duration) are generated by discharging a configurable capacitor bank into the magnet coils. Time-resolved scattering data are collected using a combination of a fast single-photon counting detector, a multichannel scaler, and a high-resolution digital storage oscilloscope. The capabilities of this instrument are used to study a geometrically frustrated system revealing strong magnetostrictive effects in the spin-liquid state.
Gnezdilov, V. P.; Pashkevich, Yu. G.; Tranquada, J. M.; Lemmens, P.; Guentherodt, G.; Yeremenko, A. V.; Barilo, S. N.; Shiryaev, S. V.; Kurnevich, L. A.; Gehring, P. M.
2004-01-01
We report a neutron and Raman scattering study of a single-crystal of La(2)CuO(4.05) prepared by high temperature electrochemical oxidation. Elastic neutron scattering measurements show the presence of two phases, corresponding to the two edges of the first miscibility gap, all the way up to 300 K. An additional oxygen redistribution, driven by electronic energies, is identified at 250 K in Raman scattering (RS) experiments by the simultaneous onset of two-phonon and two-magnon scattering, wh...
Narayan, J. P.; Kumar, Neeraj; Chauhan, Ranu
2018-03-01
This research work is inspired by the recently accepted concept that high frequency Rayleigh waves are generated in the epicentral zone of shallow earthquakes. Such high frequency Rayleigh waves with large amplitude may develop much of spatial variability in ground motion which in turn may cause unexpected damage to long-span structures like bridges, underground pipelines, dams, etc., in the hilly regions. Further, it has been reported that topography acts as an insulator for the Rayleigh waves (Ma et al. BSSA 97:2066-2079, 2007). The above mentioned scientific developments stimulated to quantify the role of shape and number of ridges and valleys falling in the path of Rayleigh wave in the insulating effect of topography on the Rayleigh waves. The simulated results reveals very large amplification of the horizontal component of Rayleigh wave near the top of a triangular ridge which may cause intensive landslides under favorable condition. The computed snapshots of the wave-field of Rayleigh wave reveals that the interaction of Rayleigh wave with the topography causes reflection, splitting, and diffraction of Rayleigh wave in the form of body waves which in turn provides the insulating capacity to the topography. Insulating effects of single valley is more than that of single ridge. Further this effect was more in case of elliptical ridge/valley than triangular ridge/valley. The insulating effect of topography was proportional to the frequency of Rayleigh wave and the number of ridges and valleys in the string. The obtained level of insulation effects of topography on the Rayleigh wave (energy of Rayleigh wave reduced to less than 4% after crossing a topography of span 4.5 km) calls for the consideration of role of hills and valleys in seismic hazard prediction, particularly in case of shallow earthquakes.
Infrared dispersion analysis and Raman scattering spectra of taurine single crystals
Moreira, Roberto L.; Lobo, Ricardo P. S. M.; Dias, Anderson
2018-01-01
A comprehensive set of optical vibrational modes of monoclinic taurine crystals was determined by Raman scattering, and infrared reflectivity and transmission spectroscopies. By using appropriate scattering/reflection geometries, the vibrational modes were resolved by polarization and the most relevant modes of the crystal could be assigned. In particular, we were able to review the symmetry of the gerade modes and to resolve ambiguities in the literature. Owing to the non-orthogonal character of Bu modes in monoclinic crystals (lying on the optic axial plane), we carried out a generalized Lorentz dispersion analysis consisting of simultaneous adjust of infrared-reflectivity spectra at various light polarization angles. The Au modes (parallel to the C2-axis) were treated within the classical Lorentz model. The behavior of off-diagonal and diagonal terms of the complex dielectric tensors and the presence of anomalous dispersion were discussed as consequences of the low symmetry of the crystal.
Analysis of suspended solids by single-particle scattering. [for Lake Superior pollution monitoring
Diehl, S. R.; Smith, D. T.; Sydor, M.
1979-01-01
Light scattering by individual particulates is used in a multiple-detector system to categorize the composition of suspended solids in terms of broad particulate categories. The scattering signatures of red clay and taconite tailings, the two primary particulate contaminants in western Lake Superior, along with two types of asbestiform fibers, amphibole and chrysolite, were studied in detail. A method was developed to predict the concentration of asbestiform fibers in filtration plant samples for which electron microscope analysis was done concurrently. Fiber levels as low as 50,000 fibers/liter were optically detectable. The method has application in optical categorization of samples for remote sensing purposes and offers a fast, inexpensive means for analyzing water samples from filtration plants for specific particulate contaminants.
Heinisch, Christian; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Tschudi, Theo; Tropea, Cameron
2009-11-14
The evaporation dynamics of stationary water droplets held within an electrodynamic trap are investigated in a nitrogen flow of variable velocity. In particular, the influence of the nitrogen gas flow on the temperature of the evaporating water droplets is studied. By applying a contact free measurement technique, based on spontaneous Raman scattering, time averaged and time resolved measurements of temperature in the droplet volume are compared. This technique determines the temperature from an intensity ratio in the OH stretching band of the Stokes-Raman scattering after calibration. The measured trends in temperature over the first 5 s of evaporation are found to be in agreement with theoretical calculations of the heat and mass transfer rates.
Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Yan, Michael M.-H.; Lee, Kyu-Tae
1998-02-01
Parameterizations for cloud single-scattering properties and the scaling of optical thickness in a partial cloudiness condition have been developed for use in atmospheric models. Cloud optical properties are parameterized for four broad bands in the solar (or shortwave) spectrum; one in the ultraviolet and visible region and three in the infrared region. The extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized separately for ice and water clouds. Based on high spectral-resolution calculations, the effective single-scattering coalbedo of a broad band is determined such that errors in the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface are minimized. This parameterization introduces errors of a few percent in the absorption of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere and at the surface.Scaling of the optical thickness is based on the maximum-random cloud-overlapping approximation. The atmosphere is divided into three height groups separated approximately by the 400- and 700-mb levels. Clouds are assumed maximally overlapped within each height group and randomly overlapped among different groups. The scaling is applied only to the maximally overlapped cloud layers in individual height groups. The scaling as a function of the optical thickness, cloud amount, and the solar zenith angle is derived from detailed calculations and empirically adjusted to minimize errors in the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface. Different scaling is used for direct and diffuse radiation. Except for a large solar zenith angle, the error in fluxes introduced by the scaling is only a few percent. In terms of absolute error, it is within a few watts per square meter.
Development of single shot 1D-Raman scattering measurements for flames
Biase, Amelia; Uddi, Mruthunjaya
2017-11-01
The majority of energy consumption in the US comes from burning fossil fuels which increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has negative impacts on the environment. One solution to this problem is to study the oxy-combustion process. A pure oxygen stream is used instead of air for combustion. Products contain only carbon dioxide and water. It is easy to separate water from carbon dioxide by condensation and the carbon dioxide can be captured easily. Lower gas volume allows for easier removal of pollutants from the flue gas. The design of a system that studies the oxy-combustion process using advanced laser diagnostic techniques and Raman scattering measurements is presented. The experiments focus on spontaneous Raman scattering. This is one of the few techniques that can provide quantitative measurements of the concentration and temperature of different chemical species in a turbulent flow. The experimental design and process of validating the design to ensure the data is accurate is described. The Raman data collected form an experimental data base that is used for the validation of spontaneous Raman scattering in high pressure environments for the oxy-combustion process. NSF EEC 1659710.
Hybrid Rayleigh, Raman and TPE fluorescence spectral confocal microscopy of living cells
Pully, V.V.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis
2010-01-01
A hybrid fluorescence–Raman confocal microscopy platform is presented, which integrates low-wavenumber-resolution Raman imaging, Rayleigh scatter imaging and two-photon fluorescence (TPE) spectral imaging, fast ‘amplitude-only’ TPE-fluorescence imaging and high-spectral-resolution Raman imaging.
Use of Single-Layer g-C3N4/Ag Hybrids for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)
Jiang, Jizhou; Zou, Jing; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Zhang, Wenjing
2016-01-01
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high activity and stability are desirable for SERS sensing. Here, we report a new single atomic layer graphitic-C3N4 (S-g-C3N4) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid as high-performance SERS substrates. The SERS mechanism of the highly stable S-g-C3N4/Ag substrates was systematically investigated by a combination of experiments and theoretical calculations. From the results of XPS and Raman spectroscopies, it was found that there was a stro...
Knafo, W; Fak, B; Lapertot, G; Canfield, P C; Flouquet, J
2003-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed on single crystals of the heavy-fermion compound CeIn sub 3 for temperatures below and above the Neel temperature, T sub N. In the antiferromagnetically ordered phase, well-defined spin-wave excitations with a bandwidth of 2 meV are observed. The spin waves coexist with quasielastic (QE) Kondo-type spin fluctuations and broadened crystal-field (CF) excitations below T sub N. Above T sub N , only the QE and CF excitations persist, with a weak temperature dependence.
Qin, Yi; Sun, Junqiang; Du, Mingdi; Liao, Jianfei
2012-09-01
A variable transmission spectrum single-passband narrowband optical filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It is based on forward stimulated interpolarization scattering (SIPS) in a photonic crystal fiber by applying a differential quadrature phase-shift keying modulation to the pump wave to broaden and shape the SIPS gain spectrum. By choosing the bit rate of the modulation data pattern, a flat-top steep-cutoff optical bandpass filter with a 3 dB bandwidth of 70 MHz and a 10 dB bandwidth of 90 MHz is realized. In addition, a variable narrowband optical notch filter is also realized by attenuation of the pump wave.
3D nanostar dimers with a sub-10-nm gap for single-/few-molecule surface-enhanced raman scattering
Chirumamilla, Manohar
2014-01-22
Plasmonic nanostar-dimers, decoupled from the substrate, have been fabricated by combining electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching techniques. The 3D architecture, the sharp tips of the nanostars and the sub-10 nm gap size promote the formation of giant electric-field in highly localized hot-spots. The single/few molecule detection capability of the 3D nanostar-dimers has been demonstrated by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Umhauer, H; Bottlinger, M
1991-11-20
To evaluate quantitatively the influence exerted by the shape and structure of nonspherical, nonideal particles on the results of single-particle scattered-light size analysis, measurements were conducted with individual particles of different materials (glass, limestone, and quartz). For this purpose, the particles were suspended in an electrodynamic balance and repeatedly passed through the analyzer's measuring volume with a continually changing random orientation. The scattered-light signal spectra thus obtained specify the probability with which a certain pulse height is induced when the particle passes once through the measuring volume at a given coincidental orientation. The spectra reflect the material-characteristic influence. They allow the loss of resolution of common scattered-light size analyses to be assessed and algorithms (matrices) to be compiled with which the shape and structure influence may be mathematically eliminated. Because a shape and structure independent size parameter is also determined from the individual particles, exact calibration curves can be derived in which the shape and structure influence are incorporated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamphuis, C.; Beekman, F.J.; Van Rijk, P.P.; Viergever, M.A.
1998-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithms for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are capable of correcting image-degrading effects of non-uniform attenuation, distance-dependent camera response and patient shape-dependent scatter. However, the resulting improvements in quantitation, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are obtained at the cost of a huge computational burden. This paper presents a new acceleration method for ML-EM: dual matrix ordered subsets (DM-OS). DM-OS combines two acceleration methods: (a) different matrices for projection and back-projection and (b) ordered subsets of projections. DM-OS was compared with ML-EM on simulated data and on physical thorax phantom data, for both 180 and 360 orbits. Contrast, normalized standard deviation and mean squared error were calculated for the digital phantom experiment. DM-OS resulted in similar image quality to ML-EM, even for speed-up factors of 200 compared to ML-EM in the case of 120 projections. The thorax phantom data could be reconstructed 50 times faster (60 projections) using DM-OS with preservation of image quality. ML-EM and DM-OS with scatter compensation showed significant improvement of SNR compared to ML-EM without scatter compensation. Furthermore, inclusion of complex image formation models in the computer code is simplified in the case of DM-OS. It is thus shown that DM-OS is a fast and relatively simple algorithm for 3D iterative scatter compensation, with similar results to conventional ML-EM, for both 180 and 360 acquired data. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waidyawansa, Dinayadura Buddhini [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)
2013-08-01
The beam normal single spin asymmetry generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons is an observable of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange process. Moreover, it is a potential source of false asymmetry in parity violating electron scattering experiments. The Q{sub weak} experiment uses parity violating electron scattering to make a direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton. The targeted 4% measurement of the weak charge of the proton probes for parity violating new physics beyond the Standard Model. The beam normal single spin asymmetry at Q{sub weak} kinematics is at least three orders of magnitude larger than 5 ppb precision of the parity violating asymmetry. To better understand this parity conserving background, the Q{sub weak} Collaboration has performed elastic scattering measurements with fully transversely polarized electron beam on the proton and aluminum. This dissertation presents the analysis of the 3% measurement (1.3% statistical and 2.6% systematic) of beam normal single spin asymmetry in electronproton scattering at a Q2 of 0.025 (GeV/c)2. It is the most precise existing measurement of beam normal single spin asymmetry available at the time. A measurement of this precision helps to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process.
Sun, B.; Yang, P.; Kattawar, G. W.; Zhang, X.
2017-12-01
The ice cloud single-scattering properties can be accurately simulated using the invariant-imbedding T-matrix method (IITM) and the physical-geometric optics method (PGOM). The IITM has been parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) method to remove the memory limitation so that the IITM can be used to obtain the single-scattering properties of ice clouds for sizes in the geometric optics regime. Furthermore, the results associated with random orientations can be analytically achieved once the T-matrix is given. The PGOM is also parallelized in conjunction with random orientations. The single-scattering properties of a hexagonal prism with height 400 (in units of lambda/2*pi, where lambda is the incident wavelength) and an aspect ratio of 1 (defined as the height over two times of bottom side length) are given by using the parallelized IITM and compared to the counterparts using the parallelized PGOM. The two results are in close agreement. Furthermore, the integrated single-scattering properties, including the asymmetry factor, the extinction cross-section, and the scattering cross-section, are given in a completed size range. The present results show a smooth transition from the exact IITM solution to the approximate PGOM result. Because the calculation of the IITM method has reached the geometric regime, the IITM and the PGOM can be efficiently employed to accurately compute the single-scattering properties of ice cloud in a wide spectral range.
Kastrisianaki-Guyton, E S; Chen, L; Rogers, S E; Cosgrove, T; van Duijneveldt, J S
2016-06-15
Aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes are often made using sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), which adsorbs to the nanotube surface to stabilise them. Despite SDS being commonly used with single-walled carbon nanotubes, there is no consensus on the structure of the adsorbed layer. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering results reported here show that the data can be fitted to a relatively simple core-shell cylinder model, consistent with a polydisperse nanotube core of radius 10Å, surrounded by an adsorbed surfactant layer of thickness 18Å and volume fraction of 0.5. This is consistent with small nanotube bundles surrounded by an adsorbed layer of extended SDS molecules. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Single pulse vibrational Raman scattering by a broadband KrF excimer laser in a hydrogen-air flame
Pitz, Robert W.; Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Bowling, J. M.; Cheng, Tsarng-Sheng
1990-01-01
Spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is produced by a broadband excimer laser at 248 nm (KrF) in a H2-air flame, and VRS spectra are recorded for lean, stoichiometric, and rich flames. Except at very lean flame conditions, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) processes interfere with VRS Stokes lines from H2, H2O, and O2. No interference is found for the N2 Stokes and N2 anti-Stokes lines. In a stoichiometric H2/air flame, single-pulse measurements of N2 concentration and temperature (by the VRS Stokes to anti-Stokes ratio) have a relative standard deviation of 7.7 and 10 percent, respectively. These single pulse measurement errors compare well with photon statistics calculations using measured Raman cross sections.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Guo-Zhu; Zhang, Mei; Ai, Qing; Yang, Guo-Jian [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hobiny, Aatef [NAAM-Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Deng, Fu-Guo, E-mail: fgdeng@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); NAAM-Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2017-03-15
We propose a heralded quantum repeater based on the scattering of photons off single emitters in one-dimensional waveguides. We show the details by implementing nonlocal entanglement generation, entanglement swapping, and entanglement purification modules with atoms in waveguides, and discuss the feasibility of the repeater with currently achievable technology. In our scheme, the faulty events can be discarded by detecting the polarization of the photons. That is, our protocols are accomplished with a fidelity of 100% in principle, which is advantageous for implementing realistic long-distance quantum communication. Moreover, additional atomic qubits are not required, but only a single-photon medium. Our scheme is scalable and attractive since it can be realized in solid-state quantum systems. With the great progress on controlling atom-waveguide systems, the repeater may be very useful in quantum information processing in the future.
Scattering of light and other electromagnetic radiation
Kerker, Milton
1969-01-01
The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation discusses the theory of electromagnetic scattering and describes some practical applications. The book reviews electromagnetic waves, optics, the interrelationships of main physical quantities and the physical concepts of optics, including Maxwell's equations, polarization, geometrical optics, interference, and diffraction. The text explains the Rayleigh2 theory of scattering by small dielectric spheres, the Bessel functions, and the Legendre functions. The author also explains how the scattering functions for a homogenous sphere chan
Paiva, Joana S; Ribeiro, Rita S R; Cunha, João P S; Rosa, Carla C; Jorge, Pedro A S
2018-02-27
Recent trends on microbiology point out the urge to develop optical micro-tools with multifunctionalities such as simultaneous manipulation and sensing. Considering that miniaturization has been recognized as one of the most important paradigms of emerging sensing biotechnologies, optical fiber tools, including Optical Fiber Tweezers (OFTs), are suitable candidates for developing multifunctional small sensors for Medicine and Biology. OFTs are flexible and versatile optotools based on fibers with one extremity patterned to form a micro-lens. These are able to focus laser beams and exert forces onto microparticles strong enough (piconewtons) to trap and manipulate them. In this paper, through an exploratory analysis of a 45 features set, including time and frequency-domain parameters of the back-scattered signal of particles trapped by a polymeric lens, we created a novel single feature able to differentiate synthetic particles (PMMA and Polystyrene) from living yeasts cells. This single statistical feature can be useful for the development of label-free hybrid optical fiber sensors with applications in infectious diseases detection or cells sorting. It can also contribute, by revealing the most significant information that can be extracted from the scattered signal, to the development of a simpler method for particles characterization (in terms of composition, heterogeneity degree) than existent technologies.
Berg, Matthew J; Hill, Steven C; Videen, Gorden; Gurton, Kristan P
2010-04-26
This work describes the design and use of an optical apparatus to measure the far-field elastic light-scattering pattern for a single particle over two angular-dimensions. A spatial filter composed of a mirror with a small through-hole is used to enable collection of the pattern uncommonly close to the forward direction; to within tenths of a degree. Minor modifications of the design allow for the simultaneous measurement of a particle's image along with its two-dimensional scattering pattern. Example measurements are presented involving single micrometer-sized glass spherical particles confined in an electrodynamic trap and a dilute suspension of polystyrene latex particles in water. A small forward-angle technique, called Guinier analysis, is used to determine a particle-size estimate directly from the measured pattern without a priori knowledge of the particle refractive index. Comparison of these size estimates to those obtained by fitting the measurements to Mie theory reveals relative errors low as 2%.
Archer, J.; Kolwas, M.; Jakubczyk, D.; Derkachov, G.; Woźniak, M.; Kolwas, K.
2017-11-01
We report on observation of well-pronounced characteristic features of elastic light scattering of evaporating solution and suspension microdroplet of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and colloidal silica (SiO2) nanospheres in diethylene glycol (DEG) during SDS surface layer and structure formation (crystallization). For pure DEG/SDS solution droplet evaporation process, characteristic evaporation transitions manifested in the evolution of the droplet radius, a(t) for all the SDS concentrations (C = 20 mM, 40 mM and 100 mM) studied as well as well-pronounced intensity signals characterizing SDS soft gel-solid transitions for initial SDS concentrations, C > 40 mM. In the case of microdroplets composed of DEG/SDS with controlled addition of colloidal silica, the intensity fluctuations were enhanced and had profiles dependent on the initial composition of the suspension. Exemplary wet droplets at the initial evaporation stages and final dry aggregates of SDS and SDS/SiO2 were deposited on a substrate and observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Features of the deposited structures correlate well with the elastic scattered light measurements characterizing the drying processes.
Lewis, Aaron
2007-03-01
Raman spectroscopy is an effective tool for the identification and analysis of molecular components of complex materials. The spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy is limited by the wavelength of the light. One approach to overcome this drawback is Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). This technique uses nanometric interactions between metal structures and surfaces to effect enhancement of the Raman signals. An important mechanism for enhancement originates from an electrostatic lightning rod effect due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances. This is accomplished in a scanned probe microscopy context by employing an ultra-sharp metalized tip that is brought into a focused laser spot on the sample surface thereby enhancing the Raman signal. In this technique also known as Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) the electrical field is locally enhanced near the sharp metalized tip. Rastering the sample should then allow for Raman imaging with nanometric resolution. Within this context it will be shown that multiple probe scanned probe microscopes have considerable potential in such tip enhanced applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsson, S.A.; Johansson, L.; Jonsson, C.; Pagani, M.; Jacobsson, H.
2000-01-01
A newly designed technique for experimental single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquisition with minor disturbing effects from scatter and attenuation has been developed. In principle, the method is based on discrete sampling of the radioactivity distribution in 3D objects by means of equidistant 2D planes. The starting point is a set of digitised 2D sections representing the radioactivity distribution of the 3D object. Having a radioactivity-related grey scale, the 2D images are printed on paper sheets using radioactive ink. The radioactive sheets can be shaped to the outline of the object and stacked into a 3D structure with air or some arbitrary dense material in between. For this work, equidistantly spaced transverse images of a uniform cylindrical phantom and of the digitised Hoffman rCBF phantom were selected and printed out on paper sheets. The uniform radioactivity sheets were imaged on the surface of a low-energy ultra-high-resolution collimator (4 mm full-width at half-maximum) of a three-headed SPET camera. The reproducibility was 0.7% and the uniformity was 1.2%. Each rCBF sheet, containing between 8.3 and 80 MBq of 99m TcO 4 - depending on size, was first imaged on the collimator and then stacked into a 3D structure with constant 12 mm air spacing between the slices. SPET was performed with the sheets perpendicular to the central axis of the camera. The total weight of the stacked rCBF phantom in air was 63 g, giving a scatter contribution comparable to that of a point source in air. The overall attenuation losses were <20%. A second SPET study was performed with 12-mm polystyrene plates in between the radioactive sheets. With polystyrene plates, the total phantom weight was 2300 g, giving a scatter and attenuation magnitude similar to that of a patient study. With the proposed technique, it is possible to obtain ''ideal'' experimental images (essentially built up by primary photons) for comparison with
Electric light scattering from single-stranded DNA in linear polyacrylamide solutions.
Todorov, R; Starchev, K; Stoylov, S P
2001-01-01
The electric light scattering (ELS) of ssDNA (calf thymus, 10 kbp, 55 micrograms/mL) in denaturing polyacrylamide (PAA) solutions was studied as a function of applied sinusoidal electric field and polymer concentration. Electric fields of strengths up to 300 V/cm and of frequencies between 100 and 5000 Hz were applied. It was found that the ELS effect increases with the field strength and decreases at high frequencies. The dependence of the ELS effect of ssDNA on polymer concentration passes through a maximum at 1% PAA. The relaxation times of decay of the ELS effect increase with increasing polymer concentrations. It was demonstrated that ELS is a useful method for investigation of ssDNA behavior in the course of pulse-field electrophoresis in polymer solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
., Nuruzzaman [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)
2014-12-01
The Q-weak experiment in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton through the precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. There is also a parity conserving Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry or transverse asymmetry (B_n) on H_2 with a sin(phi)-like dependence due to two-photon exchange. If the size of elastic B_n is a few ppm, then a few percent residual transverse polarization in the beam, combined with small broken azimuthal symmetries in the detector, would require a few ppb correction to the Q-weak data. As part of a program of B_n background studies, we made the first measurement of B_n in the N-to-Delta(1232) transition using the Q-weak apparatus. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, was found to be B_n = 42.82 ± 2.45 (stat) ± 16.07 (sys) ppm at beam energy E_beam = 1.155 GeV, scattering angle theta = 8.3 deg, and missing mass W = 1.2 GeV. B_n from electron-nucleon scattering is a unique tool to study the gamma^* Delta Delta form factors, and this measurement will help to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process. To help correct false asymmetries from beam noise, a beam modulation system was implemented to induce small position, angle, and energy changes at the target to characterize detector response to the beam jitter. Two air-core dipoles separated by ~10 m were pulsed at a time to produce position and angle changes at the target, for virtually any tune of the beamline. The beam energy was modulated using an SRF cavity. The hardware and associated control instrumentation will be described in this dissertation. Preliminary detector sensitivities were extracted which helped to reduce the width of the measured asymmetry. The beam modulation system
DNA Origami Directed Au Nanostar Dimers for Single-Molecule Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.
Tanwar, Swati; Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Sen, Tapasi
2017-12-06
We demonstrate the synthesis of Au nanostar dimers with tunable interparticle gap and controlled stoichiometry assembled on DNA origami. Au nanostars with uniform and sharp tips were immobilized on rectangular DNA origami dimerized structures to create nanoantennas containing monomeric and dimeric Au nanostars. Single Texas red (TR) dye was specifically attached in the junction of the dimerized origami to act as a Raman reporter molecule. The SERS enhancement factors of single TR dye molecules located in the conjunction region in dimer structures having interparticle gaps of 7 and 13 nm are 2 × 10 10 and 8 × 10 9 , respectively, which are strong enough for single analyte detection. The highly enhanced electromagnetic field generated by the plasmon coupling between sharp tips and cores of two Au nanostars in the wide conjunction region allows the accommodation and specific detection of large biomolecules. Such DNA-directed assembled nanoantennas with controlled interparticle separation distance and stoichiometry, and well-defined geometry, can be used as excellent substrates in single-molecule SERS spectroscopy and will have potential applications as a reproducible platform in single-molecule sensing.
Muñoz, O.; Hovenier, J.W.
2011-01-01
In this paper we present an overview of light scattering experiments devoted to measure one or more elements of the scattering matrix as functions of the scattering angle of ensembles of randomly oriented small irregular particles in air. A summary of the most important findings in light scattering
Observations of short period seismic scattered waves by small seismic arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Simini
1997-06-01
Full Text Available The most recent observations of well correlated seismic phases in the high frequency coda of local earthquakes recorded throughout the world are reported. In particular the main results, obtained on two active volcanoes, Teide and Deception, using small array are described. The ZLC (Zero Lag Cross-correlation method and polarization analysis have been applied to the data in order to distinguish the main phases in the recorded seismograms and their azimuths and apparent velocities. The results obtained at the Teide volcano demonstrate that the uncorrelated part of the seismograms may be produced by multiple scattering from randomly distributed heterogeneity, while the well correlated part, showing SH type polarization or the possible presence of Rayleigh surface waves, may be generated by single scattering by strong scatterers. At the Deception Volcano strong scattering, strongly focused in a precise direction, is deduced from the data. In that case, all the coda radiation is composed of surface waves.
Tsuruta, H.; Yabuki, M.; Takamura, T.; Sudo, S.; Yonemura, S.; Shirasuna, Y.; Hirano, K.; Sera, K.; Maeda, T.; Hayasaka, T.; Nakajima, T.
2008-12-01
An intensive field program was performed to measure atmospheric aerosols at Amami-Oshima, a small island located at southwest Japan, in the spring season of 2001, 2003, and 2005 under the ACE-Asia, APEX and ABC-EAREX2005 projects. Chemical analysis of the fine and coarse aerosols was made for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon, water soluble ions, and trace elements. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of aerosols was independently estimated by two methods. The one (SSAc) is by chemical compositions assuming a half internal mixture between EC and non sea-salt sulfate, and the other (SSAo) is by optical measurements of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The backward trajectory analysis showed that the aerosol concentrations in the air masses arrived at Amami, were much higher from the Asian Continent than from other regions, and two types of aerosol enhancement were observed. The one was caused by polluted air masses from the urban-industrial area of east-coast China, the other was by high mineral dusts due to large- scale dust storms in the desert regions of northwest China. The SSAc was in a range of 0.87-0.98, and in good agreement with the SSAo after some corrections for original scattering and absorption coefficients. The SSAc showed no significant difference between the air masses from the polluted area and the desert regions. The negative correlation between the SSAc and EC was divided into two groups depending on the concentration of non sea-salt sulfate, while the increase in mineral dusts did not show any correlation with the SSAc.
RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquet, Emmanuel; Krumholz, Mark R.
2011-01-01
We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick a diabaticregime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.
Koo, Ja-Ho; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Eck, Thomas F.; Lee, Yun Gon; Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Mijin; Jung, Ukkyo; Yoon, Jongmin; Mok, Jungbin; Cho, Hi-Ku
2016-11-01
Absorption and scattering characteristics of various aerosol events are investigated using 2-years of measurements from a skyradiometer at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Both transported dust and anthropogenic aerosols are observed at distinct geo-location of Seoul, a megacity located a few thousand kilometers away from dust source regions in China. We focus on the wavelength dependence of Ångström exponent (AE) and single scattering albedo (SSA), showing the characteristics of regional aerosols. The correlation between spectral SSAs and AEs calculated using different wavelength pairs generally indicates relatively weak absorption of fine-mode aerosols (urban pollution and/or biomass burning) and strong absorption of coarse-mode aerosols (desert dust) at this location. AE ratio (AER), a ratio of AEs calculated using wavelength pair between shorter (340-675 nm) and longer wavelength pair (675-1020 nm) correlates differently with SSA according to the dominant size of local aerosols. Correlations between SSA and AER show strong absorption of aerosols for AER 2.0. Based on the seasonal pattern of wavelength dependence of AER and SSA, this correlation difference looks to reveal the separated characteristics of transported dust and anthropogenic particles from urban pollution respectively. The seasonal characteristics of AER and SSAs also show that the skyradiometer measurement with multiple wavelengths may be able to detect the water soluble brown carbon, one of the important secondary organic aerosols in the summertime atmospheric composition.
Numerical Simulations of Single and Multiple Scattering by Fractal Ice Clusters
Dlugach, Janna M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Mackowski, Daniel W.
2011-01-01
We consider the scattering model in the form of a vertically and horizontally homogeneous particulate slab of an arbitrary optical thickness composed of widely separated fractal aggregates built of small spherical ice monomers. The aggregates are generated by applying three different approaches, including simulated cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) and diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) procedures. Having in mind radar remote-sensing applications, we report and analyze the results of computations of the backscattering circular polarization ratio obtained using efficient superposition T-matrix and vector radiative-transfer codes. The computations have been performed at a wavelength of 12.6 cm for fractal aggregates with the following characteristics: monomer refractive index m=1.78+i0.003, monomer radius r=1 cm, monomer packing density p=0.2, overall aggregate radii R in the range 4fractal dimensions D(sub f) 2.5 and 3. We show that for aggregates generated with simulated CCA and DLA procedures, the respective values of the backscattering circular polarization ratio differ weakly for D(sub f) 2.5, but the differences can increase somewhat for D(sub f)3, especially in case of an optically semi-infinite medium. For aggregates with a spheroidal overall shape, the dependence of the circular polarization ratio on the cluster morphology can be quite significant and increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the circumscribing spheroid.
Asadi, Reza; Ouyang, Zhengbiao
2018-03-01
A new mechanism for out-of-plane coupling into a waveguide is presented and numerically studied based on nonlinear scattering of a single nano-scale Graphene layer inside the waveguide. In this mechanism, the refractive index nonlinearity of Graphene and nonhomogeneous light intensity distribution occurred due to the interference between the out-of-plane incident pump light and the waveguide mode provide a virtual grating inside the waveguide, coupling the out-of-plane pump light into the waveguide. It has been shown that the coupling efficiency has two distinct values with high contrast around a threshold pump intensity, providing suitable condition for digital optical applications. The structure operates at a resonance mode due to band edge effect, which enhances the nonlinearity and decreases the required threshold intensity.
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a single molecularly bridged silver nanoparticle aggregate
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sládková, M.; Vlčková, B.; Pavel, I.; Šišková, Karolína; Šlouf, Miroslav
924-26, SI (2009), s. 567-570 ISSN 0022-2860. [European Congress on Molecular Spectroscopy /29./. Opatija, 31.08.2008-05.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0717; GA AV ČR KAN100500652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : single molecule SERS * 4,4"-diaminoterphenyl * molecularly bridget Ag nanoparticle aggregates Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2009
Single view reflectance capture using multiplexed scattering and time-of-flight imaging
Zhao, Shuang; Velten, Andreas; Raskar, Ramesh; Bala, Kavita; Naik, Nikhil Deepak
2011-01-01
This paper introduces the concept of time-of-flight reflectance estimation, and demonstrates a new technique that allows a camera to rapidly acquire reflectance properties of objects from a single view-point, over relatively long distances and without encircling equipment. We measure material properties by indirectly illuminating an object by a laser source, and observing its reflected light indirectly using a time-of-flight camera. The configuration collectively acquires dense angular, but l...
Alignment characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes by Raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Pijun; Liu Liyue; Zhang Yafei
2003-01-01
A novel method for identifying the Raman modes of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) based on the symmetry of the vibration modes has been studied. The Raman intensity of each vibration mode varies with polarization direction, and the relationship can be expressed as analytical functions. This method avoids troublesome numerical calculation and easily gives clear relations between Raman intensity and polarization direction. In this way, one can distinguish each Raman-active mode of SWNT through the polarized Raman spectrum
Raman scattering study of the structural phase transition in single crystal KDy(MoO4)2
Peschanskii, A. V.
2017-11-01
Raman scattering of light in single-crystal KDy(MoO4)2 is studied at frequencies of 3-1000 cm-1 for temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K, including that of a structural phase transition of the cooperative Jahn-Teller type (TC ˜ 14.5 K). During the transition to the low-temperature phase, a series of additional phonon lines corresponding to the Ag, B1g, B2g, and B3g modes is observed which indicates a doubling of the unit cell during the phase transition. An analysis of the symmetry of the phonon modes shows that the low-temperature phase has a predominantly monoclinic symmetry with conservation of a second order axis along the crystallographic b direction, i.e., perpendicular to the layers. Excitations are discovered which correspond to low-energy electronic transitions between levels of the ground-state 6H15/2 multiplet of the Dy3+ ion, which is split in the crystal field with a C2 symmetry. In the vicinity of the first excited Kramers doublet of the Dy3+ ion in crystalline KDy(MoO4)2, the scattered spectrum contains four lines [16.5, 21.0, 24.9, and 29.1 cm-1 (2 K)] at low temperatures, instead of a single line [18.3 cm-1 (25 K)] above the phase transition temperature (14.5 K). This indicates the existence of four nonequivalent dysprosium ions in the low-temperature phase.
The amplitude of the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy created by small-scale heterogeneities
Maupin, Valérie
2002-07-01
At global as well as at regional scale, the lithosphere appears faster to Love waves than to Rayleigh waves. This Love-Rayleigh discrepancy can be modelled by introducing transverse isotropy in the upper mantle. In some regions however, it is so large that the question arises as to whether part of it could be an artefact related to the presence of heterogeneities in the lithosphere. Using a multiple-scattering scheme to model surface waves in 3-D structures, we analyse the influence of small-scale heterogeneities in the lithosphere on the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy in the period range 25 to 60 s. Small-scale heterogeneities tend to lower the apparent phase velocity of the surface waves, and have a larger effect on the Love waves than on the Rayleigh waves. This is not due to mode-coupling, which plays a negligible role here, but to the interference of the primary field with the one backscattered twice. For models with S-wave velocity variations of rms 2.5 per cent, and spatial correlations at distances of 20 to 100 km, we find that the Love waves are on average and at most 0.1 per cent slower than the Rayleigh waves. This apparent Love-Rayleigh discrepancy varies linearly with the variance of S-wave velocity variation in the structure. We conclude that small-scale heterogeneities do not contribute significantly to the large Love-Rayleigh discrepancies of 4 to 9 per cent observed in some regions, since they produce an apparent discrepancy which is negligible in comparison, and which even has the opposite sign.
Evidence of low intermolecular coupling in rubrene single crystals by Raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg-Wolf, J R; McNeil, L E; Liu Shubin; Kloc, Christian
2007-01-01
The observed Raman spectra for single crystals of rubrene and tetracene are compared with the calculated spectra for the isolated molecules. The Raman measurements presented are of the bulk properties of the material, and they confirmed that the vapour growth process yields very pure, unstrained rubrene crystals. Finally, Raman measurements indicate that rubrene, unlike many other oligoacenes, has very weak intermolecular coupling and no observable intermolecular Raman vibrational modes. We discuss the apparent conflict between the high mobility and the weak π-electron overlap in this material
Neutron scattering investigation of the magnetic order in single crystalline BaFe2As2
Kofu, M.; Qiu, Y.; Bao, Wei; Lee, S. -H.; Chang, S.; Wu, T.; Wu, G.; Chen, X. H.
2009-01-01
The magnetic structure of BaFe2As2 was completely determined from polycrystalline neutron diffraction measurements soon after the ThCr2Si2-type FeAs-based superconductors were discovered. Both the moment direction and the in-plane antiferromagnetic wavevector are along the longer a-axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. There is only one combined magnetostructural transition at about 140 K. However, a later single-crystal neutron diffraction work reported contradicting results. Here we show neut...
Automatically identifying scatter in fluorescence data using robust techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelen, S.; Frosch, Stina; Hubert, M.
2007-01-01
First and second order Rayleigh and Raman scatter is a common problem when fitting Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) to fluorescence excitation-emission data (EEM). The scatter does not contain any relevant chemical information and does not conform to the low-rank trilinear model. The scatter...
Angular random walk limited by Rayleigh backscattering in resonator fiber optic gyros.
Jiang, Zhiguo; Hu, Zongfu; Fu, Changsong
2017-12-01
This paper is concerned with the angular random walk (ARW) limited by Rayleigh backscattering in the resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) with a light source of arbitrary temporal coherence. First, a model of Rayleigh backscattering noise in RFOGs is established to predict the fluctuation characteristics of backscattered intensity and interference intensity. Next, the formula for the ARW limited by Rayleigh backscattering is derived, and the requirement of carrier suppression level is calculated to make sure the ARW is limited by the detector's shot noise rather than Rayleigh scattering noise. Finally, the influences of the cavity length, the linewidth, and the finesse on the ARW limited by Rayleigh backscattering are investigated. The results predict that the influence of the cavity length L and the laser linewidth Δυ L on the ARW is dominantly related to the factor e -2πΔυ L n e L/c , and under the finesse 88, the best ARW is obtained when there is a relation L·Δυ L ≈4×10 5 m·Hz.
Overview of Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharp, D.H.
1983-01-01
The aim of this talk is to survey Rayleigh-Taylor instability, describing the phenomenology that occurs at a Taylor unstable interface, and reviewing attempts to understand these phenomena quantitatively.
Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers
Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J
2004-01-01
Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.
Resonant magneto-optic Kerr effects of a single Ni nanorod in the Mie scattering regime.
Jeong, Ho-Jin; Kim, Dongha; Song, Jung-Hwan; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Seo, Min-Kyo
2016-07-25
We present a systematic, theoretical investigation of the polar magneto-optical (MO) Kerr effects of a single Ni nanorod in the Mie regime. The MO Kerr rotation, ellipticity, amplitude ratio, and phase shift are calculated as a function of the length and width of the nanorod. The electric field amplitude ratio of the MO Kerr effect is locally maximized when the nanorod supports a plasmonic resonance in the polarization state orthogonal to the incident light. The plasmonic resonances directly induced by the incident light do not enhance the amplitude ratio. In the Mie regime, multiple local maxima of the MO Kerr activity are supported by the resonant modes with different modal characteristics. From the viewpoint of first-order perturbation analysis, the spatial overlap between the incident-light-induced electric field and the Green function determines the local maxima.
Kinetic simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance
2014-01-01
We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is in the linear regime, we compare its position and shape to the analytic prediction. Despite the broadening of the fluid interface we see a good agreement with the analytic solution. At later times we observe the development of a mushroom like shape caused by secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as seen in hydrodynamic simulations and consistent with experimental observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
TANNENBAUM, M.J.
2005-01-01
Hard scattering in p-p collisions, discovered at the CERN ISR in 1972 by the method of leading particles, proved that the partons of Deeply Inelastic Scattering strongly interacted with each other. Further ISR measurements utilizing inclusive single or pairs of hadrons established that high p T particles are produced from states with two roughly back-to-back jets which are the result of scattering of constituents of the nucleons as described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which was developed during the course of these measurements. These techniques, which are the only practical method to study hard-scattering and jet phenomena in Au+Au central collisions at RHIC energies, are reviewed, as an introduction to present RHIC measurements
Krywonos, Andrey; Harvey, James E; Choi, Narak
2011-06-01
Scattering effects from microtopographic surface roughness are merely nonparaxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected or transmitted wavefront. Rayleigh-Rice, Beckmann-Kirchhoff. or Harvey-Shack surface scatter theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. Smooth-surface and/or paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. A recent linear systems formulation of nonparaxial scalar diffraction theory applied to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in an empirically modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scatter model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory that produces accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattered angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff and the original Harvey-Shack theories. These new developments simplify the analysis and understanding of nonintuitive scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at arbitrary incident angles.
Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.
2015-01-01
We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order
Elastic scattering of gamma radiation in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, O.D.
1987-01-01
The elastic scattering of gamma rays in solids is studied: Rayleigh scattering as well as Bragg scattering in Laue geometries. We measured Rayleigh cross sections for U, Pb, Pt, W, Sn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Zn, and Cu with gamma energies ranging from 60 to 660 KeV and angles between 5 0 and 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with form factor theories and second order perturbation theories and the limits of validity of both are established. In the 60 KeV experiment, a competition between Rayleigh and Bragg effects is found in the region of low momentum transfer. The Bragg experiments were performed using the gamma ray diffractometer from the Hahn-Meitner Institut (Berlin) with gammas of 317 KeV and angles up to 2 0 . In particular, we studied the effect of annealing in nearly perfect Czochralski Silicon crystals with high perfection in the crystallographic structure. The results are compared with Kinematical and Dynamical theories. (author)
Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.
2017-12-01
Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.
First- and second-order Raman scattering from MoTe2 single crystal
Caramazza, Simone; Collina, Arianna; Stellino, Elena; Ripanti, Francesca; Dore, Paolo; Postorino, Paolo
2018-02-01
We report on Raman experiments performed on a MoTe2 single crystal. The system belongs to the wide family of transition metal dichalcogenides which includes several of the most interesting two-dimensional materials for both basic and applied physics. Measurements were performed in the standard basal plane configuration, by placing the ab plane of the crystal perpendicular to the wave vector k i of the incident beam to explore the in-plane vibrational modes, and in the edge plane configuration with k i perpendicular to the crystal c axis, thus mainly exciting out-of-plane modes. For both configurations we performed a polarization-dependent study of the first-order Raman components and detailed computation of the corresponding selection rules. We were thus able to provide a complete assignment of the observed first-order Raman peaks, in agreement with previous literature results. A thorough analysis of the second-order Raman bands, as observed in both basal and edge plane configurations, provides new information and allows a precise assignment of these spectral structures. In particular, we have observed and assigned Raman active modes of the M point of the Brillouin zone previously predicted by ab initio calculations but never previously measured.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daqing Piao
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Recent focused Monte Carlo and experimental studies on steady-state single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy (SfRS from a biologically relevant scattering medium have revealed that, as the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium increases, the SfRS intensity increases monotonically until reaching a plateau. The SfRS signal is semi-empirically decomposed to the product of three contributing factors, including a ratio-of-remission (RoR term that refers to the ratio of photons remitting from the medium and crossing the fiber-medium interface over the total number of photons launched into the medium. The RoR is expressed with respect to the dimensionless reduced scattering parameter , where is the reduced scattering coefficient of the medium and is the diameter of the probing fiber. We develop in this work, under the assumption of an isotropic-scattering medium, a method of analytical treatment that will indicate the pattern of RoR as a function of the dimensionless reduced scattering of the medium. The RoR is derived in four cases, corresponding to in-medium (applied to interstitial probing of biological tissue or surface-based (applied to contact-probing of biological tissue SfRS measurements using straight-polished or angle-polished fiber. The analytically arrived surface-probing RoR corresponding to single-fiber probing using a 15° angle-polished fiber over the range of agrees with previously reported similarly configured experimental measurement from a scattering medium that has a Henyey–Greenstein scattering phase function with an anisotropy factor of 0.8. In cases of a medium scattering light anisotropically, we propose how the treatment may be furthered to account for the scattering anisotropy using the result of a study of light scattering close to the point-of-entry by Vitkin et al. (Nat. Commun. 2011, doi:10.1038/ncomms1599.
Small angle neutron scattering study of the magnetic flux-line lattice in single crystal 2H-NbSe2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammel, P.L.; Huse, D.A.; Kleiman, R.N.
1994-01-01
We report on a small angle neutron scattering study of the flux-line lattice in single crystal 2H-NbSe2. As the magnetic field is tilted away from the crystalline c axis, we find distortions in the flux lattice as would be expected for a mass anisotropy GAMMA = 10.1 +/- 0.9. However, we find...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Yongxu (Dept. of Physics, Guangxi Normal Univ., Guilin (China)); Li Qingrun (CCAST (World Lab.), Inst. of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China))
1993-02-20
The differential cross-sections for [alpha]+[sup 16]O elastic scattering near E/A=12 and 7MeV have been calculated employing a single-folding potential based on the [alpha]-particle model for [sup 16]O. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boucher Yann G.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In terms of Linear Algebra, a directional coupler between a single-mode waveguide and a two-mode waveguide can be thought of as formally equivalent to a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides. Its responses, easily derived in the frame of ternary Coupled-Mode Theory, are used to establish analytically the scattering parameters of a hybrid ring-based modal multiplexer.
Core-shell colloidal particles with dynamically tunable scattering properties.
Meng, Guangnan; Manoharan, Vinothan N; Perro, Adeline
2017-09-27
We design polystyrene-poly(N'-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) core-shell particles that exhibit dynamically tunable scattering. We show that under normal solvent conditions the shell is nearly index-matched to pure water, and the particle scattering is dominated by Rayleigh scattering from the core. As the temperature or salt concentration increases, both the scattering cross-section and the forward scattering increase, characteristic of Mie scatterers. The magnitude of the change in the scattering cross-section and scattering anisotropy can be controlled through the solvent conditions and the size of the core. Such particles may find use as optical switches or optical filters with tunable opacity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Yang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Focusing light though scattering media beyond the ballistic regime is a challenging task in biomedical optical imaging. This challenge can be overcome by wavefront shaping technique, in which a time-reversed (TR wavefront of scattered light is generated to suppress the scattering. In previous TR optical focusing experiments, a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM has been typically used to control the wavefront of incident light. Unfortunately, although the phase information is reconstructed by the phase-only SLM, the amplitude information is lost, resulting in decreased peak-to-background ratio (PBR of optical focusing in the TR wavefront reconstruction. A new method of TR optical focusing through scattering media is proposed here, which numerically reconstructs the full phase and amplitude of a simulated scattered light field by using a single phase-only SLM. Simulation results and the proposed optical setup show that the time-reversal of a fully developed speckle field can be digitally implemented with both phase and amplitude recovery, affording a way to improve the performance of light focusing through scattering media.
Statistical approach of weakly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garnier, J.; Masse, L.
2005-01-01
A weakly nonlinear model is proposed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in presence of ablation and thermal transport. The nonlinear effects for a single-mode disturbance are computed, included the nonlinear correction to the exponential growth of the fundamental modulation. Mode coupling in the spectrum of a multimode disturbance is thoroughly analyzed by a statistical approach. The exponential growth of the linear regime is shown to be reduced by the nonlinear mode coupling. The saturation amplitude is around 0.1λ for long wavelengths, but higher for short instable wavelengths in the ablative regime
Use of Single-Layer g-C3N4/Ag Hybrids for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS).
Jiang, Jizhou; Zou, Jing; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Zhang, Wenjing
2016-09-30
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high activity and stability are desirable for SERS sensing. Here, we report a new single atomic layer graphitic-C 3 N 4 (S-g-C 3 N 4 ) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid as high-performance SERS substrates. The SERS mechanism of the highly stable S-g-C 3 N 4 /Ag substrates was systematically investigated by a combination of experiments and theoretical calculations. From the results of XPS and Raman spectroscopies, it was found that there was a strong interaction between S-g-C 3 N 4 and Ag NPs, which facilitates the uniform distribution of Ag NPs over the edges and surfaces of S-g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets, and induces a charge transfer from S-g-C 3 N 4 to the oxidizing agent through the silver surface, ultimately protecting Ag NPs from oxidation. Based on the theoretical calculations, we found that the net surface charge of the Ag atoms on the S-g-C 3 N 4 /Ag substrates was positive and the Ag NPs presented high dispersibility, suggesting that the Ag atoms on the S-g-C 3 N 4 /Ag substrates were not likely to be oxidized, thereby ensuring the high stability of the S-g-C 3 N 4 /Ag substrate. An understanding of the stability mechanism in this system can be helpful for developing other effective SERS substrates with long-term stability.
Mei, Liang; Guan, Peng; Yang, Yang; Kong, Zheng
2017-08-07
An 808 nm single-band Mie scattering Scheimpflug lidar system is developed in Dalian, Northern China, for real-time, large-area atmospheric aerosol/particle remote sensing. Atmospheric measurement has been performed in urban area during a typical haze weather condition, and time-range distribution of atmospheric backscattering signal is recorded from March 18th to 22nd, 2017, by employing the Scheimpflug lidar system. Atmospheric extinction coefficient is then retrieved according to the Klett-inversion algorithm, while the boundary value is obtained by the slope-method in the far end where the atmosphere is homogeneous in a subinterval region. The correlation between the extinction coefficients retrieved from the Scheimpflug lidar technique and the PM10/PM2.5 concentrations measured by a conventional air pollution monitoring station is also studied. The good agreement between the measurement results, i.e., a correlation coefficient of 0.85, successfully demonstrates the feasibility and great potential of the Scheimpflug lidar technique for atmospheric studies and applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, A K; Rehm, C
2014-01-01
The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to 'see' the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.
Freund, A. K.; Rehm, C.
2014-07-01
The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to "see" the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. I. Kassianov
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs provide routine measurements of the aerosol optical depth (τ at six wavelengths (0.415, 0.5, 0.615, 0.673, 0.870 and 0.94 μm. The single-scattering albedo (π_{0} is typically estimated from the MFRSR measurements by assuming the asymmetry parameter (g. In most instances, however, it is not easy to set an appropriate value of g due to its strong temporal and spatial variability. Here, we introduce and validate an updated version of our retrieval technique that allows one to estimate simultaneously π_{0} and g for different types of aerosol. We use the aerosol and radiative properties obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program's Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP to validate our retrieval in two ways. First, the MFRSR-retrieved optical properties are compared with those obtained from independent surface, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET, and aircraft measurements. The MFRSR-retrieved optical properties are in reasonable agreement with these independent measurements. Second, we perform radiative closure experiments using the MFRSR-retrieved optical properties. The calculated broadband values of the direct and diffuse fluxes are comparable (~5 W/m^{2} to those obtained from measurements.
High magnetic field susceptibility and neutron scattering measurements for ZnFe2O4 single crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamazawa, Kazuya; Nakajima, Kenji; Kohn, Key; Tsunoda, Yorihiko
2004-01-01
We studied field dependences of magnetic susceptibility and neutron scattering measurements for frustrated normal spinel ZnFe 2 O 4 . Although a peak which is similar to the antiferromagnetic transition is observed at 13 K in the magnetic susceptibility, there is no magnetic long-range order in our neutron scattering measurements. When we measure the magnetic susceptibility under the high magnetic field, the peak position moves toward the high temperature. In the neutron scattering measurements, magnetic diffuse scattering around the nuclear Bragg peaks disappear under the magnetic field of 3 T
Large-scale single-crystal growth of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 for neutron scattering experiments
Park, Garam; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, J. M. Sungil; Park, Seong-Hun; Hong, Chang Seop; Lee, Kwang-Sei
2016-05-01
Neutron scattering studies on low-dimensional quantum spin systems require large-size single-crystals. Single-crystals of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 showing low-dimensional magnetic behaviors were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method in a two-solvent system at different temperature settings. The best results were obtained for the bilayer solution of methanol and isopropanol with a molar ratio of 2:1 at 35 °C. The quality of the obtained single-crystals was tested by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and single-crystal neutron diffraction. In addition, to confirm structural phase transitions (SPTs), thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 300 K and 175 K, respectively, were conducted, confirming the presence of a SPT at Tup=288 K on heating and Tdown=285 K on cooling.
Bivariate Rayleigh Distribution and its Properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Saeed Akhter
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Rayleigh (1880 observed that the sea waves follow no law because of the complexities of the sea, but it has been seen that the probability distributions of wave heights, wave length, wave induce pitch, wave and heave motions of the ships follow the Rayleigh distribution. At present, several different quantities are in use for describing the state of the sea; for example, the mean height of the waves, the root mean square height, the height of the “significant waves” (the mean height of the highest one-third of all the waves the maximum height over a given interval of the time, and so on. At present, the ship building industry knows less than any other construction industry about the service conditions under which it must operate. Only small efforts have been made to establish the stresses and motions and to incorporate the result of such studies in to design. This is due to the complexity of the problem caused by the extensive variability of the sea and the corresponding response of the ships. Although the problem appears feasible, yet it is possible to predict service conditions for ships in an orderly and relatively simple manner Rayleigh (1980 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many independent sources. This distribution is also connected with one or two dimensions and is sometimes referred to as “random walk” frequency distribution. The Rayleigh distribution can be derived from the bivariate normal distribution when the variate are independent and random with equal variances. We try to construct bivariate Rayleigh distribution with marginal Rayleigh distribution function and discuss its fundamental properties.
Luo, Chengtao; Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Winn, Barry; Ren, Yang; Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu; Delaire, Olivier
2017-11-01
Neutron and x-ray scattering measurements were performed on (N a1 /2B i1 /2 ) Ti O3-x at %BaTi O3 (NBT-x BT ) single crystals (x =4 , 5, 6.5, and 7.5) across the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), as a function of both composition and temperature, and probing both structural and dynamical aspects. In addition to the known diffuse scattering pattern near the Γ points, our measurements revealed new, faint superlattice peaks, as well as an extensive diffuse scattering network, revealing a short-range ordering of polar nanoregions (PNR) with a static stacking morphology. In samples with compositions closest to the MPB, our inelastic neutron scattering investigations of the phonon dynamics showed two unusual features in the acoustic phonon branches, between the superlattice points, and between the superlattice points and Γ points, respectively. These critical elements are not present in the other compositions away from the MPB, which suggests that these features may be related to the tilt modes coupling behavior near the MPB.
Attractors of the periodically forced Rayleigh system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petre Bazavan
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The autonomous second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation(ODE introduced in 1883 by Lord Rayleigh, is the equation whichappears to be the closest to the ODE of the harmonic oscillator withdumping.In this paper we present a numerical study of the periodic andchaotic attractors in the dynamical system associated with the generalized Rayleigh equation. Transition between periodic and quasiperiodic motion is also studied. Numerical results describe the system dynamics changes (in particular bifurcations, when the forcing frequency is varied and thus, periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic behaviour regions are predicted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Lack
2010-05-01
Full Text Available The presence of clear coatings on atmospheric black carbon (BC particles is known to enhance the magnitude of light absorption by the BC cores. Based on calculations using core/shell Mie theory, we demonstrate that the enhancement of light absorption (E_{Abs} by atmospheric black carbon (BC when it is coated in mildly absorbing material (C_{Brown} is reduced relative to the enhancement induced by non-absorbing coatings (C_{Clear}. This reduction, sensitive to both the C_{Brown} coating thickness and imaginary refractive index (RI, can be up to 50% for 400 nm radiation and 25% averaged across the visible radiation spectrum for reasonable core/shell diameters. The enhanced direct radiative forcing possible due to the enhancement effect of C_{Clear} is therefore reduced if the coating is absorbing. Additionally, the need to explicitly treat BC as an internal, as opposed to external, mixture with C_{Brown} is shown to be important to the calculated single scatter albedo only when models treat BC as large spherical cores (>50 nm. For smaller BC cores (or fractal agglomerates consideration of the BC and C_{Brown} as an external mixture leads to relatively small errors in the particle single scatter albedo of <0.03. It has often been assumed that observation of an absorption Angström exponent (AAE>1 indicates absorption by a non-BC aerosol. Here, it is shown that BC cores coated in C_{Clear} can reasonably have an AAE of up to 1.6, a result that complicates the attribution of observed light absorption to C_{Brown} within ambient particles. However, an AAE<1.6 does not exclude the possibility of C_{Brown}; rather C_{Brown} cannot be confidently assigned unless AAE>1.6. Comparison of these model
Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Herman, Jay R.; Slusser, James R.; Scott, Gwendolyn R.; Labow, Gordon J.; Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Eck, Tom; Doubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent N.
2005-04-01
Compared to the visible spectral region, very little is known about aerosol absorption in the UV. Without such information it is impossible to quantify the causes of the observed discrepancy between modeled and measured UV irradiances and photolysis rates. We report results of a 17-month aerosol column absorption monitoring experiment conducted in Greenbelt, Maryland, where the imaginary part of effective refractive index k was inferred from the measurements of direct and diffuse atmospheric transmittances by a UV-multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer [UV-MFRSR, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) UV-B Monitoring and Research Network]. Colocated ancillary measurements of aerosol effective particle size distribution and refractive index in the visible wavelengths [by CIMEL sun-sky radiometers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)], column ozone, surface pressure, and albedo constrain the forward radiative transfer model input, so that a unique solution for k is obtained independently in each UV-MFRSR spectral channel. Inferred values of k are systematically larger in the UV than in the visible wavelengths. The inferred k values enable calculation of the single scattering albedo ω, which is compared with AERONET inversions in the visible wavelengths. On cloud-free days with high aerosol loadings [τext(440)>0.4], ω is systematically lower at 368 nm (=0.94) than at 440 nm (=0.96), however, the mean ω differences (0.02) are within expected uncertainties of ω retrievals (~0.03). The inferred ω is even lower at shorter UV wavelengths (~=0.92), which might suggest the presence of selectively UV absorbing aerosols. We also find that decreases with decrease in aerosol loading. This could be due to real changes in the average aerosol composition between summer and winter months at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) site.
Ultimate regime of high Rayleigh number convection in a porous medium.
Hewitt, Duncan R; Neufeld, Jerome A; Lister, John R
2012-06-01
Well-resolved direct numerical simulations of 2D Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a porous medium are presented for Rayleigh numbers Ra≤4×10(4) which reveal that, contrary to previous indications, the linear classical scaling for the Nusselt number, Nu~Ra, is attained asymptotically. The flow dynamics are analyzed, and the interior of the vigorously convecting system is shown to be increasingly well described as Ra→∞ by a simple columnar "heat-exchanger" model with a single horizontal wave number k and a linear background temperature field. The numerical results are approximately fitted by k~Ra(0.4).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehravar Rafati
2017-01-01
Conclusion: The simulation and the clinical studies showed that the new approach could be better performance than DEW, TEW methods, according to values of the contrast, and the SNR for scatter correction.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uhlířová, T.; Mojzeš, P.; Melníková Komínková, Zuzana; Kalbáč, Martin; Sutrová, Veronika; Šloufová, I.; Vlčková, B.
2017-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 10 (2017), s. 1270-1281 ISSN 0377-0486 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : graphene -enhanced Raman scattering * single-layer graphene * free base phthalocyanine * Raman excitation profiles * photoinduced charge transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uhlířová, T.; Mojzeš, P.; Melníková Komínková, Zuzana; Kalbáč, Martin; Sutrová, Veronika; Šloufová, I.; Vlčková, B.
2017-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 10 (2017), s. 1270-1281 ISSN 0377-0486 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : graphene-enhanced Raman scattering * single-layer graphene * free base phthalocyanine * Raman excitation profiles * photoinduced charge transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Polymer science (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016
Anomalous scattering factors of some rare earth elements evaluated ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The real and imaginary parts, '() and ''() of the dispersion corrections to the forward Rayleigh scattering amplitude (also called anomalous scattering factors) for the elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, have been determined by a numerical evaluation of the dispersion integral that relates them through the ...
Anomalous scattering factors of some rare earth elements evaluated
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The real and imaginary parts, '() and ''() of the dispersion corrections to the forward Rayleigh scattering amplitude (also called anomalous scattering factors) for the elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, have been determined by a numerical evaluation of the dispersion integral that relates them through the ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Lipfert, Jan; Herschlag, Daniel; Doniach, Sebastian
2012-07-06
Short single-stranded nucleic acids are ubiquitous in biological processes and understanding their physical properties provides insights to nucleic acid folding and dynamics. We used small angle x-ray scattering to study 8-100 residue homopolymeric single-stranded DNAs in solution, without external forces or labeling probes. Poly-T's structural ensemble changes with increasing ionic strength in a manner consistent with a polyelectrolyte persistence length theory that accounts for molecular flexibility. For any number of residues, poly-A is consistently more elongated than poly-T, likely due to the tendency of A residues to form stronger base-stacking interactions than T residues.
Development of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Caltech jet-target experiment
Seo, Byong Hoon; Greig, Amelia; Bellan, Paul
2016-10-01
A Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for studying the Caltech jet-target impact experiment. This experiment has a high-speed MHD-driven jet impact a dense, high-mass target cloud. The compression of the jet upon impact simulates the compression of an imploding liner. A preliminary bench top system consisting of a low power laser, lenses, a beam rotator, a monochromator, and a PMT is being used for measuring the Rayleigh and eventually Raman scattering signals from atmospheric pressure N2 and O2. The laser is modulated at 500 Hz to 1 kHz and lock-in techniques are used to recover the low-amplitude signal. For the actual pulsed plasma experiment, the low-power laser will be replaced by a high power Nd:YAG laser. The detector will consist of a double monochromator consisting of two single monochromators separated by a mask in the focal plane to block Rayleigh scattered light; detection will be by an intensified, gated camera. The diagnostic will be used to study the compression and heating that occurs when the jet plasma collides with a dense, high mass target cloud. Supported by USDOE Grant DE-AR0000565.
da Silva, Anabela; Elias, Mady; Andraud, Christine; Lafait, Jacques
2003-12-01
Two methods for solving the radiative transfer equation are compared with the aim of computing the angular distribution of the light scattered by a heterogeneous scattering medium composed of a single flat layer or a multilayer. The first method [auxiliary function method (AFM)], recently developed, uses an auxiliary function and leads to an exact solution; the second [discrete-ordinate method (DOM)] is based on the channel concept and needs an angular discretization. The comparison is applied to two different media presenting two typical and extreme scattering behaviors: Rayleigh and Mie scattering with smooth or very anisotropic phase functions, respectively. A very good agreement between the predictions of the two methods is observed in both cases. The larger the number of channels used in the DOM, the better the agreement. The principal advantages and limitations of each method are also listed.
Simulation of Rayleigh--Taylor flows using vortex blobs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerr, R.M.
1988-01-01
An inviscid boundary-integral method is modified in order to study the single-scale Rayleigh--Taylor instability for arbitrary Atwood number. The primary modification uses vortex blobs to smooth the Green's function and suppress a finite time singularity in the curvature. Additional modifications to earlier codes such as using second-order central differences along the interface to accommodate spikes in the vorticity and spreading the nodes evenly along the interface to suppress clustering of nodes are designed to maintain resolution and accuracy. To achieve second-order accuracy in time when the nodes are spread, an extra predictor step is needed that shifts the nodes before the variables are advanced. The method successfully follows the development of a single mode to states with asymptotic velocities for the bubble and spike that depend on the Atwood number and are independent of the blob size. Incipient droplet formation is observed. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Lim, Chee Ming; Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Yoong, Voo Nyuk; Lee, Chuanyo; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang
2016-01-01
Tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dipole cavity plasmon modes of the scattering cross section (SCS) spectra on the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod have been numerically investigated by using the finite element method. Various effects, such as the influence of SCS spectra under x- and y-polarizations on the surface of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod, are discussed in detail. With the single gold-shell nanorod, one can independently tune the relative SCS spectrum width by controlling the rod length and rod diameter, and the surface scattering by varying the shell thickness and polarization direction, as well as the dipole peak energy. These behaviors are consistent with the properties of localized SPRs and offer a way to optically control and produce selected emission wavelengths from the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod. The electric field and magnetic distributions provide us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the single solid-gold/gold-shell nanorod on plasmon resonance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Meloni
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Aerosol optical properties were retrieved from direct and diffuse spectral irradiance measurements made by a multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR at the island of Lampedusa (35.5° N, 12.6° E, in the Central Mediterranean, in the period July 2001–September 2003. In a companion paper (Pace et al., 2006 the aerosol optical depth (AOD and Ångström exponent were used together with airmass backward trajectories to identify and classify different aerosol types. The MFRSR diffuse-to-direct ratio (DDR at 415.6 nm and 868.7 nm for aerosol classified as 'biomass burning-urban/industrial', originating primarily from the European continent, and desert dust, originating from the Sahara, is used in this study to estimate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA. A detailed radiative transfer model is initialised with the measured aerosol optical depth; calculations are performed at the two wavelengths varying the SSA values until the modelled DDR matches the MFRSR observations. Sensitivity studies are performed to estimate how uncertainties on AOD, DDR, asymmetry factor (g, and surface albedo influence the retrieved SSA values. The results show that a 3% variation of AOD or DDR produce a change of about 0.02 in the retrieved SSA value at 415.6 and 868.7 nm; a ±0.06 variation of the asymmetry factor g produces a change of the estimated SSA of <0.04 at 415.6 nm, and <0.06 at 868.7 nm; finally, an increase of the assumed surface albedo of 0.05 causes very small changes (0.01–0.02 in the retrieved SSA. The calculations show that the SSA of desert dust (DD increases with wavelength, from 0.81±0.05 at 415.6 nm to 0.94±0.05 at 868.7 nm; on the contrary, the SSA of urban/industrial (UN aerosols decreases from 0.96±0.02 at 415.6 nm to 0.87±0.07 at 868.7 nm; the SSA of biomass burning (BB particles is 0.82±0.04 at 415.6 nm and 0.80±0.05 at 868.7 nm. Episodes of UN aerosols occur usually in June and July; long lasting BB aerosol episodes
Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.
2013-12-01
Aerosols can have major implications on human health by inducing respiratory diseases due to inhalation of fine particles from biomass burning smoke or industrial pollution and on radiative forcing whereby the presence of absorbing aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) increases atmospheric heating. Aerosol classification techniques have utilized aerosol loading and aerosol properties derived from multi-spectral and multi-angle observations by ground-based (e.g., AERONET) and satellite instrumentation (e.g., MISR). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data have been utilized to determine aerosol types by implementing various combinations of measured aerosol optical depth or retrieved size and absorption aerosol properties (e.g., Gobbi et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010). Giles et al. [2012] showed single scattering albedo (SSA) relationship with extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) can provide an estimate of the general classification of dominant aerosol types (i.e., desert dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, and mixtures) based on data from ~20 AERONET sites located in known aerosol source regions. In addition, the absorption Angstrom exponent relationship with EAE can provide an indication of the dominant absorbing aerosol type such as dust, black carbon, brown carbon, or mixtures of them. These classification techniques are applied to the AERONET Level 2.0 quality assured data sets collected during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network (DRAGON) campaigns in Maryland (USA), Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Penang (Malaysia), and California (USA). An analysis of aerosol type classification for DRAGON sites is performed as well as an assessment of the spatial variability of the aerosol types for selected DRAGON campaigns. Giles, D. M., B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Sinyuk, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, R. R. Dickerson, A. M. Thompson, and J. S. Schafer (2012), An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications
Kwiatkowska, J.; Maniawski, F.; Matsumoto, I.; Kawata, H.; Shiotani, N.; Lityńska, L.; Kaprzyk, S.; Bansil, A.
2004-08-01
We have measured high resolution Compton scattering profiles for momentum transfer along a series of 28 independent directions from Cu0.842Al0.158 disordered alloy single crystals with normals to the surfaces oriented along the [100], [110], and [111] directions. The experimental spectra are interpreted via parallel first-principles KKR-CPA (Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation) computations of these directional profiles. The Fermi surface determined by inverting the Compton data is found to be in good agreement with the KKR-CPA predictions. An electron diffraction study of the present Cu0.842Al0.158 sample is additionally undertaken to gain insight into short-range ordering effects. The scattering pattern displays not only the familiar diffuse scattering peaks, but also shows the presence of weak streaks interconnecting the four diffuse scattering spots around the (110) reciprocal lattice points. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the evolution of the shape of the Fermi surface of Cu with the addition of Al . Our results are consistent with the notion that Fermi surface nesting is an important factor in driving short-range ordering effects in disordered alloys.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas van Hameren
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss production of two μ+μ− pairs in ultraperipheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the LHC. We take into account electromagnetic (two-photon double-scattering production and for a first time direct γγ production of four muons in one scattering. We study the unexplored process γγ→μ+μ−μ+μ−. We present predictions for total and differential cross sections. Measurable nuclear cross sections are obtained and corresponding differential distributions and counting rates are presented.
Rayleigh-wave mode separation by high-resolution linear radon transform
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.
2009-01-01
Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is an effective tool for obtaining vertical shear wave profiles from a single non-invasive measurement. One key step of the MASW method is generation of a dispersion image and extraction of a reliable dispersion curve from raw multichannel shot records. Because different Rayleigh-wave modes normally interfere with each other in the time and space domain, it is necessary to perform mode separation and reconstruction to increase the accuracy of phase velocities determined from a dispersion image. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) as a means of separating and reconstructing multimode, dispersive Rayleigh-wave energy. We first introduce high-resolution LRT methods and Rayleigh-wave mode separation using high-resolution LRT. Next, we use synthetic data and a real-world example to demonstrate the effectiveness of Rayleigh-wave mode separation using high-resolution LRT. Our synthetic and real-world results demonstrate that (1) high-resolution LRT successfully separates and reconstructs multimode dispersive Rayleigh-wave energy with high resolution allowing the multimode energy to be more accurately determined. The horizontal resolution of the Rayleigh-wave method can be increased by extraction of dispersion curves from a pair of traces in the mode-separated shot gather and (2) multimode separation and reconstruction expand the usable frequency range of higher mode dispersive energy, which increases the depth of investigation and provides a means for accurately determining cut-off frequencies. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.
2003-01-01
We describe a theoretical model for carrier-carrier scattering in an inverted semiconductor quantum well structure using a multisubband diagram. The model includes all possible nonvanishing interaction terms within the static screening approximation, and it enables one to calculate accurately...
Polarized Raman scattering in single crystals of Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tization of NSMO 0.3 have shown the presence of magnetic disorder and spin frustration below TC [4]. Neutron scattering measurements show that the spin correlation length re- mains approximately 20 ˚A at TC and grows to 100 ˚A only at about 0.95TC [5]. Recent. NMR measurements have shown evidence for strong ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bublik, B.T.; Zotov, N.M.
1997-01-01
Microdefects in the regions of Si crystals having different thermal history defined by growth conditions was studied by the X-ray diffuse scattering method on a triple crystal X-ray diffractometer. It was shown that in such crystals the microdefects with positive strength are prevalent. However, between the above indicated regions the defects with the strength of opposite sign prevail
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Franzreb, K.; Williams, P.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk
203-204, 1/4 (2003), s. 39-42 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : low-energy ion scattering * doubly charged ions * molecular orbital Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2003
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrushevskii, N.M.; Shchedrin, B.M.; Simonov, V.I.
2004-01-01
New algorithms for solving the atomic structure of equivalent nanodimensional clusters of the same orientations randomly distributed over the initial single crystal (crystal matrix) have been suggested. A cluster is a compact group of substitutional, interstitial or other atoms displaced from their positions in the crystal matrix. The structure is solved based on X-ray or neutron diffuse scattering data obtained from such objects. The use of the mathematical apparatus of Fourier transformations of finite functions showed that the appropriate sampling of the intensities of continuous diffuse scattering allows one to synthesize multiperiodic difference Patterson functions that reveal the systems of the interatomic vectors of an individual cluster. The suggested algorithms are tested on a model one-dimensional structure
Design Aspects of the Rayleigh Convection Code
Featherstone, N. A.
2017-12-01
Understanding the long-term generation of planetary or stellar magnetic field requires complementary knowledge of the large-scale fluid dynamics pervading large fractions of the object's interior. Such large-scale motions are sensitive to the system's geometry which, in planets and stars, is spherical to a good approximation. As a result, computational models designed to study such systems often solve the MHD equations in spherical geometry, frequently employing a spectral approach involving spherical harmonics. We present computational and user-interface design aspects of one such modeling tool, the Rayleigh convection code, which is suitable for deployment on desktop and petascale-hpc architectures alike. In this poster, we will present an overview of this code's parallel design and its built-in diagnostics-output package. Rayleigh has been developed with NSF support through the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics and is expected to be released as open-source software in winter 2017/2018.
High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.
2009-01-01
High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.
Liao, Jin; Brock, Charles A.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Sueper, Donna T.; Welti, André; Middlebrook, Ann M.
2017-10-01
A light-scattering module was coupled to an airborne, compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (LS-AMS) to investigate collection efficiency (CE) while obtaining nonrefractory aerosol chemical composition measurements during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) campaign. In this instrument, particles scatter light from an internal laser beam and trigger saving individual particle mass spectra. Nearly all of the single-particle data with mass spectra that were triggered by scattered light signals were from particles larger than ˜ 280 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter. Over 33 000 particles are characterized as either prompt (27 %), delayed (15 %), or null (58 %), according to the time and intensity of their total mass spectral signals. The particle mass from single-particle spectra is proportional to that derived from the light-scattering diameter (dva-LS) but not to that from the particle time-of-flight (PToF) diameter (dva-MS) from the time of the maximum mass spectral signal. The total mass spectral signal from delayed particles was about 80 % of that from prompt ones for the same dva-LS. Both field and laboratory data indicate that the relative intensities of various ions in the prompt spectra show more fragmentation compared to the delayed spectra. The particles with a delayed mass spectral signal likely bounced off the vaporizer and vaporized later on another surface within the confines of the ionization source. Because delayed particles are detected by the mass spectrometer later than expected from their dva-LS size, they can affect the interpretation of particle size (PToF) mass distributions, especially at larger sizes. The CE, measured by the average number or mass fractions of particles optically detected that had measurable mass spectra, varied significantly (0.2-0.9) in different air masses. The measured CE agreed well with a previous parameterization when CE > 0.5 for acidic particles but was sometimes lower than the minimum parameterized CE of 0.5.
Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard
2017-11-01
The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.
Lee, Seungah; Chakkarapani, Suresh Kumar; Yeung, Edward S; Kang, Seong Ho
2017-01-15
Quantitative screening of influenza A (H7N9) virus without DNA amplification was performed based on single-particle dual-mode total internal reflection scattering (SD-TIRS) with a transmission grating (TG). A gold nanopad was utilized as a substrate for the hybridization of probe DNA molecules with the TIRS nanotag (silver-nanoparticle). The TG effectively isolated the scattering signals in first-order spectral images (n=+1) of the nanotag from that of the substrate, providing excellent enhancement of signal-to-noise and selectivity. By using single-DNA molecule/TIRS nanotag hybridization, target DNA molecules of H7N9 were detected down to 74 zM, which is at least 100,000 times lower than the current detection limit of 9.4fM. By simply modifying the design of the probe DNA molecules, this technique can be used to directly screen other viral DNAs in various human biological samples at the single-molecule level without target amplification. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mode coupling in nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ofer, D.; Shvarts, D.; Zinamon, Z.; Orszag, S.A.
1992-01-01
This paper studies the interaction of a small number of modes in the two-fluid Rayleigh--Taylor instability at relatively late stages of development, i.e., the nonlinear regime, using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code incorporating a front-tracking scheme. It is found that the interaction of modes can greatly affect the amount of mixing and may even reduce the width of the mixing region. This interaction is both relatively long range in wave-number space and also acts in both directions, i.e., short wavelengths affect long wavelengths and vice versa. Three distinct stages of interaction have been identified, including substantial interaction among modes some of which may still be in their classical (single mode) ''linear'' phase
Freund, A.K.; Rehm, C.
2014-01-01
The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorp...
Berg, L. K.; Chand, D.; Fast, J. D.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J. M.; Comstock, J. M.; Mei, F.; Kassianov, E.; Schmid, B.
2015-12-01
Aerosol play crucial role in earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. The impact of aerosol on radiation budget depend on several factors including single scattering albedo (SSA), composition, and the growth processes, like coating or mixing. We describe findings relevant to optical properties of aerosol characterized over the Cape Cod and nearby northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) during the summer (July 2012) and winter (February 2013) campaigns. The average single scattering albedo (SSA) shows distinctly different vertical profiles during the summer and winter periods. During the summer study period, the average SSA is greater than 0.95 near surface, it increases to 0.97 until an altitude of 2.5 km, and then decreases to 0.94 at top of the column near 4 km. In contrast, during the winter study period the average SSA is less than 0.93 and decreases with height reaching an average value of 0.87 near the top of the column. The large difference in summer and winter time SSA is linked to the presence of biomass burning (BB) aerosol rather than black carbon or soot in both seasons. In our study, the BB on average is factor of two higher in free troposphere (FT) during summer and more than a factor of two higher in the boundary layer during winter. Single particle analysis indicates that the average profiles of refractory black carbon (rBC) mass are similar in both seasons. The average rBC size are similar at all altitudes sampled (0-4 km) in summer time but different during winter time. In addition, the particles sampled in the summertime FT appear to be more aged than those seen during winter. The observed large heterogeneity in SSA and its links to the particle coating and composition highlights the importance of aging and mixing processes of aerosol in this region and represents a challenge for both regional and global scale models.
Min, S L; Gomez, A
1996-08-20
A technique is described and demonstrated to measure the size of spherical particles of known index of refraction by laser light scattering with an accuracy of better than 1%. This technique entails imaging the angular scattering intensity onto a photodiode array and applying a fast Fourier transform to the array output to obtain a frequency and phase corresponding to the number and angular position of the scattering lobes. Errors associated with particle trajectory effects and changes in the index of refraction are also considered. Results are not affected by the former, whereas variations of the refractive index by 2%, as may be typical, for example, of the transient heat up of a liquid hydrocarbon droplet, cause a deterioration of sizing accuracy to approximately 3%. The technique can in principle be applied in real time at data rates as high as 20-30 kHz with a modest equipment investment. Therefore, the measurement of droplet evaporation rates in dilute sprays with unprecedented accuracy appears to be feasible.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baumgarten, G.
2001-09-01
Noctilucent clouds (NLC) are rare, tenuous clouds in the terrestrial atmosphere that occur at polar latitudes in summer near 83 km altitude. These clouds where studied using the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar located at 69 N, 16 E. The depolarization of light, which was backscattered on NLC particles was measured for the first time by the ALOMAR RMR-Lidar. Considering the small ratio of particle size over wavelength an unexpectedly large depolarization of 1.7% was observed. Comparing this result to T-matrix calculations for scattering on randomly oriented aspherical particles implies that the shape of the NLC particles is needle like. The ALOMAR RMR-Lidar is a twin-lidar equipped with two steerable telescopes which were used to observe a single NLC layer in two separate measurement volumes about 50 km apart at NLC altitudes. Cross correlation technique reveal the layer to be tilted with imbedded periodic horizontal structures showing wavelengths of about 30 to 50 km. These structures drift horizontally through the measurement volumes rather than being microphysically formed during the observation period. (orig.)
Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Rackwitz, Vanessa
2014-07-15
The high specificity of the coherent (Rayleigh), as well as incoherent (Compton) X-ray scattering to the mean atomic number of a specimen to be analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), is exploited to gain more information on the chemical composition. Concretely, the evaluation of the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio from XRF spectra and its relation to the average atomic number of reference materials via a calibration curve can reveal valuable information on the elemental composition complementary to that obtained from the reference-free XRF analysis. Particularly for matrices of lower mean atomic numbers, the sensitivity of the approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished between specimens of mean atomic numbers differing from each other by 0.1. Hence, the content of light elements which are "invisible" for XRF, particularly hydrogen, or of heavier impurities/additives in light materials can be calculated "by difference" from the scattering calibration curve. The excellent agreement between such an experimental, empirical calibration curve and a synthetically generated one, on the basis of a reliable physical model for the X-ray scattering, is also demonstrated. Thus, the feasibility of the approach for given experimental conditions and particular analytical questions can be tested prior to experiments with reference materials. For the present work a microfocus X-ray source attached on an SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) system was used so that the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio could be acquired with EDX spectral data for improved analysis of the elemental composition.
Gorfman, Semën; Keeble, Dean S; Bombardi, Alessandro; Thomas, Pam A
2015-10-01
The results of high-resolution measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering produced by a perovskite-based Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 ferroelectric single crystal between 40 and 620 K are reported. The study was designed as an attempt to resolve numerous controversies regarding the average structure of Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 , such as the mechanism of the phase transitions between the tetragonal, P 4 bm , and rhombohedral | monoclinic, R 3 c | Cc , space groups and the correlation between structural changes and macroscopic physical properties. The starting point was to search for any transformations of structural disorder in the temperature range of thermal depoling (420-480 K), where the average structure is known to remain unchanged. The intensity distribution around the {032} pseudocubic reflection was collected using a PILATUS 100K detector at the I16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source (UK). The data revealed previously unknown features of the diffuse scattering, including a system of dual asymmetric L-shaped diffuse scattering streaks. The topology, temperature dependence, and relationship between Bragg and diffuse intensities suggest the presence of complex microstructure in the low-temperature R 3 c | Cc phase. This microstructure may be formed by the persistence of the higher-temperature P 4 bm phase, built into a lower-temperature R 3 c | Cc matrix, accompanied by the related long-range strain fields. Finally, it is shown that a correlation between the temperature dependence of the X-ray scattering features and the temperature regime of thermal depoling is present.
Numerical simulation of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection
Grigoriev, Vasiliy V.; Zakharov, Petr E.
2017-11-01
This paper considered Rayleigh-Benard convection (natural convection). This is a flow, which is formed in a viscous medium when heated from below and cooled from above. As a result, are formed vortices (convective cells). This process is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations in Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. As the governing parameters characterizing convection states Rayleigh number, Prandtl number are picked. The problem is solved by using finite element method with computational package FEniCS. Numerical results for different Rayleigh numbers are obtained. Studied integral characteristic (Nusselt number) depending on the Rayleigh number.
Short Rayleigh length free electron laser: Experiments and simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. P. Crooker
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We report experiments at Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jlab and computer simulations performed at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS designed to probe the small Rayleigh length regime. We compare the gain, power, and sensitivity to mirror and electron beam misalignments as a function of decreasing Rayleigh length. The agreement is quite good, with experiments and simulations showing comparable trends as the Rayleigh length is decreased. In particular, we find that the gain and power do not decrease substantially at short Rayleigh length, contrary to a common Gaussian-mode filling factor argument. Within currently achievable alignment tolerances, the gain and power are still acceptable for FEL operation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)
1998-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu
1998-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0±4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22±0.09>0.87±0.22 p 1.02±0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seonhyeop Shin
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The elastic properties of KF-substituted perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3 were investigated by dielectric measurements and Brillouin light scattering. The ferroelectric phase transition occurred at substantially lower temperature due to KF substitution, which was attributed to the modification of the covalency in Pb–O and Ti–O bonds. The longitudinal acoustic (LA mode of KF-substituted PbTiO3 showed a frequency softening in the paraelectric phase, which was accompanied by increasing acoustic damping. This indicated that polarization fluctuations responsible for the acoustic anomalies were enhanced by KF substitution.
Magota, Keiichi; Shiga, Tohru; Asano, Yukari; Shinyama, Daiki; Ye, Jinghan; Perkins, Amy E; Maniawski, Piotr J; Toyonaga, Takuya; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Hirata, Kenji; Katoh, Chietsugu; Hattori, Naoya; Tamaki, Nagara
2017-12-01
In 3-dimensional PET/CT imaging of the brain with 15 O-gas inhalation, high radioactivity in the face mask creates cold artifacts and affects the quantitative accuracy when scatter is corrected by conventional methods (e.g., single-scatter simulation [SSS] with tail-fitting scaling [TFS-SSS]). Here we examined the validity of a newly developed scatter-correction method that combines SSS with a scaling factor calculated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS-SSS). Methods: We performed phantom experiments and patient studies. In the phantom experiments, a plastic bottle simulating a face mask was attached to a cylindric phantom simulating the brain. The cylindric phantom was filled with 18 F-FDG solution (3.8-7.0 kBq/mL). The bottle was filled with nonradioactive air or various levels of 18 F-FDG (0-170 kBq/mL). Images were corrected either by TFS-SSS or MCS-SSS using the CT data of the bottle filled with nonradioactive air. We compared the image activity concentration in the cylindric phantom with the true activity concentration. We also performed 15 O-gas brain PET based on the steady-state method on patients with cerebrovascular disease to obtain quantitative images of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism. Results: In the phantom experiments, a cold artifact was observed immediately next to the bottle on TFS-SSS images, where the image activity concentrations in the cylindric phantom were underestimated by 18%, 36%, and 70% at the bottle radioactivity levels of 2.4, 5.1, and 9.7 kBq/mL, respectively. At higher bottle radioactivity, the image activity concentrations in the cylindric phantom were greater than 98% underestimated. For the MCS-SSS, in contrast, the error was within 5% at each bottle radioactivity level, although the image generated slight high-activity artifacts around the bottle when the bottle contained significantly high radioactivity. In the patient imaging with 15 O 2 and C 15 O 2 inhalation, cold artifacts were observed on TFS-SSS images, whereas
Mitigation of Rayleigh crosstalk using noise suppression technique in 10-Gb/s REAM-SOA.
Jeong, Jong Sool; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Seok; Kim, Dong Churl; Kim, Ki-Soo; Park, Mi-Ran; Kwon, O-Kyun
2012-11-19
We demonstrate a mitigation of Rayleigh back-scattering (RBS) impact in 10-Gb/s reflective electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier (REAM-SOA). The technique is based on the intensity-noise suppression of the centralized incoherent seed-light, which enables smooth evolution of deployed DWDM applications. We exhibit the power penalty of less than 1 dB at the large RBS crosstalk value of about 8 dB when the optical power of seed-light is lowered about -10 dBm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samira Agbolaghi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Two types of rod-coil block copolymers including poly(3-hexylthiophene-block-poly(ethylene glycol (P3HT-b-PEG and PEG-block-polyaniline (PANI were synthesized using Grignard metathesis polymerization, Suzuki coupling, and interfacial polymerization. Afterward, two types of single crystals were grown by self-seeding methodology to investigate the coily and rod blocks in grafted brushes and ordered crystalline configurations. The conductive P3HT fibrillar single crystals covered by the dielectric coily PEG oligomers were grown from toluene, xylene, and anisole, and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM and grazing wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS. Longer P3HT backbones resulted in folding, whereas shorter ones had a high tendency towards backbone lamination. The effective factors on folding of long P3HT backbones in the single crystal structures were the solvent quality and crystallization temperature. Better solvents due to decelerating the growth condition led to a higher number of foldings. Via increasing the crystallization temperature, the system decreased the folding number to maintain its stability. Poorer solvents also reflected a higher stacking in hexyl side chain and π-π stacking directions. The dielectric lamellar PEG single crystals sandwiched between the PANI nanorods were grown from amyl acetate, and analyzed using the interface distribution function (IDF of SAXS and AFM. The molecular weights of PANI and PEG blocks and crystallization temperature were focused while studying the grown single crystals.
Ahn, Chi Young; Jeon, Kiwan; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-06-01
This study analyzes the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm to identify unknown support of thin penetrable electromagnetic inhomogeneity from scattered field data collected within the so-called multi-static response matrix in limited-view inverse scattering problems. The mathematical theories of MUSIC are partially discovered, e.g., in the full-view problem, for an unknown target of dielectric contrast or a perfectly conducting crack with the Dirichlet boundary condition (Transverse Magnetic-TM polarization) and so on. Hence, we perform further research to analyze the MUSIC-type imaging functional and to certify some well-known but theoretically unexplained phenomena. For this purpose, we establish a relationship between the MUSIC imaging functional and an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. This relationship is based on the rigorous asymptotic expansion formula in the existence of a thin inhomogeneity with a smooth supporting curve. Various results of numerical simulation are presented in order to support the identified structure of MUSIC. Although a priori information of the target is needed, we suggest a least condition of range of incident and observation directions to apply MUSIC in the limited-view problem.
Hong, Seung Hwan; Bok, Jin Mo; Zhang, Wentao; He, Junfeng; Zhou, X J; Varma, C M; Choi, Han-Yong
2014-08-01
There is an enormous interest in the renormalization of the quasiparticle (qp) dispersion relation of cuprate superconductors both below and above the critical temperature T_{c} because it enables the determination of the fluctuation spectrum to which the qp's are coupled. A remarkable discovery by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a sharp low-energy feature (LEF) in qp spectra well below the superconducting energy gap but with its energy increasing in proportion to T_{c} and its intensity increasing sharply below T_{c}. This unexpected feature needs to be reconciled with d-wave superconductivity. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of ARPES data from Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8+δ} (Bi2212) using Eliashberg equations to show that the qp scattering rate due to the forward scattering impurities far from the Cu-O planes is modified by the energy gap below T_{c} and shows up as the LEF. This is also a necessary step to analyze ARPES data to reveal the spectrum of fluctuations promoting superconductivity.
Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan
2014-09-08
Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.
Nonlinear saturation of the Rayleigh Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kaw, P.; Sen, A.; Benkadda, S.; Verga, A.
1997-01-01
The problem of the nonlinear saturation of the 2 dimensional Rayleigh Taylor instability is re-examined to put various earlier results in a proper perspective. The existence of a variety of final states can be attributed to the differences in the choice of boundary conditions and initial conditions in earlier numerical modeling studies. Our own numerical simulations indicate that the RT instability saturates by the self consistent generation of shear flow even in situations (with periodic boundaries) where, in principle, an infinite amount of gravitational energy can be tapped. Such final states can be achieved for suitable values of the Prandtl number. (author)
Numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ablation driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verdon, C.P.
1984-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of ablatively accelerated thin shells subject to Rayleigh-Taylor instability are presented. Results for both single wavelength and multiwavelength perturbations show that the nonlinear effects of the instability are evident mainly in the bubble rather than the spike. Approximate roles for predicting the dominant nonlinear mode-mode interactions, which limit shell performance, are also discussed. The work concludes with a discussion of recommendations for future work in this area
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Jule, L
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate light scattering by core–shell consisting of metal/dielectric composites considering spherical and cylindrical nanoinclusions, within the framework of the conventional Rayleigh approximation. By writing the electric potential...
Experimental investigation of turbulent mixing by Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youngs, D.L.
1992-01-01
A key feature of compressible turbulent mixing is the generation of vorticity via the ∇px ∇(1/ρ) term. This source of vorticity is also present in incompressible flows involving the mixing of fluids of different density, for example Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flows. This paper gives a summary of an experimental investigation of turbulent mixing at a plane boundary between two fluids, of densities ρ 1 , and ρ 2 . (ρ 1 > ρ 2 ) due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The two fluids are near incompressible and mixing occurs when an approximately constant acceleration, g, is applied normal to the interface with direction from fluid 2 to fluid 1. Full details of the experimental programme are given in a set of three reports. Some of the earlier experiments are also described by Read. Previous experimental work and much of the theoretical research has concentrated on studying the growth of the instability from a single wavelength perturbation rather than turbulent mixing. Notable exceptions are published in the Russian literature. A related process, turbulent mixing induced by the passage of shock waves though an interface between fluids of different density is described by Andronov et al. The major purpose of the experiments described here was to study the evolution of the instability from small random perturbations where it is found that large and larger structures appear as time proceeds. A novel technique was used to provide the desired acceleration. The two fluids were enclosed in a rectangular tank, the lighter fluid 2 initially resting on top of the denser fluid 1. One or more rocket motors were then used to drive the tank vertically downwards. The aim of the experimental programme is to provide data for the calibration of a turbulence model used to predict mixing in real situations
Fan, Wei; Lee, Yih Hong; Pedireddy, Srikanth; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Tianxi; Ling, Xing Yi
2014-05-07
Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) due to its strong chemical enhancement. Studying the SERS performance of plasmonic nanoparticle/GO hybrid materials at the single particle level is crucial for direct probing of the chemical effect of GO on plasmonic nanoparticles. In this work, we integrate GO and shape-controlled Ag nanoparticles to create hybrid nanomaterials, and the chemical enhancement arising from GO is investigated using single-particle SERS measurements. Ag nanoparticle@GO hybrid nanostructures are prepared by assembling Ag nanoparticles, including spheres, cubes and octahedra with GO sheets. The SERS behaviors of the hybrid nanostructures are characterized, and 2-3 times enhanced SERS intensities are detected from the Ag nanoparticle@GO hybrid nanostructures as compared to pure Ag nanoparticles. Furthermore, we probe the mechanism of SERS enhancement in the hybrid nanostructures by changing the surface coverage of GO on Ag octahedra, by using reduced GO in place of GO as well as by using probe molecules of different electronegativities. This hybrid system is an excellent candidate for single-particle SERS sensors. Sub-nanomolar levels of aromatic molecules are detected using a single Ag/GO hybrid nanomaterial. This as-prepared GO and shape-controlled Ag nanoparticle hybrid is capable of serving as a high performance SERS platform, providing new opportunities for efficient chemical and biological sensing applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osakabe, Toyotake
2012-01-01
In this article, a new high-pressure apparatus for single-crystal magnetic neutron diffraction under 10 GPa is described. First, new hybrid-anvil, which is composed of an opposed pair of a supported SiC anvil and a tungsten carbide (WC) anvil with a center-dimpled culet, is introduced. Next, results of an investigation of pressure-transmitting media are shown. The hydrostaticity of the media is essential for the single-crystal diffraction experiments. Finally, a thermal neutron focusing device with a lot of curved supermirrors is shown. The device can compensate weak magnetic signals from tiny samples in high-pressure cells. As examples of the studies using the apparatus, the high-pressure single-crystal magnetic neutron diffraction experiments on 4f-electron systems PrFe 4 P 12 and HoB 2 C 2 are taken up. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Singh
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB aerosols have a significant effect on regional climate, and represent a significant uncertainty in our understanding of climate change. Using a combination of cavity ring-down spectroscopy and integrating nephelometry, the single scattering albedo (SSA and Ångstrom absorption exponent (AAE were measured for several North American biomass fuels. This was done for several particle diameters for the smoldering and flaming stage of white pine, red oak, and cedar combustion. Measurements were done over a wider wavelength range than any previous direct measurement of BB particles. While the offline sampling system used in this work shows promise, some changes in particle size distribution were observed, and a thorough evaluation of this method is required. The uncertainty of SSA was 6 %, with the truncation angle correction of the nephelometer being the largest contributor to error. While scattering and extinction did show wavelength dependence, SSA did not. SSA values ranged from 0.46 to 0.74, and were not uniformly greater for the smoldering stage than the flaming stage. SSA values changed with particle size, and not systematically so, suggesting the proportion of tar balls to fractal black carbon change with fuel type/state and particle size. SSA differences of 0.15–0.4 or greater can be attributed to fuel type or fuel state for fresh soot. AAE values were quite high (1.59–5.57, despite SSA being lower than is typically observed in wildfires. The SSA and AAE values in this work do not fit well with current schemes that relate these factors to the modified combustion efficiency of a burn. Combustion stage, particle size, fuel type, and fuel condition were found to have the most significant effects on the intrinsic optical properties of fresh soot, though additional factors influence aged soot.
Modeling amplitude SAR image with the Cauchy-Rayleigh mixture
Peng, Qiangqiang; Du, Qingyu; Yao, Yinwei; Huang, Huang
2017-10-01
In this paper, we introduce a novel mixture model of the SAR amplitude image, which is proposed as an approximation to the heavy-tailed Rayleigh model. The limitation of the heavy-tailed Rayleigh model in SAR image application is discussed. We also present an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm based parameter estimation method for the Cauchy-Rayleigh mixture. We test the new model on some simulated data in order to confirm that is appropriate to the heavy-tailed Rayleigh model. The performance is evaluated by some statistic values (cumulative square errors (CSE) 0.99 and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (K-S) the performance of the proposed mixture model is tested on some real SAR images and compared with other models, including the heavy-tailed Rayleigh and Nakagami mixture models. The result indicates that the proposed model can be an optional statistical model for amplitude SAR images.
Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.
2008-01-01
Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied
Polarized Raman scattering in single crystals of Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2. Experimental. The single crystal was grown in an infrared image furnace by the floating zone technique. Raman measurements were performed in the spectral .... [3] C Xiong, Q Li, H L Ju, S N Mao, L Senapati, X X Xi, R L Green and T Venkatesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1427 (1995). [4] N H Nam, R Mathieu, P Nordblad, N V ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Katich, Joseph; Qian, Xin; Zhao, Yuxiang; Allada, Kalyan; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Bradshaw, Elliott; Bosted, Peter; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei; Chirapatpimol, Khem; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Cornejo, Juan; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Ding, Huaibo; Dolph, Peter; Dutta, Chiranjib; Dutta, Dipangkar; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gilad, Gilad; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Guo, Lei; Hamilton, David; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jijun; Huang, Min; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jin, Ge; Jones, Mark; Kelleher, Aidan; Kim, Wooyoung; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; LeRose, John; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Y; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lu, Hai-jiang; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Oh, Yoomin; Osipenko, Mikhail; Parno, Diana; Peng, Jen-chieh; Phillips, Sarah; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Ransome, Ronald; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Schulte, Elaine; Shahinyan, Albert; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Sirca, Simon; Stepanyan, Stepan; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tang, Liguang; Tobias, William; Urciuoli, Guido; Vilardi, Ignazio; Wang, Kebin; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Z; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zong, Xing
2014-07-01
We report the first measurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic scattering from the inclusive reaction 3He{uparrow}(e,e')X on a 3He gas target polarized normal to the lepton plane. Assuming time-reversal invariance, this asymmetry is strictly zero in the Born approximation. The experiment, conducted at Jefferson Lab using a 5.89 GeV electron beam, covers a range of 1.7
Mason, Bernard J; Walker, Jim S; Reid, Jonathan P; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J
2014-03-20
The extinction cross-sections of individual, optically confined aerosol particles with radii of a micrometer or less can, in principle, be measured using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). However, when the particle radius is comparable in magnitude to the wavelength of light stored in a high-finesse cavity, the phenomenological cross-section retrieved from a CRDS experiment depends on the location of the particle in the intracavity standing wave and differs from the Mie scattering cross-section for plane-wave irradiation. Using an evaporating 1,2,6-hexanetriol particle of initial radius ∼1.75 μm confined within the 4.5 μm diameter core of a Bessel beam, we demonstrate that the scatter in the retrieved extinction efficiency of a single particle is determined by its lateral motion, which spans a few wavelengths of the intracavity standing wave used for CRDS measurements. Fits of experimental measurements to Mie calculations, modified to account for the intracavity standing wave, allow precise retrieval of the refractive index of 1,2,6-hexanetriol particles (with relative humidity, RH < 10%) of 1.47824 ± 0.00072.
Han, Youngkyu; Ahn, Suk-Kyun; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory S; Do, Changwoo
2016-06-01
We demonstrate a protocol for single-walled carbon nanotube functionalization using thermo-sensitive PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers in an aqueous solution. In a carbon nanotube/PEO105-PPO70-PEO105 (poloxamer 407) aqueous solution, the amphiphilic poloxamer 407 adsorbs onto the carbon nanotube surfaces and self-assembles into continuous layers, driven by intermolecular interactions between constituent molecules. The addition of 5-methylsalicylic acid changes the self-assembled structure from spherical-micellar to a cylindrical morphology. The fabricated poloxamer 407/carbon nanotube hybrid particles exhibit thermo-responsive structural features so that the density and thickness of poloxamer 407 layers are also reversibly controllable by varying temperature. The detailed structural properties of the poloxamer 407/carbon nanotube particles in suspension can be characterized by small-angle neutron scattering experiments and model fit analyses. The distinct curve shapes of the scattering intensities depending on temperature control or addition of aromatic additives are well described by a modified core-shell cylinder model consisting of a carbon nanotube core cylinder, a hydrophobic shell, and a hydrated polymer layer. This method can provide a simple but efficient way for the fabrication and in-situ characterization of carbon nanotube-based nano particles with a structure-tunable encapsulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abis, S.; Fiorini, P.; Caciuffo, R.; Coppola, R.
1987-01-01
A study was recently performed to investigate, by means of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), the precipitation of Mg 2 Si phase in a polycrystalline sample of a high purity Al-Mg-Si alloy. This kind of alloys, of great industrial interest, are characterized by the well known precipitation sequence: α SS -G.P.-β'-β(Mg 2 Si) as pointed out since 1961. SANS is able to supply relevant information on the size distribution of precipitates induced by thermal treatment of the quench from solubilization temperature. In particular it was shown that the precipitate volume fraction obtained from the size distribution function deduced from SANS measurements was in agreement with the results of resistivity measurements which, as well known, precise quantitative information about the depletion of the solid solution during isothermal annealing. In this paper we study a single crystal by means of a SANS measurement performed with the same experimental facility (D17 at ILL-Grenoble), and try to exploit all information arising from the regular orientation of the precipitates by means of a two-dimensional pattern analysis accounting for the directional anisotropy of the scattering profile. 6 refs., 3 figs
Neutron and resonant x-ray scattering studies of RNi2B2C (R = rare earth) single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stassis, C.; Goldman, A.I.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA
1996-01-01
This family of intermetallic compounds is ideal for the study of the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism since, in several of these compounds (Ho, Er, Tm, Dy), superconductivity coexists with magnetic ordering. The most important findings of the scattering studies are (a) in the Ho-compound, a complex magnetic structure characterized by two incommensurate wave vectors, rvec k a = 0.585 rvec a* and rvec k c = 0.915 rvec c*, exists in the vicinity of 5 K, where the almost reentrant behavior of this compound occurs; (b) an incommensurate magnetic structure with wave vector along rvec a*, close to the zone boundary, is observed in several of these compounds; and (c) pronounced soft-phonon behavior was observed for both the acoustic and first optical Δ 4 [ξ00] branches in the superconducting Lu and Ho compounds, a behavior characteristic of strongly coupled conventional superconductors. Furthermore, these phonon anomalies occur at wave vectors close to those of the incommensurate magnetically ordered structures observed in the magnetic compounds of this family. This observation suggests that both the magnetic ordering and phonon softening originate from common nesting features of the Fermi surfaces of these compounds. Band theoretical calculations are in qualitative agreement with these results
Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni
2014-09-01
The double parton distributions (dPDF), both conventional (i.e. double ladder) and those corresponding to 1→2 ladder splitting, are calculated and compared for different two-parton combinations. The conventional and splitting dPDFs have very similar shape in x1 and x2. We make a first quantitative evaluation of the single-ladder-splitting contribution to double parton scattering (DPS) production of two S- or P-wave quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and cc ¯cc ¯. The ratio of the single-ladder-splitting to conventional (i.e. double ladder against double ladder) contributions is discussed as a function of center-of-mass energy, mass of the produced system and other kinematical variables. Using a simple model for the dependence of the conventional two-parton distribution on transverse parton separation (Gaussian and independent of xi and scales), we find that the single-ladder-splitting (or 2v1) contribution is as big as the conventional (or 2v2) contribution discussed in recent years in the literature. In many experimental studies of DPS, one extracts the quantity 1/σeff=σDPS/(σSPS ,1σSPS,2), with σSPS ,1 and σSPS ,2 being the single scattering cross sections for the two subprocesses in the DPS process. Many past phenomenological studies of DPS have only considered the conventional contribution and have obtained values a factor of ˜2 too small for 1/σeff. Our analysis shows that it is important also to consider the ladder-splitting mechanism, and that this might resolve the discrepancy (this was also pointed out in a recent study by Blok et al.). The differential distributions in rapidity and transverse momenta calculated for conventional and single-ladder-splitting DPS processes are however very similar which causes their experimental separation to be rather difficult, if not impossible. The direct consequence of the existence of the two components (conventional and splitting) is the energy and process dependence of the empirical parameter σeff. This is
Dayglow emissions of the O2 Herzberg bands and the Rayleigh backscattered spectrum of the earth
Frederick, J. E.; Abrams, R. B.
1982-01-01
It is pointed out that numerous fluorescent emissions from the Herzberg bands of molecular oxygen lie in the spectral region 242-300 nm. This coincides with the wavelength range used by orbiting spectrometers that observe the Rayleigh backscattered spectrum of the earth for the purpose of monitoring the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone. Model calculations suggest that Herzberg band emissions in the dayglow could provide significant contamination of the ozone measurements if the quenching rate of O2(A3Sigma) is sufficiently small. It is noted that this is especially true near 255 nm, where the most intense fluorescent emissions relative to the Rayleigh scattered signal are located and where past satellite measurements have shown a persistent excess radiance above that expected for a pure ozone absorbing and molecular scattering atmosphere. Very small quenching rates, however, are adequate to reduce the dayglow emission to negligible levels. Noting that available laboratory data have not definitely established the quenching on the rate of O2(A3Sigma) as a function of vibration level, it is emphasized that such information is required before the Herzberg band contributions can be evaluated with confidence.
Zhang, Qiang; Moran, Christine H; Xia, Xiaohu; Rycenga, Matthew; Li, Naixu; Xia, Younan
2012-06-19
This Article describes the synthesis of Ag nanobars with different aspect ratios using a seed-mediated method and evaluation of their use for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The formation of Ag nanobars was found to critically depend on the introduction of a bromide compound into the reaction system, with ionic salts being more effective than covalent molecules. We examined single-crystal seeds with both spherical and cubic shapes and found that Ag nanobars grown from spherical seeds had much higher aspect ratios than those grown from cubic seeds. The typical product of a synthesis contained nanocrystals with three different morphologies: nanocubes, nanobars with a square cross section, and nanobars with a rectangular cross section. Their formation can be attributed to the difference in growth rates along the three orthogonal directions. The SERS enhancement factor of the Ag nanobar was found to depend on its aspect ratio, its orientation relative to the laser polarization, and the wavelength of excitation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Dorthe Kjær; Martens, Harald; Pram Nielsen, Jesper
2002-01-01
A new extended method for separating, e.g., scattering from absorbance in spectroscopic measurements, extended inverted signal correction (EISC), is presented and compared to multiplicative signal correction (MSC) and existing modiŽ cations of this. EISC preprocessing is applied to near-infrared...... transmittance (NIT) spectra of single wheat kernels with the aim of improving the multivariate calibration for protein content by partial least-squares regression (PLSR). The primary justiŽ cation of the EISC method is to facilitate removal of spectral artifacts and interferences that are uncorrelated to target...... of the EISC was found to be comparable to a more complex dual-transformation model obtained by Ž rst calculating the second derivative NIT spectra followed by MSC. The calibration model based on EISC preprocessing performed better than models based on the raw data, second derivatives, MSC, and MSC followed...
Wang, Qiang; Renema, Jelmer J; Engel, Andreas; van Exter, Martin P; de Dood, Michiel J A
2015-09-21
We propose an experiment to directly probe the local response of a superconducting single photon detector using a sharp metal tip in a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope. The optical absorption is obtained by simulating the tip-detector system, where the tip-detector is illuminated from the side, with the tip functioning as an optical antenna. The local detection efficiency is calculated by considering the recently introduced position-dependent threshold current in the detector. The calculated response for a 150 nm wide detector shows a peak close to the edge that can be spatially resolved with an estimated resolution of ∼ 20 nm, using a tip with parameters that are experimentally accessible.
Menk, R H; Besch, H J; Walenta, Albert H; Amenitsch, H; Bernstorff, S
2000-01-01
In this work a combination of an ionization chamber with one-dimensional spatial resolution and a MicroCAT structure will be presented. Initially, MicroCAT was thought of as a shielding grid (Frisch-grid) but later was used as an active electron amplification device that enables single X-ray photon resolution measurements at low fluxes even with integrating readout electronics. Moreover, the adjustable gas gain that continuously covers the entire range from pure ionization chamber mode up to high gas gains (30000 and more) provides stable operation yielding a huge dynamic range of about 10 sup 8 and more. First measurements on biological samples using small angle X-ray scattering techniques with synchrotron radiation will be presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md Shamsul Arefin
2012-12-01
Full Text Available This work presents a technique for the chirality (n, m assignment of semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes by solving a set of empirical equations of the tight binding model parameters. The empirical equations of the nearest neighbor hopping parameters, relating the term (2n, m with the first and second optical transition energies of the semiconducting single wall carbon nanotubes, are also proposed. They provide almost the same level of accuracy for lower and higher diameter nanotubes. An algorithm is presented to determine the chiral index (n, m of any unknown semiconducting tube by solving these empirical equations using values of radial breathing mode frequency and the first or second optical transition energy from resonant Raman spectroscopy. In this paper, the chirality of 55 semiconducting nanotubes is assigned using the first and second optical transition energies. Unlike the existing methods of chirality assignment, this technique does not require graphical comparison or pattern recognition between existing experimental and theoretical Kataura plot.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pisano, S.; Biselli, A.; Niccolai, S.; Seder, E.; Guidal, M.; Mirazita, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bosted, P.; Briscoe, B.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D. G.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keith, C. D.; Keller, D.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, Ian J. D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D. G.; Meyer, C. A.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatie, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.
2015-03-19
Single-beam, single-target, and double-spin asymmetries for hard exclusive photon production on the proton e→p→e'p'γ are presented. The data were taken at Jefferson Lab using the CLAS detector and a longitudinally polarized ^{14}NH_{3} target. The three asymmetries were measured in 165 4-dimensional kinematic bins, covering the widest kinematic range ever explored simultaneously for beam and target-polarization observables in the valence quark region. The kinematic dependences of the obtained asymmetries are discussed and compared to the predictions of models of Generalized Parton Distributions. As a result, the measurement of three DVCS spin observables at the same kinematic points allows a quasi-model-independent extraction of the imaginary parts of the H and H~ Compton Form Factors, which give insight into the electric and axial charge distributions of valence quarks in the proton.
Tizei, Luiz H G; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu
2016-01-01
Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
SU-F-T-160: Commissioning of a Single-Room Double-Scattering Proton Therapy System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, H; Ahmad, S; Chen, Y; Lau, A; Islam, M; Ferreira, C; Ferguson, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Keeling, V [Carti, Inc., Little Rock, AR (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To report the detailed commissioning experience for a compact double-scattering Mevion S250 proton therapy system at a University Cancer Center site. Methods: The commissioning of the proton therapy system mainly consisted of ensuring integrity of mechanical and imaging system, beam data collection, and commissioning of a treatment planning system (TPS). First, mechanical alignment and imaging were tested including safety, interlocks, positional accuracy of couch and gantry, image quality, mechanical and imaging isocenter and so on. Second, extensive beam data (outputs, PDDs, and profiles) were collected and analyzed through effective sampling of range (R) and modulation width (M) from 24 beam options. Three different output (cGy/MU) prediction models were also commissioned as primary and secondary MU calculation tool. Third, the Varian Eclipse TPS was commissioned through five sets of data collections (in-water Bragg peak scans, in-air longitudinal fluence scans, in-air lateral profiles, in-air half-beam profiles, and an HU-to-stopping-power conversion curve) and accuracy of TPS calculation was tested using in-water scans and dose measurements with a 2D array detector with block and range compensator. Finally, an anthropomorphic phantom was scanned and heterogeneity effects were tested by inserting radiochromic films in the phantom and PET activation scans for range verification in conjunction with end-to-end test. Results: Beam characteristics agreed well with the vendor specifications; however, minor mismatches in R and M were found in some measurements during the beam data collection. These were reflected into the TPS commissioning such that the TPS could accurately predict the R and M within tolerance levels. The output models had a good agreement with measured outputs (<3% error). The end-to-end test using the film and PET showed reasonably the TPS predicted dose, R and M in heterogeneous medium. Conclusion: The proton therapy system was successfully
Shen, Fahua; Wang, Bangxin; Shi, Wenjuan; Zhuang, Peng; Zhu, Chengyun; Xie, Chenbo
2018-04-01
A novel design of the 532 nm Rayleigh-Mie Doppler lidar receiving system is carried out. The use of polarization isolation technology to effectively improve the receiving system optical reception efficiency, suppress the background noise, not only improves the system wind field detection accuracy, while achieving a high-accuracy temperature measurement. The wind speed and temperature measurement principle of the system are discussed in detail, and the triple Fabry-Perot etalon parameters are optimized. Utilizing the overall design parameters of the system, the system detection performance is simulated. The simulation results show that from 5 to 50 km altitude with vertical resolution of 0.1 km@5 ∼20 km, 0.5 km@20 ∼40 km, 1 km@40 ∼50 km, by using the laser with single pulse energy of 600 mJ, repetition frequency of 50 Hz and the receiving telescope with aperture of 0.8 m, with 2min integration time and in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the radial wind speed measurement accuracies of our designed lidar in the day and night are better than 2.6 m/s and 0.9 m/s respectively, and its performance is obviously superior to that of traditional system 5.6 m/s and 1.4 m/s wind speed accuracies; with 10min integration time and in 210 ∼280 K temperature range, the temperature measurement accuracies of the system in the day and night are better than 3.4 K and 1.2 K respectively; since the wind speed sensitivities of the Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals are not exactly the same, in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the wind speed bias induced by Mie signal is less than 1 m/s in the temperature range of 210-290 K and in the backscatter ratio range of 1-1.5 for pair measurement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaunt, Jonathan R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Maciula, Rafal [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Szczurek, Antoni [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Rzeszow Univ. (Poland)
2014-07-15
The double parton distributions (dPDF), both conventional and those corresponding to parton splitting, are calculated and compared for different two-parton combinations. The conventional and splitting dPDFs have very similar shape in x{sub 1} and x{sub 2}. We make a first quantitative evaluation of the single-ladder-splitting contribution to double parton scattering (DPS) production of two S- or P-wave quarkonia, two Higgs bosons and c anti cc anti c. The ratio of the single-ladder-splitting to conventional contributions is discussed as a function of centre-of-mass energy, mass of the produced system and other kinematical variables. Using a simple model for the dependence of the conventional two-parton distribution on transverse parton separation (Gaussian and independent of x{sub i} and scales), we find that the 2v1 contribution is as big as the 2v2 contribution discussed in recent years in the literature. This means that the phenomenological analyses of σ{sub eff} including only the conventional DPS mechanism have to be revised including explicitly the single-ladder-splitting contributions discussed here. The differential distributions in rapidity and transverse momenta calculated for conventional and single-ladder-splitting DPS processes are however very similar which causes their experimental separation to be rather difficult, if not impossible. The direct consequence of the existence of the two components (conventional and splitting) is the energy and process dependence of the empirical parameter σ{sub eff}. This is illustrated in our paper for the considered processes.
Effects of shock waves on Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yongtao; Shu Chiwang; Zhou Ye
2006-01-01
A numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations using a high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory finite difference shock capturing scheme is carried out in this paper, to study the effect of shock waves on the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Shocks with different Mach numbers are introduced ahead or behind the Rayleigh-Taylor interface, and their effect on the transition to instability is demonstrated and compared. It is observed that shock waves can speed up the transition to instability for the Rayleigh-Taylor interface significantly. Stronger shocks are more effective in this speed-up process
Comparison between the classical and quantum theories of incoherent scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janossy, L.
1975-03-01
The subject of the paper is the problem how the scattering of the light radiation by an ensemble of atoms can be treated in accord with wave mechanics. To show the problematics first a short account of the classical theory of Rayleigh scattering using a method developed by the author is given. In the second part of the paper some difficulties of the wave mechanical treatment are pointed out and a solution is proposed. (Sz.Z.)
Determination of X-ray anomalous scattering in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cusatis, C.
1987-01-01
The linear attenuation coeficient for X-ray in silicon was measured with approximately 0,1% accuracy, for 6 diferent wavelenghts of caracteristic radiation. From these result the imaginary parts of the atomic scattering factors, for silicon and for those wavelenghts, were obtained with the same accuracy. The results are compared with the most recent published values. The proposed method to avoid Rayleigh scattering can be used for any type of ''perfect'' crystal. (author) [pt
Double parton scattering theory overview
Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.
2017-01-01
The dynamics of double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is quite involved compared with the familiar case of single hard scattering. In this contribution, we review our theoretical understanding of double hard scattering and of its interplay with other reaction mechanisms.
Akter, Sharmin; Maejima, Satoshi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Hinoki, Akinari; Aosasa, Suefumi; Yamamoto, Junji; Nishidate, Izumi
2015-07-01
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been extensively used for characterization of biological tissues as a noninvasive optical technique to evaluate the optical properties of tissue. We investigated a method for evaluating the reduced scattering coefficient , the absorption coefficient μa, the tissue oxygen saturation StO2, and the reduction of heme aa3 in cytochrome c oxidase CcO of in vivo liver tissue using a single-reflectance fiber probe with two source-collector geometries. We performed in vivo recordings of diffuse reflectance spectra for exposed rat liver during the ischemia-reperfusion induced by the hepatic portal (hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct) occlusion. The time courses of μa at 500, 530, 570, and 584 nm indicated the hemodynamic change in liver tissue as well as StO2. Significant increase in μa(605)/μa(620) during ischemia and after euthanasia induced by nitrogen breathing was observed, which indicates the reduction of heme aa3, representing a sign of mitochondrial energy failure. The time courses of at 500, 530, 570, and 584 nm were well correlated with those of μa, which also reflect the scattering by red blood cells. On the other hand, at 700 and 800 nm, a temporary increase in and an irreversible decrease in were observed during ischemia-reperfusion and after euthanasia induced by nitrogen breathing, respectively. The change in in the near-infrared wavelength region during ischemia is indicative of the morphological changes in the cellular and subcellular structures induced by the ischemia, whereas that after euthanasia implies the hepatocyte vacuolation. The results of the present study indicate the potential application of the current DRS system for evaluating the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo liver tissue.
Cheng, Y. F.; Berghof, M.; Garland, R. M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wehner, B.; Müller, T.; Su, H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Achtert, P.; Nowak, A.; PöSchl, U.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zeng, L. M.
2009-01-01
An aerosol optical closure study was performed using the observed high time- and size-resolved soot mixing states determined by a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (VTDMA) at a polluted regional site, Yufa, in the south of Beijing during the summer of 2006. Good agreement was found between the simulated and measured aerosol absorption (σap, R = 0.9) and scattering (σsp, R ≥ 0.95). The soot mixing state at Yufa can be generally determined by VTDMA, in terms of properly predicting the σap using a simple optical model combined with spherical homogeneous and core-shell coated Mie codes. The possible uncertainties in the modeled σap were discussed. Rapid soot aging was observed, which led to large variations in the fractional contributions to σap by externally mixed and coated soot. On average, about 37% of the σap (˜10-60%) arose by the coated soot. The coating enhancement in σap and σsp of the coated soot can reach up to a factor of 8-10 within several hours owing to the secondary processing during daytime. It was contributed not only by the increased thickness of coating shell, but also the transition of soot from externally mixed to coated one. Hence, assuming constant soot mixing state for the regional climate model is not realistic and may lead to uncertainties. In the highly polluted region in northeastern China, the aerosol single scattering albedo may increase very fast owing to the rapid secondary particle formation and condensation (up to 0.90-0.95). This increase took place although the concurrent coating processing enhanced the light absorption capability of soot.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Haibo; Yang, Danting; Mircescu, Nicoleta E.; Ivleva, Natalia P.; Schwarzmeier, Kathrin; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph; Wieser, Andreas; Schubert, Sören
2015-01-01
We describe a method for the synthesis of SERS-active silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) directly on the surface of bacteria (bacteria-AgNPs), specifically of E. coli cells. This straightforward strategy allows for the sensitive determination of bacteria on a microarray platform. Antibodies were used as selective receptors on the microarray surface. The Raman signal of bacteria-AgNPs is about 10 times higher than that obtained previously with microarrays based on mixing bacteria and AgNPs (bacteria+AgNPs). The optimum SERS enhancement of bacteria-AgNPs is obtained under 633-nm laser excitation, and this most likely is due to the plasmonic interaction of aggregated AgNPs. The method allows for an identification and quantification even of single E. coli bacteria. In our perception, this straightforward approach represents a most valuable tool for the detection of E. coli and, conceivably, of other bacteria, and thus has a large potential in environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis, and in food safety and quality control. (author)
Zhu, Li
Biomass burning aerosols absorb and scatter solar radiation and therefore affect the energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system. The single scattering albedo (SSA), the ratio of the scattering coefficient to the extinction coefficient, is an important parameter to describe the optical properties of aerosols and to determine the effect of aerosols on the energy balance of the planet and climate. Aerosol effects on radiation also depend strongly on surface albedo. Large uncertainties remain in current estimates of radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols, due largely to the lack of reliable measurements of aerosol and surface properties. In this work we investigate how satellite measurements can be used to estimate the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols. We developed a method using the critical reflectance technique to retrieve SSA from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed reflectance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). We evaluated MODIS retrieved SSAs with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) retrievals and found good agreements within the published uncertainty of the AERONET retrievals. We then developed an algorithm, the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA), to improve the representations of spectral variations of vegetation surface albedo based on MODIS observations at the discrete 0.67, 0.86, 0.47, 0.55, 1.24, 1.64, and 2.12 mu-m channels. This algorithm is validated using laboratory measurements of the different vegetation types from the Amazon region, data from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) spectral library, and data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital spectral library. We show that the MEVA method can improve the accuracy of flux and aerosol forcing calculations at the TOA compared to more traditional interpolated approaches. Lastly, we combine the MODIS retrieved biomass burning aerosol SSA and the surface albedo spectrum determined from the MEVA technique to calculate TOA flux and
A numerical study of three-dimensional bubble merger in the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X.L.
1996-01-01
The Rayleigh endash Taylor instability arises when a heavy fluid adjacent to a light fluid is accelerated in a direction against the density gradient. Under this unstable configuration, a perturbation mode of small amplitude grows into bubbles of the light fluid and spikes of the heavy fluid. Taylor discovered the steady state motion with constant velocity for a single bubble or periodic bubbles in the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability. Read and Youngs studied the motion of a randomly perturbed fluid interface in the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability. They reported constant acceleration for the overall bubble envelope. Bubble merger is believed to cause the transition from constant velocity to constant acceleration. In this paper, we present a numerical study of this important physical phenomenon. It analyzes the physical process of bubble merger and the relationship between the horizontal bubble expansion and the vertical interface acceleration. A dynamic bubble velocity, beyond Taylor close-quote s steady state value, is observed during the merger process. It is believed that this velocity is due to the superposition of the bubble velocity with a secondary subharmonic unstable mode. The numerical results are compared with experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
On a Misconception Involving Point Collocation and the Rayleigh Hypothesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Søren; Kleinman, Ralph E.
1996-01-01
It is shown that the Rayleigh hypothesis does notgovern convergence of the simple point collocationapproach to the numerical solutions of scatteringby a sinusoidal grating. A recently developed numerical technique, interval arithmetic, is employed to perform some decisive numerical experiments...
Potential Flow Model for Compressible Stratified Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Rydquist, Grant; Reckinger, Scott; Owkes, Mark; Wieland, Scott
2017-11-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is an instability that occurs when a heavy fluid lies on top of a lighter fluid in a gravitational field, or a gravity-like acceleration. It occurs in many fluid flows of a highly compressive nature. In this study potential flow analysis (PFA) is used to model the early stages of RTI growth for compressible fluids. In the localized region near the bubble tip, the effects of vorticity are negligible, so PFA is applicable, as opposed to later stages where the induced velocity due to vortices generated from the growth of the instability dominate the flow. The incompressible PFA is extended for compressibility effects by applying the growth rate and the associated perturbation spatial decay from compressible linear stability theory. The PFA model predicts theoretical values for a bubble terminal velocity for single-mode compressible RTI, dependent upon the Atwood (A) and Mach (M) numbers, which is a parameter that measures both the strength of the stratification and intrinsic compressibility. The theoretical bubble terminal velocities are compared against numerical simulations. The PFA model correctly predicts the M dependence at high A, but the model must be further extended to include additional physics to capture the behavior at low A. Undergraduate Scholars Program - Montana State University.
Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with sheared magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruderman, M. S.; Terradas, J.; Ballester, J. L.
2014-01-01
Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities may play a relevant role in many astrophysical problems. In this work the effect of magnetic shear on the growth rate of the MRT instability is investigated. The eigenmodes of an interface and a slab model under the presence of gravity are analytically calculated assuming that the orientation of the magnetic field changes in the equilibrium, i.e., there is magnetic shear. We solve the linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations in the incompressible regime. We find that the growth rate is bounded under the presence of magnetic shear. We have derived simple analytical expressions for the maximum growth rate, corresponding to the most unstable mode of the system. These expressions provide the explicit dependence of the growth rate on the various equilibrium parameters. For small angles the growth time is linearly proportional to the shear angle, and in this regime the single interface problem and the slab problem tend to the same result. On the contrary, in the limit of large angles and for the interface problem the growth time is essentially independent of the shear angle. In this regime we have also been able to calculate an approximate expression for the growth time for the slab configuration. Magnetic shear can have a strong effect on the growth rates of the instability. As an application of the results found in this paper we have indirectly determined the shear angle in solar prominence threads using their lifetimes and the estimation of the Alfvén speed of the structure.
Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with sheared magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruderman, M. S. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Terradas, J.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2014-04-20
Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities may play a relevant role in many astrophysical problems. In this work the effect of magnetic shear on the growth rate of the MRT instability is investigated. The eigenmodes of an interface and a slab model under the presence of gravity are analytically calculated assuming that the orientation of the magnetic field changes in the equilibrium, i.e., there is magnetic shear. We solve the linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations in the incompressible regime. We find that the growth rate is bounded under the presence of magnetic shear. We have derived simple analytical expressions for the maximum growth rate, corresponding to the most unstable mode of the system. These expressions provide the explicit dependence of the growth rate on the various equilibrium parameters. For small angles the growth time is linearly proportional to the shear angle, and in this regime the single interface problem and the slab problem tend to the same result. On the contrary, in the limit of large angles and for the interface problem the growth time is essentially independent of the shear angle. In this regime we have also been able to calculate an approximate expression for the growth time for the slab configuration. Magnetic shear can have a strong effect on the growth rates of the instability. As an application of the results found in this paper we have indirectly determined the shear angle in solar prominence threads using their lifetimes and the estimation of the Alfvén speed of the structure.
Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, W.A.
1976-01-01
A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer
Angular-domain scattering interferometry.
Shipp, Dustin W; Qian, Ruobing; Berger, Andrew J
2013-11-15
We present an angular-scattering optical method that is capable of measuring the mean size of scatterers in static ensembles within a field of view less than 20 μm in diameter. Using interferometry, the method overcomes the inability of intensity-based models to tolerate the large speckle grains associated with such small illumination areas. By first estimating each scatterer's location, the method can model between-scatterer interference as well as traditional single-particle Mie scattering. Direct angular-domain measurements provide finer angular resolution than digitally transformed image-plane recordings. This increases sensitivity to size-dependent scattering features, enabling more robust size estimates. The sensitivity of these angular-scattering measurements to various sizes of polystyrene beads is demonstrated. Interferometry also allows recovery of the full complex scattered field, including a size-dependent phase profile in the angular-scattering pattern.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Di Biagio
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Pollution aerosols strongly influence the composition of the Western Mediterranean basin, but at present little is known on their optical properties. We report in this study in situ observations of the single scattering albedo (ω of pollution aerosol plumes measured over the Western Mediterranean basin during the TRAQA (TRansport and Air QuAlity airborne campaign in summer 2012. Cases of pollution export from different source regions around the basin and at different altitudes between ∼ 160 and 3500 m above sea level were sampled during the flights. Data from this study show a large variability of ω, with values between 0.84–0.98 at 370 nm and 0.70–0.99 at 950 nm. The single scattering albedo generally decreases with the wavelength, with some exception associated to the mixing of pollution with sea spray or dust particles over the sea surface. The lowest values of ω (0.84–0.70 between 370 and 950 nm are measured in correspondence of a fresh plume possibly linked to ship emissions over the basin. The range of variability of ω observed in this study seems to be independent of the source region around the basin, as well as of the altitude and aging time of the plumes. The observed variability of ω reflects in a large variability for the complex refractive index of pollution aerosols, which is estimated to span in the large range 1.41–1.77 and 0.002–0.097 for the real and the imaginary parts, respectively, between 370 and 950 nm. Radiative calculations in clear-sky conditions were performed with the GAME radiative transfer model to test the sensitivity of the aerosol shortwave Direct Radiative Effect (DRE to the variability of ω as observed in this study. Results from the calculations suggest up to a 50 and 30 % change of the forcing efficiency (FE, i.e. the DRE per unit of optical depth, at the surface (−160/−235 W m−2 τ−1 at 60° solar zenith angle and at the Top-Of-Atmosphere (−137/−92
Rayleigh-Bloch waves in CMUT arrays.
Atalar, Abdullah; Köymen, Hayrettin; Oğuz, H Kağan
2014-12-01
Using the small-signal electrical equivalent circuit of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) cell, along with the self and mutual radiation impedances of such cells, we present a computationally efficient method to predict the frequency response of a large CMUT element or array. The simulations show spurious resonances, which may degrade the performance of the array. We show that these unwanted resonances are due to dispersive Rayleigh-Bloch waves excited on the CMUT surface-liquid interface. We derive the dispersion relation of these waves for the purpose of predicting the resonance frequencies. The waves form standing waves at frequencies where the reflections from the edges of the element or the array result in a Fabry-Pérot resonator. High-order resonances are eliminated by a small loss in the individual cells, but low-order resonances remain even in the presence of significant loss. These resonances are reduced to tolerable levels when CMUT cells are built from larger and thicker plates at the expense of reduced bandwidth.
Manipulating Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Using Adjoints
Kord, Ali; Capecelatro, Jesse
2017-11-01
It has been observed that initial interfacial perturbations affect the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. However, it remains to be seen to what extent the perturbations alter the RT growth rate. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) provide a powerful means for studying the effects of initial conditions (IC) on the growth rate. However, a brute-force approach for identifying optimal initial perturbations is not practical via DNS. In addition, identifying sensitivity of the RT growth to the large number of parameters used in defining the IC is computationally expensive. A discrete adjoint is formulated to measure sensitivities of multi-mode RT growth to ICs in a high-order finite difference framework. The sensitivity is used as a search direction for adjusting the initial perturbations to both maximize and suppress the RT growth rate during its non-linear regime. The modes that contribute the greatest sensitivity are identified, and optimized perturbation energy spectrum are reported. PhD Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Effect of multiple scattering on lidar measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, A.
1977-01-01
The lidar equation in its standard form involves the assumption that the scattered irradiance reaching the lidar receiver has been only singly scattered. However, in the cases of scattering from clouds and thick aerosol layers, it is shown that multiple scattering cannot be neglected. An experimental method for the detection of multiple scattering by depolarization measurement techniques is discussed. One method of theoretical calculations of double-scattering is presented and discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, Toshiya; Matsuda, Mitsuaki; Itoh, Chihiro, E-mail: citoh@sys.wakayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Kisoda, Kenji [Department of Physics, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)
2016-08-15
We have found that a Raman scattering (RS) peak around 1870 cm{sup −1} was produced by the annealing of the X-ray irradiated film of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) at 450 {sup o}C. The intensity of 1870-cm{sup −1} peak showed a maximum at the probe energy of 2.3 eV for the RS spectroscopy with various probe lasers. Both the peak position and the probe-energy dependence were almost identical to those of the one-dimensional carbon chains previously reported in multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Consequently, we concluded that the 1870-cm{sup −1} peak found in the present study is attributed to carbon chains. The formation of carbon chains by the annealing at temperature lower than 500 {sup o}C is firstly reported by the present study. The carbon chains would be formed by aggregation of the interstitial carbons, which are formed as a counterpart of carbon vacancies by X-ray irradiation diffused on SWNT walls. The result indicates that the combination of X-ray irradiation and subsequent thermal annealing is a feasible tool for generating new nanostructures in SWNT.
Non-coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J., E-mail: tanausu@iac.es, E-mail: rsainz@iac.es, E-mail: jtb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
2014-03-20
Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering at neutral hydrogen and Thomson scattering at free electrons. Often a depolarization of the continuum results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non-coherent continuum scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non-coherence of the continuum scattering may modify the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns significantly, even yielding polarization signals above the continuum level in intrinsically unpolarizable lines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue Dong
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Excessive imaging dose from repeated scans and poor image quality mainly due to scatter contamination are the two bottlenecks of cone-beam CT (CBCT imaging. Compressed sensing (CS reconstruction algorithms show promises in recovering faithful signals from low-dose projection data but do not serve well the needs of accurate CBCT imaging if effective scatter correction is not in place. Scatter can be accurately measured and removed using measurement-based methods. However, these approaches are considered unpractical in the conventional FDK reconstruction, due to the inevitable primary loss for scatter measurement. We combine measurement-based scatter correction and CS-based iterative reconstruction to generate scatter-free images from low-dose projections. We distribute blocked areas on the detector where primary signals are considered redundant in a full scan. Scatter distribution is estimated by interpolating/extrapolating measured scatter samples inside blocked areas. CS-based iterative reconstruction is finally carried out on the undersampled data to obtain scatter-free and low-dose CBCT images. With only 25% of conventional full-scan dose, our method reduces the average CT number error from 250 HU to 24 HU and increases the contrast by a factor of 2.1 on Catphan 600 phantom. On an anthropomorphic head phantom, the average CT number error is reduced from 224 HU to 10 HU in the central uniform area.
Pettersen, Øyvind; Maupin, Valérie
2002-04-01
Rayleigh waves recorded at the Geoscope station PAF on the Kerguelen Isles in the Indian Ocean, show strong polarisation anomalies in the period range 20-50 s, as demonstrated by dispersion analysis of 3-component recordings. The largest and most consistent anomalies are observed for events located in the southern part of the Java Trench. At 25 s the Rayleigh waves present transverse components with an amplitude of up to 55 per cent of the amplitude of the longitudinal components. The particle motion in the horizontal plane is largely elliptical. By comparison, very few and mostly small polarisation anomalies are detected at the nearby Geoscope stations AIS and CRZF on the Amsterdam and Crozet Isles, respectively. Wave path deviations from the epicentre-receiver great circle, as calculated in tomographic models of the Indian Ocean, cannot explain the polarisation anomalies. Using a multiple-scattering scheme for modelling surface waves in 3-D heterogeneous and anisotropic structures, we show that wavefield distortion due to the geometrical structure of the Kerguelen Plateau in the vicinity of the station cannot explain the anomalies either, but that anisotropy can. We infer the presence of an anisotropic structure in the lithosphere to the north of the Kerguelen Isles, containing 40 per cent oriented pyrolite, with fast axis tilting downwards in a north-north-east direction. The anisotropy may be caused by deformation of the lithosphere related to the Kerguelen hotspot.
Cézard, Nicolas; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Flamant, Pierre H
2009-04-20
A new concept of spectrum analyzer is proposed for short-range lidar measurements in airborne applications. It implements a combination of two fringe-imaging Michelson interferometers to analyze the Rayleigh-Mie spectrum backscattered by molecules and particles at 355 nm. The objective is to perform simultaneous measurements of four variables: the air speed, the air temperature and density, and the particle scattering ratio. The Cramer-Rao bounds are calculated to evaluate the best expectable measurement accuracies. The performance optimization shows that a Michelson interferometer with a path difference of 3 cm is optimal for air speed measurements in clear air. To optimize density, temperature, and scattering ratio measurements, the second interferometer should be set to a path difference of 10 cm at least; 20 cm would be better to be less sensitive to the actual Rayleigh-Brillouin line shape.
Study of Rayleigh-Love coupling from Spatial Gradient Observation
Lin, C. J.; Hosseini, K.; Donner, S.; Vernon, F.; Wassermann, J. M.; Igel, H.
2017-12-01
We present a new method to study Rayleigh-Love coupling. Instead of using seismograms solely, where ground motion is recorded as function of time, we incorporate with rotation and strain, also called spatial gradient where ground is represented as function of distance. Seismic rotation and strain are intrinsic different observable wavefield so are helpful to indentify wave type and wave propagation. A Mw 7.5 earthquake on 29 March 2015 occurred in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea recorded by a dense seismic array at PFO, California are used to obtaint seismic spatial gradient. We firstly estimate time series of azimuthal direction and phase velocity of SH wave and Rayleigh wave by analyzing collocated seismograms and rotations. This result also compares with frequency wavenumber methods using a nearby ANZA seismic array. We find the direction of Rayleigh wave fits well with great-circle back azimuth during wave propagation, while the direction of Love wave deviates from that, especially when main energy of Rayleigh wave arrives. From the analysis of cross-correlation between areal strain and vertical rotation, it reveals that high coherence, either positive or negative, happens at the same time when Love wave deparate from great-circle path. We also find the observed azimuth of Love wave and polarized particle motion of Rayleigh wave fits well with the fast direction of Rayleigh wave, for the period of 50 secs. We conclude the cause of deviated azimuth of Love wave is due to Rayleigh-Love coupling, as surface wave propagates through the area with anisotropic structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reckinger, Scott James [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Livescu, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vasilyev, Oleg V. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-09-02
A comprehensive numerical methodology has been developed that handles the challenges introduced by considering the compressive nature of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) systems, which include sharp interfacial density gradients on strongly stratified background states, acoustic wave generation and removal at computational boundaries, and stratification-dependent vorticity production. The computational framework is used to simulate two-dimensional single-mode RTI to extreme late-times for a wide range of flow compressibility and variable density effects. The results show that flow compressibility acts to reduce the growth of RTI for low Atwood numbers, as predicted from linear stability analysis.
Oh, Harim; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, Myeongkyu
2018-01-01
We comparatively study the morphological evolutions of silver nanowires under nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation and thermal treatment in ambient air. While single-crystalline, pure Ag nanospheres could be produced by laser-driven Rayleigh instability, the particles produced by heat treatment were subject to oxidation and exhibited polyhedron shapes. The different results are attributed to the significantly different time scales of the two processes. In this article, we also show that bimetallic Ag-Au nanospheres can be synthesized by irradiating Ag nanowires coated with a thin Au film using a pulsed laser beam. This may provide a facile route to tune the plasmonic behavior of metal nanoparticles.
Random vibrations of Rayleigh vibroimpact oscillator under Parametric Poisson white noise
Yang, Guidong; Xu, Wei; Jia, Wantao; He, Meijuan
2016-04-01
Random vibration problems for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) Rayleigh vibroimpact system with a rigid barrier under parametric Poisson white noise are considered. The averaged generalized Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equations with parametric Poisson white noise are derived after using the nonsmooth variable transformation and the approximate stationary solutions for the system's response are obtained by perturbation method. The results are validated numerically by using Monte Carlo simulations from original vibroimpact system. Effects on the response for different damping coefficients, restitution coefficients and noise intensities are discussed. Furthermore, stochastic bifurcations are also explored.
Magnetic field generation in Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas.
Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Dimonte, Guy; Tang, Xian-Zhu
2012-04-20
Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTI) in inertial confinement fusion implosions are expected to generate magnetic fields. A Hall-MHD model is used to study the field generation by 2D single-mode and multimode RTI in a stratified two-fluid plasma. Self-generated magnetic fields are predicted and these fields grow as the RTI progresses via the ∇n(e)×∇T(e) term in the generalized Ohm's law. Scaling studies are performed to determine the growth of the self-generated magnetic field as a function of density, acceleration, Atwood number, and perturbation wavelength.
Kristin Lewis; William P. Arnott; Hans Moosmuller; Cyle E. Wold
2008-01-01
A dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument operating at 405 and 870 nm was used during the 2006 Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment to measure light scattering and absorption by smoke from the combustion of a variety of biomass fuels. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering by reciprocal nephelometry within the instrument's acoustic resonator accompany...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)
1996-12-31
While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.
Dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor driven flows at high Atwood numbers
Mikhaeil, Mark; Akula, Bhanesh; Finn, Thomas; Ranjan, Devesh
2014-11-01
For the first time, detailed simultaneous density and velocity turbulent statistics for Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at Atwood number of 0.75 are measured. A new density probe capable of measuring gas volumetric concentration directly is used in parallel to a three-wire probe to obtain instantaneous density and velocity components simultaneously. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is also implemented to obtain field-wise measurements. The self-similarity behavior of the velocity statistics, corresponding probability density function (PDF) and spectra are presented. Mie-scattering images taken in both stream-wise and span-wise direction at different instability times have illustrated the turbulent structures visible in the instability. This work is graciously supported by DOE-National Nuclear Security Administration Grant Number DE-NA0001786.
Finite element simulations of surface effect on Rayleigh waves
He, Jin; Zhao, Jinling
2018-03-01
Rayleigh waves influenced by surface effect are investigated by using finite element methods, in which eigenfrequency analysis are performed on a model composed of a half-space covered by the surface effect dominated domain. For a given wavelength, the frequency of the Rayleigh wave is obtained as the eigenfrequency of the model satisfying Floquet periodic boundary conditions. The thickness of the surface effect can be set to be infinitely small or a finite value in the finite element methods. The curvature-dependent out-of-plane force induced by surface tension as described by the generalized Young-Laplace equation is realized through geometric nonlinear analysis. The finite element simulations show that the assumptions of small curvature and infinitely small thickness of the surface effect widely used in theoretical approaches become invalid when Rayleigh waves are highly influenced by the surface effect. This work gives a more accurate insight into the surface effect on Rayleigh waves and provides a potential method for measuring the thickness of the surface effect from the dispersion curves of surface effect influenced Rayleigh wave velocities.
A comparative investigation of scatter correction in 3D PET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polycarpou, I; Marsden, P K; Tsoumpas, C
2011-01-01
In 3D PET scatter degrades image quality and quantification. The currently most popular scatter estimation method is the single scatter simulation (SSS) which accommodates for multiple scattering by scaling the single scatter estimation. However, it has not been clear yet how accurate this approximation is for cases where multiple scatter is significant, raising the specific questions: 'How important double scatter correction is, and how accurately do we simulate the total scatter events by appropriate scaling?' This project aims to clarify the improvements in terms of quantification due to scatter correction, using: (i) single scatter events only, (ii) single and double scatter events, (iii) total scatter events, or (iv) scaled single scatter, and evaluate the analytic scatter estimation algorithm as implemented in the open source reconstruction software STIR. The analytic SSS scatter estimation implemented in STIR is compared with the SimSET Monte Carlo package. Scatter correction accuracy is examined for different levels of scattering and scaling approaches. A large anthropomorphic phantom was reconstructed with FBP. The images have been compared quantitatively: Areas with high scatter fraction are compared with single scatter corrected images and show a 50% bias reduction after performing single and double scatter correction. Scaled single scatter correction results are in good agreement with SimSET true events, less than 10% difference. Total-fit and tail-fit scaled single scatter results in approximately equal mean values. SSS correction with tail-fit scaling in STIR is very close with SimSET true events, 10% difference. The results show that multiple scatter correction improves accuracy and scaling single scatter is an efficient method to compensate for multiple scattering for standard PET scanning acquisitions.
Kartiwa, Iwa; Jung, Sang-Min; Hong, Moon-Ki; Han, Sang-Kook
2014-03-01
In this paper, we propose a novel fast adaptive approach that was applied to an OFDM-PON 20-km single fiber loopback transmission system to improve channel performance in term of stabilized BER below 2 × 10-3 and higher throughput beyond 10 Gb/s. The upstream transmission is performed through light source-seeded modulation using 1-GHz RSOA at the ONU. Experimental results indicated that the dynamic rate adaptation algorithm based on greedy Levin-Campello could be an effective solution to mitigate channel instability and data rate degradation caused by the Rayleigh back scattering effect and inefficient resource subcarrier allocation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor
2014-01-01
Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)
Hermite scatterers in an ultraviolet sky
Parker, Kevin J.
2017-12-01
The scattering from spherical inhomogeneities has been a major historical topic in acoustics, optics, and electromagnetics and the phenomenon shapes our perception of the world including the blue sky. The long wavelength limit of ;Rayleigh scattering; is characterized by intensity proportional to k4 (or λ-4) where k is the wavenumber and λ is the wavelength. With the advance of nanotechnology, it is possible to produce scatterers that are inhomogeneous with material properties that are functions of radius r, such as concentric shells. We demonstrate that with proper choice of material properties linked to the Hermite polynomials in r, scatterers can have long wavelength scattering behavior of higher powers: k8, k16, and higher. These ;Hermite scatterers; could be useful in providing unique signatures (or colors) to regions where they are present. If suspended in air under white light, the back-scattered spectrum would be shifted from blue towards violet and then ultraviolet as the higher order Hermite scatterers were illuminated.
Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Slutsker, I.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Ghauri, B.
2012-12-01
Aerosol mixtures—whether dominated by dust, carbon, sulfates, nitrates, sea salt, or mixtures of them—complicate the retrieval of remotely sensed aerosol properties from satellites and possibly increase the uncertainty of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Major aerosol source regions in South Asia include the Thar Desert as well as agricultural lands, Himalayan foothills, and large urban centers in and near the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Over India and Pakistan, seasonal changes in meteorology, including the monsoon (June-September), significantly affect the transport, lifetime, and type of aerosols. Strong monsoonal winds can promote long range transport of dust resulting in mixtures of dust and carbonaceous aerosols, while more stagnant synoptic conditions (e.g., November-January) can prolong the occurrence of urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, or mixtures of them over the IGP. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer data are analyzed to show the aerosol optical depth (AOD) seasonality and aerosol dominant mixing states. The Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) relationship has been shown to provide sound clustering of dominant aerosol types using long term AERONET site data near known source regions [Giles et al., 2012]. In this study, aerosol type partitioning using the SSA (440 nm) and EAE (440-870 nm) relationship is further developed to quantify the occurrence of Dust, Mixed (e.g., dust and carbonaceous aerosols), Urban/Industrial (U/I) pollution, and Biomass Burning (BB) smoke. Based on EAE thresholds derived from the cluster analysis (for AOD440nm>0.4), preliminary results (2001-2010) for Kanpur, India, show the overall contributions of each dominant particle type (rounded to the nearest 10%): 10% for Dust (EAE≤0.25), 60% for Mixed (0.251.25). In the IGP, BB aerosols may have varying sizes (e.g., corresponding to 1.2India and Pakistan are also analyzed using available AERONET
Schwartz, J. P.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Thomson, D. S.; Watts, L. A.; Wilson, J. C.; Reeves, J. M.; Darbeheshti, M.; Baumgardner, D. G.; Kok, G. L.;
2006-01-01
A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) was flown on a NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft in November 2004 from Houston, Texas. The SP2 uses laser-induced incandescence to detect individual black carbon (BC) particles in an air sample in the mass range of approx.3-300 fg (approx.0.15-0.7 microns volume equivalent diameter). Scattered light is used to size the remaining non-BC aerosols in the range of approx.0.17-0.7 microns diameter. We present profiles of both aerosol types from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere from two midlatitude flights. Results for total aerosol amounts in the size range detected by the SP2 are in good agreement with typical particle spectrometer measurements in the same region. All ambient incandescing particles were identified as BC because their incandescence properties matched those of laboratory-generated BC aerosol. Approximately 40% of these BC particles showed evidence of internal mixing (e.g., coating). Throughout profiles between 5 and 18.7 km, BC particles were less than a few percent of total aerosol number, and black carbon aerosol (BCA) mass mixing ratio showed a constant gradient with altitude above 5 km. SP2 data was compared to results from the ECHAM4/MADE and LmDzT-INCA global aerosol models. The comparison will help resolve the important systematic differences in model aerosol processes that determine BCA loadings. Further intercomparisons of models and measurements as presented here will improve the accuracy of the radiative forcing contribution from BCA.
Inflation threshold: A nonlinear trapping-induced threshold for the rapid onset of stimulated Raman scattering from a single laser speckle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vu, H. X.; DuBois, D. F.; Bezzerides, B.
2007-01-01
The rapid onset, with increasing laser intensity, of levels of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) exceeding linear convective predictions, from single laser hot spots was predicted by simulations [Vu et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1745 (2002)], and has been observed [Montgomery et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2311 (2002)] in nonlinear regimes dominated by electron trapping. A theory for this inflation threshold is given here. The threshold is the result of competition between velocity diffusion and trapping, and is exceeded when the convectively amplified SRS Langmuir wave (LW) achieves an amplitude for which the coherent trapping velocity increment of electrons in the LW (the half-width of the trapping separatrix) exceeds the rms diffusion velocity (resulting from background plasma fluctuations), accumulated in one bounce time, for electrons with mean velocities near the phase velocity of the LW. The results of this theory, when the kinetic theory of the one-dimensional (1D) reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) simulation is used, are in good agreement with a series of 1D RPIC simulations. The theory is naturally generalized to three dimensions, and is compatible with macroscopic laser interaction codes such as pF3d [Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 4337 (1998)]. Comparison of the LW trapping-induced inflation threshold to the LW threshold for the Langmuir decay instability provides an estimate for the transition between nonlinear saturation regimes. In an independent hot spot model of many hot spots, statistics suggests that the inflation threshold intensity will control the rapid onset of strong BSRS in laser beams smoothed by random phase plates
RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY IN PARTIALLY IONIZED COMPRESSIBLE PLASMAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, A. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205, C/ Via Lactea, s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Soler, R. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ballester, J. L., E-mail: tdiaz@iac.es, E-mail: roberto.soler@wis.kuleuven.be, E-mail: dfsjlb0@uib.es [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2012-07-20
We study the modification of the classical criterion for the linear onset and growing rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in a partially ionized plasma in the two-fluid description. The plasma is composed of a neutral fluid and an electron-ion fluid, coupled by means of particle collisions. The governing linear equations and appropriate boundary conditions, including gravitational terms, are derived and applied to the case of the RTI in a single interface between two partially ionized plasmas. The limits of collisionless, no gravity, and incompressible fluids are checked before addressing the general case. We find that both compressibility and ion-neutral collisions lower the linear growth rate, but do not affect the critical threshold of the onset of the RTI. The configuration is always unstable when a lighter plasma is below a heavier plasma regardless the value of the magnetic field strength, the ionization degree, and the ion-neutral collision frequency. However, ion-neutral collisions have a strong impact on the RTI growth rate, which can be decreased by an order of magnitude compared to the value in the collisionless case. Ion-neutral collisions are necessary to accurately describe the evolution of the RTI in partially ionized plasmas such as prominences. The timescale for the development of the instability is much longer than in the classical incompressible fully ionized case. This result may explain the existence of prominence fine structures with life times of the order of 30 minutes. The timescales derived from the classical theory are about one order of magnitude shorter and incompatible with the observed life times.
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, H.B.; Hilko, B.; Panarella, E.
1994-01-01
The spherical pinch (SP) concept is an outgrowth of the inertial confinement model (ICF). Unlike the ICF where instabilities, especially the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, have been studied extensively, the instability study of the spherical pinch has just begun. The Raleigh-Taylor instability is investigated for the first time in the SP in the present work. By using the simple condition for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability ∇p · ∇p < O (density and pressure gradients have opposite direction), we have qualitatively identified the regions for development of instabilities in the SP. It is found that the explosion phase (central discharge) is stable and instabilities take place in the imploding phase. However, the growth rate for the instability is not in exponential form, and the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not prevent the main shock wave from converging to the center of the sphere
Near Surface Characterization Of Concrete Structures Using Rayleigh Waves
Al Wardany, R.; Ballivy, G.; Saleh, K.; Rhazi, J.; Gallias, J.
2004-05-01
The deterioration of the near surface concrete minimises the structural behaviour, capacity, and working lifespan for civil engineering structures and dams. Repair strategy and maintenance require careful examination and determination of the degraded depth. In this aim, dispersive properties of Rayleigh waves are used to detect concrete stratification and cracks. Current work focuses on an experimental study and application of multichannel Rayleigh wave methods on high concrete volumes. The method considers a wavefield in the frequency-wavenumber domain to separate existing Rayleigh modes and determine the appropriate shear wave velocity profile. The classical phase unwrapping analysis technique is also used to localise near surface cracks and defects. This new way in concrete nondestructive testing lead to a best evaluation of near surface stiffness and properties from the surface of concrete structures.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of cylindrical jets with radial motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiang M. [GE Nuclear, Wilmington, NC (United States); Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-09-01
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an interface between fluids with different densities subjected to accelleration normal to itself has interested researchers for almost a century. The classic analyses of a flat interface by Rayleigh and Taylor have shown that this type of instability depends on the direction of acceleration and the density differences of the two fluids. Plesset later analyzed the stability of a spherically symmetric flows (and a spherical interface) and concluded that the instability also depends on the velocity of the interface as well as the direction and magnitude of radial acceleration. The instability induced by radial motion in cylindrical systems seems to have been neglected by previous researchers. This paper analyzes the Rayleigh-Taylor type of the spherical case, the radial velocity also plays an important role. As an application, the example of a liquid jet surface in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) reactor design is analyzed.
Numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poujade, O.; Lardjane, N.; Peybernes, M.; Boulet, M.
2009-01-01
Accelerations in actual Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are often variable. This article focuses on a particular class of variable accelerations where g(t) ∝ t n . A reference database is built from high resolution hydrodynamic numerical simulations. The successful comparison with a simple OD analytical model and the statistical 2SFK (2-Structure, 2-Fluid, 2-Turbulence) turbulence model is provided. Moreover, we show the difference between the mechanism at play in the Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing zone and Kolmogorov's in the self similar developed turbulent regime. (authors)
Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Laser Simulations in Expanding Coordinates
Armstead, Robert L; Colson, William B
2004-01-01
For compact short-Rayleigh length FELs, the area of the optical beam can be thousands of times greater at the mirrors than at the beam waist. A fixed numerical grid of sufficient resolution to represent the narrow mode at the waist and the broad mode at the mirrors would be prohibitively large. To accommodate this extreme change of scale with no loss of information, we employ a coordinate system that expands with the diffracting optical mode. The simulation using the new expanding coordinates has been validated by comparison to analytical cold-cavity theory, and is now used to simulate short-Rayleigh length FELs.
Study on evaluation methods for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic
Shi, L.; Tao, X.; Kayen, R.; Shi, H.; Yan, S.
2005-01-01
The evaluation of Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic is the key step for detecting S-wave velocity structure. By comparing the dispersion curves directly with the spectra analysis of surface waves (SASW) method, rather than comparing the S-wave velocity structure, the validity and precision of microtremor-array method (MAM) can be evaluated more objectively. The results from the China - US joint surface wave investigation in 26 sites in Tangshan, China, show that the MAM has the same precision with SASW method in 83% of the 26 sites. The MAM is valid for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic testing and has great application potentiality for site S-wave velocity structure detection.
A numerical method for predicting Rayleigh surface wave velocity in anisotropic crystals
Cherry, Matthew R.; Sathish, Shamachary; Grandhi, Ramana
2017-12-01
A numerical method was developed for calculating the Rayleigh Surface Wave (RSW) velocity in arbitrarily oriented single crystals in 360 degrees of propagation. This method relies on the results from modern analysis of RSW behavior with the Stroh formalism to restrict the domain in which to search for velocities by first calculating the limiting velocity. This extension of existing numerical methods also leads to a natural way of determining both the existence of the RSW as well as the possibility of encountering a pseudo-surface wave. Furthermore, the algorithm is applied to the calculation of elastic properties from measurement of the surface wave velocity in multiple different directions on a single crystal sample. The algorithm was tested with crystal symmetries and single crystal elastic moduli from literature. It was found to be very robust and efficient in calculating RSW velocity curves in all cases.
Molecular X-ray scattering, ch. 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welzen, Th. L.
1977-01-01
This chapter considers the evaluation of coherently and incoherently scattered X-ray intensities of single freely rotating molecules (gas scattering). A purely analytical procedure is given based upon the use of LCAO-MO Gaussian wave functions
Pokhrel, Rudra P.; Wagner, Nick L.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lack, Daniel A.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Shane M.
2016-08-01
Single-scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) are two critical parameters in determining the impact of absorbing aerosol on the Earth's radiative balance. Aerosol emitted by biomass burning represent a significant fraction of absorbing aerosol globally, but it remains difficult to accurately predict SSA and AAE for biomass burning aerosol. Black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and non-absorbing coatings all make substantial contributions to the absorption coefficient of biomass burning aerosol. SSA and AAE cannot be directly predicted based on fuel type because they depend strongly on burn conditions. It has been suggested that SSA can be effectively parameterized via the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of a biomass burning event and that this would be useful because emission factors for CO and CO2, from which MCE can be calculated, are available for a large number of fuels. Here we demonstrate, with data from the FLAME-4 experiment, that for a wide variety of globally relevant biomass fuels, over a range of combustion conditions, parameterizations of SSA and AAE based on the elemental carbon (EC) to organic carbon (OC) mass ratio are quantitatively superior to parameterizations based on MCE. We show that the EC / OC ratio and the ratio of EC / (EC + OC) both have significantly better correlations with SSA than MCE. Furthermore, the relationship of EC / (EC + OC) with SSA is linear. These improved parameterizations are significant because, similar to MCE, emission factors for EC (or black carbon) and OC are available for a wide range of biomass fuels. Fitting SSA with MCE yields correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) of ˜ 0.65 at the visible wavelengths of 405, 532, and 660 nm while fitting SSA with EC / OC or EC / (EC + OC) yields a Pearson's r of 0.94-0.97 at these same wavelengths. The strong correlation coefficient at 405 nm (r = 0.97) suggests that parameterizations based on EC / OC or EC / (EC + OC) have good predictive
Quantum Optical Multiple Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ott, Johan Raunkjær
. In the first part we use a scattering-matrix formalism combined with results from random-matrix theory to investigate the interference of quantum optical states on a multiple scattering medium. We investigate a single realization of a scattering medium thereby showing that it is possible to create entangled...... states by interference of squeezed beams. Mixing photon states on the single realization also shows that quantum interference naturally arises by interfering quantum states. We further investigate the ensemble averaged transmission properties of the quantized light and see that the induced quantum...... interference survives even after disorder averaging. The quantum interference manifests itself through increased photon correlations. Furthermore, the theoretical description of a measurement procedure is presented. In this work we relate the noise power spectrum of the total transmitted or reflected light...
A Rayleigh Doppler Frequency Estimator Derived from Maximum Likelihood Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Henrik; Affes, Sofiene; Mermelstein, Paul
1999-01-01
Reliable estimates of Rayleigh Doppler frequency are useful for the optimization of adaptive multiple access wireless receivers.The adaptation parameters of such receivers are sensitive to the amount of Doppler and automatic reconfiguration to the speed of terminalmovement can optimize cell capac...
mitants of Order Statistics from Bivariate Inverse Rayleigh Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Aleem
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The probability density function (pdf of the rth, 1 r n and joint pdf of the rth and sth, 1 rRayleigh Distribution and their moments, product moments are obtained. Its percentiles are also obtained.
Rayleigh-Taylor convective overturn in stellar collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruenn, S.W.; Buchler, J.R.; Livio, M.
1979-01-01
Rayleigh--Taylor convective overturn in collapsing stellar cores is modeled with a one-dimensional parametrization. The results of a numerical hydrodynamic study are very encouraging and indicate that such an overturn could well be a dominant feature in the supernova explosion mechanism
Longitudinal vibrations of a Rayleigh-Bishop rod
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Fedotov, IA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, for analyzing the longitudinal vibrations of a conic rod, the authors used the Rayleigh–Bishop model, which generalizes the Rayleigh model and takes into account both lateral displacements and the shear stress in the transverse cross...
Logarithmic Temperature Profiles in Turbulent Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Ahlers, G.; Bodenschatz, E.; Funfschilling, D.; Grossmann, S.; He, Xiaozhou; Lohse, Detlef; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Verzicco, Roberto
2012-01-01
We report results for the temperature profiles of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) in the interior of a cylindrical sample of aspect ratio ¿¿D/L=0.50 (D and L are the diameter and height, respectively). Both in the classical and in the ultimate state of RBC we find that the temperature
A comparison of Rayleigh and sodium lidar temperature climatologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Argall
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Temperature measurements from the PCL Rayleigh lidar located near London, Canada, taken during the 11 year period from 1994 to 2004 are used to form a temperature climatology of the middle atmosphere. A unique feature of the PCL temperature climatology is that it extends from 35 to 95 km allowing comparison with other Rayleigh lidar climatologies (which typically extend up to about 85 km, as well as with climatologies derived from sodium lidar measurements which extend from 83 to 108 km. The derived temperature climatology is compared to the CIRA-86 climatological model and to other lidar climatologies, both Rayleigh and sodium. The PCL climatology agrees well with the climatologies of other Rayleigh lidars from similar latitudes, and like these other climatologies shows significant differences from the CIRA-86 temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Significant disagreement is also found between the PCL climatology and sodium lidar climatologies measured in the central and western United States at similar latitudes, with the PCL climatology consistently 10 to 15 K cooler in the 85 to 90 km region.
Rayleigh waves, surface disorder, and phonon localization in nanostructures
Maurer, L. N.; Mei, S.; Knezevic, I.
2016-07-01
We introduce a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in disordered nanostructures: a finite-difference time-domain solution of the elastic-wave equation combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique captures phonon wave behavior and scales well to nanostructures that are too large or too surface disordered to simulate with many other techniques. We investigate the role of Rayleigh waves and surface disorder on thermal transport by studying graphenelike nanoribbons with free edges (allowing Rayleigh waves) and fixed edges (prohibiting Rayleigh waves). We find that free edges result in a significantly lower thermal conductivity than fixed ones. Free edges both introduce Rayleigh waves and cause all low-frequency modes (bulk and surface) to become more localized. Increasing surface disorder on free edges draws energy away from the center of the ribbon and toward the disordered edges, where it gets trapped in localized surface modes. These effects are not seen in ribbons with fixed boundary conditions and illustrate the importance of phonon-surface modes in nanostructures.
Optical forces acting on Rayleigh particle placed into interference field
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zemánek, Pavel; Karásek, Vítězslav; Sasso, A.
2004-01-01
Roč. 240, 4-6 (2004), s. 401-415 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Keywords : optical force * Rayleigh particle * colloidal particle Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.581, year: 2004
A Rayleigh Doppler frequency estimator derived from maximum likelihood theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Henrik; Affes, Sofiéne; Mermelstein, Paul
1999-01-01
Reliable estimates of Rayleigh Doppler frequency are useful for the optimization of adaptive multiple access wireless receivers. The adaptation parameters of such receivers are sensitive to the amount of Doppler and automatic reconfiguration to the speed of terminal movement can optimize cell cap...
Reversible Rayleight-to-MIe Scattering Transition in a Core-Shell Colloidal System
Meng, Guangnan; Perro, Adeline; Manoharan, Vinothan
2009-03-01
We present a study of light scattering from colloidal particles with small polystyrene cores and large shells of poly(N'-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid). When swollen in deionize water at room temperature, the shell is nearly index-matched to pure water, and the scattering is dominated by Rayleigh scattering from the polystyrene cores. As we change the solvent condition by increasing temperature or salt concentration, the shell starts to shrink and scatter light. Both the scattering cross section and the forward scattering of the particles increase, characteristic of Mie scatterers. We use optical microscopy, static light scattering and turbidimetry to study this optical transition. Such core-shell particles might be used as aqueous index-matched tracer colloids, as model scatterers for self-assembly studies, or as optical filters with tunable opacity.
Retrieval of Rayleigh wave ellipticity from ambient vibration recordings
Maranò, Stefano; Hobiger, Manuel; Fäh, Donat
2017-04-01
The analysis of ambient vibrations is a useful tool in microzonation and geotechnical investigations. Ambient vibrations are composed to a large part of surface waves, both Love and Rayleigh waves. One reason to analyse surface waves is that they carry information about the subsurface. The dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves and Love waves can be retrieved using array processing techniques. The Rayleigh wave ellipticity, including the sense of rotation of the particle motion, can also be retrieved using array techniques. These quantities are used in an inversion procedure aimed at obtaining a structural model of the subsurface. The focus of this work is the retrieval of Rayleigh wave ellipticity. We show applications of the maximum likelihood (ML) method presented in Maranò et al. to a number of sites in Switzerland. The sites examined are chosen to reflect a wide range of soil conditions that are of interest in microzonation studies. Using a synthetic wavefield with known structural model, we compare our results with theoretical ellipticity curves and we show the accuracy of the considered algorithm. The sense of rotation of the particle motion (prograde versus retrograde) is also estimated. In addition, we show that by modelling the presence of both Love and Rayleigh waves it is possible to mitigate the disruptive influence of Love waves on the estimation of Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Using recordings from several real sites, we show that it is possible to retrieve the ellipticity curve over a broad range of frequencies. Fundamental modes and higher modes are retrieved. Singularities of the ellipticity, corresponding to a change of the sense of rotation from prograde to retrograde (or vice versa), are detected with great accuracy. Knowledge of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, including the sense of rotation, is useful in several ways. The ellipticity angle allows us to pinpoint accurately the frequency of singularities (i.e. peaks and zeros of the H/V representation of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alon, U.; Hecht, J.; Ofer, D.; Shvarts, D.
1995-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of large structure in Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov bubble and spike fronts is studied numerically and explained theoretically on the basis of single-mode and two-bubble interaction physics at Atwood numbers (A). Multimode Rayleigh-Taylor bubble (spike) fronts are found as h B =α B Agt 2 [h s =α s (A)gt 2 ] with α B =0.05, while Richtmyer-Meshkov bubble (spike) fronts are found as h B =a B t θ B (h s =a s t θ s (A) ) with θ B =0.4 at all A's. The dependence of these scaling laws and parameters on A and on initial conditions is explained
The ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar: objectives, configuration, and performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. von Zahn
2000-07-01
Full Text Available We report on the development and current capabilities of the ALOMAR Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar. This instrument is one of the core instruments of the international ALOMAR facility, located near Andenes in Norway at 69°N and 16°E. The major task of the instrument is to perform advanced studies of the Arctic middle atmosphere over altitudes between about 15 to 90 km on a climatological basis. These studies address questions about the thermal structure of the Arctic middle atmosphere, the dynamical processes acting therein, and of aerosols in the form of stratospheric background aerosol, polar stratospheric clouds, noctilucent clouds, and injected aerosols of volcanic or anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, the lidar is meant to work together with other remote sensing instruments, both ground- and satellite-based, and with balloon- and rocket-borne instruments performing in situ observations. The instrument is basically a twin lidar, using two independent power lasers and two tiltable receiving telescopes. The power lasers are Nd:YAG lasers emitting at wavelengths 1064, 532, and 355 nm and producing 30 pulses per second each. The power lasers are highly stabilized in both their wavelengths and the directions of their laser beams. The laser beams are emitted into the atmosphere fully coaxial with the line-of-sight of the receiving telescopes. The latter use primary mirrors of 1.8 m diameter and are tiltable within 30° off zenith. Their fields-of-view have 180 µrad angular diameter. Spectral separation, filtering, and detection of the received photons are made on an optical bench which carries, among a multitude of other optical components, three double Fabry-Perot interferometers (two for 532 and one for 355 nm and one single Fabry-Perot interferometer (for 1064 nm. A number of separate detector channels also allow registration of photons which are produced by rotational-vibrational and rotational Raman scatter on N2 and N2+O2 molecules
Scattering Theory of Gilbert Damping
Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2008-01-01
The magnetization dynamics of a single domain ferromagnet in contact with a thermal bath is studied by scattering theory.We recover the Landau-Liftshitz-Gilbert equation and express the effective fields and Gilbert damping tensor in terms of the scattering matrix. Dissipation of magnetic energy
Scattering of a spherical pulse from a small inhomogeneity ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)
receiving the wide-angle scattered waves, the seis- mic wave scattering has vast possibilities of appli- cation. The modelling of waves scattered by a small inhomogeneity has taken a variety of approaches. The basis for any advanced scattering theory is the elastic wave scattering by a single inclusion in a homogeneous ...
On Multiple Users Scheduling Using Superposition Coding over Rayleigh Fading Channels
Zafar, Ammar
2013-02-20
In this letter, numerical results are provided to analyze the gains of multiple users scheduling via superposition coding with successive interference cancellation in comparison with the conventional single user scheduling in Rayleigh blockfading broadcast channels. The information-theoretic optimal power, rate and decoding order allocation for the superposition coding scheme are considered and the corresponding histogram for the optimal number of scheduled users is evaluated. Results show that at optimality there is a high probability that only two or three users are scheduled per channel transmission block. Numerical results for the gains of multiple users scheduling in terms of the long term throughput under hard and proportional fairness as well as for fixed merit weights for the users are also provided. These results show that the performance gain of multiple users scheduling over single user scheduling increases when the total number of users in the network increases, and it can exceed 10% for high number of users
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, A.
1991-01-01
This book emerged out of graduate lectures given by the author at the University of Kiev and is intended as a graduate text. The fundamentals of non-relativistic quantum scattering theory are covered, including some topics, such as the phase-function formalism, separable potentials, and inverse scattering, which are not always coverded in textbooks on scattering theory. Criticisms of the text are minor, but the reviewer feels an inadequate index is provided and the citing of references in the Russian language is a hindrance in a graduate text
Studying coherent scattering in the CP stars atmospheres
Fišák, J.; Kubát, J.; Krtička, J.
2018-01-01
Chemically peculiar stars form a very interesting class of stars which frequently show variability. The variability is probably caused by the uneven surface distribution of chemical elements. Some elements are overabundant and some elements are underabundant compared to the solar chemical composition. In the case of chemically overabundant composition some of the rare photon-atom processes can be more important than in the atmospheres of stars with solar chemical composition. We study the importance of Rayleigh scattering by helium.
Method of generalized coordinates and an application to Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dienes, J.K.
1978-01-01
The method of generalized coordinates is extended to the analysis of continuous bodies for which the degrees of freedom are independent velocity distributions in the spatial coordinates. The corresponding Lagrange equations contain generalized convective terms as well as the usual generalized forces and masses. Since the existence of a potential is not assumed, the equations of motion can be applied to media with arbitrary (possible dissipative) constitutive laws. Material deformation is characterized by the rate of strain, which is taken as the symmetric part of the velocity gradient, making the approach valid for arbitrarily large deformations. As an example, infinitesimal Rayleigh-Taylor instability is considered by analytic methods. Then, large amplitude Rayleigh-Taylor instability is represented with a single-degree-of-freedom analysis that shows the development (by numerical integration) of the known spike-and-bubble configuration of the unstable interface. The infinitesimal stability of a plastically deforming solid and the growth of the instability to large amplitudes are also considered
Modeling of optical wireless scattering communication channels over broad spectra.
Liu, Weihao; Zou, Difan; Xu, Zhengyuan
2015-03-01
The air molecules and suspended aerosols help to build non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical scattering communication links using carriers from near infrared to visible light and ultraviolet bands. This paper proposes channel models over such broad spectra. Wavelength dependent Rayleigh and Mie scattering and absorption coefficients of particles are analytically obtained first. They are applied to the ray tracing based Monte Carlo method, which models the photon scattering angle from the scatterer and propagation distance between two consecutive scatterers. Communication link path loss is studied under different operation conditions, including visibility, particle density, wavelength, and communication range. It is observed that optimum communication performances exist across the wavelength under specific atmospheric conditions. Infrared, visible light and ultraviolet bands show their respective features as conditions vary.