Deterministic nonlinear phase gates induced by a single qubit
Park, Kimin; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim
2018-05-01
We propose deterministic realizations of nonlinear phase gates by repeating a finite sequence of non-commuting Rabi interactions between a harmonic oscillator and only a single two-level ancillary qubit. We show explicitly that the key nonclassical features of the ideal cubic phase gate and the quartic phase gate are generated in the harmonic oscillator faithfully by our method. We numerically analyzed the performance of our scheme under realistic imperfections of the oscillator and the two-level system. The methodology is extended further to higher-order nonlinear phase gates. This theoretical proposal completes the set of operations required for continuous-variable quantum computation.
Efficient controlled-phase gate for single-spin qubits in quantum dots
Meunier, T.; Calado, V.E.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2011-01-01
Two-qubit interactions are at the heart of quantum information processing. For single-spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots, the exchange gate has always been considered the natural two-qubit gate. The recent integration of a magnetic field or g-factor gradients in coupled quantum dot systems
Buterakos, Donovan; Throckmorton, Robert E.; Das Sarma, S.
2018-01-01
In addition to magnetic field and electric charge noise adversely affecting spin-qubit operations, performing single-qubit gates on one of multiple coupled singlet-triplet qubits presents a new challenge: crosstalk, which is inevitable (and must be minimized) in any multiqubit quantum computing architecture. We develop a set of dynamically corrected pulse sequences that are designed to cancel the effects of both types of noise (i.e., field and charge) as well as crosstalk to leading order, and provide parameters for these corrected sequences for all 24 of the single-qubit Clifford gates. We then provide an estimate of the error as a function of the noise and capacitive coupling to compare the fidelity of our corrected gates to their uncorrected versions. Dynamical error correction protocols presented in this work are important for the next generation of singlet-triplet qubit devices where coupling among many qubits will become relevant.
Optimal strategy for a single-qubit gate and the trade-off between opposite types of decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alicki, Robert; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel; Jacak, Lucjan; Machnikowski, Pawel
2004-01-01
We study reliable quantum-information processing (QIP) under two different types of environment. The first type is Markovian exponential decay, and the appropriate elementary strategy of protection of qubit is to apply fast gates. The second one is strongly non-Markovian and occurs solely during operations on the qubit. The best strategy is then to work with slow gates. If the two types are both present, one has to optimize the speed of gate. We show that such a trade-off is present for a single-qubit operation in a semiconductor quantum dot implementation of QIP, where recombination of exciton (qubit) is Markovian, while phonon dressing gives rise to the non-Markovian contribution
Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-01-13
We present some compact quantum circuits for a deterministic quantum computing on electron-spin qubits assisted by quantum dots inside single-side optical microcavities, including the CNOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates. They are constructed by exploiting the giant optical Faraday rotation induced by a single-electron spin in a quantum dot inside a single-side optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Our universal quantum gates have some advantages. First, all the gates are accomplished with a success probability of 100% in principle. Second, our schemes require no additional electron-spin qubits and they are achieved by some input-output processes of a single photon. Third, our circuits for these gates are simple and economic. Moreover, our devices for these gates work in both the weak coupling and the strong coupling regimes, and they are feasible in experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Chang-Hua; Cao Xin; Quan Dong-Xiao; Pei Chang-Xing
2014-01-01
Linear optical quantum Fredkin gate can be applied to quantum computing and quantum multi-user communication networks. In the existing linear optical scheme, two single photon detectors (SPDs) are used to herald the success of the quantum Fredkin gate while they have no photon count. But analysis results show that for non-perfect SPD, the lower the detector efficiency, the higher the heralded success rate by this scheme is. We propose an improved linear optical quantum Fredkin gate by designing a new heralding scheme with an auxiliary qubit and only one SPD, in which the higher the detection efficiency of the heralding detector, the higher the success rate of the gate is. The new heralding scheme can also work efficiently under a non-ideal single photon source. Based on this quantum Fredkin gate, large-scale quantum switching networks can be built. As an example, a quantum Beneš network is shown in which only one SPD is used. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Pulse sequences for suppressing leakage in single-qubit gate operations
Ghosh, Joydip; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark
2017-06-01
Many realizations of solid-state qubits involve couplings to leakage states lying outside the computational subspace, posing a threat to high-fidelity quantum gate operations. Mitigating leakage errors is especially challenging when the coupling strength is unknown, e.g., when it is caused by noise. Here we show that simple pulse sequences can be used to strongly suppress leakage errors for a qubit embedded in a three-level system. As an example, we apply our scheme to the recently proposed charge quadrupole (CQ) qubit for quantum dots. These results provide a solution to a key challenge for fault-tolerant quantum computing with solid-state elements.
Error-Transparent Quantum Gates for Small Logical Qubit Architectures
Kapit, Eliot
2018-02-01
One of the largest obstacles to building a quantum computer is gate error, where the physical evolution of the state of a qubit or group of qubits during a gate operation does not match the intended unitary transformation. Gate error stems from a combination of control errors and random single qubit errors from interaction with the environment. While great strides have been made in mitigating control errors, intrinsic qubit error remains a serious problem that limits gate fidelity in modern qubit architectures. Simultaneously, recent developments of small error-corrected logical qubit devices promise significant increases in logical state lifetime, but translating those improvements into increases in gate fidelity is a complex challenge. In this Letter, we construct protocols for gates on and between small logical qubit devices which inherit the parent device's tolerance to single qubit errors which occur at any time before or during the gate. We consider two such devices, a passive implementation of the three-qubit bit flip code, and the author's own [E. Kapit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 150501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.150501] very small logical qubit (VSLQ) design, and propose error-tolerant gate sets for both. The effective logical gate error rate in these models displays superlinear error reduction with linear increases in single qubit lifetime, proving that passive error correction is capable of increasing gate fidelity. Using a standard phenomenological noise model for superconducting qubits, we demonstrate a realistic, universal one- and two-qubit gate set for the VSLQ, with error rates an order of magnitude lower than those for same-duration operations on single qubits or pairs of qubits. These developments further suggest that incorporating small logical qubits into a measurement based code could substantially improve code performance.
Efficient one- and two-qubit pulsed gates for an oscillator-stabilized Josephson qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brito, Frederico; DiVincenzo, David P; Koch, Roger H; Steffen, Matthias
2008-01-01
We present theoretical schemes for performing high-fidelity one- and two-qubit pulsed gates for a superconducting flux qubit. The 'IBM qubit' consists of three Josephson junctions, three loops and a superconducting transmission line. Assuming a fixed inductive qubit-qubit coupling, we show that the effective qubit-qubit interaction is tunable by changing the applied fluxes, and can be made negligible, allowing one to perform high-fidelity single qubit gates. Our schemes are tailored to alleviate errors due to 1/f noise; we find gates with only 1% loss of fidelity due to this source, for pulse times in the range of 20-30 ns for one-qubit gates (Z rotations, Hadamard) and 60 ns for a two-qubit gate (controlled-Z). Our relaxation and dephasing time estimates indicate a comparable loss of fidelity from this source. The control of leakage plays an important role in the design of our shaped pulses, preventing shorter pulse times. However, we have found that imprecision in the control of the quantum phase plays a major role in the limitation of the fidelity of our gates
Feedback-tuned, noise resilient gates for encoded spin qubits
Bluhm, Hendrik
Spin 1/2 particles form native two level systems and thus lend themselves as a natural qubit implementation. However, encoding a single qubit in several spins entails benefits, such as reducing the resources necessary for qubit control and protection from certain decoherence channels. While several varieties of such encoded spin qubits have been implemented, accurate control remains challenging, and leakage out of the subspace of valid qubit states is a potential issue. Optimal performance typically requires large pulse amplitudes for fast control, which is prone to systematic errors and prohibits standard control approaches based on Rabi flopping. Furthermore, the exchange interaction typically used to electrically manipulate encoded spin qubits is inherently sensitive to charge noise. I will discuss all-electrical, high-fidelity single qubit operations for a spin qubit encoded in two electrons in a GaAs double quantum dot. Starting from a set of numerically optimized control pulses, we employ an iterative tuning procedure based on measured error syndromes to remove systematic errors.Randomized benchmarking yields an average gate fidelity exceeding 98 % and a leakage rate into invalid states of 0.2 %. These gates exhibit a certain degree of resilience to both slow charge and nuclear spin fluctuations due to dynamical correction analogous to a spin echo. Furthermore, the numerical optimization minimizes the impact of fast charge noise. Both types of noise make relevant contributions to gate errors. The general approach is also adaptable to other qubit encodings and exchange based two-qubit gates.
Quantum logic gates generated by SC-charge qubits coupled to a resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obada, A-S F; Hessian, H A; Mohamed, A-B A; Homid, Ali H
2012-01-01
We propose some quantum logic gates by using SC-charge qubits coupled to a resonator to study two types of quantum operation. By applying a classical magnetic field with the flux, a simple rotation on the target qubit is generated. Single and two-qubit gates of quantum logic gates are realized. Two-qubit joint operations are firstly generated by applying a classical magnetic field with the flux, and secondly by applying a classical magnetic field with the flux when qubits are placed a quarter of the distance along the resonator. A short discussion of fidelity is given to prove the success of the operations in implementing these gates. (paper)
Realization of quantum gates with multiple control qubits or multiple target qubits in a cavity
Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Shahid
2015-06-01
We propose a scheme to realize a three-qubit controlled phase gate and a multi-qubit controlled NOT gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling n-target qubits with a four-level quantum system in a cavity. The implementation time for multi-qubit controlled NOT gate is independent of the number of qubit. Three-qubit phase gate is generalized to n-qubit phase gate with multiple control qubits. The number of steps reduces linearly as compared to conventional gate decomposition method. Our scheme can be applied to various types of physical systems such as superconducting qubits coupled to a resonator and trapped atoms in a cavity. Our scheme does not require adjustment of level spacing during the gate implementation. We also show the implementation of Deutsch-Joza algorithm. Finally, we discuss the imperfections due to cavity decay and the possibility of physical implementation of our scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi-Min, Wang; Yan-Li, Zhou; Lin-Mei, Liang; Cheng-Zu, Li
2009-01-01
We propose a feasible scheme to achieve universal quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits placed in a microwave cavity. Single-logic-qubit gates can be realized with cavity assisted interaction, which possesses the advantages of unconventional geometric gate operation. The two-logic-qubit controlled-phase gate between subsystems can be constructed with the help of a variable electrostatic transformer. The collective decoherence can be successfully avoided in our well-designed system. Moreover, GHZ state for logical qubits can also be easily produced in this system
Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap
Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang
2013-09-01
We trap individual 171Yb+ ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms-1, indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps.
Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel
2013-01-01
We trap individual 171 Yb + ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms −1 , indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps. (paper)
Multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system.
Liu, Tong; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Yang, Chui-Ping
2016-02-22
Cavity-based large scale quantum information processing (QIP) may involve multiple cavities and require performing various quantum logic operations on qubits distributed in different cavities. Geometric-phase-based quantum computing has drawn much attention recently, which offers advantages against inaccuracies and local fluctuations. In addition, multiqubit gates are particularly appealing and play important roles in QIP. We here present a simple and efficient scheme for realizing a multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system. This multiqubit phase gate has a common control qubit but different target qubits distributed in different cavities, which can be achieved using a single-step operation. The gate operation time is independent of the number of qubits and only two levels for each qubit are needed. This multiqubit gate is generic, e.g., by performing single-qubit operations, it can be converted into two types of significant multi-target-qubit phase gates useful in QIP. The proposal is quite general, which can be used to accomplish the same task for a general type of qubits such as atoms, NV centers, quantum dots, and superconducting qubits.
High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits.
Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S N; Friesen, Mark
2013-12-03
Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet-triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning [Symbol: see text], which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an f(opt)(g) that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound f(max) that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities (~99:5%) should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins.
Quantum Privacy Amplification for a Sequence of Single Qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu
2006-01-01
We present a scheme for quantum privacy amplification (QPA) for a sequence of single qubits. The QPA procedure uses a unitary operation with two controlled-not gates and a Hadamard gate. Every two qubits are performed with the unitary gate operation, and a measurement is made on one photon and the other one is retained. The retained qubit carries the state information of the discarded one. In this way, the information leakage is reduced. The procedure can be performed repeatedly so that the information leakage is reduced to any arbitrarily low level. With this QPA scheme, the quantum secure direct communication with single qubits can be implemented with arbitrarily high security. We also exploit this scheme to do privacy amplification on the single qubits in quantum information sharing for long-distance communication with quantum repeaters.
Universal set of quantum gates for double-dot exchange-only spin qubits with intradot coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michielis, M De; Ferraro, E; Fanciulli, M; Prati, E
2015-01-01
We present a universal set of quantum gate operations based on exchange-only spin qubits in a double quantum dot, where each qubit is obtained by three electrons in the (2,1) filling. Gate operations are addressed by modulating electrostatically the tunneling barrier and the energy offset between the two dots, singly and doubly occupied respectively. We propose explicit gate sequences of single qubit operations for arbitrary rotations, and the two-qubit controlled NOT gate, to complete the universal set. The unswitchable interaction between the two electrons of the doubly occupied quantum dot is taken into account. Short gate times are obtained by employing spin density functional theory simulations. (paper)
Genetic algorithm based on qubits and quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Joao Batista Rosa; Ramos, Rubens Viana
2003-01-01
Full text: Genetic algorithm, a computational technique based on the evolution of the species, in which a possible solution of the problem is coded in a binary string, called chromosome, has been used successfully in several kinds of problems, where the search of a minimal or a maximal value is necessary, even when local minima are present. A natural generalization of a binary string is a qubit string. Hence, it is possible to use the structure of a genetic algorithm having a sequence of qubits as a chromosome and using quantum operations in the reproduction in order to find the best solution in some problems of quantum information. For example, given a unitary matrix U what is the pair of qubits that, when applied at the input, provides the output state with maximal entanglement? In order to solve this problem, a population of chromosomes of two qubits was created. The crossover was performed applying the quantum gates CNOT and SWAP at the pair of qubits, while the mutation was performed applying the quantum gates Hadamard, Z and Not in a single qubit. The result was compared with a classical genetic algorithm used to solve the same problem. A hundred simulations using the same U matrix was performed. Both algorithms, hereafter named by CGA (classical) and QGA (using qu bits), reached good results close to 1 however, the number of generations needed to find the best result was lower for the QGA. Another problem where the QGA can be useful is in the calculation of the relative entropy of entanglement. We have tested our algorithm using 100 pure states chosen randomly. The stop criterion used was the error lower than 0.01. The main advantages of QGA are its good precision, robustness and very easy implementation. The main disadvantage is its low velocity, as happen for all kind of genetic algorithms. (author)
Fast quantum logic gates with trapped-ion qubits
Schäfer, V. M.; Ballance, C. J.; Thirumalai, K.; Stephenson, L. J.; Ballance, T. G.; Steane, A. M.; Lucas, D. M.
2018-03-01
Quantum bits (qubits) based on individual trapped atomic ions are a promising technology for building a quantum computer. The elementary operations necessary to do so have been achieved with the required precision for some error-correction schemes. However, the essential two-qubit logic gate that is used to generate quantum entanglement has hitherto always been performed in an adiabatic regime (in which the gate is slow compared with the characteristic motional frequencies of the ions in the trap), resulting in logic speeds of the order of 10 kilohertz. There have been numerous proposals of methods for performing gates faster than this natural ‘speed limit’ of the trap. Here we implement one such method, which uses amplitude-shaped laser pulses to drive the motion of the ions along trajectories designed so that the gate operation is insensitive to the optical phase of the pulses. This enables fast (megahertz-rate) quantum logic that is robust to fluctuations in the optical phase, which would otherwise be an important source of experimental error. We demonstrate entanglement generation for gate times as short as 480 nanoseconds—less than a single oscillation period of an ion in the trap and eight orders of magnitude shorter than the memory coherence time measured in similar calcium-43 hyperfine qubits. The power of the method is most evident at intermediate timescales, at which it yields a gate error more than ten times lower than can be attained using conventional techniques; for example, we achieve a 1.6-microsecond-duration gate with a fidelity of 99.8 per cent. Faster and higher-fidelity gates are possible at the cost of greater laser intensity. The method requires only a single amplitude-shaped pulse and one pair of beams derived from a continuous-wave laser. It offers the prospect of combining the unrivalled coherence properties, operation fidelities and optical connectivity of trapped-ion qubits with the submicrosecond logic speeds that are usually
Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates
Rol, M. A.; Bultink, C. C.; O'Brien, T. E.; de Jong, S. R.; Theis, L. S.; Fu, X.; Luthi, F.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; de Sterke, J. C.; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R. N.; Wilhelm, F. K.; DiCarlo, L.
2017-04-01
We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements interleaving gate operations without pause. Applying the protocol on a transmon qubit achieves 0.999 average Clifford fidelity in one minute, as independently verified using randomized benchmarking and gate-set tomography. The adjustable sensitivity of the cost function allows the detection of fractional changes in the gate error with a nearly constant signal-to-noise ratio. The restless concept demonstrated can be readily extended to the tuneup of two-qubit gates and measurement operations.
Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates
Rol, M.A.; Bultink, C.C.; O'Brien, T.E.; Jong, S.R. de; Theis, L.S.; Fu, X.; Luthi, F.; Vermeulen, R.F.L.; Sterke, J.C. de; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R.N.; Wilhelm, F.K.; Dicarlo, L.
2017-01-01
We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements interleaving
Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates
Rol, M.A.; Bultink, C.C.; O'Brien, T.E.; De Jong, S. R.; Theis, L. S.; Fu, X.; Lüthi, F.; Vermeulen, R.F.L.; de Sterke, J.C.; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R.N.; Wilhelm, FK; Di Carlo, L.
2017-01-01
We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements
Single-photon three-qubit quantum logic using spatial light modulators.
Kagalwala, Kumel H; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A
2017-09-29
The information-carrying capacity of a single photon can be vastly expanded by exploiting its multiple degrees of freedom: spatial, temporal, and polarization. Although multiple qubits can be encoded per photon, to date only two-qubit single-photon quantum operations have been realized. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of three-qubit single-photon, linear, deterministic quantum gates that exploit photon polarization and the two-dimensional spatial-parity-symmetry of the transverse single-photon field. These gates are implemented using a polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator that provides a robust, non-interferometric, versatile platform for implementing controlled unitary gates. Polarization here represents the control qubit for either separable or entangling unitary operations on the two spatial-parity target qubits. Such gates help generate maximally entangled three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, which is confirmed by tomographical reconstruction of single-photon density matrices. This strategy provides access to a wide range of three-qubit states and operations for use in few-qubit quantum information processing protocols.Photons are essential for quantum information processing, but to date only two-qubit single-photon operations have been realized. Here the authors demonstrate experimentally a three-qubit single-photon linear deterministic quantum gate by exploiting polarization along with spatial-parity symmetry.
Experimental demonstration of a Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dong, Ruifang [Quantum Frequency Standards Division, National Time Service Center (NTSC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 710600 Lintong, Shaanxi (China); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Marek, Petr [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Jezek, Miroslav [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)
2011-11-15
We discuss and make an experimental test of a probabilistic Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits. The scheme is based on linear optical components, nonclassical resources, and the joint projective action of a photon counter and a homodyne detector. We experimentally characterize the gate for the coherent states of the computational basis by full tomographic reconstruction of the transformed output states. Based on the parameters of the experiment, we simulate the fidelity for all coherent state qubits on the Bloch sphere.
Experimental demonstration of a Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tipsmark, Anders; Dong, Ruifang; Laghaout, Amine
2011-01-01
We discuss and make an experimental test of a probabilistic Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits. The scheme is based on linear optical components, nonclassical resources, and the joint projective action of a photon counter and a homodyne detector. We experimentally characterize the gate for t...... for the coherent states of the computational basis by full tomographic reconstruction of the transformed output states. Based on the parameters of the experiment, we simulate the fidelity for all coherent state qubits on the Bloch sphere....
High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits.
Ballance, C J; Harty, T P; Linke, N M; Sepiol, M A; Lucas, D M
2016-08-05
We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99% minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8 μs and 520 μs, and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity.
Kocia, Lucas; Love, Peter
2017-12-01
We show that qubit stabilizer states can be represented by non-negative quasiprobability distributions associated with a Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism where Clifford gates are positive state-independent maps. This is accomplished by generalizing the Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism to three generators instead of two—producing an exterior, or Grassmann, algebra—which results in Clifford group gates for qubits that act as a permutation on the finite Weyl phase space points naturally associated with stabilizer states. As a result, a non-negative probability distribution can be associated with each stabilizer state's three-generator Wigner function, and these distributions evolve deterministically to one another under Clifford gates. This corresponds to a hidden variable theory that is noncontextual and local for qubit Clifford gates while Clifford (Pauli) measurements have a context-dependent representation. Equivalently, we show that qubit Clifford gates can be expressed as propagators within the three-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism whose semiclassical expansion is truncated at order ℏ0 with a finite number of terms. The T gate, which extends the Clifford gate set to one capable of universal quantum computation, requires a semiclassical expansion of the propagator to order ℏ1. We compare this approach to previous quasiprobability descriptions of qubits that relied on the two-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism and find that the two-generator Weyl symbols of stabilizer states result in a description of evolution under Clifford gates that is state-dependent, in contrast to the three-generator formalism. We have thus extended Wigner non-negative quasiprobability distributions from the odd d -dimensional case to d =2 qubits, which describe the noncontextuality of Clifford gates and contextuality of Pauli measurements on qubit stabilizer states.
Entangling capabilities of symmetric two-qubit gates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Com- putational investigation of entanglement of such ensembles is therefore impractical for ... the computational complexity. Pairs of spin-1 ... tensor operators which can also provide different symmetric logic gates for quantum pro- ... that five of the eight, two-qubit symmetric quantum gates expressed in terms of our newly.
Generic two-qubit photonic gates implemented by number-resolving photodetection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uskov, Dmitry B.; Smith, A. Matthew; Kaplan, Lev
2010-01-01
We combine numerical optimization techniques [Uskov et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 042326 (2009)] with symmetries of the Weyl chamber to obtain optimal implementations of generic linear-optical Knill-Laflamme-Milburn-type two-qubit entangling gates. We find that while any two-qubit controlled-U gate, including controlled-NOT (CNOT) and controlled-sign gates, can be implemented using only two ancilla resources with a success probability S>0.05, a generic SU(4) operation requires three unentangled ancilla photons, with success S>0.0063. Specifically, we obtain a maximal success probability close to 0.0072 for the B gate. We show that single-shot implementation of a generic SU(4) gate offers more than an order of magnitude increase in the success probability and a two-fold reduction in overhead ancilla resources compared to standard triple-CNOT and double-B gate decompositions.
Single-shot readout of accumulation mode Si/SiGe spin qubits using RF reflectometry
Volk, Christian; Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand
Spin qubits based on gate-defined quantum dots are promising systems for realizing quantum computation. Due to their low concentration of nuclear-spin-carrying isotopes, Si/SiGe heterostructures are of particular interest. While high fidelities have been reported for single-qubit and two-qubit gate operations, qubit initialization and measurement times are relatively slow. In order to develop fast read-out techniques compatible with the operation of spin qubits, we characterize double and triple quantum dots confined in undoped Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructures using accumulation and depletion gates and a nearby RF charge sensor dot. We implement a RF reflectometry technique that allows single-shot charge read-out at integration times on the order of a few μs. We show our recent advancement towards implementing spin qubits in these structures, including spin-selective single-shot read-out.
Universal gate-set for trapped-ion qubits using a narrow linewidth diode laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Kotler, Shlomi; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee
2015-01-01
We report on the implementation of a high fidelity universal gate-set on optical qubits based on trapped 88 Sr + ions for the purpose of quantum information processing. All coherent operations were performed using a narrow linewidth diode laser. We employed a master-slave configuration for the laser, where an ultra low expansion glass Fabry–Perot cavity is used as a stable reference as well as a spectral filter. We characterized the laser spectrum using the ions with a modified Ramsey sequence which eliminated the affect of the magnetic field noise. We demonstrated high fidelity single qubit gates with individual addressing, based on inhomogeneous micromotion, on a two-ion chain as well as the Mølmer–Sørensen two-qubit entangling gate. (paper)
A probabilistic CNOT gate for coherent state qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, M.S.R.; Vasconcelos, H.M.; Silva, J.B.R.
2013-01-01
We propose a scheme for implementing a probabilistic controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for coherent state qubits using only linear optics and a particular four-mode state. The proposed optical setup works, as a CNOT gate, near-faithful when |α| 2 ⩾25 and independent of the input state. The key element for realizing the proposed CNOT scheme is the entangled four-mode state.
A probabilistic CNOT gate for coherent state qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, M.S.R.; Vasconcelos, H.M.; Silva, J.B.R., E-mail: joaobrs@ufc.br
2013-11-22
We propose a scheme for implementing a probabilistic controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate for coherent state qubits using only linear optics and a particular four-mode state. The proposed optical setup works, as a CNOT gate, near-faithful when |α|{sup 2}⩾25 and independent of the input state. The key element for realizing the proposed CNOT scheme is the entangled four-mode state.
Universal quantum gates for Single Cooper Pair Box based quantum computing
Echternach, P.; Williams, C. P.; Dultz, S. C.; Braunstein, S.; Dowling, J. P.
2000-01-01
We describe a method for achieving arbitrary 1-qubit gates and controlled-NOT gates within the context of the Single Cooper Pair Box (SCB) approach to quantum computing. Such gates are sufficient to support universal quantum computation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song Kehui, E-mail: hhkhsong@vip.sina.com [Department of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan 418008 (China); Shi Zhengang; Xiang Shaohua; Chen Xiongwen [Department of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan 418008 (China)
2012-09-01
Based on superconducting flux qubits coupled to a superconducting resonator. We propose a scheme for implementing multi-qubit controlled-NOT (C-NOT) gates and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with one flux qubit simultaneously controlling on n qubits. It is shown that the resonator mode is initially in the vacuum state, a high fidelity for operation procedure can be obtained. In addition, the gate operation time is independent of the number of the qubits, and can be controlled by adjusting detuning and coupling strengths. We also analyze the experimental feasibility that the conditions of the large detuning can be achieved by adjusting frequencies of the resonator and pulses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Kehui; Shi Zhengang; Xiang Shaohua; Chen Xiongwen
2012-01-01
Based on superconducting flux qubits coupled to a superconducting resonator. We propose a scheme for implementing multi-qubit controlled-NOT (C-NOT) gates and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with one flux qubit simultaneously controlling on n qubits. It is shown that the resonator mode is initially in the vacuum state, a high fidelity for operation procedure can be obtained. In addition, the gate operation time is independent of the number of the qubits, and can be controlled by adjusting detuning and coupling strengths. We also analyze the experimental feasibility that the conditions of the large detuning can be achieved by adjusting frequencies of the resonator and pulses.
Autonomous calibration of single spin qubit operations
Frank, Florian; Unden, Thomas; Zoller, Jonathan; Said, Ressa S.; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor
2017-12-01
Fully autonomous precise control of qubits is crucial for quantum information processing, quantum communication, and quantum sensing applications. It requires minimal human intervention on the ability to model, to predict, and to anticipate the quantum dynamics, as well as to precisely control and calibrate single qubit operations. Here, we demonstrate single qubit autonomous calibrations via closed-loop optimisations of electron spin quantum operations in diamond. The operations are examined by quantum state and process tomographic measurements at room temperature, and their performances against systematic errors are iteratively rectified by an optimal pulse engineering algorithm. We achieve an autonomous calibrated fidelity up to 1.00 on a time scale of minutes for a spin population inversion and up to 0.98 on a time scale of hours for a single qubit π/2 -rotation within the experimental error of 2%. These results manifest a full potential for versatile quantum technologies.
Two-qubit gate operations in superconducting circuits with strong coupling and weak anharmonicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lü Xinyou; Ashhab, S; Cui Wei; Wu Rebing; Nori, Franco
2012-01-01
We theoretically study the implementation of two-qubit gates in a system of two coupled superconducting qubits. In particular, we analyze two-qubit gate operations under the condition that the coupling strength is comparable with or even larger than the anharmonicity of the qubits. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation under the assumption of negligible decoherence, we obtain the dependence of the two-qubit gate fidelity on the system parameters in the case of both direct and indirect qubit-qubit coupling. Our numerical results can be used to identify the ‘safe’ parameter regime for experimentally implementing two-qubit gates with high fidelity in these systems. (paper)
Flying spin-qubit gates implemented through Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, S.J.; Yang, Z.Q.
2007-01-01
A theoretical scheme is proposed to implement flying spin-qubit gates based on two semiconductor wires with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), respectively. It is found that under the manipulation of the Dresselhaus/Rashba SOC, spin rotates around x/y axis in the three-dimensional spin space. By combining the two kinds of manipulations, i.e. connecting the two kinds of semiconductor wires in series, we obtain a universal set of losses flying single-qubit gates including Hadamard, phase, and π/8 gates. A ballistic switching effect of electronic flow is also found in the investigation. Our results may be useful in future spin or nanoscale electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yabu-uti, B.F.C.; Roversi, J.A.
2011-01-01
We propose an alternative scheme to implement a two-qubit controlled-R (rotation) gate in the hybrid atom-CCA (coupled cavities array) system. Our scheme results in a constant gating time and, with an adjustable qubit-bus coupling (atom-resonator), one can specify a particular rotation R on the target qubit. We believe that this proposal may open promising perspectives for networking quantum information processors and implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation. -- Highlights: → We propose an alternative two-qubit controlled-rotation gate implementation. → Our gate is realized in a constant gating time for any rotation. → A particular rotation on the target qubit can be specified by an adjustable qubit-bus coupling. → Our proposal may open promising perspectives for implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation.
Efficient experimental design of high-fidelity three-qubit quantum gates via genetic programming
Devra, Amit; Prabhu, Prithviraj; Singh, Harpreet; Arvind; Dorai, Kavita
2018-03-01
We have designed efficient quantum circuits for the three-qubit Toffoli (controlled-controlled-NOT) and the Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate, optimized via genetic programming methods. The gates thus obtained were experimentally implemented on a three-qubit NMR quantum information processor, with a high fidelity. Toffoli and Fredkin gates in conjunction with the single-qubit Hadamard gates form a universal gate set for quantum computing and are an essential component of several quantum algorithms. Genetic algorithms are stochastic search algorithms based on the logic of natural selection and biological genetics and have been widely used for quantum information processing applications. We devised a new selection mechanism within the genetic algorithm framework to select individuals from a population. We call this mechanism the "Luck-Choose" mechanism and were able to achieve faster convergence to a solution using this mechanism, as compared to existing selection mechanisms. The optimization was performed under the constraint that the experimentally implemented pulses are of short duration and can be implemented with high fidelity. We demonstrate the advantage of our pulse sequences by comparing our results with existing experimental schemes and other numerical optimization methods.
Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.
2005-01-01
We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Aimin; Cho Samyoung
2011-01-01
Conditional quantum oscillations are investigated for quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits. We present an effective Hamiltonian which describes a conditional quantum oscillation in two-qubit systems. Rabi-type quantum oscillations are discussed in implementing conditional quantum oscillations to quantum gate operations. Two conditional quantum oscillations depending on the states of control qubit can be synchronized to perform controlled-gate operations by varying system parameters. It is shown that the conditional quantum oscillations with their frequency synchronization make it possible to operate the controlled-NOT and -U gates with a very accurate gate performance rate in interacting qubit systems. Further, this scheme can be applicable to realize a controlled multi-qubit operation in various solid-state qubit systems. (author)
Spectroscopy and coherent manipulation of single and coupled flux qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Yu-Lin; Deng Hui; Huang Ke-Qiang; Tian Ye; Yu Hai-Feng; Xue Guang-Ming; Jin Yi-Rong; Li Jie; Zhao Shi-Ping; Zheng Dong-Ning
2013-01-01
Measurements of three-junction flux qubits, both single flux qubits and coupled flux qubits, using a coupled direct current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) for readout are reported. The measurement procedure is described in detail. We performed spectroscopy measurements and coherent manipulations of the qubit states on a single flux qubit, demonstrating quantum energy levels and Rabi oscillations, with Rabi oscillation decay time T Rabi = 78 ns and energy relaxation time T 1 = 315 ns. We found that the value of T Rabi depends strongly on the mutual inductance between the qubit and the magnetic coil. We also performed spectroscopy measurements on inductively coupled flux qubits. (general)
Amplitude damping for single-qubit system with single-qubit mixed-state environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Eylee; Hwang, Mi-Ra; Ju, You Hwan; Park, D K; Kim, Hungsoo; Kim, Min-Soo; Son, Jin-Woo
2008-01-01
We study a generalized amplitude damping channel when environment is initially in the single-qubit mixed state. Representing the affine transformation of the generalized amplitude damping by a three-dimensional volume, we plot explicitly the volume occupied by the channels simulatable by a single-qubit mixed-state environment. As expected, this volume is embedded in the total volume by the channels which is simulated by a two-qubit enviroment. The volume ratio is approximately 0.08 which is much smaller than 3/8, the volume ratio for generalized depolarizing channels
Ultrafast geometric control of a single qubit using chirped pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawkins, Patrick E; Malinovskaya, Svetlana A; Malinovsky, Vladimir S
2012-01-01
We propose a control strategy to perform arbitrary unitary operations on a single qubit based solely on the geometrical phase that the qubit state acquires after cyclic evolution in the parameter space. The scheme uses ultrafast linearly chirped pulses and provides the possibility of reducing the duration of a single-qubit operation to a few picoseconds.
Efficient Atomic One-Qubit Phase Gate Realized by a Cavity QED and Identical Atoms System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yong; Jiang Nianquan
2010-01-01
We present a scheme to implement a one-qubit phase gate with a two-level atom crossing an optical cavity in which some identical atoms are trapped. One can conveniently acquire an arbitrary phase shift of the gate by properly choosing the number of atoms trapped in the cavity and the velocity of the atom crossing the cavity. The present scheme provides a very simple and efficient way for implementing one-qubit phase gate. (general)
Error rates and resource overheads of encoded three-qubit gates
Takagi, Ryuji; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2017-10-01
A non-Clifford gate is required for universal quantum computation, and, typically, this is the most error-prone and resource-intensive logical operation on an error-correcting code. Small, single-qubit rotations are popular choices for this non-Clifford gate, but certain three-qubit gates, such as Toffoli or controlled-controlled-Z (ccz), are equivalent options that are also more suited for implementing some quantum algorithms, for instance, those with coherent classical subroutines. Here, we calculate error rates and resource overheads for implementing logical ccz with pieceable fault tolerance, a nontransversal method for implementing logical gates. We provide a comparison with a nonlocal magic-state scheme on a concatenated code and a local magic-state scheme on the surface code. We find the pieceable fault-tolerance scheme particularly advantaged over magic states on concatenated codes and in certain regimes over magic states on the surface code. Our results suggest that pieceable fault tolerance is a promising candidate for fault tolerance in a near-future quantum computer.
Robust 2-Qubit Gates in a Linear Ion Crystal Using a Frequency-Modulated Driving Force
Leung, Pak Hong; Landsman, Kevin A.; Figgatt, Caroline; Linke, Norbert M.; Monroe, Christopher; Brown, Kenneth R.
2018-01-01
In an ion trap quantum computer, collective motional modes are used to entangle two or more qubits in order to execute multiqubit logical gates. Any residual entanglement between the internal and motional states of the ions results in loss of fidelity, especially when there are many spectator ions in the crystal. We propose using a frequency-modulated driving force to minimize such errors. In simulation, we obtained an optimized frequency-modulated 2-qubit gate that can suppress errors to less than 0.01% and is robust against frequency drifts over ±1 kHz . Experimentally, we have obtained a 2-qubit gate fidelity of 98.3(4)%, a state-of-the-art result for 2-qubit gates with five ions.
Generation of an N-qubit phase gate via atom—cavity nonidentical coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying-Qiao, Zhang; Shou, Zhang
2009-01-01
A scheme for approximate generation of an N-qubit phase gate is proposed in cavity QED based on nonidentical coupling between the atoms and the cavity. The atoms interact with a highly detuned cavity-field mode, but quantum information does not transfer between the atoms and cavity field, and thus the cavity decay is negligible. The gate time does not rise with an increase in the number of qubits. With the choice of a smaller odd number l (related to atom–cavity coupling constants), the phase gate can be generated with a higher fidelity and a higher success probability in a shorter time (the gate time is much shorter than the atomic radiative lifetime and photon lifetime). When the number of qubits N exceeds certain small values, the fidelity and success probability rise slowly with an increase in the number of qubits N. When N → ∞, the fidelity and success probability infinitely approach 1, but never exceed 1. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Marcelo Franca
2005-01-01
We present a simple quantum circuit that allows for the universal and deterministic manipulation of the quantum state of confined harmonic oscillators. The scheme is based on the selective interactions of the referred oscillator with an auxiliary three-level system and a classical external driving source, and enables any unitary operations on Fock states, two by two. One circuit is equivalent to a single qubit unitary logical gate on Fock states qubits. Sequences of similar protocols allow for complete, deterministic, and state-independent manipulation of the harmonic oscillator quantum state
High-Fidelity Single-Shot Toffoli Gate via Quantum Control.
Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C
2015-05-22
A single-shot Toffoli, or controlled-controlled-not, gate is desirable for classical and quantum information processing. The Toffoli gate alone is universal for reversible computing and, accompanied by the Hadamard gate, forms a universal gate set for quantum computing. The Toffoli gate is also a key ingredient for (nontopological) quantum error correction. Currently Toffoli gates are achieved by decomposing into sequentially implemented single- and two-qubit gates, which require much longer times and yields lower overall fidelities compared to a single-shot implementation. We develop a quantum-control procedure to construct a single-shot Toffoli gate for three nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems such that the fidelity is 99.9% and is as fast as an entangling two-qubit gate under the same realistic conditions. The gate is achieved by a nongreedy quantum control procedure using our enhanced version of the differential evolution algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.-P.; Han Siyuan
2006-01-01
We show a way to realize an arbitrary rotation gate in a three-level superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubit using resonant interaction. In this approach, the two logical states of the qubit are represented by the two lowest levels of the SQUID and a higher-energy intermediate level is utilized for the gate manipulation. By considering spontaneous decay from the intermediate level during the gate operation, we present a formula for calculating average fidelity over all possible initial states. Finally, based on realistic system parameters, we show that an arbitrary rotation gate can be achieved with a high fidelity in a SQUID
Optimal entangling operations between deterministic blocks of qubits encoded into single photons
Smith, Jake A.; Kaplan, Lev
2018-01-01
Here, we numerically simulate probabilistic elementary entangling operations between rail-encoded photons for the purpose of scalable universal quantum computation or communication. We propose grouping logical qubits into single-photon blocks wherein single-qubit rotations and the controlled-not (cnot) gate are fully deterministic and simple to implement. Interblock communication is then allowed through said probabilistic entangling operations. We find a promising trend in the increasing probability of successful interblock communication as we increase the number of optical modes operated on by our elementary entangling operations.
Multiplexing Superconducting Qubit Circuit for Single Microwave Photon Generation
George, R. E.; Senior, J.; Saira, O.-P.; Pekola, J. P.; de Graaf, S. E.; Lindström, T.; Pashkin, Yu A.
2017-10-01
We report on a device that integrates eight superconducting transmon qubits in λ /4 superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fed from a common feedline. Using this multiplexing architecture, each resonator and qubit can be addressed individually, thus reducing the required hardware resources and allowing their individual characterisation by spectroscopic methods. The measured device parameters agree with the designed values, and the resonators and qubits exhibit excellent coherence properties and strong coupling, with the qubit relaxation rate dominated by the Purcell effect when brought in resonance with the resonator. Our analysis shows that the circuit is suitable for generation of single microwave photons on demand with an efficiency exceeding 80%.
Efficient gate set tomography on a multi-qubit superconducting processor
Nielsen, Erik; Rudinger, Kenneth; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Bestwick, Andrew; Bloom, Benjamin; Block, Maxwell; Caldwell, Shane; Curtis, Michael; Hudson, Alex; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc; Papageorge, Alexander; Polloreno, Anthony; Reagor, Matt; Rubin, Nicholas; Scheer, Michael; Selvanayagam, Michael; Sete, Eyob; Sinclair, Rodney; Smith, Robert; Vahidpour, Mehrnoosh; Villiers, Marius; Zeng, William; Rigetti, Chad
Quantum information processors with five or more qubits are becoming common. Complete, predictive characterization of such devices e.g. via any form of tomography, including gate set tomography appears impossible because the parameter space is intractably large. Randomized benchmarking scales well, but cannot predict device behavior or diagnose failure modes. We introduce a new type of gate set tomography that uses an efficient ansatz to model physically plausible errors, but scales polynomially with the number of qubits. We will describe the theory behind this multi-qubit tomography and present experimental results from using it to characterize a multi-qubit processor made by Rigetti Quantum Computing. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Modal and polarization qubits in Ti:LiNbO3 photonic circuits for a universal quantum logic gate.
Saleh, Mohammed F; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Saleh, Bahaa E A; Teich, Malvin Carl
2010-09-13
Lithium niobate photonic circuits have the salutary property of permitting the generation, transmission, and processing of photons to be accommodated on a single chip. Compact photonic circuits such as these, with multiple components integrated on a single chip, are crucial for efficiently implementing quantum information processing schemes.We present a set of basic transformations that are useful for manipulating modal qubits in Ti:LiNbO(3) photonic quantum circuits. These include the mode analyzer, a device that separates the even and odd components of a state into two separate spatial paths; the mode rotator, which rotates the state by an angle in mode space; and modal Pauli spin operators that effect related operations. We also describe the design of a deterministic, two-qubit, single-photon, CNOT gate, a key element in certain sets of universal quantum logic gates. It is implemented as a Ti:LiNbO(3) photonic quantum circuit in which the polarization and mode number of a single photon serve as the control and target qubits, respectively. It is shown that the effects of dispersion in the CNOT circuit can be mitigated by augmenting it with an additional path. The performance of all of these components are confirmed by numerical simulations. The implementation of these transformations relies on selective and controllable power coupling among single- and two-mode waveguides, as well as the polarization sensitivity of the Pockels coefficients in LiNbO(3).
Implementation of single qubit in QD ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alegre, T.P. Mayer
2004-01-01
Full text: During the last decades the semiconductor industry has achieved the production of exponentially shrinking components. This fact points to fundamental limits of integration, making computation with single atoms or particles like an electron an ultimate goal. To get to this limit, quantum systems in solid state have to be manipulated in a controllable fashion. The assessment of quantum degrees of freedom for information processing may allow exponentially faster performance for certain classes of problems. The essential aspect to be explored in quantum information processing resides in the superposition of states that allows resources such as entangled states to be envisaged. The quest for the optimal system to host a quantum variable that is sufficiently isolated from the environment encompasses implementations spanning optical, atomic, molecular and solid state systems. In the solid state, a variety of proposals have come forth, each one having its own advantages and disadvantages. The main conclusion from these e efforts is that there is no decisive technology upon which quantum information devices will be built. Self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs or QDs), can be grown with size uniformity that enables the observation of single electron loading events. They can in turn be used to controllably trap single electrons into discrete levels, atom-like, with their corresponding shells. Hund's rules and Pauli exclusion principle are observed in these nanostructures and are key in allowing and preserving a particular quantum state. Provided that one can trap one electron in a QD ensemble, the corresponding spin can be manipulated by an external magnetic field by either conventional Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) techniques or g-tensor modulation resonance (g-TMR). By analogy with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, single qubit operations are proposed, which at some point in time should be scaled, provided that spin-spin interactions can be controlled. Read out can be
Metric Structure of the Space of Two-Qubit Gates, Perfect Entanglers and Quantum Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Watts
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We derive expressions for the invariant length element and measure for the simple compact Lie group SU(4 in a coordinate system particularly suitable for treating entanglement in quantum information processing. Using this metric, we compute the invariant volume of the space of two-qubit perfect entanglers. We find that this volume corresponds to more than 84% of the total invariant volume of the space of two-qubit gates. This same metric is also used to determine the effective target sizes that selected gates will present in any quantum-control procedure designed to implement them.
Implementation of a three-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using SFG quantum logic gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duce, A Del; Savory, S; Bayvel, P
2006-01-01
In this paper we present a quantum logic circuit which can be used for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit solid state quantum computer based on a recent proposal of optically driven quantum logic gates. In these gates, the entanglement of randomly placed electron spin qubits is manipulated by optical excitation of control electrons. The circuit we describe solves the Deutsch problem with an improved algorithm called the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We show that it is possible to select optical pulses that solve the Deutsch problem correctly, and do so without losing quantum information to the control electrons, even though the gate parameters vary substantially from one gate to another
Implementation of a three-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using SFG quantum logic gates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duce, A Del; Savory, S; Bayvel, P [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)
2006-05-31
In this paper we present a quantum logic circuit which can be used for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit solid state quantum computer based on a recent proposal of optically driven quantum logic gates. In these gates, the entanglement of randomly placed electron spin qubits is manipulated by optical excitation of control electrons. The circuit we describe solves the Deutsch problem with an improved algorithm called the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We show that it is possible to select optical pulses that solve the Deutsch problem correctly, and do so without losing quantum information to the control electrons, even though the gate parameters vary substantially from one gate to another.
Implementation of a three-qubit refined Deutsch Jozsa algorithm using SFG quantum logic gates
DelDuce, A.; Savory, S.; Bayvel, P.
2006-05-01
In this paper we present a quantum logic circuit which can be used for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit solid state quantum computer based on a recent proposal of optically driven quantum logic gates. In these gates, the entanglement of randomly placed electron spin qubits is manipulated by optical excitation of control electrons. The circuit we describe solves the Deutsch problem with an improved algorithm called the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We show that it is possible to select optical pulses that solve the Deutsch problem correctly, and do so without losing quantum information to the control electrons, even though the gate parameters vary substantially from one gate to another.
Single flux pulses affecting the ensemble of superconducting qubits
Denisenko, M. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Satanin, A. M.
2018-02-01
The present study is devoted to development of a technique for numerical simulation of the wave function dynamics the single Josephson qubits and arrays of noninteracting qubits controlled by ultra-short pulses. We wish to demonstrate the feasibility of a new principle of basic logical operations on the picosecond timescale. The influence of the unipolar pulse ("fluxon") form on the evolution of the state during the execution of the quantum one-qubit operations - "NOT", "READ" and " √{N O T } " - is investigated in the presence of decoherence. In the array of non interacting qubits, the question of the influence of the spread of their energy parameters (tunnel constants) is studied. It is shown that a single unipolar pulse can control a huge array of artificial atoms with 10% spread of geometric parameters in the array.
Gatemon Benchmarking and Two-Qubit Operation
Casparis, Lucas; Larsen, Thorvald; Olsen, Michael; Petersson, Karl; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygard, Jesper; Marcus, Charles
Recent experiments have demonstrated superconducting transmon qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions. These hybrid gatemon qubits utilize field effect tunability singular to semiconductors to allow complete qubit control using gate voltages, potentially a technological advantage over conventional flux-controlled transmons. Here, we present experiments with a two-qubit gatemon circuit. We characterize qubit coherence and stability and use randomized benchmarking to demonstrate single-qubit gate errors of ~0.5 % for all gates, including voltage-controlled Z rotations. We show coherent capacitive coupling between two gatemons and coherent SWAP operations. Finally, we perform a two-qubit controlled-phase gate with an estimated fidelity of ~91 %, demonstrating the potential of gatemon qubits for building scalable quantum processors. We acknowledge financial support from Microsoft Project Q and the Danish National Research Foundation.
Multi-qubit compensation sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, Y; Merrill, J T; Brown, K R
2010-01-01
The Hamiltonian control of n qubits requires precision control of both the strength and timing of interactions. Compensation pulses relax the precision requirements by reducing unknown but systematic errors. Using composite pulse techniques designed for single qubits, we show that systematic errors for n-qubit systems can be corrected to arbitrary accuracy given either two non-commuting control Hamiltonians with identical systematic errors or one error-free control Hamiltonian. We also examine composite pulses in the context of quantum computers controlled by two-qubit interactions. For quantum computers based on the XY interaction, single-qubit composite pulse sequences naturally correct systematic errors. For quantum computers based on the Heisenberg or exchange interaction, the composite pulse sequences reduce the logical single-qubit gate errors but increase the errors for logical two-qubit gates.
Attacking quantum key distribution with single-photon two-qubit quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2006-01-01
The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt (FPB) probe realizes the most powerful individual attack on Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution (BB84 QKD) by means of a single controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. This paper describes a complete physical simulation of the FPB-probe attack on polarization-based BB84 QKD using a deterministic CNOT constructed from single-photon two-qubit quantum logic. Adding polarization-preserving quantum nondemolition measurements of photon number to this configuration converts the physical simulation into a true deterministic realization of the FPB attack
Valley qubit in a gated MoS2 monolayer quantum dot
Pawłowski, J.; Żebrowski, D.; Bednarek, S.
2018-04-01
The aim of the presented research is to design a nanodevice, based on a MoS2 monolayer, performing operations on a well-defined valley qubit. We show how to confine an electron in a gate-induced quantum dot within the monolayer, and to perform the not operation on its valley degree of freedom. The operations are carried out all electrically via modulation of the confinement potential by oscillating voltages applied to the local gates. Such quantum dot structure is modeled realistically. Through these simulations we investigate the possibility of realization of a valley qubit in analogy with a realization of the spin qubit. We accurately model the potential inside the nanodevice accounting for proper boundary conditions on the gates and space-dependent materials permittivity by solving the generalized Poisson's equation. The time evolution of the system is supported by realistic self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger tight-binding calculations. The tight-binding calculations are further confirmed by simulations within the effective continuum model.
Integrated-optics heralded controlled-NOT gate for polarization-encoded qubits
Zeuner, Jonas; Sharma, Aditya N.; Tillmann, Max; Heilmann, René; Gräfe, Markus; Moqanaki, Amir; Szameit, Alexander; Walther, Philip
2018-03-01
Recent progress in integrated-optics technology has made photonics a promising platform for quantum networks and quantum computation protocols. Integrated optical circuits are characterized by small device footprints and unrivalled intrinsic interferometric stability. Here, we take advantage of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides' ability to process polarization-encoded qubits and present an implementation of a heralded controlled-NOT gate on chip. We evaluate the gate performance in the computational basis and a superposition basis, showing that the gate can create polarization entanglement between two photons. Transmission through the integrated device is optimized using thermally expanded core fibers and adiabatically reduced mode-field diameters at the waveguide facets. This demonstration underlines the feasibility of integrated quantum gates for all-optical quantum networks and quantum repeaters.
Preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, So-Young; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2011-01-01
We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. The arbitrary single-photon path qubit is prepared losslessly by passing the heralded single-photon state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion through variable beam splitter. Quantum state tomography of the single-photon path qubit is implemented by introducing path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. Using the state preparation and path-projection measurements methods for the single-photon path qubit, we demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity. -- Highlights: → We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. → We implement path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. → We demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm
2017-04-01
Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].
Fisher information of a single qubit interacts with a spin-qubit in the presence of a magnetic field
Metwally, N.
2018-06-01
In this contribution, quantum Fisher information is utilized to estimate the parameters of a central qubit interacting with a single-spin qubit. The effect of the longitudinal, transverse and the rotating strengths of the magnetic field on the estimation degree is discussed. It is shown that, in the resonance case, the number of peaks and consequently the size of the estimation regions increase as the rotating magnetic field strength increases. The precision estimation of the central qubit parameters depends on the initial state settings of the central and the spin-qubit, either encode classical or quantum information. It is displayed that, the upper bounds of the estimation degree are large if the two qubits encode classical information. In the non-resonance case, the estimation degree depends on which of the longitudinal/transverse strength is larger. The coupling constant between the central qubit and the spin-qubit has a different effect on the estimation degree of the weight and the phase parameters, where the possibility of estimating the weight parameter decreases as the coupling constant increases, while it increases for the phase parameter. For large number of spin-particles, namely, we have a spin-bath particles, the upper bounds of the Fisher information with respect to the weight parameter of the central qubit decreases as the number of the spin particle increases. As the interaction time increases, the upper bounds appear at different initial values of the weight parameter.
2016-10-13
and addressedwhen the qubit is usedwithin a fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme. 1. Introduction One of themain challenges in the physical...supplied in the supplementarymaterial. Additionally, we have supplied the datafiles constructed from the experiments, alongwith the Python notebook used to...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 103018 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/10/103018 PAPER Optimization of a solid-state electron spin qubit using gate set tomography
Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Han; Wei, Wu; Chun-Wang, Wu; Hong-Yi, Dai; Cheng-Zu, Li
2008-01-01
Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given
Realization of arbitrary positive-operator-value measurement of single atomic qubit via cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Yang; Wu Wei; Wu Chunwang; Dai Hongyi; Li Chengzu
2008-01-01
Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given. (authors)
Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED
Han, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chun-Wang; Dai, Hong-Yi; Li, Cheng-Zu
2008-12-01
Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, C A; Laforest, M; Laflamme, R
2009-01-01
Being able to quantify the level of coherent control in a proposed device implementing a quantum information processor (QIP) is an important task for both comparing different devices and assessing a device's prospects with regards to achieving fault-tolerant quantum control. We implement in a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance QIP the randomized benchmarking protocol presented by Knill et al (2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012307). We report an error per randomized π/2 pulse of 1.3±0.1x10 -4 with a single-qubit QIP and show an experimentally relevant error model where the randomized benchmarking gives a signature fidelity decay which is not possible to interpret as a single error per gate. We explore and experimentally investigate multi-qubit extensions of this protocol and report an average error rate for one- and two-qubit gates of 4.7±0.3x10 -3 for a three-qubit QIP. We estimate that these error rates are still not decoherence limited and thus can be improved with modifications to the control hardware and software.
Motzoi, F.; Mølmer, K.
2018-05-01
We propose to use the interaction between a single qubit atom and a surrounding ensemble of three level atoms to control the phase of light reflected by an optical cavity. Our scheme employs an ensemble dark resonance that is perturbed by the qubit atom to yield a single-atom single photon gate. We show here that off-resonant excitation towards Rydberg states with strong dipolar interactions offers experimentally-viable regimes of operations with low errors (in the 10‑3 range) as required for fault-tolerant optical-photon, gate-based quantum computation. We also propose and analyze an implementation within microwave circuit-QED, where a strongly-coupled ancilla superconducting qubit can be used in the place of the atomic ensemble to provide high-fidelity coupling to microwave photons.
Generation of high-fidelity controlled-NOT logic gates by coupled superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galiautdinov, Andrei
2007-01-01
Building on the previous results of the Weyl chamber steering method, we demonstrate how to generate high-fidelity controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates by direct application of certain physically relevant Hamiltonians with fixed coupling constants containing Rabi terms. Such Hamiltonians are often used to describe two superconducting qubits driven by local rf pulses. It is found that in order to achieve 100% fidelity in a system with capacitive coupling of strength g, one Rabi term suffices. We give the exact values of the physical parameters needed to implement such CNOT gates. The gate time and all possible Rabi frequencies are found to be t=π/(2g) and Ω 1 /g=√(64n 2 -1),n=1,2,3,.... Generation of a perfect CNOT gate in a system with inductive coupling, characterized by additional constant k, requires the presence of both Rabi terms. The gate time is again t=π/(2g), but now there is an infinite number of solutions, each of which is valid in a certain range of k and is characterized by a pair of integers (n,m), (Ω 1,2 /g)=√(16n 2 -((k-1/2)) 2 )±√(16m 2 -((k+1/2)) 2 ). We distinguish two cases, depending on the sign of the coupling constant: (i) the antiferromagnetic case (k≥0) with n≥m=0,1,2,... and (ii) the ferromagnetic case (k≤0) with n>m=0,1,2,.... We conclude with consideration of fidelity degradation by switching to resonance. Simulation of time evolution based on the fourth-order Magnus expansion reveals characteristics of the gate similar to those found in the exact case, with slightly shorter gate time and shifted values of the Rabi frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui, Wen-Xue; Hu, Shi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2015-01-01
The direct implementation of multiqubit controlled phase gate of photons is appealing and important for reducing the complexity of the physical realization of linear-optics-based practical quantum computer and quantum algorithms. In this letter we propose a nondestructive scheme for implementing an N-qubit controlled phase gate of photons with a high success probability. The gate can be directly implemented with the self-designed quantum encoder circuits, which are probabilistic optical quantum entangler devices and can be achieved using linear optical elements, single-photon superposition state, and quantum dot coupled to optical microcavity. The calculated results indicate that both the success probabilities of the quantum encoder circuit and the N-qubit controlled phase gate in our scheme are higher than those in the previous schemes. We also consider the effects of the side leakage and cavity loss on the success probability and the fidelity of the quantum encoder circuit for a realistic quantum-dot-microcavity coupled system. (letter)
Exact synthesis of three-qubit quantum circuits from non-binary quantum gates
Yang, Guowu; Hung, William N. N.; Song, Xiaoyu; Perkowski, Marek A.
2010-04-01
Because of recent nano-technological advances, nano-structured systems have become highly ordered, making it quantum computing schemas possible. We propose an approach to optimally synthesise quantum circuits from non-permutative quantum gates such as controlled-square-root-of-not (i.e., controlled-V). Our approach reduces the synthesis problem to multiple-valued optimisation and uses group theory. We devise a novel technique that transforms the quantum logic synthesis problem from a multi-valued constrained optimisation problem to a permutable representation. The transformation enables us to use group theory to exploit the symmetric properties of the synthesis problem. Assuming a cost of one for each two-qubit gate, we found all reversible circuits with quantum costs of 4, 5, 6, etc., and give another algorithm to realise these reversible circuits with quantum gates. The approach can be used for both binary permutative deterministic circuits and probabilistic circuits such as controlled random-number generators and hidden Markov models.
Robust control of decoherence in realistic one-qubit quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Protopopescu, V; Perez, R; D'Helon, C; Schmulen, J
2003-01-01
We present an open-loop (bang-bang) scheme to control decoherence in a generic one-qubit quantum gate and implement it in a realistic simulation. The system is consistently described within the spin-boson model, with interactions accounting for both adiabatic and thermal decoherence. The external control is included from the beginning in the Hamiltonian as an independent interaction term. After tracing out the environment modes, reduced equations are obtained for the two-level system in which the effects of both decoherence and external control appear explicitly. The controls are determined exactly from the condition to eliminate decoherence, i.e. to restore unitarity. Numerical simulations show excellent performance and robustness of the proposed control scheme
Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.
Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J
2016-09-20
We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.
Threshold quantum secret sharing based on single qubit
Lu, Changbin; Miao, Fuyou; Meng, Keju; Yu, Yue
2018-03-01
Based on unitary phase shift operation on single qubit in association with Shamir's ( t, n) secret sharing, a ( t, n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme (or ( t, n)-QSS) is proposed to share both classical information and quantum states. The scheme uses decoy photons to prevent eavesdropping and employs the secret in Shamir's scheme as the private value to guarantee the correctness of secret reconstruction. Analyses show it is resistant to typical intercept-and-resend attack, entangle-and-measure attack and participant attacks such as entanglement swapping attack. Moreover, it is easier to realize in physic and more practical in applications when compared with related ones. By the method in our scheme, new ( t, n)-QSS schemes can be easily constructed using other classical ( t, n) secret sharing.
Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits
Cleland, Andrew
Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.
High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R
2011-01-01
We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88 Sr + ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.
High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keselman, A; Glickman, Y; Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Ozeri, R, E-mail: ozeri@weizmann.ac.il [Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
2011-07-15
We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.
Spin Qubits in GaAs Heterostructures and Gating of InAs Nanowires for Lowtemperature Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nissen, Peter Dahl
of the contenders in the race to build a large-scale quantum computer, is such a component, and research aiming to build, manipulate and couple spin qubits is looking at many materials systems to nd one where the requirements for fast control and long coherence time can be combined with ecient coupling between...... distant qubits. This thesis presents electric measurement on two of the materials systems currently at the forefront of the spin qubit race, namely InAs nanowires and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. For the InAs nanowires we investigate dierent gating geometries towards the goal of dening stable quantum...... electrodes induces tunable barriers of up to 0:25 eV. From the temperature dependence of the conductance, the barrier height is extracted and mapped as a function of gate voltage. Top and bottom gates are similar to each other in terms of electrostatic couplings (lever arms 0:10:2 eV=V) and threshold...
Guo, Y. N.; Tian, Q. L.; Mo, Y. F.; Zhang, G. L.; Zeng, K.
2018-04-01
In this paper, we have investigated the preservation of quantum Fisher information (QFI) of a single-qubit system coupled to a common zero temperature reservoir through the addition of noninteracting qubits. The results show that, the QFI is completely protected in both Markovian and non-Markovian regimes by increasing the number of additional qubits. Besides, the phenomena of QFI display monotonic decay or non-monotonic with revival oscillations depending on the number of additional qubits N - 1 in a common dissipative reservoir. If N revival oscillations. Moreover, we extend this model to investigate the effect of additional qubits and the initial conditions of the system on the geometric phase (GP). It is found that, the robustness of GP against the dissipative reservoir has been demonstrated by increasing gradually the number of additional qubits N - 1. Besides, the GP is sensitive to the initial parameter 𝜃, and possesses symmetric in a range regime [0,2 π].
A molecular quantum spin network controlled by a single qubit.
Schlipf, Lukas; Oeckinghaus, Thomas; Xu, Kebiao; Dasari, Durga Bhaktavatsala Rao; Zappe, Andrea; de Oliveira, Felipe Fávaro; Kern, Bastian; Azarkh, Mykhailo; Drescher, Malte; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit
2017-08-01
Scalable quantum technologies require an unprecedented combination of precision and complexity for designing stable structures of well-controllable quantum systems on the nanoscale. It is a challenging task to find a suitable elementary building block, of which a quantum network can be comprised in a scalable way. We present the working principle of such a basic unit, engineered using molecular chemistry, whose collective control and readout are executed using a nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond. The basic unit we investigate is a synthetic polyproline with electron spins localized on attached molecular side groups separated by a few nanometers. We demonstrate the collective readout and coherent manipulation of very few (≤ 6) of these S = 1/2 electronic spin systems and access their direct dipolar coupling tensor. Our results show that it is feasible to use spin-labeled peptides as a resource for a molecular qubit-based network, while at the same time providing simple optical readout of single quantum states through NV magnetometry. This work lays the foundation for building arbitrary quantum networks using well-established chemistry methods, which has many applications ranging from mapping distances in single molecules to quantum information processing.
Superconducting Qubit with Integrated Single Flux Quantum Controller Part I: Theory and Fabrication
Beck, Matthew; Leonard, Edward, Jr.; Thorbeck, Ted; Zhu, Shaojiang; Howington, Caleb; Nelson, Jj; Plourde, Britton; McDermott, Robert
As the size of quantum processors grow, so do the classical control requirements. The single flux quantum (SFQ) Josephson digital logic family offers an attractive route to proximal classical control of multi-qubit processors. Here we describe coherent control of qubits via trains of SFQ pulses. We discuss the fabrication of an SFQ-based pulse generator and a superconducting transmon qubit on a single chip. Sources of excess microwave loss stemming from the complex multilayer fabrication of the SFQ circuit are discussed. We show how to mitigate this loss through judicious choice of process workflow and appropriate use of sacrificial protection layers. Present address: IBM T.J. Watson Research Center.
Joint Remote State Preparation of a Single-Atom Qubit State via a GHZ Entangled State
Xiao, Xiao-Qi; Yao, Fengwei; Lin, Xiaochen; Gong, Lihua
2018-04-01
We proposed a physical protocol for the joint remote preparation of a single-atom qubit state via a three-atom entangled GHZ-type state previously shared by the two senders and one receiver. Only rotation operations of single-atom, which can be achieved though the resonant interaction between the two-level atom and the classical field, are required in the scheme. It shows that the splitting way of the classical information of the secret qubit not only determines the success of reconstruction of the secret qubit, but also influences the operations of the senders.
Bayesian view of single-qubit clocks, and an energy versus accuracy tradeoff
Gopalkrishnan, Manoj; Kandula, Varshith; Sriram, Praveen; Deshpande, Abhishek; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2017-09-01
We bring a Bayesian approach to the analysis of clocks. Using exponential distributions as priors for clocks, we analyze how well one can keep time with a single qubit freely precessing under a magnetic field. We find that, at least with a single qubit, quantum mechanics does not allow exact timekeeping, in contrast to classical mechanics, which does. We find the design of the single-qubit clock that leads to maximum accuracy. Further, we find an energy versus accuracy tradeoff—the energy cost is at least kBT times the improvement in accuracy as measured by the entropy reduction in going from the prior distribution to the posterior distribution. We propose a physical realization of the single-qubit clock using charge transport across a capacitively coupled quantum dot.
Ma, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Gui-Bin; Li, Xiao-Wei; Zhan, You-Bang
2018-05-01
In this paper, we present a scheme for Hierarchically controlled remote preparation of an arbitrary single-qubit state via a four-qubit |χ > state as the quantum channel. In this scheme, a sender wishes to help three agents to remotely prepare a quantum state, respectively. The three agents are divided into two grades, that is, an agent is in the upper grade and other two agents are in the lower grade. It is shown that the agent of the upper grade only needs the assistance of any one of the other two agents for recovering the sender's original state, while an agent of the lower grade needs the collaboration of all the other two agents. In other words, the agents of two grades have different authorities to recover sender's original state.
Quantum routing of single optical photons with a superconducting flux qubit
Xia, Keyu; Jelezko, Fedor; Twamley, Jason
2018-05-01
Interconnecting optical photons with superconducting circuits is a challenging problem but essential for building long-range superconducting quantum networks. We propose a hybrid quantum interface between the microwave and optical domains where the propagation of a single-photon pulse along a nanowaveguide is controlled in a coherent way by tuning the electromagnetically induced transparency window with the quantum state of a flux qubit mediated by the spin in a nanodiamond. The qubit can route a single-photon pulse using the nanodiamond into a quantum superposition of paths without the aid of an optical cavity—simplifying the setup. By preparing the flux qubit in a superposition state our cavityless scheme creates a hybrid state-path entanglement between a flying single optical photon and a static superconducting qubit.
Electrically protected resonant exchange qubits in triple quantum dots.
Taylor, J M; Srinivasa, V; Medford, J
2013-08-02
We present a modulated microwave approach for quantum computing with qubits comprising three spins in a triple quantum dot. This approach includes single- and two-qubit gates that are protected against low-frequency electrical noise, due to an operating point with a narrowband response to high frequency electric fields. Furthermore, existing double quantum dot advances, including robust preparation and measurement via spin-to-charge conversion, are immediately applicable to the new qubit. Finally, the electric dipole terms implicit in the high frequency coupling enable strong coupling with superconducting microwave resonators, leading to more robust two-qubit gates.
High-Dimensional Single-Photon Quantum Gates: Concepts and Experiments.
Babazadeh, Amin; Erhard, Manuel; Wang, Feiran; Malik, Mehul; Nouroozi, Rahman; Krenn, Mario; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-11-03
Transformations on quantum states form a basic building block of every quantum information system. From photonic polarization to two-level atoms, complete sets of quantum gates for a variety of qubit systems are well known. For multilevel quantum systems beyond qubits, the situation is more challenging. The orbital angular momentum modes of photons comprise one such high-dimensional system for which generation and measurement techniques are well studied. However, arbitrary transformations for such quantum states are not known. Here we experimentally demonstrate a four-dimensional generalization of the Pauli X gate and all of its integer powers on single photons carrying orbital angular momentum. Together with the well-known Z gate, this forms the first complete set of high-dimensional quantum gates implemented experimentally. The concept of the X gate is based on independent access to quantum states with different parities and can thus be generalized to other photonic degrees of freedom and potentially also to other quantum systems.
Single-photon two-qubit entangled states: Preparation and measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yoon-Ho
2003-01-01
We implement experimentally a deterministic method to prepare and measure the so-called single-photon two-qubit entangled states or single-photon Bell states, in which the polarization and the spatial modes of a single photon each represent a quantum bit. All four single-photon Bell states can be easily prepared and measured deterministically using linear optical elements alone. We also discuss how this method can be used for the recently proposed single-photon two-qubit quantum cryptography scheme
Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit due to single-photon scattering in a waveguide
Fang, Yao-Lung L.; Ciccarello, Francesco; Baranger, Harold U.
2018-04-01
We investigate the open dynamics of a qubit due to scattering of a single photon in an infinite or semi-infinite waveguide. Through an exact solution of the time-dependent multi-photon scattering problem, we find the qubit's dynamical map. Tools of open quantum systems theory allow us then to show the general features of this map, find the corresponding non-Linbladian master equation, and assess in a rigorous way its non-Markovian nature. The qubit dynamics has distinctive features that, in particular, do not occur in emission processes. Two fundamental sources of non-Markovianity are present: the finite width of the photon wavepacket and the time delay for propagation between the qubit and the end of the semi-infinite waveguide.
Coherent manipulation of a ^{40}Ca^{+} spin qubit in a micro ion trap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poschinger, U.G.; Huber, G.; Ziesel, F.
2009-01-01
the initialization and readout of the qubit levels with 99.5% efficiency. We employ a Raman transition close to the S1/2-P1/2 resonance for coherent manipulation of the qubit. We observe single qubit rotations with 96% fidelity and gate times below 5 µs. Rabi oscillations on the blue motional sideband are used...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crain, S.; Mount, E.; Baek, S.; Kim, J., E-mail: jungsang@duke.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2014-11-03
The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple {sup 171}Yb{sup +} qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (<3×10{sup −4}), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times (<2 μs)
Leonard, Edward, Jr.; Beck, Matthew; Thorbeck, Ted; Zhu, Shaojiang; Howington, Caleb; Nelson, Jj; Plourde, Britton; McDermott, Robert
We describe the characterization of a single flux quantum (SFQ) pulse generator cofabricated with a superconducting quantum circuit on a single chip. Resonant trains of SFQ pulses are used to induce coherent qubit rotations on the Bloch sphere. We describe the SFQ drive characteristics of the qubit at the fundamental transition frequency and at subharmonics (ω01 / n , n = 2 , 3 , 4 , ⋯). We address the issue of quasiparticle poisoning due to the proximal SFQ pulse generator, and we characterize the fidelity of SFQ-based rotations using randomized benchmarking. Present address: IBM T.J. Watson Research Center.
Formation of multipartite entanglement using random quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most, Yonatan; Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer
2007-01-01
The formation of multipartite quantum entanglement by repeated operation of one- and two-qubit gates is examined. The resulting entanglement is evaluated using two measures: the average bipartite entanglement and the Groverian measure. A comparison is made between two geometries of the quantum register: a one-dimensional chain in which two-qubit gates apply only locally between nearest neighbors and a nonlocal geometry in which such gates may apply between any pair of qubits. More specifically, we use a combination of random single-qubit rotations and a fixed two-qubit gate such as the controlled-phase gate. It is found that in the nonlocal geometry the entanglement is generated at a higher rate. In both geometries, the Groverian measure converges to its asymptotic value more slowly than the average bipartite entanglement. These results are expected to have implications on different proposed geometries of future quantum computers with local and nonlocal interactions between the qubits
Entangling quantum-logic gate operated with an ultrabright semiconductor single-photon source.
Gazzano, O; Almeida, M P; Nowak, A K; Portalupi, S L; Lemaître, A; Sagnes, I; White, A G; Senellart, P
2013-06-21
We demonstrate the unambiguous entangling operation of a photonic quantum-logic gate driven by an ultrabright solid-state single-photon source. Indistinguishable single photons emitted by a single semiconductor quantum dot in a micropillar optical cavity are used as target and control qubits. For a source brightness of 0.56 photons per pulse, the measured truth table has an overlap with the ideal case of 68.4±0.5%, increasing to 73.0±1.6% for a source brightness of 0.17 photons per pulse. The gate is entangling: At a source brightness of 0.48, the Bell-state fidelity is above the entangling threshold of 50% and reaches 71.0±3.6% for a source brightness of 0.15.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guilherme Tosi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified 28Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.
Designing Kerr interactions using multiple superconducting qubit types in a single circuit
Elliott, Matthew; Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran
2018-02-01
The engineering of Kerr interactions is of great interest for processing quantum information in multipartite quantum systems and for investigating many-body physics in a complex cavity-qubit network. We study how coupling multiple different types of superconducting qubits to the same cavity modes can be used to modify the self- and cross-Kerr effects acting on the cavities and demonstrate that this type of architecture could be of significant benefit for quantum technologies. Using both analytical perturbation theory results and numerical simulations, we first show that coupling two superconducting qubits with opposite anharmonicities to a single cavity enables the effective self-Kerr interaction to be diminished, while retaining the number splitting effect that enables control and measurement of the cavity field. We demonstrate that this reduction of the self-Kerr effect can maintain the fidelity of coherent states and generalised Schrödinger cat states for much longer than typical coherence times in realistic devices. Next, we find that the cross-Kerr interaction between two cavities can be modified by coupling them both to the same pair of qubit devices. When one of the qubits is tunable in frequency, the strength of entangling interactions between the cavities can be varied on demand, forming the basis for logic operations on the two modes. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of producing an array of cavities and qubits where intermediary and on-site qubits can tune the strength of self- and cross-Kerr interactions across the whole system. This architecture could provide a way to engineer interesting many-body Hamiltonians and be a useful platform for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido
2017-10-01
The goal of this article is to review the progress of three-electron spin qubits from their inception to the state of the art. We direct the main focus towards the exchange-only qubit (Bacon et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1758-61, DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339) and its derived versions, e.g. the resonant exchange (RX) qubit, but we also discuss other qubit implementations using three electron spins. For each three-spin qubit we describe the qubit model, the envisioned physical realization, the implementations of single-qubit operations, as well as the read-out and initialization schemes. Two-qubit gates and decoherence properties are discussed for the RX qubit and the exchange-only qubit, thereby completing the list of requirements for quantum computation for a viable candidate qubit implementation. We start by describing the full system of three electrons in a triple quantum dot, then discuss the charge-stability diagram, restricting ourselves to the relevant subsystem, introduce the qubit states, and discuss important transitions to other charge states (Russ et al 2016 Phys. Rev. B 94 165411). Introducing the various qubit implementations, we begin with the exchange-only qubit (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Laird et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 075403), followed by the RX qubit (Medford et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050501, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502), the spin-charge qubit (Kyriakidis and Burkard 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 115324), and the hybrid qubit (Shi et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 140503, Koh et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 250503, Cao et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 086801, Thorgrimsson et al 2016 arXiv:1611.04945). The main focus will be on the exchange-only qubit and its modification, the RX qubit, whose single-qubit operations are realized by driving the qubit at its resonant frequency in the microwave range similar to electron spin resonance. Two different types of two-qubit operations are presented for the exchange
Ultracoherent operation of spin qubits with superexchange coupling
Rančić, Marko J.; Burkard, Guido
2017-11-01
With the use of nuclear-spin-free materials such as silicon and germanium, spin-based quantum bits (qubits) have evolved to become among the most coherent systems for quantum information processing. The new frontier for spin qubits has therefore shifted to the ubiquitous charge noise and spin-orbit interaction, which are limiting the coherence times and gate fidelities of solid-state qubits. In this paper we investigate superexchange, as a means of indirect exchange interaction between two single electron spin qubits, each embedded in a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD), mediated by an intermediate, empty QD. Our results suggest the existence of "supersweet spots", in which the qubit operations implemented by superexchange interaction are simultaneously first-order-insensitive to charge noise and to errors due to spin-orbit interaction. The proposed spin-qubit architecture is scalable and within the manufacturing capabilities of semiconductor industry.
Two-qubit logical operations in three quantum dots system.
Łuczak, Jakub; Bułka, Bogdan R
2018-06-06
We consider a model of two interacting always-on, exchange-only qubits for which controlled phase (CPHASE), controlled NOT (CNOT), quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and SWAP operations can be implemented only in a few electrical pulses in a nanosecond time scale. Each qubit is built of three quantum dots (TQD) in a triangular geometry with three electron spins which are always kept coupled by exchange interactions only. The qubit states are encoded in a doublet subspace and are fully electrically controlled by a voltage applied to gate electrodes. The two qubit quantum gates are realized by short electrical pulses which change the triangular symmetry of TQD and switch on exchange interaction between the qubits. We found an optimal configuration to implement the CPHASE gate by a single pulse of the order 2.3 ns. Using this gate, in combination with single qubit operations, we searched for optimal conditions to perform the other gates: CNOT, QFT and SWAP. Our studies take into account environment effects and leakage processes as well. The results suggest that the system can be implemented for fault tolerant quantum computations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2018-02-28
Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.
Coupling spin qubits via superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten
2013-01-01
We show how superconductors can be used to couple, initialize, and read out spatially separated spin qubits. When two single-electron quantum dots are tunnel coupled to the same superconductor, the singlet component of the two-electron state partially leaks into the superconductor via crossed...... Andreev reflection. This induces a gate-controlled singlet-triplet splitting which, with an appropriate superconductor geometry, remains large for dot separations within the superconducting coherence length. Furthermore, we show that when two double-dot singlet-triplet qubits are tunnel coupled...... to a superconductor with finite charging energy, crossed Andreev reflection enables a strong two-qubit coupling over distances much larger than the coherence length....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini De, F.; Sciarrino, F.; Sias, C.; Buzek, V.
2003-01-01
On a classical level the information can be represented by bits, each of which can be either 0 or 1. Quantum information, on the other hand, consists of qubits which can be represented as two-level quantum systems with one level labeled |0> and the other |1>. Unlike bits, qubits cannot only be in one of the two levels, but in any superposition of them as well. This superposition principle makes quantum information fundamentally different from its classical counterpart. One of the most striking difference between the classical and quantum information is as follows: it is not a problem to flip a classical bit, i.e., to change the value of a bit, a 0 to a 1 and vice versa. This is accomplished by a NOT gate. Flipping a qubit, however, is another matter: there exists the fundamental bound which prohibits to flip a qubit prepared in an arbitrary state |Ψ>=α|0> and to obtain the state |Ψ T >=β*|0>-α*|1> which is orthogonal to it, i.e., T |Ψ>=0. We experimentally realize the best possible approximation of the qubit flipping that achieves bounds imposed by complete positivity of quantum mechanics
Quantum design rules for single molecule logic gates.
Renaud, N; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2011-08-28
Recent publications have demonstrated how to implement a NOR logic gate with a single molecule using its interaction with two surface atoms as logical inputs [W. Soe et al., ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 1436]. We demonstrate here how this NOR logic gate belongs to the general family of quantum logic gates where the Boolean truth table results from a full control of the quantum trajectory of the electron transfer process through the molecule by very local and classical inputs practiced on the molecule. A new molecule OR gate is proposed for the logical inputs to be also single metal atoms, one per logical input.
Electrochemical Single-Molecule Transistors with Optimized Gate Coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Osorio, Henrry M.; Catarelli, Samantha; Cea, Pilar
2015-01-01
Electrochemical gating at the single molecule level of viologen molecular bridges in ionic liquids is examined. Contrary to previous data recorded in aqueous electrolytes, a clear and sharp peak in the single molecule conductance versus electrochemical potential data is obtained in ionic liquids....... These data are rationalized in terms of a two-step electrochemical model for charge transport across the redox bridge. In this model the gate coupling in the ionic liquid is found to be fully effective with a modeled gate coupling parameter, ξ, of unity. This compares to a much lower gate coupling parameter...
Simultaneous single-shot readout of multi-qubit circuits using a traveling-wave parametric amplifier
O'Brien, Kevin
Observing and controlling the state of ever larger quantum systems is critical for advancing quantum computation. Utilizing a Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA), we demonstrate simultaneous multiplexed single shot readout of 10 transmon qubits in a planar architecture. We employ digital image sideband rejection to eliminate noise at the image frequencies. We quantify crosstalk and infidelity due to simultaneous readout and control of multiple qubits. Based on current amplifier technology, this approach can scale to simultaneous readout of at least 20 qubits. This work was supported by the Army Research Office.
Coupling a single nitrogen-vacancy center with a superconducting qubit via the electro-optic effect
Li, Chang-Hao; Li, Peng-Bo
2018-05-01
We propose an efficient scheme for transferring quantum states and generating entangled states between two qubits of different nature. The hybrid system consists of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and a superconducting (SC) qubit, which couple to an optical cavity and a microwave resonator, respectively. Meanwhile, the optical cavity and the microwave resonator are coupled via the electro-optic effect. By adjusting the relative parameters, we can achieve high-fidelity quantum state transfer as well as highly entangled states between the NV center and the SC qubit. This protocol is within the reach of currently available techniques, and may provide interesting applications in quantum communication and computation with single NV centers and SC qubits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plugge, Stephan; Rasmussen, Asbjørn; Flensberg, Karsten; Egger, Reinhold
2017-01-01
Quantum information protected by the topology of the storage medium is expected to exhibit long coherence times. Another feature is topologically protected gates generated through braiding of Majorana bound states (MBSs). However, braiding requires structures with branched topological segments which have inherent difficulties in the semiconductor–superconductor heterostructures now believed to host MBSs. In this paper, we construct quantum bits taking advantage of the topological protection and non-local properties of MBSs in a network of parallel wires, but without relying on braiding for quantum gates. The elementary unit is made from three topological wires, two wires coupled by a trivial superconductor and the third acting as an interference arm. Coulomb blockade of the combined wires spawns a fractionalized spin, non-locally addressable by quantum dots used for single-qubit readout, initialization, and manipulation. We describe how the same tools allow for measurement-based implementation of the Clifford gates, in total making the architecture universal. Proof-of-principle demonstration of topologically protected qubits using existing techniques is therefore within reach. (fast track communication)
Ultrafast electric phase control of a single exciton qubit
Widhalm, Alex; Mukherjee, Amlan; Krehs, Sebastian; Sharma, Nandlal; Kölling, Peter; Thiede, Andreas; Reuter, Dirk; Förstner, Jens; Zrenner, Artur
2018-03-01
We report on the coherent phase manipulation of quantum dot excitons by electric means. For our experiments, we use a low capacitance single quantum dot photodiode which is electrically controlled by a custom designed SiGe:C BiCMOS chip. The phase manipulation is performed and quantified in a Ramsey experiment, where ultrafast transient detuning of the exciton energy is performed synchronous to double pulse π/2 ps laser excitation. We are able to demonstrate electrically controlled phase manipulations with magnitudes up to 3π within 100 ps which is below the dephasing time of the quantum dot exciton.
Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's
Zoutendyk, John A.
1993-01-01
Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.
Single-atom gating and magnetic interactions in quantum corrals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngo, Anh T.; Kim, Eugene H.; Ulloa, Sergio E.
2017-04-01
Single-atom gating, achieved by manipulation of adatoms on a surface, has been shown in experiments to allow precise control over superposition of electronic states in quantum corrals. Using a Green's function approach, we demonstrate theoretically that such atom gating can also be used to control the coupling between magnetic degrees of freedom in these systems. Atomic gating enables control not only on the direct interaction between magnetic adatoms, but also over superpositions of many-body states which can then control long distance interactions. We illustrate this effect by considering the competition between direct exchange between magnetic impurities and the Kondo screening mediated by the host electrons, and how this is affected by gating. These results suggest that both magnetic and nonmagnetic single-atom gating may be used to investigate magnetic impurity systems with tailored interactions, and may allow the control of entanglement of different spin states.
Environment-assisted error correction of single-qubit phase damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Helm, Julius; Strunz, Walter T.
2011-01-01
Open quantum system dynamics of random unitary type may in principle be fully undone. Closely following the scheme of environment-assisted error correction proposed by Gregoratti and Werner [J. Mod. Opt. 50, 915 (2003)], we explicitly carry out all steps needed to invert a phase-damping error on a single qubit. Furthermore, we extend the scheme to a mixed-state environment. Surprisingly, we find cases for which the uncorrected state is closer to the desired state than any of the corrected ones.
Mean of continuous variables observable via measurement on a single qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horodecki, Pawel
2003-01-01
It is shown that the mean value of any observable with a bounded spectrum can be uniquely determined from binary statistics of the measurement performed on a single-qubit ancilla coupled to a given system. The corresponding positive operator-valued measure fully encodes the observable structure. The method is generalized to the case of distant-laboratory paradigm and is considered in the context of entanglement detection with few local measurements. The results are also discussed in the context of quantum programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallone, G; Pomarico, E; De Martini, F; Mataloni, P
2008-01-01
Four-qubit cluster states of two photons entangled in polarization and linear momentum have been used to realize a complete set of single qubit rotations and the C-NOT gate for equatorial qubits with high values of fidelity. By the computational equivalence of the two degrees of freedom our result demonstrate the suitability of two photon cluster states for rapid and efficient one-way quantum computing
A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon.
Watson, T F; Philips, S G J; Kawakami, E; Ward, D R; Scarlino, P; Veldhorst, M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, M A; Vandersypen, L M K
2018-03-29
Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch-Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm-canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85-89 per cent and concurrences of 73-82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.
A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon
Watson, T. F.; Philips, S. G. J.; Kawakami, E.; Ward, D. R.; Scarlino, P.; Veldhorst, M.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.
2018-03-01
Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm—canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85–89 per cent and concurrences of 73–82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.
Hybrid spin and valley quantum computing with singlet-triplet qubits.
Rohling, Niklas; Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido
2014-10-24
The valley degree of freedom in the electronic band structure of silicon, graphene, and other materials is often considered to be an obstacle for quantum computing (QC) based on electron spins in quantum dots. Here we show that control over the valley state opens new possibilities for quantum information processing. Combining qubits encoded in the singlet-triplet subspace of spin and valley states allows for universal QC using a universal two-qubit gate directly provided by the exchange interaction. We show how spin and valley qubits can be separated in order to allow for single-qubit rotations.
Distributed quantum computing with single photon sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beige, A.; Kwek, L.C.
2005-01-01
Full text: Distributed quantum computing requires the ability to perform nonlocal gate operations between the distant nodes (stationary qubits) of a large network. To achieve this, it has been proposed to interconvert stationary qubits with flying qubits. In contrast to this, we show that distributed quantum computing only requires the ability to encode stationary qubits into flying qubits but not the conversion of flying qubits into stationary qubits. We describe a scheme for the realization of an eventually deterministic controlled phase gate by performing measurements on pairs of flying qubits. Our scheme could be implemented with a linear optics quantum computing setup including sources for the generation of single photons on demand, linear optics elements and photon detectors. In the presence of photon loss and finite detector efficiencies, the scheme could be used to build large cluster states for one way quantum computing with a high fidelity. (author)
Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits.
De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; McMahon, Peter L; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2013-09-01
Single spins in semiconductor quantum dots form a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing. The spin-up and spin-down states of a single electron or hole, trapped inside a quantum dot, can represent a single qubit with a reasonably long decoherence time. The spin qubit can be optically coupled to excited (charged exciton) states that are also trapped in the quantum dot, which provides a mechanism to quickly initialize, manipulate and measure the spin state with optical pulses, and to interface between a stationary matter qubit and a 'flying' photonic qubit for quantum communication and distributed quantum information processing. The interaction of the spin qubit with light may be enhanced by placing the quantum dot inside a monolithic microcavity. An entire system, consisting of a two-dimensional array of quantum dots and a planar microcavity, may plausibly be constructed by modern semiconductor nano-fabrication technology and could offer a path toward chip-sized scalable quantum repeaters and quantum computers. This article reviews the recent experimental developments in optical control of single quantum dot spins for quantum information processing. We highlight demonstrations of a complete set of all-optical single-qubit operations on a single quantum dot spin: initialization, an arbitrary SU(2) gate, and measurement. We review the decoherence and dephasing mechanisms due to hyperfine interaction with the nuclear-spin bath, and show how the single-qubit operations can be combined to perform spin echo sequences that extend the qubit decoherence from a few nanoseconds to several microseconds, more than 5 orders of magnitude longer than the single-qubit gate time. Two-qubit coupling is discussed, both within a single chip by means of exchange coupling of nearby spins and optically induced geometric phases, as well as over longer-distances. Long-distance spin-spin entanglement can be generated if each spin can emit a photon that is entangled
Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco
2017-12-01
The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.
Quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in single-mode cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chen; Chen Qing-Hu
2013-01-01
The dynamics of quantum discord for two identical qubits in two independent single-mode cavities and a common single-mode cavity are discussed. For the initial Bell state with correlated spins, while the entanglement sudden death can occur, the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete moments in the independent cavities and never vanishes in the common cavity. Interestingly, quantum discord and entanglement show opposite behavior in the common cavity, unlike in the independent cavities. For the initial Bell state with anti-correlated spins, quantum discord and entanglement behave in the same way for both independent cavities and a common cavity. It is found that the detunings always stabilize the quantum discord. (general)
Teleportation-based Toffoli gate on cluster states via the Bell state analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Ying; Huang Dazu; Lee, Moon Ho
2013-01-01
An optical Toffoli gate is demonstrated via teleportations on the six-qubit entangling cluster state generated from single-qubit photons. It is implemented on the basis of entanglement swapping of the combined quantum system with three independent Bell state measurements. The output of this gate is then restored by suitable local operations and classical communications. We evaluate the implementing performance of the Toffoli gate fidelity for the operation process in different computational bases. (paper)
Characterization of two-qubit perfect entanglers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezakhani, A.T.
2004-01-01
Here we consider perfect entanglers from another perspective. It is shown that there are some special perfect entanglers which can maximally entangle a full product basis. We explicitly construct a one-parameter family of such entanglers together with the proper product basis that they maximally entangle. This special family of perfect entanglers contains some well-known operators such as controlled-NOT (CNOT) and double-CNOT, but not √(SWAP). In addition, it is shown that all perfect entanglers with entangling power equal to the maximal value (2/9) are also special perfect entanglers. It is proved that the one-parameter family is the only possible set of special perfect entanglers. Also we provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit gate, given a proper special perfect entangler supplemented with single-qubit gates. Such gates are shown to provide a minimum universal gate construction in that just two of them are necessary and sufficient in implementation of a generic two-qubit gate
Song, Ya-Ju; Tan, Qing-Shou; Kuang, Le-Man
2017-03-08
We investigate the possibility to control quantum evolution speed of a single dephasing qubit for arbitrary initial states by the use of periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) pulses. It is indicated that the quantum speed limit time (QSLT) is determined by initial and final quantum coherence of the qubit, as well as the non-Markovianity of the system under consideration during the evolution when the qubit is subjected to a zero-temperature Ohmic-like dephasing reservoir. It is shown that final quantum coherence of the qubit and the non-Markovianity of the system can be modulated by PDD pulses. Our results show that for arbitrary initial states of the dephasing qubit with non-vanishing quantum coherence, PDD pulses can be used to induce potential acceleration of the quantum evolution in the short-time regime, while PDD pulses can lead to potential speedup and slow down in the long-time regime. We demonstrate that the effect of PDD on the QSLT for the Ohmic or sub-Ohmic spectrum (Markovian reservoir) is much different from that for the super-Ohmic spectrum (non-Markovian reservoir).
Proposal of unilateral single-flux-quantum logic gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikaye, H.; Fukaya, N.; Okabe, Y.; Sugamo, T.
1985-01-01
A new type of single flux quantum logic gate is proposed, which can perform unilateral propagation of signal without using three-phase clock. This gate is designed to be built with bridge-type Josephson junctions. A basic logic gate consists of two one-junction interferometers coupled by superconducting interconnecting lines, and the logical states are represented by zero or one quantized fluxoid in one of one-junction interferometers. The bias current of the unequal magnitude to each of the two one-junction interferometers results in unilateral signal flow. By adjusting design parameters such as the ratio of the critical current of Josephson junctions and the inductances, circuits with the noise immunity of greater than 50% with respect to the bias current have been designed. Three cascaded gates were modeled and simulated on a computer, and the unilateral signal flow was confirmed. The simulation also shows that a switching delay about 2 picoseconds is feasible
Tunable coupling between fixed-frequency superconducting transmon qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filipp, Stefan [IBM Research Zurich, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland); McKay, David C.; Magesan, Easwar; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Chow, Jerry M.; Gambetta, Jay M. [IBM TJ Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)
2016-07-01
The controlled realization of qubit-qubit interactions is essential for both the physical implementation of quantum error-correction codes and for reliable quantum simulations. Ideally, the fidelity and speed of corresponding two-qubit gate operations is comparable to those of single qubit operations. In particular, in a scalable superconducting qubit architecture coherence must not be compromised by the presence of additional coupling elements mediating the interaction between qubits. Here we present a coupling method between fixed-frequency transmon qubits based on the frequency modulation of an auxiliary circuit coupling to the individual transmons. Since the coupler remains in its ground state at all times, its coherence does not significantly influence the fidelity of consequent entangling operations. Moreover, with the possibility to create interactions along different directions, our method is suited to engineer Hamiltonians with adjustable coupling terms. This property can be utilized for quantum simulations of spins or fermions in transmon arrays, in which pairwise couplings between adjacent qubits can be activated on demand.
Assessment of a quantum phase-gate operation based on nonlinear optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebic, S.; Ottaviani, C.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.
2006-01-01
We analyze in detail the proposal for a two-qubit gate for travelling single-photon qubits recently presented by Ottaviani et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 010301(R) (2006)]. The scheme is based on an ensemble of five-level atoms coupled to two quantum and two classical light fields. The two quantum fields undergo cross-phase modulation induced by electromagnetically induced transparency. The performance of this two-qubit quantum phase gate for travelling single-photon qubits is thoroughly examined in the steady-state and transient regimes, by means of a full quantum treatment of the system dynamics. In the steady-state regime, we find a general trade-off between the size of the conditional phase shift and the fidelity of the gate operation. However, this trade-off can be bypassed in the transient regime, where a satisfactory gate operation is found to be possible, significantly reducing the gate operation time
Electrochemically-gated single-molecule electrical devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Shaoyin; Artés, Juan Manuel; Díez-Pérez, Ismael
2013-01-01
In the last decade, single-molecule electrical contacts have emerged as a new experimental platform that allows exploring charge transport phenomena in individual molecular blocks. This novel tool has evolved into an essential element within the Molecular Electronics field to understand charge transport processes in hybrid (bio)molecule/electrode interfaces at the nanoscale, and prospect the implementation of active molecular components into functional nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Within this area, three-terminal single-molecule devices have been sought, provided that they are highly desired to achieve full functionality in logic electronic circuits. Despite the latest experimental developments offer consistent methods to bridge a molecule between two electrodes (source and drain in a transistor notation), placing a third electrode (gate) close to the single-molecule electrical contact is still technically challenging. In this vein, electrochemically-gated single-molecule devices have emerged as an experimentally affordable alternative to overcome these technical limitations. In this review, the operating principle of an electrochemically-gated single-molecule device is presented together with the latest experimental methodologies to built them and characterize their charge transport characteristics. Then, an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the most prominent examples will be given, emphasizing on the relationship between the molecular structure and the final device electrical behaviour
Intrinsic errors in transporting a single-spin qubit through a double quantum dot
Li, Xiao; Barnes, Edwin; Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.
2017-07-01
Coherent spatial transport or shuttling of a single electron spin through semiconductor nanostructures is an important ingredient in many spintronic and quantum computing applications. In this work we analyze the possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to leakage in transporting a single-spin qubit through a semiconductor double quantum dot. In particular, we consider three possible sources of leakage errors associated with such transport: finite ramping times, spin-dependent tunneling rates between quantum dots induced by finite spin-orbit couplings, and the presence of multiple valley states. In each case we present quantitative estimates of the leakage errors, and discuss how they can be minimized. The emphasis of this work is on how to deal with the errors intrinsic to the ideal semiconductor structure, such as leakage due to spin-orbit couplings, rather than on errors due to defects or noise sources. In particular, we show that in order to minimize leakage errors induced by spin-dependent tunnelings, it is necessary to apply pulses to perform certain carefully designed spin rotations. We further develop a formalism that allows one to systematically derive constraints on the pulse shapes and present a few examples to highlight the advantage of such an approach.
A single nano cantilever as a reprogrammable universal logic gate
Chappanda, K. N.
2017-02-24
The current transistor-based computing circuits use multiple interconnected transistors to realize a single Boolean logic gate. This leads to higher power requirements and delayed computing. Transistors are not suitable for applications in harsh environments and require complicated thermal management systems due to excessive heat dissipation. Also, transistor circuits lack the ability to dynamically reconfigure their functionality in real time, which is desirable for enhanced computing capability. Further, the miniaturization of transistors to improve computational power is reaching its ultimate physical limits. As a step towards overcoming the limitations of transistor-based computing, here we demonstrate a reprogrammable universal Boolean logic gate based on a nanoelectromechanical cantilever (NC) oscillator. The fundamental XOR, AND, NOR, OR and NOT logic gates are condensed in a single NC, thereby reducing electrical interconnects between devices. The device is dynamically switchable between any logic gates at the same drive frequency without the need for any change in the circuit. It is demonstrated to operate at elevated temperatures minimizing the need for thermal management systems. It has a tunable bandwidth of 5 MHz enabling parallel and dynamically reconfigurable logic device for enhanced computing.
A single nano cantilever as a reprogrammable universal logic gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chappanda, K N; Ilyas, S; Kazmi, S N R; Younis, M I; Holguin-Lerma, J; Batra, N M; Costa, P M F J
2017-01-01
The current transistor-based computing circuits use multiple interconnected transistors to realize a single Boolean logic gate. This leads to higher power requirements and delayed computing. Transistors are not suitable for applications in harsh environments and require complicated thermal management systems due to excessive heat dissipation. Also, transistor circuits lack the ability to dynamically reconfigure their functionality in real time, which is desirable for enhanced computing capability. Further, the miniaturization of transistors to improve computational power is reaching its ultimate physical limits. As a step towards overcoming the limitations of transistor-based computing, here we demonstrate a reprogrammable universal Boolean logic gate based on a nanoelectromechanical cantilever (NC) oscillator. The fundamental XOR, AND, NOR, OR and NOT logic gates are condensed in a single NC, thereby reducing electrical interconnects between devices. The device is dynamically switchable between any logic gates at the same drive frequency without the need for any change in the circuit. It is demonstrated to operate at elevated temperatures minimizing the need for thermal management systems. It has a tunable bandwidth of 5 MHz enabling parallel and dynamically reconfigurable logic device for enhanced computing. (paper)
Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a spin qubit.
Petersson, K D; McFaul, L W; Schroer, M D; Jung, M; Taylor, J M; Houck, A A; Petta, J R
2012-10-18
Electron spins trapped in quantum dots have been proposed as basic building blocks of a future quantum processor. Although fast, 180-picosecond, two-quantum-bit (two-qubit) operations can be realized using nearest-neighbour exchange coupling, a scalable, spin-based quantum computing architecture will almost certainly require long-range qubit interactions. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) allows spatially separated superconducting qubits to interact via a superconducting microwave cavity that acts as a 'quantum bus', making possible two-qubit entanglement and the implementation of simple quantum algorithms. Here we combine the cQED architecture with spin qubits by coupling an indium arsenide nanowire double quantum dot to a superconducting cavity. The architecture allows us to achieve a charge-cavity coupling rate of about 30 megahertz, consistent with coupling rates obtained in gallium arsenide quantum dots. Furthermore, the strong spin-orbit interaction of indium arsenide allows us to drive spin rotations electrically with a local gate electrode, and the charge-cavity interaction provides a measurement of the resulting spin dynamics. Our results demonstrate how the cQED architecture can be used as a sensitive probe of single-spin physics and that a spin-cavity coupling rate of about one megahertz is feasible, presenting the possibility of long-range spin coupling via superconducting microwave cavities.
Characterizing a four-qubit planar lattice for arbitrary error detection
Chow, Jerry M.; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Magesan, Easwar; Córcoles, A. D.; Abraham, David W.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Steffen, Matthias
2015-05-01
Quantum error correction will be a necessary component towards realizing scalable quantum computers with physical qubits. Theoretically, it is possible to perform arbitrarily long computations if the error rate is below a threshold value. The two-dimensional surface code permits relatively high fault-tolerant thresholds at the ~1% level, and only requires a latticed network of qubits with nearest-neighbor interactions. Superconducting qubits have continued to steadily improve in coherence, gate, and readout fidelities, to become a leading candidate for implementation into larger quantum networks. Here we describe characterization experiments and calibration of a system of four superconducting qubits arranged in a planar lattice, amenable to the surface code. Insights into the particular qubit design and comparison between simulated parameters and experimentally determined parameters are given. Single- and two-qubit gate tune-up procedures are described and results for simultaneously benchmarking pairs of two-qubit gates are given. All controls are eventually used for an arbitrary error detection protocol described in separate work [Corcoles et al., Nature Communications, 6, 2015].
Georgiev, Lachezar S.
2006-12-01
We extend the topological quantum computation scheme using the Pfaffian quantum Hall state, which has been recently proposed by Das Sarma , in a way that might potentially allow for the topologically protected construction of a universal set of quantum gates. We construct, for the first time, a topologically protected controlled-NOT gate, which is entirely based on quasihole braidings of Pfaffian qubits. All single-qubit gates, except for the π/8 gate, are also explicitly implemented by quasihole braidings. Instead of the π/8 gate we try to construct a topologically protected Toffoli gate, in terms of the controlled-phase gate and CNOT or by a braid-group-based controlled-controlled- Z precursor. We also give a topologically protected realization of the Bravyi-Kitaev two-qubit gate g3 .
Rational design of single-ion magnets and spin qubits based on mononuclear lanthanoid complexes.
Baldoví, José J; Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Palii, Andrew
2012-11-19
Here we develop a general approach to calculating the energy spectrum and the wave functions of the low-lying magnetic levels of a lanthanoid ion submitted to the crystal field created by the surrounding ligands. This model allows us to propose general criteria for the rational design of new mononuclear lanthanoid complexes behaving as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) or acting as robust spin qubits. Three typical environments exhibited by these metal complexes are considered, namely, (a) square antiprism, (b) triangular dodecahedron, and (c) trigonal prism. The developed model is used to explain the properties of some representative examples showing these geometries. Key questions in this area, such as the chemical tailoring of the superparamagnetic energy barrier, tunneling gap, or spin relaxation time, are discussed. Finally, in order to take into account delocalization and/or covalent effects of the ligands, this point-charge model is complemented with ab initio calculations, which provide accurate information on the charge distribution around the metal, allowing for an explanation of the SMM behavior displayed by some sandwich-type organometallic compounds.
Lai, Yen-Yu; Lin, Guin-Dar; Twamley, Jason; Goan, Hsi-Sheng
2018-05-01
We propose a quantum memory scheme to transfer and store the quantum state of a superconducting flux qubit (FQ) into the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond via yttrium iron garnet (YIG), a ferromagnet. Unlike an ensemble of NV centers, the YIG moderator can enhance the effective FQ-NV-center coupling strength without introducing additional appreciable decoherence. We derive the effective interaction between the FQ and the NV center by tracing out the degrees of freedom of the collective mode of the YIG spins. We demonstrate the transfer, storage, and retrieval procedures, taking into account the effects of spontaneous decay and pure dephasing. Using realistic experimental parameters for the FQ, NV center and YIG, we find that a combined transfer, storage, and retrieval fidelity higher than 0.9, with a long storage time of 10 ms, can be achieved. This hybrid system not only acts as a promising quantum memory, but also provides an example of enhanced coupling between various systems through collective degrees of freedom.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, Bich Ha; Duong, Hai Trieu
2010-01-01
For application to studying the transmission of quantum information, also called quantum communication, between two identical qubits placed inside two identical single-mode microcavities connected via a single-mode optical fiber, the time evolution of this system is investigated. In the Markovian approximation, the von Neumann equation for its reduced density matrix contains a completely positive linear operator called the Liouvillian operator describing the decoherence of this system due to its interaction with the environment. By using the Linblad formula for the Liouvillian operator, a system of rate equations can be derived. In the special case of resonance between the energy difference of two states in each qubit and the energy of the fiber mode, the rate equations for the system excited up to the first level are solved in first order approximation with respect to the decoherence constants. It is shown that when there is no decoherence, the perfect quantum state transmission between two qubits can take place if the physical parameters of the system satisfy definite conditions. A possible extension to studying the system excited to high energy states is also discussed
Ateto, M. S.
2017-11-01
The nonlinear time-dependent two-photon Hamiltonian of a couple of classically pumped independent qubits is analytically solved, and the corresponding time evolution unitary operator, in an exact form, is derived. Using the concurrence, entanglement dynamics between the qubits under the influence of a wide range of effective parameters are examined and, in detail, analyzed. Observations analysis is documented with aid of the field phase-space distribution Wigner function. A couple of initial qubit states is considered, namely similar excited states and a Bell-like pure state. It is demonstrated that an initial Bell-like pure state is as well typical initial qubits setting for robust, regular and a high degree of entanglement. Moreover, it is established that high-constant Kerr media represent an effective tool for generating periodical entanglement at fixed time cycles of maxima reach unity forever when qubits are initially in a Bell-like pure state. Further, it is showed that the medium strength of the classical pumping stimulates efficiently qubits entanglement, specially, when the interaction occurs off resonantly. However, the high-intensity pumping thermalizes the coherent distribution of photons, thus, the least photons number is used and, hence, the least minimum degree of qubits entanglement could be created. Furthermore, when the cavity field and external pumping are detuned, the external pumping acts like an auxiliary effective frequency for the cavity, as a result, the field Gaussian distribution acquires linear chirps, and consequently, more entanglement revivals appear in the same cycle during timescale.
A Single MEMS Resonator for Reconfigurable Multifunctional Logic Gates
Tella, Sherif Adekunle
2018-04-30
Despite recent efforts toward true electromechanical resonator-based computing, achieving complex logics functions through cascading micro resonators has been deterred by challenges involved in their interconnections and the large required array of resonators. In this work we present a single micro electromechanical resonator with two outputs that enables the realization of multifunctional logic gates as well as other complex logic operations. As examples, we demonstrate the realization of the fundamental 2-bit logic gates of OR, XOR, AND, NOR, and a half adder. The device is based on a compound resonator consisting of a clamped-guided electrostatically actuated arch beam that is attached to another resonant beam from the side, which serves as an additional actuation electrode for the arch. The structure is also provided with an additional electrothermal tuning capability. The logic operations are based on the linear frequency modulations of the arch resonator and side microbeam. The device is compatible with CMOS fabrication process and works at room temperature
A Single MEMS Resonator for Reconfigurable Multifunctional Logic Gates
Tella, Sherif Adekunle; Alcheikh, Nouha; Younis, Mohammad I.
2018-01-01
Despite recent efforts toward true electromechanical resonator-based computing, achieving complex logics functions through cascading micro resonators has been deterred by challenges involved in their interconnections and the large required array of resonators. In this work we present a single micro electromechanical resonator with two outputs that enables the realization of multifunctional logic gates as well as other complex logic operations. As examples, we demonstrate the realization of the fundamental 2-bit logic gates of OR, XOR, AND, NOR, and a half adder. The device is based on a compound resonator consisting of a clamped-guided electrostatically actuated arch beam that is attached to another resonant beam from the side, which serves as an additional actuation electrode for the arch. The structure is also provided with an additional electrothermal tuning capability. The logic operations are based on the linear frequency modulations of the arch resonator and side microbeam. The device is compatible with CMOS fabrication process and works at room temperature
Efficient Nonlocal M-Control and N-Target Controlled Unitary Gate Using Non-symmetric GHZ States
Chen, Li-Bing; Lu, Hong
2018-03-01
Efficient local implementation of a nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate is considered. We first show that with the assistance of two non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, a nonlocal 2-control and N-target controlled unitary gate can be constructed from 2 local two-qubit CNOT gates, 2 N local two-qutrit conditional SWAP gates, N local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gates, and 2 N single-qutrit gates. At each target node, the two third levels of the two GHZ target qutrits are used to expose one and only one initial computational state to the local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gate, instead of being used to hide certain states from the conditional dynamics. This scheme can be generalized straightforwardly to implement a higher-order nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate by using M non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) GHZ states as quantum channels. Neither the number of the additional levels of each GHZ target particle nor that of single-qutrit gates needs to increase with M. For certain realistic physical systems, the total gate time may be reduced compared with that required in previous schemes.
2017-02-15
mth iteration, we add data from gate sequences of length 2(m 1) into the pool, then numerically adjust the estimate to minimize the w2 divergence ...infidelity alone is hard. Threshold theorems against general errors (arbitrary CP maps) are stated in terms of the diamond norm distance between the
Simple non-Markovian microscopic models for the depolarizing channel of a single qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca Romero, K M; Lo Franco, R
2012-01-01
The archetypal one-qubit noisy channels - depolarizing, phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels - describe both Markovian and non-Markovian evolution. Simple microscopic models for the depolarizing channel, both classical and quantum, are considered. Microscopic models that describe phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels are briefly reviewed.
Hybrid Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics: Coupling a Single Silicon Spin Qubit to a Photon
2015-01-01
776 (2008). 14. M. Pioro-Ladriere, Y. Tokura, T. Obata, T. Kubo , S. Tarucha, Micromagnets for coherent control of spin-charge qubit in lateral...slanting Zeeman field. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 047202 (2006). 16. Y. Kubo et al., Strong coupling of a spin ensemble to a superconducting resonator. Phys
Experimental study of single event burnout and single event gate rupture in power MOSFETs and IGBT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Benqi; Wang Yanping; Geng Bin
2001-01-01
An experimental study was carried out to determine the single event burnout and single event gate rupture sensitivities in power MOSFETs and IGBT which were exposed to heavy ions from 252 Cf source. The test method, test results, a description of observed burnout current waveforms and a discussion of a possible failure mechanism were presented. Current measurements have been performed with a specially designed circuit. The test results include the observed dependence upon applied drain or gate to source bias and versus with external capacitors and limited resistors
Universal Fault-Tolerant Gates on Concatenated Stabilizer Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Theodore J. Yoder
2016-09-01
Full Text Available It is an oft-cited fact that no quantum code can support a set of fault-tolerant logical gates that is both universal and transversal. This no-go theorem is generally responsible for the interest in alternative universality constructions including magic state distillation. Widely overlooked, however, is the possibility of nontransversal, yet still fault-tolerant, gates that work directly on small quantum codes. Here, we demonstrate precisely the existence of such gates. In particular, we show how the limits of nontransversality can be overcome by performing rounds of intermediate error correction to create logical gates on stabilizer codes that use no ancillas other than those required for syndrome measurement. Moreover, the logical gates we construct, the most prominent examples being Toffoli and controlled-controlled-Z, often complete universal gate sets on their codes. We detail such universal constructions for the smallest quantum codes, the 5-qubit and 7-qubit codes, and then proceed to generalize the approach. One remarkable result of this generalization is that any nondegenerate stabilizer code with a complete set of fault-tolerant single-qubit Clifford gates has a universal set of fault-tolerant gates. Another is the interaction of logical qubits across different stabilizer codes, which, for instance, implies a broadly applicable method of code switching.
Unimolecular Logic Gate with Classical Input by Single Gold Atoms.
Skidin, Dmitry; Faizy, Omid; Krüger, Justus; Eisenhut, Frank; Jancarik, Andrej; Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Gourdon, Andre; Moresco, Francesca; Joachim, Christian
2018-02-27
By a combination of solution and on-surface chemistry, we synthesized an asymmetric starphene molecule with two long anthracenyl input branches and a short naphthyl output branch on the Au(111) surface. Starting from this molecule, we could demonstrate the working principle of a single molecule NAND logic gate by selectively contacting single gold atoms by atomic manipulation to the longer branches of the molecule. The logical input "1" ("0") is defined by the interaction (noninteraction) of a gold atom with one of the input branches. The output is measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy following the shift in energy of the electronic tunneling resonances at the end of the short branch of the molecule.
Single-Molecule Electrochemical Gating in Ionic Liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kay, Nicola J.; Higgins, Simon J.; Jeppesen, Jan O.
2012-01-01
The single-molecular conductance of a redox active molecular bridge has been studied in an electrochemical single-molecule transistor configuration in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). The redox active pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (pTTF) moiety was attached to gold contacts at both ends through...... −(CH2)6S– groups, and gating of the redox state was achieved with the electrochemical potential. The water-free, room-temperature, ionic liquid environment enabled both the monocationic and the previously inaccessible dicationic redox states of the pTTF moiety to be studied in the in situ scanning...... and decreases again as the second redox process is passed. This is described as an “off–on–off–on–off” conductance switching behavior. This molecular conductance vs electrochemical potential relation could be modeled well as a sequential two-step charge transfer process with full or partial vibrational...
Quantum gates by inverse engineering of a Hamiltonian
Santos, Alan C.
2018-01-01
Inverse engineering of a Hamiltonian (IEH) from an evolution operator is a useful technique for the protocol of quantum control with potential applications in quantum information processing. In this paper we introduce a particular protocol to perform IEH and we show how this scheme can be used to implement a set of quantum gates by using minimal quantum resources (such as entanglement, interactions between more than two qubits or auxiliary qubits). Remarkably, while previous protocols request three-qubit interactions and/or auxiliary qubits to implement such gates, our protocol requires just two-qubit interactions and no auxiliary qubits. By using this approach we can obtain a large class of Hamiltonians that allow us to implement single and two-qubit gates necessary for quantum computation. To conclude this article we analyze the performance of our scheme against systematic errors related to amplitude noise, where we show that the free parameters introduced in our scheme can be useful for enhancing the robustness of the protocol against such errors.
Troiani, Filippo; Affronte, Marco; Carretta, Stefano; Santini, Paolo; Amoretti, Giuseppe
2005-05-20
We propose a scheme for the implementation of quantum gates which is based on the qubit encoding in antiferromagnetic molecular rings. We show that a proper engineering of the intercluster link would result in an effective coupling that vanishes as far as the system is kept in the computational space, while it is turned on by a selective excitation of specific auxiliary states. These are also shown to allow the performing of single-qubit and two-qubit gates without an individual addressing of the rings by means of local magnetic fields.
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S; Tanner, Michael G; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-11-24
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.
Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asano, Masanari; Tateda, Norihiro; Ishii, Chikara
2004-01-01
Multiqubit logical gates are proposed as implementations of logical operations on N qubits realized physically by the local manipulation of qubits before and after the one-time evolution of an Ising chain. This construction avoids complicated tuning of the interactions between qubits. The general rules of the action of multiqubit logical gates are derived by decomposing the process into the product of two-qubit logical operations. The formalism is demonstrated by the construction of a special type of multiqubit logical gate that is simulated by a quantum circuit composed of controlled-NOT gates
High coherence plane breaking packaging for superconducting qubits
Bronn, Nicholas T.; Adiga, Vivekananda P.; Olivadese, Salvatore B.; Wu, Xian; Chow, Jerry M.; Pappas, David P.
2018-04-01
We demonstrate a pogo pin package for a superconducting quantum processor specifically designed with a nontrivial layout topology (e.g., a center qubit that cannot be accessed from the sides of the chip). Two experiments on two nominally identical superconducting quantum processors in pogo packages, which use commercially available parts and require modest machining tolerances, are performed at low temperature (10 mK) in a dilution refrigerator and both found to behave comparably to processors in standard planar packages with wirebonds where control and readout signals come in from the edges. Single- and two-qubit gate errors are also characterized via randomized benchmarking, exhibiting similar error rates as in standard packages, opening the possibility of integrating pogo pin packaging with extensible qubit architectures.
Encoding qubits into oscillators with atomic ensembles and squeezed light
Motes, Keith R.; Baragiola, Ben Q.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Menicucci, Nicolas C.
2017-05-01
The Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) encoding of a qubit within an oscillator provides a number of advantages when used in a fault-tolerant architecture for quantum computing, most notably that Gaussian operations suffice to implement all single- and two-qubit Clifford gates. The main drawback of the encoding is that the logical states themselves are challenging to produce. Here we present a method for generating optical GKP-encoded qubits by coupling an atomic ensemble to a squeezed state of light. Particular outcomes of a subsequent spin measurement of the ensemble herald successful generation of the resource state in the optical mode. We analyze the method in terms of the resources required (total spin and amount of squeezing) and the probability of success. We propose a physical implementation using a Faraday-based quantum nondemolition interaction.
Qubit rotation and Berry phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, D.; Bandyopadhyay, P.
2005-11-01
A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has the spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them results the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states. (author)
Qubit rotation and Berry phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Dipti; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul
2006-01-01
A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has a spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them allows the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states
Maurand, R.; Jehl, X.; Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Bohuslavskyi, H.; Laviéville, R.; Hutin, L.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; de Franceschi, S.
2016-11-01
Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.
Single-Shot Readout of a Superconducting Qubit using a Josephson Parametric Oscillator
2016-01-11
system and ap- ply a strong drive tone, such that the resonator enters a bistable regime, hence enhancing the detection con- trast [10–14]. In this paper ...fidelity of 98.7 ± 1.2%, taking into account known and reparable errors due to qubit initial- isation and decoherence (17.2 ± 1.2 %). A realistically...ωr ≈ ωp/2, which is a practical advantage since it makes the resonator’s entire instantaneous bandwidth available for amplification with no need to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Hai-Rui, E-mail: hrwei@ustb.edu.cn; Liu, Ji-Zhen
2017-02-15
It is very important to seek an efficient and robust quantum algorithm demanding less quantum resources. We propose one-photon three-qubit original and refined Deutsch–Jozsa algorithms with polarization and two linear momentums degrees of freedom (DOFs). Our schemes are constructed by solely using linear optics. Compared to the traditional ones with one DOF, our schemes are more economic and robust because the necessary photons are reduced from three to one. Our linear-optic schemes are working in a determinate way, and they are feasible with current experimental technology.
Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki
2002-01-01
Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given
Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slepoy, Alexander
2006-07-01
Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.
Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits
Kim, Dohun
2015-03-01
The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-01-01
We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed
Controlled Quantum Operations of a Semiconductor Three-Qubit System
Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Yu, Guo-Dong; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping
2018-02-01
In a specially designed semiconductor device consisting of three capacitively coupled double quantum dots, we achieve strong and tunable coupling between a target qubit and two control qubits. We demonstrate how to completely switch on and off the target qubit's coherent rotations by presetting two control qubits' states. A Toffoli gate is, therefore, possible based on these control effects. This research paves a way for realizing full quantum-logic operations in semiconductor multiqubit systems.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira
2017-09-22
We propose a scalable scheme for optical quantum computing using measurement-induced continuous-variable quantum gates in a loop-based architecture. Here, time-bin-encoded quantum information in a single spatial mode is deterministically processed in a nested loop by an electrically programmable gate sequence. This architecture can process any input state and an arbitrary number of modes with almost minimum resources, and offers a universal gate set for both qubits and continuous variables. Furthermore, quantum computing can be performed fault tolerantly by a known scheme for encoding a qubit in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of a single light mode.
Exact gate sequences for universal quantum computation using the XY interaction alone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kempe, J.; Whaley, K.B.
2002-01-01
In a previous publication [J. Kempe et al., Quantum Computation and Information (Rinton Press, Princeton, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, special issue, p. 33] we showed that it is possible to implement universal quantum computation with the anisotropic XY-Heisenberg exchange acting as a single interaction. To achieve this we used encodings of the states of the computation into a larger Hilbert space. This proof is nonconstructive, however, and did not explicitly give the trade-offs in time that are required to implement encoded single-qubit operations and encoded two-qubit gates. Here we explicitly give the gate sequences needed to simulate these operations on encoded qubits and qutrits (three-level systems) and analyze the trade-offs involved. We also propose a possible layout for the qubits in a triangular arrangement
Single photon SWAP gate using electromagnetically induced transparency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yavuz, D.D.
2005-01-01
We describe a scheme that performs a SWAP gate between two photons at different wavelengths with near 100% fidelity. The essential idea is the preparation of a near-maximal atomic coherence using electromagnetically induced transparency
Simulation of a quantum NOT gate for a single qutrit system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In order to achieve a quantum NOT gate for a single qutrit, the respective Schrödinger equation is solved numerically within a two-photon rotating wave approximation. For small values of one-photon detuning, there appear decoherence effects. Meanwhile, for large values of onephoton detuning, an ideal quantum NOT gate ...
An Updated Perspective of Single Event Gate Rupture and Single Event Burnout in Power MOSFETs
Titus, Jeffrey L.
2013-06-01
Studies over the past 25 years have shown that heavy ions can trigger catastrophic failure modes in power MOSFETs [e.g., single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB)]. In 1996, two papers were published in a special issue of the IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science [Johnson, Palau, Dachs, Galloway and Schrimpf, “A Review of the Techniques Used for Modeling Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 546-560, April. 1996], [Titus and Wheatley, “Experimental Studies of Single-Event Gate Rupture and Burnout in Vertical Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 533-545, Apr. 1996]. Those two papers continue to provide excellent information and references with regard to SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs. This paper provides updated references/information and provides an updated perspective of SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs as well as provides references/information to other device types that exhibit SEB and SEGR effects.
Speed limits for quantum gates in multiqubit systems
Ashhab, S.; De Groot, P.C.; Nori, F.
2012-01-01
We use analytical and numerical calculations to obtain speed limits for various unitary quantum operations in multiqubit systems under typical experimental conditions. The operations that we consider include single-, two-, and three-qubit gates, as well as quantum-state transfer in a chain of
Tackling systematic errors in quantum logic gates with composite rotations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummins, Holly K.; Llewellyn, Gavin; Jones, Jonathan A.
2003-01-01
We describe the use of composite rotations to combat systematic errors in single-qubit quantum logic gates and discuss three families of composite rotations which can be used to correct off-resonance and pulse length errors. Although developed and described within the context of nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing, these sequences should be applicable to any implementation of quantum computation
Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel.
Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen
2018-02-01
Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na + /K + -ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K + -battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.
Free energy dissipation of the spontaneous gating of a single voltage-gated potassium channel
Wang, Jia-Zeng; Wang, Rui-Zhen
2018-02-01
Potassium channels mainly contribute to the resting potential and re-polarizations, with the potassium electrochemical gradient being maintained by the pump Na+/K+-ATPase. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model mimicking the kinetics of a potassium channel, which integrates temporal evolving of the membrane voltage and the spontaneous gating of the channel. Its stationary probability density functions (PDFs) are found to be singular at the boundaries, which result from the fact that the evolving rates of voltage are greater than the gating rates of the channel. We apply PDFs to calculate the power dissipations of the potassium current, the leakage, and the gating currents. On a physical perspective, the essential role of the system is the K+-battery charging the leakage (L-)battery. A part of power will inevitably be dissipated among the process. So, the efficiency of energy transference is calculated.
Exact dimension estimation of interacting qubit systems assisted by a single quantum probe
Sone, Akira; Cappellaro, Paola
2017-12-01
Estimating the dimension of an Hilbert space is an important component of quantum system identification. In quantum technologies, the dimension of a quantum system (or its corresponding accessible Hilbert space) is an important resource, as larger dimensions determine, e.g., the performance of quantum computation protocols or the sensitivity of quantum sensors. Despite being a critical task in quantum system identification, estimating the Hilbert space dimension is experimentally challenging. While there have been proposals for various dimension witnesses capable of putting a lower bound on the dimension from measuring collective observables that encode correlations, in many practical scenarios, especially for multiqubit systems, the experimental control might not be able to engineer the required initialization, dynamics, and observables. Here we propose a more practical strategy that relies not on directly measuring an unknown multiqubit target system, but on the indirect interaction with a local quantum probe under the experimenter's control. Assuming only that the interaction model is given and the evolution correlates all the qubits with the probe, we combine a graph-theoretical approach and realization theory to demonstrate that the system dimension can be exactly estimated from the model order of the system. We further analyze the robustness in the presence of background noise of the proposed estimation method based on realization theory, finding that despite stringent constrains on the allowed noise level, exact dimension estimation can still be achieved.
Controlled release of cavity states into propagating modes induced via a single qubit
Pfaff, Wolfgang; Constantin, Marius; Reagor, Matthew; Axline, Christopher; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Ofek, Nissim; Sliwa, Katrina; Frunzio, Luigi; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Lehnert, Konrad; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, Michel; Schoelkopf, Robert
Photonic states stored in long-lived cavities are a promising platform for scalable quantum computing and for the realization of quantum networks. An important aspect in such a cavity-based architecture will be the controlled conversion of stored photonic states into propagating ones. This will allow, for instance, quantum state transfer between remote cavities. We demonstrate the controlled release of quantum states from a microwave resonator with millisecond lifetime in a 3D circuit QED system. Dispersive coupling of the cavity to a transmon qubit allows us to enable a four-wave mixing process that transfers the stored state into a second resonator from which it can leave the system through a transmission line. This permits us to evacuate the cavity on time scales that are orders of magnitude faster than the intrinsic lifetime. This Q-switching process can in principle be fully coherent, making our system highly promising for quantum state transfer between nodes in a quantum network of high-Q cavities.
Experimental realization of quantum cheque using a five-qubit quantum computer
Behera, Bikash K.; Banerjee, Anindita; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2017-12-01
Quantum cheques could be a forgery-free way to make transaction in a quantum networked banking system with perfect security against any no-signalling adversary. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of quantum cheque, proposed by Moulick and Panigrahi (Quantum Inf Process 15:2475-2486, 2016), using the five-qubit IBM quantum computer. Appropriate single qubit, CNOT and Fredkin gates are used in an optimized configuration. The accuracy of implementation is checked and verified through quantum state tomography by comparing results from the theoretical and experimental density matrices.
Trapped-ion quantum logic gates based on oscillating magnetic fields.
Ospelkaus, C; Langer, C E; Amini, J M; Brown, K R; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J
2008-08-29
Oscillating magnetic fields and field gradients can be used to implement single-qubit rotations and entangling multiqubit quantum gates for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP). With fields generated by currents in microfabricated surface-electrode traps, it should be possible to achieve gate speeds that are comparable to those of optically induced gates for realistic distances between the ion crystal and the electrode surface. Magnetic-field-mediated gates have the potential to significantly reduce the overhead in laser-beam control and motional-state initialization compared to current QIP experiments with trapped ions and will eliminate spontaneous scattering, a fundamental source of decoherence in laser-mediated gates.
Zeng, Qiang; Li, Tao; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong
2016-04-18
We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimized setup to implement quantum controlled-NOT operation using polarization and orbital angular momentum qubits. This device is more adaptive to inputs with various polarizations, and can work both in classical and quantum single-photon regime. The logic operations performed by such a setup not only possess high stability and polarization-free character, they can also be easily extended to deal with multi-qubit input states. As an example, the experimental implementation of generalized three-qubit Toffoli gate has been presented.
Impossibility of Classically Simulating One-Clean-Qubit Model with Multiplicative Error
Fujii, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Hirotada; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Harumichi; Tamate, Shuhei; Tani, Seiichiro
2018-05-01
The one-clean-qubit model (or the deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit model) is a restricted model of quantum computing where all but a single input qubits are maximally mixed. It is known that the probability distribution of measurement results on three output qubits of the one-clean-qubit model cannot be classically efficiently sampled within a constant multiplicative error unless the polynomial-time hierarchy collapses to the third level [T. Morimae, K. Fujii, and J. F. Fitzsimons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130502 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.130502]. It was open whether we can keep the no-go result while reducing the number of output qubits from three to one. Here, we solve the open problem affirmatively. We also show that the third-level collapse of the polynomial-time hierarchy can be strengthened to the second-level one. The strengthening of the collapse level from the third to the second also holds for other subuniversal models such as the instantaneous quantum polynomial model [M. Bremner, R. Jozsa, and D. J. Shepherd, Proc. R. Soc. A 467, 459 (2011), 10.1098/rspa.2010.0301] and the boson sampling model [S. Aaronson and A. Arkhipov, STOC 2011, p. 333]. We additionally study the classical simulatability of the one-clean-qubit model with further restrictions on the circuit depth or the gate types.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, Koichi; Adachi, Itaru; Konno, Masanori
1999-01-01
Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can assess left ventricular (LV) perfusion and function easily using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. ECG-gated SPECT was performed in 44 patients with coronary artery disease under post-stress and resting conditions to assess the values of LV functional parameters, by comparison to LV ejection fraction derived from gated blood pool scan and myocardial characteristics. A good correlation was obtained between ejection fraction using QGS and that using cardiac blood pool scan (r=0.812). Some patients with myocardial ischemia had lower ejection fraction under post-stress compared to resting conditions, indicating post-stress LV dysfunction. LV wall motion and wall thickening were significantly impaired in ischemic and infarcted myocardium, and the degree of abnormality in the infarcted areas was greater than in the ischemia area. LV functional parameters derived using QGS were useful to assess post-stress LV dysfunction and myocardial viability. In conclusion, ECG-gated myocardial SPECT permits simultaneous quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion and function. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carroll, Malcolm S.; rochette, sophie; Rudolph, Martin; Roy, A. -M.; Curry, Matthew Jon; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Carr, Stephen M; Ward, Daniel Robert; Lilly, Michael; pioro-ladriere, michel
2017-07-01
We introduce a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot structure that achieves dot-reservoir tunnel coupling control without a dedicated barrier gate. The elementary structure consists of two accumulation gates separated spatially by a gap, one gate accumulating a reservoir and the other a quantum dot. Control of the tunnel rate between the dot and the reservoir across the gap is demonstrated in the single electron regime by varying the reservoir accumulation gate voltage while compensating with the dot accumulation gate voltage. The method is then applied to a quantum dot connected in series to source and drain reservoirs, enabling transport down to the single electron regime. Finally, tuning of the valley splitting with the dot accumulation gate voltage is observed. This split accumulation gate structure creates silicon quantum dots of similar characteristics to other realizations but with less electrodes, in a single gate stack subtractive fabrication process that is fully compatible with silicon foundry manufacturing.
A quantum-dot spin qubit with coherence limited by charge noise and fidelity higher than 99.9%
Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Allison, Giles; Honda, Takumu; Kodera, Tetsuo; Oda, Shunri; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Itoh, Kohei M.; Tarucha, Seigo
2018-02-01
The isolation of qubits from noise sources, such as surrounding nuclear spins and spin-electric susceptibility1-4, has enabled extensions of quantum coherence times in recent pivotal advances towards the concrete implementation of spin-based quantum computation. In fact, the possibility of achieving enhanced quantum coherence has been substantially doubted for nanostructures due to the characteristic high degree of background charge fluctuations5-7. Still, a sizeable spin-electric coupling will be needed in realistic multiple-qubit systems to address single-spin and spin-spin manipulations8-10. Here, we realize a single-electron spin qubit with an isotopically enriched phase coherence time (20 μs)11,12 and fast electrical control speed (up to 30 MHz) mediated by extrinsic spin-electric coupling. Using rapid spin rotations, we reveal that the free-evolution dephasing is caused by charge noise—rather than conventional magnetic noise—as highlighted by a 1/f spectrum extended over seven decades of frequency. The qubit exhibits superior performance with single-qubit gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% on average, offering a promising route to large-scale spin-qubit systems with fault-tolerant controllability.
A single amino acid gates the KcsA channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, Minako; Okuno, Daichi; Onishi, Yukiko; Ide, Toru
2014-01-01
Highlights: • pH-dependent gating of the KcsA channel is regulated by the CPD. • E146 is the most essential amino acid for pH sensing by the KcsA. • The protonated-mimicking mutant, E146Q, is constitutively open independent of pH. • Minimal rearrangement of the CPD is sufficient for opening of the KcsA. - Abstract: The KcsA channel is a proton-activated potassium channel. We have previously shown that the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) acts as a pH-sensor, and the charged states of certain negatively charged amino acids in the CPD play an important role in regulating the pH-dependent gating. Here, we demonstrate the KcsA channel is constitutively open independent of pH upon mutating E146 to a neutrally charged amino acid. In addition, we found that rearrangement of the CPD following this mutation was not large. Our results indicate that minimal rearrangement of the CPD, particularly around E146, is sufficient for opening of the KcsA channel
A single amino acid gates the KcsA channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirano, Minako, E-mail: hirano37@gpi.ac.jp [Bio Photonics Laboratory, The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu Nishi-ku Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Observation, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furue-dai Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Okuno, Daichi, E-mail: dokuno@riken.jp [Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Observation, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furue-dai Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Onishi, Yukiko, E-mail: yonishi@riken.jp [Laboratory for Cell Dynamics Observation, Quantitative Biology Center, RIKEN, 6-2-3 Furue-dai Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Ide, Toru, E-mail: ide@okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka Kita-ku Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)
2014-08-08
Highlights: • pH-dependent gating of the KcsA channel is regulated by the CPD. • E146 is the most essential amino acid for pH sensing by the KcsA. • The protonated-mimicking mutant, E146Q, is constitutively open independent of pH. • Minimal rearrangement of the CPD is sufficient for opening of the KcsA. - Abstract: The KcsA channel is a proton-activated potassium channel. We have previously shown that the cytoplasmic domain (CPD) acts as a pH-sensor, and the charged states of certain negatively charged amino acids in the CPD play an important role in regulating the pH-dependent gating. Here, we demonstrate the KcsA channel is constitutively open independent of pH upon mutating E146 to a neutrally charged amino acid. In addition, we found that rearrangement of the CPD following this mutation was not large. Our results indicate that minimal rearrangement of the CPD, particularly around E146, is sufficient for opening of the KcsA channel.
Frequency-Stabilized Source of Single Photons from a Solid-State Qubit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan H. Prechtel
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Single quantum dots are solid-state emitters that mimic two-level atoms but with a highly enhanced spontaneous emission rate. A single quantum dot is the basis for a potentially excellent single-photon source. One outstanding problem is that there is considerable noise in the emission frequency, making it very difficult to couple the quantum dot to another quantum system. We solve this problem here with a dynamic feedback technique that locks the quantum-dot emission frequency to a reference. The incoherent scattering (resonance fluorescence represents the single-photon output, whereas the coherent scattering (Rayleigh scattering is used for the feedback control. The fluctuations in emission frequency are reduced to 20 MHz, just approximately 5% of the quantum-dot optical linewidth, even over several hours. By eliminating the 1/f-like noise, the relative fluctuations in quantum-dot noise power are reduced to approximately 10^{-5} at low frequency. Under these conditions, the antibunching dip in the resonance fluorescence is described extremely well by the two-level atom result. The technique represents a way of removing charge noise from a quantum device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Li-Bing; Lu Hong
2015-01-01
We present a scheme for implementing locally a nonlocal N-target controlled–controlled gate with unit probability of success by harnessing two (N+1)-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states as quantum channel and N qutrits as catalyser. The quantum network that implements this nonlocal (N+2)-body gate is built entirely of local single-body and two-body gates, and has only (3N+2) two-body gates. This result suggests that both the computational depth of quantum network and the quantum resources required to perform this nonlocal gate might be significantly reduced. This scheme can be generalized straightforwardly to implement a nonlocal N-target and M-control qubits gate. (paper)
Four-level and two-qubit systems, subalgebras, and unitary integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rau, A.R.P.; Selvaraj, G.; Uskov, D.
2005-01-01
Four-level systems in quantum optics, and for representing two qubits in quantum computing, are difficult to solve for general time-dependent Hamiltonians. A systematic procedure is presented which combines analytical handling of the algebraic operator aspects with simple solutions of classical, first-order differential equations. In particular, by exploiting su(2)+su(2) and su(2)+su(2)+u(1) subalgebras of the full SU(4) dynamical group of the system, the nontrivial part of the final calculation is reduced to a single Riccati (first-order, quadratically nonlinear) equation, itself simply solved. Examples are provided of two-qubit problems from the recent literature, including implementation of two-qubit gates with Josephson junctions
Linear optical quantum computing in a single spatial mode.
Humphreys, Peter C; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Spring, Justin B; Moore, Merritt; Jin, Xian-Min; Barbieri, Marco; Kolthammer, W Steven; Walmsley, Ian A
2013-10-11
We present a scheme for linear optical quantum computing using time-bin-encoded qubits in a single spatial mode. We show methods for single-qubit operations and heralded controlled-phase (cphase) gates, providing a sufficient set of operations for universal quantum computing with the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn [Nature (London) 409, 46 (2001)] scheme. Our protocol is suited to currently available photonic devices and ideally allows arbitrary numbers of qubits to be encoded in the same spatial mode, demonstrating the potential for time-frequency modes to dramatically increase the quantum information capacity of fixed spatial resources. As a test of our scheme, we demonstrate the first entirely single spatial mode implementation of a two-qubit quantum gate and show its operation with an average fidelity of 0.84±0.07.
Clark, Susan M; Fu, Kai-Mei C; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2007-07-27
We describe a fast quantum computer based on optically controlled electron spins in charged quantum dots that are coupled to microcavities. This scheme uses broadband optical pulses to rotate electron spins and provide the clock signal to the system. Nonlocal two-qubit gates are performed by phase shifts induced by electron spins on laser pulses propagating along a shared waveguide. Numerical simulations of this scheme demonstrate high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates with operation times comparable to the inverse Zeeman frequency.
Scalable quantum computation via local control of only two qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso; Nori, Franco; Plenio, Martin B.
2010-01-01
We apply quantum control techniques to a long spin chain by acting only on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on these qubits and indirect swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.
Experimental superposition of orders of quantum gates
Procopio, Lorenzo M.; Moqanaki, Amir; Araújo, Mateus; Costa, Fabio; Alonso Calafell, Irati; Dowd, Emma G.; Hamel, Deny R.; Rozema, Lee A.; Brukner, Časlav; Walther, Philip
2015-01-01
Quantum computers achieve a speed-up by placing quantum bits (qubits) in superpositions of different states. However, it has recently been appreciated that quantum mechanics also allows one to ‘superimpose different operations'. Furthermore, it has been shown that using a qubit to coherently control the gate order allows one to accomplish a task—determining if two gates commute or anti-commute—with fewer gate uses than any known quantum algorithm. Here we experimentally demonstrate this advantage, in a photonic context, using a second qubit to control the order in which two gates are applied to a first qubit. We create the required superposition of gate orders by using additional degrees of freedom of the photons encoding our qubits. The new resource we exploit can be interpreted as a superposition of causal orders, and could allow quantum algorithms to be implemented with an efficiency unlikely to be achieved on a fixed-gate-order quantum computer. PMID:26250107
Relaxometry and Dephasing Imaging of Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Single Qubit
Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Häberle, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Zappe, Andrea; Slota, Michael; Bogani, Lapo; Finkler, Amit; Wrachtrup, Jörg
2015-08-01
To study the magnetic dynamics of superparamagnetic nanoparticles we use scanning probe relaxometry and dephasing of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, characterizing the spin-noise of a single 10-nm magnetite particle. Additionally, we show the anisotropy of the NV sensitivity's dependence on the applied decoherence measurement method. By comparing the change in relaxation (T 1 ) and dephasing (T 2 ) time in the NV center when scanning a nanoparticle over it, we are able to extract the nanoparticle's diameter and distance from the NV center using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model for the nanoparticle's fluctuations. This scanning-probe technique can be used in the future to characterize different spin label substitutes for both medical applications and basic magnetic nanoparticle behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curty, Marcos; Santos, David J.; Perez, Esther; Garcia-Fernandez, Priscila
2002-01-01
Secure communication requires message authentication. In this paper we address the problem of how to authenticate quantum information sent through a quantum channel between two communicating parties with the minimum amount of resources. Specifically, our objective is to determine whether one elementary quantum message (a qubit) can be authenticated with a key of minimum length. We show that, unlike the case of classical-message quantum authentication, this is not possible
Controlling bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plesch, Martin; Novotny, Jaroslav; Dzurakova, Zuzana; Buzek, VladimIr
2004-01-01
Bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems cannot be shared freely. The rules of quantum mechanics impose bounds on how multi-qubit systems can be correlated. In this paper, we utilize a concept of entangled graphs with weighted edges in order to analyse pure quantum states of multi-qubit systems. Here qubits are represented by vertexes of the graph, while the presence of bi-partite entanglement is represented by an edge between corresponding vertexes. The weight of each edge is defined to be the entanglement between the two qubits connected by the edge, as measured by the concurrence. We prove that each entangled graph with entanglement bounded by a specific value of the concurrence can be represented by a pure multi-qubit state. In addition, we present a logic network with O(N 2 ) elementary gates that can be used for preparation of the weighted entangled graphs of N qubits
Controlling bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems
Plesch, Martin; Novotný, Jaroslav; Dzuráková, Zuzana; Buzek, Vladimír
2004-02-01
Bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems cannot be shared freely. The rules of quantum mechanics impose bounds on how multi-qubit systems can be correlated. In this paper, we utilize a concept of entangled graphs with weighted edges in order to analyse pure quantum states of multi-qubit systems. Here qubits are represented by vertexes of the graph, while the presence of bi-partite entanglement is represented by an edge between corresponding vertexes. The weight of each edge is defined to be the entanglement between the two qubits connected by the edge, as measured by the concurrence. We prove that each entangled graph with entanglement bounded by a specific value of the concurrence can be represented by a pure multi-qubit state. In addition, we present a logic network with O(N2) elementary gates that can be used for preparation of the weighted entangled graphs of N qubits.
Area efficient digital logic NOT gate using single electron box (SEB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahrepour Davoud
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The continuing scaling down of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS has led researchers to build new devices with nano dimensions, whose behavior will be interpreted based on quantum mechanics. Single-electron devices (SEDs are promising candidates for future VLSI applications, due to their ultra small dimensions and lower power consumption. In most SED based digital logic designs, a single gate is introduced and its performance discussed. While in the SED based circuits the fan out of designed gate circuit should be considered and measured. In the other words, cascaded SED based designs must work properly so that the next stage(s should be driven by the previous stage. In this paper, previously NOT gate based on single electron box (SEB which is an important structure in SED technology, is reviewed in order to obtain correct operation in series connections. The correct operation of the NOT gate is investigated in a buffer circuit which uses two connected NOT gate in series. Then, for achieving better performance the designed buffer circuit is improved by the use of scaling process.
Ultraclean single, double, and triple carbon nanotube quantum dots with recessed Re bottom gates
Jung, Minkyung; Schindele, Jens; Nau, Stefan; Weiss, Markus; Baumgartner, Andreas; Schoenenberger, Christian
2014-03-01
Ultraclean carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that are free from disorder provide a promising platform to manipulate single electron or hole spins for quantum information. Here, we demonstrate that ultraclean single, double, and triple quantum dots (QDs) can be formed reliably in a CNT by a straightforward fabrication technique. The QDs are electrostatically defined in the CNT by closely spaced metallic bottom gates deposited in trenches in Silicon dioxide by sputter deposition of Re. The carbon nanotubes are then grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) across the trenches and contacted using conventional electron beam lithography. The devices exhibit reproducibly the characteristics of ultraclean QDs behavior even after the subsequent electron beam lithography and chemical processing steps. We demonstrate the high quality using CNT devices with two narrow bottom gates and one global back gate. Tunable by the gate voltages, the device can be operated in four different regimes: i) fully p-type with ballistic transport between the outermost contacts (over a length of 700 nm), ii) clean n-type single QD behavior where a QD can be induced by either the left or the right bottom gate, iii) n-type double QD and iv) triple bipolar QD where the middle QD has opposite doping (p-type). Research at Basel is supported by the NCCR-Nano, NCCR-QIST, ERC project QUEST, and FP7 project SE2ND.
Gated blood pool studies with a single probe - clinical validity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loesel, E.; Hoffmann, G.
1981-01-01
The global volume alterations of the heart can be estimated non-invasively by means of the radiocardiographic function analysis developed by Hoffmann and Kleine. Since the failing heart with its functional disturbances demonstrates a pathological volume behaviour under physical exercise, it is possible to use these characteristics to differentiate between the intact heart and the failing heart by registration of the global volume alterations. The gated blood pool technique combined with the registration of the intraventricular pressure pulse by means of a Swan-Ganz flow-directed catheter enables demonstration of ventricular stroke work as a pressure-volume loop (work diagram). Its shape indicates whether the ventricle has to perform mainly pressure work or volume work. Myocardial failure is altering the basic conditions of the heart. The work diagram of the failing heart is significantly different from that of the intact human heart. It is shifted in its pressure-volume coordinates according to an increase of EDV and ESV and the rise of the filling pressure. Case demonstrations reveal the global volume behaviour of the heart under varying conditions: resting and physical exercise, drug influence on the intact and failing heart. (orig.) [de
Gated single photon emission computer tomography for the detection of silent myocardial ischemia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pena Q, Yamile; Coca P, Marco Antonio; Batista C, Juan Felipe; Fernandez-Britto, Jose; Quesada P, Rodobaldo; Pena C; Andria
2009-01-01
Background: Asymptomatic patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis may have a normal resting electrocardiogram and stress test. Aim: To assess the yield of Gated Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) for the screening of silent myocardial ischemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Material and methods: Electrocardiogram, stress test and gated-SPECT were performed on 102 type 2 diabetic patients aged 60 ± 8 years without cardiovascular symptoms. All subjects were also subjected to a coronary angiography, whose results were used as gold standard. Results: Gated-SPECT showed myocardial ischemia on 26.5% of studied patients. The sensibility, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 92.3%, 96%, 95%, 88.8%, 97.3%, respectively. In four and six patients ischemia was detected on resting electrocardiogram and stress test, respectively. Eighty percent of patients with doubtful resting electrocardiogram results and 70% with a doubtful stress test had a silent myocardial ischemia detected by gated-SPECT. There was a good agreement between the results of gated-SPECT and coronary angiography (k =0.873). Conclusions: Gated-SPECT was an useful tool for the screening of silent myocardial ischemia
Reduced phase error through optimized control of a superconducting qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucero, Erik; Kelly, Julian; Bialczak, Radoslaw C.; Lenander, Mike; Mariantoni, Matteo; Neeley, Matthew; O'Connell, A. D.; Sank, Daniel; Wang, H.; Weides, Martin; Wenner, James; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi
2010-01-01
Minimizing phase and other errors in experimental quantum gates allows higher fidelity quantum processing. To quantify and correct for phase errors, in particular, we have developed an experimental metrology - amplified phase error (APE) pulses - that amplifies and helps identify phase errors in general multilevel qubit architectures. In order to correct for both phase and amplitude errors specific to virtual transitions and leakage outside of the qubit manifold, we implement 'half derivative', an experimental simplification of derivative reduction by adiabatic gate (DRAG) control theory. The phase errors are lowered by about a factor of five using this method to ∼1.6 deg. per gate, and can be tuned to zero. Leakage outside the qubit manifold, to the qubit |2> state, is also reduced to ∼10 -4 for 20% faster gates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heo, Jino [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Sung [Center for Quantum Information, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Ho [National Security Research Institute, P.O.Box 1, Yuseong, Daejeon, 34188 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Gon [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jong-Phil, E-mail: jongph@cbnu.ac.kr [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
We propose a scheme for swapping two unknown states of a photon and electron spin confined to a charged quantum dot (QD) between two users by transferring a single photon. This scheme simultaneously transfers and teleports an unknown state (electron spin) between two users. For this bidirectional quantum communication, we utilize the interactions between a photonic and an electron-spin qubits of a QD located inside a single-sided optical cavity. Thus, our proposal using QD-cavity systems can obtain a certain success probability with high fidelity. Furthermore, compared to a previous scheme using cross-Kerr nonlinearities and homodyne detections, our scheme (using QD-cavity systems) can improve the feasibility under the decoherence effect in practice. - Highlights: • Design of Simultaneous quantum transmission and teleportation scheme via quantum dots and cavities. • We have developed the experimental feasibility of this scheme compared with the existing scheme. • Analysis of some benefits when our scheme is experimentally implemented using quantum dots and single-sided cavities.
Quantum gates controlled by spin chain soliton excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuccoli, Alessandro, E-mail: cuccoli@fi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Nuzzi, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Vaia, Ruggero [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Verrucchi, Paola [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2014-05-07
Propagation of soliton-like excitations along spin chains has been proposed as a possible way for transmitting both classical and quantum information between two distant parties with negligible dispersion and dissipation. In this work, a somewhat different use of solitons is considered. Solitons propagating along a spin chain realize an effective magnetic field, well localized in space and time, which can be exploited as a means to manipulate the state of an external spin (i.e., a qubit) that is weakly coupled to the chain. We have investigated different couplings between the qubit and the chain, as well as different soliton shapes, according to a Heisenberg chain model. It is found that symmetry properties strongly affect the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, and the most suitable setups for implementing single qubit quantum gates are singled out.
Parallel Transport Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions.
de Clercq, Ludwig E; Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P
2016-02-26
We demonstrate single-qubit operations by transporting a beryllium ion with a controlled velocity through a stationary laser beam. We use these to perform coherent sequences of quantum operations, and to perform parallel quantum logic gates on two ions in different processing zones of a multiplexed ion trap chip using a single recycled laser beam. For the latter, we demonstrate individually addressed single-qubit gates by local control of the speed of each ion. The fidelities we observe are consistent with operations performed using standard methods involving static ions and pulsed laser fields. This work therefore provides a path to scalable ion trap quantum computing with reduced requirements on the optical control complexity.
Universal holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric spin with phase-modulated polarized light.
Ishida, Naoki; Nakamura, Takaaki; Tanaka, Touta; Mishima, Shota; Kano, Hiroki; Kuroiwa, Ryota; Sekiguchi, Yuhei; Kosaka, Hideo
2018-05-15
We demonstrate universal non-adiabatic non-abelian holonomic single quantum gates over a geometric electron spin with phase-modulated polarized light and 93% average fidelity. This allows purely geometric rotation around an arbitrary axis by any angle defined by light polarization and phase using a degenerate three-level Λ-type system in a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Since the control light is completely resonant to the ancillary excited state, the demonstrated holonomic gate not only is fast with low power, but also is precise without the dynamical phase being subject to control error and environmental noise. It thus allows pulse shaping for further fidelity.
NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing
Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan
2017-01-01
This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.
Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.
High-fidelity quantum gates on quantum-dot-confined electron spins in low-Q optical microcavities
Li, Tao; Gao, Jian-Cun; Deng, Fu-Guo; Long, Gui-Lu
2018-04-01
We propose some high-fidelity quantum circuits for quantum computing on electron spins of quantum dots (QD) embedded in low-Q optical microcavities, including the two-qubit controlled-NOT gate and the multiple-target-qubit controlled-NOT gate. The fidelities of both quantum gates can, in principle, be robust to imperfections involved in a practical input-output process of a single photon by converting the infidelity into a heralded error. Furthermore, the influence of two different decay channels is detailed. By decreasing the quality factor of the present microcavity, we can largely increase the efficiencies of these quantum gates while their high fidelities remain unaffected. This proposal also has another advantage regarding its experimental feasibility, in that both quantum gates can work faithfully even when the QD-cavity systems are non-identical, which is of particular importance in current semiconductor QD technology.
Note: Time-gated 3D single quantum dot tracking with simultaneous spinning disk imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeVore, M. S.; Stich, D. G.; Keller, A. M.; Phipps, M. E.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Goodwin, P. M.; Werner, J. H.; Cleyrat, C.; Lidke, D. S.; Wilson, B. S.
2015-01-01
We describe recent upgrades to a 3D tracking microscope to include simultaneous Nipkow spinning disk imaging and time-gated single-particle tracking (SPT). Simultaneous 3D molecular tracking and spinning disk imaging enable the visualization of cellular structures and proteins around a given fluorescently labeled target molecule. The addition of photon time-gating to the SPT hardware improves signal to noise by discriminating against Raman scattering and short-lived fluorescence. In contrast to camera-based SPT, single-photon arrival times are recorded, enabling time-resolved spectroscopy (e.g., measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and photon correlations) to be performed during single molecule/particle tracking experiments
Note: Time-gated 3D single quantum dot tracking with simultaneous spinning disk imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeVore, M. S.; Stich, D. G.; Keller, A. M.; Phipps, M. E.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Goodwin, P. M.; Werner, J. H., E-mail: jwerner@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop G755, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Cleyrat, C.; Lidke, D. S.; Wilson, B. S. [Department of Pathology and Cancer Research and Treatment Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)
2015-12-15
We describe recent upgrades to a 3D tracking microscope to include simultaneous Nipkow spinning disk imaging and time-gated single-particle tracking (SPT). Simultaneous 3D molecular tracking and spinning disk imaging enable the visualization of cellular structures and proteins around a given fluorescently labeled target molecule. The addition of photon time-gating to the SPT hardware improves signal to noise by discriminating against Raman scattering and short-lived fluorescence. In contrast to camera-based SPT, single-photon arrival times are recorded, enabling time-resolved spectroscopy (e.g., measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and photon correlations) to be performed during single molecule/particle tracking experiments.
Generating stationary entangled states in superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Li Chunwen; Tarn, T.-J.; Nori, Franco
2009-01-01
When a two-qubit system is initially maximally entangled, two independent decoherence channels, one per qubit, would greatly reduce the entanglement of the two-qubit system when it reaches its stationary state. We propose a method on how to minimize such a loss of entanglement in open quantum systems. We find that the quantum entanglement of general two-qubit systems with controllable parameters can be controlled by tuning both the single-qubit parameters and the two-qubit coupling strengths. Indeed, the maximum fidelity F max between the stationary entangled state, ρ ∞ , and the maximally entangled state, ρ m , can be about 2/3≅max(tr(ρ ∞ ρ m ))=F max , corresponding to a maximum stationary concurrence, C max , of about 1/3≅C(ρ ∞ )=C max . This is significant because the quantum entanglement of the two-qubit system can be produced and kept, even for a long time. We apply our proposal to several types of two-qubit superconducting circuits and show how the entanglement of these two-qubit circuits can be optimized by varying experimentally controllable parameters.
Demonstration of a Quantum Nondemolition Sum Gate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yoshikawa, J.; Miwa, Y.; Huck, Alexander
2008-01-01
The sum gate is the canonical two-mode gate for universal quantum computation based on continuous quantum variables. It represents the natural analogue to a qubit C-NOT gate. In addition, the continuous-variable gate describes a quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction between the quadrature...
Processing multiphoton states through operation on a single photon: Methods and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Qing; He Bing; Bergou, Janos A.; Ren, Yuhang
2009-01-01
Multiphoton states are widely applied in quantum information technology. By the methods presented in this paper, the structure of a multiphoton state in the form of multiple single-photon qubit products can be mapped to a single-photon qudit, which could also be in a separable product with other photons. This makes possible the manipulation of such multiphoton states by processing single-photon states. The optical realization of unknown qubit discrimination [B. He, J. A. Bergou, and Y.-H. Ren, Phys. Rev. A 76, 032301 (2007)] is simplified with the transformation methods. Another application is the construction of quantum logic gates, where the inverse transformations back to the input state spaces are also necessary. We especially show that the modified setups to implement the transformations can realize the deterministic multicontrol gates (including Toffoli gate) operating directly on the products of single-photon qubits.
Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, Yuval R; Wallman, Joel J; Sanders, Barry C
2016-01-01
Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates. (fast track communication)
Searching for highly entangled multi-qubit states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Iain D K; Stepney, Susan; Sudbery, Anthony; Braunstein, Samuel L
2005-01-01
We present a simple numerical optimization procedure to search for highly entangled states of 2, 3, 4 and 5 qubits. We develop a computationally tractable entanglement measure based on the negative partial transpose criterion, which can be applied to quantum systems of an arbitrary number of qubits. The search algorithm attempts to optimize this entanglement cost function to find the maximal entanglement in a quantum system. We present highly entangled 4-qubit and 5-qubit states discovered by this search. We show that the 4-qubit state is not quite as entangled, according to two separate measures, as the conjectured maximally entangled Higuchi-Sudbery state. Using this measure, these states are more highly entangled than the 4-qubit and 5-qubit GHZ states. We also present a conjecture about the NPT measure, inspired by some of our numerical results, that the single-qubit reduced states of maximally entangled states are all totally mixed
Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D.; Di Sieno, L.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F.; Pifferi, A.
2015-01-01
We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons
Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D., E-mail: davide.contini@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); CNR, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-03-21
We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons.
Simultaneous deterministic control of distant qubits in two semiconductor quantum dots.
Gamouras, A; Mathew, R; Freisem, S; Deppe, D G; Hall, K C
2013-10-09
In optimal quantum control (OQC), a target quantum state of matter is achieved by tailoring the phase and amplitude of the control Hamiltonian through femtosecond pulse-shaping techniques and powerful adaptive feedback algorithms. Motivated by recent applications of OQC in quantum information science as an approach to optimizing quantum gates in atomic and molecular systems, here we report the experimental implementation of OQC in a solid-state system consisting of distinguishable semiconductor quantum dots. We demonstrate simultaneous high-fidelity π and 2π single qubit gates in two different quantum dots using a single engineered infrared femtosecond pulse. These experiments enhance the scalability of semiconductor-based quantum hardware and lay the foundation for applications of pulse shaping to optimize quantum gates in other solid-state systems.
Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel
2018-05-01
The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is expected and required for the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers. The results also give insight into the nature of noise in the device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imai, Kamon; Nishio, Yukari; Araki, Yasushi; Saito, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Yasugi, Tadao; Hagiwara, Kazuo; Kamata, Rikisaburo
1992-01-01
99m Tc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) is a new developed myocardial perfusion imaging agent. Because this compound has higher photon energy than thallium (Tl), electrocardiogram gated single photon emission tomography (SPECT): end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) short axis (SA) images could be taken. To investigate property of gated MIBI SPECT, MIBI myocardial scintigraphy, Tl scintigraphy (TMS) and analysis of left ventricular wall motion were performed in 6 patients with myocardial infarction. Left ventricule was divided into 8 segments. Perfusion defect (PD) was scored: '0' (normal), '1' (hypo-perfusion), '2' (defect). Wall motion abnormality (WMA) was also scored: '0' (normo-kinesis), '1' (hypo-kinesis), '2' (a-, dys-kinesis). Severity and extent of PD and WMA were calculated. Severity of WMA was 3.0±2.0 (M±SD), severity of PD was 3.3±1.7 in TMS, 3.7±1.3 in no-gated MIBI, 5.0±0.6 in ES-MIBI, 7.3±2.0 in ED-MIBI. Extent of WMA was 2.3±1.0. Extent of PD was 2.5±1.3 in TMS, 3.0±1.6 in no-gated MIBI, 3.5±0.8 in ES-MIBI, 4.8±1.0 in ED-MIBI. Compared with wall motion abnormality, severity and extent of PD in ED-MIBI was larger. From our data, it is concluded that perfusion defect in ED-MIBI was overestimated significantly. When we evaluate gated MIBI image, we must consider this property. (author)
A surface-gated InSb quantum well single electron transistor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orr, J M S; Buckle, P D; Fearn, M; Storey, C J; Buckle, L; Ashley, T
2007-01-01
Single electron charging effects in a surface-gated InSb/AlInSb QW structure are reported. This material, due to its large g-factor and light effective mass, offers considerable advantages over more commonly used materials, such as GaAs, for quantum information processing devices. However, differences in material and device technology result in significant processing challenges. Simple Coulomb blockade and quantized confinement models are considered to explain the observation of conductance oscillations in these structures. The charging energy (e 2 /C) is found to be comparable with the energy spectrum for single particle states (ΔE)
Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Di Sieno, L.; Cubeddu, R.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Pifferi, A.
2013-03-01
In recent years, emerging applications, such as diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy (e.g., functional brain imaging and optical mammography), in which a wide dynamic range is crucial, have turned the interest towards Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD). In these fields, the use of a fast-gated SPAD has proven to be a successful technique to increase the measurement sensitivity of different orders of magnitude. However, an unknown background noise has been observed at high illumination during the gate-OFF time, thus setting a limit to the maximum increase of the dynamic range. In this paper we describe this noise in thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode when a large amount of photons reaches the gated detector during the OFF time preceding the enabling time. This memory effect increases the background noise with respect to primary dark count rate similarly to a classical afterpulsing process, but differently it is not related to a previous avalanche ignition in the detector. We discovered that memory effect increases linearly with the power of light impinging on the detector and it has an exponential trend with time constants far different from those of afterpulsing and independently of the bias voltage applied to the junction. For these reasons, the memory effect is not due to the same trapping states of afterpulsing and must be described as a different process.
Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.
Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A
2014-07-03
The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).
Single OR molecule and OR atomic circuit logic gates interconnected on a Si(100)H surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ample, F; Joachim, C; Duchemin, I; Hliwa, M
2011-01-01
Electron transport calculations were carried out for three terminal OR logic gates constructed either with a single molecule or with a surface dangling bond circuit interconnected on a Si(100)H surface. The corresponding multi-electrode multi-channel scattering matrix (where the central three terminal junction OR gate is the scattering center) was calculated, taking into account the electronic structure of the supporting Si(100)H surface, the metallic interconnection nano-pads, the surface atomic wires and the molecule. Well interconnected, an optimized OR molecule can only run at a maximum of 10 nA output current intensity for a 0.5 V bias voltage. For the same voltage and with no molecule in the circuit, the output current of an OR surface atomic scale circuit can reach 4 μA.
Soe, We-Hyo; Manzano, Carlos; Renaud, Nicolas; de Mendoza, Paula; De Sarkar, Abir; Ample, Francisco; Hliwa, Mohamed; Echavarren, Antonio M; Chandrasekhar, Natarajan; Joachim, Christian
2011-02-22
Quantum states of a trinaphthylene molecule were manipulated by putting its naphthyl branches in contact with single Au atoms. One Au atom carries 1-bit of classical information input that is converted into quantum information throughout the molecule. The Au-trinaphthylene electronic interactions give rise to measurable energy shifts of the molecular electronic states demonstrating a NOR logic gate functionality. The NOR truth table of the single molecule logic gate was characterized by means of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy.
Frequency multiplexing for readout of spin qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hornibrook, J. M.; Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Croot, X. G.; Blanvillain, S.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2014-03-10
We demonstrate a low loss, chip-level frequency multiplexing scheme for readout of scaled-up spin qubit devices. By integrating separate bias tees and resonator circuits on-chip for each readout channel, we realise dispersive gate-sensing in combination with charge detection based on two radio frequency quantum point contacts. We apply this approach to perform multiplexed readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime and further demonstrate operation of a 10-channel multiplexing device. Limitations for scaling spin qubit readout to large numbers of multiplexed channels are discussed.
Protected quantum computing: interleaving gate operations with dynamical decoupling sequences.
Zhang, Jingfu; Souza, Alexandre M; Brandao, Frederico Dias; Suter, Dieter
2014-02-07
Implementing precise operations on quantum systems is one of the biggest challenges for building quantum devices in a noisy environment. Dynamical decoupling attenuates the destructive effect of the environmental noise, but so far, it has been used primarily in the context of quantum memories. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a general scheme for combining dynamical decoupling with quantum logical gate operations using the example of an electron-spin qubit of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We achieve process fidelities >98% for gate times that are 2 orders of magnitude longer than the unprotected dephasing time T2.
Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.
2007-01-01
The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included
Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.
Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P
2016-07-12
Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.
Ruthenates: simple superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulian, Armen M.; Wood, Kent S.
2004-01-01
We propose triplet superconductors, such as ruthenates, as a prospective material for qubit construction. The vectorial nature of the order parameter in triplet superconductors makes it conceptually very easy to imagine the performance of the qubits. The Cooper condensate of pairs in triplet superconductors has all the attributes of the Bose-Einstein condensates and should facilitate long decoherence times of these qubits versus other 'vectorial' schemes for qubits, such as small ferromagnets. There are other benefits, which the superconducting state provides for a requirement like entanglement between qubits via the proximity effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, Jun; Kubo, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Ryuichiro; Iwanaga, Shiro; Mitamura, Hideo; Ogawa, Satoshi; Kosuda, Shigeru
1999-01-01
This study was designed to apply ECG-gating to stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the evaluation of myocardial stunning after exercise. Technetium-99m sestamibi was selected as the perfusion agent and a rest/exercise 1-day protocol was employed. Fourteen patients without coronary stenosis and 33 patients with coronary stenosis were enrolled in the study. We carried out three data acquisitions with ECG-gating: a 15-min data acquisition starting 30 min after the rest injection (AC1), a 5-min acquisition starting 5 min after the stress injection (AC2) and a 15-min acquisition starting 20 min after the stress injection (AC3). Calculation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) values was performed by means of automatic determination of the endocardial surface for all gating intervals in the cardiac cycle. Measured global EF values in 14 patients without coronary stenosis were 52.3%±7.6% (AC1), 60.6%±8.9% (AC2) and 55.6%±5.6% (AC3), and those in 11 patients with severe ischaemia were 53.6%±8.0% (AC1), 45.6%±12.1% (AC2) and 49.7%±10.7%. The magnitude of the depression of post-stress LVEF relative to the rest LVEF correlated with the severity of ischaemia (r=0.594, P=0.002), and segments manifesting post-stress functional depression were associated with ischaemic segments showing reversible perfusion defects. Stress myocardial perfusion SPET with ECG-gating is a feasible method for the evaluation of myocardial stunning as well as exercise-induced ischaemia. (orig.)
A Rout to Protect Quantum Gates constructed via quantum walks from Noises.
Du, Yi-Mu; Lu, Li-Hua; Li, You-Quan
2018-05-08
The continuous-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional graph of odd number of sites with an on-site potential at the center is studied. We show that such a quantum-walk system can construct an X-gate of a single qubit as well as a control gate for two qubits, when the potential is much larger than the hopping strength. We investigate the decoherence effect and find that the coherence time can be enhanced by either increasing the number of sites on the graph or the ratio of the potential to the hopping strength, which is expected to motivate the design of the quantum gate with long coherence time. We also suggest several experimental proposals to realize such a system.
Electrical manipulation of spin states in a single electrostatically gated transition-metal complex
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Osorio, Edgar A; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; van der Zant, Herre S J
2010-01-01
-field on the Mn-atom. Adding a single electron thus stabilizes the low-spin configuration and the corresponding sequential tunnelling current is suppressed by spin-blockade. From low-temperature inelastic cotunneling spectroscopy, we infer the magnetic excitation spectrum of the molecule and uncover also...... a strongly gate-dependent singlet-triplet splitting on the low-spin side. The measured bias-spectroscopy is shown to be consistent with an exact diagonalization of the Mn-complex, and an interpretation of the data is given in terms of a simplified effective model....
Strained Silicon Single Nanowire Gate-All-Around TFETs with Optimized Tunneling Junctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keyvan Narimani
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In this work, we demonstrate a strained Si single nanowire tunnel field effect transistor (TFET with gate-all-around (GAA structure yielding Ion-current of 15 μA/μm at the supply voltage of Vdd = 0.5V with linear onset at low drain voltages. The subthreshold swing (SS at room temperature shows an average of 76 mV/dec over 4 orders of drain current Id from 5 × 10−6 to 5 × 10−2 µA/µm Optimized devices also show excellent current saturation, an important feature for analog performance.
Single-flux-quantum logic circuits exploiting collision-based fusion gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asai, T.; Yamada, K.; Amemiya, Y.
2008-01-01
We propose a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic circuit based on the fusion computing systems--collision-based and reaction-diffusion fusion computers. A fusion computing system consists of regularly arrayed unit cells (fusion gates), where each unit has two input arms and two output arms and is connected to its neighboring cells with the arms. We designed functional SFQ circuits that implemented the fusion computation. The unit cell was able to be made with ten Josephson junctions. Circuit simulation with standard Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb 2.5-kA/cm 2 process parameters showed that the SFQ fusion computing systems could operate at 10 GHz clock
Entanglement polygon inequality in qubit systems
Qian, Xiao-Feng; Alonso, Miguel A.; Eberly, J. H.
2018-06-01
We prove a set of tight entanglement inequalities for arbitrary N-qubit pure states. By focusing on all bi-partite marginal entanglements between each single qubit and its remaining partners, we show that the inequalities provide an upper bound for each marginal entanglement, while the known monogamy relation establishes the lower bound. The restrictions and sharing properties associated with the inequalities are further analyzed with a geometric polytope approach, and examples of three-qubit GHZ-class and W-class entangled states are presented to illustrate the results.
Entangling distant resonant exchange qubits via circuit quantum electrodynamics
Srinivasa, V.; Taylor, J. M.; Tahan, Charles
2016-11-01
We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of spatially separated resonant exchange qubits, defined in three-electron semiconductor triple quantum dots, that are coupled via a superconducting transmission line resonator. Drawing on methods from circuit quantum electrodynamics and Hartmann-Hahn double resonance techniques, we analyze three specific approaches for implementing resonator-mediated two-qubit entangling gates in both dispersive and resonant regimes of interaction. We calculate entangling gate fidelities as well as the rate of relaxation via phonons for resonant exchange qubits in silicon triple dots and show that such an implementation is particularly well suited to achieving the strong coupling regime. Our approach combines the favorable coherence properties of encoded spin qubits in silicon with the rapid and robust long-range entanglement provided by circuit QED systems.
The Design of Control Pulses for Heisenberg Always-On Qubit Models
Magyar, Rudolph
2015-03-01
One model for a universal quantum computer is a spin array with constant nearest neighbor interactions and a controlled unidirectional site-specific magnetic field to generate unitary transformations. This system can be described by a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian and can be simulated for on the order of 50 spins. It has recently been shown that time-dependent density functional inspired methods may be used to relate various spin models of qubits to ones that may be easier to compute numerically allowing potentially the efficient simulation of greater numbers of spins. One of the challenges of such an agenda is the identification of control pulses that produce desired gate operations (CNOT and single qubit phase gates). We apply control theory to design a universal set of pulses for a Heisenberg always-on model Hamiltonian for a few qubits and compare to known pulses when available. We suggest how this approach may be useful to design control pulses in other realistic designs. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Fast and high-fidelity entangling gate through parametrically modulated longitudinal coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baptiste Royer
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate an approach to universal quantum computation based on the modulation of longitudinal qubit-oscillator coupling. We show how to realize a controlled-phase gate by simultaneously modulating the longitudinal coupling of two qubits to a common oscillator mode. In contrast to the more familiar transversal qubit-oscillator coupling, the magnitude of the effective qubit-qubit interaction does not rely on a small perturbative parameter. As a result, this effective interaction strength can be made large, leading to short gate times and high gate fidelities. We moreover show how the gate infidelity can be exponentially suppressed with squeezing and how the entangling gate can be generalized to qubits coupled to separate oscillators. Our proposal can be realized in multiple physical platforms for quantum computing, including superconducting and spin qubits.
Quantum computer gate simulations | Dada | Journal of the Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A new interactive simulator for Quantum Computation has been developed for simulation of the universal set of quantum gates and for construction of new gates of up to 3 qubits. The simulator also automatically generates an equivalent quantum circuit for any arbitrary unitary transformation on a qubit. Available quantum ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oranje, Bob; Wienberg, Malene; Glenthøj, Birte Yding
2011-01-01
Early mechanisms to limit the input of sensory information to higher brain areas are important for a healthy individual. In previous studies, we found that a low dose of 10mg escitalopram (SSRI) disrupts habituation, without affecting sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy volunteers. In the ......Early mechanisms to limit the input of sensory information to higher brain areas are important for a healthy individual. In previous studies, we found that a low dose of 10mg escitalopram (SSRI) disrupts habituation, without affecting sensory and sensorimotor gating in healthy volunteers....... In the current study a higher dose of 15mg was used. The hypothesis was that this higher dose of escitalopram would not only disrupt habituation, but also sensory and sensorimotor gating. Twenty healthy male volunteers received either placebo or 15mg escitalopram, after which they were tested in a P50...... suppression, and a habituation and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex paradigm. Escitalopram significantly decreased P50 suppression and habituation, but had no effect on PPI. The results indicate that habituation and sensory gating are disrupted by increased serotonergic activity, while...
Long-Distance Entanglement of Spin Qubits via Ferromagnet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luka Trifunovic
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We propose a mechanism of coherent coupling between distant spin qubits interacting dipolarly with a ferromagnet. We derive an effective two-spin interaction Hamiltonian and find a regime where the dynamics is coherent. Finally, we present a sequence for the implementation of the entangling controlled-not gate and estimate the corresponding operation time to be a few tens of nanoseconds. A particularly promising application of our proposal is to atomistic spin qubits such as silicon-based qubits and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to which existing coupling schemes do not apply.
Dynamically protected cat-qubits: a new paradigm for universal quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Leghtas, Zaki; Albert, Victor V; Touzard, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert J; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, Michel H
2014-01-01
We present a new hardware-efficient paradigm for universal quantum computation which is based on encoding, protecting and manipulating quantum information in a quantum harmonic oscillator. This proposal exploits multi-photon driven dissipative processes to encode quantum information in logical bases composed of Schrödinger cat states. More precisely, we consider two schemes. In a first scheme, a two-photon driven dissipative process is used to stabilize a logical qubit basis of two-component Schrödinger cat states. While such a scheme ensures a protection of the logical qubit against the photon dephasing errors, the prominent error channel of single-photon loss induces bit-flip type errors that cannot be corrected. Therefore, we consider a second scheme based on a four-photon driven dissipative process which leads to the choice of four-component Schrödinger cat states as the logical qubit. Such a logical qubit can be protected against single-photon loss by continuous photon number parity measurements. Next, applying some specific Hamiltonians, we provide a set of universal quantum gates on the encoded qubits of each of the two schemes. In particular, we illustrate how these operations can be rendered fault-tolerant with respect to various decoherence channels of participating quantum systems. Finally, we also propose experimental schemes based on quantum superconducting circuits and inspired by methods used in Josephson parametric amplification, which should allow one to achieve these driven dissipative processes along with the Hamiltonians ensuring the universal operations in an efficient manner
Dynamically protected cat-qubits: a new paradigm for universal quantum computation
Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Leghtas, Zaki; Albert, Victor V.; Touzard, Steven; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Jiang, Liang; Devoret, Michel H.
2014-04-01
We present a new hardware-efficient paradigm for universal quantum computation which is based on encoding, protecting and manipulating quantum information in a quantum harmonic oscillator. This proposal exploits multi-photon driven dissipative processes to encode quantum information in logical bases composed of Schrödinger cat states. More precisely, we consider two schemes. In a first scheme, a two-photon driven dissipative process is used to stabilize a logical qubit basis of two-component Schrödinger cat states. While such a scheme ensures a protection of the logical qubit against the photon dephasing errors, the prominent error channel of single-photon loss induces bit-flip type errors that cannot be corrected. Therefore, we consider a second scheme based on a four-photon driven dissipative process which leads to the choice of four-component Schrödinger cat states as the logical qubit. Such a logical qubit can be protected against single-photon loss by continuous photon number parity measurements. Next, applying some specific Hamiltonians, we provide a set of universal quantum gates on the encoded qubits of each of the two schemes. In particular, we illustrate how these operations can be rendered fault-tolerant with respect to various decoherence channels of participating quantum systems. Finally, we also propose experimental schemes based on quantum superconducting circuits and inspired by methods used in Josephson parametric amplification, which should allow one to achieve these driven dissipative processes along with the Hamiltonians ensuring the universal operations in an efficient manner.
Quantum gates via relativistic remote control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: emartinm@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dept. Applied Math., University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sutherland, Chris [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2014-12-12
We harness relativistic effects to gain quantum control on a stationary qubit in an optical cavity by controlling the non-inertial motion of a different probe atom. Furthermore, we show that by considering relativistic trajectories of the probe, we enhance the efficiency of the quantum control. We explore the possible use of these relativistic techniques to build 1-qubit quantum gates.
Theory of the Quantum Dot Hybrid Qubit
Friesen, Mark
2015-03-01
The quantum dot hybrid qubit, formed from three electrons in two quantum dots, combines the desirable features of charge qubits (fast manipulation) and spin qubits (long coherence times). The hybridized spin and charge states yield a unique energy spectrum with several useful properties, including two different operating regimes that are relatively immune to charge noise due to the presence of optimal working points or ``sweet spots.'' In this talk, I will describe dc and ac-driven gate operations of the quantum dot hybrid qubit. I will analyze improvements in the dephasing that are enabled by the sweet spots, and I will discuss the outlook for quantum hybrid qubits in terms of scalability. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), the USDOD, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program. The views and conclusions contained in this presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the US government.
Spin-orbit mediated control of spin qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A.S; Flensberg, Karsten
2006-01-01
We propose to use the spin-orbit interaction as a means to control electron spins in quantum dots, enabling both single-qubit and two-qubit operations. Very fast single-qubit operations may be achieved by temporarily displacing the electrons. For two-qubit operations the coupling mechanism is bas...... on a combination of the spin-orbit coupling and the mutual long-ranged Coulomb interaction. Compared to existing schemes using the exchange coupling, the spin-orbit induced coupling is less sensitive to random electrical fluctuations in the electrodes defining the quantum dots....
Uddin, Wasi; Georgiev, Yordan M.; Maity, Sarmistha; Das, Samaresh
2017-09-01
We report 1D electron transport of silicon junctionless tri-gate n-type transistor at 4.2 K. The step like curve observed in the current voltage characteristic suggests 1D transport. Besides the current steps for 1D transport, we found multiple spikes within individual steps, which we relate to inter-band single electron tunneling, mediated by the charged dopants available in the channel region. Clear Coulomb diamonds were observed in the stability diagram of the device. It is shown that a uniformly doped silicon nanowire can provide us the window for the single electron tunnelling. Back-gate versus front-gate color plot, where current is in a color scale, shows a crossover of the increased conduction region. This is a clear indication of the dopant-dopant interaction. It has been shown that back-gate biasing can be used to tune the coupling strength between the dopants.
Majima, Yutaka; Hackenberger, Guillaume; Azuma, Yasuo; Kano, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Susaki, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu
2017-01-01
Single-electron transistors (SETs) are sub-10-nm scale electronic devices based on conductive Coulomb islands sandwiched between double-barrier tunneling barriers. Chemically assembled SETs with alkanethiol-protected Au nanoparticles show highly stable Coulomb diamonds and two-input logic operations. The combination of bottom-up and top-down processes used to form the passivation layer is vital for realizing multi-gate chemically assembled SET circuits, as this combination enables us to connect conventional complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies via planar processes. Here, three-input gate exclusive-OR (XOR) logic operations are demonstrated in passivated chemically assembled SETs. The passivation layer is a hybrid bilayer of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) aluminum oxide (AlO[Formula: see text]), and top-gate electrodes were prepared on the hybrid passivation layers. Top and two-side-gated SETs showed clear Coulomb oscillation and diamonds for each of the three available gates, and three-input gate XOR logic operation was clearly demonstrated. These results show the potential of chemically assembled SETs to work as logic devices with multi-gate inputs using organic and inorganic hybrid passivation layers.
Quantum Logical Operations on Encoded Qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zurek, W.H.; Laflamme, R.
1996-01-01
We show how to carry out quantum logical operations (controlled-not and Toffoli gates) on encoded qubits for several encodings which protect against various 1-bit errors. This improves the reliability of these operations by allowing one to correct for 1-bit errors which either preexisted or occurred in the course of operation. The logical operations we consider allow one to carry out the vast majority of the steps in the quantum factoring algorithm. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism by probe-gated silica nanoparticles.
Ercan, Meltem; Ozalp, Veli C; Tuna, Bilge G
2017-11-15
The development of simple, reliable, and rapid approaches for molecular detection of common mutations is important for prevention and early diagnosis of genetic diseases, including Thalessemia. Oligonucleotide-gated mesoporous nanoparticles-based analysis is a new platform for mutation detection that has the advantages of sensitivity, rapidity, accuracy, and convenience. A specific mutation in β-thalassemia, one of the most prevalent inherited diseases in several countries, was used as model disease in this study. An assay for detection of IVS110 point mutation (A > G reversion) was developed by designing probe-gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-41) loaded with reporter fluorescein molecules. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by AFM, TEM and BET analysis for having 180 nm diameter and 2.83 nm pore size regular hexagonal shape. Amine group functionalized nanoparticles were analysed with FTIR technique. Mutated and normal sequence probe oligonucleotides)about 12.7 nmol per mg nanoparticles) were used to entrap reporter fluorescein molecules inside the pores and hybridization with single stranded DNA targets amplified by PCR gave different fluorescent signals for mutated targets. Samples from IVS110 mutated and normal patients resulted in statistically significant differences when the assay procedure were applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trichromatic Open Digraphs for Understanding Qubits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex Lang
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We introduce a trichromatic graphical calculus for quantum computing. The generators represent three complementary observables that are treated on equal footing, hence reflecting the symmetries of the Bloch sphere. We derive the Euler angle decomposition of the Hadamard gate within it as well as the so-called supplementary relationships, which are valid equations for qubits that were not derivable within Z/X-calculus of Coecke and Duncan. More specifically, we have: dichromatic Z/X-calculus + Euler angle decomposition of the Hadamard gate = trichromatic calculus.
Spin-orbit qubit in a semiconductor nanowire.
Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P
2010-12-23
Motion of electrons can influence their spins through a fundamental effect called spin-orbit interaction. This interaction provides a way to control spins electrically and thus lies at the foundation of spintronics. Even at the level of single electrons, the spin-orbit interaction has proven promising for coherent spin rotations. Here we implement a spin-orbit quantum bit (qubit) in an indium arsenide nanowire, where the spin-orbit interaction is so strong that spin and motion can no longer be separated. In this regime, we realize fast qubit rotations and universal single-qubit control using only electric fields; the qubits are hosted in single-electron quantum dots that are individually addressable. We enhance coherence by dynamically decoupling the qubits from the environment. Nanowires offer various advantages for quantum computing: they can serve as one-dimensional templates for scalable qubit registers, and it is possible to vary the material even during wire growth. Such flexibility can be used to design wires with suppressed decoherence and to push semiconductor qubit fidelities towards error correction levels. Furthermore, electrical dots can be integrated with optical dots in p-n junction nanowires. The coherence times achieved here are sufficient for the conversion of an electronic qubit into a photon, which can serve as a flying qubit for long-distance quantum communication.
Mani, Prashant; Tyagi, Chandra Shekhar; Srivastav, Nishant
2016-03-01
In this paper the analytical solution of the 2D Poisson's equation for single gate Fully Depleted SOI (FDSOI) MOSFET's is derived by using a Green's function solution technique. The surface potential is calculated and the threshold voltage of the device is minimized for the low power consumption. Due to minimization of threshold voltage the short channel effect of device is suppressed and after observation we obtain the device is kink free. The structure and characteristics of SingleGate FDSOI MOSFET were matched by using MathCAD and silvaco respectively.
Fault-tolerant computing with biased-noise superconducting qubits: a case study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliferis, P; Brito, F; DiVincenzo, D P; Steffen, M; Terhal, B M; Preskill, J
2009-01-01
We present a universal scheme of pulsed operations suitable for the IBM oscillator-stabilized flux qubit comprising the controlled-σ z (cphase) gate, single-qubit preparations and measurements. Based on numerical simulations, we argue that the error rates for these operations can be as low as about 0.5% and that noise is highly biased, with phase errors being stronger than all other types of errors by a factor of nearly 10 3 . In contrast, the design of a controlled-σ x (cnot) gate for this system with an error rate of less than about 1.2% seems extremely challenging. We propose a special encoding that exploits the noise bias allowing us to implement a logicalcnot gate where phase errors and all other types of errors have nearly balanced rates of about 0.4%. Our results illustrate how the design of an encoding scheme can be adjusted and optimized according to the available physical operations and the particular noise characteristics of experimental devices.
Trapped-ion quantum logic gates based on oscillating magnetic fields
Ospelkaus, Christian; Langer, Christopher E.; Amini, Jason M.; Brown, Kenton R.; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David J.
2009-05-01
Oscillating magnetic fields and field gradients can be used to implement single-qubit rotations and entangling multiqubit quantum gates for trapped-ion quantum information processing. With fields generated by currents in microfabricated surface-electrode traps, it should be possible to achieve gate speeds that are comparable to those of optically induced gates for realistic distances between the ions and the electrode surface. Magnetic-field-mediated gates have the potential to significantly reduce the overhead in laser-beam control and motional-state initialization compared to current QIP experiments with trapped ions and will eliminate spontaneous scattering decoherence, a fundamental source of decoherence in laser-mediated gates. A potentially beneficial environment for the implementation of such schemes is a cryogenic ion trap, because small length scale traps with low motional heating rates can be realized. A cryogenic ion trap experiment is currently under construction at NIST.
Non-abelian geometrical quantum gate operation in an ultracold strontium gas
Leroux, Frederic
The work developed in this PhD thesis is about geometric operation on a single qubit. If the external control parameters vary slowly, the quantum system evolves adiabatically in a sub-space composed of two degenerate eigenstates. After a closed loop in the space of the external parameters, the qubit acquires a geometrical rotation, which can be described by a unitary matrix in the Hilbert space of the two-level system. To the geometric rotation corresponds a non-Abelian gauge field. In this work, the qubit and the adiabatic geometrical quantum gates are implemented on a cold gas of atomic Strontium 87, trapped and cooled at the vicinity of the recoil temperature. The internal Hilbert space of the cold atoms has for basis the dressed states issued from the atom-light interaction of three lasers within a tripod configuration.
Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions
Liu, Y. X.; Wei, L. F.; Johansson, J. R.; Tsai, J. S.; Nori, F.
2009-03-01
Exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of superconducting Josephson junctions, we propose a scalable circuit with superconducting qubits (SCQs) which is very similar to the successful one now being used for trapped ions. The SCQs are coupled to the ``vibrational'' mode provided by a superconducting LC circuit or its equivalent (e.g., a superconducting quantum interference device). Both single-qubit rotations and qubit-LC-circuit couplings and/or decouplings can be controlled by the frequencies of the time-dependent magnetic fluxes. The circuit is scalable since the qubit-qubit interactions, mediated by the LC circuit, can be selectively performed, and the information transfer can be realized in a controllable way. [4pt] Y.X. Liu, L.F. Wei, J.R. Johansson, J.S. Tsai, F. Nori, Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions, Phys. Rev. B 76, 144518 (2007). URL: http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v76/e144518
Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-12-18
Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Wu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were injected with 99m technetium (99mTc-tetrofosmin, and each was scanned in supine and prone positions in a U-SPECT-II scanner with respiratory and electrocardiographic (ECG gating. ECG-gated SPECT images were created without applying respiratory motion correction or with two different respiratory motion correction strategies. The images were filtered with a range of three-dimensional gaussian kernels, after which end-diastolic volumes (EDVs, end-systolic volumes (ESVs, and left ventricular ejection fractions were calculated. No significant differences in the measured cardiac parameters were detected when any strategy to reduce or correct for respiratory motion was applied, whereas big differences (> 5% in EDV and ESV were found with regard to different positioning of animals. A linear relationship (p < .001 was found between the EDV or ESV and the kernel size of the gaussian filter. In short, respiratory gating did not significantly affect the cardiac parameters of mice obtained with ultra-high-resolution SPECT, whereas the position of the animals and the image filters should be the same in a comparative study with multiple scans to avoid systematic differences in measured cardiac parameters.
Wei, Hai-Rui; Lu Long, Gui
2015-01-01
Hybrid quantum gates hold great promise for quantum information processing since they preserve the advantages of different quantum systems. Here we present compact quantum circuits to deterministically implement controlled-NOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between a flying photon qubit and diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers assisted by microcavities. The target qubits of these universal quantum gates are encoded on the spins of the electrons associated with the diamond NV centers and they have long coherence time for storing information, and the control qubit is encoded on the polarizations of the flying photon and can be easily manipulated. Our quantum circuits are compact, economic, and simple. Moreover, they do not require additional qubits. The complexity of our schemes for universal three-qubit gates is much reduced, compared to the synthesis with two-qubit entangling gates. These schemes have high fidelities and efficiencies, and they are feasible in experiment. PMID:26271899
Two Superconducting Charge Qubits Coupled by a Josephson Inductance
Watanabe, Michio; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Pashkin, Yuri A.; Astafiev, Oleg; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Tsai, Jaw-Shen
2007-03-01
When the quantum oscillations [Pashkin et al., Nature 421, 823 (2003)] and the conditional gate operation [Yamamoto et al., Nature 425, 941 (2003)] were demonstrated using superconducting charge qubits, the charge qubits were coupled capacitively, where the coupling was always on and the coupling strength was not tunable. This fixed coupling, however, is not ideal because for example, it makes unconditional gate operations difficult. In this work, we aimed to tunably couple two charge qubits. We fabricated circuits based on the theoretical proposal by You, Tsai, and Nori [PRB 68, 024510 (2003)], where the inductance of a Josephson junction, which has a much larger junction area than the qubit junctions, couples the qubits and the coupling strength is controlled by the external magnetic flux. We confirmed by spectroscopy that the large Josephson junction was indeed coupled to the qubits and that the coupling was turned on and off by the external magnetic flux. In the talk, we will also discuss the quantum oscillations in the circuits.
Single-Event Gate Rupture in Power MOSFETs: A New Radiation Hardness Assurance Approach
Lauenstein, Jean-Marie
2011-01-01
Almost every space mission uses vertical power metal-semiconductor-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in its power-supply circuitry. These devices can fail catastrophically due to single-event gate rupture (SEGR) when exposed to energetic heavy ions. To reduce SEGR failure risk, the off-state operating voltages of the devices are derated based upon radiation tests at heavy-ion accelerator facilities. Testing is very expensive. Even so, data from these tests provide only a limited guide to on-orbit performance. In this work, a device simulation-based method is developed to measure the response to strikes from heavy ions unavailable at accelerator facilities but posing potential risk on orbit. This work is the first to show that the present derating factor, which was established from non-radiation reliability concerns, is appropriate to reduce on-orbit SEGR failure risk when applied to data acquired from ions with appropriate penetration range. A second important outcome of this study is the demonstration of the capability and usefulness of this simulation technique for augmenting SEGR data from accelerator beam facilities. The mechanisms of SEGR are two-fold: the gate oxide is weakened by the passage of the ion through it, and the charge ionized along the ion track in the silicon transiently increases the oxide electric field. Most hardness assurance methodologies consider the latter mechanism only. This work demonstrates through experiment and simulation that the gate oxide response should not be neglected. In addition, the premise that the temporary weakening of the oxide due to the ion interaction with it, as opposed to due to the transient oxide field generated from within the silicon, is validated. Based upon these findings, a new approach to radiation hardness assurance for SEGR in power MOSFETs is defined to reduce SEGR risk in space flight projects. Finally, the potential impact of accumulated dose over the course of a space mission on SEGR
Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy
2005-01-01
A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection
Decoherence of Flux Qubits Coupled to Electronic Circuits
Wilhelm, F.K.; Storcz, M.J.; van der Wal, C.H.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.
2003-01-01
On the way to solid-state quantum computing, overcoming decoherence is the central issue. In this contribution, we discuss the modeling of decoherence of a superonducting flux qubit coupled to dissipative electronic circuitry. We discuss its impact on single qubit decoherence rates and on the
Qubits and quantum Hamiltonian computing performances for operating a digital Boolean 1/2-adder
Dridi, Ghassen; Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Joachim, Christian
2018-04-01
Quantum Boolean (1 + 1) digits 1/2-adders are designed with 3 qubits for the quantum computing (Qubits) and 4 quantum states for the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approaches. Detailed analytical solutions are provided to analyse the time operation of those different 1/2-adder gates. QHC is more robust to noise than Qubits and requires about the same amount of energy for running its 1/2-adder logical operations. QHC is faster in time than Qubits but its logical output measurement takes longer.
Double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with single halo pocket in channel region
Naderi, Ali
2016-01-01
A new structure for graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors (GNRFETs) is proposed and investigated using quantum simulation with a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. Tunneling leakage current and ambipolar conduction are known effects for MOSFET-like GNRFETs. To minimize these issues a novel structure with a simple change of the GNRFETs by using single halo pocket in the intrinsic channel region, "Single Halo GNRFET (SH-GNRFET)", is proposed. An appropriate halo pocket at source side of channel is used to modify potential distribution of the gate region and weaken band to band tunneling (BTBT). In devices with materials like Si in channel region, doping type of halo and source/drain regions are different. But, here, due to the smaller bandgap of graphene, the mentioned doping types should be the same to reduce BTBT. Simulations have shown that in comparison with conventional GNRFET (C-GNRFET), an SH-GNRFET with appropriately halo doping results in a larger ON current (Ion), smaller OFF current (Ioff), a larger ON-OFF current ratio (Ion/Ioff), superior ambipolar characteristics, a reduced power-delay product and lower delay time.
Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction with Superconducting Qubits
Reed, Matthew
2015-03-01
Quantum information science seeks to take advantage of the properties of quantum mechanics to manipulate information in ways that are not otherwise possible. Quantum computation, for example, promises to solve certain problems in days that would take a conventional supercomputer the age of the universe to decipher. This power does not come without a cost however, as quantum bits are inherently more susceptible to errors than their classical counterparts. Fortunately, it is possible to redundantly encode information in several entangled qubits, making it robust to decoherence and control imprecision with quantum error correction. I studied one possible physical implementation for quantum computing, employing the ground and first excited quantum states of a superconducting electrical circuit as a quantum bit. These ``transmon'' qubits are dispersively coupled to a superconducting resonator used for readout, control, and qubit-qubit coupling in the cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In this talk I will give an general introduction to quantum computation and the superconducting technology that seeks to achieve it before explaining some of the specific results reported in my thesis. One major component is that of the first realization of three-qubit quantum error correction in a solid state device, where we encode one logical quantum bit in three entangled physical qubits and detect and correct phase- or bit-flip errors using a three-qubit Toffoli gate. My thesis is available at arXiv:1311.6759.
Entanglement and Metrology with Singlet-Triplet Qubits
Shulman, Michael Dean
Electron spins confined in semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as a promising system to study quantum information science and to perform sensitive metrology. Their weak interaction with the environment leads to long coherence times and robust storage for quantum information, and the intrinsic tunability of semiconductors allows for controllable operations, initialization, and readout of their quantum state. These spin qubits are also promising candidates for the building block for a scalable quantum information processor due to their prospects for scalability and miniaturization. However, several obstacles limit the performance of quantum information experiments in these systems. For example, the weak coupling to the environment makes inter-qubit operations challenging, and a fluctuating nuclear magnetic field limits the performance of single-qubit operations. The focus of this thesis will be several experiments which address some of the outstanding problems in semiconductor spin qubits, in particular, singlet-triplet (S-T0) qubits. We use these qubits to probe both the electric field and magnetic field noise that limit the performance of these qubits. The magnetic noise bath is probed with high bandwidth and precision using novel techniques borrowed from the field of Hamiltonian learning, which are effective due to the rapid control and readout available in S-T 0 qubits. These findings allow us to effectively undo the undesired effects of the fluctuating nuclear magnetic field by tracking them in real-time, and we demonstrate a 30-fold improvement in the coherence time T2*. We probe the voltage noise environment of the qubit using coherent qubit oscillations, which is partially enabled by control of the nuclear magnetic field. We find that the voltage noise bath is frequency-dependent, even at frequencies as high as 1MHz, and it shows surprising and, as of yet, unexplained temperature dependence. We leverage this knowledge of the voltage noise environment, the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guang-Uei Hung
2005-05-01
Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with thallium-201 (201Tl in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, end-diastolic volume (EDV, and end-systolic volume (ESV in Taiwanese by determining repeatability and correlation with two-dimensional (2D echocardiography. A total of 18 patients underwent two sequential gated SPECT acquisitions within 30 minutes in the resting state to assess repeatability. Another 28 patients who underwent gated SPECT and 2D echocardiography within 7 days were included for comparison. The two sequential measurements were well correlated with respect to LVEF, EDV, and ESV (r = 0.97, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively, all p < 0.0001. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that two standard deviations of the absolute difference between the two sequential measurements for LVEF, EDV, and ESV were 6.4%, 16.8 mL, and 8.6 mL, respectively. For LVEF, EDV, and ESV, correlations between redistribution 201Tl-gated SPECT and echocardiography were also excellent (all r = 0.83, p < 0.0001. LVEF was similar with 201Tl-gated SPECT and echocardiography, but EDV and ESV were significantly higher with echocardiography (p < 0.05. Our study revealed that 201Tl-gated SPECT has high repeatability and excellent correlation with echocardiography for the assessment of LVEF and volumes in Taiwanese. These results support the clinical application of gated SPECT in routine 201Tl myocardial perfusion imaging in Taiwanese.
Semiconducting double-dot exchange-only qubit dynamics in the presence of magnetic and charge noises
Ferraro, E.; Fanciulli, M.; De Michielis, M.
2018-06-01
The effects of magnetic and charge noises on the dynamical evolution of the double-dot exchange-only qubit (DEOQ) is theoretically investigated. The DEOQ consisting of three electrons arranged in an electrostatically defined double quantum dot deserves special interest in quantum computation applications. Its advantages are in terms of fabrication, control and manipulation in view of implementation of fast single and two-qubit operations through only electrical tuning. The presence of the environmental noise due to nuclear spins and charge traps, in addition to fluctuations in the applied magnetic field and charge fluctuations on the electrostatic gates adopted to confine the electrons, is taken into account including random magnetic field and random coupling terms in the Hamiltonian. The behavior of the return probability as a function of time for initial conditions of interest is presented. Moreover, through an envelope-fitting procedure on the return probabilities, coherence times are extracted when model parameters take values achievable experimentally in semiconducting devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishikubo, Naotsugu; Tamai, Hiroyuki
2013-01-01
Advances in computed tomography (CT) technology make it possible to obtain left ventricular wall motion using 3D reconstruction. In this study, we compared the images obtained from CT and 201 Tl electrocardiogram (ECG) gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In 20 patients with ischemic heart disease, we performed 201 Tl ECG gated SPECT (GE Healthcare Millennium VG) and ECG gated CT (Philips Medical Systems Brilliance iCT) to evaluate of left ventricular wall motion during the resting phase. In SPECT, left ventricular images were reconstructed using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. In CT, the images were reconstructed using Virtual Place (AZE Software). The left ventricle was classified into five regions (anterior, lateral, inferior, septal, and apical). The amplitude of the wall motion was classified into five grades according to AHA classification. The values of the wall motion were separately checked by two radiographers. Assessment of left ventricular function myocardial wall movement using the three-dimensional movie display with ECG gated myocardial SPECT data was in agreement with the evaluation by cardiac CT inspection, and corresponded with wall motion in 88 of all 100 segments. SPECT analysis has the same quantity as that of obtained from CT for evaluation of left ventricular wall motion. (author)
Local ontology for a dual-rail qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasiak, Pawel
2016-01-01
We show that quantum predictions for the dual-rail realisation of a qubit can be faithfully simulated with classical stochastic gates and particles which interact entirely in a local manner. In the presented model 'non-locality' appears only on the epistemic level of description. (paper)
Theory of control of the dynamics of the interface between stationary and flying qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Wang; Liu Renbao; Sham, L J
2005-01-01
We present a scheme of control for the arbitrary interplay between a stationary qubit and a flying qubit (carried by a single-photon wavepacket) at a quantum interface composed of a three-level system coupled to a continuum through a cavity. It can be used for generation or reception of an arbitrarily shaped single-photon wavepacket. The generation process can also be controlled to create entanglement between the stationary qubit and flying qubit. The generation and reception operation can be combined to perform quantum network operations such as transfer, swap and entanglement creation for qubits at distant nodes
Theis, L. S.; Motzoi, F.; Wilhelm, F. K.
2016-01-01
We present a few-parameter ansatz for pulses to implement a broad set of simultaneous single-qubit rotations in frequency-crowded multilevel systems. Specifically, we consider a system of two qutrits whose working and leakage transitions suffer from spectral crowding (detuned by δ ). In order to achieve precise controllability, we make use of two driving fields (each having two quadratures) at two different tones to simultaneously apply arbitrary combinations of rotations about axes in the X -Y plane to both qubits. Expanding the waveforms in terms of Hanning windows, we show how analytic pulses containing smooth and composite-pulse features can easily achieve gate errors less than 10-4 and considerably outperform known adiabatic techniques. Moreover, we find a generalization of the WAHWAH (Weak AnHarmonicity With Average Hamiltonian) method by Schutjens et al. [R. Schutjens, F. A. Dagga, D. J. Egger, and F. K. Wilhelm, Phys. Rev. A 88, 052330 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.052330 that allows precise separate single-qubit rotations for all gate times beyond a quantum speed limit. We find in all cases a quantum speed limit slightly below 2 π /δ for the gate time and show that our pulses are robust against variations in system parameters and filtering due to transfer functions, making them suitable for experimental implementations.
Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.
2007-01-01
The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones
Robust quantum gates between trapped ions using shaped pulses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Ping, E-mail: zouping@m.scnu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhi-Ming, E-mail: zmzhang@scnu.edu.cn
2015-12-18
We improve two existing entangling gate schemes between trapped ion qubits immersed in a large linear crystal. Based on the existing two-qubit gate schemes by applying segmented forces on the individually addressed qubits, we present a systematic method to optimize the shapes of the forces to suppress the dominant source of infidelity. The spin-dependent forces in the scheme can be from periodic photon kicks or from continuous optical pulses. The entangling gates are fast, robust, and have high fidelity. They can be used to implement scalable quantum computation and quantum simulation. - Highlights: • We present a systematic method to optimize the shape of the pulses to decouple qubits from intermediary motional modes. • Our optimized scheme can be applied to both the ultrafast gate and fast gate. • Our optimized scheme can suppress the dominant source of infidelity to arbitrary order. • When the number of trapped ions increase, the number of needed segments increases slowly.
Single event upset susceptibilities of latchup immune CMOS process programmable gate arrays
Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.; Lau, D. D.; Tsubota, T. K.
Single event upsets (SEU) and latchup susceptibilities of complementary metal oxide semiconductor programmable gate arrays (CMOS PPGA's) were measured at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-in. cyclotron facility with Xe (603 MeV), Cu (290 MeV), and Ar (180 MeV) ion beams. The PPGA devices tested were those which may be used in space. Most of the SEU measurements were taken with a newly constructed tester called the Bus Access Storage and Comparison System (BASACS) operating via a Macintosh II computer. When BASACS finds that an output does not match a prerecorded pattern, the state of all outputs, position in the test cycle, and other necessary information is transmitted and stored in the Macintosh. The upset rate was kept between 1 and 3 per second. After a sufficient number of errors are stored, the test is stopped and the total fluence of particles and total errors are recorded. The device power supply current was closely monitored to check for occurrence of latchup. Results of the tests are presented, indicating that some of the PPGA's are good candidates for selected space applications.
Sukachev, D. D.; Sipahigil, A.; Nguyen, C. T.; Bhaskar, M. K.; Evans, R. E.; Jelezko, F.; Lukin, M. D.
2017-12-01
The negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV- ) color center in diamond has recently emerged as a promising system for quantum photonics. Its symmetry-protected optical transitions enable the creation of indistinguishable emitter arrays and deterministic coupling to nanophotonic devices. Despite this, the longest coherence time associated with its electronic spin achieved to date (˜250 ns ) has been limited by coupling to acoustic phonons. We demonstrate coherent control and suppression of phonon-induced dephasing of the SiV- electronic spin coherence by 5 orders of magnitude by operating at temperatures below 500 mK. By aligning the magnetic field along the SiV- symmetry axis, we demonstrate spin-conserving optical transitions and single-shot readout of the SiV- spin with 89% fidelity. Coherent control of the SiV- spin with microwave fields is used to demonstrate a spin coherence time T2 of 13 ms and a spin relaxation time T1 exceeding 1 s at 100 mK. These results establish the SiV- as a promising solid-state candidate for the realization of quantum networks.
Synthesis of multivalued quantum logic circuits by elementary gates
Di, Yao-Min; Wei, Hai-Rui
2013-01-01
We propose the generalized controlled X (gcx) gate as the two-qudit elementary gate, and based on Cartan decomposition, we also give the one-qudit elementary gates. Then we discuss the physical implementation of these elementary gates and show that it is feasible with current technology. With these elementary gates many important qudit quantum gates can be synthesized conveniently. We provide efficient methods for the synthesis of various kinds of controlled qudit gates and greatly simplify the synthesis of existing generic multi-valued quantum circuits. Moreover, we generalize the quantum Shannon decomposition (QSD), the most powerful technique for the synthesis of generic qubit circuits, to the qudit case. A comparison of ququart (d=4) circuits and qubit circuits reveals that using ququart circuits may have an advantage over the qubit circuits in the synthesis of quantum circuits.
All-electric control of donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon
Sigillito, Anthony J.; Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; Schenkel, Thomas; Houck, Andrew A.; Lyon, Stephen A.
2017-10-01
The electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom of donor impurities in silicon form ultra-coherent two-level systems that are potentially useful for applications in quantum information and are intrinsically compatible with industrial semiconductor processing. However, because of their smaller gyromagnetic ratios, nuclear spins are more difficult to manipulate than electron spins and are often considered too slow for quantum information processing. Moreover, although alternating current magnetic fields are the most natural choice to drive spin transitions and implement quantum gates, they are difficult to confine spatially to the level of a single donor, thus requiring alternative approaches. In recent years, schemes for all-electrical control of donor spin qubits have been proposed but no experimental demonstrations have been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate a scalable all-electric method for controlling neutral 31P and 75As donor nuclear spins in silicon. Using coplanar photonic bandgap resonators, we drive Rabi oscillations on nuclear spins exclusively using electric fields by employing the donor-bound electron as a quantum transducer, much in the spirit of recent works with single-molecule magnets. The electric field confinement leads to major advantages such as low power requirements, higher qubit densities and faster gate times. Additionally, this approach makes it possible to drive nuclear spin qubits either at their resonance frequency or at its first subharmonic, thus reducing device bandwidth requirements. Double quantum transitions can be driven as well, providing easy access to the full computational manifold of our system and making it convenient to implement nuclear spin-based qudits using 75As donors.
Specht, Holger P; Nölleke, Christian; Reiserer, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Figueroa, Eden; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2011-05-12
The faithful storage of a quantum bit (qubit) of light is essential for long-distance quantum communication, quantum networking and distributed quantum computing. The required optical quantum memory must be able to receive and recreate the photonic qubit; additionally, it must store an unknown quantum state of light better than any classical device. So far, these two requirements have been met only by ensembles of material particles that store the information in collective excitations. Recent developments, however, have paved the way for an approach in which the information exchange occurs between single quanta of light and matter. This single-particle approach allows the material qubit to be addressed, which has fundamental advantages for realistic implementations. First, it enables a heralding mechanism that signals the successful storage of a photon by means of state detection; this can be used to combat inevitable losses and finite efficiencies. Second, it allows for individual qubit manipulations, opening up avenues for in situ processing of the stored quantum information. Here we demonstrate the most fundamental implementation of such a quantum memory, by mapping arbitrary polarization states of light into and out of a single atom trapped inside an optical cavity. The memory performance is tested with weak coherent pulses and analysed using full quantum process tomography. The average fidelity is measured to be 93%, and low decoherence rates result in qubit coherence times exceeding 180 microseconds. This makes our system a versatile quantum node with excellent prospects for applications in optical quantum gates and quantum repeaters.
Genuine Four Tangle for Four Qubit States
Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.
2013-01-01
We report a four qubit polynomial invariant that quantifies genuine four-body correlations. The four qubit invariants are obtained from transformation properties of three qubit invariants under a local unitary on the fourth qubit.
Quantum dynamics of spin qubits in optically active quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bechtold, Alexander
2017-01-01
The control of solid-state qubits for quantum information processing requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms responsible for decoherence. During the past decade a considerable progress has been achieved for describing the qubit dynamics in relatively strong external magnetic fields. However, until now it has been impossible to experimentally test many theoretical predictions at very low magnetic fields and uncover mechanisms associated with reduced coherence times of spin qubits in solids. In particular, the role of the quadrupolar coupling of nuclear spins in this process is to date poorly understood. In the framework of this thesis, a spin memory device is utilized to optically prepare individual electron spin qubits in a single InGaAs quantum dot. After storages over timescales extending into the microsecond range the qubit��s state is read out to monitor the impact of the environment on it the spin dynamics. By performing such pump-probe experiments, the dominant electron spin decoherence mechanisms are identified in a wide range of external magnetic fields (0-5 T) and lattice temperatures of ∝10 K. The results presented in this thesis show that, without application of external magnetic fields the initially orientated electron spin rapidly loses its polarization due to precession around the fluctuating Overhauser field with a dispersion of 10.5 mT. The inhomogeneous dephasing time associated with these hyperfine mediated dynamics is of the order of T * 2 =2 ns. Over longer timescales, an unexpected stage of central spin relaxation is observed, namely the appearance of a second feature in the relaxation curve around T Q =750 ns. By comparison with theoretical simulations, this additional decoherence channel is shown to arise from coherent dynamics in the nuclear spin bath itself. Such coherent dynamics are induced by a quadrupolar coupling of the nuclear spins to the strain induced electric field gradients in the quantum dot. These processes
A Controlled-Phase Gate via Adiabatic Rydberg Dressing of Neutral Atoms
Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, Ivan; Cook, Robert; Biederman, Grant; Jau, Yuan-Yu
2014-05-01
The dipole blockade effect between Rydberg atoms is a promising tool for quantum information processing in neutral atoms. So far, most efforts to perform a quantum logic gate with this effect have used resonant laser pulses to excite the atoms, which makes the system particularly susceptible to decoherence through thermal motional effects. We explore an alternative scheme in which the atomic ground states are adiabatically ``dressed'' by turning on an off-resonant laser. We analyze the implementation of a CPHASE gate using this mechanism and find that fidelities of >99% should be possible with current technology, owing primarily to the suppression of motional errors. We also discuss how such a scheme could be generalized to perform more complicated, multi-qubit gates; in particular, a simple generalization would allow us to perform a Toffoli gate in a single step.
Logical Qubit in a Linear Array of Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cody Jones
2018-06-01
Full Text Available We design a logical qubit consisting of a linear array of quantum dots, we analyze error correction for this linear architecture, and we propose a sequence of experiments to demonstrate components of the logical qubit on near-term devices. To avoid the difficulty of fully controlling a two-dimensional array of dots, we adapt spin control and error correction to a one-dimensional line of silicon quantum dots. Control speed and efficiency are maintained via a scheme in which electron spin states are controlled globally using broadband microwave pulses for magnetic resonance, while two-qubit gates are provided by local electrical control of the exchange interaction between neighboring dots. Error correction with two-, three-, and four-qubit codes is adapted to a linear chain of qubits with nearest-neighbor gates. We estimate an error correction threshold of 10^{-4}. Furthermore, we describe a sequence of experiments to validate the methods on near-term devices starting from four coupled dots.
Tuning decoherence in superconducting transmon qubits by mechanical strain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brehm, Jan; Bilmes, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey; Lisenfeld, Juergen [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Two-level tunneling systems (TLS) are formed by structural defects in disordered materials. They gained recent attention as an important decoherence source in superconducting qubits, where they appear on surface oxides and at film interfaces. Although the most advanced qubits do not show avoided level crossings arising from a strong coupling to individual TLS, they commonly display a pronounced frequency dependence of relaxation rates, with distinguishable peaks that may point towards weak resonant coupling to single TLS. Previously, we have shown that TLS are tunable via an applied mechanical strain. Here, we employ this method to test whether the characteristic decoherence spectrum of a transmon qubit sample responds to changes in the applied strain, as it can be expected when the decohering bath is formed of atomic TLS. In our experiment, we will employ a highly coherent X-mon qubit sample and tune the strain by bending the qubit chip via a piezo actuator. Our latest results will be presented.
Single-step controlled-NOT logic from any exchange interaction
Galiautdinov, Andrei
2007-11-01
A self-contained approach to studying the unitary evolution of coupled qubits is introduced, capable of addressing a variety of physical systems described by exchange Hamiltonians containing Rabi terms. The method automatically determines both the Weyl chamber steering trajectory and the accompanying local rotations. Particular attention is paid to the case of anisotropic exchange with tracking controls, which is solved analytically. It is shown that, if computational subspace is well isolated, any exchange interaction can always generate high fidelity, single-step controlled-NOT (CNOT) logic, provided that both qubits can be individually manipulated. The results are then applied to superconducting qubit architectures, for which several CNOT gate implementations are identified. The paper concludes with consideration of two CNOT gate designs having high efficiency and operating with no significant leakage to higher-lying noncomputational states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rippe, Lars; Nilsson, Mattias; Kroell, Stefan; Klieber, Robert; Suter, Dieter
2005-01-01
In optically controlled quantum computers it may be favorable to address different qubits using light with different frequencies, since the optical diffraction does not then limit the distance between qubits. Using qubits that are close to each other enables qubit-qubit interactions and gate operations that are strong and fast in comparison to qubit-environment interactions and decoherence rates. However, as qubits are addressed in frequency space, great care has to be taken when designing the laser pulses, so that they perform the desired operation on one qubit, without affecting other qubits. Complex hyperbolic secant pulses have theoretically been shown to be excellent for such frequency-addressed quantum computing [I. Roos and K. Molmer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 022321 (2004)] - e.g., for use in quantum computers based on optical interactions in rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals. The optical transition lines of the rare-earth-metal-ions are inhomogeneously broadened and therefore the frequency of the excitation pulses can be used to selectively address qubit ions that are spatially separated by a distance much less than a wavelength. Here, frequency-selective transfer of qubit ions between qubit states using complex hyperbolic secant pulses is experimentally demonstrated. Transfer efficiencies better than 90% were obtained. Using the complex hyperbolic secant pulses it was also possible to create two groups of ions, absorbing at specific frequencies, where 85% of the ions at one of the frequencies was shifted out of resonance with the field when ions in the other frequency group were excited. This procedure of selecting interacting ions, called qubit distillation, was carried out in preparation for two-qubit gate operations in the rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals. The techniques for frequency-selective state-to-state transfer developed here may be also useful also for other quantum optics and quantum information experiments in these long-coherence-time solid
How to implement a quantum algorithm on a large number of qubits by controlling one central qubit
Zagoskin, Alexander; Ashhab, Sahel; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco
2010-03-01
It is desirable to minimize the number of control parameters needed to perform a quantum algorithm. We show that, under certain conditions, an entire quantum algorithm can be efficiently implemented by controlling a single central qubit in a quantum computer. We also show that the different system parameters do not need to be designed accurately during fabrication. They can be determined through the response of the central qubit to external driving. Our proposal is well suited for hybrid architectures that combine microscopic and macroscopic qubits. More details can be found in: A.M. Zagoskin, S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, F. Nori, Quantum two-level systems in Josephson junctions as naturally formed qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 077001 (2006); and S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, F. Nori, Rabi oscillations in a qubit coupled to a quantum two-level system, New J. Phys. 8, 103 (2006).
Implementation of fault-tolerant quantum logic gates via optimal control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nigmatullin, R; Schirmer, S G
2009-01-01
The implementation of fault-tolerant quantum gates on encoded logic qubits is considered. It is shown that transversal implementation of logic gates based on simple geometric control ideas is problematic for realistic physical systems suffering from imperfections such as qubit inhomogeneity or uncontrollable interactions between qubits. However, this problem can be overcome by formulating the task as an optimal control problem and designing efficient algorithms to solve it. In particular, we can find solutions that implement all of the elementary logic gates in a fixed amount of time with limited control resources for the five-qubit stabilizer code. Most importantly, logic gates that are extremely difficult to implement using conventional techniques even for ideal systems, such as the T-gate for the five-qubit stabilizer code, do not appear to pose a problem for optimal control.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qamar, Shahid, E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)
2012-07-15
In this paper, we propose a scheme to realize three-qubit quantum phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling two target qubits using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. The two lowest levels Divides 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket of each SQUID are used to represent logical states while the higher energy levels Divides 2 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 3 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket are utilized for gate realization. Our scheme does not require adiabatic passage, second order detuning, and the adjustment of the level spacing during gate operation which reduce the gate time significantly. The scheme is generalized for an arbitrary n-qubit quantum phase gate. We also apply the scheme to implement three-qubit quantum Fourier transform.
Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hatim eSalih
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.
Factoring 51 and 85 with 8 qubits.
Geller, Michael R; Zhou, Zhongyuan
2013-10-28
We construct simplified quantum circuits for Shor's order-finding algorithm for composites N given by products of the Fermat primes 3, 5, 17, 257, and 65537. Such composites, including the previously studied case of 15, as well as 51, 85, 771, 1285, 4369, … have the simplifying property that the order of a modulo N for every base a coprime to N is a power of 2, significantly reducing the usual phase estimation precision requirement. Prime factorization of 51 and 85 can be demonstrated with only 8 qubits and a modular exponentiation circuit consisting of no more than four CNOT gates.
Factoring 51 and 85 with 8 qubits
Geller, Michael R.; Zhou, Zhongyuan
2013-10-01
We construct simplified quantum circuits for Shor's order-finding algorithm for composites N given by products of the Fermat primes 3, 5, 17, 257, and 65537. Such composites, including the previously studied case of 15, as well as 51, 85, 771, 1285, 4369, … have the simplifying property that the order of a modulo N for every base a coprime to N is a power of 2, significantly reducing the usual phase estimation precision requirement. Prime factorization of 51 and 85 can be demonstrated with only 8 qubits and a modular exponentiation circuit consisting of no more than four CNOT gates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
You, Shan [Hebei North University, Department of Graduate, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province (China); Ma, XianWu; Zhang, ChangZhu; Li, Qiang [Qiqihar Chinese Medicine Hospital, Department of Radiology, Qigihar City, Heilongjiang Province (China); Shi, WenWei; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, XiaoDong [The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China)
2018-03-15
To present a single-kidney CT-GFR measurement and compare it with the renal dynamic imaging Gates-GFR. Thirty-six patients with hydronephrosis referred for CT urography and 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging were prospectively included. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The CT urography protocol included non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phase imaging. The total CT-GFR was calculated by dividing the CT number increments of the total urinary system between the nephrographic and excretory phase by the products of iodine concentration in the aorta and the elapsed time, then multiplied by (1- Haematocrit). The total CT-GFR was then split into single-kidney CT-GFR by a left and right kidney proportionality factor. The results were compared with single-kidney Gates-GFR by using paired t-test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Paired difference between single-kidney CT-GFR (45.02 ± 13.91) and single-kidney Gates-GFR (51.21 ± 14.76) was 6.19 ± 5.63 ml/min, p<0.001, demonstrating 12.1% systematic underestimation with ±11.03 ml/min (±21.5%) measurement deviation. A good correlation was revealed between both measurements (r=0.87, p<0.001). The proposed single-kidney CT-GFR correlates and agrees well with the reference standard despite a systematic underestimation, therefore it could be a one-stop-shop for evaluating urinary tract morphology and split renal function. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, Shan; Ma, XianWu; Zhang, ChangZhu; Li, Qiang; Shi, WenWei; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, XiaoDong
2018-01-01
To present a single-kidney CT-GFR measurement and compare it with the renal dynamic imaging Gates-GFR. Thirty-six patients with hydronephrosis referred for CT urography and 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging were prospectively included. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. The CT urography protocol included non-contrast, nephrographic, and excretory phase imaging. The total CT-GFR was calculated by dividing the CT number increments of the total urinary system between the nephrographic and excretory phase by the products of iodine concentration in the aorta and the elapsed time, then multiplied by (1- Haematocrit). The total CT-GFR was then split into single-kidney CT-GFR by a left and right kidney proportionality factor. The results were compared with single-kidney Gates-GFR by using paired t-test, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Paired difference between single-kidney CT-GFR (45.02 ± 13.91) and single-kidney Gates-GFR (51.21 ± 14.76) was 6.19 ± 5.63 ml/min, p<0.001, demonstrating 12.1% systematic underestimation with ±11.03 ml/min (±21.5%) measurement deviation. A good correlation was revealed between both measurements (r=0.87, p<0.001). The proposed single-kidney CT-GFR correlates and agrees well with the reference standard despite a systematic underestimation, therefore it could be a one-stop-shop for evaluating urinary tract morphology and split renal function. (orig.)
Tunable Hybrid Qubit in a Triple Quantum Dot
Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Hu, Xuedong; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping
2017-12-01
We experimentally demonstrate quantum-coherent dynamics of a triple-dot-based multielectron hybrid qubit. Pulsed experiments show that this system can be conveniently initialized, controlled, measured electrically, and has a good ratio Q ˜29 between the coherence time and gate time. Furthermore, the current multielectron hybrid qubit has an operation frequency that is tunable in a wide range, from 2 to about 15 GHz. We also provide a qualitative understanding of the experimental observations by mapping them onto a three-electron system. The demonstration of the high tunability in a triple dot system could be potentially useful for future quantum control.
Robustness of high-fidelity Rydberg gates with single-site addressability
Goerz, Michael H.; Halperin, Eli J.; Aytac, Jon M.; Koch, Christiane P.; Whaley, K. Birgitta
2014-09-01
Controlled-phase (cphase) gates can be realized with trapped neutral atoms by making use of the Rydberg blockade. Achieving the ultrahigh fidelities required for quantum computation with such Rydberg gates, however, is compromised by experimental inaccuracies in pulse amplitudes and timings, as well as by stray fields that cause fluctuations of the Rydberg levels. We report here a comparative study of analytic and numerical pulse sequences for the Rydberg cphase gate that specifically examines the robustness of the gate fidelity with respect to such experimental perturbations. Analytical pulse sequences of both simultaneous and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) are found to be at best moderately robust under these perturbations. In contrast, optimal control theory is seen to allow generation of numerical pulses that are inherently robust within a predefined tolerance window. The resulting numerical pulse shapes display simple modulation patterns and can be rationalized in terms of an interference between distinct two-photon Rydberg excitation pathways. Pulses of such low complexity should be experimentally feasible, allowing gate fidelities of order 99.90-99.99% to be achievable under realistic experimental conditions.
Bahar, Ali Newaz; Waheed, Sajjad
2016-01-01
The fundamental logical element of a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuit is majority voter gate (MV). The efficiency of a QCA circuit is depends on the efficiency of the MV. This paper presents an efficient single layer five-input majority voter gate (MV5). The structure of proposed MV5 is very simple and easy to implement in any logical circuit. This proposed MV5 reduce number of cells and use conventional QCA cells. However, using MV5 a multilayer 1-bit full-adder (FA) is designed. The functional accuracy of the proposed MV5 and FA are confirmed by QCADesigner a well-known QCA layout design and verification tools. Furthermore, the power dissipation of proposed circuits are estimated, which shows that those circuits dissipate extremely small amount of energy and suitable for reversible computing. The simulation outcomes demonstrate the superiority of the proposed circuit.
Circuit QED with transmon qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-07-01
Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.
Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serban, Ioana
2008-05-01
phase-space methods, a modified version of the WKB approximation and the Caldeira-Leggett approach. Returning to the application of the JBA as a qubit detector, chapter 7 describes the relaxation of the qubit in contact with its detector. The last chapter is concerned with optimal control of a qubit in the presence of a two level fluctuator. The two level fluctuator represents e. g. a resonator in the amorphous material of a Josephson junction. The theory of optimal control is applied to a qubit Z gate. The optimization takes into account the environment represented by the fluctuator and thus expands the limits of coherent control for solid state qubits. (orig.)
Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serban, Ioana
2008-05-15
phase-space methods, a modified version of the WKB approximation and the Caldeira-Leggett approach. Returning to the application of the JBA as a qubit detector, chapter 7 describes the relaxation of the qubit in contact with its detector. The last chapter is concerned with optimal control of a qubit in the presence of a two level fluctuator. The two level fluctuator represents e. g. a resonator in the amorphous material of a Josephson junction. The theory of optimal control is applied to a qubit Z gate. The optimization takes into account the environment represented by the fluctuator and thus expands the limits of coherent control for solid state qubits. (orig.)
Electrical Manipulation of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon and Germanium
Sigillito, Anthony James
Many proposals for quantum information devices rely on electronic or nuclear spins in semiconductors because of their long coherence times and compatibility with industrial fabrication processes. One of the most notable qubits is the electron spin bound to phosphorus donors in silicon, which offers coherence times exceeding seconds at low temperatures. These donors are naturally isolated from their environments to the extent that silicon has been coined a "semiconductor vacuum". While this makes for ultra-coherent qubits, it is difficult to couple two remote donors so quantum information proposals rely on high density arrays of qubits. Here, single qubit addressability becomes an issue. Ideally one would address individual qubits using electric fields which can be easily confined. Typically these schemes rely on tuning a donor spin qubit onto and off of resonance with a magnetic driving field. In this thesis, we measure the electrical tunability of phosphorus donors in silicon and use the extracted parameters to estimate the effects of electric-field noise on qubit coherence times. Our measurements show that donor ionization may set in before electron spins can be sufficiently tuned. We therefore explore two alternative options for qubit addressability. First, we demonstrate that nuclear spin qubits can be directly driven using electric fields instead of magnetic fields and show that this approach offers several advantages over magnetically driven spin resonance. In particular, spin transitions can occur at half the spin resonance frequency and double quantum transitions (magnetic-dipole forbidden) can occur. In a second approach to realizing tunable qubits in semiconductors, we explore the option of replacing silicon with germanium. We first measure the coherence and relaxation times for shallow donor spin qubits in natural and isotopically enriched germanium. We find that in isotopically enriched material, coherence times can exceed 1 ms and are limited by a
3D integrated superconducting qubits
Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.
2017-10-01
As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.
STM studies of an atomic-scale gate electrode formed by a single charged vacancy in GaAs
Lee, Donghun; Daughton, David; Gupta, Jay
2009-03-01
Electric-field control of spin-spin interactions at the atomic level is desirable for the realization of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. Here we demonstrate the realization of an atomic-scale gate electrode formed by a single charged vacancy on the GaAs(110) surface[1]. We can position these vacancies with atomic precision using the tip of a home-built, low temperature STM. Tunneling spectroscopy of single Mn acceptors is used to quantify the electrostatic field as a function of distance from the vacancy. Single Mn acceptors are formed by substituting Mn adatoms for Ga atoms in the first layer of the p-GaAs(110) surface[2]. Depending on the distance, the in-gap resonance of single Mn acceptors can shift as much as 200meV. Our data indicate that the electrostatic field decays according to a screened Coulomb potential. The charge state of the vacancy can be switched to neutral, as evidenced by the Mn resonance returning to its unperturbed position. Reversible control of the local electric field as well as charged states of defects in semiconductors can open new insights such as realizing an atomic-scale gate control and studying spin-spin interactions in semiconductors. http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/sim jgupta [1] D. Lee and J.A. Gupta (in preparation) [2] D. Kitchen et al., Nature 442, 436-439 (2006)
Experimental quantum multimeter and one-qubit fingerprinting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Jiangfeng; Zou Ping; Peng Xinhua; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Ekert, Artur; Kwek, L. C.; Oh, C. H.
2006-01-01
There has been much recent effort to realize quantum devices in many different physical systems. Among them, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been the first to demonstrate nontrivial quantum algorithms with small numbers of qubits and hence is a prototype for the key ingredients needed to build quantum computers. An important building block in many quantum applications is the scattering circuit, which can be used as a quantum multimeter to perform various quantum information processing tasks directly without recourse to quantum tomography. We implement in NMR a three-qubit version of the multimeter and also demonstrate a single-qubit fingerprinting
Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid
Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer
2016-01-01
Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa. PMID:27922087
Synthetic Topological Qubits in Conventional Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maissam Barkeshli
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The idea of topological quantum computation is to build powerful and robust quantum computers with certain macroscopic quantum states of matter called topologically ordered states. These systems have degenerate ground states that can be used as robust “topological qubits” to store and process quantum information. In this paper, we propose a new experimental setup that can realize topological qubits in a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with proper electric gate configurations. Our proposal is accessible with current experimental techniques, involves well-established topological states, and, moreover, can realize a large class of topological qubits, generalizing the Majorana zero modes studied in recent literature to more computationally powerful possibilities. We propose three tunneling and interferometry experiments to detect the existence and nonlocal topological properties of the topological qubits.
Entanglement of polar symmetric top molecules as candidate qubits.
Wei, Qi; Kais, Sabre; Friedrich, Bretislav; Herschbach, Dudley
2011-10-21
Proposals for quantum computing using rotational states of polar molecules as qubits have previously considered only diatomic molecules. For these the Stark effect is second-order, so a sizable external electric field is required to produce the requisite dipole moments in the laboratory frame. Here we consider use of polar symmetric top molecules. These offer advantages resulting from a first-order Stark effect, which renders the effective dipole moments nearly independent of the field strength. That permits use of much lower external field strengths for addressing sites. Moreover, for a particular choice of qubits, the electric dipole interactions become isomorphous with NMR systems for which many techniques enhancing logic gate operations have been developed. Also inviting is the wider chemical scope, since many symmetric top organic molecules provide options for auxiliary storage qubits in spin and hyperfine structure or in internal rotation states. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
Classical-processing and quantum-processing signal separation methods for qubit uncoupling
Deville, Yannick; Deville, Alain
2012-12-01
The Blind Source Separation problem consists in estimating a set of unknown source signals from their measured combinations. It was only investigated in a non-quantum framework up to now. We propose its first quantum extensions. We thus introduce the Quantum Source Separation field, investigating both its blind and non-blind configurations. More precisely, we show how to retrieve individual quantum bits (qubits) only from the global state resulting from their undesired coupling. We consider cylindrical-symmetry Heisenberg coupling, which e.g. occurs when two electron spins interact through exchange. We first propose several qubit uncoupling methods which typically measure repeatedly the coupled quantum states resulting from individual qubits preparations, and which then statistically process the classical data provided by these measurements. Numerical tests prove the effectiveness of these methods. We then derive a combination of quantum gates for performing qubit uncoupling, thus avoiding repeated qubit preparations and irreversible measurements.
Feng, Liqiang; Liu, Katheryn
2018-05-01
An effective method to obtain the single attosecond pulses (SAPs) by using the multi-cycle plasmon-driven double optical gating (DOG) technology in the specifically designed metal nanostructures has been proposed and investigated. It is found that with the introduction of the crossed metal nanostructures along the driven and the gating polarization directions, not only the harmonic cutoff can be extended, but also the efficient high-order harmonic generation (HHG) at the very highest orders occurs only at one side of the region inside the nanostructure. As a result, a 93 eV supercontinuum with the near stable phase can be found. Further, by properly introducing an ultraviolet (UV) pulse into the driven laser polarization direction (which is defined as the DOG), the harmonic yield can be enhanced by two orders of magnitude in comparison with the singe polarization gating (PG) technology. However, as the polarized angle or the ellipticity of the UV pulse increase, the enhancement of the harmonic yield is slightly reduced. Finally, by superposing the selected harmonics from the DOG scheme, a 30 as SAP with intensity enhancement of two orders of magnitude can be obtained.
Quantum measurement of a rapidly rotating spin qubit in diamond.
Wood, Alexander A; Lilette, Emmanuel; Fein, Yaakov Y; Tomek, Nikolas; McGuinness, Liam P; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Scholten, Robert E; Martin, Andy M
2018-05-01
A controlled qubit in a rotating frame opens new opportunities to probe fundamental quantum physics, such as geometric phases in physically rotating frames, and can potentially enhance detection of magnetic fields. Realizing a single qubit that can be measured and controlled during physical rotation is experimentally challenging. We demonstrate quantum control of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center within a diamond rotated at 200,000 rpm, a rotational period comparable to the NV spin coherence time T 2 . We stroboscopically image individual NV centers that execute rapid circular motion in addition to rotation and demonstrate preparation, control, and readout of the qubit quantum state with lasers and microwaves. Using spin-echo interferometry of the rotating qubit, we are able to detect modulation of the NV Zeeman shift arising from the rotating NV axis and an external DC magnetic field. Our work establishes single NV qubits in diamond as quantum sensors in the physically rotating frame and paves the way for the realization of single-qubit diamond-based rotation sensors.
Single Event Gate Rupture in 130-nm CMOS Transistor Arrays Subjected to X-Ray Irradiation
Silvestri, M; Gerardin, Simone; Faccio, Federico; Paccagnella, Alessandro
2010-01-01
We present new experimental results on heavy ion-induced gate rupture on deep submicron CMOS transistor arrays. Through the use of dedicated test structures, composed by a large number of 130-nm MOSFETs connected in parallel, we show the response to heavy ion irradiation under high stress voltages of devices previously irradiated with X-rays. We found only a slight impact on gate rupture critical voltage at a LET of 32 MeV cm(2) mg(-1) for devices previously irradiated up to 3 Mrad(SiO2), and practically no change for 100 Mrad(SiO2) irradiation, dose of interest for the future super large hadron collider (SLHC).
Optical generation of matter qubit graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benjamin, S C; Eisert, J; Stace, T M
2005-01-01
We present a scheme for rapidly entangling matter qubits in order to create graph states for one-way quantum computing. The qubits can be simple three-level systems in separate cavities. Coupling involves only local fields and a static (unswitched) linear optics network. Fusion of graph-state sections occurs with, in principle, zero probability of damaging the nascent graph state. We avoid the finite thresholds of other schemes by operating on two entangled pairs, so that each generates exactly one photon. We do not require the relatively slow single qubit local flips to be applied during the growth phase: growth of the graph state can then become a purely optical process. The scheme naturally generates graph states with vertices of high degree and so is easily able to construct minimal graph states, with consequent resource savings. The most efficient approach will be to create new graph-state edges even as qubits elsewhere are measured, in a 'just in time' approach. An error analysis indicates that the scheme is relatively robust against imperfections in the apparatus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Y-F; Gao, J; McMillan, J F; Yang, X; Wong, C W; Zou, X-B; Chen, Y-L; Han, Z-F; Guo, G-C
2008-01-01
In this paper, a scalable photonic crystal cavity array, in which single embedded quantum dots (QDs) are coherently interacting, is studied theoretically. Firstly, we examine the spectral character and optical delay brought about by the coupled cavities interacting with single QDs, in an optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency. Secondly, we then examine the usability of this coupled QD-cavity system for quantum phase gate operation and our numerical examples suggest that a two-qubit system with fidelity above 0.99 and photon loss below 0.04 is possible.
Demonstration of two-qubit algorithms with a superconducting quantum processor.
DiCarlo, L; Chow, J M; Gambetta, J M; Bishop, Lev S; Johnson, B R; Schuster, D I; Majer, J; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J
2009-07-09
Quantum computers, which harness the superposition and entanglement of physical states, could outperform their classical counterparts in solving problems with technological impact-such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. A quantum processor executes algorithms by applying a programmable sequence of gates to an initialized register of qubits, which coherently evolves into a final state containing the result of the computation. Building a quantum processor is challenging because of the need to meet simultaneously requirements that are in conflict: state preparation, long coherence times, universal gate operations and qubit readout. Processors based on a few qubits have been demonstrated using nuclear magnetic resonance, cold ion trap and optical systems, but a solid-state realization has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we demonstrate a two-qubit superconducting processor and the implementation of the Grover search and Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithms. We use a two-qubit interaction, tunable in strength by two orders of magnitude on nanosecond timescales, which is mediated by a cavity bus in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. This interaction allows the generation of highly entangled states with concurrence up to 94 per cent. Although this processor constitutes an important step in quantum computing with integrated circuits, continuing efforts to increase qubit coherence times, gate performance and register size will be required to fulfil the promise of a scalable technology.
Quantum memory for superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pritchett, Emily J.; Geller, Michael R.
2005-01-01
Many protocols for quantum computation require a memory element to store qubits. We discuss the speed and accuracy with which quantum states prepared in a superconducting qubit can be stored in and later retrieved from an attached high-Q resonator. The memory fidelity depends on both the qubit-resonator coupling strength and the location of the state on the Bloch sphere. Our results show that a quantum memory demonstration should be possible with existing superconducting qubit designs, which would be an important milestone in solid-state quantum information processing. Although we specifically focus on a large-area, current-biased Josesphson-junction phase qubit coupled to the dilatational mode of a piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical disk resonator, many of our results will apply to other qubit-oscillator models
On photonic controlled phase gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieling, K; Eisert, J; O'Brien, J L
2010-01-01
As primitives for entanglement generation, controlled phase gates have a central role in quantum computing. Especially in ideas realizing instances of quantum computation in linear optical gate arrays, a closer look can be rewarding. In such architectures, all effective nonlinearities are induced by measurements. Hence the probability of success is a crucial parameter of such quantum gates. In this paper, we discuss this question for controlled phase gates that implement an arbitrary phase with one and two control qubits. Within the class of post-selected gates in dual-rail encoding with vacuum ancillas, we identify the optimal success probabilities. We construct networks that allow for implementation using current experimental capabilities in detail. The methods employed here appear specifically useful with the advent of integrated linear optical circuits, providing stable interferometers on monolithic structures.
Optimization of Transmon Qubit Fabrication
Chang, Josephine; Rothwell, Mary; Keefe, George; IBM Quantum Computing Group Team
2013-03-01
Rapid advances in the field of superconducting transmon qubits have refined our understanding of the role that substrate and interfaces play in qubit decoherence. Here, we review strategies for enhancing coherence times in both 2D and 3D transmon qubits through substrate design, structural improvements, and process optimization. Results correlating processing techniques to decoherence times are presented, and some novel structures are proposed for further consideration. We acknowledge support from IARPA under contract W911NF-10-1-0324
Modeling decoherence with qubits
Heusler, Stefan; Dür, Wolfgang
2018-03-01
Quantum effects like the superposition principle contradict our experience of daily life. Decoherence can be viewed as a possible explanation why we do not observe quantum superposition states in the macroscopic world. In this article, we use the qubit ansatz to discuss decoherence in the simplest possible model system and propose a visualization for the microscopic origin of decoherence, and the emergence of a so-called pointer basis. Finally, we discuss the possibility of ‘macroscopic’ quantum effects.
Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang Xiaolei; Ma Jian; Jin Ge; Chen Zengbing; Zhang Jun; Pan Jianwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Jianhong; Wang Quan; Du Debing [Anhui Quantum Communication Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China)
2012-08-15
InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) working in the regime of GHz clock rates are crucial components for the high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD). We have developed for the first time a compact, stable, and user-friendly tabletop InGaAs/InP single-photon detector system operating at a 1.25 GHz gate rate that fully integrates functions for controlling and optimizing SPAD performance. We characterize the key parameters of the detector system and test the long-term stability of the system for continuous operation of 75 h. The detector system can substantially enhance QKD performance and our present work paves the way for practical high-speed QKD applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buttafava, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.buttafava@polimi.it; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Mora, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-08-15
We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buttafava, Mauro; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Dalla Mora, Alberto
2014-01-01
We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor
Patel, Raj B.; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C.; Pryde, Geoff J.
2016-01-01
Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently. PMID:27051868
Patel, Raj B; Ho, Joseph; Ferreyrol, Franck; Ralph, Timothy C; Pryde, Geoff J
2016-03-01
Minimizing the resources required to build logic gates into useful processing circuits is key to realizing quantum computers. Although the salient features of a quantum computer have been shown in proof-of-principle experiments, difficulties in scaling quantum systems have made more complex operations intractable. This is exemplified in the classical Fredkin (controlled-SWAP) gate for which, despite theoretical proposals, no quantum analog has been realized. By adding control to the SWAP unitary, we use photonic qubit logic to demonstrate the first quantum Fredkin gate, which promises many applications in quantum information and measurement. We implement example algorithms and generate the highest-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states to date. The technique we use allows one to add a control operation to a black-box unitary, something that is impossible in the standard circuit model. Our experiment represents the first use of this technique to control a two-qubit operation and paves the way for larger controlled circuits to be realized efficiently.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C; Mishchenko, A; Li, Z; Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, Th; Li, X Q; Wuerthner, F; Bagrets, A; Evers, F
2008-01-01
We report a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment in an electrochemical environment which studies a prototype molecular switch. The target molecules were perylene tetracarboxylic acid bisimides modified with pyridine (P-PBI) and methylthiol (T-PBI) linker groups and with bulky tert-butyl-phenoxy substituents in the bay area. At a fixed bias voltage, we can control the transport current through a symmetric molecular wire Au|P-PBI(T-PBI)|Au by variation of the electrochemical 'gate' potential. The current increases by up to two orders of magnitude. The conductances of the P-PBI junctions are typically a factor 3 larger than those of T-PBI. A theoretical analysis explains this effect as a consequence of shifting the lowest unoccupied perylene level (LUMO) in or out of the bias window when tuning the electrochemical gate potential VG. The difference in on/off ratios reflects the variation of hybridization of the LUMO with the electrode states with the anchor groups. I T -E S(T) curves of asymmetric molecular junctions formed between a bare Au STM tip and a T-PBI (P-PBI) modified Au(111) electrode in an aqueous electrolyte exhibit a pronounced maximum in the tunneling current at -0.740, which is close to the formal potential of the surface-confined molecules. The experimental data were explained by a sequential two-step electron transfer process
Transformed composite sequences for improved qubit addressing
Merrill, J. True; Doret, S. Charles; Vittorini, Grahame; Addison, J. P.; Brown, Kenneth R.
2014-10-01
Selective laser addressing of a single atom or atomic ion qubit can be improved using narrow-band composite pulse sequences. We describe a Lie-algebraic technique to generalize known narrow-band sequences and introduce sequences related by dilation and rotation of sequence generators. Our method improves known narrow-band sequences by decreasing both the pulse time and the residual error. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate these composite sequences using 40Ca+ ions trapped in a surface-electrode ion trap.
Silicon quantum processor with robust long-distance qubit couplings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tosi, Guilherme; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Schmitt, Vivien; Tenberg, Stefanie; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Morello, Andrea
2017-09-06
Practical quantum computers require a large network of highly coherent qubits, interconnected in a design robust against errors. Donor spins in silicon provide state-of-the-art coherence and quantum gate fidelities, in a platform adapted from industrial semiconductor processing. Here we present a scalable design for a silicon quantum processor that does not require precise donor placement and leaves ample space for the routing of interconnects and readout devices. We introduce the flip-flop qubit, a combination of the electron-nuclear spin states of a phosphorus donor that can be controlled by microwave electric fields. Two-qubit gates exploit a second-order electric dipole-dipole interaction, allowing selective coupling beyond the nearest-neighbor, at separations of hundreds of nanometers, while microwave resonators can extend the entanglement to macroscopic distances. We predict gate fidelities within fault-tolerance thresholds using realistic noise models. This design provides a realizable blueprint for scalable spin-based quantum computers in silicon.
Single-Shot Quantum Nondemolition Detection of Individual Itinerant Microwave Photons
Besse, Jean-Claude; Gasparinetti, Simone; Collodo, Michele C.; Walter, Theo; Kurpiers, Philipp; Pechal, Marek; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas
2018-04-01
Single-photon detection is an essential component in many experiments in quantum optics, but it remains challenging in the microwave domain. We realize a quantum nondemolition detector for propagating microwave photons and characterize its performance using a single-photon source. To this aim, we implement a cavity-assisted conditional phase gate between the incoming photon and a superconducting artificial atom. By reading out the state of this atom in a single shot, we reach an external (internal) photon-detection fidelity of 50% (71%), limited by transmission efficiency between the source and the detector (75%) and the coherence properties of the qubit. By characterizing the coherence and average number of photons in the field reflected off the detector, we demonstrate its quantum nondemolition nature. We envisage applications in generating heralded remote entanglement between qubits and for realizing logic gates between propagating microwave photons.
Dual-Input AND Gate From Single-Channel Thin-Film FET
Miranda, F. A.; Pinto, N. J.; Perez, R.; Mueller, C. H.
2008-01-01
A regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RRP3HT) thin-film transistor having a split-gate architecture has been fabricated on a doped silicon/silicon nitride substrate and characterized. RRP3HT is a semiconducting polymer that has a carrier mobility and on/off ratio when used in a field effect transistor (FET) configuration. This commercially available polymer is very soluble in common organic solvents and is easily processed to form uniform thin films. The most important polymer-based device fabricated and studied is the FET, since it forms the building block in logic circuits and switches for active matrix (light-emitting-diode) (LED) displays, smart cards, and radio frequency identification (RFID) cards.
Influence of external fields and environment on the dynamics of a phase-qubit-resonator system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, G. P.; Chumak, A. A.
2011-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of a qubit-resonator system coupled with a thermal bath and external electromagnetic fields. Using the evolution equations for the set of Heisenberg operators that describe the whole system, we derive an expression for the resonator field, accounting for the resonator-drive, -bath, and -qubit interaction. The renormalization of the resonator frequency caused by the qubit-resonator interaction is accounted for. Using solutions for the resonator field, we derive the equation describing qubit dynamics. The influence of the qubit evolution during measurement time on the fidelity of a single-shot measurement is studied. The relation between fidelity and measurement time is shown explicitly. Also, an expression describing relaxation of the superposition qubit state toward its stationary value is derived. The possibility of controlling this state by varying the amplitude and frequency of drive is shown.
Controlled Remote State Preparation via General Pure Three-Qubit State
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuebo Zha
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The protocols for controlled remote state preparation of a single qubit and a general two-qubit state are presented in this paper. The general pure three-qubit states are chosen as shared quantum channel, which are not Local operations and classical communication (LOCC equivalent to the mostly used GHz state. This is the first time that general pure three-qubit states have been introduced to complete remote state preparation. The probability of successful preparation is presented. Moreover, in some special cases, the successful probability could reach a unit value.
All-versus-nothing proofs with n qubits distributed between m parties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabello, Adan; Moreno, Pilar
2010-01-01
All-versus-nothing (AVN) proofs show the conflict between Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's elements of reality and the perfect correlations of some quantum states. Given an n-qubit state distributed between m parties, we provide a method with which to decide whether this distribution allows an m-partite AVN proof specific for this state using only single-qubit measurements. We apply this method to some recently obtained n-qubit m-particle states. In addition, we provide all inequivalent AVN proofs with less than nine qubits and a minimum number of parties.
All-versus-nothing proofs with n qubits distributed between m parties
Cabello, Adán; Moreno, Pilar
2010-04-01
All-versus-nothing (AVN) proofs show the conflict between Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen’s elements of reality and the perfect correlations of some quantum states. Given an n-qubit state distributed between m parties, we provide a method with which to decide whether this distribution allows an m-partite AVN proof specific for this state using only single-qubit measurements. We apply this method to some recently obtained n-qubit m-particle states. In addition, we provide all inequivalent AVN proofs with less than nine qubits and a minimum number of parties.
Characterizing Ensembles of Superconducting Qubits
Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeff; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Weber, Steven; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Kerman, Jamie; Gustavsson, Simon; Kamal, Archana; Yan, Fei; Oliver, William
We investigate ensembles of up to 48 superconducting qubits embedded within a superconducting cavity. Such arrays of qubits have been proposed for the experimental study of Ising Hamiltonians, and efficient methods to characterize and calibrate these types of systems are still under development. Here we leverage high qubit coherence (> 70 μs) to characterize individual devices as well as qubit-qubit interactions, utilizing the common resonator mode for a joint readout. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Steve [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Durand Building, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305-4034 (United States); Nam, Ji Hyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, David Packard Building, 350 Serra Mall, Mail Code: 9505, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States); Koo, Ja Hoon; Lei, Ting; Bao, Zhenan, E-mail: zbao@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Shriram Center, 443 Via Ortega, Room 307, Stanford, California 94305-4145 (United States)
2015-03-09
We demonstrate a technique to convert p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network transistor into ambipolar transistor by thermally evaporating C{sub 60} on top. The addition of C{sub 60} was observed to have two effects in enhancing ambipolar characteristics. First, C{sub 60} served as an encapsulating layer that enhanced the ambipolar characteristics of SWNTs. Second, C{sub 60} itself served as an electron transporting layer that contributed to the n-type conduction. Such a dual effect enables effective conversion of p-type into ambipolar characteristics. We have fabricated inverters using our SWNT/C{sub 60} ambipolar transistors with gain as high as 24, along with adaptive NAND and NOR logic gates.
Electromagnetically induced interference in a superconducting flux qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du lingjie; Yu Yang; Lan Dong
2013-01-01
Interaction between quantum two-level systems (qubits) and electromagnetic fields can provide additional coupling channels to qubit states. In particular, the interwell relaxation or Rabi oscillations, resulting, respectively, from the multi- or single-mode interaction, can produce effective crossovers, leading to electromagnetically induced interference in microwave driven qubits. The environment is modeled by a multimode thermal bath, generating the interwell relaxation. Relaxation induced interference, independent of the tunnel coupling, provides deeper understanding to the interaction between the qubits and their environment. It also supplies a useful tool to characterize the relaxation strength as well as the characteristic frequency of the bath. In addition, we demonstrate the relaxation can generate population inversion in a strongly driving two-level system. On the other hand, different from Rabi oscillations, Rabi-oscillation-induced interference involves more complicated and modulated photon exchange thus offers an alternative means to manipulate the qubit, with more controllable parameters including the strength and position of the tunnel coupling. It also provides a testing ground for exploring nonlinear quantum phenomena and quantum state manipulation in qubits either with or without crossover structure.
Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.
Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji
2015-01-28
A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2013-01-01
To date, all work concerning the construction of quantum logic gates, an essential part of quantum computing, has focused on operating in one degree of freedom (DOF) for quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing based on two DOFs for quantum systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating in both the spatial mode and polarization DOFs for a photon pair simultaneously, using the giant optical Faraday rotation induced by a single-electron spin in a quantum dot inside a one-side optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With this hyper-CNOT gate and linear optical elements, two-photon four-qubit cluster entangled states can be prepared and analyzed, which give an application to manipulate more information with less resources. We analyze the experimental feasibility of this hyper-CNOT gate and show that it can be implemented with current technology. (letter)
Teleportation of M-Qubit Unitary Operations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
We discuss teleportation of unitary operations on a two-qubit in detail, then generalize the bidirectional state teleportation scheme from one-qubit to M-qubit unitary operations. The resources required for the optimal implementation of teleportation of an M-qubit unitary operation using a bidirectional state teleportation scheme are given.
Multi-party quantum key agreement with five-qubit brown states
Cai, Tao; Jiang, Min; Cao, Gang
2018-05-01
In this paper, we propose a multi-party quantum key agreement protocol with five-qubit brown states and single-qubit measurements. Our multi-party protocol ensures each participant to contribute equally to the agreement key. Each party performs three single-qubit unitary operations on three qubits of each brown state. Finally, by measuring brown states and decoding the measurement results, all participants can negotiate a shared secret key without classical bits exchange between them. With the analysis of security, our protocol demonstrates that it can resist against both outsider and participant attacks. Compared with other schemes, it also possesses a higher information efficiency. In terms of physical operation, it requires single-qubit measurements only which weakens the hardware requirements of participant and has a better operating flexibility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pai, Moon Sun; Yang, You Jung; Im, Ki Chun; Hong, Il Ki; Yun, Sung Cheol; Kang, Duk Hyun; Song, Jae Kwan; Moon, Dae Hyuk
2005-01-01
Systemic errors in the gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurement of left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) may occur. We evaluated whether patient-related factors affected the accuracy of EDV, ESV, and EF measured by electrocardiogram-gated Tl-201 SPECT. A total of 518 patients without perfusion defects on Tl-201 SPECT or coronary artery disease were studied. EDV, ESV, and EF were measured from echocardiography and adenosine stress/redistribution gated Tl-201 SPECT using commercially available software packages (QGS and 4D-MSPECT). We identified factors affecting the accuracy of gated SPECT via multiple linear regression analysis of the differences between echocardiography and gated SPECT. Gated SPECT analyzed with QGS underestimated EDV and ESV, and overestimated EF, but 4D-MSPECT overestimated all those values (p<0.001). Independent variables that increased the difference in EDV between echocardiography and gated SPECT were decreasing LV end-diastolic wall thickness, decreasing body surface area, female sex and increasing EDV (p< 0.001). Those for ESV were decreasing LV end-systolic wall thickness, female sex, and decreasing ESV (p<0.001). Increasing end-systolic wall thickness, male sex and decreasing age were independent determinants associated with an increased difference in EF (p< 0.001). Adenosine stress SPECT showed significantly higher EDV and ESV values and a lower EF than did redistribution SPECT (p< 0.001). In determination of EF, QGS demonstrated a smaller bias than did 4D-MSPECT. However, in men with LV hypertrophy, 4D-MSPECT was superior to QGS. Systemic error by gated Tl-201 SPECT is determined by individual patient-characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, Fatma; Isgoren, S.; Demir, H.; Kozdag, G.; Ural, D.; Komsuoglu, B.
2005-01-01
Left ventricular function, volumes and regional wall motion provide valuable diagnostic information and are of long-term prognostic importance in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of 2D-echocardiography and gated single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) for evaluation of these parameters in patients with DCM. Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography were performed in 33 patients having DCM. Gated SPECT data, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), were processed using an automated algorithm. Standard technique was used for 2D-echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated using both modalities and was scored by two independent observers using a 16-sement model with a 5-point scoring system. The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for the assessment of regional wall motion was 56% (298/528 segments). With gated SPECT, LEVF, end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) were 27+-9%, 217+-73mL, respectively, and 30.8%, 195+-58mL and, 137+-48 mL with echocardiography. The correlation between gated SPECT and 2-D-echocardiography was good (r=0.76, P<0.01) for the assessment of LVEF. The correlation for EDV and ESV were also good, but with wider limits of agreement (r=0.72, P<0.01 and r=0.73, P<0.01, respectively) and significantly higher values were obtained with gated SPECT (P<0.01). Gated SPECT and 2D-echocardiography correlate well for the assessment of LV function and LV volumes. Like 2D-echocardiography, gated SPECT provides reliable information about LV function and dimension with the additional advantage of perfusion data. (author)
Progress toward coupled flux qubits with high connectivity and long coherence times
Weber, Steven; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Yoder, Jonilyn; Kerman, Andrew; Oliver, William
The ability to engineer interactions between qubits is essential to all areas of quantum information science. The capability to tune qubit-qubit couplings in situ is desirable for gate-based quantum computing and analog quantum simulation and necessary for quantum annealing. Consequently, tunable coupling has been the subject of several experimental efforts using both transmon qubits and flux qubits. Recently, our group has demonstrated robust and long-lived capacitively shunted (C-shunt) flux qubits. Here, we discuss our efforts to develop architectures for tunably coupling these qubits. In particular, we focus on optimizing the RF SQUID coupler to achieve high connectivity. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.
Leakage and sweet spots in triple-quantum-dot spin qubits: A molecular-orbital study
Zhang, Chengxian; Yang, Xu-Chen; Wang, Xin
2018-04-01
A triple-quantum-dot system can be operated as either an exchange-only qubit or a resonant-exchange qubit. While it is generally believed that the decisive advantage of the resonant-exchange qubit is the suppression of charge noise because it is operated at a sweet spot, we show that the leakage is also an important factor. Through molecular-orbital-theoretic calculations, we show that when the system is operated in the exchange-only scheme, the leakage to states with double electron occupancy in quantum dots is severe when rotations around the axis 120∘ from z ̂ is performed. While this leakage can be reduced by either shrinking the dots or separating them further, the exchange interactions are also suppressed at the same time, making the gate operations unfavorably slow. When the system is operated as a resonant-exchange qubit, the leakage is three to five orders of magnitude smaller. We have also calculated the optimal detuning point which minimizes the leakage for the resonant-exchange qubit, and have found that although it does not coincide with the double sweet spot for the charge noise, they are rather close. Our results suggest that the resonant-exchange qubit has another advantage, that leakage can be greatly suppressed compared to the exchange-only qubit, and operating at the double sweet spot point should be optimal both for reducing charge noise and suppressing leakage.
Qubit Manipulations Techniques for Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Processing
Gaebler, John; Tan, Ting; Lin, Yiheng; Bowler, Ryan; Jost, John; Meier, Adam; Knill, Emanuel; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David; Ion Storage Team
2013-05-01
We report recent results on qubit manipulation techniques for trapped-ions towards scalable quantum information processing (QIP). We demonstrate a platform-independent benchmarking protocol for evaluating the performance of Clifford gates, which form a basis for fault-tolerant QIP. We report a demonstration of an entangling gate scheme proposed by Bermudez et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 85, 040302 (2012)] and achieve a fidelity of 0.974(4). This scheme takes advantage of dynamic decoupling which protects the qubit against dephasing errors. It can be applied directly on magnetic-field-insensitive states, and provides a number of simplifications in experimental implementation compared to some other entangling gates with trapped ions. We also report preliminary results on dissipative creation of entanglement with trapped-ions. Creation of an entangled pair does not require discrete logic gates and thus could reduce the level of quantum-coherent control needed for large-scale QIP. Supported by IARPA, ARO contract No. EAO139840, ONR, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamenev, D. I.; Berman, G. P.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2006-01-01
The errors caused by qubit displacements from their prescribed locations in an ensemble of spin chains are estimated analytically and calculated numerically for a quantum computer based on phosphorus donors in silicon. We show that it is possible to polarize (initialize) the nuclear spins even with displaced qubits by using controlled-NOT gates between the electron and nuclear spins of the same phosphorus atom. However, a controlled-NOT gate between the displaced electron spins is implemented with large error because of the exponential dependence of exchange interaction constant on the distance between the qubits. If quantum computation is implemented on an ensemble of many spin chains, the errors can be small if the number of chains with displaced qubits is small
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Shigeto; Tadamura, Eiji; Kudoh, Takashi; Inubushi, Masayuki; Konishi, Junji; Ikeda, Tadashi; Koshiji, Takaaki; Nishimura, Kazunobu; Komeda, Masashi; Tamaki, Nagara
2001-01-01
When an arterial graft is used, reversible perfusion defects on single-photon emission tomography (SPET) perfusion images are occasionally observed early after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), owing to the restricted flow capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the functional information obtained with electrocardiography (ECG)-gated perfusion SPET could be helpful in evaluating the effect of revascularization early after CABG. Twenty-three patients (18 men and 5 women, mean age 65±9 years) underwent stress/re-injection thallium-201 ECG-gated SPET before and 4 weeks after CABG (13 with exercise and 10 with dipyridamole). Patency of all grafts was confirmed by coronary angiography 1 month after CABG. Cardiac functional data including the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the transient ischaemic dilatation (TID) ratio were analysed using a commercially available automated program. The conventional stress and re-injection tomograms were interpreted by means of a five-point scoring system in a nine-segment model. Stress-induced reversible 201 Tl perfusion defects were present in 64% of the myocardial segments bypassed by patent arterial grafts, in contrast to 42% of the myocardial segments bypassed by patent venous grafts (χ 2 =7.8, P=0.005). Of the 23 patients, 12 showed improvement in summed ischaemic scores (group 1), while 11 had no change or deterioration (group 2), although all grafts were patent on postoperative catheterization. The TID ratio improved in both group 1 and group 2 before and after CABG (1.14±0.13 vs 0.99±0.07, P=0.001 and 1.09±0.07 vs 0.94±0.05, P=0.002, respectively). However, LVEF did not significantly improve in group 1 or group 2 after CABG (42.5%±9.9% vs 47.5%±11.8%, and 52.1%±7.5% vs 53.1%±5.9%, respectively). Perfusion imaging or LVEF assessment is of limited value early after CABG. The TID ratio obtained with ECG-gated perfusion SPET may be a useful marker to evaluate the effect of
Liu, A.-Peng; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Shou
2018-02-01
We first propose a scheme for controlled phase-flip gate between a flying photon qubit and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble assisted by double-sided cavity quantum systems. Then we propose a deterministic controlled-not gate on magnon qubits with parity-check building blocks. Both the gates can be accomplished with 100% success probability in principle. Atomic ensemble is employed so that light-matter coupling is remarkably improved by collective enhancement. We assess the performance of the gates and the results show that they can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques.
Photon-Mediated Quantum Gate between Two Neutral Atoms in an Optical Cavity
Welte, Stephan; Hacker, Bastian; Daiss, Severin; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2018-02-01
Quantum logic gates are fundamental building blocks of quantum computers. Their integration into quantum networks requires strong qubit coupling to network channels, as can be realized with neutral atoms and optical photons in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we demonstrate that the long-range interaction mediated by a flying photon performs a gate between two stationary atoms inside an optical cavity from which the photon is reflected. This single step executes the gate in 2 μ s . We show an entangling operation between the two atoms by generating a Bell state with 76(2)% fidelity. The gate also operates as a cnot. We demonstrate 74.1(1.6)% overlap between the observed and the ideal gate output, limited by the state preparation fidelity of 80.2(0.8)%. As the atoms are efficiently connected to a photonic channel, our gate paves the way towards quantum networking with multiqubit nodes and the distribution of entanglement in repeater-based long-distance quantum networks.
Photon-Mediated Quantum Gate between Two Neutral Atoms in an Optical Cavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Welte
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Quantum logic gates are fundamental building blocks of quantum computers. Their integration into quantum networks requires strong qubit coupling to network channels, as can be realized with neutral atoms and optical photons in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we demonstrate that the long-range interaction mediated by a flying photon performs a gate between two stationary atoms inside an optical cavity from which the photon is reflected. This single step executes the gate in 2 μs. We show an entangling operation between the two atoms by generating a Bell state with 76(2% fidelity. The gate also operates as a cnot. We demonstrate 74.1(1.6% overlap between the observed and the ideal gate output, limited by the state preparation fidelity of 80.2(0.8%. As the atoms are efficiently connected to a photonic channel, our gate paves the way towards quantum networking with multiqubit nodes and the distribution of entanglement in repeater-based long-distance quantum networks.
Framework for Flux Qubit Design
Yan, Fei; Kamal, Archana; Krantz, Philip; Campbell, Daniel; Kim, David; Yoder, Jonilyn; Orlando, Terry; Gustavsson, Simon; Oliver, William; Engineering Quantum Systems Team
A qubit design for higher performance relies on the understanding of how various qubit properties are related to design parameters. We construct a framework for understanding the qubit design in the flux regime. We explore different parameter regimes, looking for features desirable for certain purpose in the context of quantum computing. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.
Quantum logic gates based on ballistic transport in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dragoman, Daniela [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094 Bucharest (Romania); Dragoman, Mircea, E-mail: mircea.dragoman@imt.ro [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnology (IMT), P.O. Box 38-160, 023573 Bucharest (Romania)
2016-03-07
The paper presents various configurations for the implementation of graphene-based Hadamard, C-phase, controlled-NOT, and Toffoli gates working at room temperature. These logic gates, essential for any quantum computing algorithm, involve ballistic graphene devices for qubit generation and processing and can be fabricated using existing nanolithographical techniques. All quantum gate configurations are based on the very large mean-free-paths of carriers in graphene at room temperature.
Scheick, Leif
2014-01-01
Single-event-effect test results for hi-rel total-dose-hardened power MOSFETs are presented in this report. The 2N7616 and the 2N7425 from Semicoa and the 2N7480 from International Rectifier were tested to NASA test condition standards and requirements. The 2N7480 performed well and the data agree with the manufacture's data. The 2N7616 and 2N7425 were entry parts from Semicoa using a new device architecture. Unfortunately, the device performed poorly and Semicoa is withdrawing power MOSFETs from it line due to these data. Vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are the most commonly used power transistor. MOSFETs are typically employed in power supplies and high current switching applications. Due to the inherent high electric fields in the device, power MOSFETs are sensitive to heavy ion irradiation and can fail catastrophically as a result of single-event gate rupture (SEGR) or single-event burnout (SEB). Manufacturers have designed radiation-hardened power MOSFETs for space applications. See [1] through [5] for more information. The objective of this effort was to investigate the SEGR and SEB responses of two power MOSFETs recently produced. These tests will serve as a limited verification of these parts. It is acknowledged that further testing on the respective parts may be needed for some mission profiles.
Noise suppression and long-range exchange coupling for gallium arsenide spin qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malinowski, Filip
This thesis presents the results of the experimental study performed on spin qubits realized in gate-defined gallium arsenide quantum dots, with the focus on noise suppression and long-distance coupling. First, we show that the susceptibility to charge noise can be reduced by reducing the gradien...
Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.
2018-01-01
The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.
More efficient purifying scheme via controlled-controlled NOT gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metwally, N.; Obada, A.-S.
2006-01-01
A new modified version of the Oxford purification protocol is proposed. This version is based on the controlled-controlled NOT gate instead of controlled NOT in the original one. Comparisons between the results of the new version and the original and an earlier modification are given. It is found that the new version converges faster and consumes fewer initial qubit pairs of low fidelity per final qubit pair of high fidelity
Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-12-01
InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. Gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing module size are important challenges for the design of such detector system. Here we present for the first time an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm * 15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency sine wave gating. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5 % photon detection efficiency, 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1 % afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.
Qubit Complexity of Continuous Problems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Papageorgiou, A; Traub, J. F
2005-01-01
.... The authors show how to obtain the classical query complexity for continuous problems. They then establish a simple formula for a lower bound on the qubit complexity in terms of the classical query complexity...
Quantum logic as superbraids of entangled qubit world lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yepez, Jeffrey
2010-01-01
Presented is a topological representation of quantum logic that views entangled qubit spacetime histories (or qubit world lines) as a generalized braid, referred to as a superbraid. The crossing of world lines can be quantum-mechanical in nature, most conveniently expressed analytically with ladder-operator-based quantum gates. At a crossing, independent world lines can become entangled. Complicated superbraids are systematically reduced by recursively applying quantum skein relations. If the superbraid is closed (e.g., representing quantum circuits with closed-loop feedback, quantum lattice gas algorithms, loop or vacuum diagrams in quantum field theory), then one can decompose the resulting superlink into an entangled superposition of classical links. Thus, one can compute a superlink invariant, for example, the Jones polynomial for the square root of a classical knot.
Interface effects on acceptor qubits in silicon and germanium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abadillo-Uriel, J C; Calderón, M J
2016-01-01
Dopant-based quantum computing implementations often require the dopants to be situated close to an interface to facilitate qubit manipulation with local gates. Interfaces not only modify the energies of the bound states but also affect their symmetry. Making use of the successful effective mass theory we study the energy spectra of acceptors in Si or Ge taking into account the quantum confinement, the dielectric mismatch and the central cell effects. The presence of an interface puts constraints to the allowed symmetries and leads to the splitting of the ground state in two Kramers doublets (Mol et al 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 203110). Inversion symmetry breaking also implies parity mixing which affects the allowed optical transitions. Consequences for acceptor qubits are discussed. (paper)
Pyo, Ju-Young; Cho, Won-Ju
2018-04-01
We fabricate high-sensitivity pH sensors using single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWCNT) network thin-film transistors (TFTs). The sensing and transducer parts of the pH sensor are composed of separative extended-sensing gates (ESGs) with SnO2 ion-sensitive membranes and double-gate structure TFTs with thin SWCNT network channels of ∼1 nm and AlO x top-gate insulators formed by the solution-deposition method. To prevent thermal process-induced damages on the SWCNT channel layer due to the post-deposition annealing process and improve the electrical characteristics of the SWCNT-TFTs, microwave irradiation is applied at low temperatures. As a result, a pH sensitivity of 7.6 V/pH, far beyond the Nernst limit, is obtained owing to the capacitive coupling effect between the top- and bottom-gate insulators of the SWCNT-TFTs. Therefore, double-gate structure SWCNT-TFTs with separated ESGs are expected to be highly beneficial for high-sensitivity disposable biosensor applications.
Exchange gate on the qudit space and Fock space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Kazuyuki
2003-01-01
We construct an exchange gate with small elementary gates on the space of qudits, which consist of three controlled shift gates and three 'reverse' gates. This is a natural extension of the qubit case. We also consider a similar situation in Fock space, but in this case we find some differences. However, we can construct the exchange gate by making use of a generalized coherent operator based on the Lie algebra su(2), which is a well-known method in quantum optics. We also make a brief comment on 'imperfect clones'
Scheick, Leif
2010-01-01
The vertical metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is a widely used power transistor onboard a spacecraft. The MOSFET is typically employed in power supplies and high current switching applications. Due to the inherent high electric fields in the device, power MOSFETs are sensitive to heavy ion irradiation and can fail catastrophically as a result of single event gate rupture (SEGR) or single event burnout (SEB). Manufacturers have designed radiation-hardened power MOSFETs for space applications. These radiation hardened devices are not immune to SEGR or SEB but, rather, can exhibit them at a much more damaging ion than their non-radiation hardened counterparts. See [1] through [5] for more information.This effort was to investigate the SEGR and SEB responses of two power MOSFETs from IR(the IRHN57133SE and the IRHN57250SE) that have recently been produced on a new fabrication line. These tests will serve as a limited verification of these parts, but it is acknowledged that further testing on the respective parts may be needed for some mission profiles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laws, W.R.; Potter, D.W.; Sutherland, J.C.
1984-01-01
We have constructed a circuit that permits conventional timing electronics to be used in single photon-counting fluorimeters with high repetition rate excitation sources (synchrotrons and mode-locked lasers). Most commercial time-to-amplitude and time-to-digital converters introduce errors when processing very short time intervals and when subjected to high-frequency signals. This circuit reduces the frequency of signals representing the pulsed light source (stops) to the rate of detected fluorescence events (starts). Precise timing between the start/stop pair is accomplished by using the second stop pulse after a start pulse. Important features of our design are that the circuit is insensitive to the simultaneous occurrence of start and stop signals and that the reduction in the stop frequency allows the start/stop time interval to be placed in linear regions of the response functions of commercial timing electronics
Light-gated single CdSe nanowire transistor: photocurrent saturation and band gap extraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yang, E-mail: yangzh08@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Ritun; Kudera, Stefan; Krahne, Roman, E-mail: roman.krahne@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Nanochemistry department (Italy)
2015-11-15
CdSe nanowires are popular building blocks for many optoelectronic devices mainly owing to their direct band gap in the visible range of the spectrum. Here we investigate the optoelectronic properties of single CdSe nanowires fabricated by colloidal synthesis, in terms of their photocurrent–voltage characteristics and photoconductivity spectra recorded at 300 and 18 K. The photocurrent is identified as the secondary photocurrent, which gives rise to a photoconductive gain of ∼35. We observe a saturation of the photocurrent beyond a certain voltage bias that can be related to the finite drift velocity of electrons. From the photoconductivity spectra, we determine the band gap energy of the nanowires as ∼1.728 eV, and we resolve low-energy peaks that can be associated with sub-bandgap states.Graphical Abstract.
Quantum control of finite-time disentanglement in qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Mazhar
2009-07-13
This thesis is a theoretical study of entanglement dynamics and its control of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems. In particular, we focus on the decay of entanglement of quantum states interacting with dissipative environments. Qubit-qubit entanglement may vanish suddenly while interacting with statistically independent vacuum reservoirs. Such finite- time disentanglement is called sudden death of entanglement (ESD). We investigate entanglement sudden death of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems interacting with statistically independent reservoirs at zero- and finite-temperature. It is shown that for zero-temperature reservoirs, some entangled states exhibit sudden death while others lose their entanglement only after infinite time. Thus, there are two possible routes of entanglement decay, namely sudden death and asymptotic decay. We demonstrate that starting with an initial condition which leads to finite-time disentanglement, we can alter the future course of entanglement by local unitary actions. In other words, it is possible to put the quantum states on other track of decay once they are on a particular route of decay. We show that one can accelerate or delay sudden death. However, there is a critical time such that if local actions are taken before that critical time then sudden death can be delayed to infinity. Any local unitary action taken after that critical time can only accelerate or delay sudden death. In finite-temperature reservoirs, we demonstrate that a whole class of entangled states exhibit sudden death. This conclusion is valid if at least one of the reservoirs is at finite-temperature. However, we show that we can still hasten or delay sudden death by local unitary transformations up to some finite time. We also study sudden death for qubit-qutrit systems. Similar to qubit-qubit systems, some states exhibit sudden death while others do not. However, the process of disentanglement can be effected due to existence of quantum interference
Quantum control of finite-time disentanglement in qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, Mazhar
2009-01-01
This thesis is a theoretical study of entanglement dynamics and its control of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems. In particular, we focus on the decay of entanglement of quantum states interacting with dissipative environments. Qubit-qubit entanglement may vanish suddenly while interacting with statistically independent vacuum reservoirs. Such finite- time disentanglement is called sudden death of entanglement (ESD). We investigate entanglement sudden death of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems interacting with statistically independent reservoirs at zero- and finite-temperature. It is shown that for zero-temperature reservoirs, some entangled states exhibit sudden death while others lose their entanglement only after infinite time. Thus, there are two possible routes of entanglement decay, namely sudden death and asymptotic decay. We demonstrate that starting with an initial condition which leads to finite-time disentanglement, we can alter the future course of entanglement by local unitary actions. In other words, it is possible to put the quantum states on other track of decay once they are on a particular route of decay. We show that one can accelerate or delay sudden death. However, there is a critical time such that if local actions are taken before that critical time then sudden death can be delayed to infinity. Any local unitary action taken after that critical time can only accelerate or delay sudden death. In finite-temperature reservoirs, we demonstrate that a whole class of entangled states exhibit sudden death. This conclusion is valid if at least one of the reservoirs is at finite-temperature. However, we show that we can still hasten or delay sudden death by local unitary transformations up to some finite time. We also study sudden death for qubit-qutrit systems. Similar to qubit-qubit systems, some states exhibit sudden death while others do not. However, the process of disentanglement can be effected due to existence of quantum interference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sciagra, Roberto; Genovese, Sabrina; Pupi, Alberto; Parodi, Guido; Bellandi, Benedetta; Antoniucci, David; Del Pace, Stefano; Zampini, Linda; Gensini, Gian Franco
2010-01-01
Persistent abnormalities are usually not detected in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Since sympathetically mediated myocardial damage has been proposed as a causative mechanism of TTC, we explored whether mental stress could evoke abnormalities in these patients. One month after an acute event, 22 patients fulfilling all TTC diagnostic criteria and 11 controls underwent resting and mental stress gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion, wall motion, transient ischaemic dilation (TID) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) were evaluated. None of the controls showed stress-induced abnormalities. Mental stress evoked regional changes (perfusion defects and/or wall motion abnormality) in 16 TTC subjects and global abnormalities (LVEF fall >5% and/or TID >1.10) in 13; 3 had a completely negative response. TID, delta LVEF and delta wall motion score were significantly different in TTC vs control patients: 1.08 ± 0.20 vs 0.95 ± 0.11 (p < 0.05), -1.7 ± 6% vs 4 ± 5% (p < 0.02) and 2.5 (0, 4.25) vs 0 (0, 0) (p < 0.002), respectively. Mental stress may evoke regional and/or global abnormalities in most TTC patients. The abnormal response to mental stress supports the role of sympathetic stimulation in TTC. Mental stress could thus be helpful for TTC evaluation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, A.K.; Hasegawa, Shinji; Yoshioka, Jun; Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Tokita, Naoki; Maruyama, Atsushi; Xiuli, Mu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko
1999-01-01
To elucidate the after-effect of exercise on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated at 1 h after exercise and at rest by technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using an automated program in 53 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: normal scan (n = 16), ischaemia (n = 19) and infarction (n = 18), based on the interpretation of perfusion images. Postexercise LVEF did not differ from resting LVEF in the groups with normal scan and infarction. In patients with ischaemia, postexercise EDV (90±17 ml, mean ±SD) and ESV (44±15 ml) were significantly higher than EDV (84±15 ml, P = 0.001) and ESV (36±14 ml, P<0.0005) at rest. LVEF was significantly depressed 1 h after exercise (53%±9% vs 58%±9%, P<0.0001). In ischaemic patients with depressed postexercise LVEF, LVEF difference between rest and postexercise showed a significant correlation with the sum of defect scores, which were reversible from exercise to rest perfusion images (r = 0.92, P<0.0001). These results indicate that exercise-induced LV dysfunction (myocardial stunning) continues for at least 1 h in ischaemic patients and that the extent of LVEF depression is determined by the severity of ischaemia. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paul, A.K.; Hasegawa, Shinji; Yoshioka, Jun; Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Tokita, Naoki; Maruyama, Atsushi; Xiuli, Mu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Division of Tracer Kinetics, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka (Japan)
1999-04-29
To elucidate the after-effect of exercise on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated at 1 h after exercise and at rest by technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using an automated program in 53 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: normal scan (n = 16), ischaemia (n = 19) and infarction (n = 18), based on the interpretation of perfusion images. Postexercise LVEF did not differ from resting LVEF in the groups with normal scan and infarction. In patients with ischaemia, postexercise EDV (90{+-}17 ml, mean {+-}SD) and ESV (44{+-}15 ml) were significantly higher than EDV (84{+-}15 ml, P = 0.001) and ESV (36{+-}14 ml, P<0.0005) at rest. LVEF was significantly depressed 1 h after exercise (53%{+-}9% vs 58%{+-}9%, P<0.0001). In ischaemic patients with depressed postexercise LVEF, LVEF difference between rest and postexercise showed a significant correlation with the sum of defect scores, which were reversible from exercise to rest perfusion images (r = 0.92, P<0.0001). These results indicate that exercise-induced LV dysfunction (myocardial stunning) continues for at least 1 h in ischaemic patients and that the extent of LVEF depression is determined by the severity of ischaemia. (orig.) With 7 figs., 19 refs.
Flux qubits on semiconducting quantum ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szopa, M; Zipper, E
2010-01-01
The ability to control the quantum state of a single electrons in a quantum ring made of a semiconductor is at the heart of recent developments towards a scalable quantum computer. A peculiar dispersion relation of quantum rings allows to steer the ground state properties by the magnetic flux and offers spin and orbital degrees of freedom for quantum manipulations. We show that such ring can be effectively reduced to the two-state system forming a qubit on orbital or spin degrees of freedom.
Gigahertz-gated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with detection efficiency exceeding 55% at 1550 nm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comandar, L. C.; Fröhlich, B.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Lucamarini, M.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.
2015-01-01
We report on a gated single-photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a single-photon detection efficiency exceeding 55% at 1550 nm. Our detector is gated at 1 GHz and employs the self-differencing technique for gate transient suppression. It can operate nearly dead time free, except for the one clock cycle dead time intrinsic to self-differencing, and we demonstrate a count rate of 500 Mcps. We present a careful analysis of the optimal driving conditions of the APD measured with a dead time free detector characterization setup. It is found that a shortened gate width of 360 ps together with an increased driving signal amplitude and operation at higher temperatures leads to improved performance of the detector. We achieve an afterpulse probability of 7% at 50% detection efficiency with dead time free measurement and a record efficiency for InGaAs/InP APDs of 55% at an afterpulse probability of only 10.2% with a moderate dead time of 10 ns
Toward nano-fabrication of superconducting ruthenate qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wood, Kent S.; Horwitz, James S.; Wu, H.-D.; Bounnak, Sommy S.; Yaguchi, Hiroshi; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Gulian, Armen M.
2004-01-01
The lack of thin films is one of the major obstacles in exploring the intriguing quantum properties specific to triplet superconductors. To have a single-domain chiral structure the sample should be made out of thin film, but crystalline imperfections until now have not allowed anybody to succeed in deposition of superconducting thin films of ruthenates. This stops not only general progress in investigating their properties, but in particular forbids practical realization of triplet superconductor qubits. Using the material properties of ruthenates, we have elaborated a method to overcome this problem. This report contains experimental aspects of our recent progress towards triplet superconductor qubits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sahil Talwar
Full Text Available Ion channels are involved in many physiological processes and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Their functional properties vary according to their subunit composition, which in turn varies in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and as a consequence of pathophysiological events. Understanding this diversity requires functional analysis of ion channel properties in large numbers of individual cells. Functional characterisation of ligand-gated channels involves quantitating agonist and drug dose-response relationships using electrophysiological or fluorescence-based techniques. Electrophysiology is limited by low throughput and high-throughput fluorescence-based functional evaluation generally does not enable the characterization of the functional properties of each individual cell. Here we describe a fluorescence-based assay that characterizes functional channel properties at single cell resolution in high throughput mode. It is based on progressive receptor activation and iterative fluorescence imaging and delivers >100 dose-responses in a single well of a 384-well plate, using α1-3 homomeric and αβ heteromeric glycine receptor (GlyR chloride channels as a model system. We applied this assay with transiently transfected HEK293 cells co-expressing halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein and different GlyR subunit combinations. Glycine EC50 values of different GlyR isoforms were highly correlated with published electrophysiological data and confirm previously reported pharmacological profiles for the GlyR inhibitors, picrotoxin, strychnine and lindane. We show that inter and intra well variability is low and that clustering of functional phenotypes permits identification of drugs with subunit-specific pharmacological profiles. As this method dramatically improves the efficiency with which ion channel populations can be characterized in the context of cellular heterogeneity, it should facilitate systems
Room Temperature Memory for Few Photon Polarization Qubits
Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordan, Bertus; Nazami, Mehdi; Nolleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden
2014-05-01
We have developed a room temperature quantum memory device based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency capable of reliably storing and retrieving polarization qubits on the few photon level. Our system is realized in a vapor of 87Rb atoms utilizing a Λ-type energy level scheme. We create a dual-rail storage scheme mediated by an intense control field to allow storage and retrieval of any arbitrary polarization state. Upon retrieval, we employ a filtering system to sufficiently remove the strong pump field, and subject retrieved light states to polarization tomography. To date, our system has produced signal-to-noise ratios near unity with a memory fidelity of >80 % using coherent state qubits containing four photons on average. Our results thus demonstrate the feasibility of room temperature systems for the storage of single-photon-level photonic qubits. Such room temperature systems will be attractive for future long distance quantum communication schemes.
Characterization of classical static noise via qubit as probe
Javed, Muhammad; Khan, Salman; Ullah, Sayed Arif
2018-03-01
The dynamics of quantum Fisher information (QFI) of a single qubit coupled to classical static noise is investigated. The analytical relation for QFI fixes the optimal initial state of the qubit that maximizes it. An approximate limit for the time of coupling that leads to physically useful results is identified. Moreover, using the approach of quantum estimation theory and the analytical relation for QFI, the qubit is used as a probe to precisely estimate the disordered parameter of the environment. Relation for optimal interaction time with the environment is obtained, and condition for the optimal measurement of the noise parameter of the environment is given. It is shown that all values, in the mentioned range, of the noise parameter are estimable with equal precision. A comparison of our results with the previous studies in different classical environments is made.
Coherent Operations and Screening in Multielectron Spin Qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Higginbotham, Andrew Patrick; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Hanson, M.P.
2014-01-01
Multielectron spin qubits are demonstrated, and performance examined by comparing coherent exchange oscillations in coupled single-electron and multielectron quantum dots, measured in the same device. Fast (>1 GHz) exchange oscillations with a quality factor Q ∼ 15 are found for the multielectron...
Many-body strategies for multiqubit gates: Quantum control through Krawtchouk-chain dynamics
Groenland, Koen; Schoutens, Kareljan
2018-04-01
We propose a strategy for engineering multiqubit quantum gates. As a first step, it employs an eigengate to map states in the computational basis to eigenstates of a suitable many-body Hamiltonian. The second step employs resonant driving to enforce a transition between a single pair of eigenstates, leaving all others unchanged. The procedure is completed by mapping back to the computational basis. We demonstrate the strategy for the case of a linear array with an even number N of qubits, with specific X X +Y Y couplings between nearest neighbors. For this so-called Krawtchouk chain, a two-body driving term leads to the iSWAPN gate, which we numerically test for N =4 and 6.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vourvouri, E.C.; Poldermans, D.; Sianos, G.; Sozzi, F.B.; Schinkel, A.F.L.; Sutter, J. de; Roelandt, J.R.T.C.; Bax, J.J.; Parcharidis, G.; Valkema, R.
2001-01-01
The objective of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes in patients with severe ischaemic LV dysfunction. Thirty-two patients with chronic ischaemic LV dysfunction [mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 25%±6%] were studied with gated SPET and 2D echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated by both modalities and scored by two independent observers using a 16-segment model with a 5-point scoring system (1= normokinesia, 2= mild hypokinesia, 3= severe hypokinesia, 4= akinesia and 5= dyskinesia). LVEF and LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were evaluated by 2D echocardiography using the Simpson's biplane discs method. The same parameters were calculated using quantitative gated SPET software (QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center). The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for assessment of regional wall motion was 69%. The correlations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography for the assessment of end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were excellent (r=0.94, P<0.01, and r=0.96, P<0.01, respectively). The correlation for LVEF was also good (r=0.83, P<0.01). In conclusion: in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, close and significant relations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography were observed for the assessment of regional and global LV function and LV volumes; gated SPET has the advantage that it provides information on both LV function/dimensions and perfusion. (orig.)
Remote state preparation of spatial qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)
2011-07-15
We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.
Remote state preparation of spatial qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.
2011-01-01
We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, X [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); You, J Q; Nori, F [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Zheng, H, E-mail: xfcao@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2011-07-15
We investigate the spontaneous emission (SE) spectrum of a qubit in a lossy resonant cavity. We use neither the rotating-wave approximation nor the Markov approximation. For the weak-coupling case, the SE spectrum of the qubit is a single peak, with its location depending on the spectral density of the qubit environment. Then, the asymmetry (of the location and heights of the two peaks) of the two SE peaks (which are related to the vacuum Rabi splitting) changes as the qubit-cavity coupling increases. Explicitly, for a qubit in a low-frequency intrinsic bath, the height asymmetry of the splitting peaks is enhanced as the qubit-cavity coupling strength increases. However, for a qubit in an Ohmic bath, the height asymmetry of the spectral peaks is inverted compared to the low-frequency bath case. With further increasing the qubit-cavity coupling to the ultra-strong regime, the height asymmetry of the left and right peaks is slightly inverted, which is consistent with the corresponding case of a low-frequency bath. This inversion of the asymmetry arises from the competition between the Ohmic bath and the cavity bath. Therefore, after considering the anti-rotating terms, our results explicitly show how the height asymmetry in the SE spectrum peaks depends on the qubit-cavity coupling and the type of intrinsic noise experienced by the qubit.
Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator
Agarwal, Shantanu
In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared
Modepalli, Vijayakumar; Jin, Mi-Jin; Park, Jungmin; Jo, Junhyeon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Baik, Jeong Min; Seo, Changwon; Kim, Jeongyong; Yoo, Jung-Woo
2016-04-26
Electrical control of ferromagnetism in semiconductor nanostructures offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in future semiconductor spintronics. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic gate-induced change of ferromagnetism in ZnO nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). Ferromagnetism in our ZnO NWs arose from oxygen vacancies, which constitute deep levels hosting unpaired electron spins. The magnetic transition temperature of the studied ZnO NWs was estimated to be well above room temperature. The in situ UV confocal photoluminescence (PL) study confirmed oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetism in the studied ZnO NW FET devices. Both the estimated carrier concentration and temperature-dependent conductivity reveal the studied ZnO NWs are at the crossover of the metal-insulator transition. In particular, gate-induced modulation of the carrier concentration in the ZnO NW FET significantly alters carrier-mediated exchange interactions, which causes even inversion of magnetoresistance (MR) from negative to positive values. Upon sweeping the gate bias from -40 to +50 V, the MRs estimated at 2 K and 2 T were changed from -11.3% to +4.1%. Detailed analysis on the gate-dependent MR behavior clearly showed enhanced spin splitting energy with increasing carrier concentration. Gate-voltage-dependent PL spectra of an individual NW device confirmed the localization of oxygen vacancy-induced spins, indicating that gate-tunable indirect exchange coupling between localized magnetic moments played an important role in the remarkable change of the MR.
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stano, P.
2007-01-01
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stano, P.
2007-01-15
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2017-12-15
InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. The gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing the module size are important challenges for the design of such a detector system. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating (SWG) using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm×15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency SWG. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of the MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5% photon detection efficiency, a 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1% afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.
Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.
2002-01-01
We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations
Microresonators for electron spin qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suter, D.; Stonies, R.; Voges, E.
2005-01-01
Full text: The traditional high-Q EPR resonators are optimized for large samples. For small samples and individual qubits, it is possible to design different resonators that have much better power handling properties, create less interference with other peripheral lines and, if they are used for detection, have better sensitivity. Other parameters being equal, the sensitivity of the resonator can be increased by minimizing its size and thus increasing the filling factor. In contrast to cavity type resonators, microcoils can be made much smaller than the operation wavelength. For this type of resonator, it has been established theoretically and experimentally that the sensitivity varies inversely with its linear dimensions. Moreover, the planar coil geometry is ideal to be manufactured in a small size by means of standard microtechnology. It also offers advantages for the excitation of electron spins in prototype quantum computer systems. High microwave power to the magnetic field conversion factor of the microresonator allows to achieve 24 ns L/2 - pulses with less than 20 mW of incident power. Within the QIPDDF-ROSES project, we are using such resonators to measure the EPR parameters of monolayer molecular films of N at C60 and for excitation of the single electron spin in a defect center in diamond. The microresonator prototypes consisting of a 200 μm planar microcoil tuned and matched at 14 GHz with distributed elements have been fabricated on Si substrate. The sensitivity tests with a DPPH samples resulted in the sensitivity value 10E9 spins/G/Hz1/2 at 300 K. The designed layouts of the microresonator can be scaled down up to a tens of micrometers, and with a different microwave coupling approach hundreds of nanometers could be achieved, allowing the operation frequency up to 100 THz (author)
Black holes, qubits and octonions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.
2009-01-01
We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems
Electrical Manipulation of Spin Qubits in Li-doped Si
Petukhov, Andre; Pendo, Luke; Handberg, Erin; Smelyanskiy, Vadim
2011-03-01
We propose a complete quantum computing scheme based on Li donors in Si under external biaxial stress. The qubits are encoded on the ground state Zeeman doublets and coupled via long-range spin-spin interaction mediated by acoustic phonons. This interaction is unique for Li donors in Si due to their inverted electronic structure. Our scheme takes advantage of the fact that the energy level spacing in 1 s Li-donor manifold is comparable with the magnitude of the spin-orbit interaction. As a result the Li spin qubits can be placed 100 nm apart and manipulated by a combination of external electric field and microwave field impulses. We present a specially-designed sequence of the electric field impulses which allows for a typical time of a two-qubit gate ~ ~1~ μ s and a quality factor ~10-6 . These estimates are derived from detailed microscopic calculations of the quadratic Stark effect and electron-phonon decoherence times.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazaro, D.
2003-10-01
Monte Carlo simulations are currently considered in nuclear medical imaging as a powerful tool to design and optimize detection systems, and also to assess reconstruction algorithms and correction methods for degrading physical effects. Among the many simulators available, none of them is considered as a standard in nuclear medical imaging: this fact has motivated the development of a new generic Monte Carlo simulation platform (GATE), based on GEANT4 and dedicated to SPECT/PET (single photo emission computed tomography / positron emission tomography) applications. We participated during this thesis to the development of the GATE platform within an international collaboration. GATE was validated in SPECT by modeling two gamma cameras characterized by a different geometry, one dedicated to small animal imaging and the other used in a clinical context (Philips AXIS), and by comparing the results obtained with GATE simulations with experimental data. The simulation results reproduce accurately the measured performances of both gamma cameras. The GATE platform was then used to develop a new 3-dimensional reconstruction method: F3DMC (fully 3-dimension Monte-Carlo) which consists in computing with Monte Carlo simulation the transition matrix used in an iterative reconstruction algorithm (in this case, ML-EM), including within the transition matrix the main physical effects degrading the image formation process. The results obtained with the F3DMC method were compared to the results obtained with three other more conventional methods (FBP, MLEM, MLEMC) for different phantoms. The results of this study show that F3DMC allows to improve the reconstruction efficiency, the spatial resolution and the signal to noise ratio with a satisfactory quantification of the images. These results should be confirmed by performing clinical experiments and open the door to a unified reconstruction method, which could be applied in SPECT but also in PET. (author)
Qin, Wei; Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Zhong, Zhirong; Nori, Franco
2017-07-01
Heralded near-deterministic multiqubit controlled-phase gates with integrated error detection have recently been proposed by Borregaard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 110502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.110502]. This protocol is based on a single four-level atom (a heralding quartit) and N three-level atoms (operational qutrits) coupled to a single-resonator mode acting as a cavity bus. Here we generalize this method for two distant resonators without the cavity bus between the heralding and operational atoms. Specifically, we analyze the two-qubit controlled-Z gate and its multiqubit-controlled generalization (i.e., a Toffoli-like gate) acting on the two-lowest levels of N qutrits inside one resonator, with their successful actions being heralded by an auxiliary microwave-driven quartit inside the other resonator. Moreover, we propose a circuit-quantum-electrodynamics realization of the protocol with flux and phase qudits in linearly coupled transmission-line resonators with dissipation. These methods offer a quadratic fidelity improvement compared to cavity-assisted deterministic gates.
Scheick, Leif
2011-01-01
Single-event-effect test results for hi-rel total-dose-hardened power MOSFETs are presented in this report. TheSCF9550 from Semicoa and the IRHM57260SE from International Rectifier were tested to NASA test condition/standards and requirements.The IRHM57260SE performed much better when compared to previous testing. These initial results confirm that parts from the Temecula line are marginally comparable to the El Segundo line. The SCF9550 from Semicoa was also tested and represents the initial parts offering from this vendor. Both parts experienced single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB). All of the SEGR was from gate to drain.
Multi-qubit parity measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiVincenzo, David P; Solgun, Firat
2013-01-01
We present a concept for performing direct parity measurements on three or more qubits in microwave structures with superconducting resonators coupled to Josephson-junction qubits. We write the quantum-eraser conditions that must be fulfilled for the parity measurements as requirements for the scattering phase shift of our microwave structure. We show that these conditions can be fulfilled with present-day devices. We present one particular scheme, implemented with two-dimensional cavity techniques, in which each qubit should be coupled equally to two different microwave cavities. The magnitudes of the couplings that are needed are in the range that has been achieved in current experiments. A quantum calculation indicates that the measurement is optimal if the scattering signal can be measured with near single-photon sensitivity. A comparison with an extension of a related proposal from cavity optics is presented. We present a second scheme, for which a scalable implementation of the four-qubit parities of the surface quantum error correction code can be envisioned. It uses three-dimensional cavity structures, using cavity symmetries to achieve the necessary multiple resonant modes within a single resonant structure. (paper)
Quantum information processing beyond ten ion-qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monz, T.
2011-01-01
Successful processing of quantum information is, to a large degree, based on two aspects: a) the implementation of high-fidelity quantum gates, as well as b) avoiding or suppressing decoherence processes that destroy quantum information. The presented work shows our progress in the field of experimental quantum information processing over the last years: the implementation and characterisation of several quantum operations, amongst others the first realisation of the quantum Toffoli gate in an ion-trap based quantum computer. The creation of entangled states with up to 14 qubits serves as basis for investigations of decoherence processes. Based on the realised quantum operations as well as the knowledge about dominant noise processes in the employed apparatus, entanglement swapping as well as quantum operations within a decoherence-free subspace are demonstrated. (author) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salas, P.J.; Sanz, A.L.
2004-01-01
In this work we discuss the ability of different types of ancillas to control the decoherence of a qubit interacting with an environment. The error is introduced into the numerical simulation via a depolarizing isotropic channel. The ranges of values considered are 10 -4 ≤ε≤10 -2 for memory errors and 3x10 -5 ≤γ/7≤10 -2 for gate errors. After the correction we calculate the fidelity as a quality criterion for the qubit recovered. We observe that a recovery method with a three-qubit ancilla provides reasonably good results bearing in mind its economy. If we want to go further, we have to use fault tolerant ancillas with a high degree of parallelism, even if this condition implies introducing additional ancilla verification qubits
Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoureux, L.-P.; Cerf, N. J.; Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.; Macchiavello, C.
2006-01-01
We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks
Matsuura, Hideharu
2015-04-01
High-resolution silicon X-ray detectors with a large active area are required for effectively detecting traces of hazardous elements in food and soil through the measurement of the energies and counts of X-ray fluorescence photons radially emitted from these elements. The thicknesses and areas of commercial silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are up to 0.5 mm and 1.5 cm2, respectively. We describe 1.5-mm-thick gated SDDs (GSDDs) that can detect photons with energies up to 50 keV. We simulated the electric potential distributions in GSDDs with a Si thickness of 1.5 mm and areas from 0.18 to 168 cm2 at a single high reverse bias. The area of a GSDD could be enlarged simply by increasing all the gate widths by the same multiple, and the capacitance of the GSDD remained small and its X-ray count rate remained high.
Qubit absorption refrigerator at strong coupling
Mu, Anqi; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Schaller, Gernot; Segal, Dvira
2017-12-01
We demonstrate that a quantum absorption refrigerator (QAR) can be realized from the smallest quantum system, a qubit, by coupling it in a non-additive (strong) manner to three heat baths. This function is un-attainable for the qubit model under the weak system-bath coupling limit, when the dissipation is additive. In an optimal design, the reservoirs are engineered and characterized by a single frequency component. We then obtain closed expressions for the cooling window and refrigeration efficiency, as well as bounds for the maximal cooling efficiency and the efficiency at maximal power. Our results agree with macroscopic designs and with three-level models for QARs, which are based on the weak system-bath coupling assumption. Beyond the optimal limit, we show with analytical calculations and numerical simulations that the cooling efficiency varies in a non-universal manner with model parameters. Our work demonstrates that strongly-coupled quantum machines can exhibit function that is un-attainable under the weak system-bath coupling assumption.
Verification of Many-Qubit States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuki Takeuchi
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Verification is a task to check whether a given quantum state is close to an ideal state or not. In this paper, we show that a variety of many-qubit quantum states can be verified with only sequential single-qubit measurements of Pauli operators. First, we introduce a protocol for verifying ground states of Hamiltonians. We next explain how to verify quantum states generated by a certain class of quantum circuits. We finally propose an adaptive test of stabilizers that enables the verification of all polynomial-time-generated hypergraph states, which include output states of the Bremner-Montanaro-Shepherd-type instantaneous quantum polynomial time (IQP circuits. Importantly, we do not make any assumption that the identically and independently distributed copies of the same states are given: Our protocols work even if some highly complicated entanglement is created among copies in any artificial way. As applications, we consider the verification of the quantum computational supremacy demonstration with IQP models, and verifiable blind quantum computing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Shingo; Hasegawa, Shuichi
2005-01-01
It is well known that, in order to build the universal quantum circuit, one only needs one-qubit rotation gate and two-qubit controlled-NOT gate and until now quantum networks have been built from these gates. However, the minimum components of quantum networks in real experiments are not these quantum gates, so we develop a general method for realizing the conditional phase-shift gate in multiqubit ion-trap quantum computation which has the scalability to N qubits (N≥3). The duration of the laser manipulations for the proposed conditional phase-shift gate is almost the same as that for the controlled-NOT gate in ion-trap quantum computation. Moreover, we simulate Grover's algorithm taking into consideration the real laser fluctuations and analyze the effect of decoherence on the practical search
Signatures of Mechanosensitive Gating.
Morris, Richard G
2017-01-10
The question of how mechanically gated membrane channels open and close is notoriously difficult to address, especially if the protein structure is not available. This perspective highlights the relevance of micropipette-aspirated single-particle tracking-used to obtain a channel's diffusion coefficient, D, as a function of applied membrane tension, σ-as an indirect assay for determining functional behavior in mechanosensitive channels. While ensuring that the protein remains integral to the membrane, such methods can be used to identify not only the gating mechanism of a protein, but also associated physical moduli, such as torsional and dilational rigidity, which correspond to the protein's effective shape change. As an example, three distinct D-versus-σ "signatures" are calculated, corresponding to gating by dilation, gating by tilt, and gating by a combination of both dilation and tilt. Both advantages and disadvantages of the approach are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
High-fidelity Rydberg quantum gate via a two-atom dark state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petrosyan, David; Motzoi, Felix; Saffman, Mark
2017-01-01
We propose a two-qubit gate for neutral atoms in which one of the logical state components adiabatically follows a two-atom dark state formed by the laser coupling to a Rydberg state and a strong, resonant dipole-dipole exchange interaction between two Rydberg excited atoms. Our gate exhibits...
Experimental implementation of optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Soubusta, Jan
2015-01-01
Roč. 114, č. 15 (2015), "153602-1"-"153602-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-qubit gates * optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates * quantum computing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015
Piezophototronic Effect in Single-Atomic-Layer MoS _{2} for Strain-Gated Flexible Optoelectronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Wenzhuo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Wang, Lei [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York NY 10027 USA; Yu, Ruomeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Liu, Yuanyue [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Wei, Su-Huai [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO 80401 USA; Hone, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York NY 10027 USA; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332-0245 USA; Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing China
2016-08-03
Strain-gated flexible optoelectronics are reported based on monolayer MoS2. Utilizing the piezoelectric polarization created at metal-MoS2 interface to modulate the separation/transport of photogenerated carriers, the piezophototronic effect is applied to implement atomic-layer-thick phototransistor. Coupling between piezoelectricity and photogenerated carriers may enable the development of novel optoelectronics.
Fault-tolerant architectures for superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiVincenzo, David P
2009-01-01
In this short review, I draw attention to new developments in the theory of fault tolerance in quantum computation that may give concrete direction to future work in the development of superconducting qubit systems. The basics of quantum error-correction codes, which I will briefly review, have not significantly changed since their introduction 15 years ago. But an interesting picture has emerged of an efficient use of these codes that may put fault-tolerant operation within reach. It is now understood that two-dimensional surface codes, close relatives of the original toric code of Kitaev, can be adapted as shown by Raussendorf and Harrington to effectively perform logical gate operations in a very simple planar architecture, with error thresholds for fault-tolerant operation simulated to be 0.75%. This architecture uses topological ideas in its functioning, but it is not 'topological quantum computation'-there are no non-abelian anyons in sight. I offer some speculations on the crucial pieces of superconducting hardware that could be demonstrated in the next couple of years that would be clear stepping stones towards this surface-code architecture.
Collapse and revival of entanglement between qubits coupled to a spin coherent state
Bahari, Iskandar; Spiller, Timothy P.; Dooley, Shane; Hayes, Anthony; McCrossan, Francis
We extend the study of the Jayne-Cummings (JC) model involving a pair of identical two-level atoms (or qubits) interacting with a single mode quantized field. We investigate the effects of replacing the radiation field mode with a composite spin, comprising N qubits, or spin-1/2 particles. This model is relevant for physical implementations in superconducting circuit QED, ion trap and molecular systems. For the case of the composite spin prepared in a spin coherent state, we demonstrate the similarities of this set-up to the qubits-field model in terms of the time evolution, attractor states and in particular the collapse and revival of the entanglement between the two qubits. We extend our analysis by taking into account an effect due to qubit imperfections. We consider a difference (or “mismatch”) in the dipole interaction strengths of the two qubits, for both the field mode and composite spin cases. To address decoherence due to this mismatch, we then average over this coupling strength difference with distributions of varying width. We demonstrate in both the field mode and the composite spin scenarios that increasing the width of the “error” distribution increases suppression of the coherent dynamics of the coupled system, including the collapse and revival of the entanglement between the qubits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Hao; Song Jun; Hou Kui; Hu Xiaoyuan; Shi Shouhua; Han Lianfang
2009-01-01
We propose a scheme for sharing an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state among three parties by using a four-qubit cluster-class state and a Bell state as a quantum channel. With a quantum controlled phase gate (QCPG) operation and a local unitary operation, any one of the two agents has the access to reconstruct the original state if he/she collaborates with the other one, whilst individual agent obtains no information. As all quantum resource can be used to carry the useful information, the intrinsic efficiency of qubits approaches the maximal value. Moreover, the present scheme is more feasible with present-day technique.
Experimental realization of linear-optical partial SWAP gates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, L.; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.
2008-01-01
Roč. 100, č. 18 (2008), 180501/1-180501/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : two-qubit gates * Mach-Zehnder interferomeret * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008
Two-axis control of a coupled quantum dot - donor qubit in Si-MOS
Rudolph, Martin; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, Tobias; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Dominguez, Jason; Ten-Eyck, Greg; Lilly, Mike; Carroll, Malcolm
Si-MOS based QD qubits are attractive due to their similarity to the current semiconductor industry. We introduce a highly tunable MOS foundry compatible qubit design that couples an electrostatic quantum dot (QD) with an implanted donor. We show for the first time coherent two-axis control of a two-electron spin logical qubit that evolves under the QD-donor exchange interaction and the hyperfine interaction with the donor nucleus. The two interactions are tuned electrically with surface gate voltages to provide control of both qubit axes. Qubit decoherence is influenced by charge noise, which is of similar strength as epitaxial systems like GaAs and Si/SiGe. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Qian, Qingkai; Li, Baikui; Hua, Mengyuan; Zhang, Zhaofu; Lan, Feifei; Xu, Yongkuan; Yan, Ruyue; Chen, Kevin J
2016-06-09
Transistors based on MoS2 and other TMDs have been widely studied. The dangling-bond free surface of MoS2 has made the deposition of high-quality high-k dielectrics on MoS2 a challenge. The resulted transistors often suffer from the threshold voltage instability induced by the high density traps near MoS2/dielectric interface or inside the gate dielectric, which is detrimental for the practical applications of MoS2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). In this work, by using AlN deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) as an interfacial layer, top-gate dielectrics as thin as 6 nm for single-layer MoS2 transistors are demonstrated. The AlN interfacial layer not only promotes the conformal deposition of high-quality Al2O3 on the dangling-bond free MoS2, but also greatly enhances the electrical stability of the MoS2 transistors. Very small hysteresis (ΔVth) is observed even at large gate biases and high temperatures. The transistor also exhibits a low level of flicker noise, which clearly originates from the Hooge mobility fluctuation instead of the carrier number fluctuation. The observed superior electrical stability of MoS2 transistor is attributed to the low border trap density of the AlN interfacial layer, as well as the small gate leakage and high dielectric strength of AlN/Al2O3 dielectric stack.
Guo, Junjie; Xie, Dingdong; Yang, Bingchu; Jiang, Jie
2018-06-01
Due to its mechanical flexibility, large bandgap and carrier mobility, atomically thin molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) has attracted widespread attention. However, it still lacks a facile route to fabricate a low-power high-performance logic gates/circuits before it gets the real application. Herein, we reported a facile and environment-friendly method to establish the low-power logic function in a single MoS2 field-effect transistor (FET) configuration gated with a polymer electrolyte. Such low-power and high-performance MoS2 FET can be implemented by using water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer as proton-conducting electric-double-layer (EDL) dielectric layer. It exhibited an ultra-low voltage (1.5 V) and a good performance with a high current on/off ratio (Ion/off) of 1 × 105, a large electron mobility (μ) of 47.5 cm2/V s, and a small subthreshold swing (S) of 0.26 V/dec, respectively. The inverter can be realized by using such a single MoS2 EDL FET with a gain of ∼4 at the operation voltage of only ∼1 V. Most importantly, the neuronal AND logic computing can be also demonstrated by using such a double-lateral-gate single MoS2 EDL transistor. These results show an effective step for future applications of 2D MoS2 FETs for integrated electronic engineering and low-energy environment-friendly green electronics.
AsséMat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank
In part I, we presented the theoretic foundations of the GOAT algorithm for the optimal control of quantum systems. Here in part II, we focus on several applications of GOAT to superconducting qubits architecture. First, we consider a control-Z gate on Xmons qubits with an Erf parametrization of the optimal pulse. We show that a fast and accurate gate can be obtained with only 16 parameters, as compared to hundreds of parameters required in other algorithms. We present numerical evidences that such parametrization should allow an efficient in-situ calibration of the pulse. Next, we consider the flux-tunable coupler by IBM. We show optimization can be carried out in a more realistic model of the system than was employed in the original study, which is expected to further simplify the calibration process. Moreover, GOAT reduced the complexity of the optimal pulse to only 6 Fourier components, composed with analytic wrappers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ejdrup, T.; Lemke, H.T.; Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer
2009-01-01
The recent developments in X-ray detectors have opened new possibilities in the area of time-resolved pump/probe X-ray experiments; this article presents the novel use of a PILATUS detector to achieve X-ray pulse duration limited time-resolution at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), USA...... limited time-resolution of 60 ps using the gated PILATUS detector. This is the first demonstration of X-ray pulse duration limited data recorded using an area detector without the use of a mechanical chopper array at the beamline........ The capability of the gated PILATUS detector to selectively detect the signal from a given X-ray pulse in 24 bunch mode at the APS storage ring is demonstrated. A test experiment performed on polycrystalline organic thin films of [alpha]-perylene illustrates the possibility of reaching an X-ray pulse duration...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2005-01-01
We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies
Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H
2009-01-01
We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a σ x x σ z interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.
Quantum information storage using tunable flux qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steffen, Matthias; Brito, Frederico; DiVincenzo, David; Farinelli, Matthew; Keefe, George; Ketchen, Mark; Kumar, Shwetank; Milliken, Frank; Rothwell, Mary Beth; Rozen, Jim; Koch, Roger H, E-mail: msteffe@us.ibm.co [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)
2010-02-10
We present details and results for a superconducting quantum bit (qubit) design in which a tunable flux qubit is coupled strongly to a transmission line. Quantum information storage in the transmission line is demonstrated with a dephasing time of T{sub 2}approx2.5 mus. However, energy lifetimes of the qubit are found to be short (approx10 ns) and not consistent with predictions. Several design and material changes do not affect qubit coherence times. In order to determine the cause of these short coherence times, we fabricated standard flux qubits based on a design which was previously successfully used by others. Initial results show significantly improved coherence times, possibly implicating losses associated with the large size of our qubit. (topical review)
Flux qubit to a transmission line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haeberlein, Max; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)
2015-07-01
Within the last decade, superconducting qubits coupled to microwave resonators have been extensively studied within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Ultimately, quantum computing seems within reach in such architectures. However, error correction schemes are necessary to achieve the required fidelity in multi-qubit operations, drastically increasing the number of qubits involved. In this work, we couple a flux qubit to a transmission line where it interacts with itinerant microwave photons granting access to all-optical quantum computing. In this approach, travelling photons generate entanglement between two waveguides, containing the qubit information. In this presentation, we show experimental data on flux qubits coupled to transmission lines. Furthermore, we will discuss entanglement generation between two separate paths.
Spectroscopy of a Synthetic Trapped Ion Qubit
Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.
2017-09-01
133Ba+ has been identified as an attractive ion for quantum information processing due to the unique combination of its spin-1 /2 nucleus and visible wavelength electronic transitions. Using a microgram source of radioactive material, we trap and laser cool the synthetic A =133 radioisotope of barium II in a radio-frequency ion trap. Using the same, single trapped atom, we measure the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 62P1 /2↔62S1 /2 and 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transitions that are needed for laser cooling, state preparation, and state detection of the clock-state hyperfine and optical qubits. We also report the 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transition isotope shift for the rare A =130 and 132 barium nuclides, completing the spectroscopic characterization necessary for laser cooling all long-lived barium II isotopes.
Manipulating the sudden death of entanglement in two-qubit atomic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2011-10-15
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a general two-qubit system in a noisy environment presenting analytical descriptions of the time evolution of entanglement having some unitary operations after its evolution in dissipative environments. We show that quantum gates (unitary operators) and bath switching can change the subsequent dynamics of entanglement. For this purpose, we consider {sigma}{sub x} and bath switching operations that change the disentanglement time from finite to infinite.
Manipulating the sudden death of entanglement in two-qubit atomic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor
2011-01-01
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a general two-qubit system in a noisy environment presenting analytical descriptions of the time evolution of entanglement having some unitary operations after its evolution in dissipative environments. We show that quantum gates (unitary operators) and bath switching can change the subsequent dynamics of entanglement. For this purpose, we consider σ x and bath switching operations that change the disentanglement time from finite to infinite.
Vector Monte Carlo simulations on atmospheric scattering of polarization qubits.
Li, Ming; Lu, Pengfei; Yu, Zhongyuan; Yan, Lei; Chen, Zhihui; Yang, Chuanghua; Luo, Xiao
2013-03-01
In this paper, a vector Monte Carlo (MC) method is proposed to study the influence of atmospheric scattering on polarization qubits for satellite-based quantum communication. The vector MC method utilizes a transmittance method to solve the photon free path for an inhomogeneous atmosphere and random number sampling to determine whether the type of scattering is aerosol scattering or molecule scattering. Simulations are performed for downlink and uplink. The degrees and the rotations of polarization are qualitatively and quantitatively obtained, which agree well with the measured results in the previous experiments. The results show that polarization qubits are well preserved in the downlink and uplink, while the number of received single photons is less than half of the total transmitted single photons for both links. Moreover, our vector MC method can be applied for the scattering of polarized light in other inhomogeneous random media.
Quantum acoustics with superconducting qubits
Chu, Yiwen
2017-04-01
The ability to engineer and manipulate different types of quantum mechanical objects allows us to take advantage of their unique properties and create useful hybrid technologies. Thus far, complex quantum states and exquisite quantum control have been demonstrated in systems ranging from trapped ions to superconducting resonators. Recently, there have been many efforts to extend these demonstrations to the motion of complex, macroscopic objects. These mechanical objects have important applications as quantum memories or transducers for measuring and connecting different types of quantum systems. In particular, there have been a few experiments that couple motion to nonlinear quantum objects such as superconducting qubits. This opens up the possibility of creating, storing, and manipulating non-Gaussian quantum states in mechanical degrees of freedom. However, before sophisticated quantum control of mechanical motion can be achieved, we must realize systems with long coherence times while maintaining a sufficient interaction strength. These systems should be implemented in a simple and robust manner that allows for increasing complexity and scalability in the future. In this talk, I will describe our recent experiments demonstrating a high frequency bulk acoustic wave resonator that is strongly coupled to a superconducting qubit using piezoelectric transduction. In contrast to previous experiments with qubit-mechanical systems, our device requires only simple fabrication methods, extends coherence times to many microseconds, and provides controllable access to a multitude of phonon modes. We use this system to demonstrate basic quantum operations on the coupled qubit-phonon system. Straightforward improvements to the current device will allow for advanced protocols analogous to what has been shown in optical and microwave resonators, resulting in a novel resource for implementing hybrid quantum technologies.
Effects of Energy Dissipation on the Parametric Excitation of a Coupled Qubit-Cavity System
Remizov, S. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.
2018-02-01
We consider a parametrically driven system of a qubit coupled to a cavity taking into account different channels of energy dissipation. We focus on the periodic modulation of a single parameter of this hybrid system, which is the coupling constant between the two subsystems. Such a modulation is possible within the superconducting realization of qubit-cavity coupled systems, characterized by an outstanding degree of tunability and flexibility. Our major result is that energy dissipation in the cavity can enhance population of the excited state of the qubit in the steady state, while energy dissipation in the qubit subsystem can enhance the number of photons generated from vacuum. We find optimal parameters for the realization of such dissipation-induced amplification of quantum effects. Our results might be of importance for the full control of quantum states of coupled systems as well as for the storage and engineering of quantum states.
Analysis and synthesis of multi-qubit, multi-mode quantum devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solgun, Firat
2015-03-27
In this thesis we propose new methods in multi-qubit multi-mode circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit-QED) architectures. First we describe a direct parity measurement method for three qubits, which can be realized in 2D circuit-QED with a possible extension to four qubits in a 3D circuit-QED setup for the implementation of the surface code. In Chapter 3 we show how to derive Hamiltonians and compute relaxation rates of the multi-mode superconducting microwave circuits consisting of single Josephson junctions using an exact impedance synthesis technique (the Brune synthesis) and applying previous formalisms for lumped element circuit quantization. In the rest of the thesis we extend our method to multi-junction (multi-qubit) multi-mode circuits through the use of state-space descriptions which allows us to quantize any multiport microwave superconducting circuit with a reciprocal lossy impedance response.
Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit
Montina, Alberto
2010-01-01
In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of a single realization is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with the quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria ...
Zhong, Zai-Zhe
2004-01-01
The partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes is strictly defined. We give a reduction way from N-partite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes, and prove a necessary condition that a N-partite qubit density matrix to be partially separable is its reduced density matrix to satisfy PPT condition.
Novel Approaches to Quantum Computation Using Solid State Qubits
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Averin, D. V; Han, S; Likharev, K. K; Lukens, J. E; Semenov, V. K
2007-01-01
...: the design of sophisticated instrumentation for the control and measurements of superconductor flux qubits, the refinement of qubit fabrication technology, the demonstration of coherent operation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suwono.
1978-01-01
A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)
Spin magneto-transport in a Rashba-Dresselhaus quantum channel with single and double finger gates
Tang, Chi-Shung; Keng, Jia-An; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Gudmundsson, Vidar
2017-05-01
We address spin-resolved electronic transport properties in a Rashba-Dresselhaus quantum channel in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. The strong Rashba-Dresselhaus effect induces an asymmetric spin-splitting energy spectrum with a spin-orbit-Zeeman gap. This asymmetric fact in energy spectrum may result in various quantum dynamic features in conductance due to the presence of finger gates. This asymmetric spin-splitting energy spectrum results in a bound state in continuum for electrons within ultralow energy regime with binding energies in order of 10-1 meV.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chi, Qijin; Farver, O; Ulstrup, Jens
2005-01-01
on the redox potential. Maximum resonance appears around the equilibrium redox potential of azurin with an on/off current ratio of approximate to 9. Simulation analyses, based on a two-step interfacial ET model for the scanning tunneling microscopy redox process, were performed and provide quantitative......A biomimetic long-range electron transfer (ET) system consisting of the blue copper protein azurin, a tunneling barrier bridge, and a gold single-crystal electrode was designed on the basis of molecular wiring self-assembly principles. This system is sufficiently stable and sensitive in a quasi...... constants display tunneling features with distance-decay factors of 0.83 and 0.91 angstrom(-1) in H2O and D2O, respectively. Redox-gated tunneling resonance is observed in situ at the single-molecule level by using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy, exhibiting an asymmetric dependence...
Realization of deterministic quantum teleportation with solid state qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreas Wallfraff
2014-01-01
Using modern micro and nano-fabrication techniques combined with superconducting materials we realize electronic circuits the dynamics of which are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Making use of the strong interaction of photons with superconducting quantum two-level systems realized in these circuits we investigate both fundamental quantum effects of light and applications in quantum information processing. In this talk I will discuss the deterministic teleportation of a quantum state in a macroscopic quantum system. Teleportation may be used for distributing entanglement between distant qubits in a quantum network and for realizing universal and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Previously, we have demonstrated the implementation of a teleportation protocol, up to the single-shot measurement step, with three superconducting qubits coupled to a single microwave resonator. Using full quantum state tomography and calculating the projection of the measured density matrix onto the basis of two qubits has allowed us to reconstruct the teleported state with an average output state fidelity of 86%. Now we have realized a new device in which four qubits are coupled pair-wise to three resonators. Making use of parametric amplifiers coupled to the output of two of the resonators we are able to perform high-fidelity single-shot read-out. This has allowed us to demonstrate teleportation by individually post-selecting on any Bell-state and by deterministically distinguishing between all four Bell states measured by the sender. In addition, we have recently implemented fast feed-forward to complete the teleportation process. In all instances, we demonstrate that the fidelity of the teleported states are above the threshold imposed by classical physics. The presented experiments are expected to contribute towards realizing quantum communication with microwave photons in the foreseeable future. (author)
Measurement and control of quasiparticle dynamics in a superconducting qubit.
Wang, C; Gao, Y Y; Pop, I M; Vool, U; Axline, C; Brecht, T; Heeres, R W; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Catelani, G; Glazman, L I; Schoelkopf, R J
2014-12-18
Superconducting circuits have attracted growing interest in recent years as a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Extensive efforts have always been taken to completely shield these circuits from external magnetic fields to protect the integrity of the superconductivity. Here we show vortices can improve the performance of superconducting qubits by reducing the lifetimes of detrimental single-electron-like excitations known as quasiparticles. Using a contactless injection technique with unprecedented dynamic range, we quantitatively distinguish between recombination and trapping mechanisms in controlling the dynamics of residual quasiparticle, and show quantized changes in quasiparticle trapping rate because of individual vortices. These results highlight the prominent role of quasiparticle trapping in future development of superconducting qubits, and provide a powerful characterization tool along the way.
Qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-07-01
We study dephasing of a superconducting qubit due to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. While qubit decay due to tunneling processes is well understood within a golden rule approximation, pure dephasing due to BCS quasiparticles gives rise to a divergent golden rule rate. We calculate qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling beyond lowest order approximation in coupling between qubit and quasiparticles. Summing up a certain class of diagrams we show that qubit dephasing due to purely longitudinal coupling to quasiparticles leads to dephasing ∝ exp(-x(t)) where x(t) ∝ t{sup 3/2} for short time scales and x(t) ∝ tlog(t) for long time scales.
Coherent Coupled Qubits for Quantum Annealing
Weber, Steven J.; Samach, Gabriel O.; Hover, David; Gustavsson, Simon; Kim, David K.; Melville, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danna; Sears, Adam P.; Yan, Fei; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Oliver, William D.; Kerman, Andrew J.
2017-07-01
Quantum annealing is an optimization technique which potentially leverages quantum tunneling to enhance computational performance. Existing quantum annealers use superconducting flux qubits with short coherence times limited primarily by the use of large persistent currents Ip. Here, we examine an alternative approach using qubits with smaller Ip and longer coherence times. We demonstrate tunable coupling, a basic building block for quantum annealing, between two flux qubits with small (approximately 50-nA) persistent currents. Furthermore, we characterize qubit coherence as a function of coupler setting and investigate the effect of flux noise in the coupler loop on qubit coherence. Our results provide insight into the available design space for next-generation quantum annealers with improved coherence.
Dynamical decoupling sequences for multi-qubit dephasing suppression and long-time quantum memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A; Lee, Seung-Woo; Green, Todd J; Viola, Lorenza
2016-01-01
We consider a class of multi-qubit dephasing models that combine classical noise sources and linear coupling to a bosonic environment, and are controlled by arbitrary sequences of dynamical decoupling pulses. Building on a general transfer filter-function framework for open-loop control, we provide an exact representation of the controlled dynamics for arbitrary stationary non-Gaussian classical and quantum noise statistics, with analytical expressions emerging when all dephasing sources are Gaussian. This exact characterization is used to establish two main results. First, we construct multi-qubit sequences that ensure maximum high-order error suppression in both the time and frequency domain and that can be exponentially more efficient than existing ones in terms of total pulse number. Next, we show how long-time multi-qubit storage may be achieved by meeting appropriate conditions for the emergence of a fidelity plateau under sequence repetition, thereby generalizing recent results for single-qubit memory under Gaussian dephasing. In both scenarios, the key step is to endow multi-qubit sequences with a suitable displacement anti-symmetry property, which is of independent interest for applications ranging from environment-assisted entanglement generation to multi-qubit noise spectroscopy protocols. (paper)
Electrical control of a long-lived spin qubit in a Si/SiGe quantum dot
Kawakami, Erika
2015-03-01
Electron spins in Si/SiGe quantum dots are one of the most promising candidates for a quantum bit for their potential to scale up and their long dephasing time. We realized coherent control of single electron spin in a single quantum dot (QD) defined in a Si/SiGe 2D electron gas. Spin rotations are achieved by applying microwave excitation to one of the gates, which oscillates the electron wave function back and forth in the gradient field produced by cobalt micromagnets fabricated near the dot. The electron spin is read out in single-shot mode via spin-to-charge conversion and a QD charge sensor. In earlier work, both the fidelity of single-spin rotations and the spin echo decay time were limited by a small splitting of the lowest two valleys. By changing the direction and magnitude of the external magnetic field as well as the gate voltages that define the dot potential, we were able to increase the valley splitting and also the difference in Zeeman splittings associated with these two valleys. This has resulted in considerable improvements in the gate fidelity and spin echo decay times. Thanks to the long intrinsic dephasing time T2* = 900 ns and Rabi frequency of 1.4 MHz, we now obtain an average single qubit gate fidelity of an electron spin in a Si/SiGe quantum dot of 99 percent, measured via randomized benchmarking. The dephasing time is extended to 70 us for the Hahn echo and up to 400 us with CPMG80. From the dynamical decoupling data, we extract the noise spectral density in the range of 30 kHz-3 MHz. We will discuss the mechanism that induces this noise and is responsible for decoherence. In parallel, we also realized electron spin resonance and coherent single-spin control by second harmonic generation, which means we can drive an electron spin at half the Larmor frequency. Finally, we observe not only single-spin transitions but also transitions whereby both the spin and the valley state are flipped. Altogether, these measurements have significantly
Nonlocality and entanglement in qubit systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batle, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Casas, M, E-mail: vdfsjbv4@uib.es [Departament de Fisica and IFISC-CSIC, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2011-11-04
Nonlocality and quantum entanglement constitute two special aspects of the quantum correlations existing in quantum systems, which are of paramount importance in quantum-information theory. Traditionally, they have been regarded as identical (equivalent, in fact, for pure two qubit states, that is, Gisin's Theorem), yet they constitute different resources. Describing nonlocality by means of the violation of several Bell inequalities, we obtain by direct optimization those states of two qubits that maximally violate a Bell inequality, in terms of their degree of mixture as measured by either their participation ratio R = 1/Tr({rho}{sup 2}) or their maximum eigenvalue {lambda}{sub max}. This optimum value is obtained as well, which coincides with previous results. Comparison with entanglement is performed too. An example of an application is given in the XY model. In this novel approximation, we also concentrate on the nonlocality for linear combinations of pure states of two qubits, providing a closed form for their maximal nonlocality measure. The case of Bell diagonal mixed states of two qubits is also extensively studied. Special attention concerning the connection between nonlocality and entanglement for mixed states of two qubits is paid to the so-called maximally entangled mixed states. Additional aspects for the case of two qubits are also described in detail. Since we deal with qubit systems, we will perform an analogous study for three qubits, employing similar tools. Relation between distillability and nonlocality is explored quantitatively for the whole space of states of three qubits. We finally extend our analysis to four-qubit systems, where nonlocality for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of arbitrary number of parties is computed. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klasen, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, P. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Bi, X. [Siemens Healthcare, Chicago, IL (United States); Sansone, R. [Department of Cardiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wittsack, H.-J.; Kroepil, P.; Quentin, M.; Kuhlemann, J.; Miese, F. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heiss, C.; Kelm, M. [Department of Cardiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany)
2012-05-15
Aim: To evaluate electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated quiescent-interval single-shot magnetic resonance angiography (QISS-MRA) for nonenhanced assessment of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) using contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven patients (mean age 66.6 {+-} 10.8 years) with PAOD were included in the study. QISS-MRA and CE-MRA of the lower extremity were performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner. In each patient, subjective image quality and the degree of stenosis were evaluated on a four-point scale for 15 predefined arterial segments. Results: Twenty-five of the 27 patients were considered for analysis. Subjective image quality of QISS-MRA was significantly lower for the distal aorta, pelvic arteries, and femoral arteries as compared to CE-MRA (p < 0.01), while no significant difference was found for other vascular segments. The degree of stenosis was overestimated with QISS-MRA in 23 of 365 (6.3%) segments and underestimated in two of 365 (0.5%) segments. As compared to CE-MRA, QISS-MRA had a high sensitivity (98.6%), specificity (96%) as well as positive and negative predictive value (88.7 and 99.6%, respectively) for the detection of significant stenosis ({>=}50%). Conclusion: ECG-gated QISS-MRA is a promising imaging technique for reliable assessment of PAOD without the use of contrast material.
Kukita, Kentaro; Uechi, Tadayoshi; Shimokawa, Junji; Goto, Masakazu; Yokota, Yoshinori; Kawanaka, Shigeru; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Tanimoto, Hiroyoshi; Takagi, Shinichi
2018-04-01
Planar single-gate (SG) silicon (Si) tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) are attracting interest for ultra-low voltage operation and CMOS applications. For the achievement of subthreshold swing (S.S.) less than thermal limit of Si MOSFETs (S.S. = 60 mV/decade at 300 K), previous studies have proposed the formation of a pocket region, which needs very difficult implantation process. In this work, a planar SG Si TFET without pocket was proposed by using the technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. An average S.S. of less than 60 mV/decade for 0.3 V (= V gs = V ds) operation was obtained. It is found that both low average S.S. (= 27.8 mV/decade) and high on-current I on (= 3.8 µA/µm) are achieved without pocket doping by scaling the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and increasing the gate-to-source overlap length L ov.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klasen, J.; Blondin, D.; Schmitt, P.; Bi, X.; Sansone, R.; Wittsack, H.-J.; Kröpil, P.; Quentin, M.; Kuhlemann, J.; Miese, F.; Heiss, C.; Kelm, M.; Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S.
2012-01-01
Aim: To evaluate electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated quiescent-interval single-shot magnetic resonance angiography (QISS-MRA) for nonenhanced assessment of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) using contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven patients (mean age 66.6 ± 10.8 years) with PAOD were included in the study. QISS-MRA and CE-MRA of the lower extremity were performed using a 1.5 T MR scanner. In each patient, subjective image quality and the degree of stenosis were evaluated on a four-point scale for 15 predefined arterial segments. Results: Twenty-five of the 27 patients were considered for analysis. Subjective image quality of QISS-MRA was significantly lower for the distal aorta, pelvic arteries, and femoral arteries as compared to CE-MRA (p < 0.01), while no significant difference was found for other vascular segments. The degree of stenosis was overestimated with QISS-MRA in 23 of 365 (6.3%) segments and underestimated in two of 365 (0.5%) segments. As compared to CE-MRA, QISS-MRA had a high sensitivity (98.6%), specificity (96%) as well as positive and negative predictive value (88.7 and 99.6%, respectively) for the detection of significant stenosis (≥50%). Conclusion: ECG-gated QISS-MRA is a promising imaging technique for reliable assessment of PAOD without the use of contrast material.
Takagaki, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hirofumi; Noda, Kei
2018-03-01
Contact effects in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were examined by using our previously proposed parameter extraction method from the electrical characteristics of a single staggered-type device. Gate-voltage-dependent contact resistance and channel mobility in the linear regime were evaluated for bottom-gate/top-contact (BGTC) pentacene TFTs with active layers of different thicknesses, and for pentacene TFTs with contact-doped layers prepared by coevaporation of pentacene and tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ). The extracted parameters suggested that the influence of the contact resistance becomes more prominent with the larger active-layer thickness, and that contact-doping experiments give rise to a drastic decrease in the contact resistance and a concurrent considerable improvement in the channel mobility. Additionally, the estimated energy distributions of trap density in the transistor channel probably reflect the trap filling with charge carriers injected into the channel regions. The analysis results in this study confirm the effectiveness of our proposed method, with which we can investigate contact effects and circumvent the influences of characteristic variations in OTFT fabrication.
Silicon qubit performance in the presence of inhomogeneous strain
Jacobson, N. Tobias; Ward, Daniel R.; Baczewski, Andrew D.; Gamble, John K.; Montano, Ines; Rudolph, Martin; Nielsen, Erik; Carroll, Malcolm
While gate electrode voltages largely define the potential landscape experienced by electrons in quantum dot (QD) devices, mechanical strain also plays a role. Inhomogeneous strain established over the course of device fabrication, followed by mismatched contraction under cooling to cryogenic temperatures, may significantly perturb this potential. A recent investigation by Thorbeck & Zimmerman suggests that unintentional QDs may form as a result of the latter thermal contraction mismatch mechanism. In this work, we investigate the effects of inhomogeneous strain on QD tunnel barriers and other properties, from the perspective of QD and donor-based qubit performance. Through semiconductor process simulation, we estimate the relative magnitude of strain established during fabrication as compared with thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. Combining these predictions with multi-valley effective mass theory modeling of qubit characteristics, we identify whether strain effects may compel stricter than expected constraints on device dimensions. Finally, we investigate the degree to which strain and charge disorder effects may be distinguished. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Advanced ion trap structures with integrated tools for qubit manipulation
Sterk, J. D.; Benito, F.; Clark, C. R.; Haltli, R.; Highstrete, C.; Nordquist, C. D.; Scott, S.; Stevens, J. E.; Tabakov, B. P.; Tigges, C. P.; Moehring, D. L.; Stick, D.; Blain, M. G.
2012-06-01
We survey the ion trap fabrication technologies available at Sandia National Laboratories. These include four metal layers, precision backside etching, and low profile wirebonds. We demonstrate loading of ions in a variety of ion traps that utilize these technologies. Additionally, we present progress towards integration of on-board filtering with trench capacitors, photon collection via an optical cavity, and integrated microwave electrodes for localized hyperfine qubit control and magnetic field gradient quantum gates. [4pt] This work was supported by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Single-charge tunneling in ambipolar silicon quantum dots
Müller, Filipp
2015-01-01
Spin qubits in coupled quantum dots (QDs) are promising for future quantum information processing (QIP). A quantum bit (qubit) is the quantum mechanical analogon of a classical bit. In general, each quantum mechanical two-level system can represent a qubit. For the spin of a single charge carrier
Halim, Mohammad A; Clavier, Christian; Dagany, Xavier; Kerleroux, Michel; Dugourd, Philippe; Dunbar, Robert C; Antoine, Rodolphe
2018-05-07
In this study, we report the unimolecular dissociation mechanism of megadalton SO 3 -containing poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) polymer cations and anions with the aid of infrared multiphoton dissociation coupled to charge detection ion trap mass spectrometry. A gated electrostatic ion trap ("Benner trap") is used to store and detect single gaseous polymer ions generated by positive and negative polarity in an electrospray ionization source. The trapped ions are then fragmented due to the sequential absorption of multiple infrared photons produced from a continuous-wave CO 2 laser. Several fragmentation pathways having distinct signatures are observed. Highly charged parent ions characteristically adopt a distinctive "stair-case" pattern (assigned to the "fission" process) whereas low charge species take on a "funnel like" shape (assigned to the "evaporation" process). Also, the log-log plot of the dissociation rate constants as a function of laser intensity between PAMPS positive and negative ions is significantly different.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Sieno, Laura, E-mail: laura.disieno@polimi.it; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pifferi, Antonio [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mazurenka, Mikhail [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Hannoversches Zentrum für Optische Technologien, Nienburger Str. 17, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Hoshi, Yoko [Department of Biomedical Optics, Medical Photonics Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Becker, Wolfgang [Becker and Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Martelli, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze 50019 (Italy)
2016-03-15
We present a system for non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging, based on small source-detector distance and high dynamic range measurements utilizing a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode. The system is suitable for imaging of diffusive media without any contact with the sample and with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm at 1 cm depth. In order to objectively assess its performances, we adopted two standardized protocols developed for time-domain brain imagers. The related tests included the recording of the instrument response function of the setup and the responsivity of its detection system. Moreover, by using liquid turbid phantoms with absorbing inclusions, depth-dependent contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio as well as lateral spatial resolution were measured. To illustrate the potentialities of the novel approach, the characteristics of the non-contact system are discussed and compared to those of a fiber-based brain imager.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Sieno, Laura; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Contini, Davide; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Macdonald, Rainer; Pifferi, Antonio; Mazurenka, Mikhail; Hoshi, Yoko; Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto; Becker, Wolfgang; Martelli, Fabrizio
2016-01-01
We present a system for non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging, based on small source-detector distance and high dynamic range measurements utilizing a fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode. The system is suitable for imaging of diffusive media without any contact with the sample and with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm at 1 cm depth. In order to objectively assess its performances, we adopted two standardized protocols developed for time-domain brain imagers. The related tests included the recording of the instrument response function of the setup and the responsivity of its detection system. Moreover, by using liquid turbid phantoms with absorbing inclusions, depth-dependent contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio as well as lateral spatial resolution were measured. To illustrate the potentialities of the novel approach, the characteristics of the non-contact system are discussed and compared to those of a fiber-based brain imager.
Shin, SeungJun; Yu, YunSeop; Choi, JungBum
2008-10-01
New multi-valued logic (MVL) families using the hybrid circuits consisting of three gates single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) are proposed. The use of SETs offers periodic literal characteristics due to Coulomb oscillation of SET, which allows a realization of binary logic (BL) circuits as well as multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits. The basic operations of the proposed MVL families are successfully confirmed through SPICE circuit simulation based on the physical device model of a TG-SET. The proposed MVL circuits are found to be much faster, but much larger power consumption than a previously reported MVL, and they have a trade-off between speed and power consumption. As an example to apply the newly developed MVL families, a half-adder is introduced.
Thermodynamics of a periodically driven qubit
Donvil, Brecht
2018-04-01
We present a new approach to the open system dynamics of a periodically driven qubit in contact with a temperature bath. We are specifically interested in the thermodynamics of the qubit. It is well known that by combining the Markovian approximation with Floquet theory it is possible to derive a stochastic Schrödinger equation in for the state of the qubit. We follow here a different approach. We use Floquet theory to embed the time-non autonomous qubit dynamics into time-autonomous yet infinite dimensional dynamics. We refer to the resulting infinite dimensional system as the dressed-qubit. Using the Markovian approximation we derive the stochastic Schrödinger equation for the dressed-qubit. The advantage of our approach is that the jump operators are ladder operators of the Hamiltonian. This simplifies the formulation of the thermodynamics. We use the thermodynamics of the infinite dimensional system to recover the thermodynamical description for the driven qubit. We compare our results with the existing literature and recover the known results.
Energy localization in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pashaev, Oktay K; Gurkan, Zeynep N
2012-01-01
Motivated by the Möbius transformation for symmetric points under the generalized circle in the complex plane, the system of symmetric spin coherent states corresponding to antipodal qubit states is introduced. In terms of these states, we construct the maximally entangled complete set of two-qubit coherent states, which in the limiting cases reduces to the Bell basis. A specific property of our symmetric coherent states is that they never become unentangled for any value of ψ from the complex plane. Entanglement quantifications of our states are given by the reduced density matrix and the concurrence determinant, and it is shown that our basis is maximally entangled. Universal one- and two-qubit gates in these new coherent state basis are calculated. As an application, we find the Q symbol of the XY Z model Hamiltonian operator H as an average energy function in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space. It shows regular finite-energy localized structure with specific local extremum points. The concurrence and fidelity of quantum evolution with dimerization of double periodic patterns are given. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhen-Gang, Shi; Xiong-Wen, Chen; Xi-Xiang, Zhu; Ke-Hui, Song
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a simple scheme for realizing one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates as well as multiqubit entanglement based on dc-SQUID charge qubits through the control of their coupling to a 1D transmission line resonator (TLR). The TLR behaves effectively as a quantum data-bus mode of a harmonic oscillator, which has several practical advantages including strong coupling strength, reproducibility, immunity to 1/f noise, and suppressed spontaneous emission. In this protocol, the data-bus does not need to stay adiabatically in its ground state, which results in not only fast quantum operation, but also high-fidelity quantum information processing. Also, it elaborates the transfer process with the 1D transmission line. (general)
Optimal attacks on qubit-based Quantum Key Recycling
Leermakers, Daan; Škorić, Boris
2018-03-01
Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) is a quantum cryptographic primitive that allows one to reuse keys in an unconditionally secure way. By removing the need to repeatedly generate new keys, it improves communication efficiency. Škorić and de Vries recently proposed a QKR scheme based on 8-state encoding (four bases). It does not require quantum computers for encryption/decryption but only single-qubit operations. We provide a missing ingredient in the security analysis of this scheme in the case of noisy channels: accurate upper bounds on the required amount of privacy amplification. We determine optimal attacks against the message and against the key, for 8-state encoding as well as 4-state and 6-state conjugate coding. We provide results in terms of min-entropy loss as well as accessible (Shannon) information. We show that the Shannon entropy analysis for 8-state encoding reduces to the analysis of quantum key distribution, whereas 4-state and 6-state suffer from additional leaks that make them less effective. From the optimal attacks we compute the required amount of privacy amplification and hence the achievable communication rate (useful information per qubit) of qubit-based QKR. Overall, 8-state encoding yields the highest communication rates.
Spinor Slow Light and Two-Color Qubits
Yu, Ite; Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriasov, Viaceslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.
2015-05-01
We report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by six light fields. The oscillation due to the interaction between the two components was observed. SSL can be used to achieve high conversion efficiencies in the sum frequency generation and is a better method than the widely-used double- Λ scheme. On the basis of the stored light, our data showed that the DT scheme behaves like the two outcomes of an interferometer enabling precision measurements of frequency detuning. Furthermore, the single-photon SSL can be considered as the qubit with the superposition state of two frequency modes or, simply, as the two-color qubit. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-color qubit. This work opens up a new direction in the EIT/slow light research. yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw
Coherence properties in superconducting flux qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spilla, Samuele
2015-02-16
The research work discussed in this thesis deals with the study of superconducting Josephson qubits. Superconducting qubits are solid-state artificial atoms which are based on lithographically defined Josephson tunnel junctions properties. When sufficiently cooled, these superconducting devices exhibit quantized states of charge, flux or junction phase depending on their design parameters. This allows to observe coherent evolutions of their states. The results presented can be divided into two parts. In a first part we investigate operations of superconducting qubits based on the quantum coherence in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID). We explain experimental data which has been observed in a SQUID subjected to fast, large-amplitude modifications of its effective potential shape. The motivations for this work come from the fact that in the past few years there have been attempts to interpret the supposed quantum behavior of physical systems, such as Josephson devices, within a classical framework. Moreover, we analyze the possibility of generating GHZ states, namely maximally entangled states, in a quantum system made out of three Josephson qubits. In particular, we investigate the possible limitations of the GHZ state generation due to coupling to bosonic baths. In the second part of the thesis we address a particular cause of decoherence of flux qubits which has been disregarded until now: thermal gradients, which can arise due to accidental non equilibrium quasiparticle distributions. The reason for these detrimental effects is that heat currents flowing through Josephson tunnel junctions in response to a temperature gradient are periodic functions of the phase difference between the electrodes. The phase dependence of the heat current comes from Andreev reflection, namely an interplay between the quasiparticles which carry heat and the superconducting condensate which is sensitive to the superconducting phase difference. Generally speaking
Volume of the space of qubit-qubit channels and state transformations under random quantum channels
Lovas, Attila; Andai, Attila
2017-01-01
The simplest building blocks for quantum computations are the qubit-qubit quantum channels. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these channels via their Choi representation. The restriction of a quantum channel to the space of classical states (i.e. probability distributions) is called the underlying classical channel. The structure of quantum channels over a fixed classical channel is studied, the volume of general and unital qubit channels with respect to the Lebesgue measure is comp...
Hybrid Toffoli gate on photons and quantum spins.
Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun
2015-11-16
Quantum computation offers potential advantages in solving a number of interesting and difficult problems. Several controlled logic gates, the elemental building blocks of quantum computer, have been realized with various physical systems. A general technique was recently proposed that significantly reduces the realization complexity of multiple-control logic gates by harnessing multi-level information carriers. We present implementations of a key quantum circuit: the three-qubit Toffoli gate. By exploring the optical selection rules of one-sided optical microcavities, a Toffoli gate may be realized on all combinations of photon and quantum spins in the QD-cavity. The three general controlled-NOT gates are involved using an auxiliary photon with two degrees of freedom. Our results show that photons and quantum spins may be used alternatively in quantum information processing.
Schaibley, J R; Burgers, A P; McCracken, G A; Duan, L-M; Berman, P R; Steel, D G; Bracker, A S; Gammon, D; Sham, L J
2013-04-19
The electron spin state of a singly charged semiconductor quantum dot has been shown to form a suitable single qubit for quantum computing architectures with fast gate times. A key challenge in realizing a useful quantum dot quantum computing architecture lies in demonstrating the ability to scale the system to many qubits. In this Letter, we report an all optical experimental demonstration of quantum entanglement between a single electron spin confined to a single charged semiconductor quantum dot and the polarization state of a photon spontaneously emitted from the quantum dot's excited state. We obtain a lower bound on the fidelity of entanglement of 0.59±0.04, which is 84% of the maximum achievable given the timing resolution of available single photon detectors. In future applications, such as measurement-based spin-spin entanglement which does not require sub-nanosecond timing resolution, we estimate that this system would enable near ideal performance. The inferred (usable) entanglement generation rate is 3×10(3) s(-1). This spin-photon entanglement is the first step to a scalable quantum dot quantum computing architecture relying on photon (flying) qubits to mediate entanglement between distant nodes of a quantum dot network.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. III. Quantum operations
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2007-05-01
often result in very large symbolic expressions that dramatically slow down the evaluation of measures or other quantities. In these cases, MAPLE's assume facility sometimes helps to reduce the complexity of symbolic expressions, but often only numerical evaluation is possible. Since the complexity of the FEYNMAN commands is very different, no general scaling law for the CPU time and memory usage can be given. No. of bytes in distributed program including test data, etc.: 799 265 No. of lines in distributed program including test data, etc.: 18 589 Distribution format: tar.gz Reasons for new version: While the previous program versions were designed mainly to create and manipulate the state of quantum registers, the present extension aims to support quantum operations as the essential ingredient for studying the effects of noisy environments. Does this version supersede the previous version: Yes Nature of the physical problem: Today, entanglement is identified as the essential resource in virtually all aspects of quantum information theory. In most practical implementations of quantum information protocols, however, decoherence typically limits the lifetime of entanglement. It is therefore necessary and highly desirable to understand the evolution of entanglement in noisy environments. Method of solution: Using the computer algebra system MAPLE, we have developed a set of procedures that support the definition and manipulation of n-qubit quantum registers as well as (unitary) logic gates and (nonunitary) quantum operations that act on the quantum registers. The provided hierarchy of commands can be used interactively in order to simulate and analyze the evolution of n-qubit quantum systems in ideal and nonideal quantum circuits.
Rosenblum, Serge; Borne, Adrien; Dayan, Barak
2017-03-01
The long-standing goal of deterministic quantum interactions between single photons and single atoms was recently realized in various experiments. Among these, an appealing demonstration relied on single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) in a three-level atom coupled to a single-mode waveguide. In essence, the interference-based process of SPRINT deterministically swaps the qubits encoded in a single photon and a single atom, without the need for additional control pulses. It can also be harnessed to construct passive entangling quantum gates, and can therefore form the basis for scalable quantum networks in which communication between the nodes is carried out only by single-photon pulses. Here we present an analytical and numerical study of SPRINT, characterizing its limitations and defining parameters for its optimal operation. Specifically, we study the effect of losses, imperfect polarization, and the presence of multiple excited states. In all cases we discuss strategies for restoring the operation of SPRINT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanna, Masahiko; Mitani, Isao; Nakamaru, Masashi; Shibuya, Ken; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Asahina, Shigeru; Kitamura, Yutaka; Higuma, Kikuhiko; Ishii, Masao
1998-01-01
Simultaneous assessment of stress perfusion and rest function is possible with gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using stress injected technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) tetrofosmin (TF). The feasibility of dipyridamole stress electrocardiographic gated myocardial SPECT (GSPECT) with TF was examined as an alternative to conventional stress/rest imaging. Fifty-one patients underwent stress GSPECT. 740 MBq of TF was administered 3 min after dipyridamole infusion. GSPECT acquisition was performed one hour after the injection. Additional rest SPECT was performed on another day only in patients with abnormal perfusion on stress images. Perfusion and thickening were analyzed visually on 17 segments of the left ventricle. Percentage of wall thickening (%WT) was also calculated in 17 segments of the polar map. Thirty-two of 51 patients (63%) had normal stress perfusion and normal rest thickening. Nineteen of 51 patients (37%) had abnormal perfusion on stress images. Among 157 abnormal perfusion segments of the 19 patients, 139 segments (89%) had thickening and the rest (11%) had no thickening. %WT was higher in the reversible segments with or without thickening. There was better agreement for the identification of normal segments and the presence of reversibility between stress GSPECT and the conventional stress/rest study in patients without previous myocardial infarction than in those with previous myocardial infarction (89% vs 79%). These results suggest that stress GSPECT may substitute for conventional stress/rest perfusion study in patients without previous myocardial infarction, allowing shorter examination time and lower cost. However, stress GSPECT does not replace the need for rest perfusion study in patients with previous myocardial infarction, because of underestimation of viability, but %WT may eliminate this underestimation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavoshi, Maryam; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Fallahi, Babak; Emami-Ardekani, Alireza; Beiki, Davood; Hassanzadeh-Rad, Arman; Eftekhari, Mohammad
2005-01-01
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The goal of this study is to determine the prognostic value of semiquantitative parameters of electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in a large Middle Eastern (Iranian) population. This study was a prospective study including all patients referred to our center for myocardial perfusion scan. The patients were followed annually up to 24 months and their survival information was collected. From 1148 patients, 473 (41.2%) men and 675 (58.8%) women, 40.6% had normal MPI, 13.3% near normal and 46.1% abnormal MPI. After follow-up of 929 patients, 97.4% of patients were alive, and 2.6% succumbed to cardiac deaths. Abnormal ejection fraction was related with cardiac events (P = 0.001), but neither transient ischemic dilation (TID) (P = 0.09) nor lung/heart ratio (P = 0.92) showed such relationship. Association between summed difference score (SDS) and soft cardiac events (P < 0.001) was significant. Summed motion score (SMS) and summed thickening score (STS) showed a significant relation with hard cardiac events, including myocardial infarction and cardiac death (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Totally, risk of all cardiac events was significantly higher in abnormal MPI group than normal group (P < 0.001, 0.02, and 0.025, respectively). No significant relationship was found between TID and total cardiac events (P = 0.478). Semiquantitative variables derived from gated SPECT MPI have independent prognostic value. Rate of total cardiac events is higher in patients with higher summed stress score and SDS. Total and hard cardiac events are higher in upper scores of functional parameters (SMS and STS). Total cardiac events are higher in patients with lower left ventricular ejection fraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipiec, P.; Wejner-Mik, P.; Krzeminska-Pakula, M.; Kapusta, A.; Kasprzak, J.D.; Kusmierek, J.; Plachcinska, A.; Szuminski, R.
2008-01-01
Parameters of left ventricular systolic function directly influence the management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Quantitative gated single-photon emission computed tomography (QGS; Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA) allows the computation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from myocardial perfusion imaging studies which are frequently performed on patients with suspected CAD. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is considered to be the echocardiographic ''gold standard'' for the quantification of LVEF. We sought to compare QGS with 3D echocardiography in the evaluation of EF in patients with suspected CAD. Ninety-one consecutive patients with suspected CAD, scheduled for coronary angiography, underwent rest electrocardiographic-gated technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile SPECT (G-SPECT) with measurement of LVEF by QGS and transthoracic 3D echocardiography with off-line measurement of LVEF (Tomtec 4D LV Analysis 1.1). The diagnosis of CAD was based on coronary angiography, performed on every patient. Nine patients were excluded from the analysis owing to unsuitability for 3D echocardiography (8 patients) or G-SPECT (1 patient). In the remaining group of 82 patients, 71 (87%) had significant CAD, 34 (42%) had a history of myocardial infarction, and 50 (61%) had perfusion defects at rest G-SPECT images. The mean LVEF measured by QGS and 3D echocardiography was 53±13% and 53±10%, respectively. The mean difference in LVEF between 3D echocardiography and QGS was 0.1±6.0% (P=0.87), and the correlation between the values obtained by both methods was high (r=0.88, P< 0.001). The largest discrepancies were observed in patients with small ventricular volumes. In patients undergoing diagnostic work-up for CAD, the measurement of LVEF by QGS algorithm provides high correlation and satisfactory agreement with the results of reference ultrasound method- 3D echocardiography. (author)
Subspace confinement: how good is your qubit?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devitt, Simon J; Schirmer, Sonia G; Oi, Daniel K L; Cole, Jared H; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L
2007-01-01
The basic operating element of standard quantum computation is the qubit, an isolated two-level system that can be accurately controlled, initialized and measured. However, the majority of proposed physical architectures for quantum computation are built from systems that contain much more complicated Hilbert space structures. Hence, defining a qubit requires the identification of an appropriate controllable two-dimensional sub-system. This prompts the obvious question of how well a qubit, thus defined, is confined to this subspace, and whether we can experimentally quantify the potential leakage into states outside the qubit subspace. We demonstrate how subspace leakage can be characterized using minimal theoretical assumptions by examining the Fourier spectrum of the oscillation experiment
rf SQUID system as tunable flux qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruggiero, B. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)]. E-mail: b.ruggiero@cib.na.cnr.it; Granata, C. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)
2006-08-21
We present a fully integrated rf SQUID-based system as flux qubit with a high control of the flux transfer function of the superconducting transformer modulating the coupling between the flux qubit and the readout system. The control of the system is possible by including into the superconducting flux transformer a vertical two-Josephson-junctions interferometer (VJI) in which the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero by a transversal magnetic field parallel to the flux transformer plane. The proposed system can be also used in a more general configuration to control the off-diagonal terms in the Hamiltonian of the flux qubit and to turn on and off the coupling between two or more qubits.
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Tunable, Flexible, and Efficient Optimization of Control Pulses for Practical Qubits
Machnes, Shai; Assémat, Elie; Tannor, David; Wilhelm, Frank K.
2018-04-01
Quantum computation places very stringent demands on gate fidelities, and experimental implementations require both the controls and the resultant dynamics to conform to hardware-specific constraints. Superconducting qubits present the additional requirement that pulses must have simple parameterizations, so they can be further calibrated in the experiment, to compensate for uncertainties in system parameters. Other quantum technologies, such as sensing, require extremely high fidelities. We present a novel, conceptually simple and easy-to-implement gradient-based optimal control technique named gradient optimization of analytic controls (GOAT), which satisfies all the above requirements, unlike previous approaches. To demonstrate GOAT's capabilities, with emphasis on flexibility and ease of subsequent calibration, we optimize fast coherence-limited pulses for two leading superconducting qubits architectures—flux-tunable transmons and fixed-frequency transmons with tunable couplers.
Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)
2006-06-01
We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsunari, Ichiro; Matsudaira, Masamichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Kanayama, Sugako; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Kenichi; Taki, Junichi; Tonami, Norihisa; Nekolla, Stephan G.
2005-01-01
Dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition single-photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 99m Tc-sestamibi appears attractive for the detection of viable myocardium because it permits simultaneous assessment of glucose utilisation and perfusion. Another potential benefit of this approach is that the measurement of left ventricular (LV) function may be possible by ECG gating. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that both myocardial viability and LV function can be assessed by a single ECG-gated 18 F-FDG/ 99m Tc-sestamibi DISA SPECT study, based on comparison with 18 F-FDG/ 13 N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as reference techniques. Thirty-three patients with prior myocardial infarction underwent ECG-gated 18 F-FDG/ 99m Tc-sestamibi DISA SPECT and 18 F-FDG/ 13 N-ammonia PET on a single day. Of these, 25 patients also underwent cine-MRI to assess LV function. The LV myocardium was divided into nine regions, and each region was classified as viable or scar using a semiquantitative visual scoring system as well as quantitative analysis. The global and regional LV function measured by gated SPECT was compared with the results of MRI. There was good agreement in respect of viability (90-96%, κ0.74-0.85) between DISA SPECT and PET by either visual or quantitative analysis. Furthermore, although both global and regional LV function measured by gated SPECT agreed with those by MRI, 99m Tc-sestamibi showed a closer correlation with MRI than did 18 F-FDG. In conclusion, ECG-gated DISA SPECT provides information on myocardial viability, as well as global and regional LV function, similar to that obtained by PET and MRI. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoda, Shunichi; Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Tani, Shigemasa; Takayama, Tadateru; Uchiyama, Takahisa; Saito, Satoshi
2005-01-01
Although the detection of wall motion abnormalities gives incremental value to myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the diagnosis of extensive coronary artery disease (CAD) and high-grade single-vessel CAD, whether or not it is useful in the diagnosis of mild, single-vessel CAD has not been studied previously. Separate acquisition, dual isotope electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated SPECT was performed in 97 patients with a low likelihood of CAD (Group 1) and 46 patients with single-vessel CAD (Group 2). Mild CAD was defined by stenosis of 50-75% (Group 2a, n=22) and moderate to severe CAD was defined by stenosis ≥76% (Group 2b, n=24). Myocardial perfusion and wall motion were graded by a 5 point-scale, 20-segment model. The sensitivity of myocardial perfusion alone was 50% for Group 2a, 83% for Group 2b and 67% for Group 2 as a whole. The overall specificity was 90%. When the wall motion analysis was combined, the sensitivity was increased to 82% in Group 2a and 92% in Group 2b. The ability to detect a wall motion abnormality immediately after exercise gives incremental diagnostic value to myocardial perfusion SPECT in the identification of mild, single-vessel CAD. (author)
Spin qubits in antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger
2008-01-01
We suggest and study designed defects in an otherwise periodic potential modulation of a two-dimensional electron gas as an alternative approach to electron spin based quantum information processing in the solid-state using conventional gate-defined quantum dots. We calculate the band structure a...
Temperature dependence of coherence in transmon qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schloer, Steffen; Braumueller, Jochen; Lukashenko, Oleksandr; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sandberg, Martin; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-07-01
Superconducting qubits are a promising field of research, not only with respect to quantum computing but also as highly sensitive detectors and due to the possibility of using them to study fundamental implications of quantum mechanics. The requirements for qubits that can be used as building blocks in a potential quantum computer are challenging. Modern superconducting qubits like the transmon are strong candidates for achieving these goals. The main challenge here is to increase the coherence of prepared quantum states. Here, we experimentally investigate the influence of temperature variation on relaxation and dephasing of a transmon qubit. Our goal is to understand decoherence mechanisms in material optimized circuits. Aiming at longer coherence, in this case peaking over 50 μs for T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}, our samples are fabricated at NIST using two different materials. Low-loss TiN was used for the shunt capacitance as well as the resonator, combined with shadow evaporated ultra-small Al-AlO{sub x}-Al Josephson junctions. We will present temperature-dependent data on qubit relaxation and dephasing times as well as power spectra. Our data will be compared to previously obtained temperature dependent data for other types of qubits.
Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)
2009-05-01
We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.
Quantum logic gates using Stark-shifted Raman transitions in a cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Asoka; Agarwal, G.S.
2004-01-01
We present a scheme to realize the basic two-qubit logic gates such as the quantum phase gate and the controlled-NOT gate using a detuned optical cavity interacting with a three-level Raman system. We discuss the role of Stark shifts, which are as important as the terms leading to the two-photon transition. The operation of the proposed logic gates involves metastable states of the atom and hence is not affected by spontaneous emission. These ideas can be extended to produce multiparticle entanglement
Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.
2018-01-01
The following are updated or new subjects added to the FPGA SEE Test Guidelines manual: academic versus mission specific device evaluation, single event latch-up (SEL) test and analysis, SEE response visibility enhancement during radiation testing, mitigation evaluation (embedded and user-implemented), unreliable design and its affects to SEE Data, testing flushable architectures versus non-flushable architectures, intellectual property core (IP Core) test and evaluation (addresses embedded and user-inserted), heavy-ion energy and linear energy transfer (LET) selection, proton versus heavy-ion testing, fault injection, mean fluence to failure analysis, and mission specific system-level single event upset (SEU) response prediction. Most sections within the guidelines manual provide information regarding best practices for test structure and test system development. The scope of this manual addresses academic versus mission specific device evaluation and visibility enhancement in IP Core testing.
Comparing Zeeman qubits to hyperfine qubits in the context of the surface code: +174Yb and +171Yb
Brown, Natalie C.; Brown, Kenneth R.
2018-05-01
Many systems used for quantum computing possess additional states beyond those defining the qubit. Leakage out of the qubit subspace must be considered when designing quantum error correction codes. Here we consider trapped ion qubits manipulated by Raman transitions. Zeeman qubits do not suffer from leakage errors but are sensitive to magnetic fields to first order. Hyperfine qubits can be encoded in clock states that are insensitive to magnetic fields to first order, but spontaneous scattering during the Raman transition can lead to leakage. Here we compare a Zeeman qubit (+174Yb) to a hyperfine qubit (+171Yb) in the context of the surface code. We find that the number of physical qubits required to reach a specific logical qubit error can be reduced by using +174Yb if the magnetic field can be stabilized with fluctuations smaller than 10 μ G .
Optimal control of hybrid qubits: Implementing the quantum permutation algorithm
Rivera-Ruiz, C. M.; de Lima, E. F.; Fanchini, F. F.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Castelano, L. K.
2018-03-01
The optimal quantum control theory is employed to determine electric pulses capable of producing quantum gates with a fidelity higher than 0.9997, when noise is not taken into account. Particularly, these quantum gates were chosen to perform the permutation algorithm in hybrid qubits in double quantum dots (DQDs). The permutation algorithm is an oracle based quantum algorithm that solves the problem of the permutation parity faster than a classical algorithm without the necessity of entanglement between particles. The only requirement for achieving the speedup is the use of a one-particle quantum system with at least three levels. The high fidelity found in our results is closely related to the quantum speed limit, which is a measure of how fast a quantum state can be manipulated. Furthermore, we model charge noise by considering an average over the optimal field centered at different values of the reference detuning, which follows a Gaussian distribution. When the Gaussian spread is of the order of 5 μ eV (10% of the correct value), the fidelity is still higher than 0.95. Our scheme also can be used for the practical realization of different quantum algorithms in DQDs.
Microwave potentials and optimal control for robust quantum gates on an atom chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treutlein, Philipp; Haensch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob; Negretti, Antonio; Cirone, Markus A.; Calarco, Tommaso
2006-01-01
We propose a two-qubit collisional phase gate that can be implemented with available atom chip technology and present a detailed theoretical analysis of its performance. The gate is based on earlier phase gate schemes, but uses a qubit state pair with an experimentally demonstrated, very long coherence lifetime. Microwave near fields play a key role in our implementation as a means to realize the state-dependent potentials required for conditional dynamics. Quantum control algorithms are used to optimize gate performance. We employ circuit configurations that can be built with current fabrication processes and extensively discuss the impact of technical noise and imperfections that characterize an actual atom chip. We find an overall infidelity compatible with requirements for fault-tolerant quantum computation
Local correlations of mixed two-qubit states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Fulin; Chen Jingling; Ren Changliang; Shi Mingjun
2010-01-01
The quantum probability distribution arising from single-copy von Neumann measurements on an arbitrary two-qubit state is decomposed into the local and nonlocal parts, in the approach of Elitzur, Popescu and Rohrlich [A. Elitzur, S. Popescu, D. Rohrlich, Phys. Lett. A 162 (1992) 25]. A lower bound of the local weight is proved being connected with the concurrence of the state p L max =1-C(ρ). The local probability distributions for two families of mixed states are constructed independently, which accord with the lower bound.
Electron Heating and Quasiparticle Tunnelling in Superconducting Charge Qubits
Shaw, M. D.; Bueno, J.; Delsing, P.; Echternach, P. M.
2008-01-01
We have directly measured non-equilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling in the time domain as a function of temperature and RF carrier power for a pair of charge qubits based on the single Cooper-pair box, where the readout is performed with a multiplexed quantum capacitance technique. We have extracted an effective electron temperature for each applied RF power, using the data taken at the lowest power as a reference curve. This data has been fit to a standard T? electron heating model, with a reasonable correspondence with established material parameters.
Light qubit storage and retrieval using macroscopic atomic ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherson, J.; Soerensen, A. S.; Polzik, E. S.; Fiurasek, J.; Moelmer, K.
2006-01-01
We present an experimentally feasible protocol for the complete storage and retrieval of arbitrary light states in an atomic quantum memory using the Faraday interaction between light and matter. Our protocol relies on multiple passages of a single light pulse through the atomic ensemble without the impractical requirement of kilometer-long delay lines between the passages. A time-dependent interaction strength enables the storage and retrieval of states with arbitrary pulse shapes. The fidelity approaches unity exponentially without squeezed or entangled initial states, as illustrated by calculations for a photonic qubit
Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montina, Alberto
2011-01-01
In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of single realizations is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria of regularity. Possible generalizations of this shrinking to an N-dimensional Hilbert space are discussed.
Quantum memory on a charge qubit in an optical microresonator
Tsukanov, A. V.
2017-10-01
A quantum-memory unit scheme on the base of a semiconductor structure with quantum dots is proposed. The unit includes a microresonator with single and double quantum dots performing frequencyconverter and charge-qubit functions, respectively. The writing process is carried out in several stages and it is controlled by optical fields of the resonator and laser. It is shown that, to achieve high writing probability, it is necessary to use high-Q resonators and to be able to suppress relaxation processes in quantum dots.
GATE: Improving the computational efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staelens, S.; De Beenhouwer, J.; Kruecker, D.; Maigne, L.; Rannou, F.; Ferrer, L.; D'Asseler, Y.; Buvat, I.; Lemahieu, I.
2006-01-01
GATE is a software dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). An important disadvantage of those simulations is the fundamental burden of computation time. This manuscript describes three different techniques in order to improve the efficiency of those simulations. Firstly, the implementation of variance reduction techniques (VRTs), more specifically the incorporation of geometrical importance sampling, is discussed. After this, the newly designed cluster version of the GATE software is described. The experiments have shown that GATE simulations scale very well on a cluster of homogeneous computers. Finally, an elaboration on the deployment of GATE on the Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe (EGEE) grid will conclude the description of efficiency enhancement efforts. The three aforementioned methods improve the efficiency of GATE to a large extent and make realistic patient-specific overnight Monte Carlo simulations achievable
Nori, Franco
2008-03-01
Superconducting (SC) circuits can behave like atoms making transitions between a few energy levels. Such circuits can test quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales and be used to conduct atomic-physics experiments on a silicon chip. This talk overviews a few of our theoretical studies on SC circuits and quantum information processing (QIP) including: SC qubits for single photon generation and for lasing; controllable couplings among qubits; how to increase the coherence time of qubits using a capacitor in parallel to one of the qubit junctions; hybrid circuits involving both charge and flux qubits; testing Bell's inequality in SC circuits; generation of GHZ states; quantum tomography in SC circuits; preparation of macroscopic quantum superposition states of a cavity field via coupling to a SC qubit; generation of nonclassical photon states using a SC qubit in a microcavity; scalable quantum computing with SC qubits; and information processing with SC qubits in a microwave field. Controllable couplings between qubits can be achieved either directly or indirectly. This can be done with and without coupler circuits, and with and without data-buses like EM fields in cavities (e.g., we will describe both the variable-frequency magnetic flux approach and also a generalized double-resonance approach that we introduced). It is also possible to ``turn a quantum bug into a feature'' by using microscopic defects as qubits, and the macroscopic junction as a controller of it. We have also studied ways to implement radically different approaches to QIP by using ``cluster states'' in SC circuits. For a general overview of this field, see, J.Q. You and F. Nori, Phys. Today 58 (11), 42 (2005)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rousseau, E.
2006-12-01
An electron on helium presents a quantized energy spectrum. The interaction with the environment is considered sufficiently weak in order to allow the realization of a quantum bit (qubit) by using the first two energy levels. The first stage in the realization of this qubit was to trap and control a single electron. This is carried out thanks to a set of micro-fabricated electrodes defining a well of potential in which the electron is trapped. We are able with such a sample to trap and detect a variables number of electrons varying between one and around twenty. This then allowed us to study the static behaviour of a small number of electrons in a trap. They are supposed to crystallize and form structures called Wigner molecules. Such molecules have not yet been observed yet with electrons above helium. Our results bring circumstantial evidence for of Wigner crystallization. We then sought to characterize the qubit more precisely. We sought to carry out a projective reading (depending on the state of the qubit) and a measurement of the relaxation time. The results were obtained by exciting the electron with an incoherent electric field. A clean measurement of the relaxation time would require a coherent electric field. The conclusion cannot thus be final but it would seem that the relaxation time is shorter than calculated theoretically. That is perhaps due to a measurement of the relaxation between the oscillating states in the trap and not between the states of the qubit. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhukov, A.A. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapiro, D.S., E-mail: shapiro.dima@gmail.com [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); V.A. Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Remizov, S.V. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); V.A. Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pogosov, W.V. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lozovik, Yu.E. [N.L. Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics, 127055 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142190 Moscow Region, Troitsk (Russian Federation)
2017-02-12
We consider a superconducting qubit coupled to the nonstationary transmission line cavity with modulated frequency taking into account energy dissipation. Previously, it was demonstrated that in the case of a single nonadiabatical modulation of a cavity frequency there are two channels of a two-level system excitation which are due to the absorption of Casimir photons and due to the counterrotating wave processes responsible for the dynamical Lamb effect. We show that the parametric periodical modulation of the resonator frequency can increase dramatically the excitation probability. Remarkably, counterrotating wave processes under such a modulation start to play an important role even in the resonant regime. Our predictions can be used to control qubit-resonator quantum states as well as to study experimentally different channels of a parametric qubit excitation. - Highlights: • Coupled qubit-resonator system under the modulation of a resonator frequency is considered. • Counterrotating terms of the Hamiltonian are of importance even in the resonance. • Qubit excited state population is highest if driving frequency matches dressed-state energy.
Speed of quantum evolution of entangled two qubits states: Local vs. global evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curilef, S; Zander, C; Plastino, A R
2008-01-01
There is a lower bound for the 'speed' of quantum evolution as measured by the time needed to reach an orthogonal state. We show that, for two-qubits systems, states saturating the quantum speed limit tend to exhibit a small amount of local evolution, as measured by the fidelity between the initial and final single qubit states after the time τ required by the composite system to reach an orthogonal state. Consequently, a trade-off between the speed of global evolution and the amount of local evolution seems to be at work.