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Sample records for single probe bipolar

  1. Empirical study of unipolar and bipolar configurations using high resolution single multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes for electrophysiological probing of electrically excitable cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Asis, Edward D Jr; Wood, Sally; Leung, Joseph; Nguyen, Cattien V

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the neurophysiological basis underlying learning and memory in the mammalian central nervous system requires the development of biocompatible, high resolution, low electrode impedance electrophysiological probes; however, physically, electrode impedance will always be finite and, at times, large. Herein, we demonstrate through experiments performed on frog sartorius muscle that single multi-walled carbon nanotube electrode (sMWNT electrode) geometry and placement are two degrees of freedom that can improve biocompatibility of the probe and counteract the detrimental effects of MWNT/electrolyte interface impedance on the stimulation efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We show that high aspect ratio dependent electric field enhancement at the MWNT tip can boost stimulation efficiency. Derivation of the sMWNT electrode's electrical equivalent indicates that, at low stimulus voltage regimes below 1 V, current conduction is mediated by charge fluctuation in the double layer obviating electrolysis of water, which is potentially toxic to pH sensitive biological tissue. Despite the accompanying increase in electrode impedance, a pair of closely spaced sMWNT electrodes in a two probe (bipolar) configuration maintains biocompatibility and enhances stimulation efficiency and SNR compared to the single probe (unipolar) configuration. For stimulus voltages below 1 V, the electrical equivalent verifies that current conduction in the two probe configuration still proceeds via charge fluctuation in the double layer. As an extracellular stimulation electrode, the two sMWNT electrodes comprise a current dipole that concentrates the electric field and the current density in a smaller region of sartorius; consequently, the bipolar configuration can elicit muscle fiber twitching at low voltages that preclude electrolysis of water. When recording field potentials, the bipolar configuration subtracts the potential between two points allowing for the detection of

  2. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Broumi, Said; Talea, Mohamed; Bakali, Assia; Smarandache, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.

  3. Single-event burnout of power bipolar junction transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J.L.; Johnson, G.H.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental evidence of single-event burnout of power bipolar junctions transistors (BJTs) is reported for the first time. Several commercial power BJTs were characterized in a simulated cosmic ray environment using mono-energetic ions at the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Most of the device types exposed to this simulated environment exhibited burnout behavior. In this paper the experimental technique, data, and results are presented, while a qualitative model is used to help explain those results and trends observed in this experiment

  4. Parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zheng; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Qin Jun-Rui; Liu Rong-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Using three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient (SET) current of a single transistor and its temperature dependence are studied. We quantify the contributions of different current components in a SET current pulse, and it is found that the proportion of parasitic bipolar amplification in total collected charge is about 30% in both 130-nm and 90-nm technologies. The temperature dependence of parasitic bipolar amplification and the mechanism of the SET pulse are also investigated and quantified. The results show that the proportion of charge induced by parasitic bipolar increases with rising temperature, which illustrates that the parasitic bipolar amplification plays an important role in the charge collection of a single transistor

  5. Measurements of monopolar and bipolar current spreads using forward-masking with a fixed probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingabr, Mohamed G; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Sigdel, Saroj

    2014-05-01

    This research employed a forward-masking paradigm to estimate the current spread of monopolar (MP) and bipolar (BP) maskers, with current amplitudes adjusted to elicit the same loudness. Since the spatial separation between active and return electrodes is smaller in BP than in MP configurations, the BP current spread is more localized and presumably superior in terms of speech intelligibility. Because matching the loudness requires higher current in BP than in MP stimulation, previous forward-masking studies show that BP current spread is not consistently narrower across subjects or electrodes within a subject. The present forward-masking measures of current spread differ from those of previous studies by using the same BP probe electrode configuration for both MP and BP masker configurations, and adjusting the current levels of the MP and BP maskers so as to match them in loudness. With this method, the estimate of masker current spread would not be contaminated by differences in probe current spread. Forward masking was studied in four cochlear implant patients, two females and two males, with speech recognition scores higher than 50%; that is, their auditory-nerve survival status was more than adequate to carry out the experiments. The data showed that MP and BP masker configurations produce equivalent masking patterns (and current spreads) in three participants. A fourth participant displayed asymmetrical patterns with enhancement rather than masking in some cases, especially when the probe and masker were at the same location. This study showed equivalent masking patterns for MP and BP maskers when the BP masker current amplitude was increased to match the loudness of the MP masker, and the same BP probe configuration is used with both maskers. This finding could help to explain why cochlear implant users often fail to accrue higher speech intelligibility benefit from BP stimulation.

  6. The probe rules in single particle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mathias P.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) enables light microscopy at a sub-diffraction limited spatial resolution by a combination of imaging at low molecular labeling densities and computational image processing. SPT and related single molecule imaging techniques have found a rapidly expanded use within...

  7. Bipolar single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Babic, Bakir; Iqbal, Mahdi; Schonenberger, Christian

    2002-01-01

    We use a simultaneous flow of ethylene and hydrogen gases to grow single wall carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition. Strong coupling to the gate is inferred from transport measurements for both metallic and semiconducting tubes. At low-temperatures, our samples act as single-electron transistors where the transport mechanism is mainly governed by Coulomb blockade. The measurements reveal very rich quantized energy level spectra spanning from valence to conduction band. The Coulomb dia...

  8. Electrical coupling of single cardiac rat myocytes to field-effect and bipolar transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Thomas; Issing, Matthias; Arnold, Rüdiger; Müller, Bernt

    2002-12-01

    A novel bipolar transistor for extracellular recording the electrical activity of biological cells is presented, and the electrical behavior compared with the field-effect transistor (FET). Electrical coupling is examined between single cells separated from the heart of adults rats (cardiac myocytes) and both types of transistors. To initiate a local extracellular voltage, the cells are periodically stimulated by a patch pipette in voltage clamp and current clamp mode. The local extracellular voltage is measured by the planar integrated electronic sensors: the bipolar and the FET. The small signal transistor currents correspond to the local extracellular voltage. The two types of sensor transistors used here were developed and manufactured in the laboratory of our institute. The manufacturing process and the interfaces between myocytes and transistors are described. The recordings are interpreted by way of simulation based on the point-contact model and the single cardiac myocyte model.

  9. BRCA Testing by Single-Molecule Molecular Inversion Probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, K.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Derks, R; Kwint, M.P.; Ouchene, H.; Steehouwer, M.; Lier, L.A. van; Bosgoed, E.A.J.; Rikken, A.; Tychon, M.W.J.; Zafeiropoulou, D.; Castelein, S.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Thung, G.W.; Hofste, T.; Lelieveld, S.H.; Bertens, S.M.; Adan, I.B.; Eijkelenboom, A.; Tops, B.B.J.; Yntema, H.G.; Stokowy, T.; Knappskog, P.M.; Hoberg-Vetti, H.; Steen, V.M.; Boyle, E.; Martin, B.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Shendure, J.; Nelen, M.R.; Hoischen, A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in next generation DNA sequencing (NGS), NGS-based single gene tests for diagnostic purposes require improvements in terms of completeness, quality, speed, and cost. Single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs) are a technology with unrealized potential in the

  10. Probing bacterial adhesion at the single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Müller, Torsten; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    Bacteria initiate attachment to surfaces with the aid of different extracellular proteins and polymeric adhesins. To quantitatively analyse the cell-cell and cell-surface interactions provided by bacterial adhesins, it is essential to go down to single cell level where cell-to-cell variation can...... be considered. We have developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion by force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface by approaching a tipless AFM...... cantilever coated with the commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. We applied the method to study adhesion of living cells to abiotic surfaces at the single-cell level. Immobilisation of single bacterial cells to the cantilever was stable for several hours, and viability was confirmed by Live/Dead staining...

  11. Determination of the optimal technique for bipolar electrocoagulation treatment. An experimental evaluation of the BICAP and Gold probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L

    1991-01-01

    The optimal technique for use of bipolar electrocoagulation has not been established despite its widespread clinical use. This study of the BICAP (Circon-ACMI, Stamford, CT) and Gold (Microvasive, Watertown, MA) probes evaluates the maximal force that can be applied through an endoscope and quantifies the depths of coagulation and sticking at varying parameters in a beef liver model. Maximal forces of application were determined with 3.2- and 2.3-mm probes extended 3 and 6 cm outside the endoscope at 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Depths of coagulation and sticking were measured at 90 combinations of varying forces of application (0, 50, and 100 g), watt settings (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9), and durations (2, 6, 10, and 14 seconds; 3 x 2 seconds, 7 x 2 seconds) for the 3.2-mm BICAP and Gold probes. Mean maximal force of application decreased with greater extension or angulation of the probe outside the scope (3.2-mm BICAP--90 degrees: 3 cm, 110 g; 6 cm, 56 g; 45 degrees: 3 cm, 50 g; 6 cm, 30 g; P less than 0.001; 3.2-mm Gold--90 degrees: 3 cm, 130 g; 6 cm, 105 g; 45 degrees: 3 cm, 62 g; 6 cm, 48 g; P less than 0.001). The maximal force was significantly greater with the Gold probe than with the BICAP in seven of eight comparisons. Significant variations among the mean depths of coagulation (in millimeters) for pooled data of each parameter were observed with force of application (BICAP: 0 g, 0.8; 50 g, 1.4; 100 g, 1.7), watt settings (BICAP: 1, 0.6; 3, 1.7; 5, 1.4; 7, 1.4; 9, 1.3), and duration of treatment (BICAP: 2 seconds, 0.8; 6 seconds, 1.1; 10 seconds, 1.4; 14 seconds, 1.5; values for the Gold probe were comparable). The greatest depths of coagulation were observed at 100 g force, watt setting 3, and 14 seconds or 7 x 2 seconds duration. Sticking paralleled depth of coagulation, increasing with force and duration of application. In conclusion, optimal treatment of bleeding gastroduodenal lesions with bipolar electrocoagulation includes (a) placing the tip of the

  12. Nanoscale Rheology and Anisotropic Diffusion Using Single Gold Nanorod Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Atefi, Ehsan; Crocker, John C.

    2018-03-01

    The complex rotational and translational Brownian motion of anisotropic particles depends on their shape and the viscoelasticity of their surroundings. Because of their strong optical scattering and chemical versatility, gold nanorods would seem to provide the ultimate probes of rheology at the nanoscale, but the suitably accurate orientational tracking required to compute rheology has not been demonstrated. Here we image single gold nanorods with a laser-illuminated dark-field microscope and use optical polarization to determine their three-dimensional orientation to better than one degree. We convert the rotational diffusion of single nanorods in viscoelastic polyethylene glycol solutions to rheology and obtain excellent agreement with bulk measurements. Extensions of earlier models of anisotropic translational diffusion to three dimensions and viscoelastic fluids give excellent agreement with the observed motion of single nanorods. We find that nanorod tracking provides a uniquely capable approach to microrheology and provides a powerful tool for probing nanoscale dynamics and structure in a range of soft materials.

  13. Probing single nanometer-scale pores with polymeric molecular rulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Sarah E.; DiMarzio, Edmund A.; Wang, Qian; Stanford, Vincent M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2010-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that individual molecules of single-stranded DNA can be driven electrophoretically through a single Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin ion channel. Polynucleotides thread through the channel as extended chains and the polymer-induced ionic current blockades exhibit stable modes during the interactions. We show here that polynucleotides can be used to probe structural features of the α-hemolysin channel itself. Specifically, both the pore length and channel aperture profile can be estimated. The results are consistent with the channel crystal structure and suggest that polymer-based "molecular rulers" may prove useful in deducing the structures of nanometer-scale pores in general.

  14. Differential interaction kinetics of a bipolar structure-specific endonuclease with DNA flaps revealed by single-molecule imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Rezgui

    Full Text Available As DNA repair enzymes are essential for preserving genome integrity, understanding their substrate interaction dynamics and the regulation of their catalytic mechanisms is crucial. Using single-molecule imaging, we investigated the association and dissociation kinetics of the bipolar endonuclease NucS from Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab on 5' and 3'-flap structures under various experimental conditions. We show that association of the PabNucS with ssDNA flaps is largely controlled by diffusion in the NucS-DNA energy landscape and does not require a free 5' or 3' extremity. On the other hand, NucS dissociation is independent of the flap length and thus independent of sliding on the single-stranded portion of the flapped DNA substrates. Our kinetic measurements have revealed previously unnoticed asymmetry in dissociation kinetics from these substrates that is markedly modulated by the replication clamp PCNA. We propose that the replication clamp PCNA enhances the cleavage specificity of NucS proteins by accelerating NucS loading at the ssDNA/dsDNA junctions and by minimizing the nuclease interaction time with its DNA substrate. Our data are also consistent with marked reorganization of ssDNA and nuclease domains occurring during NucS catalysis, and indicate that NucS binds its substrate directly at the ssDNA-dsDNA junction and then threads the ssDNA extremity into the catalytic site. The powerful techniques used here for probing the dynamics of DNA-enzyme binding at the single-molecule have provided new insight regarding substrate specificity of NucS nucleases.

  15. Review of methods to probe single cell metabolism and bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Single cell investigations have enabled unexpected discoveries, such as the existence of biological noise and phenotypic switching in infection, metabolism and treatment. Herein, we review methods that enable such single cell investigations specific to metabolism and bioenergetics. Firstly, we discuss how to isolate and immobilize individuals from a cell suspension, including both permanent and reversible approaches. We also highlight specific advances in microbiology for its implications in metabolic engineering. Methods for probing single cell physiology and metabolism are subsequently reviewed. The primary focus therein is on dynamic and high-content profiling strategies based on label-free and fluorescence microspectroscopy and microscopy. Non-dynamic approaches, such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, are also briefly discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Photostable bipolar fluorescent probe for video tracking plasma membranes related cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinfu; Wang, Chao; Jin, Liji; Han, Zhuo; Xiao, Yi

    2014-08-13

    Plasma membranes can sense the stimulations and transmit the signals from extracellular environment and then make further responses through changes in locations, shapes or morphologies. Common fluorescent membrane markers are not well suited for long time tracking due to their shorter retention time inside plasma membranes and/or their lower photostability. To this end, we develop a new bipolar marker, Mem-SQAC, which can stably insert into plasma membranes of different cells and exhibits a long retention time over 30 min. Mem-SQAC also inherits excellent photostability from the BODIPY dye family. Large two-photon absorption cross sections and long wavelength fluorescence emissions further enhance the competitiveness of Mem-SQAC as a membrane marker. By using Mem-SQAC, significant morphological changes of plasma membranes have been monitored during heavy metal poisoning and drug induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells; the change tendencies are so distinctly different from each other that they can be used as indicators to distinguish different cell injuries. Further on, the complete processes of endocytosis toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by RAW 264.7 cells have been dynamically tracked. It is discovered that plasma membranes take quite different actions in response to the two bacteria, information unavailable in previous research reports.

  17. Probing Formability Improvement of Ultra-thin Ferritic Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate of PEMFC in Non-conventional Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyuk Jong; Barlat, Frédéric; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Formability increase in non-conventional forming profiles programmed in the servo-press was investigated using finite element analysis. As an application, forming experiment on a 0.15-mm-thick ferritic stainless steel sheet for a bipolar plate, a primary component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, was conducted. Four different forming profiles were considered to investigate the effects of forming profiles on formability and shape accuracy. The four motions included conventional V motion, holding motion, W motion, and oscillating motion. Among the four motions, the holding motion, in which the slide was held for a certain period at the bottom dead point, led to the best formability. Finite element simulations were conducted to validate the experimental results and to probe the formability improvement in the non-conventional forming profiles. A creep model to address stress relaxation effect along with tool elastic recovery was implemented using a user-material subroutine, CREEP in ABAQUS finite element software. The stress relaxation and variable contact conditions during the holding and oscillating profiles were found to be the main mechanism of formability improvement.

  18. Retarded Local Dynamics of Single Fluorescent Probes in Polymeric Glass due to Interaction Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jingfa; Zhao, Jiang

    The effect of strengthening of interaction between single fluorescent probes and polymer matrix to the probes dynamics is investigated using single molecule fluorescence defocus microscopy. By introducing multiple hydroxyl groups to the fluorescent probes, which builds up hydrogen bonds between the probe and polymer matrix, the dynamics is discovered to be retarded. This is evidenced by the lowering of the frequency of the vibrational modes in the power spectra of the rotation trajectories of individual fluorescent probes, and also by the lowering of population of rotating probes. The results show that by strengthening the probe-matrix interaction, the local dynamics detected by the probes is equivalent to that detected by a bigger probe, due to the enhanced friction between the probe and the polymer matrix. the National Basic Research Program of China (2012CB821500).

  19. Probing and controlling fluorescence blinking of single semiconductor nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chen Ko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present an overview of the experimental and theoretical development on fluorescence intermittency (blinking and the roles of electron transfer in semiconductor crystalline nanoparticles. Blinking is a very interesting phenomenon commonly observed in single molecule/particle experiments. Under continuous laser illumination, the fluorescence time trace of these single nanoparticles exhibit random light and dark periods. Since its first observation in the mid-1990s, this intriguing phenomenon has attracted wide attention among researchers from many disciplines. We will first present the historical background of the discovery and the observation of unusual inverse power-law dependence for the waiting time distributions of light and dark periods. Then, we will describe our theoretical modeling efforts to elucidate the causes for the power-law behavior, to probe the roles of electron transfer in blinking, and eventually to control blinking and to achieve complete suppression of the blinking, which is an annoying feature in many applications of quantum dots as light sources and fluorescence labels for biomedical imaging.

  20. Genome-wide linkage analysis of 972 bipolar pedigrees using single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badner, J A; Koller, D; Foroud, T; Edenberg, H; Nurnberger, J I; Zandi, P P; Willour, V L; McMahon, F J; Potash, J B; Hamshere, M; Grozeva, D; Green, E; Kirov, G; Jones, I; Jones, L; Craddock, N; Morris, D; Segurado, R; Gill, M; Sadovnick, D; Remick, R; Keck, P; Kelsoe, J; Ayub, M; MacLean, A; Blackwood, D; Liu, C-Y; Gershon, E S; McMahon, W; Lyon, G J; Robinson, R; Ross, J; Byerley, W

    2012-07-01

    Because of the high costs associated with ascertainment of families, most linkage studies of Bipolar I disorder (BPI) have used relatively small samples. Moreover, the genetic information content reported in most studies has been less than 0.6. Although microsatellite markers spaced every 10 cM typically extract most of the genetic information content for larger multiplex families, they can be less informative for smaller pedigrees especially for affected sib pair kindreds. For these reasons we collaborated to pool family resources and carried out higher density genotyping. Approximately 1100 pedigrees of European ancestry were initially selected for study and were genotyped by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12 set of 6090 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Of the ~1100 families, 972 were informative for further analyses, and mean information content was 0.86 after pruning for linkage disequilibrium. The 972 kindreds include 2284 cases of BPI disorder, 498 individuals with bipolar II disorder (BPII) and 702 subjects with recurrent major depression. Three affection status models (ASMs) were considered: ASM1 (BPI and schizoaffective disorder, BP cases (SABP) only), ASM2 (ASM1 cases plus BPII) and ASM3 (ASM2 cases plus recurrent major depression). Both parametric and non-parametric linkage methods were carried out. The strongest findings occurred at 6q21 (non-parametric pairs LOD 3.4 for rs1046943 at 119 cM) and 9q21 (non-parametric pairs logarithm of odds (LOD) 3.4 for rs722642 at 78 cM) using only BPI and schizoaffective (SA), BP cases. Both results met genome-wide significant criteria, although neither was significant after correction for multiple analyses. We also inspected parametric scores for the larger multiplex families to identify possible rare susceptibility loci. In this analysis, we observed 59 parametric LODs of 2 or greater, many of which are likely to be close to maximum possible scores. Although some linkage

  1. Heterobifunctional crosslinkers for tethering single ligand molecules to scanning probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riener, Christian K.; Kienberger, Ferry; Hahn, Christoph D.; Buchinger, Gerhard M.; Egwim, Innocent O.C.; Haselgruebler, Thomas; Ebner, Andreas; Romanin, Christoph; Klampfl, Christian; Lackner, Bernd; Prinz, Heino; Blaas, Dieter; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J.

    2003-01-01

    Single molecule recognition force microscopy (SMRFM) is a versatile atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to probe specific interactions of cognitive molecules on the single molecule level. It allows insights to be gained into interaction potentials and kinetic barriers and is capable of mapping interaction sites with nm positional accuracy. These applications require a ligand to be attached to the AFM tip, preferably by a distensible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain between the measuring tip and the ligand molecule. The PEG chain greatly facilitates specific binding of the ligand to immobile receptor sites on the sample surface. The present study contributes to tip-PEG-ligand tethering in three ways: (i) a convenient synthetic route was found to prepare NH 2 -PEG-COOH which is the key intermediate for long heterobifunctional crosslinkers; (ii) a variety of heterobifunctional PEG derivatives for tip-PEG-ligand linking were prepared from NH 2 -PEG-COOH; (iii) in particular, a new PEG crosslinker with one thiol-reactive end and one terminal nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) group was synthesized and successfully used to tether His 6 -tagged protein molecules to AFM tips via noncovalent NTA-Ni 2+ -His 6 bridges. The new crosslinker was applied to link a recombinant His 6 -tagged fragment of the very-low density lipoprotein receptor to the AFM tip whereupon specific docking to the capsid of human rhinovirus particles was observed by force microscopy. In a parallel study, the specific interaction of the small GTPase Ran with the nuclear import receptor importin β1 was studied in detail by SMRFM, using the new crosslinker to link His 6 -tagged Ran to the measuring tip [Nat. Struct. Biol. (2003), 10, 553-557

  2. Evidence for single nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepankiewicz A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz1,21Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, 2Department of Psychiatric Genetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, PolandAbstract: Bipolar disorder (BD is a complex disorder with a number of susceptibility genes and environmental risk factors involved in its pathogenesis. In recent years, huge progress has been made in molecular techniques for genetic studies, which have enabled identification of numerous genomic regions and genetic variants implicated in BD across populations. Despite the abundance of genetic findings, the results have often been inconsistent and not replicated for many candidate genes/single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Therefore, the aim of the review presented here is to summarize the most important data reported so far in candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. Taking into account the abundance of association data, this review focuses on the most extensively studied genes and polymorphisms reported so far for BD to present the most promising genomic regions/SNPs involved in BD. The review of association data reveals evidence for several genes (SLC6A4/5-HTT [serotonin transporter gene], BDNF [brain-derived neurotrophic factor], DAOA [D-amino acid oxidase activator], DTNBP1 [dysbindin], NRG1 [neuregulin 1], DISC1 [disrupted in schizophrenia 1] to be crucial candidates in BD, whereas numerous genome-wide association studies conducted in BD indicate polymorphisms in two genes (CACNA1C [calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit], ANK3 [ankyrin 3] replicated for association with BD in most of these studies. Nevertheless, further studies focusing on interactions between multiple candidate genes/SNPs, as well as systems biology and pathway analyses are necessary to integrate and improve the way we analyze the currently available association data.Keywords: candidate gene, genome-wide association study, SLC6A4, BDNF, DAOA, DTNBP1, NRG1, DISC1

  3. Probing the crossover in CO desorption from single crystal to nanoparticulate Ru model catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Shane; Strebel, Christian Ejersbo; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2011-01-01

    Crossover in CO desorption behavior and nanoscale structure probed with STM from ruthenium single crystals to PVD and mass-selected nanoparticles.......Crossover in CO desorption behavior and nanoscale structure probed with STM from ruthenium single crystals to PVD and mass-selected nanoparticles....

  4. [CLINICAL APPLICATION OF OXFORD MOBILE-BEARING BIPOLAR PROSTHESIS UNICOMPARTMENTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY FOR SINGLE COMPARTMENTAL KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangzeng; Cheng, Shao; Wang, Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in the treatment of single compartmental knee osteoarthritis. Between June 2011 and July 2013, 22 cases of single compartmental knee osteoarthritis were treated by Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis UKA. Of 22 cases, 8 were male and 14 were female with an average age of 65 years (range, 45-80 years); the left knee was involved in 12 cases, and the right knee in 10 cases, with a mean disease duration of 32.5 months (range, 8-90 months). The mean weight was 55.2 kg (range, 50-65 kg), and the mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2 (range, 17-25 kg/m2). Osteoarthritis involved in the single knee medial compartment in all patients. Knee society score (KSS) and range of motion (ROM) were measured to evaluate the knee joint function. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients, and there was no complication of infection, bedsore, or deep venous thrombosis. Postoperative follow-up was 2-4 years (mean, 3.2 years). The X-ray films showed good position of prosthesis, no prosthesis dislocation, or periprosthetic infection during follow-up. Knee ROM, KSS function score, and KSS clinical score were significantly improved at 1 week after operation and at last follow-up when compared with preoperative ones (P 0.05). Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis UKA is an effective method to treat single compartmental knee osteoarthritis, with the advantages of less trauma, earlier rehabilitation exercise, near physiological state in joint function, and less risk of complications.

  5. Vitamin B12 level may be related to the efficacy of single ketamine infusion in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permoda-Osip, A; Dorszewska, J; Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, A; Chlopocka-Wozniak, M; Rybakowski, J K

    2013-09-01

    The single infusion of ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, exerts a therapeutic effect in both unipolar and bipolar depression. Homocysteine (HCY) acts agonistically on the NMDA receptor, hyperhomocysteinemia is related to depression, and folic acid and vitamin B12 are associated with HCY system. We estimated the serum levels of these substances in 20 bipolar depressed patients before ketamine infusion. 10 patients responded favorably to this procedure, as their score on the Hamilton depression rating scale, compared to baseline, was reduced by more than 50%, after 7 days. The vitamin B12 level was significantly higher in "responders" compared to the remaining patients. No differences between the 2 groups were found with regard to HCY, folic acid levels and such clinical factors as age, duration of illness and duration of current episode. These preliminary data suggest that the vitamin B12 level may be connected with the efficacy of ketamine infusion in bipolar depression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  7. Item analysis of single-peaked response data : the psychometric evaluation of bipolar measurement scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polak, Maaike Geertruida

    2011-01-01

    The thesis explains the fundamental difference between unipolar and bipolar measurement scales for psychological characteristics. We explore the use of correspondence analysis (CA), a technique that is similar to principal component analysis and is available in SAS and SPSS, to select items that

  8. Probing living bacterial adhesion by single cell force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    be considered. We have therefore developed a simple and versatile method to make single-cell bacterial probes for measuring single cell adhesion with atomic force microscopy (AFM).[1] A single-cell probe was readily made by picking up a bacterial cell from a glass surface using a tipless AFM cantilever coated...... with a commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. The method was applied to four different bacterial strains, and single-cell adhesion was measured on three surfaces (fresh glass, hydrophilic glass, mica). Attachment to the cantilever was stable during the 2 h of AFM force measurements, and viability was confirmed by Live....../Dead fluorescence staining at the end of each experiment. The adhesion force and final rupture length were dependent on bacterial strains, surfaces properties, and time of contact. The single-cell probe offers control of the cell immobilization, thus holds advantages over the commonly used multi-cell probes where...

  9. Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering of Strained Silicon with Single and Multiple Probe Scanned Probe Microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron

    2007-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an effective tool for the identification and analysis of molecular components of complex materials. The spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy is limited by the wavelength of the light. One approach to overcome this drawback is Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). This technique uses nanometric interactions between metal structures and surfaces to effect enhancement of the Raman signals. An important mechanism for enhancement originates from an electrostatic lightning rod effect due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances. This is accomplished in a scanned probe microscopy context by employing an ultra-sharp metalized tip that is brought into a focused laser spot on the sample surface thereby enhancing the Raman signal. In this technique also known as Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) the electrical field is locally enhanced near the sharp metalized tip. Rastering the sample should then allow for Raman imaging with nanometric resolution. Within this context it will be shown that multiple probe scanned probe microscopes have considerable potential in such tip enhanced applications.

  10. Single-molecule probes in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolet, Aurélien Armel Louis

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to study charge transport phenomena in organic materials. This is done optically by means of single-molecule spectroscopy in a field-effect transistor based on a molecular crystal. We present (in Chapter 2) a fundamental requirement for single-molecule spectroscopy

  11. A theoretical study of pump–probe experiment in single-layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. A theoretical study of pump–probe experiment in single-layer, bilayer and multilayer graphene ... Here we use it as a tool to study the phenomenon of anomalous Rabi oscillations in graphene that was predicted recently in single-layer graphene.

  12. Scanning probe microscopy of single Au ion implants in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, L.; Monakhov, E.; Maknys, K.; Svensson, B.G.; Jensen, J.; Hallen, A.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied 5 MeV Au 2+ ion implantation with fluences between 7 x 10 7 and 2 x 10 8 cm -2 in Si by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The DLTS measurements show formation of electrically active defects such as the two negative charge states of the divacancy (V 2 (=/-) and V 2 (-/0)) and the vacancy-oxygen (VO) center. It is observed that the intensity of the V 2 (=/-) peak is lower compared to that of V 2 (-/0) by a factor of 5. This has been attributed to a highly localized distribution of the defects along the ion tracks, which results in trapping of the carriers at V 2 (-/0) and incomplete occupancy of V 2 (=/-). The SCM measurements obtained in a plan view show a random pattern of regions with a reduced SCM signal for the samples implanted with fluence above 2 x 10 8 cm -2 . The reduced SCM signal is attributed to extra charges associated with acceptor states, such as V 2 (-/0), formed along the ion tracks in the bulk Si. Indeed, the electron emission rate from the V 2 (-/0) state is in the range of 10 kHz at room temperature, which is well below the probing frequency of the SCM measurements, resulting in 'freezing' of electrons at V 2 (-/0)

  13. Single Molecule Junctions: Probing Contact Chemistry and Fundamental Circuit Laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hybertsen M. S.

    2013-04-11

    By exploiting selective link chemistry, formation of single molecule junctions with reproducible conductance has become established. Systematic studies reveal the structure-conductance relationships for diverse molecules. I will draw on experiments from my collaborators at Columbia University, atomic-scale calculations and theory to describe progress in two areas. First, I will describe a novel route to form single molecule junctions, based on SnMe3 terminated molecules, in which gold directly bonds to carbon in the molecule backbone resulting in near ideal contact resistance [1]. Second, comparison of the conductance of junctions formed with molecular species containing either one backbone or two backbones in parallel allows demonstration of the role of quantum interference in the conductance superposition law at the molecular scale [2].

  14. Probing surfaces with single-polymer atomic force microscope experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedsam, C; Gaub, H E; Netz, R R

    2006-03-01

    In the past 15 years atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy has become a versatile tool to study inter- and intramolecular interactions of single polymer molecules. Irreversible coupling of polymer molecules between the tip of an AFM cantilever and the substrate allows one to study the stretching response up to the high force regime of several nN. For polymers that glide or slip laterally over the surface with negligible friction, on the other hand, the measured force profiles exhibit plateaus which allow one to extract the polymer adsorption energies. Long-term stable polymer coatings of the AFM tips allow for the possibility of repeating desorption experiments from solid supports with individual molecules many times, yielding good sampling statistics and thus reliable estimates for adsorption energies. In combination with recent advances in theoretical modeling, a detailed picture of the conformational statistics, backbone elasticity, and the adsorption characteristics of single polymer molecules is obtained.

  15. Single-molecule correlated chemical probing of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philip J; Favorov, Oleg V; Lavender, Christopher A; Kursun, Olcay; Ge, Xiyuan; Busan, Steven; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Weeks, Kevin M

    2014-09-23

    Complex higher-order RNA structures play critical roles in all facets of gene expression; however, the through-space interaction networks that define tertiary structures and govern sampling of multiple conformations are poorly understood. Here we describe single-molecule RNA structure analysis in which multiple sites of chemical modification are identified in single RNA strands by massively parallel sequencing and then analyzed for correlated and clustered interactions. The strategy thus identifies RNA interaction groups by mutational profiling (RING-MaP) and makes possible two expansive applications. First, we identify through-space interactions, create 3D models for RNAs spanning 80-265 nucleotides, and characterize broad classes of intramolecular interactions that stabilize RNA. Second, we distinguish distinct conformations in solution ensembles and reveal previously undetected hidden states and large-scale structural reconfigurations that occur in unfolded RNAs relative to native states. RING-MaP single-molecule nucleic acid structure interrogation enables concise and facile analysis of the global architectures and multiple conformations that govern function in RNA.

  16. Compensating electrostatic forces by single-scan Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, Dominik; Rychen, Joerg; Naujoks, Nicola; Stemmer, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of single-scan Kelvin probe force microscopy, operating simultaneously with amplitude-modulation distance control in ambient air. A separate Kelvin probe feedback control loop compensates for potential differences between tip and sample by minimizing electrostatic forces. As a result, electrostatically induced height errors in topography are automatically cancelled. To prevent crosstalk from topography or errors in distance control, the Kelvin probe feedback employs phase information resulting from a combination of mechanical and electrical excitation of the cantilever at its second flexural eigenmode. The feedback for amplitude-modulation distance control operates as usual close to the first eigenfrequency

  17. SINGLE ATOM DETECTABILITY OF A ToF ATOM-PROBE

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, T.; Hashizume, T.; Jimbo, A.

    1984-01-01

    Making use of our new focusing type ToF atom-probe which is capable of detecting all the signals entering into the probe hole with 100 % detection efficiency, we have attempted to evaluate the aiming-error of a ToF atom-probe. Our preliminary data suggests that the aiming-error is primarily due to the shift of the ionization disc from the actual atom position. In the low index planes it is possible to detect every single atom by compensating this shift. However in the case of some of the high...

  18. Genome Wide Linkage Analysis of 972 Bipolar Pedigrees Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badner, Judith A; Koller, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard; Nurnberger, John I; Zandi, Peter P; Willour, Virginia L.; McMahon, Francis J; Potash, James B; Hamshere, Marian; Grozeva, Detelina; Green, Elaine; Kirov, George; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Craddock, Nicholas; Morris, Derek; Segurado, Ricardo; Gill, Mike; Sadovnick, Dessa; Remick, Ronald; Keck, Paul; Kelsoe, John; Ayub, Muhammad; MacLean, Alan; Blackwood, Douglas; Liu, Chun-Yu; Gershon, Elliot S; McMahon, William; Lyon, Gholson; Robinson, Reid; Ross, Jessica; Byerley, William

    2011-01-01

    Because of the high costs associated with ascertainment of families most linkage studies of Bipolar I disorder (BPI) have used relatively small samples. Moreover, the genetic information content reported in most studies has been less than 0.6. While microsatellite markers spaced every 10 centimorgans typically extract most of the genetic information content for larger multiplex families, they can be less informative for smaller pedigrees especially for affected sib pair kindreds. For these reasons we collaborated to pool family resources and carry out higher density genotyping. Approximately 1100 pedigrees of European ancestry were initially selected for study and were genotyped by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12 set of 6090 SNPs. Of the ~1100 families, 972 were informative for further analyses and mean information content was 0.86 after pruning for LD. The 972 kindreds include 2284 cases of BPI disorder, 498 individuals with Bipolar II disorder (BPII) and 702 subjects with Recurrent Major Depression. Three affection status models were considered: ASM1 (BPI and schizoaffective disorder, BP cases (SABP) only), ASM2 (ASM1 cases plus BPII) and ASM3 (ASM2 cases plus Recurrent Major Depression). Both parametric and non-parametric linkage methods were carried out. The strongest findings occurred at 6q21 (Nonparametric Pairs Lod 3.4 for rs1046943 at 119 cM) and 9q21 (Nonparametric Pairs Lod 3.4 for rs722642 at 78 cM) using only BPI and SA, BP cases. Both results met genome-wide significant criteria, although neither was significant after correction for multiple analyses. We also inspected parametric scores for the larger multiplex families to identify possible rare susceptibility loci. In this analysis we observed 59 parametric lods of 2 or greater, many of which are likely to be close to maximum possible scores. While some linkage findings may be false positives the results could help prioritize the search for rare variants

  19. Probing quantum coherence in single-atom electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Philip; Paul, William; Natterer, Fabian D.; Yang, Kai; Bae, Yujeong; Choi, Taeyoung; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquin; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Lutz, Christoper P.

    2018-01-01

    Spin resonance of individual spin centers allows applications ranging from quantum information technology to atomic-scale magnetometry. To protect the quantum properties of a spin, control over its local environment, including energy relaxation and decoherence processes, is crucial. However, in most existing architectures, the environment remains fixed by the crystal structure and electrical contacts. Recently, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in combination with electron spin resonance (ESR), allowed the study of single adatoms and inter-atomic coupling with an unprecedented combination of spatial and energy resolution. We elucidate and control the interplay of an Fe single spin with its atomic-scale environment by precisely tuning the phase coherence time T2 using the STM tip as a variable electrode. We find that the decoherence rate is the sum of two main contributions. The first scales linearly with tunnel current and shows that, on average, every tunneling electron causes one dephasing event. The second, effective even without current, arises from thermally activated spin-flip processes of tip spins. Understanding these interactions allows us to maximize T2 and improve the energy resolution. It also allows us to maximize the amplitude of the ESR signal, which supports measurements even at elevated temperatures as high as 4 K. Thus, ESR-STM allows control of quantum coherence in individual, electrically accessible spins. PMID:29464211

  20. Probing quantum coherence in single-atom electron spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Philip; Paul, William; Natterer, Fabian D; Yang, Kai; Bae, Yujeong; Choi, Taeyoung; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquin; Heinrich, Andreas J; Lutz, Christoper P

    2018-02-01

    Spin resonance of individual spin centers allows applications ranging from quantum information technology to atomic-scale magnetometry. To protect the quantum properties of a spin, control over its local environment, including energy relaxation and decoherence processes, is crucial. However, in most existing architectures, the environment remains fixed by the crystal structure and electrical contacts. Recently, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), in combination with electron spin resonance (ESR), allowed the study of single adatoms and inter-atomic coupling with an unprecedented combination of spatial and energy resolution. We elucidate and control the interplay of an Fe single spin with its atomic-scale environment by precisely tuning the phase coherence time T 2 using the STM tip as a variable electrode. We find that the decoherence rate is the sum of two main contributions. The first scales linearly with tunnel current and shows that, on average, every tunneling electron causes one dephasing event. The second, effective even without current, arises from thermally activated spin-flip processes of tip spins. Understanding these interactions allows us to maximize T 2 and improve the energy resolution. It also allows us to maximize the amplitude of the ESR signal, which supports measurements even at elevated temperatures as high as 4 K. Thus, ESR-STM allows control of quantum coherence in individual, electrically accessible spins.

  1. Probing Spin Accumulation induced Magnetocapacitance in a Single Electron Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Teik-Hui; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2015-09-08

    The interplay between spin and charge in solids is currently among the most discussed topics in condensed matter physics. Such interplay gives rise to magneto-electric coupling, which in the case of solids was named magneto-electric effect, as predicted by Curie on the basis of symmetry considerations. This effect enables the manipulation of magnetization using electrical field or, conversely, the manipulation of electrical polarization by magnetic field. The latter is known as the magnetocapacitance effect. Here, we show that non-equilibrium spin accumulation can induce tunnel magnetocapacitance through the formation of a tiny charge dipole. This dipole can effectively give rise to an additional serial capacitance, which represents an extra charging energy that the tunneling electrons would encounter. In the sequential tunneling regime, this extra energy can be understood as the energy required for a single spin to flip. A ferromagnetic single-electron-transistor with tunable magnetic configuration is utilized to demonstrate the proposed mechanism. It is found that the extra threshold energy is experienced only by electrons entering the islands, bringing about asymmetry in the measured Coulomb diamond. This asymmetry is an unambiguous evidence of spin accumulation induced tunnel magnetocapacitance, and the measured magnetocapacitance value is as high as 40%.

  2. High axial resolution Raman probe made of a single hollow optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yuko S; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Matsuura, Yuji; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-01-01

    A ball lens mounted hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP) consisting of a single hollow optical fiber (HOF) and a micro-ball lens was developed for performing a high axial resolution and high-sensitivity remote Raman analysis of biomedical tissues. The total diameter of the probe head is 640 microm. The BHRP is useful in the measurement of thin-layered tissues that are in contact with the probe's surface because the probe has a limited depth-of-field optical property. An optical calculation study suggested that it is possible to vary the probe's working distance by selecting different materials and diameters for the ball lens. Empirical studies revealed that this probe has a higher axial resolution and a higher sensitivity than an HOF Raman probe without the ball lens. The spectrum of a mouse stomach measured with the BHRP had better quality and considerably lower noise than that measured with a conventional Raman microscope. These results strongly suggest that the BHRP can be used effectively in biomedical applications.

  3. A pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study probing the interface of cognitive and emotional brain systems in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Parnes, Stephanie A; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; Sweeney, John A

    2010-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of pharmacotherapy on brain function underlying affect dysregulation and cognitive function in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Healthy controls (HC) (n=14; mean age =14.1 ± 2.4 years) and unmedicated PBD patients with manic or hypomanic episodes (n=17; mean age =14.3 ± 1.1 years) were matched on intelligence quotient (IQ) and demographic factors. The fMRI studies were performed at baseline and after 14 weeks, during which PBD patients were treated initially with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) followed by lamotrigine monotherapy. The pediatric affective color-matching task was used where subjects matched the color of a positive, negative, or neutral word with one of the two colored circles below in each of the trials. There were five blocks of each emotional word type, with 10 trials per block. Behavioral data showed that the PBD group was modestly slower and less accurate than the HC, regardless of condition or treatment status. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal activity was reduced with treatment in the PBD group relative to the HC group during the negative versus neutral condition in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule, but increased in left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Similarly, during the positive versus neutral condition, the PBD group, relative to HC, showed reduced activity in right DLPFC, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule and increased activity in the right VMPFC. However, within the PBD group, there was treatment related decrease in VMPFC and DLPFC. Improvement on Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score significantly correlated with the decreased activity in VMPFC within the patient group. Pharmacotherapy in PBD patients led to differential effort with persistently increased activity in the affective regions and decreased activity in the

  4. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  5. A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (V h ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Detection of hepatitis A virus by hybridization with single-stranded RNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, J.; Estes, M.K.; Metcalf, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved method of dot-blot hybridization to detect hepatitis A virus (HAV) was developed with single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) probes. Radioactive and nonradioactive ssRNA probes were generated by in vitro transcription of HAV templates inserted into the plasmid pGEM-1. 32 P-labeled ssRNA probes were at least eightfold more sensitive than the 32 P-labeled double-stranded cDNA counterparts, whereas biotin-labeled ssRNA probes showed a sensitivity comparable with that of the 32 P-labeled double-stranded cDNA counterparts. Hybridization of HAV with the ssRNA probes at high stringency revealed specific reactions with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The differential hybridization reactions seen with probes of positive and negative sense (compared with HAV genomic RNA) were used to detect HAV in clinical and field samples. A positive/negative ratio was introduced as an indicator that permitted an semiquantitative expression of a positive HAV reaction. Good agreement of this indicator was observed with normal stool samples and with HAV-seeded samples. By using this system, HAV was detected in estuarine and freshwater samples collected from a sewage-polluted bayou in Houston and a saltwater tributary of Galveston Bay

  7. A spin echo sequence with a single-sided bipolar diffusion gradient pulse to obtain snapshot diffusion weighted images in moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidlin, R. Z.; Kakareka, J. W.; Pohida, T. J.; Komlosh, M. E.; Basser, P. J.

    2012-08-01

    In vivo MRI data can be corrupted by motion. Motion artifacts are particularly troublesome in Diffusion Weighted MRI (DWI), since the MR signal attenuation due to Brownian motion can be much less than the signal loss due to dephasing from other types of complex tissue motion, which can significantly degrade the estimation of self-diffusion coefficients, diffusion tensors, etc. This paper describes a snapshot DWI sequence, which utilizes a novel single-sided bipolar diffusion sensitizing gradient pulse within a spin echo sequence. The proposed method shortens the diffusion time by applying a single refocused bipolar diffusion gradient on one side of a refocusing RF pulse, instead of a set of diffusion sensitizing gradients, separated by a refocusing RF pulse, while reducing the impact of magnetic field inhomogeneity by using a spin echo sequence. A novel MRI phantom that can exhibit a range of complex motions was designed to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed DWI sequence.

  8. Narrow band imaging (NBI cystoscopy and assisted bipolar TURBT: A preliminary experience in a single centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giulianelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare, in order to increase our ability to detect bladder cancer, the predictive power of narrow band imaging (NBI versus white light cystoscopy (WL. The secondary objective was to evaluate how the preoperative use of NBI cystoscopy can increase the ability to detect bladder lesions in terms of status, multi-focality and dimensions. Materials and methods: Between June 2010 and April 2012, 797 consecutive patients, 423 male and 374 female, affected by suspected bladder cancer lesions, underwent to WL plus NBI cystoscopy and subsequently to WL Bipolar Gyrus PK (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan transurethral resection of bladder tumour (WL-TURBT. The average follow-up was 24 (16-38 months. Mean age was 67.7 yrs. (range 46-88. All the patients underwent by same surgeon to WL resection (WL-TURBT of the previously identified lesions by same surgeon. All the removed tissue was sent separately for histological evaluation after mapping the areas of resection on a topographic sheet. Results: In our study we considered 797 patients that matched our inclusion criteria. Through the use of WL cystoscopy, we identified 603 patients (75.53% with suspicious lesions, instead, with the use of light NBI, we found 786 patients with suspicious lesions (98.49%.The use of NBI cystoscopy increases by approximately 30% the specific ability to detect lesions not otherwise visible with WL cystoscopy (OR 21.9 and RR 1.30, in particular for patients with lesions size < 3 cm (OR 24.00; RR 1.40, unifocal (OR: 22.28; RR 1.47 and recurrent (OR 58.4; RR 1.34. Pathology demonstrated the presence of cancer in 512 (64.2% patients, of whom 412 (51.8% were visible both with WL cystoscopy and NBI cystoscopy. In our experience, only 11 (1.38% lesions were only positive at WL cystoscopy (negative at NBI cystoscopy thus 501 (62.8%, OR 10.13; RR 1.21 patients showed bladder oncological lesions positive at NBI cystoscopy. In these patients, the use the NBI

  9. A Single Electrochemical Probe Used for Analysis of Multiple Nucleic Acid Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Pinzon, Jeffer M.; Armas, Stephanie; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical hybridization sensors have been explored extensively for analysis of specific nucleic acids. However, commercialization of the platform is hindered by the need for attachment of separate oligonucleotide probes complementary to a RNA or DNA target to an electrode’s surface. Here we demonstrate that a single probe can be used to analyze several nucleic acid targets with high selectivity and low cost. The universal electrochemical four-way junction (4J)-forming (UE4J) sensor consists of a universal DNA stem-loop (USL) probe attached to the electrode’s surface and two adaptor strands (m and f) which hybridize to the USL probe and the analyte to form a 4J associate. The m adaptor strand was conjugated with a methylene blue redox marker for signal ON sensing and monitored using square wave voltammetry. We demonstrated that a single sensor can be used for detection of several different DNA/RNA sequences and can be regenerated in 30 seconds by a simple water rinse. The UE4J sensor enables a high selectivity by recognition of a single base substitution, even at room temperature. The UE4J sensor opens a venue for a re-useable universal platform that can be adopted at low cost for the analysis of DNA or RNA targets. PMID:29371782

  10. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar ...

  11. Single isotopic probe for gastro-esophageal reflux diagnosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, G.; Le Moing, G.; Mensch, B.

    1987-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (G.E.R.) in children has been implicated in various recurring respiratory diseases. Several techniques including oesophageal pH testing and scintigraphy have been devised to detect and quantify G.E.R. Limitations have been found for each test: short duration with gamma-camera and restricted acceptability of the pH probe by children. A single isotopic probe was designed for a non-invasive screening test of G.E.R. in infants. This device was checked by comparison with oesophageal scintigraphy using a gamma camera. Only 1 discrepancy was detected in 19 reflux episodes. This method, using a relatively inexpensive detector and data acquisition module, seems to be well accepted by children, and may be associated with a pH probe for GER diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžička, Jakub; Houžvička, Jindřich; Bok, Jiří; Praus, Petr; Mojzeš, Peter

    2011-12-20

    One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

  13. Probing the physiological state of phytoplankton at the single-cell level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Jochem

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Probing the physiological state of phytoplankton at the single-cell level provides valuable insight in ecological studies as well as in environmental monitoring of pollution or UV impacts. This paper reviews the recent progress in assessing the physiological state of phytoplankton with flow cytometry by inherent cell properties such as cell size and chlorophyll autofluorescence, specific fluorescent dyes, and newly developed molecular probes and enzyme substrates. It is reported how nitrogen and iron limitation as well as the effect of copper pollution could be derived from changes in cell inherent properties. Effects of Cu were also recorded by monitoring cell membrane potentials and esterase activity. Photosynthetic capacity of algae was assessed by changes in chlorophyll fluorescence with the electron transport inhibitor DCMU, by a cytometric adaptation of the pump-and-probe approach, and molecular probes for Rubisco. Antibodies were also applied to mark non-terminal stages in the cell DNA replication cycle, to detect non-proliferating cells, to assess DNA damage caused by UV-B radiation and to quantify diatom stickiness. Fluorescein diacetate proved useful to discriminate metabolically active from inactive cells and to reveal strategies of dark survival in algae. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was recorded by a new fluorigenic substrate ELF, and polyclonal antibodies against nitrate reductase (NR provided measurements of the NR abundance. An outlook will show how recent developments in molecular probes might affect the future analysis of marine ecosystems and their communities.

  14. Atomic Force Microscope nanolithography on chromosomes to generate single-cell genetic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Poma, Anna M; Giardi, Maria F; Di Leandro, Luana; Valle, Francesco; Biscarini, Fabio; Botti, Dario

    2011-06-28

    Chromosomal dissection provides a direct advance for isolating DNA from cytogenetically recognizable region to generate genetic probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization, a technique that became very common in cyto and molecular genetics research and diagnostics. Several reports describing microdissection methods (glass needle or a laser beam) to obtain specific probes from metaphase chromosomes are available. Several limitations are imposed by the traditional methods of dissection as the need for a large number of chromosomes for the production of a probe. In addition, the conventional methods are not suitable for single chromosome analysis, because of the relatively big size of the microneedles. Consequently new dissection techniques are essential for advanced research on chromosomes at the nanoscale level. We report the use of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) as a tool for nanomanipulation of single chromosomes to generate individual cell specific genetic probes. Besides new methods towards a better nanodissection, this work is focused on the combination of molecular and nanomanipulation techniques which enable both nanodissection and amplification of chromosomal and chromatidic DNA. Cross-sectional analysis of the dissected chromosomes reveals 20 nm and 40 nm deep cuts. Isolated single chromosomal regions can be directly amplified and labeled by the Degenerate Oligonucleotide-Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (DOP-PCR) and subsequently hybridized to chromosomes and interphasic nuclei. Atomic force microscope can be easily used to visualize and to manipulate biological material with high resolution and accuracy. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with the DOP-PCR products as test probes has been tested succesfully in avian microchromosomes and interphasic nuclei. Chromosome nanolithography, with a resolution beyond the resolution limit of light microscopy, could be useful to the construction of chromosome band libraries and to the molecular

  15. Automated patterning and probing with multiple nanoscale tools for single-cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayao; Kim, Yeonuk; Liu, Boyin; Qin, Ruwen; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    The nano-manipulation approach that combines Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and various imaging and probing techniques enables researchers to investigate the cellular structures in three dimensions. Such fusion approach, however, requires extensive effort on locating and examining randomly-distributed targets due to limited Field of View (FOV) when high magnification is desired. In the present study, we present the development that automates 'pattern and probe' particularly for single-cell analysis, achieved by computer aided tools including feature recognition and geometric planning algorithms. Scheduling of serial FOVs for imaging and probing of multiple cells was considered as a rectangle covering problem, and optimal or near-optimal solutions were obtained with the heuristics developed. FIB milling was then employed automatically followed by downstream analysis using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to probe the cellular interior. Our strategy was applied to examine bacterial cells (Klebsiella pneumoniae) and achieved high efficiency with limited human interference. The developed algorithms can be easily adapted and integrated with different imaging platforms towards high-throughput imaging analysis of single cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Locked Nucleic Acid Probe Based on Selective Salt-Induced Effect Detects Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of single based genetic mutation by using oligonucleotide probes is one of the common methods of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms at known loci. In this paper, we demonstrated a hybridization system which included a buffer solution that produced selective salt-induced effect and a locked nucleic acid modified 12 nt oligonucleotide probe. The hybridization system is suitable for hybridization under room temperature. By using magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for PCR products, the SNPs (MDR1 C3435T/A from 45 volunteers were analyzed, and the results were consistent with the results from pyrophosphoric acid sequencing. The method presented in this paper differs from the traditional method of using molecular beacons to detect SNPs in that it is suitable for research institutions lacking real-time quantitative PCR detecting systems, to detect PCR products at room temperature.

  17. Flicker Noise as a Probe of Electronic Interaction at Metal-Single Molecule Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Olgun; Rosenthal, Ethan; Meisner, Jeffery; Andrade, Erick F; Pasupathy, Abhay N; Nuckolls, Colin; Hybertsen, Mark S; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-06-10

    Charge transport properties of metal-molecule interfaces depend strongly on the character of molecule-electrode interactions. Although through-bond coupled systems have attracted the most attention, through-space coupling is important in molecular systems when, for example, through-bond coupling is suppressed due to quantum interference effects. To date, a probe that clearly distinguishes these two types of coupling has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we investigate the origin of flicker noise in single molecule junctions and demonstrate how the character of the molecule-electrode coupling influences the flicker noise behavior of single molecule junctions. Importantly, we find that flicker noise shows a power law dependence on conductance in all junctions studied with an exponent that can distinguish through-space and through-bond coupling. Our results provide a new and powerful tool for probing and understanding coupling at the metal-molecule interface.

  18. Single universal primer multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification with sequencing gel electrophoresis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ying; Zhu, Pengyu; Xu, Wentao; Guo, Tianxiao; Tian, Wenying; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a novel single universal primer multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (SUP-MLPA) technique that uses only one universal primer to perform multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Two reversely complementary common sequences were designed on the 5' or 3' end of the ligation probes (LPs), which allowed the ligation products to be amplified through only a single universal primer (SUP). SUP-MLPA products were analyzed on sequencing gel electrophoresis with extraordinary resolution. This method avoided the high expenses associated with capillary electrophoresis, which was the commonly used detection instrument. In comparison with conventional multiplex PCR, which suffers from low sensitivity, nonspecificity, and amplification disparity, SUP-MLPA had higher specificity and sensitivity and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng for detecting single crop species when screening the presence of genetically modified crops. We also studied the effect of different lengths of stuffer sequences on the probes for the first time. Through comparing the results of quantitative PCR, the LPs with different stuffer sequences did not affect the ligation efficiency, which further increased the multiplicity of this assay. The improved SUP-MLPA and sequencing gel electrophoresis method will be useful for food and animal feed identification, bacterial detection, and verification of genetic modification status of crops. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequence-specific detection of different strains of LCMV in a single sample using tentacle probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Lina S; Holechek, Susan A; Caplan, Michael R; Blattman, Joseph N

    2017-10-13

    Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cost-prohibitive. Rapid, cost-effective methods are needed for accurate measurement of virus diversity to understand virus evolution and can be useful for experimental systems. We have developed a novel molecular method for sequence-specific detection of RNA virus genetic variants called Tentacle Probes. The probes are modified molecular beacons that have dramatically improved false positive rates and specificity in routine qPCR. To validate this approach, we have designed Tentacle Probes for two different strains of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) that differ by only 3 nucleotide substitutions, the parental Armstrong and the more virulent Clone-13 strain. One of these mutations is a missense mutation in the receptor protein GP1 that leads to the Armstrong strain to cause an acute infection and Clone-13 to cause a chronic infection instead. The probes were designed using thermodynamic calculations for hybridization between target or non-target sequences and the probe. Using this approach, we were able to distinguish these two strains of LCMV individually by a single nucleotide mutation. The assay showed high reproducibility among different concentrations of viral cDNA, as well as high specificity and sensitivity, especially for the Clone-13 Tentacle Probe. Furthermore, in virus mixing experiments we were able to detect less than 10% of Clone-13 cDNA diluted in Armstrong cDNA. Thus, we have developed a fast, cost-effective approach for identifying Clone-13 strain in a mix of other LCMV strains.

  20. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

  1. Development of a High-Precision Touch-Trigger Probe Using a Single Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jun Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To measure various components with nano-scale precision, a new high-precision touch-trigger probe using a single low-cost sensor for a micro-coordinate measuring machine (CMM is presented in this paper. The sensor is composed of a laser diode, a plane mirror, a focusing lens, and a quadrant photo detector (QPD. The laser beam from the laser diode with an incident angle is reflected by the plane mirror and then projected onto the quadrant photo detector (QPD via the focusing lens. The plane mirror is adhered to the upper surface of the floating plate supported by an elastic mechanism, which can transfer the displacement of the stylus’s ball tip in 3D to the plane mirror’s vertical and tilt movement. Both motions of the plane mirror can be detected by respective QPDs. The probe mechanism was analyzed, and its structural parameters that conform to the principle of uniform sensitivity and uniform stiffness were obtained. The simulation result showed that the stiffness was equal in 3D and less than 1 mN/µm. Some experiments were performed to investigate the probe’s characteristics. It was found that the probe could detect the trigger point with uniform sensitivity, a resolution of less than 5 nm, and a repeatability of less than 4 nm. It can be used as a touch-trigger probe on a micro/nano-CMM.

  2. Photophysics of Fluorescent Probes for Single-Molecule Biophysics and Super-Resolution Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taekjip; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2012-05-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and super-resolution microscopy are important elements of the ongoing technical revolution to reveal biochemical and cellular processes in unprecedented clarity and precision. Demands placed on the photophysical properties of the fluorophores are stringent and drive the choice of appropriate probes. Such fluorophores are not simple light bulbs of a certain color and brightness but instead have their own “personalities” regarding spectroscopic parameters, redox properties, size, water solubility, photostability, and several other factors. Here, we review the photophysics of fluorescent probes, both organic fluorophores and fluorescent proteins, used in applications such as particle tracking, single-molecule FRET, stoichiometry determination, and super-resolution imaging. Of particular interest is the thiol-induced blinking of Cy5, a curse for single-molecule biophysical studies that was later overcome using Trolox through a reducing/oxidizing system but a boon for super-resolution imaging owing to the controllable photoswitching. Understanding photophysics is critical in the design and interpretation of single-molecule experiments.

  3. From single to multiple microcoil flow probe NMR and related capillary techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökay, Ozan; Albert, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most important and powerful instrumental analytical techniques for structural elucidation of unknown small and large (complex) isolated and synthesized compounds in organic and inorganic chemistry. X-ray crystallography, neutron scattering (neutron diffraction), and NMR spectroscopy are the only suitable methods for three-dimensional structure determination at atomic resolution. Moreover, these methods are complementary. However, by means of NMR spectroscopy, reaction dynamics and interaction processes can also be investigated. Unfortunately, this technique is very insensitive in comparison with other spectrometric (e.g., mass spectrometry) and spectroscopic (e.g., infrared spectroscopy) methods. Mainly through the development of stronger magnets and more sensitive solenoidal microcoil flow probes, this drawback has been successfully counteracted. Capillary NMR spectroscopy increases the mass-based sensitivity of the NMR spectroscopic analysis up to 100-fold compared with conventional 5-mm NMR probes, and thus can be coupled online and off-line with other microseparation and detection techniques. It offers not only higher sensitivity, but in many cases provides better quality spectra than traditional methods. Owing to the immense number of compounds (e.g., of natural product extracts and compound libraries) to be examined, single microcoil flow probe NMR spectroscopy will soon be far from being sufficiently effective as a screening method. For this reason, an inevitable trend towards coupled microseparation-multiple microcoil flow probe NMR techniques, which allow simultaneous online and off-line detection of several compounds, will occur. In this review we describe the current status and possible future developments of single and multiple microcoil capillary flow probe NMR spectroscopy and its application as a high-throughput tool for the analysis of a large number of mass-limited samples. The advantages

  4. Controlled growth of filamentary crystals and fabrication of single-crystal whisker probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givargizov, E. I.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of filamentary crystals (whiskers) on a single-crystal substrate through the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism is described. The possibility of fabricating oriented systems of whiskers on the basis of this mechanism of crystal growth is noted. A phenomenon that is important for nanotechnology is noted: the existence of a critical diameter of whiskers, below which they are not formed. The phenomenon of radial periodic instability, which is characteristic of nanowhiskers, is described and the ways of its elimination are shown. The possibility of transforming whiskers into single-crystal tips and the growth of crystalline diamond particles at their apices are noted as important for practice. Possible applications of systems of whiskers and tips are described briefly. Particular attention is paid to the latest direction in whisker technology-fabrication of single-crystal whisker probes for atomic force microscopy

  5. Non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhya, Prashanth C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasankumar, Rohiy P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, George T [SNL; Martinez, Julio A [SNL; Li, Qiming [SNL; Swartzentruber, Brian S [SNL

    2010-01-01

    Spatially-resolved ultrafast transient absorption measurements on a single GaN nanowire give insight into carrier relaxation dynamics as a function of the probe polarization and position on the nanowire on a femtosecond timescale. The synthesis and optical characterization of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has gained considerable attention in recent years owing to their unique electronic and optical properties that arise from their anisotropic geometry, large surface to volume ratio and two-dimensional quasiparticle confinement, Post-growth characterization of their properties is crucial in understanding the fundamental physical processes that can lead to enhanced functionality of NW-based devices, In particular, it is important to understand the carrier relaxation pathways in individual NWs, since the geometry of these nanostructures can significantly influence carrier recombination and/or trapping. In this respect, ultrafast optical techniques offer reliable and non-contact spectroscopic tools to study carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. In summary, time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy was performed on single GaN NWs. These measurements give insight into the different processes that govern carrier capture, particularly at surface states, and relaxation in individual nanostructures. Our experiments thus demonstrate the value of single-particle ultrafast optical spectroscopy in understanding the physical processes that govern the properties of semiconductor NWs, while suggesting approaches to optimize NW-based devices for nanophotonic applications.

  6. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan and CNRS UMR 8537, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K. [Attocube systems AG, Koeniginstrasse 11A RGB, Munich 80539 (Germany); Dantelle, G. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique and CNRS UMR 7643, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  7. Shot noise as a probe of spin-correlated transport through single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Fransson, J.

    2018-03-01

    We address the shot noise in the tunneling current through a local spin, pertaining to recent experiments on magnetic adatoms and single molecular magnets. We show that both uncorrelated and spin-correlated scattering processes contribute vitally to the noise spectrum. The spin-correlated scattering processes provide an additional contribution to the Landauer-Büttiker shot noise expression, accounting for correlations between the tunneling electrons and the localized spin moment. By calculating the Fano factor, we show that both super- and sub-Poissonian shot noise can be described within our approach. Our theory provides transparent insights into noise spectroscopy, consistent with recent experiments using local probing techniques on magnetic atoms.

  8. Nano-bio-optomechanics: nanoaperture tweezers probe single nanoparticles, proteins, and their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reuven

    2015-09-01

    Nanoparticles in the single digit nanometer range can be easily isolated and studied with low optical powers using nanoaperture tweezers. We have studied individual proteins and their interactions with small molecules, DNA and antibodies. Recently, using the fluctuations of the trapped object, we have pioneered a new way to "listen" to the vibrations of nanoparticles in the 100 GHz - 1 THz range; the approach is called extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR). EAR gives unprecedented low frequency spectra of individual proteins in solution, allowing for identification and analysis, as well as probing their role in biological functions. We have also used EAR to study the elastic properties, shape and size of various individual nanoparticles.

  9. In situ probing the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyin; Hemayet Uddin, Md; Ng, Tuck Wah; Paterson, David L.; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2014-10-01

    We report a novel approach to probe the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometre resolution by combining focused ion beam (FIB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After removing layers of pre-defined thickness in the order of 100 nm on the target bacterial cells with FIB milling, AFM of different modes can be employed to probe the cellular interior under both ambient and aqueous environments. Our initial investigations focused on the surface topology induced by FIB milling and the hydration effects on AFM measurements, followed by assessment of the sample protocols. With fine-tuning of the process parameters, in situ AFM probing beneath the bacterial cell wall was achieved for the first time. We further demonstrate the proposed method by performing a spatial mapping of intracellular elasticity and chemistry of the multi-drug resistant strain Klebsiella pneumoniae cells prior to and after it was exposed to the ‘last-line’ antibiotic polymyxin B. Our results revealed increased stiffness occurring in both surface and interior regions of the treated cells, suggesting loss of integrity of the outer membrane from polymyxin treatments. In addition, the hydrophobicity measurement using a functionalized AFM tip was able to highlight the evident hydrophobic portion of the cell such as the regions containing cell membrane. We expect that the proposed FIB-AFM platform will help in gaining deeper insights of bacteria-drug interactions to develop potential strategies for combating multi-drug resistance.

  10. Single-feature polymorphism discovery by computing probe affinity shape powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Haiyan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-feature polymorphism (SFP discovery is a rapid and cost-effective approach to identify DNA polymorphisms. However, high false positive rates and/or low sensitivity are prevalent in previously described SFP detection methods. This work presents a new computing method for SFP discovery. Results The probe affinity differences and affinity shape powers formed by the neighboring probes in each probe set were computed into SFP weight scores. This method was validated by known sequence information and was comprehensively compared with previously-reported methods using the same datasets. A web application using this algorithm has been implemented for SFP detection. Using this method, we identified 364 SFPs in a barley near-isogenic line pair carrying either the wild type or the mutant uniculm2 (cul2 allele. Most of the SFP polymorphisms were identified on chromosome 6H in the vicinity of the Cul2 locus. Conclusion This SFP discovery method exhibits better performance in specificity and sensitivity over previously-reported methods. It can be used for other organisms for which GeneChip technology is available. The web-based tool will facilitate SFP discovery. The 364 SFPs discovered in a barley near-isogenic line pair provide a set of genetic markers for fine mapping and future map-based cloning of the Cul2 locus.

  11. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in

  12. Crowding by a single bar: probing pattern recognition mechanisms in the visual periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Endel

    2014-11-06

    Whereas visual crowding does not greatly affect the detection of the presence of simple visual features, it heavily inhibits combining them into recognizable objects. Still, crowding effects have rarely been directly related to general pattern recognition mechanisms. In this study, pattern recognition mechanisms in visual periphery were probed using a single crowding feature. Observers had to identify the orientation of a rotated T presented briefly in a peripheral location. Adjacent to the target, a single bar was presented. The bar was either horizontal or vertical and located in a random direction from the target. It appears that such a crowding bar has very strong and regular effects on the identification of the target orientation. The observer's responses are determined by approximate relative positions of basic visual features; exact image-based similarity to the target is not important. A version of the "standard model" of object recognition with second-order features explains the main regularities of the data. © 2014 ARVO.

  13. A visualization method for probing grain boundaries of single layer graphene via molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Linjie; Wan, Wen; Zhu, Zhenwei; Zhao, Zhijuan; Zhang, Zhenhan; Shih, Tien-Mo; Cai, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    Graphene, a member of layered two-dimensional (2D) materials, possesses high carrier mobility, mechanical flexibility, and optical transparency, as well as enjoying a wide range of promising applications in electronics. Adopting the chemical vaporization deposition method, the majority of investigators have ubiquitously grown single layer graphene (SLG), which inevitably involves polycrystalline properties. Here we demonstrate a simple method for the direct visualization of arbitrarily large-size SLG domains by synthesizing one-hundred-nm-scale MoS2 single crystals via a high-vacuum molecular beam epitaxy process. The present study based on epitaxial growth provides a guide for probing the grain boundaries of various 2D materials and implements higher potentials for the next-generation electronic devices.

  14. A broadband single-chip transceiver for multi-nuclear NMR probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisi, Marco; Gualco, Gabriele; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we present an integrated broadband complementary metal-oxide semiconductor single-chip transceiver suitable for the realization of multi-nuclear pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes. The realized single-chip transceiver can be interfaced with on-chip integrated microcoils or external LC resonators operating in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The dimension of the chip is about 1 mm2. It consists of a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier, a low-noise RF preamplifier, a frequency mixer, an audio-frequency amplifier, and fully integrated transmit-receive switches. As specific example, we show its use for multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. With an integrated coil of about 150 μm external diameter, a 1H spin sensitivity of about 1.5 × 1013 spins/Hz1/2 is achieved at 7 T.

  15. Hardware modification of a 7 mm MAS NMR probe to a single-crystal goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Rohonczy, János

    2006-07-01

    Tensorial terms of the Hamiltonian can be measured by solid-state single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy which requires a goniometer NMR probehead. Goniometer probes; however, are not standard parts of solid NMR spectrometers and are available only at a much higher price than magic-angle spinning (MAS) probeheads widely used in research. Due to requirements of MAS experiments, modern probeheads are designed for small ceramic rotors, which are 1-4 mm in diameter, to reach very high angular frequencies, so there are several older 7 mm MAS probeheads used rarely todays in NMR laboratories. In this paper, a simple method is presented how to rebuild step-by-step a 7 mm Bruker MAS probehead to be suitable for single-crystal spectroscopy. In the second part (31)P chemical shift tensors of Na(4)P(2)O(7) x 10H(2)O are determined to demonstrate the functionality of the rebuilt probehead.

  16. Double tuning a single input probe for heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy at low field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadanki, Sasidhar; Colon, Raul D.; Moore, Jay; Waddell, Kevin W.

    2012-10-01

    Applications of PASADENA in biomedicine are continuing to emerge due to recent demonstrations that hyperpolarized metabolic substrates and the corresponding reaction products persist sufficiently long to be detected in vivo. Biomedical applications of PASADENA typically differ from their basic science counterparts in that the polarization endowed by addition of parahydrogen is usually transferred from nascent protons to coupled storage nuclei for subsequent detection on a higher field imaging instrument. These pre-imaging preparations usually take place at low field, but commercial spectrometers capable of heteronuclear pulsed NMR at frequencies in the range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz are scarce though, in comparison to single channel consoles in that field regime. Reported here is a probe circuit that can be used in conjunction with a phase and amplitude modulation scheme we have developed called PANORAMIC (Precession And Nutation for Observing Rotations At Multiple Intervals about the Carrier), that expands a single channel console capability to double or generally multiple resonance with minimal hardware modifications. The demands of this application are geared towards uniform preparation, and since the hyperpolarized molecules are being detected externally at high field, detection sensitivity is secondary to applied field uniformity over a large reaction volume to accommodate heterogeneous chemistry of gas molecules at a liquid interface. The probe circuit was therefore configured with a large (40 mL) Helmholtz sample coil for uniformity, and double-tuned to the Larmor precession frequencies of 13C/1H (128/510 kHz) within a custom solenoidal electromagnet at a static field of 12 mT. Traditional (on-resonant) as well as PANORAMIC NMR signals with signal to noise ratios of approximately 75 have been routinely acquired with this probe and spectrometer setup from 1024 repetitions on the high frequency channel. The proton excitation pulse width was 240 μs at 6.31 W

  17. Bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pleasure in activities once enjoyed Loss of self-esteem Thoughts of death or suicide Trouble getting to ... other. This is called rapid cycling. Exams and Tests To diagnose bipolar disorder, the provider may do ...

  18. Bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Colin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD presents in different phases over time and is oftencomplicated by comorbid conditions such as substance-use disordersand anxiety disorders. Treatment usually involves pharmacotherapywith combinations of different classes of medications and frequentmedication revisions.

  19. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    . Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial...... noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows...... copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in contrast with those of the graphene grown on commercial copper foil, which we explain by the absence of extended defects on the microscale...

  20. Single-component supported lipid bilayers probed using broadband nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenick, Laura L; Chase, Hilary M; Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; McGeachy, Alicia C; Dogangun, Merve; Walter, Stephanie R; Wang, Hong-Fei; Geiger, Franz M

    2018-01-31

    Broadband SFG spectroscopy is shown to offer considerable advantages over scanning systems in terms of signal-to-noise ratios when probing well-formed single-component supported lipid bilayers formed from zwitterionic lipids with PC headgroups. The SFG spectra obtained from bilayers formed from DOPC, POPC, DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC show a common peak at ∼2980 cm -1 , which is subject to interference between the C-H and the O-H stretches from the aqueous phase, while membranes having transition temperatures above the laboratory temperature produce SFG spectra with at least two additional peaks, one at ∼2920 cm -1 and another at ∼2880 cm -1 . The results validate spectroscopic and structural data from SFG experiments utilizing asymmetric bilayers in which one leaflet differs from the other in the extent of deuteration. Differences in H 2 O-D 2 O exchange experiments reveal that the lineshapes of the broadband SFG spectra are significantly influenced by interference from OH oscillators in the aqueous phase, even when those oscillators are not probed by the incident infrared light in our broadband setup. In the absence of spectral interference from the OH stretches of the solvent, the alkyl chain terminal methyl group of the bilayer is found to be tilted at an angle of 15° to 35° from the surface normal.

  1. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism by probe-gated silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Meltem; Ozalp, Veli C; Tuna, Bilge G

    2017-11-15

    The development of simple, reliable, and rapid approaches for molecular detection of common mutations is important for prevention and early diagnosis of genetic diseases, including Thalessemia. Oligonucleotide-gated mesoporous nanoparticles-based analysis is a new platform for mutation detection that has the advantages of sensitivity, rapidity, accuracy, and convenience. A specific mutation in β-thalassemia, one of the most prevalent inherited diseases in several countries, was used as model disease in this study. An assay for detection of IVS110 point mutation (A > G reversion) was developed by designing probe-gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-41) loaded with reporter fluorescein molecules. The silica nanoparticles were characterized by AFM, TEM and BET analysis for having 180 nm diameter and 2.83 nm pore size regular hexagonal shape. Amine group functionalized nanoparticles were analysed with FTIR technique. Mutated and normal sequence probe oligonucleotides)about 12.7 nmol per mg nanoparticles) were used to entrap reporter fluorescein molecules inside the pores and hybridization with single stranded DNA targets amplified by PCR gave different fluorescent signals for mutated targets. Samples from IVS110 mutated and normal patients resulted in statistically significant differences when the assay procedure were applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Probing nuclear dynamics and architecture using single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon; Li, Junang; Fakhri, Nikta

    Chromatin is a multiscale dynamic architecture that acts as a template for many biochemical processes such as transcription and DNA replication. Recent developments such as Hi-C technology enable an identification of chromatin interactions across an entire genome. However, a single cell dynamic view of chromatin organization is far from understood. We discuss a new live cell imaging technique to probe the dynamics of the nucleus at a single cell level using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs are non-perturbing rigid rods (diameter of 1 nm and length of roughly 100 nm) that fluoresce in the near infrared region. Due to their high aspect ratio, they can diffuse in tight spaces and report on the architecture and dynamics of the nucleoplasm. We develop 3D imaging and tracking of SWNTs in the volume of the nucleus using double helix point spread function microscopy (DH-PSF) and discuss the capabilities of the DH-PSF for inferring the 3D orientation of nanotubes based on vectorial diffraction theory.

  3. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  4. Single-hole in situ thermal probe for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1993-01-01

    The REKA thermal probe method, which uses a single borehole to measure in situ rock thermophysical properties and provides for efficient and low-cost site characterization, is analyzed for its application to hydrothermal system characterization. It is demonstrated throughout the evaluation of several temperature fields obtained for different thermal zones that the REKA method can be applied to simultaneously determine (1) two independent thermophysical properties, i.e., heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity and (2) a set of heat transport parameters, which can be used to characterize the behavior of a hydrothermal system. Based on the direct physical meaning of these transport parameters, the components of the heat transport mechanism in a given time and location of the hydrothermal system can be described. This evaluation can be applied to characterizing and quantifying in situ rock dry-out and condensate shedding at the proposed repository site

  5. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  6. Strategies for Probing Nanometer-Scale Electrocatalysts: From Single Particles to Catalyst-Membrane Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeniewski, Carol [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry

    2014-01-20

    The project primary objectives are to prepare and elucidate the promoting properties of materials that possess high activity for the conversion of hydrogen and related small molecules (water, oxygen, carbon monoxide and methanol) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. One area of research has focused on the study of catalyst materials. Protocols were developed for probing the structure and benchmarking the activity of Pt and Pt bimetallic nanometer-scale catalyst against Pt single crystal electrode standards. A second area has targeted fuel cell membrane and the advancement of simple methods mainly based on vibrational spectroscopy that can be applied broadly in the study of membrane structure and transport properties. Infrared and Raman methods combined with least-squares data modeling were applied to investigate and assist the design of robust, proton conductive membranes, which resist reactant crossover.

  7. Transfer doping of single isolated nanodiamonds, studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolker, Asaf; Kalish, Rafi; Saguy, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    The transfer doping of diamond surfaces has been applied in various novel two-dimensional electronic devices. Its extension to nanodiamonds (ND) is essential for ND-based applications in many fields. In particular, understanding the influence of the crystallite size on transfer doping is desirable. Here, we report the results of a detailed study of the electronic energetic band structure of single, isolated transfer-doped nanodiamonds with nanometric resolution using a combination of scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy measurements. The results show how the band gap, the valence band maximum, the electron affinity and the work function all depend on the ND’s size and nanoparticle surface properties. The present analysis, which combines information from both scanning tunneling spectroscopy and Kelvin force microscopy, should be applicable to any nanoparticle or surface that can be measured with scanning probe techniques. (paper)

  8. Probing Protein Multidimensional Conformational Fluctuations by Single-Molecule Multiparameter Photon Stamping Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Conformational motions of proteins are highly dynamic and intrinsically complex. To capture the temporal and spatial complexity of conformational motions and further to understand their roles in protein functions, an attempt is made to probe multidimensional conformational dynamics of proteins besides the typical one-dimensional FRET coordinate or the projected conformational motions on the one-dimensional FRET coordinate. T4 lysozyme hinge-bending motions between two domains along α-helix have been probed by single-molecule FRET. Nevertheless, the domain motions of T4 lysozyme are rather complex involving multiple coupled nuclear coordinates and most likely contain motions besides hinge-bending. It is highly likely that the multiple dimensional protein conformational motions beyond the typical enzymatic hinged-bending motions have profound impact on overall enzymatic functions. In this report, we have developed a single-molecule multiparameter photon stamping spectroscopy integrating fluorescence anisotropy, FRET, and fluorescence lifetime. This spectroscopic approach enables simultaneous observations of both FRET-related site-to-site conformational dynamics and molecular rotational (or orientational) motions of individual Cy3-Cy5 labeled T4 lysozyme molecules. We have further observed wide-distributed rotational flexibility along orientation coordinates by recording fluorescence anisotropy and simultaneously identified multiple intermediate conformational states along FRET coordinate by monitoring time-dependent donor lifetime, presenting a whole picture of multidimensional conformational dynamics in the process of T4 lysozyme open-close hinge-bending enzymatic turnover motions under enzymatic reaction conditions. By analyzing the autocorrelation functions of both lifetime and anisotropy trajectories, we have also observed the dynamic and static inhomogeneity of T4 lysozyme multidimensional conformational fluctuation dynamics, providing a fundamental

  9. Quaternary ammonium compounds as structural probes of single batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium (QA) blockers are well-known structural probes for studying the permeation pathway of voltage-gated K+ channels. In this study we have examined the effects of a series of n-alkyl- trimethylammonium compounds (Cn-QA) on batrachotoxin (BTX)-activated Na+ channels from skeletal muscle incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. We found that these amphipathic QA compounds (Cn-QA where n = 10-18) block single Na+ channels preferentially from the internal side with equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) in the submicromolar to micromolar range. External application of amphipathic QA compounds is far less effective, by a factor of greater than 200. The block can be described by a QA molecule binding to a single site in the Na+ channel permeation pathway. QA binding affinity is dependent on transmembrane voltage with an effective valence (delta) of approximately 0.5. QA dwell times (given as mean closed times, tau c) increase as a function of n-alkyl chain length, ranging from approximately 13 ms for C10-QA to 500 ms for C18-QA at +50 mV. The results imply that there is a large hydrophobic region within the Na+ channel pore which accepts up to 18 methylene groups of the Cn-QA cation. This hydrophobic domain may be of clinical significance since it also interacts with local anesthetics such as cocaine and mepivacaine. Finally, like BTX-activated Na+ channels in bilayers, unmodified Na+ channels in GH3 cells are also susceptible to QA block. Amphipathic QA cations elicit both tonic and use-dependent inhibitions of normal Na+ currents in a manner similar to that of local anesthetic cocaine. We conclude that amphipathic QA compounds are valuable structural probes to study the permeation pathway of both normal and BTX-activated Na+ channels. PMID:1662681

  10. Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to Abiotrophia/Granulicatella. Results As lactobacilli are known for notorious resistance to probe penetration, probe-specific assay protocols were experimentally developed to provide maximum cell wall permeability, probe accessibility, hybridization stringency, and fluorescence intensity. The new assays were then applied in a pilot study to three biofilm samples harvested from variably demineralized bovine enamel discs that had been carried in situ for 10 days by different volunteers. Best probe penetration and fluorescent labeling of reference strains were obtained after combined lysozyme and achromopeptidase treatment followed by exposure to lipase. Hybridization stringency had to be established strictly for each probe. Thereafter all probes showed the expected specificity with reference strains and labeled the anticipated morphotypes in dental plaques. Applied to in situ grown biofilms the set of probes detected only Lactobacillus fermentum and bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group. The most cariogenic biofilm contained two orders of magnitude higher L. fermentum cell numbers than the other biofilms. Abiotrophia/Granulicatella and streptococci from the mitis group were found in all samples at high levels, whereas Streptococcus mutans was detected in only one sample in very low numbers. Conclusions Application of these new group- and species-specific FISH probes to oral biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria will allow a clearer understanding of the supragingival biome, its spatial architecture and of structure-function relationships implicated during plaque homeostasis and caries development. The probes should prove of value far beyond the field of oral microbiology, as many of

  11. Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurnheer Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to Abiotrophia/Granulicatella. Results As lactobacilli are known for notorious resistance to probe penetration, probe-specific assay protocols were experimentally developed to provide maximum cell wall permeability, probe accessibility, hybridization stringency, and fluorescence intensity. The new assays were then applied in a pilot study to three biofilm samples harvested from variably demineralized bovine enamel discs that had been carried in situ for 10 days by different volunteers. Best probe penetration and fluorescent labeling of reference strains were obtained after combined lysozyme and achromopeptidase treatment followed by exposure to lipase. Hybridization stringency had to be established strictly for each probe. Thereafter all probes showed the expected specificity with reference strains and labeled the anticipated morphotypes in dental plaques. Applied to in situ grown biofilms the set of probes detected only Lactobacillus fermentum and bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group. The most cariogenic biofilm contained two orders of magnitude higher L. fermentum cell numbers than the other biofilms. Abiotrophia/Granulicatella and streptococci from the mitis group were found in all samples at high levels, whereas Streptococcus mutans was detected in only one sample in very low numbers. Conclusions Application of these new group- and species-specific FISH probes to oral biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria will allow a clearer understanding of the supragingival biome, its spatial architecture and of structure-function relationships implicated during plaque homeostasis and caries development. The probes should prove of value far beyond the field of

  12. Three-dimensional simulation of fabrication process-dependent effects on single event effects of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin-Xin; Guo Bao-Long; Wu Xian-Xiang; He Chao-Hui; Li Pei; Guo Hong-Xia

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication process dependent effects on single event effects (SEEs) are investigated in a commercial silicon–germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBT) using three-dimensional (3D) TCAD simulations. The influences of device structure and doping concentration on SEEs are discussed via analysis of current transient and charge collection induced by ions strike. The results show that the SEEs representation of current transient is different from representation of the charge collection for the same process parameters. To be specific, the area of C/S junction is the key parameter that affects charge collection of SEE. Both current transient and charge collection are dependent on the doping of collector and substrate. The base doping slightly influences transient currents of base, emitter, and collector terminals. However, the SEEs of SiGe HBT are hardly affected by the doping of epitaxial base and the content of Ge. (paper)

  13. Excitonic Coupling in Linear and Trefoil Trimer Perylenediimide Molecules Probed by Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Yoo, Hyejin

    2012-10-25

    Perylenediimide (PDI) molecules are promising building blocks for photophysical studies of electronic interactions within multichromophore arrays. Such PDI arrays are important materials for fabrication of molecular nanodevices such as organic light-emitting diodes, organic semiconductors, and biosensors because of their high photostability, chemical and physical inertness, electron affinity, and high tinctorial strength over the entire visible spectrum. In this work, PDIs have been organized into linear (L3) and trefoil (T3) trimer molecules and investigated by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to probe the relationship between molecular structures and interchromophoric electronic interactions. We found a broad distribution of coupling strengths in both L3 and T3 and hence strong/weak coupling between PDI units by monitoring spectral peak shifts in single-molecule fluorescence spectra upon sequential photobleaching of each constituent chromophore. In addition, we used a wide-field defocused imaging technique to resolve heterogeneities in molecular structures of L3 and T3 embedded in a PMMA polymer matrix. A systematic comparison between the two sets of experimental results allowed us to infer the correlation between intermolecular interactions and molecular structures. Our results show control of the PDI intermolecular interactions using suitable multichromophoric structures. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Probe of Luttinger Liquid Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudow, Joel D; Santavicca, Daniel F; Prober, Daniel E

    2016-08-10

    Luttinger liquid theory predicts that collective electron excitations due to strong electron-electron interactions in a one-dimensional (1D) system will result in a modification of the collective charge-propagation velocity. By utilizing a circuit model for an individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotube as a nanotransmission line, it has been shown that the frequency-dependent terahertz impedance of a carbon nanotube can probe this expected 1D Luttinger liquid behavior. We excite terahertz standing-wave resonances on individual antenna-coupled metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The terahertz signal is rectified using the nanotube contact nonlinearity, allowing for a low-frequency readout of the coupled terahertz current. The charge velocity on the nanotube is determined from the terahertz spectral response. Our measurements show that a carbon nanotube can behave as a Luttinger liquid system with charge-propagation velocities that are faster than the Fermi velocity. Understanding what determines the charge velocity in low-dimensional conductors is important for the development of next generation nanodevices.

  15. XRD- and infrared-probed anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, J; Capria, E; Benevoli, L; Perucchi, A; Demitri, N; Fraleoni-Morgera, A

    2018-01-17

    The anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal constituted by 4-hydroxycyanobenzene (4HCB) have been probed by XRD in the range 120-300 K. The anisotropic thermal expansion coefficients for the three crystallographic axes and for the crystal volume have been determined. A careful analysis of the crystal structure revealed that the two different H-bonds stemming from the two independent, differently oriented 4HCB molecules composing the unit cell have different rearrangement patterns upon temperature variations, in terms of both bond length and bond angle. Linearly Polarized Mid InfraRed (LP-MIR) measurements carried out in the same temperature range, focused on the O-H bond spectral region, confirm this finding. The same LP-MIR measurements, on the basis of a semi-empirical relation and of geometrical considerations and assumptions, allowed calculation of the -CNH-O- hydrogen bond length along the a and b axes of the crystal. In turn, the so-calculated -CNH-O- bond lengths were used to derive the thermal expansion coefficients along the corresponding crystal axes, as well as the volumetric one, using just the LP-MIR data. Reasonable to good agreement with the same values obtained from XRD measurements was obtained. This proof-of-principle opens interesting perspectives about the possible development of a rapid, low cost and industry-friendly assessment of the thermal expansion properties of organic semiconducting single crystals (OSSCs) involving hydrogen bonds.

  16. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM) introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926-1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf) of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I) flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111) surface.

  17. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Leinen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926–1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111 surface.

  18. Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The most difficult task in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is to make a high quality subwavelength aperture probe, Recently we have developed high definition NSOM probes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. These probes have a higher brightness, better polarization characteristics,

  19. Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Residual Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder Type II: A Single-Subject Design Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländare, Fredrik; Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja

    2015-04-23

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Initiating treatment was perceived as too demanding under current life

  20. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  1. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  2. Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quevedo, Beatrice; Giertsen, Elin; Zijnge, Vincent; Luethi-Schaller, Helga; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmuer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to

  3. Single potassium niobate nano/microsized particles as local mechano-optical Brownian probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Flavio M.; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Magrez, Arnaud; Forró, László; Jeney, Sylvia

    2016-03-01

    Perovskite alkaline niobates, due to their strong nonlinear optical properties, including birefringence and the capability to produce second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals, attract a lot of attention as potential candidates for applications as local nano/microsized mechano-optical probes. Here, we report on an implementation of photonic force microscopy (PFM) to explore the Brownian motion and optical trappability of monocrystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) nano/microsized particles having sizes within the range of 50 to 750 nm. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic translational diffusive regime of the Brownian motion to quantify thermal fluctuations and optical forces of singly-trapped KNbO3 particles within the optical trapping volume of a PFM microscope. We also show that, under near-infrared (NIR) excitation of the highly focused laser beam of the PFM microscope, a single optically-trapped KNbO3 particle reveals a strong SHG signal manifested by a narrow peak (λem = 532 nm) at half the excitation wavelength (λex = 1064 nm). Moreover, we demonstrate that the thus induced SHG emission can be used as a local light source that is capable of optically exciting molecules of an organic dye, Rose Bengal (RB), which adhere to the particle surface, through the mechanism of luminescence energy transfer (LET).Perovskite alkaline niobates, due to their strong nonlinear optical properties, including birefringence and the capability to produce second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals, attract a lot of attention as potential candidates for applications as local nano/microsized mechano-optical probes. Here, we report on an implementation of photonic force microscopy (PFM) to explore the Brownian motion and optical trappability of monocrystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) nano/microsized particles having sizes within the range of 50 to 750 nm. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic translational diffusive regime of the Brownian motion to quantify thermal

  4. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth / For Teens / Bipolar Disorder What's in this ... Disorder Print en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  5. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  6. Probing the top-Yukawa coupling in associated Higgs production with a single top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University,Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Cheung, Kingman [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University,Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University,Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sik [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lu, Chih-Ting [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University,Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-15

    Associated production of the Higgs boson with a single top quark proceeds through Feynman diagrams, which are either proportional to the hWW, top-Yukawa, or the bottom-Yukawa couplings. It was shown in literature that the interference between the top-Yukawa and the gauge-Higgs diagrams can be significant, and thus the measurement of the cross sections can help pin down the sign and the size of the top-Yukawa coupling. Here we perform a detailed study with full detector simulations of such a possibility at the LHC-14 within the current allowed range of hWW and top-Yukawa couplings, using h→bb-macron, γγ, τ{sup +}τ{sup −}, ZZ{sup ∗}→4ℓ modes. We found that the LHC-14 has the potential to distinguish the size and the sign of the top-Yukawa coupling. Among the channels the h→bb-macron mode provides the best chance to probe the signal, followed by the h→γγ mode, which has the advantage of a narrow reconstructed mass peak. We also pointed out that the spatial separation among the final-state particles has the potential in differentiating among various values of the top-Yukawa coupling.

  7. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, E.; Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Vittone, E.; Picollo, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography

  8. Improved elucidation of biological processes linked to diabetic nephropathy by single probe-based microarray data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens D Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a complex and chronic metabolic disease that evolves into a progressive fibrosing renal disorder. Effective transcriptomic profiling of slowly evolving disease processes such as DN can be problematic. The changes that occur are often subtle and can escape detection by conventional oligonucleotide DNA array analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined microdissected human renal tissue with or without DN using Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays (HG-U133A by standard Robust Multi-array Analysis (RMA. Subsequent gene ontology analysis by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID showed limited detection of biological processes previously identified as central mechanisms in the development of DN (e.g. inflammation and angiogenesis. This apparent lack of sensitivity may be associated with the gene-oriented averaging of oligonucleotide probe signals, as this includes signals from cross-hybridizing probes and gene annotation that is based on out of date genomic data. We then examined the same CEL file data using a different methodology to determine how well it could correlate transcriptomic data with observed biology. ChipInspector (CI is based on single probe analysis and de novo gene annotation that bypasses probe set definitions. Both methods, RMA and CI, used at default settings yielded comparable numbers of differentially regulated genes. However, when verified by RT-PCR, the single probe based analysis demonstrated reduced background noise with enhanced sensitivity and fewer false positives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a single probe based analysis approach with de novo gene annotation allowed an improved representation of the biological processes linked to the development and progression of DN. The improved analysis was exemplified by the detection of Wnt signaling pathway activation in DN, a process not previously reported to be involved in this disease.

  9. Particle size analysis in a turbid media with a single-fiber, optical probe while using a visible spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canpolat, Murat; Mourant, Judith R.

    2003-12-09

    Apparatus and method for measuring scatterer size in a dense media with only a single fiber for both light delivery and collection are disclosed. White light is used as a source and oscillations of the detected light intensities are measured as a function of wavelength. The maximum and minimum of the oscillations can be used to determine scatterer size for monodisperse distributions of spheres when the refractive indices are known. In addition several properties of the probe relevant to tissue diagnosis are disclosed including the effects of absorption, a broad distribution of scatterers, and the depth probed.

  10. A Fluorescence Light-Up Ag Nanocluster Probe that Discriminates Single-Nucleotide Variants by Emission Color

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Sharma, Jaswinder; Shih, Ie-Ming; Vu, Dung M.; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Werner, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and precise screening of small genetic variations, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), among an individual’s genome is still an unmet challenge at point-of-care settings. One crucial step towards this goal is the development of discrimination probes that require no enzymatic reaction and are easy to use. Here we report a new type of fluorescent molecular probe, termed a chameleon NanoCluster Beacon (cNCB), that lights up into different colors upon binding SNP targets. NanoCl...

  11. Single point aerosol sampling: Evaluation of mixing and probe performance in a nuclear stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Fairchild, C.I.; Wood, G.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Alternative Reference Methodologies (ARMs) have been developed for sampling of radionuclides from stacks and ducts that differ from the methods required by the U.S. EPA. The EPA methods are prescriptive in selection of sampling locations and in design of sampling probes whereas the alternative methods are performance driven. Tests were conducted in a stack at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the efficacy of the ARMs. Coefficients of variation of the velocity tracer gas, and aerosol particle profiles were determined at three sampling locations. Results showed numerical criteria placed upon the coefficients of variation by the ARMs were met at sampling stations located 9 and 14 stack diameters from flow entrance, but not at a location that is 1.5 diameters downstream from the inlet. Experiments were conducted to characterize the transmission of 10 {mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter liquid aerosol particles through three types of sampling probes. The transmission ratio (ratio of aerosol concentration at the probe exit plane to the concentration in the free stream) was 107% for a 113 L/min (4-cfm) anisokinetic shrouded probe, but only 20% for an isokinetic probe that follows the EPA requirements. A specially designed isokinetic probe showed a transmission ratio of 63%. The shrouded probe performance would conform to the ARM criteria; however, the isokinetic probes would not.

  12. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect friends and family? For More Information Share Bipolar Disorder Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  13. Kelvin probe force microscopy from single charge detection to device characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzel, Thilo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the methods and variety of Kelvin probe force microscopy, including technical details. It also offers an overview of the recent developments and numerous applications, ranging from semiconductor materials, nanostructures and devices to sub-molecular and atomic scale electrostatics. In the last 25 years, Kelvin probe force microscopy has developed from a specialized technique applied by a few scanning probe microscopy experts into a tool used by numerous research and development groups around the globe. This sequel to the editors’ previous volume “Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Measuring and Compensating Electrostatic Forces,” presents new and complementary topics. It is intended for a broad readership, from undergraduate students to lab technicians and scanning probe microscopy experts who are new to the field.

  14. Child Behavior Checklist Juvenile Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-JBD) and CBCL Posttraumatic Stress Problems (CBCL-PTSP) Scales Are Measures of a Single Dysregulatory Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Lynsay; Althoff, Robert; Ivanova, Masha; Rettew, David; Waxler, Ellen; Sulman, Julie; Hudziak, James

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Child Behavior Checklist Juvenile Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-JBD) profile and Posttraumatic Stress Problems (CBCL-PTSP) scale have been used to assess juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. However, their validity is questionable according to previous research. Both measures are…

  15. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  16. Single Molecular Level Probing of Structure and Dynamics of Papain Under Denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Bhaswati; Chaudhury, Apala; Das, Nilimesh; Sen, Pratik

    2017-01-01

    Papain is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya and known to help in digesting peptide. Thus the structure and function of the active site of papain is of interest. The objective of present study is to unveil the overall structural transformation and the local structural change around the active site of papain as a function of chemical denaturant. Papain has been tagged at Cys-25 with a thiol specific fluorescence probe N-(7- dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarin-3-yl) iodoacetamide (DACIA). Guanidine hydrochloride (GnHCl) has been used as the chemical denaturant. Steady state, time-resolved, and single molecular level fluorescence techniques was applied to map the change in the local environment. It is found that papain undergoes a two-step denaturation in the presence of GnHCl. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopic (FCS) data indicate that the size (hydrodynamic diameter) of native papain is ~36.8 Å, which steadily increases to ~53 Å in the presence of 6M GnHCl. FCS study also reveals that the conformational fluctuation time of papain is 6.3 µs in its native state, which decreased to 2.7 µs in the presence of 0.75 M GnHCl. Upon further increase in GnHCl concentration the conformational fluctuation time increase monotonically till 6 M GnHCl, where the time constant is measured as 14 µs. On the other hand, the measurement of ellipticity, hence the helical structure, by circular dichroism spectroscopy is found to be incapable to capture such structural transformation. It is concluded that in the presence of small amount of GnHCl the active site of papain takes up a more compact structure (although the overall size increases) than in the native state, which has been designated as the intermediate state. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. On Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Using Probe Noise in Multiple-Microphone and Single-Loudspeaker Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Elmedyb, Thomas Bo; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2012-01-01

    A probe noise signal can be used in an acoustic feedback cancellation system to prevent biased adaptive estimation of acoustic feedback paths. However, practical experiences and simulation results indicate that when-ever a low-level and inaudible probe noise signal is used, the convergence rate...... feedback cancellation is carried out using a probe noise signal. The derived results show how different system parameters and signal properties affect the cancellation performance, and the results explain theoretically the decreased convergence rate. Understanding this is important for making further...

  18. Comprehensive detection of diverse exon 19 deletion mutations of EGFR in lung Cancer by a single probe set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Jo, Seong-Min; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-12-15

    Detection of exon 19 deletion mutation of EGFR, one of the most frequently occurring mutations in lung cancer, provides the crucial information for diagnosis and treatment guideline in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method to detect various exon 19 deletion mutations of EGFR using a single probe set comprising of an oligo-quencher (oligo-Q) and a molecular beacon (MB). While the MB hybridizes to both the wild and mutant target DNA, the oligo-Q only binds to the wild target DNA, leading to a fluorescent signal in case of deletion mutation. This enables the comprehensive detection of the diverse exon 19 deletion mutations using a single probe set. We demonstrated the utility and efficiency of the approach by detecting the frequent exon 19 deletion mutations of EGFR through a real-time PCR and in situ fluorescence imaging. Our approach enabled the detection of genomic DNA as low as 0.02 ng, showing a detection limit of 2% in a heterogeneous DNA mixture, and could be used for detecting mutations in a single cell level. The present MB and oligo-Q dual probe system can be used for diagnosis and treatment guideline in NSCLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2018-02-27

    The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bipolar disorder: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which is the reason that up to 69% of patients with BD are misdiagnosed.1 Bipolar ... Cyclothymic disorder. • Substance/medication induced bipolar and related disorder. • Bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition ... patients. Keywords: bipolar disorder, mania, depression, pharmacological management.

  1. A universal probe design for colorimetric detection of single-nucleotide variation with visible readout and high specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Zhou, Dandan; Shen, Huawei; Chen, Hui; Feng, Wenli; Xie, Guoming

    2016-02-02

    Single-nucleotide variation (SNV) is a crucial biomarker for drug resistance-related detection in cancer and bacterial infection. However, the unintended binding of DNA probes limits the specificity of SNV detection, and the need for redesigned sequences compromise the universality of SNV assay. Herein, we demonstrated a universal and low-cost assay for the colorimetric discrimination of drug-resistance related point mutation. By the use of a universal DNA probe and a split G-quadruplex, the signal could be recognized by naked eye at room temperature. The DNA probe was used as a signal reporter which not only improved the universality, but also enabled high specificity of probe hybridization. This assay was successfully applied in the detection of cancer-related SNV in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS), and tuberculosis drug-resistance related point mutation in RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB) with high specificity and visible readout. This method was simple, rapid, high-throughput and effective, which was suitable for point-of-care applications.

  2. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    (lithium, valproate, and lamotrigine in bipolar depression, both singly and in combination. Head-to-head studies are needed comparing quetiapine to the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Longer-term studies are needed to confirm the persistence of response and to better gauge effects on metabolic profiles across months of therapy. A prospective study of patients specifically seeking treatment for rapid cycling and those with a history of treatment-emergent affective shifts also is needed. Despite the caveats, as treatment guidelines are revised to incorporate new data, the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine monotherapy must be given serious consideration.Keywords: bipolar disorder, manic depression, depression, quetiapine, mood stabilizer

  3. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  4. Bipolar Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiguchi Sumiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs as well as positive polarity items (PPIs. The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002 or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.

  5. Probing force-induced unfolding intermediates of a single staphylococcal nuclease molecule and the effect of ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murayama, Yoshihiro; Katano, Atsuto; Maki, Kosuke; Kuwajima, Kunihiro; Sano, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation techniques have given experimental access to unfolding intermediates of proteins that are inaccessible in conventional experiments. A detailed characterization of the intermediates is a challenging problem that provides new possibilities for directly probing the energy landscape of proteins. We investigated single-molecule mechanical unfolding of a small globular protein, staphylococcal nuclease (SNase), using atomic force microscopy. The unfolding trajectories of the protein displayed sub-molecular and stochastic behavior with typical lengths corresponding to the size of the unfolded substructures. Our results support the view that the single protein unfolds along multiple pathways as suggested in recent theoretical studies. Moreover, we found the drastic change, caused by the ligand and inhibitor bindings, in the mechanical unfolding dynamics

  6. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  7. InSight: Single Station Broadband Seismology for Probing Mars' Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark P.; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Beucler, Eric; Boschi, Lapo; Johnson, Catherine; Lognonne, Philippe; Mocquet, Antoine; Weber, Renee C.

    2012-01-01

    InSight is a proposed Discovery mission which will deliver a lander containing geophysical instrumentation, including a heat flow probe and a seismometer package, to Mars. The aim of this mission is to perform, for the first time, an in-situ investigation of the interior of a truly Earth- like planet other than our own, with the goal of understanding the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets through investigation of the interior structure and processes of Mars.

  8. Te inclusion-induced electrical field perturbation in CdZnTe single crystals revealed by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yaxu; Jie, Wanqi; Li, Linglong; Xu, Yadong; Yang, Yaodong; Ren, Jie; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao; Xu, Lingyan; He, Yihui; Xi, Shouzhi

    2016-09-01

    To understand the effects of tellurium (Te) inclusions on the device performance of CdZnTe radiation detectors, the perturbation of the electrical field in and around Te inclusions was studied in CdZnTe single crystals via Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Te inclusions were proved to act as lower potential centers with respect to surrounding CdZnTe matrix. Based on the KPFM results, the energy band diagram at the Te/CdZnTe interface was established, and the bias-dependent effects of Te inclusion on carrier transportation is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoprecipitates in single-crystal molybdenum-alloy nanopillars detected by TEM and atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oveisi, Emad; Bártová, Barbora; Gerstl, Stephan; Zimmermann, Julien; Marichal, Cécile; Van Swygenhoven, Helena; Hébert, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) supported by various chemical analyses techniques as well as atom probe tomography is applied to characterize newly identified nanosized precipitates in Mo-alloy nanopillars that were prepared by directional solidification. It is shown that the α-Mo matrix contains Al-enriched face-centred cubic precipitates which have a 4.12 Å lattice parameter, and exhibit a Kurdjumov–Sachs crystallographic orientation relationship with the matrix. Such precipitates could be responsible for the unusual behaviour of the pillars during compression tests

  10. Broad Beam and Ion Microprobe Studies of Single-Event Upsets in High Speed 0.18micron Silicon Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Pickel, Jim; Carts, Martin A.; Irwin, TIm; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John; Krithivasan, Ramkumar; Fritz, Karl; Riggs, Pam

    2003-01-01

    SiGe based technology is widely recognized for its tremendous potential to impact the high speed microelectronic industry, and therefore the space industry, by monolithic incorporation of low power complementary logic with extremely high speed SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) logic. A variety of studies have examined the ionizing dose, displacement damage and single event characteristics, and are reported. Accessibility to SiGe through an increasing number of manufacturers adds to the importance of understanding its intrinsic radiation characteristics, and in particular the single event effect (SEE) characteristics of the high bandwidth HBT based circuits. IBM is now manufacturing in its 3rd generation of their commercial SiGe processes, and access is currently available to the first two generations (known as and 6HP) through the MOSIS shared mask services with anticipated future release of the latest (7HP) process. The 5 HP process is described and is characterized by a emitter spacing of 0.5 micron and a cutoff frequency ff of 50 GHz, whereas the fully scaled 7HP HBT employs a 0.18 micron emitter and has an fT of 120 GHz. Previous investigations have the examined SEE response of 5 HP HBT circuits through both circuit testing and modeling. Charge collection modeling studies in the 5 H P process have also been conducted, but to date no measurements have been reported of charge collection in any SiGe HBT structures. Nor have circuit models for charge collection been developed in any version other than the 5 HP HBT structure. Our investigation reports the first indications of both charge collection and circuit response in IBM s 7HP-based SiGe process. We compare broad beam heavy ion SEU test results in a fully function Pseudo-Random Number (PRN) sequence generator up to frequencies of 12 Gbps versus effective LET, and also report proton test results in the same circuit. In addition, we examine the charge collection characteristics of individual 7HP HBT

  11. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: Single-Point Access to Long-Term Radiation Belt Measurements and Space Weather Nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Science Gateway gives single-point access to over 4.5 years of comprehensive wave and particle measurements from the Van Allen Probes NASA twin-spacecraft mission. The Gateway provides a set of visualization and data analysis tools including: HTML5-based interactive visualization of high-level data products from all instrument teams in the form of: line plots, orbital content plots, dynamical energy spectra, L-shell context plots (including two-spacecraft plotting), FFT spectra of wave data, solar wind and geomagnetic indices data, etc.; download custom multi-instrument CDF data files of selected data products; publication quality plots of digital data; combined orbit predicts for mission planning and coordination including: Van Allen Probes, MMS, THEMIS, Arase (ERG), Cluster, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD; magnetic footpoint calculator for coordination with LEO and ground-based assets; real-time computation and processing of empirical magnetic field models - computation of magnetic ephemeris, computation of adiabatic invariants. Van Allen Probes is the first spacecraft mission to provide a nowcast of the radiation environment in the heart of the radiation belts, where the radiation levels are the highest and most dangerous for spacecraft operations. For this purpose, all instruments continuously broadcast a subset of their science data in real time. Van Allen Probes partners with four foreign institutions who operate ground stations that receive the broadcast: Korea (KASI), the Czech republic (CAS), Argentina (CONAE), and Brazil (INPE). The SpWx broadcast is then collected at APL and delivered to the community via the Science Gateway.

  12. Identification of squid species by melting temperature shifts on fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) using single dual-labeled probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunjung; Song, Ha Jeong; Kwon, Na Young; Kim, Gi Won; Lee, Kwang Ho; Jo, Soyeon; Park, Sujin; Park, Jihyun; Park, Eun Kyeong; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2017-06-01

    Real time PCR is a standard method for identification of species. One of limitations of the qPCR is that there would be false-positive result due to mismatched hybridization between target sequence and probe depending on the annealing temperature in the PCR condition. As an alternative, fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) could be applied for species identification. FMCA is based on a dual-labeled probe. Even with subtle difference of target sequence, there are visible melting temperature (Tm) shift. One of FMCA applications is distinguishing organisms distributed and consumed globally as popular food ingredients. Their prices are set by species or country of origin. However, counterfeiting or distributing them without any verification procedure are becoming social problems and threatening food safety. Besides distinguishing them in naked eye is very difficult and almost impossible in any processed form. Therefore, it is necessary to identify species in molecular level. In this research three species of squids which have 1-2 base pair differences each are selected as samples since they have the same issue. We designed a probe which perfectly matches with one species and the others mismatches 2 and 1 base pair respectively and labeled with fluorophore and quencher. In an experiment with a single probe, we successfully distinguished them by Tm shift depending on the difference of base pair. By combining FMCA and qPCR chip, smaller-scale assay with higher sensitivity and resolution could be possible, andc furthermore, enabling results analysis with smart phone would realize point-of-care testing (POCT).

  13. Atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy to probe single membrane proteins in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, K Tanuj

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has opened vast avenues hitherto inaccessible to the biological scientist. The high temporal (millisecond) and spatial (nanometer) resolutions of the AFM are suited for studying many biological processes in their native conditions. The AFM cantilever stylus is aptly termed as a "lab on a tip" owing to its versatility as an imaging tool as well as a handle to manipulate single bonds and proteins. Recent examples assert that the AFM can be used to study the mechanical properties and monitor processes of single proteins and single cells, thus affording insight into important mechanistic details. This chapter specifically focuses on practical and analytical protocols of single-molecule AFM methodologies related to high-resolution imaging and single-molecule force spectroscopy of membrane proteins. Both these techniques are operator oriented, and require specialized working knowledge of the instrument, theoretical, and practical skills.

  14. Probing Single Pt Atoms in Complex Intermetallic Al13Fe4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tsunetomo; Kojima, Takayuki; Abe, Eiji; Kameoka, Satoshi; Murakami, Yumi; Gille, Peter; Tsai, An Pang

    2018-03-21

    The atomic structure of a 0.2 atom % Pt-doped complex metallic alloy, monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 , was investigated using a single crystal prepared by the Czochralski method. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that the Pt atoms were dispersed as single atoms and substituted at Fe sites in Al 13 Fe 4 . Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed that the Pt atoms preferentially substitute at Fe(1). Unlike those that have been reported, Pt single atoms in the surface layers showed lower activity and selectivity than those of Al 2 Pt and bulk Pt for propyne hydrogenation, indicating that the active state of a given single-atom Pt site is strongly dominated by the bonding to surrounding Al atoms.

  15. Exact dimension estimation of interacting qubit systems assisted by a single quantum probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Akira; Cappellaro, Paola

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the dimension of an Hilbert space is an important component of quantum system identification. In quantum technologies, the dimension of a quantum system (or its corresponding accessible Hilbert space) is an important resource, as larger dimensions determine, e.g., the performance of quantum computation protocols or the sensitivity of quantum sensors. Despite being a critical task in quantum system identification, estimating the Hilbert space dimension is experimentally challenging. While there have been proposals for various dimension witnesses capable of putting a lower bound on the dimension from measuring collective observables that encode correlations, in many practical scenarios, especially for multiqubit systems, the experimental control might not be able to engineer the required initialization, dynamics, and observables. Here we propose a more practical strategy that relies not on directly measuring an unknown multiqubit target system, but on the indirect interaction with a local quantum probe under the experimenter's control. Assuming only that the interaction model is given and the evolution correlates all the qubits with the probe, we combine a graph-theoretical approach and realization theory to demonstrate that the system dimension can be exactly estimated from the model order of the system. We further analyze the robustness in the presence of background noise of the proposed estimation method based on realization theory, finding that despite stringent constrains on the allowed noise level, exact dimension estimation can still be achieved.

  16. Accurate and visual discrimination of single-base mismatch by utilization of binary DNA probes in gold nanoparticles-based biosensing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijun; Ren, Jiangtao; Zhu, Jinbo; Zhou, Zhixue; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-12-01

    Herein we report a colorimetric biosensing strategy to discriminate single-nucleotide mutation in DNA with high selectivity using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as indicators. In the AuNPs-based colorimetric strategy, binary DNA probes were produced by splitting a long DNA probe in the middle for sensitive differentiation of single-base mismatch. The detection limit of this method toward target DNA was 5nM. The developed system has superior advantages of utilization of inexpensive materials, simplicity and visualization. Moreover, binary DNA probes not only can distinguish single-base mutation in the target DNA very well, as compared to long DNA probe, but also can construct "AND" logic gate using two distinct target DNAs as inputs, which holds great potential for increasing the accuracy of disease diagnosis in clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  18. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people have bipolar disorder along with another illness such as anxiety disorder, substance abuse, or an eating disorder. People with ... are sometimes misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. Anxiety and ADHD: ... such as bipolar disorder. Risk Factors Scientists are ...

  19. Single-cell resolution imaging of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo using a cell-penetrating caspase-activatable peptide probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Qiu

    Full Text Available Peptide probes for imaging retinal ganglion cell (RGC apoptosis consist of a cell-penetrating peptide targeting moiety and a fluorophore-quencher pair flanking an effector caspase consensus sequence. Using ex vivo fluorescence imaging, we previously validated the capacity of these probes to identify apoptotic RGCs in cell culture and in an in vivo rat model of N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA-induced neurotoxicity. Herein, using TcapQ488, a new probe designed and synthesized for compatibility with clinically-relevant imaging instruments, and real time imaging of a live rat RGC degeneration model, we fully characterized time- and dose-dependent probe activation, signal-to-noise ratios, and probe safety profiles in vivo. Adult rats received intravitreal injections of four NMDA concentrations followed by varying TcapQ488 doses. Fluorescence fundus imaging was performed sequentially in vivo using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and individual RGCs displaying activated probe were counted and analyzed. Rats also underwent electroretinography following intravitreal injection of probe. In vivo fluorescence fundus imaging revealed distinct single-cell probe activation as an indicator of RGC apoptosis induced by intravitreal NMDA injection that corresponded to the identical cells observed in retinal flat mounts of the same eye. Peak activation of probe in vivo was detected 12 hours post probe injection. Detectable fluorescent RGCs increased with increasing NMDA concentration; sensitivity of detection generally increased with increasing TcapQ488 dose until saturating at 0.387 nmol. Electroretinography following intravitreal injections of TcapQ488 showed no significant difference compared with control injections. We optimized the signal-to-noise ratio of a caspase-activatable cell penetrating peptide probe for quantitative non-invasive detection of RGC apoptosis in vivo. Full characterization of probe performance in this setting creates an important in

  20. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients......BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...

  1. Gene environment interactions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregelj, Peter

    2011-09-01

    It has been estimated that the heritable component of bipolar disorder ranges between 80 and 90%. However, even genome-wide association studies explain only a fraction of phenotypic variability not resolving the problem of "lost heritability". Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced, offering even single cell analysing and resolving the problem of cell heterogeneity in epigenetics research. Gene overlapping with other mental disorders represents another problem in identifying potential susceptibility genes in bipolar disorder. Better understanding of the interplay between multiple environmental and genetic factors involved in the patogenesis of bipolar disorder could provide relevant information for treatment of patients with this complex disorder. Future studies on the role of these factors in psychopathological conditions, subphenotypes and endophenotypes may greatly benefit by using more precise clinical data and a combined approach with multiple research tools incorporated into a single study.

  2. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Sarah D

    2017-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Probing the Quantum States of a Single Atom Transistor at Microwave Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanzi, Giuseppe Carlo; Hile, Samuel James; House, Matthew Gregory; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y

    2017-03-28

    The ability to apply gigahertz frequencies to control the quantum state of a single P atom is an essential requirement for the fast gate pulsing needed for qubit control in donor-based silicon quantum computation. Here, we demonstrate this with nanosecond accuracy in an all epitaxial single atom transistor by applying excitation signals at frequencies up to ≈13 GHz to heavily phosphorus-doped silicon leads. These measurements allow the differentiation between the excited states of the single atom and the density of states in the one-dimensional leads. Our pulse spectroscopy experiments confirm the presence of an excited state at an energy ≈9 meV, consistent with the first excited state of a single P donor in silicon. The relaxation rate of this first excited state to the ground state is estimated to be larger than 2.5 GHz, consistent with theoretical predictions. These results represent a systematic investigation of how an atomically precise single atom transistor device behaves under radio frequency excitations.

  4. X-Ray Emission Spectrometer Design with Single-Shot Pump-Probe and Resonant Excitation Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoth, Katherine; /SUNY, Buffalo /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    Core-level spectroscopy in the soft X-ray regime is a powerful tool for the study of chemical bonding processes. The ultrafast, ultrabright X-ray pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) allow these reactions to be studied in greater detail than ever before. In this study, we investigated a conceptual design of a spectrometer for the LCLS with imaging in the non-dispersive direction. This would allow single-shot collection of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements with varying laser pump X-ray probe delay or a variation of incoming X-ray energy over the illuminated area of the sample. Ray-tracing simulations were used to demonstrate how the components of the spectrometer affect its performance, allowing a determination of the optimal final design. These simulations showed that the spectrometer's non-dispersive focusing is extremely sensitive to the size of the sample footprint; the spectrometer is not able to image a footprint width larger than one millimeter with the required resolution. This is compatible with a single shot scheme that maps out the laser pump X-ray probe delay in the non-dispersive direction as well as resonant XES applications at normal incidence. However, the current capabilities of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) beamline at the LCLS do not produce the required energy range in a small enough sample footprint, hindering the single shot resonant XES application at SXR for chemical dynamics studies at surfaces. If an upgraded or future beamline at LCLS is developed with lower monochromator energy dispersion the width can be made small enough at the required energy range to be imaged by this spectrometer design.

  5. Probing living bacterial adhesion by single cell force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Regina, Viduthalai R.

    Bacteria initiate attachment to the surfaces with the aid of different extracellular polymers. To quantitatively study how these polymers mediate bacterial adhesion and possibly their interactions, it is essential to go down to single cell level, with in mind that cell-to-cell variation should...... with a commercial cell adhesive CellTakTM. The method was applied to four different bacterial strains, and single-cell adhesion was measured on three surfaces (fresh glass, hydrophilic glass, mica). Attachment to the cantilever was stable during the 2 h of AFM force measurements, and viability was confirmed by Live...

  6. Probing static disorder in Arrhenius kinetics by single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Ling; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Li, Jingyuan; Barel, Itay; Lu, Hui; Berne, Bruce J; Urbakh, Michael; Klafter, Joseph; Fernández, Julio M

    2010-06-22

    The widely used Arrhenius equation describes the kinetics of simple two-state reactions, with the implicit assumption of a single transition state with a well-defined activation energy barrier DeltaE, as the rate-limiting step. However, it has become increasingly clear that the saddle point of the free-energy surface in most reactions is populated by ensembles of conformations, leading to nonexponential kinetics. Here we present a theory that generalizes the Arrhenius equation to include static disorder of conformational degrees of freedom as a function of an external perturbation to fully account for a diverse set of transition states. The effect of a perturbation on static disorder is best examined at the single-molecule level. Here we use force-clamp spectroscopy to study the nonexponential kinetics of single ubiquitin proteins unfolding under force. We find that the measured variance in DeltaE shows both force-dependent and independent components, where the force-dependent component scales with F(2), in excellent agreement with our theory. Our study illustrates a novel adaptation of the classical Arrhenius equation that accounts for the microscopic origins of nonexponential kinetics, which are essential in understanding the rapidly growing body of single-molecule data.

  7. Shot noise as a probe of spin-polarized transport through single atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burtzlaff, Andreas; Weismann, Alexander; Brandbyge, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Single atoms on Au(111) surfaces have been contacted with the Au tip of a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The shot noise of the current through these contacts has been measured up to frequencies of 120 kHz and Fano factors have been determined to characterize the transport channels...

  8. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisenda, R.; Perrin, M.L.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from

  9. Probing the Conformational Landscape of DNA Polymerases Using Diffusion-Based Single-Molecule FRET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohlbein, J.; Kapanidis, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring conformational changes in DNA polymerases using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) has provided new tools for studying fidelity-related mechanisms that promote the rejection of incorrect nucleotides before DNA synthesis. In addition to the previously known open

  10. Parallel probing of drug uptake of single cancer cells on a microfluidic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yoon Sun; le Gac, Severine; Terstappen, Leon; Rho, Hoon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance is frequently developing during treatment of cancer patients. Intracellular drug uptake is one of the important characteristics to understand mechanism of drug resistance. However, the heterogeneity of cancer cells requires the investigation of drug uptake at the single cell level.

  11. Probing Electron-Induced Bond Cleavage at the Single-Molecule Level Using DNA Origami Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Adrian Clemens; Bald, Ilko; Rotaru, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    specifically designed oligonucleotide targets that are attached to DNA origami templates. In this way, we use a highly selective approach to compare the efficiency of the electron-induced dissociation of a single disulfide bond with the more complex cleavage of the DNA backbone within a TT dinucleotide...

  12. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery by Computing Probe Affinity Shape Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single-feature polymorphism (SFP) discovery is a rapid and cost-effective approach for plant genomic polymorphism studies. However, either a high false positive rate or low sensitivity was reported in previous SFP detection methods. An alternative method was developed for genome-wide SFP discovery b...

  13. Prevalence of buried probe in complex congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction and evaluation of its success rate post 'probing and irrigation': a single-centre retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishi; Chawla, Neeraj; Ganesh, Suma; Das, Sima; Dhawan, Nidhi; Bansal, Smriti; Singla, Poonam

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of buried probe variant of complex congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) and to evaluate the outcome of probing and irrigation in such cases. Institutional review board approval was taken. A total of 309 eyes (258 patients) were diagnosed with CNLDO during the study period of January 2014-March 2017. A retrospective file review of 25 lacrimal systems of 20 patients diagnosed as buried probe variant of complex CNLDO was carried out during the study period. Buried probe variant of complex CNLDO was found to be 8% of the total CNLDO cases during the study period. Mean age at presentation was 1.7 years (range 8-48 months). Discharge and matting of eyelashes were the presenting symptoms in 22 out of 25 (88%) cases, whereas the only epiphora was the presenting symptom in three (12%) cases. Regurgitation of mucopurulent discharge on pressure over lacrimal sac area was positive in 16 out of 25 (64%) eyes. Associated lacrimal and nasal pathologies were seen in six out of 25 cases (24%). Success rate in buried probe variant cases of CNLDO in our study at 3-month follow-up was 88% (22 of 25 cases). A high period prevalence of 8% out of all CNLDO cases in our study suggests that the buried probe should be considered in selective cases of CNLDO and earlier unsuccessful probing.

  14. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bipolar Treatment: Are Bipolar I and Bipolar II Treated Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management strategies. In addition to medications and other types of treatment, successful management of your bipolar disorder includes living a healthy lifestyle, such as getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet and being physically active. ...

  16. Single-Ion Deconvolution of Mass Peak Overlaps for Atom Probe Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Andrew J; Haley, Daniel; Moody, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    Due to the intrinsic evaporation properties of the material studied, insufficient mass-resolving power and lack of knowledge of the kinetic energy of incident ions, peaks in the atom probe mass-to-charge spectrum can overlap and result in incorrect composition measurements. Contributions to these peak overlaps can be deconvoluted globally, by simply examining adjacent peaks combined with knowledge of natural isotopic abundances. However, this strategy does not account for the fact that the relative contributions to this convoluted signal can often vary significantly in different regions of the analysis volume; e.g., across interfaces and within clusters. Some progress has been made with spatially localized deconvolution in cases where the discrete microstructural regions can be easily identified within the reconstruction, but this means no further point cloud analyses are possible. Hence, we present an ion-by-ion methodology where the identity of each ion, normally obscured by peak overlap, is resolved by examining the isotopic abundance of their immediate surroundings. The resulting peak-deconvoluted data are a point cloud and can be analyzed with any existing tools. We present two detailed case studies and discussion of the limitations of this new technique.

  17. A microfluidic platform for probing single cell plasma membranes using optically trapped Smart Droplet Microtools (SDMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Peter M P; Ninkovic, Tanja; Chan, Karen; de Mello, Andrew J; Willison, Keith R; Klug, David R; Templer, Richard H; Neil, Mark A A; Ces, Oscar

    2009-04-21

    We recently introduced a novel platform based upon optically trapped lipid coated oil droplets (Smart Droplet Microtools-SDMs) that were able to form membrane tethers upon fusion with the plasma membrane of single cells. Material transfer from the plasma membrane to the droplet via the tether was seen to occur. Here we present a customised version of the SDM approach based upon detergent coated droplets deployed within a microfluidic format. These droplets are able to differentially solubilise the plasma membrane of single cells with spatial selectivity and without forming membrane tethers. The microfluidic format facilitates separation of the target cells from the bulk SDM population and from downstream analysis modules. Material transfer from the cell to the SDM was monitored by tracking membrane localized EGFP.

  18. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Perrin, Mickael L; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2015-01-01

    We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylene)dithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from direct current measurements, both as a function of time and electrode separation. We find that for fixed electrode separation the molecule switches between various configurations, which are characterized by different IETS spectra. Similar variations in the IETS signal are observed during atomic rearrangements upon stretching of the molecular junction. Using quantum chemistry calculations, we identity some of the vibrational modes which constitute a chemical fingerprint of the molecule. In addition, changes can be attributed to rearrangements of the local molecular environment, in particular at the molecule-electrode interface. This study shows the importance of taking into account the interaction with the electrodes when describing inelastic contributions to transport through single-molecule junctions.

  19. Probing the Higgs self coupling via single Higgs production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrassi, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Roma Tre andINFN, sezione di Roma Tre,Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Giardino, P.P. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory,20 Pennsylvania St., Upton NY 11742 (United States); Maltoni, F.; Pagani, D. [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3),Université Catholique de Louvain,B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-12-16

    We propose a method to determine the trilinear Higgs self coupling that is alternative to the direct measurement of Higgs pair production total cross sections and differential distributions. The method relies on the effects that electroweak loops featuring an anomalous trilinear coupling would imprint on single Higgs production at the LHC. We first calculate these contributions to all the phenomenologically relevant Higgs production (ggF, VBF, WH, ZH, tt̄H) and decay (γγ, WW{sup ∗}/ZZ{sup ∗}→4f, bb̄, ττ) modes at the LHC and then estimate the sensitivity to the trilinear coupling via a one-parameter fit to the single Higgs measurements at the LHC 8 TeV. We find that the bounds on the self coupling are already competitive with those from Higgs pair production and will be further improved in the current and next LHC runs.

  20. Probing the local environment of a single OPE3 molecule using inelastic tunneling electron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Frisenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study single-molecule oligo(phenylene ethynylenedithiol junctions by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS. The molecule is contacted with gold nano-electrodes formed with the mechanically controllable break junction technique. We record the IETS spectrum of the molecule from direct current measurements, both as a function of time and electrode separation. We find that for fixed electrode separation the molecule switches between various configurations, which are characterized by different IETS spectra. Similar variations in the IETS signal are observed during atomic rearrangements upon stretching of the molecular junction. Using quantum chemistry calculations, we identity some of the vibrational modes which constitute a chemical fingerprint of the molecule. In addition, changes can be attributed to rearrangements of the local molecular environment, in particular at the molecule–electrode interface. This study shows the importance of taking into account the interaction with the electrodes when describing inelastic contributions to transport through single-molecule junctions.

  1. Understanding single-color multiphoton ionization spectra by pump--probe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, K.; Manohar, K.G.; Bajaj, P.N.; Suri, B.M.; Talukdar, R.K.; Chakraborti, P.K.; Rao, P.R.K.

    1988-06-01

    A simple but elegant spectroscopic technique using two narrow-band dye lasers has been demonstrated for analyzing single-color resonant multi-photon-ionization spectra of atoms. This technique provides a direct identification of the starting level of the multi-photon-ionization pathway. This method can also be used to determine intermediate levels, which play an important role in the ionization process. Some typical results for uranium are presented.

  2. Probing the conductance superposition law in single-molecule circuits with parallel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, H; Skouta, R; Schneebeli, S; Kamenetska, M; Breslow, R; Venkataraman, L; Hybertsen, M S

    2012-10-01

    According to Kirchhoff's circuit laws, the net conductance of two parallel components in an electronic circuit is the sum of the individual conductances. However, when the circuit dimensions are comparable to the electronic phase coherence length, quantum interference effects play a critical role, as exemplified by the Aharonov-Bohm effect in metal rings. At the molecular scale, interference effects dramatically reduce the electron transfer rate through a meta-connected benzene ring when compared with a para-connected benzene ring. For longer conjugated and cross-conjugated molecules, destructive interference effects have been observed in the tunnelling conductance through molecular junctions. Here, we investigate the conductance superposition law for parallel components in single-molecule circuits, particularly the role of interference. We synthesize a series of molecular systems that contain either one backbone or two backbones in parallel, bonded together cofacially by a common linker on each end. Single-molecule conductance measurements and transport calculations based on density functional theory show that the conductance of a double-backbone molecular junction can be more than twice that of a single-backbone junction, providing clear evidence for constructive interference.

  3. Probing single-molecule electron-hole transfer dynamics at a molecule-NiO semiconductor nanocrystalline interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Bharat; Rao, Vishal Govind; Lu, H Peter

    2017-07-14

    Interfacial charge transfer dynamics in dye-sensitized NiO nanoparticles are being investigated for photocathodes in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. In the photoreaction, after fast electron transfer from NiO to a molecule, the recombination of the hole in the nanoparticles with the electron in a reduced molecule plays an important role in the charge separation process and solar energy harvesting. Nevertheless, knowledge of the interfacial charge recombination (CR) rate and its mechanism is still limited due to the complex photoinduced electron and hole dynamics and lack of characterization of the inhomogeneity of the dynamics. Here, we report our work on probing interfacial charge recombination dynamics in Zn(ii)-5,10,15,20-tetra(3-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (m-ZnTCPP) dye-sensitized NiO nanoparticles by correlating single-molecule fluorescence blinking dynamics with charge transfer dynamics using single-molecule photon-stamping spectroscopy. The correlated analyses of single-molecule fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and blinking reveal the intrinsic distribution and temporal fluctuation of interfacial charge transfer reactivity, which are closely related to site-specific molecular interactions and dynamics.

  4. Probing correlated quantum many-body systems at the single-particle level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The detection of correlation and response functions plays a crucial role in the experimental characterization of quantum many-body systems. In this thesis, we present novel techniques for the measurement of such functions at the single-particle level. Specifically, we show the single-atom- and single-site-resolved detection of an ultracold quantum gas in an optical lattice. The quantum gas is described by the Bose-Hubbard model, which features a zero temperature phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott-insulating state, a paradigm example of a quantum phase transition. We used the aforementioned detection techniques to study correlation and response properties across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. The single-atom sensitivity of our method is achieved by fluorescence detection of individual atoms with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A high-resolution objective collects the fluorescence light and yields in situ 'snapshots' of the quantum gas that allow for a single-site-resolved reconstruction of the atomic distribution. This allowed us to measure two-site and non-local correlation-functions across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. Non-local correlation functions are based on the information of an extended region of the system and play an important role for the characterization of low-dimensional quantum phases. While non-local correlation functions were so far only theoretical tools, our results show that they are actually experimentally accessible. Furthermore, we used a new thermometry scheme, based on the counting of individual thermal excitations, to measure the response of the system to lattice modulation. Using this method, we studied the excitation spectrum of the system across the two-dimensional superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. In particular, we detected a 'Higgs' amplitude mode in the strongly-interacting superfluid close to the transition point where the system is described by an effectively Lorentz-invariant low-energy theory

  5. Modeling single molecule junction mechanics as a probe of interface bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2017-03-01

    Using the atomic force microscope based break junction approach, applicable to metal point contacts and single molecule junctions, measurements can be repeated thousands of times resulting in rich data sets characterizing the properties of an ensemble of nanoscale junction structures. This paper focuses on the relationship between the measured force extension characteristics including bond rupture and the properties of the interface bonds in the junction. A set of exemplary model junction structures has been analyzed using density functional theory based calculations to simulate the adiabatic potential surface that governs the junction elongation. The junction structures include representative molecules that bond to the electrodes through amine, methylsulfide, and pyridine links. The force extension characteristics are shown to be most effectively analyzed in a scaled form with maximum sustainable force and the distance between the force zero and force maximum as scale factors. Widely used, two parameter models for chemical bond potential energy versus bond length are found to be nearly identical in scaled form. Furthermore, they fit well to the present calculations of N-Au and S-Au donor-acceptor bonds, provided no other degrees of freedom are allowed to relax. Examination of the reduced problem of a single interface, but including relaxation of atoms proximal to the interface bond, shows that a single-bond potential form renormalized by an effective harmonic potential in series fits well to the calculated results. This allows relatively accurate extraction of the interface bond energy. Analysis of full junction models shows cooperative effects that go beyond the mechanical series inclusion of the second bond in the junction, the spectator bond that does not rupture. Calculations for a series of diaminoalkanes as a function of molecule length indicate that the most important cooperative effect is due to the interactions between the dipoles induced by the donor

  6. Probing correlated quantum many-body systems at the single-particle level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Manuel

    2013-02-27

    The detection of correlation and response functions plays a crucial role in the experimental characterization of quantum many-body systems. In this thesis, we present novel techniques for the measurement of such functions at the single-particle level. Specifically, we show the single-atom- and single-site-resolved detection of an ultracold quantum gas in an optical lattice. The quantum gas is described by the Bose-Hubbard model, which features a zero temperature phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott-insulating state, a paradigm example of a quantum phase transition. We used the aforementioned detection techniques to study correlation and response properties across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. The single-atom sensitivity of our method is achieved by fluorescence detection of individual atoms with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A high-resolution objective collects the fluorescence light and yields in situ 'snapshots' of the quantum gas that allow for a single-site-resolved reconstruction of the atomic distribution. This allowed us to measure two-site and non-local correlation-functions across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. Non-local correlation functions are based on the information of an extended region of the system and play an important role for the characterization of low-dimensional quantum phases. While non-local correlation functions were so far only theoretical tools, our results show that they are actually experimentally accessible. Furthermore, we used a new thermometry scheme, based on the counting of individual thermal excitations, to measure the response of the system to lattice modulation. Using this method, we studied the excitation spectrum of the system across the two-dimensional superfluid-Mott-insulator transition. In particular, we detected a 'Higgs' amplitude mode in the strongly-interacting superfluid close to the transition point where the system is described by an effectively Lorentz

  7. Probing the magnetic ground state of single crystalline Ce3TiSb5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the report of superconductivity in R3TiSb5 (R  =  La and Ce) and possibly Nd3TiSb5 at  ∼4 K, we grew single crystals of La3TiSb5 and Ce3TiSb5 by the high-temperature solution method using Sn as a flux. While in both compounds we observed a superconducting transition at 3.7 K for resistivity and low-field magnetization, our data conclusively show that it arose from residual Sn flux present in the single crystals. In particular, the heat capacity data do not present any of the anomalies expected from a bulk superconducting transition. The anisotropic magnetic properties of Ce3TiSb5, crystallizing in a hexagonal P63/mcm structure, were studied in detail. We find that the Ce ions in Ce3TiSb5 form a Kondo lattice and exhibited antiferromagnetic ordering at 5.5 K with a reduced moment and a moderately normalized Sommerfeld coefficient of 598 mJ/mol K2. The characteristic single-ion Kondo energy scale was found to be  ∼8 K. The magnetization data were subjected to a crystal electric field (CEF) analysis. The experimentally observed Schottky peak in the 4f-electron heat capacity of Ce3TiSb5 was reproduced fairly well by the energy levels derived from the CEF analysis.

  8. Fast sensitive amplifier for two-probe conductance measurements in single molecule break junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler K.; Ivie, Jeffrey A.; Jaruvang, Jason; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate an amplifier based on the Wheatstone bridge designed specifically for use in single molecule break junctions. This amplifier exhibits superior performance due to its large bandwidth, flat frequency response, and high sensitivity. The amplifier is capable of measuring conductance values from 102 to 10-6G0 (G0 = 2e2/h), while maintaining a bandwidth in excess of 20 kHz, and shows remarkable resolution in the molecular conductance regime of 10-2 to 10-5 G0.

  9. How to probe transverse magnetic anisotropy of a single-molecule magnet by electronic transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzuri, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H.

    We propose an approach for in-situ determination of the transverse magnetic anisotropy (TMA) of an individual molecule by electronic transport measurements, see Phys. Rev. B 91, 035442 (2015). We study a Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) captured in a gateable junction, a unique tool for addressing the spin in different redox states of a molecule. We show that, due to mixing of the spin eigenstates of the SMM, the TMA significantly manifests itself in transport. We predict and experimentally observe the pronounced intensity modulation of the Coulomb peak amplitude with the magnetic field in the linear-response transport regime, from which the TMA parameter E can be estimated. Importantly, the method proposed here does not rely on the small induced tunnelling effects and, hence, works well at temperatures and electron tunnel broadenings by far exceeding the tunnel splittings and even E itself. We deduce that the TMA for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value. Work supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Education as `Iuventus Plus' project (IP2014 030973) in years 2015-2016.

  10. Electromechanical Characterization of Single GaN Nanobelt Probed with Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. Y.; Peng, J. F.; Yan, S. A.; Zheng, X. J.

    2018-04-01

    The electromechanical characterization of the field effect transistor based on a single GaN nanobelt was performed under different loading forces by using a conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM), and the effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) and ideality factor are simulated by the thermionic emission model. From 2-D current image, the high value of the current always appears on the nanobelt edge with the increase of the loading force less than 15 nN. The localized (I-V) characteristic reveals a typical rectifying property, and the current significantly increases with the loading force at the range of 10-190 nN. The ideality factor is simulated as 9.8 within the scope of GaN nano-Schottky diode unity (6.5-18), therefore the thermionic emission current is dominant in the electrical transport of the GaN-tip Schottky junction. The SBH is changed through the piezoelectric effect induced by the loading force, and it is attributed to the enhanced current. Furthermore, a single GaN nanobelt has a high mechanical-induced current ratio that could be made use of in a nanoelectromechanical switch.

  11. The nesprin-cytoskeleton interface probed directly on single nuclei is a mechanically rich system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikov, Daniel A; Brady, Sonia K; Ko, Ung Hyun; Shin, Jennifer H; de Pereda, Jose M; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Sung, Hak-Joon; Lang, Matthew J

    2017-09-03

    The cytoskeleton provides structure and plays an important role in cellular function such as migration, resisting compression forces, and transport. The cytoskeleton also reacts to physical cues such as fluid shear stress or extracellular matrix remodeling by reorganizing filament associations, most commonly focal adhesions and cell-cell cadherin junctions. These mechanical stimuli can result in genome-level changes, and the physical connection of the cytoskeleton to the nucleus provides an optimal conduit for signal transduction by interfacing with nuclear envelope proteins, called nesprins, within the LINC (linker of the nucleus to the cytoskeleton) complex. Using single-molecule on single nuclei assays, we report that the interactions between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, thought to be nesprin-cytoskeleton interactions, are highly sensitive to force magnitude and direction depending on whether cells are historically interfaced with the matrix or with cell aggregates. Application of ∼10-30 pN forces to these nesprin linkages yielded structural transitions, with a base transition size of 5-6 nm, which are speculated to be associated with partial unfoldings of the spectrin domains of the nesprins and/or structural changes of histones within the nucleus.

  12. Emulsion stability measurements by single electrode capacitance probe (SeCaP) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüller, R B; Løkra, S; Egelandsdal, B; Salas-Bringas, C; Engebretsen, B

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new and novel method for the determination of the stability of emulsions. The method is based on the single electrode capacitance technology (SeCaP). A measuring system consisting of eight individual measuring cells, each with a volume of approximately 10 ml, is described in detail. The system has been tested on an emulsion system based on whey proteins (WPC80), oil and water. Xanthan was added to modify the emulsion stability. The results show that the new measuring system is able to quantify the stability of the emulsion in terms of a differential variable. The whole separation process is observed much faster in the SeCaP system than in a conventional separation column. The complete separation process observed visually over 30 h is seen in less than 1.4 h in the SeCaP system

  13. Probing single- to multi-cell level charge transport in Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaocheng; Hu, Jinsong; Petersen, Emily R; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Jackan, Charles S; Lieber, Alexander M; Ringeisen, Bradley R; Lieber, Charles M; Biffinger, Justin C

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells, in which living microorganisms convert chemical energy into electricity, represent a potentially sustainable energy technology for the future. Here we report the single-bacterium level current measurements of Geobacter sulfurreducens DL-1 to elucidate the fundamental limits and factors determining maximum power output from a microbial fuel cell. Quantized stepwise current outputs of 92(±33) and 196(±20) fA are generated from microelectrode arrays confined in isolated wells. Simultaneous cell imaging/tracking and current recording reveals that the current steps are directly correlated with the contact of one or two cells with the electrodes. This work establishes the amount of current generated by an individual Geobacter cell in the absence of a biofilm and highlights the potential upper limit of microbial fuel cell performance for Geobacter in thin biofilms.

  14. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  15. Epidemiologia do transtorno bipolar Epidemiology of bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Silva de Lima

    2005-01-01

    surveys of psychiatric morbidity in adults have been conducted and as a result details on the frequency, risk factor, social disabilities, and service use rates of mental disorders are now available. Epidemiological findings on bipolar disorders are discussed on the light of results from recent large population-based surveys namely the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (ECA, the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, the OPCS Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity in Great Britain, the Brazilian Multicentric Study of Psychiatric Morbidity, and the longitudinal studies conducted in Zurich by Angst. Prevalence rates for bipolar disorder were generally low, regardless setting, the type of instrument used for generating psychiatric diagnosis, and the time periods by which prevalence is defined. Since the introduction of the concept of bipolar spectrum, broadening the boundaries of the disease, the estimate rates have been found to be substantially higher. Such rates still need to be validated by populational-based studies. Bipolar disorder is as prevalent in women as in men, more common among singles and separated or divorced people. Those affected by the disease are more likely to use medical services and to be hospitalized. The cost-effectiveness of treatments must be balanced with the high individual and social impact associated to the bipolar illness.

  16. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  17. Optical properties of single semiconductor nanowires and nanowire ensembles. Probing surface physics by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfueller, Carsten

    2011-06-27

    This thesis presents a detailed investigation of the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in general and single GaN NWs and GaN NW ensembles in particular by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. NWs are often considered as potential building blocks for future nanometer-scaled devices. This vision is based on several attractive features that are generally ascribed to NWs. For instance, they are expected to grow virtually free of strain and defects even on substrates with a large structural mismatch. In the first part of the thesis, some of these expectations are examined using semiconductor NWs of different materials. On the basis of the temperature-dependent PL of Au- and selfassisted GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell NWs, the influence of foreign catalyst particles on the optical properties of NWs is investigated. For the Au-assisted NWs, we find a thermally activated, nonradiative recombination channel, possibly related to Auatoms incorporated from the catalyst. These results indicate the limited suitability of catalyst-assisted NWs for optoelectronic applications. The effect of the substrate choice is studied by comparing the PL of ZnO NWs grown on Si, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO substrates. Their virtually identical optical characteristics indicate that the synthesis of NWs may indeed overcome the constraints that limit the heteroepitaxial deposition of thin films. The major part of this thesis discusses the optical properties of GaN NWs grown on Si substrates. The investigation of the PL of single GaN NWs and GaN NW ensembles reveals the significance of their large surface-to-volume ratio. Differences in the recombination behavior of GaNNW ensembles and GaN layers are observed. First, the large surface-to-volume ratio is discussed to be responsible for the different recombination mechanisms apparent in NWs. Second, certain optical features are only found in the PL of GaN NWs, but not in that of GaN layers. An unexpected broadening of the donor

  18. Combined single cell AFM manipulation and TIRFM for probing the molecular stability of multilayer fibrinogen matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, W. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Center for Biological Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Yermolenko, I. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Plochberger, B. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Camacho-Alanis, F.; Ros, A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Ugarova, T.P. [School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Ros, R., E-mail: Robert.Ros@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Center for Biological Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Adsorption of fibrinogen on various surfaces produces a nanoscale multilayer matrix, which strongly reduces the adhesion of platelets and leukocytes with implications for hemostasis and blood compatibility of biomaterials. The nonadhesive properties of fibrinogen matrices are based on their extensibility, ensuing the inability to transduce strong mechanical forces via cellular integrins and resulting in weak intracellular signaling. In addition, reduced cell adhesion may arise from the weaker associations between fibrinogen molecules in the superficial layers of the matrix. Such reduced stability would allow integrins to pull fibrinogen molecules out of the matrix with comparable or smaller forces than required to break integrin–fibrinogen bonds. To examine this possibility, we developed a method based on the combination of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, single cell manipulation with an atomic force microscope and microcontact printing to study the transfer of fibrinogen molecules out of a matrix onto cells. We calculated the average fluorescence intensities per pixel for wild-type HEK 293 (HEK WT) and HEK 293 cells expressing leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (HEK Mac-1) before and after contact with multilayered matrices of fluorescently labeled fibrinogen. For contact times of 500 s, HEK Mac-1 cells show a median increase of 57% of the fluorescence intensity compared to 6% for HEK WT cells. The results suggest that the integrin Mac-1-fibrinogen interactions are stronger than the intermolecular fibrinogen interactions in the superficial layer of the matrix. The low mechanical stability of the multilayer fibrinogen surface may contribute to the reduced cell adhesive properties of fibrinogen-coated substrates. We anticipate that the described method can be applied to various cell types to examine their integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrices with a variable protein composition. - Highlights: • We present a method combining

  19. Quantum electronics. Probing Johnson noise and ballistic transport in normal metals with a single-spin qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkowitz, S; Safira, A; High, A A; Devlin, R C; Choi, S; Unterreithmeier, Q P; Patterson, D; Zibrov, A S; Manucharyan, V E; Park, H; Lukin, M D

    2015-03-06

    Thermally induced electrical currents, known as Johnson noise, cause fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in proximity to a conductor. These fluctuations are intrinsically related to the conductivity of the metal. We use single-spin qubits associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to probe Johnson noise in the vicinity of conductive silver films. Measurements of polycrystalline silver films over a range of distances (20 to 200 nanometers) and temperatures (10 to 300 kelvin) are consistent with the classically expected behavior of the magnetic fluctuations. However, we find that Johnson noise is markedly suppressed next to single-crystal films, indicative of a substantial deviation from Ohm's law at length scales below the electron mean free path. Our results are consistent with a generalized model that accounts for the ballistic motion of electrons in the metal, indicating that under the appropriate conditions, nearby electrodes may be used for controlling nanoscale optoelectronic, atomic, and solid-state quantum systems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deves, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  1. Probing quantum Hall states with single-electron transistors at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Martin; Yankowitz, Matthew; Forsythe, Carlos; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Dean, Cory

    The sequence of fractional quantum Hall states in graphene is not yet fully understood, largely due to disorder-induced limitations of conventional transport studies. Measurements of magnetotransport in other 2D crystals are further complicated by the difficulties in making ohmic contact to the materials. On the other hand, bulk electronic compressibility can provide clear signatures of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, does not require ohmic contact, and can be localized to regions of low disorder. The single-electron transistor (SET) is a suitable tool for such experiments due to its small size and high charge sensitivity, which allow electric fields penetrating the 2D electron system to be detected locally and with high fidelity. Here we report studies of exfoliated 2D van der Waals materials fully encapsulated in flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. SETs are fabricated lithographically on top of the encapsulation, yielding a structure which lends itself to experiments at high electric and magnetic fields. We demonstrate the method on monolayer graphene, where we observe fractional quantum Hall states at all filling factors ν = n / 3 up to n = 17 and extract their associated energy gaps for magnetic fields up to 31 tesla.

  2. Probing the dynamics of restriction endonuclease NgoMIV-DNA interaction by single-molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkus, Marijonas; Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Rutkauskas, Danielis

    2017-12-01

    Many type II restriction endonucleases require two copies of their recognition sequence for optimal activity. Concomitant binding of two DNA sites by such an enzyme produces a DNA loop. Here we exploit single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) of surface-immobilized DNA fragments to study the dynamics of DNA looping induced by tetrameric endonuclease NgoMIV. We have employed a DNA fragment with two NgoMIV recognition sites and a FRET dye pair such that upon protein-induced DNA looping the dyes are brought to close proximity resulting in a FRET signal. The dynamics of DNA-NgoMIV interactions proved to be heterogeneous, with individual smFRET trajectories exhibiting broadly different average looped state durations. Distinct types of the dynamics were attributed to different types of DNA-protein complexes, mediated either by one NgoMIV tetramer simultaneously bound to two specific sites ("slow" trajectories) or by semi-specific interactions of two DNA-bound NgoMIV tetramers ("fast" trajectories), as well as to conformational heterogeneity of individual NgoMIV molecules. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tentacle Probes: differentiation of difficult single-nucleotide polymorphisms and deletions by presence or absence of a signal in real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Brent C; Kulesh, David A; Norwood, David A; Wasieloski, Leonard P; Caplan, Michael R; West, Jay A A

    2007-12-01

    False-positive results are a common problem in real-time PCR identification of DNA sequences that differ from near neighbors by a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or deletion. Because of a lack of sufficient probe specificity, post-PCR analysis, such as a melting curve, is often required for mutation differentiation. Tentacle Probes, cooperative reagents with both a capture and a detection probe based on specific cell-targeting principles, were developed as a replacement for 2 chromosomal TaqMan-minor groove binder (MGB) assays previously developed for Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis detection. We compared TaqMan-MGB probes to Tentacle Probes for SNP and deletion detection based on the presence or absence of a growth curve. With the TaqMan-MGB Y. pestis yp48 assays, false-positive results for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis occurred at every concentration tested, and with the TaqMan-MGB B. anthracis gyrA assays, false-positive results occurred in 21 of 29 boil preps of environmental samples of near neighbors. With Tentacle Probes no false-positive results occurred. The high specificity exhibited by Tentacle Probes may eliminate melting curve analysis for SNP and deletion mutation detection, allowing the diagnostic use of previously difficult targets.

  4. Direct genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms in methyl metabolism genes using probe-free high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lasse S; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) shows great promise for high-throughput, rapid genotyping of individual polymorphic loci. We have developed HRM assays for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in several key genes that are involved in methyl metabolism and may directly or indirectly affect the methylation status of the DNA. The SNPs are in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T and A1298C), methionine synthetase (MTR; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase; A2756G), and DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b; C46359T and C31721T) loci. The choice of short amplicons led to greater melting temperature (Tm) differences between the two homozygous genotypes, which allowed accurate genotyping without the use of probes or spiking with control DNA. In the case of MTHFR, there is a second rarer SNP (rs4846051) close to the A1298C SNP that may result in inaccurate genotyping. We masked this second SNP by placing the primer over it and choosing a base at the polymorphic position that was equally mismatched to both alleles. The HRM assays were done on HRM capable real-time PCR machines rather than stand-alone HRM machines. Monitoring the amplification allows ready identification of samples that may give rise to aberrant melting curves because of PCR abnormalities. We show that samples amplifying markedly late can give rise to shifted melting curves without alteration of shapes and potentially lead to misclassification of genotypes. In conclusion, rapid and high-throughput SNP analysis can be done with probe-free HRM if sufficient attention is paid to amplicon design and quality control to omit aberrantly amplifying samples.

  5. Optimised padlock probe ligation and microarray detection of multiple (non-authorised GMOs in a single reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoen Cor D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain EU GMO regulations, producers of new GM crop varieties need to supply an event-specific method for the new variety. As a result methods are nowadays available for EU-authorised genetically modified organisms (GMOs, but only to a limited extent for EU-non-authorised GMOs (NAGs. In the last decade the diversity of genetically modified (GM ingredients in food and feed has increased significantly. As a result of this increase GMO laboratories currently need to apply many different methods to establish to potential presence of NAGs in raw materials and complex derived products. Results In this paper we present an innovative method for detecting (approved GMOs as well as the potential presence of NAGs in complex DNA samples containing different crop species. An optimised protocol has been developed for padlock probe ligation in combination with microarray detection (PPLMD that can easily be scaled up. Linear padlock probes targeted against GMO-events, -elements and -species have been developed that can hybridise to their genomic target DNA and are visualised using microarray hybridisation. In a tenplex PPLMD experiment, different genomic targets in Roundup-Ready soya, MON1445 cotton and Bt176 maize were detected down to at least 1%. In single experiments, the targets were detected down to 0.1%, i.e. comparable to standard qPCR. Conclusion Compared to currently available methods this is a significant step forward towards multiplex detection in complex raw materials and derived products. It is shown that the PPLMD approach is suitable for large-scale detection of GMOs in real-life samples and provides the possibility to detect and/or identify NAGs that would otherwise remain undetected.

  6. Daily electronic self-monitoring in bipolar disorder using smartphones - the MONARCA I trial: a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M; Frost, M; Ritz, C; Christensen, E M; Jacoby, A S; Mikkelsen, R L; Knorr, U; Bardram, J E; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2015-10-01

    The number of studies on electronic self-monitoring in affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders is increasing and indicates high patient acceptance and adherence. Nevertheless, the effect of electronic self-monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder has never been investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The objective of this trial was to investigate in a RCT whether the use of daily electronic self-monitoring using smartphones reduces depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 78 patients with bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 criteria, aged 18-60 years, and with 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores ≤17 were randomized to the use of a smartphone for daily self-monitoring including a clinical feedback loop (the intervention group) or to the use of a smartphone for normal communicative purposes (the control group) for 6 months. The primary outcomes were differences in depressive and manic symptoms measured using HAMD-17 and YMRS, respectively, between the intervention and control groups. Intention-to-treat analyses using linear mixed models showed no significant effects of daily self-monitoring using smartphones on depressive as well as manic symptoms. There was a tendency towards more sustained depressive symptoms in the intervention group (B = 2.02, 95% confidence interval -0.13 to 4.17, p = 0.066). Sub-group analysis among patients without mixed symptoms and patients with presence of depressive and manic symptoms showed significantly more depressive symptoms and fewer manic symptoms during the trial period in the intervention group. These results highlight that electronic self-monitoring, although intuitive and appealing, needs critical consideration and further clarification before it is implemented as a clinical tool.

  7. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a "risk" allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in

  8. Electrostatic micromanipulation of a conductive particle by a single probe with consideration of an error in the evaluated mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Recently, micromanipulation techniques for handling a conductive microparticle have been in demand. Electrostatic micromanipulation with a single probe is a promising technique for such manipulation. While the feasibility of the technique has been proved experimentally, the success rate of manipulation was 25%, and further improvements are required. To enhance the success rate and realize highly reliable electrostatic micromanipulation, this paper proposes an improved design of a voltage sequence which is applied to deposit a microparticle onto a substrate plate. It was found through investigation that the error in the evaluated mass of a microparticle must be considered in order to improve the success rate of the manipulation. Behavior of a microparticle during the electrostatic micromanipulation is calculated by a boundary element method, and the influence of error is discussed. An improved design of the applied voltage sequence that can tolerate an error in the evaluated mass is described. Moreover, the effectiveness of the newly designed voltage sequence in the electrostatic micromanipulation is experimentally shown.

  9. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MP3 Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - English MP4 Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  10. Magnetic bipolar transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Zutic, Igor; Sarma, S. Das

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bipolar transistor is a bipolar junction transistor with one or more magnetic regions, and/or with an externally injected nonequilibrium (source) spin. It is shown that electrical spin injection through the transistor is possible in the forward active regime. It is predicted that the current amplification of the transistor can be tuned by spin.

  11. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, M.; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  12. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  13. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Renk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005. Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered.

  14. Transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping probed by high-resolution, single-molecule imaging in live E. coli cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Hensel

    Full Text Available DNA looping mediated by transcription factors plays critical roles in prokaryotic gene regulation. The "genetic switch" of bacteriophage λ determines whether a prophage stays incorporated in the E. coli chromosome or enters the lytic cycle of phage propagation and cell lysis. Past studies have shown that long-range DNA interactions between the operator sequences O(R and O(L (separated by 2.3 kb, mediated by the λ repressor CI (accession number P03034, play key roles in regulating the λ switch. In vitro, it was demonstrated that DNA segments harboring the operator sequences formed loops in the presence of CI, but CI-mediated DNA looping has not been directly visualized in vivo, hindering a deep understanding of the corresponding dynamics in realistic cellular environments. We report a high-resolution, single-molecule imaging method to probe CI-mediated DNA looping in live E. coli cells. We labeled two DNA loci with differently colored fluorescent fusion proteins and tracked their separations in real time with ∼40 nm accuracy, enabling the first direct analysis of transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in live cells. Combining looping measurements with measurements of CI expression levels in different operator mutants, we show quantitatively that DNA looping activates transcription and enhances repression. Further, we estimated the upper bound of the rate of conformational change from the unlooped to the looped state, and discuss how chromosome compaction may impact looping kinetics. Our results provide insights into transcription-factor-mediated DNA looping in a variety of operator and CI mutant backgrounds in vivo, and our methodology can be applied to a broad range of questions regarding chromosome conformations in prokaryotes and higher organisms.

  15. A single pH fluorescent probe for biosensing and imaging of extreme acidity and extreme alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Bin; Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Huo, Fang-Jun; Yin, Cai-Xia; Shi, Ya-Wei; Wang, Juan-Juan

    2017-07-04

    A simple tailor-made pH fluorescent probe 2-benzothiazole (N-ethylcarbazole-3-yl) hydrazone (Probe) is facilely synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole with N-ethylcarbazole-3-formaldehyde, which is a useful fluorescent probe for monitoring extremely acidic and alkaline pH, quantitatively. The pH titrations indicate that Probe displays a remarkable emission enhancement with a pK a of 2.73 and responds linearly to minor pH fluctuations within the extremely acidic range of 2.21-3.30. Interestingly, Probe also exhibits strong pH-dependent characteristics with pK a 11.28 and linear response to extreme-alkalinity range of 10.41-12.43. In addition, Probe shows a large Stokes shift of 84 nm under extremely acidic and alkaline conditions, high selectivity, excellent sensitivity, good water-solubility and fine stability, all of which are favorable for intracellular pH imaging. The probe is further successfully applied to image extremely acidic and alkaline pH values fluctuations in E. coli cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet incorporating a single octupole lens for a low spherical aberration probe forming lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a new probe forming lens system consisting of a high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet that incorporates a single magnetic octupole lens. This system achieves both a high demagnification and a low spherical aberration compared to conventional high excitation systems and is intended for deployment for the Harbin 300 MeV proton microprobe for applications in space science and ion beam therapy. This relative simplicity of the ion optical design to include a single octupole lens minimizes the risks associated with the constructional and operational precision usually needed for the probe forming lens system and this system could also be deployed in microprobe systems that operate with less magnetically rigid ions. The design of the new system is validated with reference to two independent ion optical computer codes.

  17. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah, E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  18. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  19. Combinations of genetic variants associated with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Andreassen, Ole A.; Bennike, Bente

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to find genetic variants that in combination are significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In previous studies of bipolar disorder, combinations of three and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes taken from 803 SNPs were analyzed, and five...... clusters of combinations were found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In the present study, combinations of ten SNP genotypes taken from the same 803 SNPs were analyzed, and one cluster of combinations was found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. Combinations from......, heterozygote or variant homozygote. In the combinations containing 10 SNP genotypes almost all the genotypes were the normal homozygote. Such a finding may indicate that accumulation in the genome of combinations containing few SNP genotypes may be a risk factor for bipolar disorder when those combinations...

  20. [Antidepressants in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtet, P; Samalin, L; Olié, E

    2011-12-01

    Whereas mania defines the bipolar disorder, depression is the major challenge of treatment. In general, depressions are more frequent, longer, with a major prognostic impact in terms of disability and suicide. How should we treat a patient with bipolar depression? Antidepressants are the treatment of choice for depression, but not in the bipolar disorder. In this context, we have traditionally accepted that antidepressants are effective but they were inducing a significant risk of destabilization of the bipolar disorder, because of the transitions to mania and rapid cycling. Current data reconsider both the two aspects of this risk-benefit ratio. The effectiveness of antidepressants finally seems very limited, especially after the more recent studies with a robust methodology. Manic switches and rapid cycling may not be increased, particularly with new antidepressants and mood stabilizer combinations. The current literature reminds us that these course's modalities are inherent to the disease, with numerous risk factors, and among them, exposure to antidepressants. Who are the bipolar patients who only get the benefits of antidepressant treatment? Research will tell. They are in any case limited. How to navigate in our treatment strategies ? By choosing first drugs that demonstrated efficacy in bipolar depression. When the situation is more complex, "primum non nocere" should lead to support the prescription of the antidepressant in association with mood stabilizer. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  1. Salt Dependence of the Radius of Gyration and Flexibility of Single-stranded DNA in Solution probed by Small-angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Lipfert, Jan; Herschlag, Daniel; Doniach, Sebastian

    2012-07-06

    Short single-stranded nucleic acids are ubiquitous in biological processes and understanding their physical properties provides insights to nucleic acid folding and dynamics. We used small angle x-ray scattering to study 8-100 residue homopolymeric single-stranded DNAs in solution, without external forces or labeling probes. Poly-T's structural ensemble changes with increasing ionic strength in a manner consistent with a polyelectrolyte persistence length theory that accounts for molecular flexibility. For any number of residues, poly-A is consistently more elongated than poly-T, likely due to the tendency of A residues to form stronger base-stacking interactions than T residues.

  2. Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/X-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejdrup, T.; Lemke, H.T.; Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The recent developments in X-ray detectors have opened new possibilities in the area of time-resolved pump/probe X-ray experiments; this article presents the novel use of a PILATUS detector to achieve X-ray pulse duration limited time-resolution at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), USA. The capab......The recent developments in X-ray detectors have opened new possibilities in the area of time-resolved pump/probe X-ray experiments; this article presents the novel use of a PILATUS detector to achieve X-ray pulse duration limited time-resolution at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), USA...

  3. Subunits of highly Fluorescent Protein R-Phycoerythrin as Probes for Cell Imaging and Single-Molecule Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isailovic, Dragan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To characterize subunits of highly fluorescent protein R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) and check their suitability for single-molecule detection (SMD) and cell imaging, (2) To extend the use of R-PE subunits through design of similar proteins that will be used as probes for microscopy and spectral imaging in a single cell, and (3) To demonstrate a high-throughput spectral imaging method that will rival spectral flow cytometry in the analysis of individual cells. We first demonstrated that R-PE subunits have spectroscopic and structural characteristics that make them suitable for SMD. Subunits were isolated from R-PE by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected as single molecules by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). In addition, R-PE subunits and their enzymatic digests were characterized by several separation and detection methods including HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Favorable absorption and fluorescence of the R-PE subunits and digest peptides originate from phycoerythrobilin (PEB) and phycourobilin (PUB) chromophores that are covalently attached to cysteine residues. High absorption coefficients and strong fluorescence (even under denaturing conditions), broad excitation and emission fluorescence spectra in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum, and relatively low molecular weights make these molecules suitable for use as fluorescence labels of biomolecules and cells. We further designed fluorescent proteins both in vitro and in vivo (in Escherichia coli) based on the highly specific attachment of PEB chromophore to genetically expressed apo-subunits of R-PE. In one example, apo-alpha and apo-beta R-PE subunits were cloned from red algae Polisiphonia boldii (P. boldii), and expressed in E. coli. Although expressed apo-subunits formed inclusion

  4. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Single- and Double-Headed Chemical Probes for Detection of Active Cathepsin D in a Cancer Cell Proteome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nussbaumerová, Martina; Srp, Jaroslav; Máša, Martin; Hradilek, Martin; Šanda, Miloslav; Reiniš, Milan; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2010), s. 1538-1541 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cathepsin D * cancer * activity-based probes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.945, year: 2010

  6. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  7. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  8. Atom probe tomography of secondary γ′ precipitation in a single crystal Ni-based superalloy after isothermal aging at 1100 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, X.P., E-mail: xptan1985@gmail.com [IM 2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS, Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mangelinck, D.; Perrin-Pellegrino, C. [IM 2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS, Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Rougier, L. [LSMX, MXG, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gandin, Ch.-A. [CEMEF, UMR 7635 CNRS, MINES ParisTech, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Jacot, A. [LSMX, MXG, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ponsen, D.; Jaquet, V. [Snecma-SAFRAN Group, Service YQGC, 92702 Colombes (France)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Bimodal size distribution of γ′ precipitates occurs after isothermal aging at 1100 °C. • Characterization of secondary γ′ by atom probe tomography. • It is proposed that the secondary γ′ occurs via a non-classical nucleation. • The coarsening of secondary γ′ precipitates well obeys the classical LSW theory. - Abstract: Secondary γ′ precipitation in a commercial single crystal Ni-based superalloy after the 1100 °C isothermal aging has been investigated by atom probe tomography. After the isothermal aging for 300 s, 1800 s and 3600 s, a bimodal size distribution of larger primary γ′ precipitates and numerous smaller secondary γ′ precipitates was obtained. It is proposed that the secondary γ′ precipitated via a non-classical nucleation mode. The coarsening of secondary γ′ precipitates well obeys the classical LSW theory.

  9. Depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...... hospitalization. METHOD: The Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire (ADCQ) was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder, representative of patients treated in hospital settings in Denmark. RESULTS: Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9% responded to the letter. A large proportion....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations...

  10. A rapid, ratiometric, enzyme-free, and sensitive single-step miRNA detection using three-way junction based FRET probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingying; Liu, Lin; Yang, Cai; Yuan, Jing; Feng, Hongtao; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Peng; Yu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Zongwen

    2018-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded endogenous molecules composed of only 18-24 nucleotides which are critical for gene expression regulating the translation of messenger RNAs. Conventional methods based on enzyme-assisted nucleic acid amplification techniques have many problems, such as easy contamination, high cost, susceptibility to false amplification, and tendency to have sequence mismatches. Here we report a rapid, ratiometric, enzyme-free, sensitive, and highly selective single-step miRNA detection using three-way junction assembled (or self-assembled) FRET probes. The developed strategy can be operated within the linear range from subnanomolar to hundred nanomolar concentrations of miRNAs. In comparison with the traditional approaches, our method showed high sensitivity for the miRNA detection and extreme selectivity for the efficient discrimination of single-base mismatches. The results reveal that the strategy paved a new avenue for the design of novel highly specific probes applicable in diagnostics and potentially in microscopic imaging of miRNAs in real biological environments.

  11. Probing single-charge fluctuations at a GaAs/AlAs interface using laser spectroscopy on a nearby InGaAs quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houel, J; Kuhlmann, A V; Greuter, L; Xue, F; Poggio, M; Gerardot, B D; Dalgarno, P A; Badolato, A; Petroff, P M; Ludwig, A; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Warburton, R J

    2012-03-09

    We probe local charge fluctuations in a semiconductor via laser spectroscopy on a nearby self-assembled quantum dot. We demonstrate that the quantum dot is sensitive to changes in the local environment at the single-charge level. By controlling the charge state of localized defects, we are able to infer the distance of the defects from the quantum dot with ±5  nm resolution. The results identify and quantify the main source of charge noise in the commonly used optical field-effect devices.

  12. Probing the Top-Yukawa Coupling by Searching for Associated Higgs Boson Production with a Single Top Quark at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Simon; Quast, Günter

    In this thesis the associated production of a single top quark with a Higgs boson is studied. This process is especially well suited for probing of the Top-Yukawa coupling, as the cross section of the tH process increases for couplings deviating from the Standard Model prediction. Upper exclusion limits are set on the tH production by analyzing the data recorded during Run-I and recorded in 2015 during Run-II of the LHC with the CMS detector.

  13. High-sensitivity Mass Spectrometry for Probing Gene Translation in Single Embryonic Cells in the Early Frog (Xenopus Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lombard-Banek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of protein expression with single-cell resolution promises to deepen the understanding of basic molecular processes during normal and impaired development. High-resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed coverage of the proteomic composition of large numbers of cells. Here we discuss recent mass spectrometry developments based on single-cell capillary electrophoresis that extend discovery proteomics to sufficient sensitivity to enable the measurement of proteins in single cells. The single-cell mass spectrometry system is used to detect a large number of proteins in single embryonic cells in blastomeres in the 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis that give rise to distinct tissue types. Single-cell measurements of protein expression provide complementary information on gene transcription during early development of the vertebrate embryo, raising a potential to understand how differential gene expression coordinates normal cell heterogeneity during development.

  14. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgeneTM Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgeneTM RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2TM enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgeneTM blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgeneTM blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies.

  15. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgene Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Vass, J Keith; Haggart, D Ross; Moore, Steve; Burczynski, Michael E; Crowther, Dan; Miele, Gino

    2008-08-25

    Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgene() RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2() enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgene() blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgene() blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies.

  16. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgene™ Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Vass, J. Keith; Haggart, D. Ross; Moore, Steve; Burczynski, Michael E.; Crowther, Dan; Miele, Gino

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgene™ RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2™ enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgene™ blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgene™ blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies. PMID:19578521

  17. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neu trosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akram; Musavarah Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    In this research article, we present certain notions of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We study the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  18. Discrete bipolar universal integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greco, S.; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bipolar integral * universal integral * Choquet integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0432224.pdf

  19. [Spouses and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, F; Ayedi, S; Cherif, W; Ben Abla, T; M'rad, M F

    2011-02-01

    To assess the quality of life of a population of spouses of bipolar patients compared with a control population. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included two groups: a group of 30 spouses of patients followed for bipolar I disorder according to DSM IV criteria and a second group of 30 subjects from the general population. Both groups were matched by age, sex, marital status and socioeconomic level. This device was designed to limit the differences between the two groups solely those of the bipolar illness. Evaluating the quality of life was achieved using the quality of life scale: SF-36. This is a scale that has already been translated and validated in dialect Arabic. Regarding sociodemographic variables, the two study groups differed only for: recreation, friendly relations and the couple relationship that included more and better skills among the control group. In the categorical approach, the quality of life was impaired in 60% of spouses and 40% of controls with a statistically significant difference. The following standardized dimensions: mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6) and perceived health (D8) and mental component (CM) were significantly altered in patients' spouses compared to controls. We found significant differences between the two groups for: overall average score (51.1 vs. 68.2), mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6), perceived health (D8) and perceived health (D8) standards. The impairment of quality of life of bipolar patients' spouses is related to the extra responsibility, stress, financial problems and health problems, stigma, and loss of security of the person loved. Considering the consequences that the appearance of bipolar disorder on the patient's spouse may have, certain measures must be proposed to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  20. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  1. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  2. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-01-24

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention.

  3. High-sensitivity Mass Spectrometry for Probing Gene Translation in Single Embryonic Cells in the Early Frog (Xenopus) Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Camille Lombard-Banek; Sally Ann Moody; Peter Nemes

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of protein expression with single-cell resolution promises to deepen the understanding of basic molecular processes during normal and impaired development. High-resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed coverage of the proteomic composition of large numbers of cells. Here we discuss recent mass spectrometry developments based on single-cell capillary electrophoresis that extend discovery proteomics to sufficient sensitivity to enable the measurement of proteins in sing...

  4. Using Force to Probe Single-Molecule Receptor-Cytoskeletal Anchoring Beneath the Surface of a Living Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Evan; Kinoshita, Koji

    2007-01-01

    , K. (2005). Nano-to-micro scale dynamics of P-selectin detachment from leukocyte interfaces: I. Separation of PSGL-1 from the cell cytoskeleton. Biophys. J. 88, 2288-2298]. Retracting cells from receptor-surface attachments at many different speeds revealed that the kinetic rate for receptor......The ligation of cell surface receptors often communicates a signal that initiates a cytoplasmic chemical cascade to implement an important cell function. Less well understood is how physical stress applied to a cell surface adhesive bond propagates throughout the cytostructure to catalyze...... or trigger important steps in these chemical processes. Probing the nanoscale impact of pulling on cell surface bonds, we discovered that receptors frequently detach prematurely from the interior cytostructure prior to failure of the exterior adhesive bond [Evans, E., Heinrich, V., Leung, A., and Kinoshita...

  5. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  6. Bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of great saphenous vein: Our initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of varicose veins in lower limbs is increasing in the Indian subcontinent. With the advent of radiofrequency ablation (RFA, an effective minimally invasive technique is now available to treat varicose veins. RFA can be performed with either unipolar or bipolar probes. We present a simple technique for bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the great saphenous vein. This can be a safe and effective alternative to surgical procedures.

  7. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association between bipolar ...

  8. Differences in resting corticolimbic functional connectivity in bipolar I euthymia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Moody, Teena D; Vizueta, Nathalie; Thomason, Moriah E; Monti, Martin M; Townsend, Jennifer D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Altshuler, Lori L

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined resting state functional connectivity in the brain between key emotion regulation regions in bipolar I disorder to delineate differences in coupling from healthy subjects. Methods Euthymic subjects with bipolar I disorder (n = 20) and matched healthy subjects (n = 20) participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Low frequency fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal were correlated in the six connections between four anatomically-defined nodes: left and right amygdala and left and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Seed-to-voxel connectivity results were probed for commonly coupled regions. Following this, an identified region was included in a mediation analysis to determine the potential of mediation. Results The bipolar I disorder group exhibited significant hyperconnectivity between right amygdala and right vlPFC relative to healthy subjects. The connectivity between these regions in the bipolar I disorder group was partially mediated by activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Conclusions Greater coupling between right amygdala and right vlPFC and their partial mediation by the ACC were found in bipolar I disorder subjects in remission and in the absence of a psychological task. These findings have implications for a trait-related and clinically-important imaging biomarker. PMID:23347587

  9. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  10. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  11. Hand Controlled Manipulation of Single Molecules via a Scanning Probe Microscope with a 3D Virtual Reality Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2016-10-02

    Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer. For intuitive and efficient manipulation we therefore couple a low-temperature non-contact atomic force/scanning tunneling microscope (LT NC-AFM/STM) to a motion capture system and fully immersive virtual reality goggles. This setup permits "hand controlled manipulation" (HCM), in which the SPM tip is moved according to the motion of the experimenter's hand, while the tip trajectories as well as the response of the SPM junction are visualized in 3D. HCM paves the way to the development of complex manipulation protocols, potentially leading to a better fundamental understanding of nanoscale interactions acting between molecules on surfaces. Here we describe the setup and the steps needed to achieve successful hand-controlled molecular manipulation within the virtual reality environment.

  12. Single glass nanopore-based regenerable sensing platforms with a non-immobilized polyglutamic acid probe for selective detection of cupric ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lizhen; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-08-19

    A single glass capillary nanopore-based sensing platform for rapid and selective detection of cupric ions is demonstrated by utilizing polyglutamic acid (PGA) as a non-immobilized probe. The detection is based on the significant decrease of ionic current through nanopore and the reversal of ion current rectification responses induced by the chelated cupric ions on the probes when in the presence of cupric ions. PGA shows high selectivity for detecting cupric ions rather than other metal ions. The sensitivity of the sensing platform can be improved about 1-2 orders of magnitude by employing asymmetric salt gradients during the measurements. And the PGA-based nanopore sensing platform shows excellent regenerability for Cu(2+) sensing applications. In addition, the method is found effective and reliable for the detection of cupric ions in real samples with small volume down to 20 μL. This nanopore-based sensing platform will find promising practical applications for the detection of cupric ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Absence of a spin-signature from a single Ho adatom as probed by spin-sensitive tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, M; Sonntag, A; dos Santos Dias, M; Bouhassoune, M; Lounis, S; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R; Khajetoorians, A A

    2016-02-03

    Whether rare-earth materials can be used as single-atom magnetic memory is an ongoing debate in recent literature. Here we show, by inelastic and spin-resolved scanning tunnelling-based methods, that we observe a strong magnetic signal and excitation from Fe atoms adsorbed on Pt(111), but see no signatures of magnetic excitation or spin-based telegraph noise for Ho atoms. Moreover, we observe that the indirect exchange field produced by a single Ho atom is negligible, as sensed by nearby Fe atoms. We demonstrate, using ab initio methods, that this stems from a comparatively weak coupling of the Ho 4f electrons with both tunnelling electrons and substrate-derived itinerant electrons, making both magnetic coupling and detection very difficult when compared to 3d elements. We discuss these results in the context of ongoing disputes and clarify important controversies.

  14. Single molecule FRET data analysis procedures for FRET efficiency determination: probing the conformations of nucleic acid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Asger Christian; Birkedal, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Single molecule FRET microscopy is an attractive technique for studying structural dynamics and conformational diversity of nucleic acid structures. Some of its strengths are that it can follow structural changes on a fast time scale and identify conformation distributions arising from dynamic or static population heterogeneity. Here, we give a description of the experiment and data analysis procedures of this method and detail what parameters are needed for FRET efficiency calculation. Using single molecule FRET data obtained on G-quadruplex DNA structures that exhibit large conformation diversity, we illustrate that the shape of the FRET distribution changes depending on what parameters are included in the data analysis procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Probing the Kinetic Anabolism of Poly-Beta-Hydroxybutyrate in Cupriavidus necator H16 Using Single-Cell Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhua Tao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB can be formed in large amounts in Cupriavidus necator and is important for the industrial production of biodegradable plastics. In this investigation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS was used to characterize dynamic changes in PHB content—as well as in the contents of other common biomolecule—in C. necator during batch growth at both the population and single-cell levels. PHB accumulation began in the early stages of bacterial growth, and the maximum PHB production rate occurred in the early and middle exponential phases. The active biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins occurred in the lag and early exponential phases, whereas the levels of these molecules decreased continuously during the remaining fermentation process until the minimum values were reached. The PHB content inside single cells was relatively homogenous in the middle stage of fermentation; during the late growth stage, the variation in PHB levels between cells increased. In addition, bacterial cells in various growth phases could be clearly discriminated when principle component analysis was performed on the spectral data. These results suggest that LTRS is a valuable single-cell analysis tool that can provide more comprehensive information about the physiological state of a growing microbial population.

  16. Treatment of Osteoid Osteomas Using a Navigational Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Adam N., E-mail: wallacea@mir.wustl.edu; Tomasian, Anderanik, E-mail: tomasiana@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Chang, Randy O., E-mail: changr@wusm.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine (United States); Jennings, Jack W., E-mail: jenningsj@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-05-15

    BackgroundPercutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for osteoid osteomas. This technical case series describes the use of a recently introduced ablation system with a probe that can be curved in multiple directions, embedded thermocouples for real-time monitoring of the ablation volume, and a bipolar design that obviates the need for a grounding pad.MethodsMedical records of all patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation of an osteoid osteoma with the STAR Tumor Ablation System (DFINE; San Jose, CA) were reviewed. The location of each osteoid osteoma, nidus volume, and procedural details were recorded. Treatment efficacy and long-term complications were assessed at clinical follow-up.ResultsDuring the study period, 18 osteoid osteomas were radiofrequency ablated with the multidirectional bipolar system. Lesion locations included the femur (50 %; 9/18), tibia (22 %; 4/18), cervical spine (11 %; 2/18), calcaneus (5.5 %; 1/18), iliac bone (5.5 %; 1/18), and fibula (5.5 %; 1/18). The median nidus volume of these cases was 0.33 mL (range 0.12–2.0 mL). All tumors were accessed via a single osseous channel. Median cumulative ablation time was 5 min and 0 s (range 1 min and 32 s–8 min and 50 s). All patients with clinical follow-up reported complete symptom resolution. No complications occurred.ConclusionSafe and effective CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas can be performed in a variety of locations using a multidirectional bipolar system.

  17. Generation of metal composition gradients by means of bipolar electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisserant, Gwendoline; Fattah, Zahra; Ayela, Cédric; Roche, Jérome; Plano, Bernard; Zigah, Dodzi; Goudeau, Bertrand; Kuhn, Alexander; Bouffier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A bipolar electrochemistry approach for the preparation of surface gradients is reported. • Several metals are simultaneously deposited on a bipolar electrode. • The elemental composition and thickness of the deposit varies alongside the bipolar electrode. • The deposit affects the surface properties and exhibits a barcode feature. - Abstract: Bipolar electrochemistry is an unconventional technique that currently encounters a renewal of interest due to modern applications in the fields of analytical chemistry or materials science. The approach is particularly relevant for the preparation of asymmetric objects or surfaces such as Janus particles for example. Bipolar electrochemistry allows spatially controlled deposition of various layers from electroactive precursors, selectively at one side of a bipolar electrode. We report here the concomitant cathodic deposition of up to three different metals at the same time in a single experiment. The deposits were characterized by optical and electron microscopy imaging as well as profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the deposited layer is composed of several areas exhibiting both a composition and a thickness gradient. Such a variation directly modifies the optical and electronic properties alongside the surface and gives access to the design of composite surfaces exhibiting a visual gradient feature.

  18. The use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of time that bipolar patients experience depressive symptoms and clinical states, with associated psychosocial impairment and elevated risk of suicide, is significantly greater than the time spent in manic/hypomanic forms of bipolar disorders. Yet, manic states and symptoms have been the focus and interest of most clinical research over the past quarter century. Not a single antidepressant approved for treatment of major depressive disorder, as monotherapy, has received regulatory approval for treatment of bipolar depression as monotherapy, despite their common use in bipolar depression. We reviewed randomized studies, particularly ones initially intended for registration purposes, and systematic treatment guidelines, in development of this guide to treatment decision and implementation of interventions for depression in bipolar disorders. The Expert Opinion section emphasizes strategies, not individual agents. The efficacious performance of mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics as a component of the strategy is strongly supported by published studies. However, this section relies largely on secondary publications and our combined clinical experience, as few randomized, blinded studies have had, as their focus, the comparison of combined regimens for depression. This article summarizes the design features and results of studies dealing with depressive features and intervention strategies for bipolar disorders. The emphasis of the recommendations is on pragmatic treatment decisions that clinicians can make to enhance the probability of both short and long term benefits for patients.

  19. Technical aspects of typing for HLA-DP alleles using allele-specific DNA in vitro amplification and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Detection of single base mismatches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an effective method for in vitro DNA amplification which combined with probing with synthetic oligonucleotides can be used for, e.g., HLA-typing. We have studied the technical aspects of HLA-DP typing with the technique. DNA from mononuclear nucleated cells...... was extracted with either a simple salting out method or phenol/chloroform. Both DNAs could be readily used for PCR. The MgC2 concentration of the PCR buffer and the annealing temperature of the thermal cycle of the PCR were the two most important variables. The MgCl2 concentration and the temperature must...... be carefully titrated for each primer pair in the PCR. The influence of mismatches between the primer and the DNA template were studied and we found that, by using primers differing only from each other at the 3' end, cross-amplification of closely homologous alleles could be avoided. Thus, single base...

  20. Application of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Nitric Oxide (NO•) Probes, the geNOps, for Real-time Imaging of NO• Signals in Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Emrah; Rost, Rene; Bischof, Helmut; Blass, Sandra; Schreilechner, Anna; Gottschalk, Benjamin; Depaoli, Maria R; Klec, Christiane; Charoensin, Suphachai; Madreiter-Sokolowski, Corina T; Ramadani, Jeta; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Graier, Wolfgang F; Malli, Roland

    2017-03-16

    Nitric Oxide (NO•) is a small radical, which mediates multiple important cellular functions in mammals, bacteria and plants. Despite the existence of a large number of methods for detecting NO• in vivo and in vitro, the real-time monitoring of NO• at the single-cell level is very challenging. The physiological or pathological effects of NO• are determined by the actual concentration and dwell time of this radical. Accordingly, methods that allow the single-cell detection of NO• are highly desirable. Recently, we expanded the pallet of NO• indicators by introducing single fluorescent protein-based genetically encoded nitric oxide (NO•) probes (geNOps) that directly respond to cellular NO• fluctuations and, hence, addresses this need. Here we demonstrate the usage of geNOps to assess intracellular NO• signals in response to two different chemical NO•-liberating molecules. Our results also confirm that freshly prepared 3-(2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-nitrosohydrazino)-N-methyl-1-propanamine (NOC-7) has a much higher potential to evoke change in intracellular NO• levels as compared with the inorganic NO• donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Furthermore, dual-color live-cell imaging using the green geNOps (G-geNOp) and the chemical Ca 2+ indicator fura-2 was performed to visualize the tight regulation of Ca 2+ -dependent NO• formation in single endothelial cells. These representative experiments demonstrate that geNOps are suitable tools to investigate the real-time generation and degradation of single-cell NO• signals in diverse experimental setups.

  1. Single-Atom Au/NiFe Layered Double Hydroxide Electrocatalyst: Probing the Origin of Activity for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfang; Liu, Jieyu; Xi, Lifei; Yu, Yifu; Chen, Ning; Sun, Shuhui; Wang, Weichao; Lange, Kathrin M; Zhang, Bin

    2018-03-21

    A fundamental understanding of the origin of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of transition-metal-based electrocatalysts, especially for single precious metal atoms supported on layered double hydroxides (LDHs), is highly required for the design of efficient electrocatalysts toward further energy conversion technologies. Here, we aim toward single-atom Au supported on NiFe LDH ( s Au/NiFe LDH) to clarify the activity origin of LDHs system and a 6-fold OER activity enhancement by 0.4 wt % s Au decoration. Combining with theoretical calculations, the active behavior of NiFe LDH results from the in situ generated NiFe oxyhydroxide from LDH during the OER process. With the presence of s Au, s Au/NiFe LDH possesses an overpotential of 0.21 V in contrast to the calculated result (0.18 V). We ascribe the excellent OER activity of s Au/NiFe LDH to the charge redistribution of active Fe as well as its surrounding atoms causing by the neighboring s Au on NiFe oxyhydroxide stabilized by interfacial CO 3 2- and H 2 O interfacing with LDH.

  2. The impact of bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, intermittent illness that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition, patients with bipolar disorder often have comorbid psychiatric conditions (such as anxiety disorders, alcohol or substance abuse, and eating disorders) or medical disorders (such as obesity), which result in increased burden of illness for the patients, family members, and treating clinicians. Although bipolar disorder consists of recurring episodes of mania and depression, patients spend more time depressed than manic. Bipolar depression is associated with a greater risk of suicide and of impairment in work, social, or family life than mania. This health burden also results in direct and indirect economic costs to the individual and society at large. Bipolar depression is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as unipolar depression, resulting in incorrect or inadequate treatment. Available treatments for bipolar depression include medications such as lithium, selected anticonvulsants, and the atypical antipsychotics. Traditional antidepressants are not recommended as monotherapy for bipolar depression as they can induce switching to mania. Early and accurate diagnosis, aggressive management, and earlier prophylactic treatment regimens are needed to overcome the impact of depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder.

  3. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  4. First-order phase transitions in CaFe2As2 single crystal: a local probe study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzamora, M; Munevar, J; Baggio-Saitovitch, E; Bud'ko, S L; Ni Ni; Canfield, P C; Sanchez, D R

    2011-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural and magnetic phase transitions of CaFe 2 As 2 (T N = 173 K) single crystals. For this compound we found that V ZZ is positive and parallel to the c-axis of the tetragonal structure. For CaFe 2 As 2 a magnetic hyperfine field B hf was observed at the 57 Fe nucleus below T N ∼ 173 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of B hf data using the Bean-Rodbell model shows that the Fe spins undergo a first-order magnetic transition at ∼ 173 K. A collinear antiferromagnetic structure is established below this temperature with the Fe spin lying in the (a, b) plane. Below T N the paramagnetic fraction of Fe decreases down to 150 K and for lower temperatures all the Fe spins are magnetically ordered.

  5. Superconductivity and transport properties in LaRu4Sb12 single crystals probed by radiation-induced disordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshchitskii, B.; Naumov, S.; Kostromitina, N.; Karkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Resistivity ρ(T) and Hall coefficient R H (T) in magnetic fields H up to 14 T were studied in superconducting (T c = 3.3 K) LaRu 4 Sb 12 single crystals disordered by fast neutron irradiation. Atomic disordering leads to increase in residual resistivity ρ 0 , decrease of Hall number and suppression of superconductivity. The upper critical field slope -dH c2 /dT increases approximately linear with ρ 0 . The irradiation effects are almost recovered after annealing at 500 deg. C. The observed radiation-induced effects in LaRu 4 Sb 12 are compared with those in PrOs 4 Sb 12 in terms of unconventional mechanisms of superconductivity

  6. Mos1-mediated transgenesis to probe consequences of single gene mutations in variation-rich isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tarailo-Graovac

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans, especially the N2 isolate, is an invaluable biological model system. Numerous additional natural C. elegans isolates have been shown to have unexpected genotypic and phenotypic variations which has encouraged researchers to use next generation sequencing methodology to develop a more complete picture of genotypic variations among the isolates. To understand the phenotypic effects of a genomic variation (GV on a single gene, in a variation-rich genetic background, one should analyze that particular GV in a well understood genetic background. In C. elegans, the analysis is usually done in N2, which requires extensive crossing to bring in the GV. This can be a very time consuming procedure thus it is important to establish a fast and efficient approach to test the effect of GVs from different isolates in N2. Here we use a Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI method for phenotypic assessments of GVs from the variation-rich Hawaiian strain CB4856 in N2. Specifically, we investigate effects of variations identified in the CB4856 strain on tac-1 which is an essential gene that is necessary for mitotic spindle elongation and pronuclear migration. We show the usefulness of the MosSCI method by using EU1004 tac-1(or402 as a control. or402 is a temperature sensitive lethal allele within a well-conserved TACC domain (transforming acidic coiled-coil that results in a leucine to phenylalanine change at amino acid 229. CB4856 contains a variation that affects the second exon of tac-1 causing a cysteine to tryptophan change at amino acid 94 also within the TACC domain. Using the MosSCI method, we analyze tac-1 from CB4856 in the N2 background and demonstrate that the C94W change, albeit significant, does not cause any obvious decrease in viability. This MosSCI method has proven to be a rapid and efficient way to analyze GVs.

  7. Mos1-mediated transgenesis to probe consequences of single gene mutations in variation-rich isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Chen, Nansheng

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, especially the N2 isolate, is an invaluable biological model system. Numerous additional natural C. elegans isolates have been shown to have unexpected genotypic and phenotypic variations which has encouraged researchers to use next generation sequencing methodology to develop a more complete picture of genotypic variations among the isolates. To understand the phenotypic effects of a genomic variation (GV) on a single gene, in a variation-rich genetic background, one should analyze that particular GV in a well understood genetic background. In C. elegans, the analysis is usually done in N2, which requires extensive crossing to bring in the GV. This can be a very time consuming procedure thus it is important to establish a fast and efficient approach to test the effect of GVs from different isolates in N2. Here we use a Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI) method for phenotypic assessments of GVs from the variation-rich Hawaiian strain CB4856 in N2. Specifically, we investigate effects of variations identified in the CB4856 strain on tac-1 which is an essential gene that is necessary for mitotic spindle elongation and pronuclear migration. We show the usefulness of the MosSCI method by using EU1004 tac-1(or402) as a control. or402 is a temperature sensitive lethal allele within a well-conserved TACC domain (transforming acidic coiled-coil) that results in a leucine to phenylalanine change at amino acid 229. CB4856 contains a variation that affects the second exon of tac-1 causing a cysteine to tryptophan change at amino acid 94 also within the TACC domain. Using the MosSCI method, we analyze tac-1 from CB4856 in the N2 background and demonstrate that the C94W change, albeit significant, does not cause any obvious decrease in viability. This MosSCI method has proven to be a rapid and efficient way to analyze GVs.

  8. ATR-SEIRAS??an approach to probe the reactivity of Pd-modified quasi-single crystal gold film electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronkin, S.; Wandlowski, Th.

    2004-12-01

    Quasi-single crystalline gold films of 20 nm thickness and preferential (1 1 1) orientation on Si hemispheres were modified by controlled potentiostatic deposition of Pd (sub-ML, ML, multi-L) from sulphate and/or chloride-containing electrolyte. The electrochemical properties of these model electrodes were characterised for hydrogen and (hydrogen-) sulphate adsorption as well as for surface oxide formation by cyclic voltammetry. Conditions were developed to fabricate defined and stable Pd monolayers. In situ ATR-SEIRAS (Attenuated Total Reflection Surface Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy) experiments were carried out to describe the electrochemical double layer of Pd modified gold film electrodes in contact with aqueous 0.1 M H 2SO 4 with focus on interfacial water and anion adsorption. Based on an analysis of the non-resonant IR background signal the potential of zero charge is estimated to 0.10-0.20 V (vs. RHE). CO was found to be weakly physisorbed in atop sites on Au(1 1 1-20 nm)/0.1 M H 2SO 4 only in CO saturated electrolyte. CO, deposited on a quasi-single crystal gold film modified with 1 ML Pd, is chemisorbed with preferential occupation of bridge sites and atop positions at step edges. Saturated CO adlayers, as obtained by deposition at 0.10 V, contain isolated water species and are covered by a second layer of hydrogen bonded water. Potentiodynamic SEIRAS experiments of CO electro-oxidation on Pd-modified gold film electrodes demonstrate clearly the existence of a "pre-oxidation" region. They also provide spectroscopic evidence that isolated water and weakly hydrogen bonded water are consumed during the reaction and that atop CO on defect sites is a preferential reactant. The simultaneous in situ monitoring of the potential- and time-dependent evolution of characteristic vibrational modes in the OH- and CO-stretching regions are in agreement with the Gilman ("reactant pair") mechanism of CO oxidation.

  9. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  10. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  11. Prospective randomized comparative study of bipolar versus direct current electrocoagulation for treatment of bleeding internal hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, G M; Jensen, D M; Machicado, G A; Hirabayashi, K; Jensen, M E; You, S; Pelayo, E

    1994-01-01

    Internal hemorrhoids are the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Although new anoscopic therapies are available, few comparative randomized studies have evaluated them in regard to long-term efficacy, recurrence rates, and safety. Our purpose was to compare the treatment of internal hemorrhoids with direct current (Ultroid, Cabot Medical, Langhorn, Pa.) and bipolar (BICAP, Circon ACMI, Stamford, Conn.) hemorrhoid probes. One hundred patients with symptomatic internal hemorrhoids were randomized: 50 to direct current electrocoagulation and 50 to bipolar electrocoagulation. Follow-up and treatment were at 3- to 4-weekly intervals; two to three hemorrhoid segments were treated at each session until relief of symptoms (bleeding, prolapse, and discharge) and a reduction in hemorrhoid size to grade 1 or 0 were noted. The hemorrhoids of 98% of all patients studied were grade 2 or 3; 2% of patients had grade 1 hemorrhoids and none had grade 4 hemorrhoids. At 1 year after treatment, most patients had no (69%) or only mild (23%) recurrence, and a few had severe, symptomatic (8%) hemorrhoid recurrence. A greater recurrence rate was noted after direct current treatment (34%) than bipolar treatment (29%). In contrast, rebleeding at 1 year occurred less frequently after direct current treatment (5%) than after bipolar treatment (20%). Our conclusions were as follows: (1) Both direct current and bipolar probes were effective for control of chronic bleeding from grade 1 to 3 internal hemorrhoids. (2) Bipolar probe was significantly faster than direct current probe. (3) Direct current treatment produced fewer complications than bipolar treatment (12% versus 14%). (4) Recurrence rates were low after 1 year with either device (8%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Probing the Evaporation Dynamics of Mixed SOA/Squalane Particles Using Size-Resolved Composition and Single-Particle Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ellis Shipley; Saleh, Rawad; Donahue, Neil M

    2015-08-18

    An analysis of the formation and evaporation of mixed-particles containing squalane (a surrogate for hydrophobic primary organic aerosol, POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is presented. In these experiments, one material (D62-squalane or SOA from α-pinene + O3) was prepared first to serve as surface area for condensation of the other, forming the mixed-particles. The mixed-particles were then subjected to a heating-ramp from 22 to 44 °C. We were able to determine that (1) almost all of the SOA mass is comprised of material less volatile than D62-squalane; (2) AMS collection efficiency in these mixed-particle systems can be parametrized as a function of the relative mass fraction of the components; and (3) the vast majority of D62-squalane is able to evaporate from the mixed particles, and does so on the same time scale regardless of the order of preparation. We also performed two-population mixing experiments to directly test whether D62-squalane and SOA from α-pinene + O3 form a single solution or two separate phases. We find that these two OA types are immiscible, which informs our inference of the morphology of the mixed-particles. If the morphology is core-shell and dictated by the order of preparation, these data indicate that squalane is able to diffuse relatively quickly through the SOA shell, implying that there are no major diffusion limitations.

  13. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  14. Probing natural killer cell education by Ly49 receptor expression analysis and computational modelling in single MHC class I mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Johansson

    Full Text Available Murine natural killer (NK cells express inhibitory Ly49 receptors for MHC class I molecules, which allows for "missing self" recognition of cells that downregulate MHC class I expression. During murine NK cell development, host MHC class I molecules impose an "educating impact" on the NK cell pool. As a result, mice with different MHC class I expression display different frequency distributions of Ly49 receptor combinations on NK cells. Two models have been put forward to explain this impact. The two-step selection model proposes a stochastic Ly49 receptor expression followed by selection for NK cells expressing appropriate receptor combinations. The sequential model, on the other hand, proposes that each NK cell sequentially expresses Ly49 receptors until an interaction of sufficient magnitude with self-class I MHC is reached for the NK cell to mature. With the aim to clarify which one of these models is most likely to reflect the actual biological process, we simulated the two educational schemes by mathematical modelling, and fitted the results to Ly49 expression patterns, which were analyzed in mice expressing single MHC class I molecules. Our results favour the two-step selection model over the sequential model. Furthermore, the MHC class I environment favoured maturation of NK cells expressing one or a few self receptors, suggesting a possible step of positive selection in NK cell education. Based on the predicted Ly49 binding preferences revealed by the model, we also propose, that Ly49 receptors are more promiscuous than previously thought in their interactions with MHC class I molecules, which was supported by functional studies of NK cell subsets expressing individual Ly49 receptors.

  15. A genetic deconstruction of neurocognitive traits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P D Fernandes

    Full Text Available Impairments in cognitive functions are common in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cognitive traits have been proposed as useful for understanding the biological and genetic mechanisms implicated in cognitive function in healthy individuals and in the dysfunction observed in psychiatric disorders.Sets of genes associated with a range of cognitive functions often impaired in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were generated from a genome-wide association study (GWAS on a sample comprising 670 healthy Norwegian adults who were phenotyped for a broad battery of cognitive tests. These gene sets were then tested for enrichment of association in GWASs of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The GWAS data was derived from three independent single-centre schizophrenia samples, three independent single-centre bipolar disorder samples, and the multi-centre schizophrenia and bipolar disorder samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.The strongest enrichments were observed for visuospatial attention and verbal abilities sets in bipolar disorder. Delayed verbal memory was also enriched in one sample of bipolar disorder. For schizophrenia, the strongest evidence of enrichment was observed for the sets of genes associated with performance in a colour-word interference test and for sets associated with memory learning slope.Our results are consistent with the increasing evidence that cognitive functions share genetic factors with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our data provides evidence that genetic studies using polygenic and pleiotropic models can be used to link specific cognitive functions with psychiatric disorders.

  16. Bipolarity in planarians is not induced by space travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluys, Ronald; Stocchino, Giacinta A

    2017-08-01

    Available evidence strongly suggests that alternative, Earth-bound explanations should be sought first for the occurrence of a single bipolar planarian flatworm returning from space travel. Double-headed worms have been amply documented as arising under experimental conditions as well as spontaneously in stock cultures of planarians.

  17. Connection between Genetic and Clinical Data in Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Andreassen, Ole; Bennike, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Complex diseases may be associated with combinations of changes in DNA, where the single change has little impact alone. In a previous study of patients with bipolar disorder and controls combinations of SNP genotypes were analyzed, and four large clusters of combinations were found to be signifi...

  18. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  19. Resistant bipolar affective disorder treated by stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, A; Bridges, P K; Bartlett, J R

    1988-03-01

    The results of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy in nine patients with resistant bipolar affective disorder are presented in the form of a single case study with a summary of the other eight cases. Follow-up studies at 2-4 years showed substantial improvement in five patients and amelioration of symptoms in a further four patients, with a tendency for a greater improvement in the manic than in the depressive episodes. These preliminary results suggest that there is a place for this operation in the management of severe bipolar affective disorders which are not responding to any other treatment, although decisive recovery occurs less often than with unipolar depression.

  20. Deep brain stimulation for bipolar disorder-review and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gippert, Sabrina M; Switala, Christina; Bewernick, Bettina H; Kayser, Sarah; Bräuer, Alena; Coenen, Volker A; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Research on deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders has established preliminary efficacy signals for treatment-resistant depression. There are only few studies on DBS that included patients suffering from bipolar disorder. This article gives an overview of these studies concerning DBS targets, antidepressant efficacy, and the occurrence of manic/hypomanic symptoms under stimulation. First, promising results show that all patients experienced significant improvement in depressive symptomatology. In a single case, hypomanic symptoms occurred, but they could be resolved by adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this article highlights important clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression that have to be considered throughout the course of treatment.

  1. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  2. Indirect bipolar electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Roche, Jérome; Gianessi, Eugenio; Bouffier, Laurent; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-12-12

    Based on the principles of bipolar electrochemistry, localized pH gradients are generated at the surface of conducting particles in solution. This allows the toposelective deposition of inorganic and organic polymer layers via a pH-triggered precipitation mechanism. Due to the intrinsic symmetry breaking of the process, the concept can be used to generate in a straightforward way Janus particles, with one section consisting of deposits obtained from non-electroactive precursors. These indirect electrodeposits, such as SiO(2), TiO(2), or electrophoretic paints, can be further used as an immobilization matrix for other species like dyes or nanoparticles, thus opening promising perspectives for the synthesis of a variety of bifunctional objects with a controlled shape.

  3. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria

    2008-01-01

    disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism......Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...

  4. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...... disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism...

  5. Transverse single-spin asymmetry in the low-virtuality leptoproduction of open charm as a probe of the gluon Sivers function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha

    2018-04-01

    We study the low-virtuality inclusive leptoproduction of open charm, p↑l →D0+X as a probe of the gluon Sivers function. We perform the analysis in a generalized parton model framework. At leading order, this process is sensitive only to the gluon content of the proton. Hence any detection of a transverse single-spin asymmetry in this process would be clear indication of a non-zero gluon Sivers function (GSF). Considering COMPASS and a future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), we present predictions for asymmetry using fits for the GSF available in literature. Predictions for peak asymmetry values lie in the range of 0.8% to 13%. We also present estimates of the upper bound on the asymmetry as obtained with a maximal gluon Sivers function. Further, for the case of the Electron-Ion Collider, we evaluate the asymmetry in the muons decaying from the D -meson and find that the asymmetry is well preserved in the kinematics of the muons. Peak values of the muon asymmetry are close to those obtained for the D -meson and lie in the range 0.75% to 11%.

  6. Surface-induced effects in fluctuation-based measurements of single-polymer elasticity: A direct probe of the radius of gyration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes-Gold, Sarah N.; Morgan, Ian L.; Saleh, Omar A.

    2018-03-01

    Single-molecule measurements of polymer elasticity are powerful, direct probes of both biomolecular structure and principles of polymer physics. Recent work has revealed low-force regimes in which biopolymer elasticity is understood through blob-based scaling models. However, the small tensions required to observe these regimes have the potential to create measurement biases, particularly due to the increased interactions of the polymer chain with tethering surfaces. Here, we examine one experimentally observed bias, in which fluctuation-based estimates of elasticity report an unexpectedly low chain compliance. We show that the effect is in good agreement with predictions based on quantifying the exclusion effect of the surface through an image-method calculation of available polymer configurations. The analysis indicates that the effect occurs at an external tension inversely proportional to the polymer's zero-tension radius of gyration. We exploit this to demonstrate a self-consistent scheme for estimating the radius of gyration of the tethered polymer. This is shown in measurements of both hyaluronic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) chains.

  7. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  8. Modeling suicide in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Morris, Grace; Hamilton, Amber; Mannie, Zola

    2018-02-19

    Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence. A literature search of articles on suicide in bipolar disorder was conducted in recognized databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and PsycINFO using the keywords "suicide", "suicide in bipolar disorders", "suicide process", "suicide risk", "neurobiology of suicide" and "suicide models". Bibliographies of identified articles were further scrutinized for papers and book chapters of relevance. Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorders are well described, and provide a basis for a framework of epigenetic mechanisms, moderated by neurobiological substrates, neurocognitive functioning, and social inferences within the environment. Relevant models and theories include the diathesis-stress model, the bipolar model of suicide and the ideation-to-action models, the interpersonal theory of suicide, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. Together, these models provide a basis for the generation of an integrated model that illuminates the suicidal process, from ideation to action. Suicide is complex, and it is evident that a multidimensional and integrated approach is required to reduce its prevalence. The proposed model exposes and provides access to components of the suicide process that are potentially measurable and may serve as novel and specific therapeutic targets for interventions in the context of bipolar disorder. Thus, this model is useful not only

  9. Bipolar Cell-Photoreceptor Connectivity in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong N.; Tsujimura, Taro; Kawamura, Shoji; Dowling, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar cells convey luminance, spatial and color information from photoreceptors to amacrine and ganglion cells. We studied the photoreceptor connectivity of 321 bipolar cells in the adult zebrafish retina. 1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was inserted into whole-mounted transgenic zebrafish retinas to label bipolar cells. The photoreceptors that connect to these DiI-labeled cells were identified by transgenic fluorescence or their positions relative to the fluorescent cones, as cones are arranged in a highly-ordered mosaic: rows of alternating blue- (B) and ultraviolet-sensitive (UV) single cones alternate with rows of red- (R) and green-sensitive (G) double cones. Rod terminals intersperse among cone terminals. As many as 18 connectivity subtypes were observed, 9 of which – G, GBUV, RG, RGB, RGBUV, RGRod, RGBRod, RGBUVRod and RRod bipolar cells – accounted for 96% of the population. Based on their axon terminal stratification, these bipolar cells could be further sub-divided into ON, OFF, and ON-OFF cells. The dendritic spread size, soma depth and size, and photoreceptor connections of the 308 bipolar cells within the 9 common connectivity subtypes were determined, and their dendritic tree morphologies and axonal stratification patterns compared. We found that bipolar cells with the same axonal stratification patterns could have heterogeneous photoreceptor connectivity whereas bipolar cells with the same dendritic tree morphology usually had the same photoreceptor connectivity, although their axons might stratify on different levels. PMID:22907678

  10. Evaluation of light scattering and absorption properties ofin vivorat liver using a single-reflectance fiber probe during preischemia, ischemia-reperfusion, and postmortem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Sharmin; Maejima, Satoshi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Hinoki, Akinari; Aosasa, Suefumi; Yamamoto, Junji; Nishidate, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) has been extensively used for characterization of biological tissues as a noninvasive optical technique to evaluate the optical properties of tissue. We investigated a method for evaluating the reduced scattering coefficient , the absorption coefficient μa, the tissue oxygen saturation StO2, and the reduction of heme aa3 in cytochrome c oxidase CcO of in vivo liver tissue using a single-reflectance fiber probe with two source-collector geometries. We performed in vivo recordings of diffuse reflectance spectra for exposed rat liver during the ischemia-reperfusion induced by the hepatic portal (hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct) occlusion. The time courses of μa at 500, 530, 570, and 584 nm indicated the hemodynamic change in liver tissue as well as StO2. Significant increase in μa(605)/μa(620) during ischemia and after euthanasia induced by nitrogen breathing was observed, which indicates the reduction of heme aa3, representing a sign of mitochondrial energy failure. The time courses of at 500, 530, 570, and 584 nm were well correlated with those of μa, which also reflect the scattering by red blood cells. On the other hand, at 700 and 800 nm, a temporary increase in and an irreversible decrease in were observed during ischemia-reperfusion and after euthanasia induced by nitrogen breathing, respectively. The change in in the near-infrared wavelength region during ischemia is indicative of the morphological changes in the cellular and subcellular structures induced by the ischemia, whereas that after euthanasia implies the hepatocyte vacuolation. The results of the present study indicate the potential application of the current DRS system for evaluating the pathophysiological conditions of in vivo liver tissue.

  11. Ultra-sensitive Single Fluorescence-labeled Probe-mediated SUP-M-ddPCR for High-throughput GMO Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chenqi; Xu, Yuancong; Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Pengyu; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2018-04-13

    As genetically modified (GM) technology develops and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) become more available, GMOs face increasing regulations and pressure to adhere to strict labeling guidelines. A singleplex detection method cannot perform the high-throughput analysis necessary for optimal GMO detection. Combining the advantages of multiplex detection and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), a single universal primer-multiplex-ddPCR (SUP-M-ddPCR) strategy was proposed for accurate broad-spectrum screening and quantification. The SUP increases efficiency of the primers in PCR and plays an important role in establishing a high-throughput, multiplex detection method. Emerging ddPCR technology has been used for accurate quantification of nucleic acid molecules without a standard curve. Using maize as a reference point, four heterologous genes (35S, NOS, NPTII, and PAT) were selected to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of this strategy. Surprisingly, these four genes cover more than 93% of the transgenic maize lines and serve as preliminary screening sequences. All screening probes were labeled with FAM fluorescence, which allows the signals from the samples with GMO content and those without to be easily differentiated. This fiveplex screening method is a new development in GMO screening. Utilizing an optimal amplification assay, the specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were validated. The LOD and LOQ of this GMO screening method were 0.1 % and 0.01 %, respectively, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) <25 %. This method could serve as an important tool for the detection of GM maize from different processed, commercially available products. Further, this screening method could be applied to other fields that require reliable and sensitive detection of DNA targets.

  12. [Genetics of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M; Forstner, A J; Adorjan, K; Schaupp, S K; Nöthen, M M; Schulze, T G

    2017-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology. Its development is influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which genetic risk allelic variants for the disorder could be replicated for the first time, marked the breakthrough in the identification of the responsible risk genes. In addition to these common genetic variants with moderate effects identified by GWAS, rare variants with a higher penetrance are expected to play a role in disease development. The results of recent studies suggest that copy number variants might contribute to BD development, although to a lesser extent than in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or autism. Results from the initial next generation sequencing studies indicate an enrichment of rare variants in pathways and genes that were previously found to be associated with BD. In the field of pharmacogenetics, a risk gene that influences the individual variance in the response to lithium treatment was identified for the first time in a recent large international GWAS. Currently the reported risk alleles do not sufficiently explain the phenotypic variance to be used for individual prediction of disease risk, disease course or response to medication. Future genetic research will provide important insights into the biological basis of BD by the identification of additional genes associated with BD. This knowledge of genetics will help identify potential etiological subgroups as well as cross-diagnostic disease mechanisms.

  13. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... Think about death or suicide Can children and teens with bipolar disorder have other problems? Young people ...

  14. Single-particle characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) ash particles using low- Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, HeeJin; Ro, Chul-Un

    Environmentally benign treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) ashes has been a worldwide issue since more countries are implementing incineration to reduce waste volume. A single-particle analytical technique, named low- Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low- Z particle EPMA) was applied to characterize MSW fly- and bottom-ash particle samples collected from two municipal incinerators in Korea. According to their chemical composition, many distinctive particle types were identified. For fly ash sample collected in one incinerator (sample S1), where lime slurry injection is used for acid-gas treatment, CaCO 3-containing particles (28.4%) are the most abundantly encountered, followed by carbonaceous (23.6%), SiO 2-containing (13.8%), NaCl-containing (13.1%), and iron-containing (10.5%) particles. For fly ash sample collected at the other incinerator (sample S2), NaCl-containing particles (40.4%) are the most abundantly encountered, followed by iron-containing (29.1%), carbonaceous (11.8%), CaCO 3-containing (2.2%), and SiO 2-containing (7.0%) particles. For bottom ash sample collected at one incinerator (sample S3), iron-containing particles (46.6%) are the most abundantly encountered, followed by CaCO 3-containing (17.3%), carbonaceous (16.6%), and Si and/or Al oxide-containing (15.8%) particles. For bottom ash sample collected in the other incinerator (sample S4), iron-containing particles (63.4%) are also the most abundantly encountered, followed by carbonaceous (14.0%), CaCO 3-containing (10.0%), and Si and/or Al oxide-containing (6.1%) particles. Chemical compositions of the two bottom ash samples are not much different compared to those of the two fly ash samples. It was demonstrated that the single-particle characterization using this low- Z particle EPMA technique provided detailed information on various types of chemical species in the MSW ash samples. In addition, the technique has advantage over conventional analytical techniques in the

  15. Models for the structure and origin of bipolar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of bipolar nebulae-symmetric reflection nebulae centered on evolved, mass-losing stars-can most simply be accounted for in terms of an axisymmetric distribution of outflowing dust in which the dust is concentrated towards an equatorial plane and declines monotonically with latitude above that plane. The symmetrically placed ''horns'' that can be seen radiating out of some bipolar nebulae, notably GL 2688, are a natural consequence of such a dust distribution if, at some latitude, the radial optical depth to starlight falls rapidly below unity. Several models of bipolar nebulae are presented. These structural models for bipolar nebulae lead in turn to an investigation of how such a geometry might arise. Although nonradial pulsation, rotationally forced mass ejection by a single star, and mass loss from a common envelope binary are all considered, the most attractive origin for bipolar nebulae is a binary star system in which the primary is evolving up the red giant branch to the point at which its radius approaches its tidal radius. If this occurs before corotation of the primary with the secondary's orbit can be achieved, then matter from the primary's enveloped can be gravitationally ejected from the system by the secondary, the ejected material being concentrated toward the system's equatorial plane. Numerical models of this phenomenon show that gravitational ejection from an asynchronous binary system easily leads to terminal outflow velocities in the observed range (20--50 km s -1 ), and that the rate of mass loss and the time scale over which the mass ejection takes place are consistent with observations if the particle density in the outer layers of the primary's atmosphere from which the material is extracted is in the range 10 14 --10 15 cm -3 . If this hypothesis is applicable, bipolar nebulae will probably become planetary nebulae, as previously suggested on observational grounds

  16. Exercising control over bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2016-11-01

    Following extensive research exercise has emerged as an effective treatment for major depressive disorder, and it is now a recognised therapy alongside other interventions. In contrast, there is a paucity of research examining the therapeutic effects of exercise for those with bipolar disorder. Given that dysfunctional reward processing is central to bipolar disorder, research suggests that exercise can perhaps be framed as a reward-related event that may have the potential to precipitate a manic episode. The behavioural activation system (BAS) is a neurobehavioural system that is associated with responding to reward and provides an appropriate framework to theoretically examine and better understand the effects of exercise treatment on bipolar disorder. This article discusses recent research findings and provides an overview of the extant literature related to the neurobiological underpinnings of BAS and exercise as they relate to bipolar disorder. This is important clinically because depending on mood state in bipolar disorder, we postulate that exercise could be either beneficial or deleterious with positive or negative effects on the illness. Clearly, this complicates the evaluation of exercise as a potential treatment in terms of identifying its optimal characteristics in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisas recentes têm implicado fatores imunes na patogênese de diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os trabalhos que investigaram a associação entre transtorno bipolar e alterações em parâmetros imunes. MÉTODOS: Artigos que incluíam as palavras-chave: "bipolar disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" e "tumor necrosis factor" foram selecionados em uma revisão sistemática da literatura. As bases de dados avaliadas foram MedLine e Scopus, entre os anos de 1980 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 28 trabalhos que estudaram alterações imunes em pacientes com transtorno bipolar. Seis artigos investigaram genes relacionados à resposta imune; cinco, autoanticorpos; quatro, populações leucocitárias; 13, citocinas e/ou moléculas relacionadas à resposta imune e seis, leucócitos de pacientes in vitro. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja evidências na literatura correlacionando o transtorno bipolar a alterações imunes, os dados não são conclusivos. O transtorno bipolar parece estar associado a níveis mais elevados de autoanticorpos circulantes, assim como à tendência à ativação imune com produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e redução de parâmetros anti-inflamatórios.OBJECTIVE: Emerging research has implicated immune factors in the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of the present paper is to review the studies that investigated the association between bipolar disorder and immune parameters. METHODS: Papers that included the keywords "bipolar to disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" and "tumor necrosis factor" were selected in a systematic review of the literature. The evaluated databases were MedLine and Scopus in the period between 1980 and 2008. RESULTS: Twenty eight works were found. Six studies investigated immune response

  18. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  19. Transcultural aspects of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Marsal; Jorge, Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.Cultural variations in the expression of emotions have been described. Consequently, there are cross-cultural influences on the diagnosis and management o...

  20. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term. Moreover, electronic data could possibly represent candidate markers of diagnosis and illness activity in bipolar disorder and allow for early and individualized intervention for prodromal symptoms outside clinical settings. 
The present dissertation concerns the use of electronic monitoring as a marker and treatment intervention in bipolar disorder and investigated the scientific literature and body of evidence within the area, which includes ten original study reports and two systematic reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis, conducted by the author of the dissertation. 
Taken together, the literature presented in this dissertation illustrates that 1) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring of mood seems to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms and enables the long-term characterization of mood

instability in bipolar disorder; 2) preliminary results suggest that smartphone-based automatically generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had no effects on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder, according to a randomized controlled trial; and 4) electronic monitoring of psychomotor

  1. Anticonvulsivantes e antipsicóticos no tratamento do transtorno bipolar Anticonvulsants and antipsychotics in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Moreno

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é uma condição médica complexa e até o momento não há um tratamento único comprovadamente eficaz no controle de todos aspectos da doença. Foram revisadas a literatura disponível sobre o uso de anticonvulsivantes (valproato, carbamazepina, oxcarbazepina, lamotrigina, gabapentina, topiramato, clonazepam e antipsicóticos atípicos (clozapina, risperidona, olanzapina, quetiapina, ziprasidona e aripiprazole no tratamento agudo e profilático do transtorno bipolar. Existe um acúmulo de evidências acerca da eficácia do lítio na profilaxia e de ser melhor no tratamento da mania aguda do que nos episódios depressivos. Outros dados indicam que a carbamazepina e o valproato são eficazes na mania aguda. A lamotrigina parece reduzir ciclagem e ser eficaz em episódios depressivos. Baseado nas informações disponíveis, as evidências apontam a olanzapina como o antipsicótico atípico mais apropriado no tratamento de pacientes bipolares em mania, embora existam estudos sugerindo a eficácia da risperidona, aripiprazol e da clozapina. Resultados preliminares avaliando a eficácia de ziprasidona e quetiapina no transtorno bipolar ainda são bastante limitadas. Não há dados consistentes apoiando o uso profilático dos novos antipsicóticos.Bipolar disorder is a complex medical condition, and up to the date there is no single treatment with proven efficacy in the control of all aspects of the illness. The available literature on the use of anticonvulsants (valproate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, clonazepam and atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole for acute and prophylactic treatment of bipolar disorder was reviewed. There is a large amount of evidence that lithium is efficacious in the prophylaxis of episodes and better for acute mania than for depressive episodes. Other data show that carbamazepine and valproate are

  2. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  3. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  4. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  5. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning.......A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...

  6. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Bipolarity in Jungian type theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, S A; Stake, J E

    1993-04-01

    The standard form of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was constructed to measure introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuiting, and thinking/feeling as single, bipolar dimensions. We tested this assumption of bipolarity with a Likert form of the MBTI that allowed for the independent assessment of each attitude and function. A total of 106 female and 59 male undergraduate and graduate students completed the standard and Likert MBTI forms approximately 3 weeks apart. Evidence for the bipolarity of the introversion/extroversion dimension was weak, and findings did not support the bipolarity of the sensing/intuiting or thinking/feeling dimensions. Results provide evidence that high negative correlations within MBTI dimensions are an artifact of its forced-choice format. Implications of the findings for typology measurement are discussed.

  8. Plasma gradient effects on double-probe measurements in the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laakso

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects on double-probe electric field measurements induced by electron density and temperature gradients are investigated. We show that on some occasions such gradients may lead to marked spurious electric fields if the probes are assumed to lie at the same probe potential with respect to the plasma. The use of a proper bias current will decrease the magnitude of such an error. When the probes are near the plasma potential, the magnitude of these error signals, ∆E, can vary as ∆E ~ Te(∆ne/ne+0.5∆Te, where Te is the electron temperature, ∆ne/ne the relative electron density variation between the two sensors, and ∆Te the electron temperature difference between the two sensors. This not only implies that the error signals will increase linearly with the density variations but also that such signatures grow with Te, i.e., such effects are 10 times larger in a 10-eV plasma than in a 1-eV plasma. This type of error is independent of the probe separation distance provided the gradient scale length is much larger than this distance. The largest errors occur when the probes are near to the plasma potential. At larger positive probe potentials with respect to the plasma potential, the error becomes smaller if the probes are biased, as is usually the case with spherical double-probe experiments in the tenuous magnetospheric plasmas. The crossing of a plasma boundary (like the plasmapause or magnetopause yields an error signal of a single peak. During the crossing of a small structure (e.g., a double layer the error signal appears as a bipolar signature. Our analysis shows that errors in double-probe measurements caused by plasma gradients are not significant at large scale (»1 km plasma boundaries, and may only be important in cases where small-scale (<1 km, internal gradient structures exist. Bias currents tailored for each plasma parameter regime (i.e., variable bias current would o1q1improve the double-probe response to gradient

  9. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Perlis, Roy H.

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder,

  10. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  11. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  12. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  13. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Bipolar (spectrum) disorder and mood stabilization: standing at the crossroads?

    OpenAIRE

    De Fruyt, Jurgen; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research. When compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar research still remains limited and more expert based than evidence based. In bipolar diagnosis the focus is shifting from classic mania to bipolar depression and hypomania. There is a search for bipolar signatures in symptoms and course of major depressive episodes. The criteria for hypomania are softened,...

  15. [Bipolar disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severus, E; Bauer, M

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013 the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) edited by the American Psychiatric Association was published. The DSM-5 has also brought some important changes regarding bipolar disorders. The goal of this manuscript is to review the novelties in DSM-5 and to evaluate the implications of these changes. The diagnostic criteria as well as the additional remarks provided in the running text of DSM-5 were carefully appraised. For the first time diagnostic criteria are provided for disorders which up to now have been considered as subthreshold bipolar disorders. Furthermore, mixed episodes were eliminated and instead a mixed specifier was introduced. An increase in goal-directed activity/energy is now one of the obligatory symptoms for a (hypo)manic episode. Diagnostic guidance is provided as to when a (hypo)manic episode that has developed during treatment with an antidepressant has to be judged to be causally related to antidepressants and when this episode has only occurred coincidentally with antidepressant use. While some of the novelties are clearly useful, e.g. addition of increased goal-directed activity/energy as obligatory symptom for (hypo)manic episodes, this remains to be demonstrated for others, such as the definition of various subthreshold bipolar disorders.

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy in single manic episodes: a case series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of Bipolar I Disorder patients with a single manic episode. Method: In a retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of inpatients who had been admitted to treat a single manic episode of Bipolar I Disorder at Noor University Hospital, ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  18. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  19. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  20. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. An Analysis of 1/f2 Phase Noise in Bipolar Colpitts Oscillators (With a Digression on Bipolar Differential-Pair LC Oscillators)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fard, A.; Andreani, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of phase noise in the $1/f^{2}$ region displayed by both single-ended and differential bipolar Colpitts oscillators. Very accurate and rigorous symbolic phase noise expressions are derived, enabling a deeper insight into the major mechanisms of phase noise generatio...

  2. [Thinking organization and defense mechanisms in bipolar disorders. Clinical and psychopathological study on bipolar I and bipolar II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Baido, Rosa; Di Blasi, Marie; Alfano, Pietro; Audino, Palma; Bellavia, Carmela; Blando, Anna Antonia; Merendino, Adelaide; Messina, Rossana; Poma, Maria Luisa; La Grutta, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the psychical functioning in bipolar I or bipolar II disorder people through the analysis and comparison of their thought styles and defense patterns. 29 bipolar I and bipolar II people afferent to Palermo University Policlinical Psychriatic Hospital Department were selected during the whole 2009-2010 year. The following tests were administred: Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-R (WAIS-R) in order to measure the general cognitive function; Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) in order to measure defense patterns. Afterwards, the results of the two tests were analysed and compared. Bipolar disorder people use cognitive mechanisms and defense strategies that are very different from standard population. Bipolar I subjects show both wider and more serious cognitive deterioration and stricter defense mechanisms than bipolar II subjects. Generally bipolar patients show an immature personality based on archaic mechanisms that can be found in all the spheres of their personality: emotions, cognition, Ego-strength, adaptability to reality. The peculiar achieved cognitive and defense profile leads to important considerations about how psychological strategies can contribute to use "bespoke" treatments for these patients.

  3. Poorer sustained attention in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Heng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all information processing during cognitive processing takes place during periods of sustained attention. Sustained attention deficit is among the most commonly reported impairments in bipolar disorder (BP. The majority of previous studies have only focused on bipolar I disorder (BP I, owing to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of bipolar II disorder (BP II. With the refinement of the bipolar spectrum paradigm, the goal of this study was to compare the sustained attention of interepisode patients with BP I to those with BP II. Methods In all, 51 interepisode BP patients (22 with BP I and 29 with BP II and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. All participants undertook Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II to evaluate sustained attention. Results After controlling for the severity of symptoms, age and years of education, BP I patients had a significantly longer reaction times (F(2,68 = 7.648, P = 0.001, worse detectability (d' values (F(2,68 = 6.313, P = 0.003 and more commission errors (F(2,68 = 6.182, P = 0.004 than BP II patients and healthy controls. BP II patients and controls scored significantly higher than BP I patients for d' (F = 6.313, P = 0.003. No significant difference was found among the three groups in omission errors and no significant correlations were observed between CPT-II performance and clinical characteristics in the three groups. Conclusions These findings suggested that impairments in sustained attention might be more representative of BP I than BP II after controlling for the severity of symptoms, age, years of education and reaction time on the attentional test. A longitudinal follow-up study design with a larger sample size might be needed to provide more information on chronological sustained attention deficit in BP patients, and to illustrate

  4. Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Characteristics and Outcomes in the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Ford, Julian D; Pearson, Geraldine S; Scranton, Victoria L; Dusad, Asha

    2017-12-01

    To assess patient characteristics and clinician-rated outcomes for children diagnosed with early-onset bipolar disorder in comparison to a depressive disorders cohort from a single clinic site. To assess predictors of bipolar treatment response. Medical records from 714 consecutive pediatric patients evaluated and treated at an academic tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry clinic between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Charts of bipolar children (n = 49) and children with depressive disorders (n = 58) meeting study inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared on variables assessing clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by using pre- and post-Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Severity and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, and a CGI-Improvement score ≤2 at final visit determined responder status. Bipolar outcome predictors were assessed by using multiple linear regression. Clinic prevalence rates were 6.9% for early-onset bipolar disorder and 1.5% for very early-onset bipolar disorder. High rates of comorbid diagnoses, symptom severity, parental stress, and child high-risk behaviors were found in both groups. The bipolar cohort had higher rates of aggression and higher lifetime systems of care utilization. The final CGI and CGAS outcomes for unipolar depression patients differed statistically significantly from those for the bipolar cohort, reflecting better clinical status and more improvement at outcome for the depression patients. Both parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist total T-score at clinic admission and the number of lifetime systems-of-care for the child were significantly and inversely associated with improvement for the bipolar cohort. Early-onset bipolar disorder is a complex and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. Evidence-based treatment should emphasize psychopharmacology with adjunctive family and individual psychotherapy. Strategies to improve engagement in treatment may be especially

  5. Mapping of single-copy DNA sequences on human chromosomes by in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes: Enhancement of detection sensitivity by intensified-fluorescence digital-imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.; Dutrillaux, B.; Magdelenat, H. (Institut Curie, Paris (France)); Coppey-Moisan, M. (Institut Curie, Paris (France) Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Orsay (France))

    1989-01-01

    Two single-copy DNA segments of 6 kilobases (kb) and 2.3 kb were labeled with biotin-labeled dUTP (Bio-11-dUTP) and hybridized to human chromosomes. These probes were detected by immunofluorescence and directly mapped on chromosomes by using classical fluorescence microscopy and a microchannel-plate-intensified video camera. By a subsequent R-banding, the 6-kb and 2.3-kb fragments were precisely localized to the 18p11.3 band and to the 22q11.2 band, respectively, in agreement with previous results obtained with radioactive probes. The adaptation of fluorescence intensification and digital image processing (frame integration to enhance signal-to-noise ratio and linear contrast stretching) to microscopy makes it possible to detect very weak fluorescent spots on chromosomes. This system allows a high spatial resolution, even at very low fluorescence levels. The efficiency and the specificity of the hybridization and detection methodology give a direct and precise localization of the short single-copy sequences on human chromosomes.

  6. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  7. Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Kupfer, David J

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders. PMID:23663952

  8. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  9. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotufo Neto, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  10. NO signaling in retinal bipolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, A; Vielma, A H; Cadiz, B; Couve, E; Schmachtenberg, O

    2017-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a neuromodulator involved in physiological and pathological processes in the retina. In the inner retina, a subgroup of amacrine cells have been shown to synthesize NO, but bipolar cells remain controversial as NO sources. This study correlates NO synthesis in dark-adapted retinas, through labeling with the NO marker DAF-FM, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS expression, and presence of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase in bipolar cells. NO containing bipolar cells were morphologically identified by dialysis of DAF fluorescent cells with intracellular dyes, or by DAF labeling followed by immunohistochemistry for nNOS and other cellular markers. DAF fluorescence was observed in all types of bipolar cells that could be identified, but the most intense DAF fluorescence was observed in bipolar cells with severed processes, supporting pathological NO signaling. Among nNOS expressing bipolar cells, type 9 was confirmed unequivocally, while types 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, 7, 8 and the rod bipolar cell were devoid of this enzyme. These results establish specific bipolar cell types as NO sources in the inner retina, and support the involvement of NO signaling in physiological and pathological processes in the inner retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  12. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  13. Radiofrequency Coblation Versus Intramural Bipolar Cautery for the Treatment of Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anil N; Brewster, Douglas; Mitzen, Kelly; Mullin, David

    2015-09-01

    Compare intramural bipolar electrocautery and radiofrequency coblation in the treatment of inferior turbinate hypertrophy with regards to objective and subjective improvement in nasal obstruction, rate and type of complications, experience during the procedure, and rate of recovery. Prospective, single-blinded study. Single tertiary medical center from 2008 to 2010. Forty-one adult patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy refractory to medical management were treated with radiofrequency coblation in one nostril and intramural bipolar cautery in the other. Subjective and objective data, including use of a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for subjective outcomes, acoustic rhinometry, and nasal endoscopy, were then obtained from each patient comparing the 2 techniques. Radiofrequency coblation was significantly less painful than intramural bipolar cautery during the procedure (P = .03) and during the early postoperative period (P hypertrophy with less discomfort during the procedure and early post-operative period. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  15. Diagnostic stability in pediatric bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel Kessing, Lars; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic stability of pediatric bipolar disorder has not been investigated previously. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic stability of the ICD-10 diagnosis of pediatric mania/bipolar disorder.METHODS: All patients below 19 years of age who got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder at least once in a period from 1994 to 2012 at psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contact in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register.RESULTS: Totally, 354 children and adolescents got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder at least once; a minority, 144 patients (40.7%) got the diagnosis...... at the first contact whereas the remaining patients (210; 59.3%) got the diagnosis at later contacts before age 19. For the latter patients, the median time elapsed from first treatment contact with the psychiatric service system to the first diagnosis with a manic episode/bipolar disorder was nearly 1 year...

  16. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  17. Nanofluidic diode and bipolar transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi; Oka, Yukiko; Shirono, Katsuhiro

    2005-11-01

    Theoretical modeling of ionic distribution and transport in a nanochannel containing a surface charge on its wall, 30 nm high and 5 microm long, suggests that ionic current can be controlled by locally modifying the surface charge density through a gate electrode, even if the electrical double layers are not overlapped. When the surface charge densities at the right and left halves of a channel are the same absolute value but of different signs, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic diode. When the surface charge density at the middle part of a channel is modified, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic bipolar transistor.

  18. ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Ricardo A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar Disorder (BD is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED. The Bipolar Spectrum (BS remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis.

  19. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and in major depressive disorder within bipolar disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Philip B; Frankland, Andrew; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Roberts, Gloria; Corry, Justine; Wright, Adam; Loo, Colleen K; Breakspear, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Although genetic epidemiological studies have confirmed increased rates of major depressive disorder among the relatives of people with bipolar affective disorder, no report has compared the clinical characteristics of depression between these two groups. To compare clinical features of depressive episodes across participants with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder from within bipolar disorder pedigrees, and assess the utility of a recently proposed probabilistic approach to distinguishing bipolar from unipolar depression. A secondary aim was to identify subgroups within the relatives with major depression potentially indicative of 'genetic' and 'sporadic' subgroups. Patients with bipolar disorder types 1 and 2 (n = 246) and patients with major depressive disorder from bipolar pedigrees (n = 120) were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Logistic regression was used to identify distinguishing clinical features and assess the utility of the probabilistic approach. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups within the major depressive disorder sample. Bipolar depression was characterised by significantly higher rates of psychomotor retardation, difficulty thinking, early morning awakening, morning worsening and psychotic features. Depending on the threshold employed, the probabilistic approach yielded a positive predictive value ranging from 74% to 82%. Two clusters within the major depressive disorder sample were found, one of which demonstrated features characteristic of bipolar depression, suggesting a possible 'genetic' subgroup. A number of previously identified clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression were confirmed among participants from within bipolar disorder pedigrees. Preliminary validation of the probabilistic approach in differentiating between unipolar and bipolar depression is consistent with dimensional distinctions between the two disorders and offers clinical utility in

  1. A YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive TOPSIS method to bipolar disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lu, Zhenyu; Du, Zhenguang; Luo, Qi; Chen, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder. Thus, in this paper, a YinYang bipolar fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis is developed. Comparing with the existing method, the new one is more comprehensive. The merits of the new method are listed as follows: First of all, multi-criteria group decision making method is introduced into bipolar disorder diagnosis for considering different symptoms and multiple doctors' opinions. Secondly, the discreet diagnosis principle is adopted by the revised TOPSIS method. Last but not the least, YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive map is provided for the understanding of interrelations among symptoms. The illustrated case demonstrates the feasibility, validity, and necessity of the theoretical results obtained. Moreover, the comparison analysis demonstrates that the diagnosis result is more accurate, when interrelations about symptoms are considered in the proposed method. In a conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mathematical approach to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis, in which both bipolarity and complexity are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can neuroimaging disentangle bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozer, Franz; Houenou, Josselin

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder heterogeneity is large, leading to difficulties in identifying neuropathophysiological and etiological mechanisms and hindering the formation of clinically homogeneous patient groups in clinical trials. Identifying markers of clinically more homogeneous groups would help disentangle BD heterogeneity. Neuroimaging may aid in identifying such groups by highlighting specific biomarkers of BD subtypes or clinical dimensions. We performed a systematic literature search of the neuroimaging literature assessing biomarkers of relevant BD phenotypes (type-I vs. II, presence vs. absence of psychotic features, suicidal behavior and impulsivity, rapid cycling, good vs. poor medication response, age at onset, cognitive performance and circadian abnormalities). Consistent biomarkers were associated with suicidal behavior, i.e. frontal/anterior alterations (prefrontal and cingulate grey matter, prefrontal white matter) in patients with a history of suicide attempts; and with cognitive performance, i.e. involvement of frontal and temporal regions, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right thalamic radiation, and corpus callosum in executive dysfunctions. For the other dimensions and sub-types studied, no consistent biomarkers were identified. Studies were heterogeneous both in methodology and outcome. Though theoretically promising, neuroimaging has not yet proven capable of disentangling subtypes and dimensions of bipolar disorder, due to high between-study heterogeneity. We issue recommendations for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Fouzia; Banerji, Suneale; Howarth, Mark; Jackson, David G.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices.

  4. Probing the cooperative nature of the conductive components in polystyrene/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate)-single- walled carbon nanotube composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermant, M. -C; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.; Klumperman, B.; Koning, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    The percolation threshold of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) introduced into polystyrene (PS) via a latex-based route has been reduced by using conductive surfactants. The use of the conductive polymeric latex, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in

  5. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  6. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  7. Probing the role of metal cations on the aggregation behavior of amyloid β-peptide at a single molecule level by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yang; Wang, Jianhua, E-mail: wjh@cqu.edu.cn; Liu, Chundong [Chongqing University, Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    With the development of nanotechnology, understanding of intermolecular interactions on a single molecule level by atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) has played an important role in molecular biology and biomedical science. In recent years, some research suggested that the presence of metal cations is an important regulator in the processes of misfolding and aggregation of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which may be an important etiological factor of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the knowledge on the principle of interactions between Aβ and metal cations at the single molecule level is still poor understood. In this paper, the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) was fabricated on substrate of mixed thiol-modified gold nanoparticles using self-assembled monolayer method and the adhesion force in the longitudinal direction between metal cations and Aβ42 were investigated by AFM. The role of metal ions on Aβ aggregation is discussed from the perspective of single molecular force. The force results showed that the specific adhesion force F{sub i} and the nonspecific force F{sub 0} between a single Aβ–Aβ pair in control experiment were calculated as 42 ± 3 and 80 pN, respectively. However, F{sub i} between a single Aβ–Aβ pair in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} increased dramatically to 84 ± 6, 89 ± 3, 73 ± 5, 95 ± 5 pN successively, which indicated that unbinding between Aβ proteins is accelerated in the presence of metal cations. What is more, the imaging results showed that substoichiometric copper cations accelerate the formation of fibrils within 3 days. The combined atomic force spectroscopy and imaging analysis indicate that metal cations play a role in promoting the aggregating behavior of Aβ42.

  8. Probing the role of metal cations on the aggregation behavior of amyloid β-peptide at a single molecule level by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Chundong

    2016-09-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, understanding of intermolecular interactions on a single molecule level by atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) has played an important role in molecular biology and biomedical science. In recent years, some research suggested that the presence of metal cations is an important regulator in the processes of misfolding and aggregation of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ), which may be an important etiological factor of Alzheimer's disease. However, the knowledge on the principle of interactions between Aβ and metal cations at the single molecule level is still poor understood. In this paper, the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) was fabricated on substrate of mixed thiol-modified gold nanoparticles using self-assembled monolayer method and the adhesion force in the longitudinal direction between metal cations and Aβ42 were investigated by AFM. The role of metal ions on Aβ aggregation is discussed from the perspective of single molecular force. The force results showed that the specific adhesion force F i and the nonspecific force F 0 between a single Aβ-Aβ pair in control experiment were calculated as 42 ± 3 and 80 pN, respectively. However, F i between a single Aβ-Aβ pair in the presence of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ca2+ and Al3+ increased dramatically to 84 ± 6, 89 ± 3, 73 ± 5, 95 ± 5 pN successively, which indicated that unbinding between Aβ proteins is accelerated in the presence of metal cations. What is more, the imaging results showed that substoichiometric copper cations accelerate the formation of fibrils within 3 days. The combined atomic force spectroscopy and imaging analysis indicate that metal cations play a role in promoting the aggregating behavior of Aβ42.

  9. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  10. No association between DGKH and bipolar disorder in a Scandinavian case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesli, Martin; Kähler, Anna; Andreassen, Bettina

    2009-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) have recently been shown to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). To replicate this finding, we carried out a gene-wide genotyping of 36 tagSNPs in DGKH and performed a population-based association study on two...

  11. The Use of Narrative Therapy with Clients Diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngazimbi, Evadne E.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Clients diagnosed with bipolar disorder often suffer from mood instability, and research suggests that these clients need both counseling services and pharmacotherapy. Narrative therapy is a social constructionist approach grounded on the premise that there is no single "truth"; individuals may create new meanings and retell their stories to…

  12. Psychosis and relapse in bipolar disorder are related to GRM3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; mGluR3; G72 protein; HumanDysfunction in glutamate signalling is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). There is evidence of associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRM3, GRIN2B, ...

  13. Tratamento do transtorno bipolar: eutimia Bipolar disorder treatment: euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é um quadro complexo caracterizado por episódios de depressão, mania ou hipomania e fases assintomáticas. O tratamento visa ao controle de episódios agudos e prevenção de novos episódios. O tratamento farmacológico iniciou-se com o lítio. Até o momento, o lítio permanece como o tratamento com mais evidências favoráveis na fase de manutenção. Outros tratamentos demonstram eficácia nessa fase, como o valproato, a carbamazepina e os antipsicóticos atípicos. Dos antipsicóticos atípicos o mais estudado nesta fase do tratamento é a olanzapina. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar a ação profilática de novos agentes.Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder characterized by depression episodes, mania or hypomania and asymptomatic phases. The treatment aims at the control of acute episodes and prevention of new episodes. The pharmacological treatment was inaugurated with lithium. Until the moment, lithium remains as the treatment with more favorable evidences in the maintenance phase. Other treatments demonstrate efficacy in this phase, as valproate, carbamazepine and atypical antipsychotics. Of the atypical antipsychotics, the most studied in this phase of treatment is olanzapine. More prospective studies are necessary to confirm prophylactic action of new agents.

  14. Ionizing radiations simulation on bipolar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagner, X.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the ionizing radiation effects on bipolar components and more specially their behavior facing the total dose. The first part is devoted to the radiation environments with a special attention to the spatial environments and new emergent environments. The specificities of bipolar components are then presented and their behavior facing the interactions. The physical mechanisms bound to the dose rate are also discussed. The second part presents a physical analysis of degradations induced by the cumulated dosimetry on bipolar components and simulation with the ATLAS code. The third part exposes an electric empirical simulation induced by the cumulated dose in static conditions. (A.L.B.)

  15. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Mackali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an early-onset, chronic disorder. It impairs occupational, social, and family functioning, which makes learning to adapt living with the disorder and its treatment critically important. Therefore, it has now become common knowledge that psychosocial interventions are also necessary in the treatment of bipolar disorder adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Thus, whichever psychosocial interventions are more effective in bipolar disorder is a crucial research question. In this article, cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is applied adjunctive to pharmacotherapy, will be addressed and the findings of research about the effectiveness of these applications will be reviewed.

  17. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  18. Two-color spectroscopy of UV excited ssDNA complex with a single-wall nanotube probe: Fast nucleobase autoionization mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatova, Tetyana; Balaeff, Alexander; Zheng, Ming; Blades, Michael; Stoeckl, Peter; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2015-01-01

    DNA autoionization is a fundamental process wherein UV-photoexcited nucleobases dissipate energy by charge transfer to the environment without undergoing chemical damage. Here, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are explored as a photoluminescent reporter for studying the mechanism and rates of DNA autoionization. Two-color photoluminescence spectroscopy allows separate photoexcitation of the DNA and the SWNTs in the UV and visible range, respectively. A strong SWNT photoluminescence quenchi...

  19. Localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant{sup ®} DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe: A new approach to study nuclear nanostructure at single molecule resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika [Laboratory of Cell Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków (Poland); Szczurek, Aleksander T. [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Prakash, Kirti [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Mohana, Giriram K. [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Lee, Hyun-Keun [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Mainz (JGU), Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Roignant, Jean-Yves [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Birk, Udo J. [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Mainz (JGU), Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Dobrucki, Jurek W., E-mail: jerzy.dobrucki@uj.edu.pl [Laboratory of Cell Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków (Poland); Cremer, Christoph, E-mail: c.cremer@imb-mainz.de [Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Ackermannweg 4, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology (IPMB), University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Mainz (JGU), Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Higher order chromatin structure is not only required to compact and spatially arrange long chromatids within a nucleus, but have also important functional roles, including control of gene expression and DNA processing. However, studies of chromatin nanostructures cannot be performed using conventional widefield and confocal microscopy because of the limited optical resolution. Various methods of superresolution microscopy have been described to overcome this difficulty, like structured illumination and single molecule localization microscopy. We report here that the standard DNA dye Vybrant{sup ®} DyeCycle™ Violet can be used to provide single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) images of DNA in nuclei of fixed mammalian cells. This SMLM method enabled optical isolation and localization of large numbers of DNA-bound molecules, usually in excess of 10{sup 6} signals in one cell nucleus. The technique yielded high-quality images of nuclear DNA density, revealing subdiffraction chromatin structures of the size in the order of 100 nm; the interchromatin compartment was visualized at unprecedented optical resolution. The approach offers several advantages over previously described high resolution DNA imaging methods, including high specificity, an ability to record images using a single wavelength excitation, and a higher density of single molecule signals than reported in previous SMLM studies. The method is compatible with DNA/multicolor SMLM imaging which employs simple staining methods suited also for conventional optical microscopy. - Highlights: • Super-resolution imaging of nuclear DNA with Vybrant Violet and blue excitation. • 90nm resolution images of DNA structures in optically thick eukaryotic nuclei. • Enhanced resolution confirms the existence of DNA-free regions inside the nucleus. • Optimized imaging conditions enable multicolor super-resolution imaging.

  20. Probing DNA interactions with proteins using a single-molecule toolbox: inside the cell, in a test tube and in a computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J M; Miller, Helen; Zhou, Zhaokun; Leake, Mark C

    2015-04-01

    DNA-interacting proteins have roles in multiple processes, many operating as molecular machines which undergo dynamic meta-stable transitions to bring about their biological function. To fully understand this molecular heterogeneity, DNA and the proteins that bind to it must ideally be interrogated at a single molecule level in their native in vivo environments, in a time-resolved manner, fast enough to sample the molecular transitions across the free-energy landscape. Progress has been made over the past decade in utilizing cutting-edge tools of the physical sciences to address challenging biological questions concerning the function and modes of action of several different proteins which bind to DNA. These physiologically relevant assays are technically challenging but can be complemented by powerful and often more tractable in vitro experiments which confer advantages of the chemical environment with enhanced detection signal-to-noise of molecular signatures and transition events. In the present paper, we discuss a range of techniques we have developed to monitor DNA-protein interactions in vivo, in vitro and in silico. These include bespoke single-molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques to elucidate the architecture and dynamics of the bacterial replisome and the structural maintenance of bacterial chromosomes, as well as new computational tools to extract single-molecule molecular signatures from live cells to monitor stoichiometry, spatial localization and mobility in living cells. We also discuss recent developments from our laboratory made in vitro, complementing these in vivo studies, which combine optical and magnetic tweezers to manipulate and image single molecules of DNA, with and without bound protein, in a new super-resolution fluorescence microscope.

  1. Probing the importance of clonality: Single cell subcloning of clonally derived CHO cell lines yields widely diverse clones differing in growth, productivity, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Peggy; Misaghi, Shahram; Hu, Zhilan; Zhan, Dejin; Tsukuda, Joni; Yim, Mandy; Sanford, Mark; Shaw, David; Shiratori, Masaru; Snedecor, Brad; Laird, Michael; Shen, Amy

    2017-12-11

    In the past few decades, a large variety of therapeutic antibodies and proteins have been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This mammalian expression system is robust, scalable, relatively inexpensive, and importantly allows for post-translational modifications that are important for some therapeutic proteins. Historically, CHO cell lines were derived from colonies of cells grown in semi-solid or liquid plates using either serum-containing or serum-free media. Current advancements in cell sorting and imaging technologies have allowed for isolating and imaging single cell progenitors at the seeding step, significantly increasing the probability of isolating clonally derived cell lines. However, it is debatable how much population heterogeneity can be eliminated when clonally derived cell lines, originated from a single cell progenitor, are scaled up. To further investigate this phenomenon, we subcloned two different clonally derived (day 0 imaged and visually inspected) cell lines expressing antibody-X. The results showed that when six randomly chosen subclones of each line were evaluated in a production assay, these subclones displayed a range of variation in titer, specific productivity, growth, and product quality attributes. Some subclones displayed variations in transgene copy numbers. Additionally, clonal derivation did not assure stability of the derived cell lines. Our findings show that cell heterogeneity exists in a population even when derived from a single cell progenitor. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Psychosis in bipolar disorder: Does it represent a more "severe" illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Cynthia Z; Ryan, Kelly A; Kamali, Masoud; Marshall, David F; Harrington, Gloria; McInnis, Melvin G; Tso, Ivy F

    2018-02-01

    Although there is a common clinical assumption that bipolar disorder with psychotic features reflects greater severity than bipolar disorder without psychosis, the existing empirical literature is mixed. This study investigated the phenomenology of psychosis as well as demographic, clinical, functional, and neuropsychological features in a large, cross-sectional sample of participants with bipolar disorder divided by history of psychosis. In a large single study, 168 affective-only bipolar disorder (BP-A) participants and 213 bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis (BP-P) participants completed a comprehensive clinical diagnostic interview and neuropsychological testing. t tests, chi-square tests, and Bayes factors were used to investigate group differences or lack thereof. The prevalence of psychosis in this sample (53%) was similar to published reports. Nearly half of BP-P participants experienced grandiose delusions, and relatively few endorsed "first-rank" hallucinations of running commentary or two or more voices conversing. There were no demographic or neuropsychological differences between groups. BP-A participants experienced greater chronicity of affective symptoms and a greater degree of rapid cycling than BP-P participants; there were no other clinical differences between groups. Overall, these results contradict the conventional notion that bipolar disorder with psychotic features represents a more severe illness than bipolar disorder without a history of psychosis. The presence of psychosis does not appear to be associated with poorer clinical/functional outcome or suggest a greater degree of neuropsychological impairment; conversely, the absence of psychosis was associated with affective chronicity and rapid cycling. Nosological and treatment implications are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Properties of graphite-composite bipolar plate prepared by compression molding technique for PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakate, S.R.; Mathur, R.B.; Dhami, T.L. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India). Engineering Material Division, Carbon Technology Unit; Kakati, B.K. [Tezpur University, Assam (India). Department of Energy

    2007-12-15

    Bipolar plate is an important key component of fuel cell on the basis of its manifold function. In this direction a lot of effort is going on worldwide to make light-weight and cost-effective bipolar plate for fuel cell application. In the present investigation effort was made to develop graphite-composites bipolar plate by compression molding technique to achieve the requisite goal. The composites plates were prepared by using different reinforcing fillers such as natural graphite, synthetic graphite, carbon black, carbon fibers with phenolic resin as polymer matrix precursor in its liquid and powder form. The composition of different filler constituent adjusted in between 5 and 40 vol%. The composite plates prepared with appropriate proportion of filler components were characterized for physical and mechanical properties. It is found that no single reinforcing filler constituent composites plate gives the requisite properties for being used as bipolar plate in the PEM fuel cell. The judicious combination of reinforcing constituents gives the properties which are required for bipolar plate to use in fuel cell. By controlling the ratio of reinforcing constituents, one can able to achieve properties such as bulk density {proportional_to}1.85gcm{sup -3}, electrical conductivity >150Scm{sup -1}, shore hardness >65, bending strength >60MPa, modulus >10GPa and compressive >70MPa by applying the pressure (100kgcm{sup -2}) during compression molding. I-V characteristic of the composite bipolar plate, with optimum combination of reinforcing constituent, is found to be adequate as per the US-DOE target for composite bipolar plate. (author)

  4. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  5. Age and prostate volume are risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Yosuke; Kato, Yuji; Fujita, Kiichiro

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 584 patients who underwent transurethral enucleation with bipolar between December 2011 and September 2016 operated by a single surgeon. Urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar was defined as involuntary leakage of urine that required the use of pads. It was evaluated at 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We defined transient urinary incontinence as urinary incontinence persisting up to 1 month after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. Based on independent risk factors identified by a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, a nomogram to predict transient urinary incontinence was developed. Of the 584 patients, 17.3%, 13.5%, 3.1%, 0.41%, and 0% patients had urinary incontinence at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar, respectively. The mean (±standard error) age was 69.6 ± 0.26 years, estimated prostate volume was 54.7 ± 0.91 cm 3 , operative time was 58.0 ± 1.1 min and the prostate specimen weight was 30.6 ± 0.69 g. On univariate analysis, age, prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography, prostate-specific antigen, prostate specimen weight, operative time, prostate specimen weight/prostate volume and prostate specimen weight/operative time were significant predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio 1.07, P-value = 0.0034) and prostate volume (hazard ratio 1.03, P-value bipolar. Age and prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography seem to represent significant independent risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. This should be well discussed with the patient before surgery. © 2017 The Japanese

  6. Bipolar junction transistor models for circuit simulation of cosmic-ray-induced soft errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benumof, R.; Zoutendyk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines bipolar junction transistor models suitable for calculating the effects of large excursions of some of the variables determining the operation of a transistor. Both the Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon models are studied, and the junction and diffusion capacitances are evaluated on the basis of the latter model. The most interesting result of this analysis is that a bipolar junction transistor when struck by a cosmic particle may cause a single event upset in an electronic circuit if the transistor is operated at a low forward base-emitter bias.

  7. Potentiating action of propofol at GABAA receptors of retinal bipolar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Lan; Xie, An; Bruzik, Karol S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Propofol (2,6-diisopropyl phenol), a widely used systemic anesthetic, is known to potentiate GABA(A) receptor activity in a number of CNS neurons and to produce changes in electroretinographically recorded responses of the retina. However, little is known about propofol's effects...... on specific retinal neurons. The authors investigated the action of propofol on GABA-elicited membrane current responses of retinal bipolar cells, which have both GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors. Methods. Single, enzymatically dissociated bipolar cells obtained from rat retina were treated with propofol...

  8. The bipolar ejection in MWC560

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, O. E.; Tomov, T.; Munari, U.; Brandi, E.; Garcia, L.; Georgiev, L.; Barba, R.

    1998-11-01

    The symbiotic binary MWC560 is a very peculiar system. Consisting of a M giant and a magnetic white dwarf companion, its behaviour resembles only that of CH Cyg. The massive and fast outflows and jets, the rapid variations in brightness with a time scale of the order of twenty minutes, and the alternance between low and high activity phases, are phenomena which only could be caused by the presence of the magnetic white dwarf secondary (Mikolajewski et al. 1997). The spectrum is clearly dominated by narrow emission lines of singly ionized metals and by the Balmer lines, which show variable profiles, consisting of a strong emission component and complex absorption profiles displaying two kinds of components: a broad component with velocities of the order of -300 Km/s, always present, and violet shifted components, with velocities between -300 Km/s and -7000 Km/s, produced by the discrete ejection of material along the line of sight (Tomov et al. 1990, 1992). The radial velocities of the narrow emission lines do not show any change, and so do the velocities of the absorption lines of the M giant, supporting then the idea of face-on location for the orbital plane of the system (Tomov & Kolev 1997). The emission of the Balmer lines could be formed in an accretion disk and/or envelope around the hot companion, and the violet-shifted absorption components would be caused by the bipolar ejection of highly collimated jets by the magnetized white dwarf (Tomov & Kolev 1997). Probable spectral signatures of this bipolar ejection were previously presented (Tomov et al 1997). We are presenting here a clear evidence of the presence of the corresponding red-shifted jets, signatures of which are seen in the behaviour of the red wing of the H alpha emission profiles, mirroring the strongly violet-shifted absorption components when present. We show high resolution H alpha profiles secured between 1993 and 1998 with the Rozhen (Bulgaria) 2-m, the Asiago (Italy) 1.82-m, the San Pedro

  9. Enhanced high-energy protocol using a fractional bipolar radiofrequency device combined with bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light for improving facial skin appearance and wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Michael H; Biesman, Brian S; Taylor, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light have been shown in previous trials to safely and effectively improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. To evaluate a high-energy protocol with combined bipolar radiofrequency and infrared light energies for improvement in photoaged facial skin. Seventy-two patients presenting with mild to moderate facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face treatment (n=54) or two treatments (n=18) at 6-week intervals. Independent blinded assessment and investigator assessment were performed, using the Fitzpatrick Wrinkle and Elastosis Scale (0-9) and the Global Aesthetic Improvement scale. Patients also completed a self-assessment questionnaire concerning satisfaction with the treatment. All patients achieved some degree of improvement in their wrinkles and skin appearance, following a single treatment or two treatments with the enhanced-energy protocol. Blinded evaluation demonstrated 71% and 70% of the patients showing improvement of one unit or greater on the Fitzpatrick Scale, at the 12-week and 24-week follow-ups post-treatment, respectively. Similar results were reported by investigators. Under the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, investigators observed 87%, 91% and 81% of patients showing improvement at the 6-, 12-, and 24-week post-treatment end, respectively. Patients tolerated the treatments well and were satisfied with the clinical results. The enhanced-energy treatment protocol, with fractional bipolar radiofrequency treatment and treatment with bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared light applications, yields significant improvement of skin texture, wrinkling, and overall appearance following a single treatment. The results appear gradually over time and are maintained for at least 6 months' post-treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bipolar Electrode Sample Preparation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi (Inventor); Song, Hongjun (Inventor); Pant, Kapil (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An analyte selection device can include: a body defining a fluid channel having a channel inlet and channel outlet; a bipolar electrode (BPE) between the inlet and outlet; one of an anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel inlet side of the BPE and the other of the anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel outlet side of the BPE; and an electronic system operably coupled with the anode and cathode so as to polarize the BPE. The fluid channel can have any shape or dimension. The channel inlet and channel outlet can be longitudinal or lateral with respect to the longitudinal axis of the channel. The BPE can be any metallic member, such as a flat plate on a wall or mesh as a barrier BPE. The anode and cathode can be located at a position that polarizes the BPE.

  11. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  12. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 3N9Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC and temporal pole (TP structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.Keywords: bipolar disorder, diffusion tensor imaging, white matter tractography, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, mood dysphoria, creativity, ventral semantic stream, writing ability, artistic aptitude

  13. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrianowycz, Orest; Norley, Julian; Stuart, David J; Flaherty, David; Wayne, Ryan; ; Williams, Warren; Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan H; Zawodzinski, Tom; Pietrasz, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the

  14. Influence of birth cohort on age of onset cluster analysis in bipolar I disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, M.; Glenn, T.; Alda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset......, using a large, international database. Methods: The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth...... for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups. Conclusion: These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based...

  15. Theory of localized bipolar wave-structures and nonthermal particle distributions in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Goldman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar wave structures and nonthermal particle distributions measured by the FAST satellite in regions of downward current are interpreted in terms of the nonlinear evolution of a two-stream instability. The instability results in holes, both in the electron distribution in phase space and in the electron density in real space. The wave potential energy, which traps the electrons, has a single minimum, and the associated electric field is bipolar. The early bipolar structures are coherent over hundreds of Debye lengths in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. After thousands of plasma periods the perpendicular coherence is lost, the structures break up, and electrostatic whistlers begin to dominate. Simulations and preliminary analysis of this breakup and emission process are presented.

  16. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  17. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  18. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous...... survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information...... for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage...

  19. A randomised controlled trial of time limited CBT informed psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven; McGrath, Elly; Hampshire, Kay; Owen, Rebecca; Riste, Lisa; Roberts, Chris; Davies, Linda; Mayes, Debbie

    2013-02-15

    Anxiety comorbidity is common in bipolar disorder and is associated with worse treatment outcomes, greater risk of self harm, suicide and substance misuse. To date however there have been no psychological interventions specifically designed to address this problem. The primary objective of this trial is to establish the acceptability and feasibility of a new integrated intervention for anxiety in bipolar disorder designed in collaboration with individuals with personal experience of both problems. Single blind randomised controlled trials to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a time limited CBT informed psychological intervention for anxiety in bipolar disorder (AIBD) compared with treatment as usual. Participants will be recruited from across the North West of England from specialist mental health services and through primary care and self referral. The primary outcome of the study is the feasibility and acceptability of AIBD assessed by recruitment to target and retention to follow-up, as well as absence of untoward incidents associated with AIBD. We will also estimate the effect size of the impact of the intervention on anxiety and mood outcomes, as well as calculate preliminary estimates of cost-effectiveness and investigate potential mechanisms for this (stigma, self appraisal and stability of social rhythms). This is the first trial of an integrated intervention for anxiety in bipolar disorder. It is of interest to researchers involved in the development of new therapies for bipolar disorder as well as indicating the wider potential for evaluating approaches to the treatment of comorbidity in severe mental illness.

  20. How genes and environmental factors determine the different neurodevelopmental trajectories of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demjaha, Arsime; MacCabe, James H; Murray, Robin M

    2012-03-01

    The debate endures as to whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are separate entities or different manifestations of a single underlying pathological process. Here, we argue that this sterile argument obscures the fact that the truth lies somewhere in between. Thus, recent studies support a model whereby, on a background of some shared genetic liability for both disorders, patients with schizophrenia have been subject to additional genetic and/or environmental factors that impair neurodevelopment; for example, copy number variants and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia but not with bipolar disorder. As a result, children destined to develop schizophrenia show an excess of neuromotor delays and cognitive difficulties while those who later develop bipolar disorder perform at least as well as the general population. In keeping with this model, cognitive impairments and brain structural abnormalities are present at first onset of schizophrenia but not in the early stages of bipolar disorder. However, with repeated episodes of illness, cognitive and brain structural abnormalities accumulate in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, thus clouding the picture.

  1. Combining microscopic and macroscopic probes to untangle the single-ion anisotropy and exchange energies in an S =1 quantum antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambleby, Jamie; Manson, Jamie L.; Goddard, Paul A.; Stone, Matthew B.; Johnson, Roger D.; Manuel, Pascal; Villa, Jacqueline A.; Brown, Craig M.; Lu, Helen; Chikara, Shalinee; Zapf, Vivien; Lapidus, Saul H.; Scatena, Rebecca; Macchi, Piero; Chen, Yu-sheng; Wu, Lai-Chin; Singleton, John

    2017-04-01

    The magnetic ground state of the quasi-one-dimensional spin-1 antiferromagnetic chain is sensitive to the relative sizes of the single-ion anisotropy (D ) and the intrachain (J ) and interchain (J') exchange interactions. The ratios D /J and J'/J dictate the material's placement in one of three competing phases: a Haldane gapped phase, a quantum paramagnet, and an X Y -ordered state, with a quantum critical point at their junction. We have identified [Ni (HF2) (pyz) 2] SbF6 , where pyz = pyrazine, as a rare candidate in which this behavior can be explored in detail. Combining neutron scattering (elastic and inelastic) in applied magnetic fields of up to 10 tesla and magnetization measurements in fields of up to 60 tesla with numerical modeling of experimental observables, we are able to obtain accurate values of all of the parameters of the Hamiltonian [D =13.3 (1 ) K, J =10.4 (3 ) K, and J'=1.4 (2 ) K], despite the polycrystalline nature of the sample. Density-functional theory calculations result in similar couplings (J =9.2 K, J'=1.8 K) and predict that the majority of the total spin population resides on the Ni(II) ion, while the remaining spin density is delocalized over both ligand types. The general procedures outlined in this paper permit phase boundaries and quantum-critical points to be explored in anisotropic systems for which single crystals are as yet unavailable.

  2. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subho

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and c...

  3. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-12-01

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bipolar transistor in VESTIC technology: prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwiński, Piotr; Kuźmicz, Wiesław; Domański, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Głuszko, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    VESTIC technology is an alternative for traditional CMOS technology. This paper presents first measurement data of prototypes of VES-BJT: bipolar transistors in VESTIC technology. The VES-BJT is a bipolar transistor on the SOI substrate with symmetric lateral structure and both emitter and collector made of polysilicon. The results indicate that VES-BJT can be a device with useful characteristics. Therefore, VESTIC technology has the potential to become a new BiCMOS-type technology with some unique properties.

  5. Transtorno afetivo bipolar: um enfoque transcultural

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches,Marsal; Jorge,Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.

  6. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  7. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  8. Sexual health and women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Fiona; Sladen, Claire

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the importance of sexual health promotion strategies for women with bipolar disorder in order to stimulate interest and debate in this area of care. Sexual health promotion is an important aspect of holistic nursing care. However, the literature indicates that nurses are reluctant to discuss sexual health and sexual behaviour with their clients. People with bipolar disorder warrant special consideration with regards to sexual health because the nature of the manic, or hypomanic, mood state is associated in some cases with sexually risky behaviour. For women with bipolar disorder, the associated risks include the threat of unplanned pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. To ignore sexual health and sexual behaviour in mental health care increases the vulnerability of women who may already be at risk of sexual exploitation. CASE EXAMPLE: A brief case example is included to demonstrate how the sexual health of a young woman with bipolar disorder was promoted. The sexual health promotion that was incorporated into her care enabled her to make a choice about appropriate contraception, and also provided her with the opportunity to explore acceptable boundaries in different types of interpersonal relationships. As a result of the episodic nature of Bipolar disorder, it is impossible to state whether the positive outcomes from this strategy will be enduring or not. Consideration of sexual health is an essential element of the care of women with Bipolar disorder. To ignore it is to neglect an important sphere of human behaviour that can be affected by the condition.

  9. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  10. Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.

  11. Early maladaptive schemas in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Mehmet; Lapsekili, Nergis; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Sutcigil, Levent; Turkcapar, Hakan

    2012-09-01

    According to the cognitive model of depression, negative schemas, formed in early life, increase susceptibility to depression. The objective of this study was to investigate schemas that are proposed to increase susceptibility of depression in bipolar disorder patients who have had depressive episodes. Eighteen patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV and a healthy control group (N= 20) constituted the sample of the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Young Schema Scale were applied to patients in order to determine the level of symptoms and schemas. When the scores obtained from Young Schema Scale were compared between groups, significant differences were observed between bipolar patients and control group on all the schemas except abandonment, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness, and approval seeking. The negative schema scores of bipolar patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. Of all schemas included in the Young Schema Scale, the scores of bipolar group were higher than the scores of the control group. These findings suggest that, in cognitive-based psychotherapeutic approaches for patients with bipolar disorder, it would be more effective to focus on schemas related to the perception and allowance of feelings at the proper time and the instability of self-perceptions. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-01-01

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  13. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen, E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  14. Experimental and ab initio study of the nuclear quadrupole interaction of 181Ta-probes in an α-Fe2O3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriba, G. N.; Muñoz, E. L.; Eversheim, P. D.; Rentería, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) experiments on 181 Hf (→ 181 Ta)-implanted corundum α-Fe 2 O 3 single crystal in order to determine the magnitude, symmetry and orientation of the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor at Ta donor impurity sites of this semiconductor. These results are analyzed in the framework of ab initio full-potential augmented-plane wave plus local orbital (FP-APW+lo) calculations. This combined analysis enables us to quantify the magnitude of the lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and to determine the charge state of the impurity donor level introduced by Ta in the band gap of the semiconductor.

  15. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  16. Tratamento da depressão bipolar The treatment of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Lafer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da depressão bipolar tem sido tema de debate. O uso de antidepressivos, principalmente tricíclicos, nestes pacientes está associado a piores desfechos clínicos. Estudos apontam para uma eficácia limitada de estabilizadores tradicionais como lítio, valproato e carbamazepina no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Em casos de depressão mais grave, há indicativos de que os antidepressivos podem ser úteis, sendo recomendado o uso concomitante de um estabilizador do humor. Novos agentes como a lamotrigina têm sido propostos como efetivos no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Estudos recentes utilizando lamotrigina sugerem a sua eficácia e seguraça no tratamento da depressão bipolar.The treatment of bipolar depression has been an area of debate. The use of antidepressants, particularly the triciclics, has been associated with worse clinical outcomes. Evidence points to a limited efficacy of traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar depression. In cases where depression is more severe, there is evidence that antidepressants may be useful. The use of antidepressants should be in association with a mood stabilizer. New agents such as lamotrigine have been put forward as effective in the treatment of bipolar depression. Recent studies using lamotrigine suggest its efficacy and safety in the treatment of bipolar depression.

  17. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  18. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  19. Probing the $Wtb$ vertex structure in $t$-channel single-top-quark production and decay in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{\\mathrm{s}}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valéry, Lo\\"ic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Qing; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-04-20

    To probe the $Wtb$ vertex structure, top-quark and $W$-boson polarisation observables are measured from $t$-channel single-top-quark events produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.2 fb$^{-1}$, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Selected events contain one isolated electron or muon, large missing transverse momentum and exactly two jets, with one of them identified as likely to contain a $b$-hadron. Stringent selection requirements are applied to discriminate $t$-channel single-top-quark events from background. The polarisation observables are extracted from asymmetries in angular distributions measured with respect to spin quantisation axes appropriately chosen for the top quark and the $W$ boson. The asymmetry measurements are performed at parton level by correcting the observed angular distributions for detector effects and hadronisation after subtracting the background contributions. The measured t...

  20. Coumarins as turn on/off fluorescent probes for detection of residual acetone in cosmetics following headspace single-drop microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro, N; de la Calle, I; Bendicho, C; Lavilla, I

    2014-11-01

    In this work, a new method based on headspace-single drop microextraction for the determination of residual acetone in cosmetics by microfluorospectrometry is proposed. Acetone causes fluorescence changes in a 2.5 µL-ethanolic drop (40% v/v) containing 3.10(-4) mol L(-1) 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin ('turn off') or 6.10(-6) mol L(-1) 7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin ('turn on'). Polarity and ability to form hydrogen bonds of short chain alcohols (polar protic solvents) were crucial in order to observe these changes in the presence of acetone (polar aprotic solvent). Parameters related with the HS-SDME procedure were studied, namely headspace volume, composition, volume and temperature of drop, microextraction time, stirring rate, mass and temperature of sample, as well as the effect of potential interferents (alcohols and fragrances). The high volatility of acetone allows its extraction from an untreated cosmetic sample within 3 min. A detection limit of 0.26 µg g(-1) and repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, around 5% were reached. Accuracy of the proposed methodology was evaluated by means of recovery studies. The method was successfully used to analyze different cosmetics. Simplicity and high sample throughput can be highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. First-order phase transitions in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystal: a local probe study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzamora, M; Munevar, J; Baggio-Saitovitch, E [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bud' ko, S L; Ni Ni; Canfield, P C [Ames Laboratory, US DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sanchez, D R [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Avenida Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n-Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-04-13

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structural and magnetic phase transitions of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (T{sub N} = 173 K) single crystals. For this compound we found that V{sub ZZ} is positive and parallel to the c-axis of the tetragonal structure. For CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} a magnetic hyperfine field B{sub hf} was observed at the {sup 57}Fe nucleus below T{sub N} {approx} 173 K. Analysis of the temperature dependence of B{sub hf} data using the Bean-Rodbell model shows that the Fe spins undergo a first-order magnetic transition at {approx} 173 K. A collinear antiferromagnetic structure is established below this temperature with the Fe spin lying in the (a, b) plane. Below T{sub N} the paramagnetic fraction of Fe decreases down to 150 K and for lower temperatures all the Fe spins are magnetically ordered.

  2. Bi-photon imaging and diagnostics using ultra-small diagnostic probes engineered from semiconductor nanocrystals and single-domain antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafian, Hilal; Sukhanova, Alyona; Chames, Patrick; Baty, Daniel; Pluot, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Nabiev, Igor R.; Millot, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have just demonstrated their numerous advantages over organic dyes in bioimaging and diagnostics. One of characteristics of QDs is a very large cross section of their twophoton absorption. A common approach to biodetection by means of QDs is to use monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting. Recently, we have engineered ultrasmall diagnostic nanoprobes (sdAb-QD) based on highly oriented conjugates of QDs with the single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) against cancer biomarkers. With a molecular weight of only 13 kDa (12-fold smaller than full-size mAbs) and extreme stability and capacity to refolding, sdAbs are the smallest functional Ab fragments capable of binding antigens with affinities comparable to those of conventional Abs. Ultrasmall diagnostic sdAb-QD nanoprobes were engineered through oriented conjugation of QDs with sdAbs. This study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of immunohistochemical imaging of colon carcinoma biomarkers with sdAb-QD conjugates by means of two-photon excitation. The optimal excitation conditions for imaging of the markers in clinical samples with sdAb-QD nanoprobes have been determined. The absence of sample autofluorescence significantly improves the sensitivity of biomarker detection with the use of the two-photon excitation diagnostic setup.

  3. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  4. Soil moisture calibration of TDR multilevel probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrarens Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR probes are increasingly used for field estimation of soil water content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multilevel TDR probe under field conditions. For this purpose, eight such TDR probes were installed in small plots that were seeded with beans and sorghum. Data collection from the probes was such that soil moisture readings were automated and logged using a standalone field unit. Neutron probe measurements were used to calibrate the TDR probes. Soil-probe contact and soil compaction were critical to the accuracy of the TDR, especially when a number of TDR probes are combined for a single calibration curve. If each probe is calibrated individually, approximate measurement errors were between 0.005 and 0.015 m³ m-3. However, measurement errors doubled to approximately 0.025 to 0.03 m³ m-3, when TDR probes were combined to yield a single calibration curve.

  5. Processamento cognitivo "Teoria da Mente" no transtorno bipolar Cognitive "Theory of Mind" processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Anderson Tonelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar está associado ao comprometimento funcional persistente. Apesar de muitas pesquisas demonstrarem que bipolares podem apresentar déficits cognitivos, um número menor de trabalhos avaliou o papel de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo social, a Teoria da Mente (relacionado à capacidade de inferir estados mentais, no aparecimento de sintomas e complicações sociais em bipolares. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de revisar sistemática e criticamente a literatura sobre possíveis alterações do processamento Teoria da Mente no transtorno afetivo bipolar. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline por trabalhos publicados em língua inglesa, alemã, espanhola ou portuguesa nos últimos 20 anos, utilizando a frase de busca "Bipolar Disorder"[Mesh] AND "Theory of Mind". Foram procurados por estudos clínicos envolvendo indivíduos bipolares e que empregaram uma ou mais tarefas cognitivas desenvolvidas para a avaliação de habilidades Teoria da Mente. Foram excluídos os relatos de caso e cartas ao editor. A busca inicial resultou em cinco artigos, sendo selecionados quatro. Outros quatro foram também selecionados a partir da leitura dos artigos acima. DISCUSSÃO: Os artigos selecionados avaliaram populações de bipolares adultos e pediátricos, incluindo indivíduos eutímicos, maníacos e deprimidos. A maioria dos trabalhos avaliados sugere que existam prejuízos no processamento Teoria da Mente em portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar e que estes podem estar por trás dos sintomas e dos déficits funcionais do transtorno afetivo bipolar. CONCLUSÃO: Pesquisas futuras a respeito do tema em questão poderão esclarecer muito acerca do papel das alterações sociocognitivas no surgimento dos sintomas do transtorno afetivo bipolar, bem como ajudar no desenvolvimento de estratégias preventivas e terapêuticas do mesmo.OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is associated to persistent functional

  6. Probing the regional distribution of pulmonary gas exchange through single-breath gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S Sivaram; Freeman, Matthew S; Cleveland, Zackary I; Davies, John; Stiles, Jane; Virgincar, Rohan S; Robertson, Scott H; He, Mu; Kelly, Kevin T; Foster, W Michael; McAdams, H Page; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2013-09-01

    Although some central aspects of pulmonary function (ventilation and perfusion) are known to be heterogeneous, the distribution of diffusive gas exchange remains poorly characterized. A solution is offered by hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, because this gas can be separately detected in the lung's air spaces and dissolved in its tissues. Early dissolved-phase 129Xe images exhibited intensity gradients that favored the dependent lung. To quantitatively corroborate this finding, we developed an interleaved, three-dimensional radial sequence to image the gaseous and dissolved 129Xe distributions in the same breath. These images were normalized and divided to calculate "129Xe gas-transfer" maps. We hypothesized that, for healthy volunteers, 129Xe gas-transfer maps would retain the previously observed posture-dependent gradients. This was tested in nine subjects: when the subjects were supine, 129Xe gas transfer exhibited a posterior-anterior gradient of -2.00 ± 0.74%/cm; when the subjects were prone, the gradient reversed to 1.94 ± 1.14%/cm (P gas-transfer maps also exhibited significant heterogeneity, as measured by the coefficient of variation, that correlated with subject total lung capacity (r = 0.77, P = 0.015). Gas-transfer intensity varied nonmonotonically with slice position and increased in slices proximal to the main pulmonary arteries. Despite substantial heterogeneity, the mean gas transfer for all subjects was 1.00 ± 0.01 while supine and 1.01 ± 0.01 while prone (P = 0.25), indicating good "matching" between gas- and dissolved-phase distributions. This study demonstrates that single-breath gas- and dissolved-phase 129Xe MR imaging yields 129Xe gas-transfer maps that are sensitive to altered gas exchange caused by differences in lung inflation and posture.

  7. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  8. Bipolar postpartum depression: An update and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Doobay, Minakshi; Baczynski, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been a surge of interest in the study of bipolar postpartum depression (PPD); however, questions remain about its prevalence, screening, clinical features, and treatment. Three electronic databases, MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-2016), PsycINFO (1806-2016), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, were searched using a combination of the keywords bipolar, depression, postpartum, peripartum, prevalence, screening, diagnosis, treatment, drugs, and psychotherapy. The reference lists of articles identified were also searched. All relevant articles published in English were included. Depending on the population studied, 21.4-54% of women with PPD have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). Characteristic clinical features include younger age at illness onset, first onset of depression after childbirth, onset immediately after delivery, atypical depressive symptoms, psychotic features, mixed features, and history of BD in first-degree family members. Treatment should be guided by symptom acuity, safety concerns, the patient's response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. In the absence of controlled treatment data, preference should be given to drugs normally indicated for bipolar depression including lithium, quetiapine and lamotrigine. Although antidepressants have been studied in combination with mood stabilizers in bipolar depression, these drugs should be avoided due to likelihood of elevated risk of induction of manic symptoms in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, bipolar PPD is common, can be differentiated from unipolar PPD, and needs to be identified promptly in order to expedite appropriate treatment. Future studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy should focus on the acute and preventative treatment of bipolar PPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  10. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  11. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  12. Comorbid ADHD is associated with altered patterns of neuronal activation in adolescents with bipolar disorder performing a simple attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caleb M; Delbello, Melissa P; Mills, Neil P; Schmithorst, Vince; Holland, Scott; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2005-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is increasingly recognized as a significant source of psychiatric morbidity in children and adolescents. Younger bipolar patients symptomatically differ from adults, and frequently present with comorbid disorders, particularly attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurophysiological relationship between these two disorders, however, remains unclear. In this study we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare activation patterns during performance of a simple attention task between bipolar adolescents with and without ADHD. Eleven bipolar adolescents with comorbid ADHD and 15 bipolar adolescents without comorbidity were recruited to participate in fMRI scans. A single-digit continuous performance task alternated with a control task in a block-design paradigm. between-group comparisons were made using voxel-by-voxel analysis. Follow-up correlations were made between performance and activation. Group performance did not significantly differ in percentage correct (p = 0.36) or discriminability (p = 0.11). ADHD comorbidity was associated with less activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann 10) and anterior cingulate, and greater activation in posterior parietal cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Comorbid ADHD was associated with substantial differences in patterns of correlation between performance and voxel-by-voxel activation. Our findings suggest that comorbid ADHD in bipolar adolescents is associated with activation of alternative pathways during performance of a simple attention task. The pattern of differences suggests that bipolar adolescents with comorbid ADHD demonstrate decreased activation of prefrontal regions, compared with bipolar adolescents without ADHD, and preferentially recruit portions of posterior parietal and temporal cortex.

  13. Bipolar disorder: an update | Outhoff | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by alternating discrete episodes of (hypo)mania and depression, provides unique diagnostic and treatment challenges. Updated diagnostic (DSM-5) and current pharmacological treatment recommendations are briefly reviewed here. Keywords: bipolar disorder; diagnosis; evidence-based ...

  14. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  15. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...

  16. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, U.M.H.; Boom, K.; Janssen, F.M.G.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Loonen, Anton J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in bipolar patients is much higher than in the general population. It is unclear whether lithium treatment contributes to this cardiovascular morbidity. Methods: The cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder on

  18. Studying the thermal performance of a bipolar radiofrequency ablation with an improved electrode matrix system: In vitro experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y.L.; Leo, H.L.; Chua, K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We made judicious modification to the Penne’s equation in the process of developing our model. We consider the liver to consist of tumor and health tissue. The model has been validated with experimental data. • The proposed electrode system can reduce the tissue volume damage outside the electrodes. The designed building unit with 10 mm inter-electrode distance is the optimal choice to achieve desired ablation zone. • The influence of blood vessel is relatively small for using this electrode system. A spatial distance of 13 mm is deemed as the safe distance between the wall of the central probe and the large vessel. • This proposed electrode system demonstrated higher ablation stability even for tissue regions that are close to blood vessels. The system is better suited for matrix-type RFA. - Abstract: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is becoming an effective treatment method for both primary tumors and tumors that have metastasized. Large tumors in difficult anatomic locations can be treated by RFA technologies. However, constant size and regular shape of damage zones cannot be obtained by recent RFA technologies. The aim of this study is to optimize the stability of RFA treatment by employing a newly proposed bipolar electrode system. A hepatic RFA mathematical model is developed by the finite element method approach. The model is validated with the experimental data. This model is then used to verify the reliability and stability of the proposed electrode system. Simulated results showed the cross section of the ablation zone utilizing designed electrode system approximates a square. In addition, the fraction of the necrosed tissue with this electrode pattern turned out to be larger than the fraction with single-probe RFA techniques. This system demonstrated higher ablation stability even for tissue regions that are close to blood vessels. The proposed electrode system is better suited for matrix-type RFA.

  19. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Osman; Coşkun, Salih; Aktan Mutlu, Elif; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Atli, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ekrem; Keskin, Sıddık

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother's or father's side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother's side and 25 patients were from the father's side in 63 cases. The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility.

  20. [Drug Abuse Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Óscar Medina

    2012-06-01

    Drug use among patients with bipolar disorder is greater than the one observed in the general population; psychotic episodes are likely to occur after consumption. This has implications in the prevention, etiology, management, and treatment of the disease. Bipolar disorder pathology is likely to have positive response to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, identifying the strategies with better results to be applied in these patients is fundamental for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Review literature in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of drug abuse in patients with bipolar disorder and establish the pharmacological strategies that have produced better results. Literature review. A great variety of studies demonstrate the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use disorder. These patients are hospitalized more frequently, have an earlier onset of the disease, and present a larger number of depressive episodes and suicide attempts which affect the course of the disease. The drug with better results in the treatment of these patients is Divalproate. Satisfactory results have been also obtained with other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Substance abuse is present in a large number of patients with bipolar disorder. The Divalproate is the drug that has shown better results in the studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  2. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Sharmin; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  3. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  4. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  5. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouws, S.N.T.M.; Paans, N.P.G.; Comijs, H.C.; Dols, A.; Stek, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar

  6. Dealing with bipolar disorder in general practice | Rodseth | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... it is in the general realm of specialist diagnosis and care, general practitioners can play an important role in early identification of the disorder and long-term management, in shared care with the psychiatrist. Keywords: bipolar disorder, mania, hypomania, depression, DSM-IV criteria, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder ...

  7. Treatment of Acne Scars of Skin Types II to V by Sublative Fractional Bipolar Radiofrequency and Bipolar Radiofrequency Combined with Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Cara Beth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sublative fractional bipolar radiofrequency and bipolar radio frequency combined with diode laser for the treatment of both superficial and deep acne scars in patients with skin types II to V. Design: Prospective, single-center study. Subjects received up to five treatments with sublative fractional bipolar radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency combined with diode laser. Treatments were directed to at least two facial (forehead, perioral, cheeks) and/or neck areas with acne scars at four-week intervals. Treatment parameters on each subject were based on skin type and on skin responses to test spots on the target area just before treatment. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Subjects (n=20, aged 40.7±10.5 years [mean ± SD], skin types II–V) with acne scars and without acne lesions enrolled in this prospective study. Measurements: Results were evaluated just before each treatment and at four and 12 weeks after the final treatment using the Goodman Scar Scale, a quantitative method of evaluating scars that attempts to reduce grading subjectivity, as well as by patient satisfaction. Results: Acne scars improved significantly one month after three treatments and improvement persisted for at least 12 weeks after the fifth treatment. Improvement was not affected by skin type. Adverse effects were limited to transient erythema and edema. Conclusion: The combination of diode laser and bipolar radiofrequency energy device in addition to fractionated sublative radiofrequency is a safe and statistically significantly effective combined modality for the treatment of both superficial and deep acne scars in patients with skin types II to V with minimal downtime and no significant side effects. PMID:22010052

  8. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  9. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... which suggests the emergence of a paired structure and its associated type of neutrality, being there three general types of neutral categories, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Hence, the key issue consists in identifying the semantic opposition characterizing the meaning of concepts...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  10. Fenomenologia do tempo vivido no transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Moreira

    Full Text Available Com base na tradição da psicopatologia fenomenológica, este artigo se propõe a contribuir para a compreensão do mundo vivido do paciente bipolar, marcado por uma forte alteração do tempo vivido. Realizamos uma descrição deste tempo vivido significado de forma diferente nas oscilações de humor chamadas de fase maníaca e fase melancólica. Pensado a partir da temporalidade, na fase melancólica, o bipolar parece parar no tempo, não se lança em um devir. Na fase maníaca, o sujeito vive demasiadamente um agora como se tivesse explodido sua biografia. Concluímos que estas fases, ou dois pólos opostos no funcionamento temporal patológico do sofrimento bipolar, constituem fundamentalmente um mesmo mundo vivido.

  11. Genetic structure of personality factors and bipolar disorder in families segregating bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Elizabeth; Contreras, Javier; Raventos, Henriette; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Nicolini, Humberto; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Almasy, Laura; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported. The participants in this study were 1073 individuals from 172 families of Mexican or Central American ancestry. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated under a polygenic model using the maximum-likelihood method of obtaining variance components implemented in the SOLAR software package. Heritabilities of 0.49, 0.43, and 0.43 were found for the narrowest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar and bipolar I), the intermediate phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, and bipolar II), and the broadest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, bipolar II, and recurrent depression), respectively. For the Big Five personality factors, heritabilities were 0.25 for agreeableness, 0.24 for conscientiousness, 0.24 for extraversion, 0.23 for neuroticism, and 0.32 for openness to experience. For the narrowest phenotype, a significant negative correlation (-0.32) with extraversion was found. For the broadest phenotype, negative correlations were found for agreeableness (-0.35), conscientiousness (-0.39), and extraversion (-0.44). A positive correlation (0.37) was found with neuroticism. It is not possible to determine whether aspects of personality are factors in the development of bipolar disorder or vice versa. The short form of the NEO does not provide the ability to examine in detail which facets of extraversion are most closely related to bipolar disorder or to compare our results with studies that have used the long version of the scale. This study establishes a partial genetic basis for the Big Five personality factors in this set of families, while the environmental variances demonstrate that non-genetic factors are also important in their influence on

  12. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Aglio Jr.,José Caetano; Basso,Lissia Ana; Argimon,Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche,Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-c...

  13. Exercise in bipolar patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Matias Carvalho Aguiar; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Albuquerque, Saulo Giovanni Castor; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales

    2016-07-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is frequent in psychiatric disorders, however the directions of this association and benefits of physical activity are unclear. This is a systematic review about exercise in patients with bipolar disorder. We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English (1995 Jan to 2016 Jan) in PubMed, and Cochrane Library combining the medical terms 'physical activity' or 'sedentary' or 'physical exercise' with 'bipolar disorder' or 'mania' or 'bipolar depression'. Thirty-one studies were selected and included 15,587 patients with bipolar disorder. Sedentary lifestyle varied from 40% to 64.9%. Physical activity was associated with less depressive symptoms, better quality of life and increased functioning. Some evidence indicates a relationship between vigorous exercises and mania. Three prospective cohorts were reported; and no prospective randomized controlled trial was identified. Three studies focused on biomarkers in bipolar patients; and one reported the relationship between exercise and sleep in this group. Two assessed physical exercise in adolescents. (1) Differences between studies preventing a unified analysis; (2) most studies were cross-sectional; (3) motivation for exercising is a selection bias in most studies; (4) no intervention study assessing only physical exercise; (5) lack of studies comparing exercise across mood states. Generally, exercise was associated with improved health measures including depressive symptoms, functioning and quality of life. Evidence was insufficient to establish a cause-effect relationship between mood and physical exercise. Future research including randomized trials is needed to clarify the role of physical activity in bipolar patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHO...

  15. Three times more days depressed than manic or hypomanic in both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, Ralph W.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Post, Robert M.

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of time spent in mania, depression and euthymia in a large cohort of bipolar subjects studied longitudinally, and to investigate depression/mania ratios in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. Methods: Clinician-adjusted self-ratings of mood were

  16. Alcoholism and anxiety in bipolar illness : Differential lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I women with and without alcoholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levander, Eric; Frye, Mark A.; McElroy, Susan; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Hwang, Sun; Mintz, Jim; Post, Robert M.

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence rate of anxiety comorbidity in bipolar subjects with and without alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods: Bipolar men and women who entered the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (SFBN) underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for

  17. Spaser as a biological probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Weingold, Robert; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nolan, Jacqueline; Harrington, Walter; Kuchyanov, Alexander S.; Parkhomenko, Roman G.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid; Biris, Alexandru S.; Plekhanov, Alexander I.; Stockman, Mark I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding cell biology greatly benefits from the development of advanced diagnostic probes. Here we introduce a 22-nm spaser (plasmonic nanolaser) with the ability to serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissues. We have demonstrated a lasing regime associated with the formation of a dynamic vapour nanobubble around the spaser that leads to giant spasing with emission intensity and spectral width >100 times brighter and 30-fold narrower, respectively, than for quantum dots. The absorption losses in the spaser enhance its multifunctionality, allowing for nanobubble-amplified photothermal and photoacoustic imaging and therapy. Furthermore, the silica spaser surface has been covalently functionalized with folic acid for molecular targeting of cancer cells. All these properties make a nanobubble spaser a promising multimodal, super-contrast, ultrafast cellular probe with a single-pulse nanosecond excitation for a variety of in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.

  18. Bipolar Photothermoelectric Effect Across Energy Filters in Single Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-07-12

    The photothermoelectric (PTE) effect uses nonuniform absorption of light to produce a voltage via the Seebeck effect and is of interest for optical sensing and solar-to-electric energy conversion. However, the utility of PTE devices reported to date has been limited by the need to use a tightly focused laser spot to achieve the required, nonuniform illumination and by their dependence upon the Seebeck coefficients of the constituent materials, which exhibit limited tunability and, generally, low values. Here, we use InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires to overcome these limitations: first, we use naturally occurring absorption "hot spots" at wave mode maxima within the nanowire to achieve sharp boundaries between heated and unheated subwavelength regions of high and low absorption, allowing us to use global illumination; second, we employ carrier energy-filtering heterostructures to achieve a high Seebeck coefficient that is tunable by heterostructure design. Using these methods, we demonstrate PTE voltages of hundreds of millivolts at room temperature from a globally illuminated nanowire device. Furthermore, we find PTE currents and voltages that change polarity as a function of the wavelength of illumination due to spatial shifting of subwavelength absorption hot spots. These results indicate the feasibility of designing new types of PTE-based photodetectors, photothermoelectrics, and hot-carrier solar cells using nanowires.

  19. An fMRI study of the interface between affective and cognitive neural circuitry in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; O'Connor, Megan Marlow; Harral, Erin M; Sweeney, John A

    2008-04-15

    The pathophysiology of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) impacts both affective and cognitive brain systems. Understanding disturbances in the neural circuits subserving these abilities is critical for characterizing developmental aberrations associated with the disorder and developing improved treatments. Our objective is to use functional neuroimaging with pediatric bipolar disorder patients employing a task that probes the functional integrity of attentional control and affect processing. Ten euthymic unmedicated pediatric bipolar patients and healthy controls matched for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and IQ were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a pediatric color word matching paradigm, subjects were asked to match the color of a word with one of two colored circles below. Words had a positive, negative or neutral emotional valence, and were presented in 30-s blocks. In the negative affect condition, relative to the neutral condition, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated greater activation of bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and left amygdala, and less activation in right rostral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsolateral PFC at the junction of the middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri. In the positive affect condition, there was no reduced activation of PFC or increased amygdala activation. The pattern of reduced activation of ventrolateral PFC and greater amygdala activation in bipolar children in response to negative stimuli suggests both disinhibition of emotional reactivity in the limbic system and reduced function in PFC systems that regulate those responses. Higher cortical cognitive areas such as the dorsolateral PFC may also be adversely affected by exaggerated emotional responsivity to negative emotions. This pattern of functional alteration in affective and cognitive circuitry may contribute to the reduced capacity for affect regulation and behavioral self-control in pediatric bipolar

  20. Transtorno afetivo bipolar: um enfoque transcultural Transcultural aspects of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsal Sanches

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.Cultural variations in the expression of emotions have been described. Consequently, there are cross-cultural influences on the diagnosis and management of bipolar disorder. This article provides a review of the evidence regarding the main aspects of transcultural psychiatry and bipolar disorder.

  1. BIPOLAR DISORDER AND METABOLIC SYNDROME: COMORBIDITY OR SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Babić, Dragan; Maslov, Boris; Nikolić, Katica; Martinac, Marko; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that people with mental disorders are more likely to suffer from metabolic syndrome. In the last decades there has been an increase in interest for researching metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients and plenty of evidence about their association. However, investigations on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder are still surprisingly rare. The aim of this paper is to analyze comorbidity of bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome...

  2. A randomised controlled trial of recovery focused CBT for individuals with early bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Steven

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of structured psychological therapies for bipolar disorder. To date however there have been no psychological interventions specifically designed for individuals with early bipolar disorder. The primary objective of this trial is to establish the acceptability and feasibility of a new CBT based intervention (Recovery focused CBT; RfCBT designed in collaboration with individuals with early bipolar disorder intended to improve clinical and personal recovery outcomes. Methods and design This article describes a single blind randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility and acceptability of RfCBT compared with treatment as usual. Participants will be recruited from across the North West of England from specialist mental health services and through primary care and self referral. The primary outcome of the study is the feasibility and acceptability of RfCBT as indicated by recruitment to target and retention to follow-up as well as absence of untoward incidents associated with RfCBT. We also intend to estimate the effect size of the impact of the intervention on recovery and mood outcomes and explore potential process measures (self appraisal, stigma, hope and self esteem. Discussion This is the first trial of recovery informed CBT for early bipolar disorder and will therefore be of interest to researchers in this area as well as indicating the wider potential for evaluating approaches to the recovery informed treatment of recent onset severe mental illness in general. Trial registration number ISRCTN43062149

  3. Percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Yan, Min; Dai, Yi; Qiu, Weidong; Deng, Shuo; Gu, Xinzhu

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is usually managed with conservative treatment or surgery. However, conservative therapy seldom yields good results, and surgery is associated with multiple complications. This study aimed to assess bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. A total of 168 patients with lumbar disc herniation suitable for radiofrequency thermocoagulation were enrolled and randomized to monopolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (control group, n=84) or bipolar radiofrequency thermocoagulation (experimental group, n=84) treatment groups. Ablation sites were targeted under CT scan guidance, and consecutive radiofrequency therapy was used. One and two probes were used for monopolar and bipolar thermocoagulation, respectively. Thermocoagulation was achieved at 50°C, 60°C, and 70°C for 60s each, 80°C for 90s, and 92°C for 100s. Symptoms and complications were evaluated using the modified Macnab criteria and Visual Analog Scale at 7, 30, and 180days postoperatively. At 180days, a significantly higher efficacy rate was obtained in the experimental group compared with control patients (91.6% versus 79.7%, Pdisc herniation treatment, and should be further explored for broad clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unblending Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giacomo, Ester; Aspesi, Flora; Fotiadou, Maria; Arntz, Arnoud; Aguglia, Eugenio; Barone, Lavinia; Bellino, Silvio; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Lazzari, Marina; Lorettu, Liliana; Pinna, Federica; Sicaro, Aldo; Signorelli, Maria Salvina; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Borderline Personality (BPD) and Bipolar (BP) disorders stimulate an academic debate between their distinction and the inclusion of Borderline in the Bipolar spectrum. Opponents to this inclusion attribute the important differences and possible diagnostic incomprehension to overlapping symptoms. We tested 248 Borderline and 113 Bipolar patients, consecutively admitted to the Psychiatric Unit, through DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I/II), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV (BPDSI-IV). All the tests statistically discriminated the disorders (p Borderline patients with manic features offer a privileged point of view for a deeper analysis. This allows for the possibility of a more precise examination of the nature and load of each symptom. Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders can be distinguished with high precision using common and time-sparing tests. The importance of discriminating these clinical features may benefit from this evidence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation Damage In Advanced Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Goben, Charles A.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes measurements of common-emitter current gains (hFE) of advanced bipolar silicon transistors before, during, and after irradiation with 275-MeV bromine ions, 2.5-MeV electrons, and conductivity rays from cobalt-60 atoms.

  7. Facial affect recognition deficits in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Glen E; Shear, Paula K; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2003-05-01

    Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BPD), by definition, have problems with emotional regulation. However, it remains uncertain whether these patients are also deficient at processing other people's emotions, particularly while manic. The present study examined the ability of 25 manic bipolar patients and 25 healthy participants on tasks of facial recognition and facial affect recognition at three different presentation durations: 500 ms, 750 ms, and 1000 ms. The groups did not differ in terms of age, education, sex, ethnicity, or estimated IQ. The groups did not differ significantly on either a novel computerized facial recognition task or the Benton Facial Recognition Test. In contrast, the bipolar group performed significantly more poorly than did the comparison group on a novel facial affect labeling task. Although the patient group had slower reaction times on all 3 computerized tasks, the presentation duration did not have an effect on performance in the patients. This study suggests that patients with bipolar disorder are able to recognize faces, but have difficulty processing facial affective cues.

  8. Heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested reduced in bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals (HC). This meta-analysis investigated: HRV differences in BD compared with HC, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia; HRV differences between affective states; HRV...

  9. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  10. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  11. THE ORNL ATOM PROBE

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ORNL Atom Probe is a microanalytical tool for studies in materials science. The instrument is a combination of a customized version of the vacuum system of the VG FIM-100 atom probe, an ORNL-designed microcomputer-controlled digital timing system, and a double curved CEMA Imaging Atom Probe detector. The atom probe combines four instruments into one - namely a field ion microscope, an energy compensated time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an imaging atom probe, and a pulsed laser atom probe.

  12. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  13. Bipolar disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder: focus on neurocognitive correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Balanz?-Mart?nez, Vicent; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Gonz?lez-Pinto, Ana; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are usually comorbid, and both have been associated with significant neurocognitive impairment. Patients with the BD-AUD comorbidity (dual diagnosis) may have more severe neurocognitive deficits than those with a single diagnosis, but there is paucity of research in this area. To explore this hypothesis more thoroughly, we carried out a systematic literature review through January 2015. Eight studies have examined the effect of AUDs on th...

  14. Study of probe-sample distance for biomedical spectra measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fiber-based optical spectroscopy has been widely used for biomedical applications. However, the effect of probe-sample distance on the collection efficiency has not been well investigated. Method In this paper, we presented a theoretical model to maximize the illumination and collection efficiency in designing fiber optic probes for biomedical spectra measurement. This model was in general applicable to probes with single or multiple fibers at an arbitrary incident angle. In order to demonstrate the theory, a fluorescence spectrometer was used to measure the fluorescence of human finger skin at various probe-sample distances. The fluorescence spectrum and the total fluorescence intensity were recorded. Results The theoretical results show that for single fiber probes, contact measurement always provides the best results. While for multi-fiber probes, there is an optimal probe distance. When a 400- μm excitation fiber is used to deliver the light to the skin and another six 400- μm fibers surrounding the excitation fiber are used to collect the fluorescence signal, the experimental results show that human finger skin has very strong fluorescence between 475 nm and 700 nm under 450 nm excitation. The fluorescence intensity is heavily dependent on the probe-sample distance and there is an optimal probe distance. Conclusions We investigated a number of probe-sample configurations and found that contact measurement could be the primary choice for single-fiber probes, but was very inefficient for multi-fiber probes. There was an optimal probe-sample distance for multi-fiber probes. By carefully choosing the probe-sample distance, the collection efficiency could be enhanced by 5-10 times. Our experiments demonstrated that the experimental results of the probe-sample distance dependence of collection efficiency in multi-fiber probes were in general agreement with our theory.

  15. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  16. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo

    2015-01-01

    approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy...... could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any...

  17. Search for common haplotypes on chromosome 22q in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T H; Børglum, A D; Mors, O

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 22q may harbor risk genes for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder from the Faroe...... Islands were typed for 35 evenly distributed polymorphic markers on 22q in a search for shared risk genes in the two disorders. No single marker was strongly associated with either disease, but five two-marker segments that cluster within two regions on the chromosome have haplotypes occurring...

  18. A computerized Langmuir probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, L. S.; Bydder, E. L.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2003-07-01

    For low pressure plasmas it is important to record entire single or double Langmuir probe characteristics accurately. For plasmas with a depleted high energy tail, the accuracy of the recorded ion current plays a critical role in determining the electron temperature. Even for high density Maxwellian distributions, it is necessary to accurately model the ion current to obtain the correct electron density. Since the electron and ion current saturation values are, at best, orders of magnitude apart, a single current sensing resistor cannot provide the required resolution to accurately record these values. We present an automated, personal computer based data acquisition system for the determination of fundamental plasma properties in low pressure plasmas. The system is designed for single and double Langmuir probes, whose characteristics can be recorded over a bias voltage range of ±70 V with 12 bit resolution. The current flowing through the probes can be recorded within the range of 5 nA-100 mA. The use of a transimpedance amplifier for current sensing eliminates the requirement for traditional current sensing resistors and hence the need to correct the raw data. The large current recording range is realized through the use of a real time gain switching system in the negative feedback loop of the transimpedance amplifier.

  19. Treatment in a specialised out-patient mood disorder clinic v. standard out-patient treatment in the early course of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Hvenegaard, Anne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether treatment in a specialised out-patient mood disorder clinic improves long-term prognosis for patients discharged from initial psychiatric hospital admissions for bipolar disorder. AIMS: To assess the effect of treatment in a specialised out-patient mood...... disorder clinic v. standard decentralised psychiatric treatment among patients discharged from one of their first three psychiatric hospital admissions for bipolar disorder. METHOD: Patients discharged from their first, second or third hospital admission with a single manic episode or bipolar disorder were...... randomised to treatment in a specialised out-patient mood disorder clinic or standard care (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00253071). The primary outcome measure was readmission to hospital, which was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar disorder...

  20. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  1. Sleep study in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Bleda-Hernández, María J; Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle-Vila, Santiago; Pujals-Altes, Elena; Nascimento-Osorio, María T; Martín-López, Luís M; Álvarez-Martínez, Enric; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Romero-Cela, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased need for sleep has been proposed as a core symptom of mania and it has been associated with the pathogenesis of Bipolar Disorder. The emergence of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) as a new diagnostic has been controversial and much has been speculated about its relationship with the bipolar spectrum. REM sleep fragmentation could be a biomarker of affective disorders and it would help us to differentiate them from other disorders. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study of children with DMDD, bipolar disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). All participants underwent a psychiatric semi-structured interview to obtain the diagnosis, comorbidities and primary sleep disorders. DMDD’s sample was performed following DSM5 criteria. Perform polysomnography in a sample of bipolar, DMDD and ADHD children and compare their profiles to provide more evidence about the differences or similarities between bipolar disorder and DMDD. Bipolar group had the highest REM density values while ADHD had the lowest. REM density was not statiscally different between bipolar phenotypes. REM density was associated with antidepressant treatment, episodes of REM and their interaction. REM latency was associated with antipsychotic treatment and school performance. Bipolar patients had higher scores on the depression scale than DMDD and ADHD groups. No significant differences between the two compared affective disorders were found. However there were differences in REM density between bipolar and ADHD groups. REM sleep study could provide a new theoretical framework to better understand the pathogenesis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  2. Scalability and reliability issues of Ti/HfOx-based 1T1R bipolar RRAM: Occurrence, mitigation, and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Sk. Ziaur; Lee, Heng-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Yu-De; Chen, Pang-Shiu; Chen, Wei-Su; Wang, Pei-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Scalability and reliability issues are the most dominant obstacle for the development of resistive switching memory (RRAM) technology. Owing to the excellent memory performance and process compatibility with current CMOS technology of Ti/HfOx-based filamentary type bipolar RRAM, its scalability and reliability issues have been investigated in this document. Towards this goal, we demonstrate that there exists a clear correlation between the transistor and memory cell, which ultimately limits the scaling in terms of operation current and size of the transistor as well and performance of the Ti/HfOx-based 1T1R bipolar RRAM. Due to the resemblance of switching behaviour between complementary resistive switching, i.e., CRS in a single memory stack, and bipolar resistive switching, the Ti/HfOx-based bipolar RRAM suffers from resistance pinning (RP) issues, whereas the minimum resistance during the 1st RESET operation always impeded below 20 kΩ; this occurs through the interaction between the transistor and memory cell during the FORMING process. However, a sufficiently lower FORMING voltage can mitigate the RP issue occurring in Ti/HfOx-based bipolar RRAM and an alternative Ta buffer layer over HfOx dielectrics is proposed to prevent the activation of self-CRS in the memory cell during the FORMING process.

  3. Transmit-receive eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, due to increased inspection demands, eddy current instrumentation has advanced from single-frequency, single-output instruments to multifrequency, computer-aided systems. This has significantly increased the scope of eddy current testing, but, unfortunately, it has also increased the cost and complexity of inspections. In addition, this approach has not always improved defect detectability or signal-to-noise. Most eddy current testing applications are still performed with impedance probes, which have well known limitations. However, recent research at AECL has led to improved eddy current inspections through the design and development of transmit-receive (T/R) probes. T/R eddy current probes, with laterally displaced transmit and receive coils, present a number of advantages over impedance probes. They have improved signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of variable lift-off compared to impedance probes. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection, and possess good phase discrimination to surface defects. They can significantly increase the scope of eddy current testing permitting reliable detection and sizing of cracks in heat exchanger tubing as well as in welded areas of both ferritic and non-ferromagnetic components. This presentation will describe the operating principles of T/R probes with the help of computer-derived normalized voltage diagrams. We will discuss their directional properties and analyze the advantages of using single and multiple T/R probes over impedance probes for specific inspection cases. Current applications to surface and tube testing and some typical inspection results will be described. (author)

  4. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  5. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  6. Abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar Psychoterapeutic approach in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o tratamento farmacológico seja essencial para o tratamento do transtorno bipolar, apenas 40% de todos os pacientes que aderem às medicações permanecem assintomáticos durante o período de seguimento, o que tem levado ao desenvolvimento de intervenções psicoterápicas associadas. O objetivo deste artigo é examinar as evidências atuais da eficácia de intervenções psicoterápicas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica por meio do MedLine, PsychoINFO, Lilacs e Cochrane Data Bank, até o ano de 2004, em que foram procurados artigos originais e revisões sobre as abordagens psicoterápicas utilizadas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Há várias abordagens que podem se mostrar úteis no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. A psicoeducação e a terapia cognitivo-comportamental apresentam as evidências mais consistentes e são as técnicas mais amplamente estudadas. As intervenções envolvendo familiares e a terapia interpessoal e de ritmo social se mostram tratamentos eficazes em determinadas situações. Há alguns estudos empregando a terapia psicodinâmica no transtorno bipolar, mas são estudos com limitações metodológicas. Apesar de haver evidências demonstrando a eficácia de determinadas abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar, ainda é necessária a realização de estudos posteriores que comprovem tais dados e que desenvolvam tratamentos baseados em modelos etiológicos e que identifiquem tratamentos específicos para as diferentes fases e tipos de transtorno bipolar.Although pharmacological treatment is essential for treating bipolar disorder, less than half of all medication compliant patients are non-symptomatic during follow-up, which has led to developments of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. This paper examines the current evidence for effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Searches were undertaken through Med

  7. Electrical and thermal conductivities of novel metal mesh hybrid polymer composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Min-Chien; Liao, Shu-Hang; Yen, Ming-Yu.; Ma, Chen-Chi M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, Hsin-Chu 30043 (China); Lee, Shuo-Jen; Chen, Yung-Hung [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Tao-Yuan 32003 (China); Hung, Chih-Hung [Plastics Industry Development Center, Tai-Chung 40768 (China); Lin, Yu-Feng [Chemicals and Chemical Engineering, Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 325 (China); Xie, Xiao-Feng [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    This study prepares novel metal mesh hybrid polymer composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) via inserting a copper or aluminum mesh in polymer composites. The composition of polymer composites consists of 70 wt% graphite powder and 0-2 wt% modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs). Results indicate that the in-plane electrical conductivity of m-MWCNTs/polymer composite bipolar plates increased from 156 S cm{sup -1} (0 wt% MWCNT) to 643 S cm{sup -1} (with 1 wt% MWCNT) (D.O.E. target >100 S cm{sup -1}). The bulk thermal conductivities of the copper and aluminum mesh hybrid polymer composite bipolar plates (abbreviated to Cu-HPBP and Al-HPBP) increase from 27.2 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} to 30.0 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} and 30.4 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. The through-plane conductivities decrease from 37.8 S cm{sup -1} to 36.7 S cm{sup -1} for Cu-HPBP and 22.9 S cm{sup -1} for Al-HPBP. Furthermore, the current and power densities of a single fuel cell using copper or aluminum mesh hybrid polymer composite bipolar plates are more stable than that of using neat polymer composite bipolar plates, especially in the ohmic overpotential region of the polarization curves of single fuel cell tests. The overall performance confirms that the metal mesh hybrid polymer composite bipolar plates prepared in this study are promising for PEMFC application. (author)

  8. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  9. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  10. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  11. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    to the pacemaker can. METHODS: Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from two healthy subjects. Platelet reactivity to the agonist ADP was tested in paired samples in an aggregometer in a case/control setup. RESULTS: Eighteen of 46 tested pairs of platelet-rich plasma showed increased reactivity in the paced sample......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets...

  12. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed/Medline, E......BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed....../Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched up to May 2015. Two independent authors conducted searches, examined references for eligibility, and extracted data. Meta-analyses in any language examining peripheral non-genetic biomarkers in participants with BD (across different mood states...

  13. Udvikling af medicinsk behandling mod bipolar lidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase.......Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase....

  14. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  15. The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  16. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  17. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  18. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  19. The bipolar II disorder personality traits, a true syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Einar

    2015-06-01

    The author was struck by the similarities and commonality of complaints, aside from mood swings, made by Bipolar II patients and started registrating these complaints. This registrational work eventually led to the development of The Bipolar II Syndome Checklist. The aim of this work was to understand how widely the Bipolar II disorder affects the personality, and what disturbing personality traits are the most common? Deliberately, no attempt was made to diagnose psychiatric comorbidities, in the hope that one would get a clearer view of what symptoms, if any, could be considered a natural part of the Bipolar II Disorder. As far as the author knows this is a novel approach. 105 Bipolar II patients completed the Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist. The answers to the 44 questions on the list are presented in tables. Symptoms like anxiety, low self esteem, paranoia, extreme hurtfulness, migraine, Post Partum Depression, obsessive traits, alcoholism in the family are amongst the findings which will be presented in greater detail. No control group. Bipolar I patients excluded. The Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist has not been systematically validated. The results show that Bipolar II Disorder causes multiple symptoms so commonly that it may be justified to describe it as a syndrome, The Bipolar II Syndrome. Also these disturbances commonly lie in families of Bipolar II patients and are in all likelihood, greatly underdiagnosed. The clinical relevance of this study lies in increasing our knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Bipolar II Disorder, which in all probability will increase the diagnostic and treatment accuracy, since clinicians are more likely to scan for other symptoms needing treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...

  1. Bipolar Disorder: What Can Psychotherapists Learn From the Cognitive Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri; Tran, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials of psychological treatment, principally cognitive therapy, for bipolar disorder have yielded inconsistent results. Given the status of this evidentiary base, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the cognitive profiles associated with bipolar disorder to inform clinical practice. In this practice-friendly review, we consider evidence that both negative and positive cognitive styles are related to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional and prospective evidence sugg...

  2. Smartphone based treatment in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M; Frost, M.; Bardram, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    During this symposium, results from a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of smartphone based electronic self-monitoring on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms will be presented and discussed.Further, we will present and discuss the use of automatically generated...... objective smartphone data on behavioral activities (eg social activities, mobility and physical activity) as electronic biomarkers of illness activity in bipolar disorder....

  3. Circadian Phase Preference in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kerri L. Kim; Alexandra B. Weissman; Megan E. Puzia; Grace K. Cushman; Karen E. Seymour; Ezra Wegbreit; Mary A. Carskadon; Daniel P. Dickstein

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) rates have notably increased over the past three decades. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with BD, efforts are needed to identify factors useful in earlier detection to help address this serious public health concern. Sleep is particularly important to consider given the sequelae of disrupted sleep on normative functioning and that sleep is included in diagnostic criteria for both Major Depressive and Manic Episodes. Here, we examine on...

  4. Bipolar disorder, a precursor of Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M.S. Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly resulting from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Some psychiatric disorders may have dopaminergic dysfunction as their substrate. We describe a well-documented case of Parkinson's disease associated with Bipolar Disorder. Although there is some knowledge about the association between these diseases, little is known about its pathophysiology and correlation. We believe that among various hypotheses, many neurotransmitters are linked to this pathophysiology.

  5. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning (implying land-use plan and policy orientation) on one hand, and a similar gap between design (associated with artistic activity, concerned with aesthetics as well as science) and research (considere...

  6. ON Bipolar Cells in Macaque Retina: Type-Specific Synaptic Connectivity with Special Reference to OFF Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yoshihiko; Omi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    To date, 12 macaque bipolar cell types have been described. This list includes all morphology types first outlined by Polyak (1941) using the Golgi method in the primate retina and subsequently identified by other researchers using electron microscopy (EM) combined with the Golgi method, serial section transmission EM (SSTEM), and immunohistochemical imaging. We used SSTEM for the rod-dense perifoveal area of macaque retina, reconfirmed ON (cone) bipolar cells to be classified as invaginating midget bipolar (IMB), diffuse bipolar (DB)4, DB5, DB6, giant bipolar (GB), and blue bipolar (BB) types, and clarified their type-specific connectivity. DB4 cells made reciprocal synapses with a kind of ON-OFF lateral amacrine cell, similar to OFF DB2 cells. GB cells contacted rods and cones, similar to OFF DB3b cells. Retinal circuits formed by GB and DB3b cells are thought to substantiate the psychophysical finding of fast rod signals in mesopic vision. DB6 cell output synapses were directed to ON midget ganglion (MG) cells at 70% of ribbon contacts, similar to OFF DB1 cells that directed 60% of ribbon contacts to OFF MG cells. IMB cells contacted medium- or long-wavelength sensitive (M/L-) cones but not short-wavelength sensitive (S-) cones, while BB cells contacted S-cones but not M/L-cones. However, IMB and BB dendrites had similar morphological architectures, and a BB cell contacting a single S-cone resembled an IMB cell. Thus, both IMB and BB may be the ON bipolar counterparts of the OFF flat midget bipolar (FMB) type, likewise DB4 of DB2, DB5 of DB3a, DB6 of DB1, and GB of DB3b OFF bipolar type. The ON DB plus GB, and OFF DB cells predominantly contacted M/L-cones and their outputs were directed mainly to parasol ganglion (PG) cells but also moderately to MG cells. BB cells directed S-cone-driven outputs almost exclusively to small bistratified ganglion (SBG) cells. Some FMB cells predominantly contacted S-cones and their outputs were directed to OFF MG cells. Thus, two

  7. Formation of Bipolar Lobes by Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2002-04-01

    I conduct an analytical study of the interaction of jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW), with a previously blown asymptotic giant branch (AGB) slow wind. Such jets (or CFWs) are supposedly formed when a compact companion, a main-sequence star, or a white dwarf accretes mass from the AGB star, forms an accretion disk, and blows two jets. This type of flow, which I think shapes bipolar planetary nebulae (PNs), requires three-dimensional gasdynamical simulations, which are limited in the parameter space they can cover. By imposing several simplifying assumptions, I derive simple expressions which reproduce some basic properties of lobes in bipolar PNs and which can be used to guide future numerical simulations. I quantitatively apply the results to two proto-PNs. I show that the jet interaction with the slow wind can form lobes which are narrow close to, and far away from, the central binary system, and which are wider somewhere in between. Jets that are recollimated and have constant cross section can form cylindrical lobes with constant diameter, as observed in several bipolar PNs. Close to their source, jets blown by main-sequence companions are radiative; only further out they become adiabatic, i.e., they form high-temperature, low-density bubbles that inflate the lobes.

  8. Free radical scavenging properties of some wine probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasko, A.; Liptakova, M.; Malik, F.

    1999-01-01

    There are preliminary results of investigation of scavenging properties of 8 probes of Slovak wines (consisting of one reference, 3 probes of white wine and 4 probes of red wine). According to the literature so far, wine probes contain paramagnetic species (Mn 2+ , characterised with sextet spectrum, and a singlet line around g=2,00). In our probes we observed Mn 2+ signals, but no significant evidence for a single line of free radical was found. We can conclude that Mn 2+ content in the red wines is generally higher than in the white ones. Further, we investigated the scavenging activities of the probes adding solution of dinitropicryl hydrazyl (DPPH-stable radical) to them. Their ability to terminate free radicals resulted in the decrease of the final DPPH concentrations in the probes. The red wines have significantly higher capability to scavenge free radicals than the probes of white wines. (authors)

  9. Group interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Astrid A; Ponto, Julie; Nelson, Pamela J; Frye, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of 2-week interpersonal and social rhythm therapy group (IPSRT-G) for bipolar depression. Participants with bipolar depression received two individual sessions, six IPSRT-G sessions, and a 12-week telephone call. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (IDS-C), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) were used. IDS-C and SDS scores improved significantly at 12 weeks. YMRS and CGI-BP scores improved but did not reach statistical significance. The promising antidepressive response supports further study of IPSRT-G for bipolar depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The relationship between bipolar disorder and biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Rhythm disruption is a core feature of bipolar disorder and it has been hypothesized that disturbances of the circadian timing system play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disorder. We sought to investigate (1) theoretical models for biological rhythm disruptions in bipolar disorder, (2) physiological disturbances of biological rhythms in bipolar disorder, (3) clinical and therapeutic implications of biological rhythm disturbances in bipolar disorder, and (4) associations between circadian gene variations and bipolar disorder. PubMed database was searched systematically for articles that were published on or before May 5, 2013, and were written in English using the terms bipolar disorder, clock genes, endogenous clock, molecular clock, biological rhythms, circadian, suprachiasmatic nucleus, circadian rhythm, melatonin, and sleep. Seventy-four articles highlighting the objectives were included in the review. Data regarding exploring the association between bipolar disorder and circadian and chronobiological phenomena were reviewed and findings summarized. The literature reviewed suggests that circadian rhythm disturbance may be a feature of bipolar disorder. In toto, the literature suggests that circadian rhythm disturbances may be a feature of bipolar disorder. This area of research has received theoretical consideration as playing a significant role in the pathophysiology of the illness but has been understudied to this point. Further research in the field is warranted. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Paans, Nadine P G; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemiek; Stek, Max L

    2015-09-15

    Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar patients and the relationship between coping and personality. 75 Older patients (age > 60) with bipolar I or II disorder in a euthymic mood completed the Utrecht Coping List and the NEO Personality Inventory FFI and were compared to normative data. Older bipolar patients show more passive coping styles compared to healthy elderly. Their personality traits are predominated by openness, in contrast conscientiousness and altruism are relatively sparse. Neuroticism was related to passive coping styles, whereas conscientiousness was related to an active coping style. Older bipolar patients have more passive coping styles. Their personality is characterized by openness and relatively low conscientiousness and altruism. Our sample represents a survival cohort; this may explain the differences in personality traits between older patients in this study and in adult bipolar patients in other studies. The association between coping styles and personality traits is comparable to reports of younger adult patients with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore if coping and personality change with ageing in bipolar patients and to determine which coping style is most effective in preventing mood episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with bipolar membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Adrian; Jumari, Arif; Budiman, Anatta Wahyu; Puspitaningtyas, Stella Febianti; Cahyaningrum, Suci; Nazriati, Nazriati; Fajaroh, Fauziatul

    2018-02-01

    The electrochemical method with bipolar membrane has been successfully used for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite. In this work, we have developed 2 chambers electrolysis system separated by a bipolar membrane. The membrane was used to separate cations (H+ ions produced by the oxidation of water at the anode) and anions (OH- ions produced by the reduction of water at the cathode). With this system, we have designed that OH- ions still stay in the anions chamber because OH- ions was very substantial in the hydroxyapatite particles formation. The aim of this paper was to compare the electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis was performed at 500 mA/cm2 for 0.5 to 2 hours at room temperature and under ultrasonic cleaner to void agglomeration with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with the bipolar membrane more effective than without the bipolar membrane. The hydroxyapatite has been appeared at 0.5 h of the electrolysis time with the bipolar membrane (at the cathode chamber) while it hasn't been seen without the bipolar membrane. The bipolar membrane prevents OH- ions migrate to the cation chamber. The formation of HA becomes more effective because OH- ions just formed HA particle.

  13. "Is it menopause or bipolar?": a qualitative study of the experience of menopause for women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perich, Tania; Ussher, Jane; Parton, Chloe

    2017-11-16

    Menopause can be a time of change for women and may be marked by disturbances in mood. For women living with a mental illness, such as bipolar disorder, little is known about how they experience mood changes during menopause. This study aimed to explore how women with bipolar disorder constructed mood changes during menopause and how this impacted on treatment decisions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with fifteen women who reported they had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Data was analysed using thematic analysis guided by a social constructionist framework. Themes identified included 'Constructions of mood change: menopause or bipolar disorder?',' Life events, bipolar disorder and menopause coming together'; 'Treatment choices for mood change during menopause'. The accounts suggested that women related to the experience of mood changes during menopause through the lens of their existing framework of bipolar disorder, with implications for understanding of self and treatment choices.

  14. Common and rare variants of DAOA in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Manjula; Shi, Jiajun; Badner, Judith A; Skol, Andrew; Willour, Virginia L; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David A; Gerald, Fowler R; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla; McMahon, Francis J; Potash, James B; Gershon, Elliot S; Liu, Chunyu; Gibbs, Richard A

    2009-10-05

    The D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA, previously known as G72) gene, mapped on 13q33, has been reported to be genetically associated with bipolar disorder (BP) in several populations. The consistency of associated variants is unclear and rare variants in exons of the DAOA gene have not been investigated in psychiatric diseases. We employed a conditional linkage method-STatistical Explanation for Positional Cloning (STEPC) to evaluate whether any associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) account for the evidence of linkage in a pedigree series that previously has been linked to marker D13S779 at 13q33. We also performed an association study in a sample of 376 Caucasian BP parent-proband trios by genotyping 38 common SNPs in the gene region. Besides, we resequenced coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of DAOA in 555 Caucasian unrelated BP patients and 564 mentally healthy controls, to identify putative functional rare variants that may contribute to disease. One SNP rs1935058 could "explain" the linkage signal in the family sample set (P = 0.055) using STEPC analysis. No significant allelic association was detected in an association study by genotyping 38 common SNPs in 376 Caucasian BP trios. Resequencing identified 53 SNPs, of which 46 were novel SNPs. There was no significant excess of rare variants in cases relative to controls. Our results suggest that DAOA does not have a major effect on BP susceptibility. However, DAOA may contribute to bipolar susceptibility in some specific families as evidenced by the STEPC analysis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The bipolarity of light and dark: A review on Bipolar Disorder and circadian cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, T; Bragança, M

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar Disorder is characterized by episodes running the full mood spectrum, from mania to depression. Between mood episodes, residual symptoms remain, as sleep alterations, circadian cycle disturbances, emotional deregulation, cognitive impairment and increased risk for comorbidities. The present review intends to reflect about the most recent and relevant information concerning the biunivocal relation between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles. It was conducted a literature search on PubMed database using the search terms "bipolar", "circadian", "melatonin", "cortisol", "body temperature", "Clock gene", "Bmal1 gene", "Per gene", "Cry gene", "GSK3β", "chronotype", "light therapy", "dark therapy", "sleep deprivation", "lithum" and "agomelatine". Search results were manually reviewed, and pertinent studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Several studies support the relationship between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles, discussing alterations in melatonin, body temperature and cortisol rhythms; disruption of sleep/wake cycle; variations of clock genes; and chronotype. Some therapeutics for bipolar disorder directed to the circadian cycles disturbances are also discussed, including lithium carbonate, agomelatine, light therapy, dark therapy, sleep deprivation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy. This review provides a summary of an extensive research for the relevant literature on this theme, not a patient-wise meta-analysis. In the future, it is essential to achieve a better understanding of the relation between bipolar disorder and the circadian system. It is required to establish new treatment protocols, combining psychotherapy, therapies targeting the circadian rhythms and the latest drugs, in order to reduce the risk of relapse and improve affective behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward the Definition of a Bipolar Prodrome: Dimensional Predictors of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in At-Risk Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeman, Danella M; Merranko, John; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-07-01

    The authors sought to assess dimensional symptomatic predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in youths at familial risk of bipolar disorder ("at-risk" youths). Offspring 6-18 years old of parents with bipolar I or II disorder (N=359) and community comparison offspring (N=220) were recruited. At baseline, 8.4% of the offspring of bipolar parents had a bipolar spectrum disorder. Over 8 years, 14.7% of offspring for whom follow-up data were available (44/299) developed a new-onset bipolar spectrum disorder (15 with bipolar I or II disorder). Measures collected at baseline and follow-up were reduced using factor analyses, and factors (both at baseline and at the visit prior to conversion or last contact) were assessed as predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders. Relative to comparison offspring, at-risk and bipolar offspring had higher baseline levels of anxiety/depression, inattention/disinhibition, externalizing, subsyndromal manic, and affective lability symptoms. The strongest predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders were baseline anxiety/depression, baseline and proximal affective lability, and proximal subsyndromal manic symptoms (prisk of conversion. While youths without anxiety/depression, affective lability, and mania (and with a parent with older age at mood disorder onset) had a 2% predicted chance of conversion to a bipolar spectrum disorder, those with all risk factors had a 49% predicted chance of conversion. Dimensional measures of anxiety/depression, affective lability, and mania are important predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in at-risk youths. These symptoms emerged from among numerous other candidates, underscoring the potential clinical and research utility of these findings.

  17. Bipolar disorder and age-related functional impairment Prejuízo funcional associado à idade e transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aita Cacilhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although bipolar disorder is a major contributor to functional impairment worldwide, an independent impact of bipolar disorder and ageing on functioning has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bipolar disorder on age-related functional status using matched controls as a standard. METHOD: One-hundred patients with bipolar disorder and matched controls were evaluated for disability. Age-related effects controlled for confounders were cross-sectionally evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were significantly more impaired than controls. Regression showed effects for aging in both groups. The effect, size, however, was significantly stronger in patients. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder was an important effect modifier of the age impact on functioning. While a longitudinal design is needed to effectively demonstrate this different impact, this study further depicts bipolar disorder as a chronic and progressively impairing illness.OBJETIVO: O transtorno bipolar é responsável por importante parcela do prejuízo funcional ao redor do mundo. Um efeito independente do transtorno bipolar e da idade no funcionamento ainda não foi demonstrado. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do transtorno bipolar no prejuízo funcional relacionado à idade, com controles pareados como padrão. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes com transtorno bipolar e controles pareados foram avaliados para incapacidade. Efeitos relacionados à idade, com controle para confundidores, foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes tiveram significativamente mais prejuízo que controles. A regressão mostrou efeito para a idade em ambos os grupos, e o efeito foi significativamente mais forte nos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno bipolar foi um importante modificador de efeito no impacto da idade no funcionamento. Enquanto um desenho de estudo longitudinal é necessário para efetivamente demonstrar este impacto diferencial, este

  18. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2014-09-01

    Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder, derived from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, was generated for each subject of European-American ancestry (n = 1,274) in the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study (STAR*D) outpatient major depressive disorder cohort. A hypothesis-driven approach was used to test for association between bipolar disorder risk score and features of depression associated with bipolar disorder in the literature. Follow-up analyses were performed in two additional cohorts. A generalized linear mixed model including seven features hypothesized to be associated with bipolar spectrum illness was significantly associated with bipolar polygenic risk score [F = 2.07, degrees of freedom (df) = 7, p = 0.04]. Features included early onset, suicide attempt, recurrent depression, atypical depression, subclinical mania, subclinical psychosis, and severity. Post-hoc univariate analyses demonstrated that the major contributors to this omnibus association were onset of illness at age ≤ 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, p = 0.003], history of suicide attempt (OR = 1.21, p = 0.03), and presence of at least one manic symptom (OR = 1.16, p = 0.02). The maximal variance in these traits explained by polygenic score ranged from 0.8% to 1.1%. However, analyses in two replication cohorts testing a five-feature model did not support this association. Bipolar genetic loading appeared to be associated with bipolar-like presentation in major depressive disorder in the primary analysis. However, the results were at most inconclusive because of lack of replication. Replication efforts were challenged by different ascertainment and assessment strategies in the different cohorts. The methodological approach

  19. Symptoms of depression as possible markers of bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-05-01

    validity as BP-II markers of these symptoms was supported by a significant association with bipolar family history. Hypersomnia, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, and psychomotor agitation may be useful, cross-sectional markers of BP-II. Finding these symptoms in depression should lead the clinician to careful probing for history of hypomania, which should reduce the BP-II misdiagnosed as MDD. Results may also have treatment impacts, as antidepressants used alone (i.e., no concurrent mood stabilising agent) in BP-II depression misdiagnosed as MDD may increase cycling.

  20. Probing the non-linear transient response of a carbon nanotube mechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Kyle; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Baugh, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) electromechanical resonators have demonstrated unprecedented sensitivities for detecting small masses and forces. The detection speed in a cryogenic setup is usually limited by the CNT contact resistance and parasitic capacitance of cabling. We report the use of a cold heterojunction bipolar transistor amplifying circuit near the device to measure the mechanical amplitude at microsecond timescales. A Coulomb rectification scheme, in which the probe signal is at much lower frequency than the mechanical drive signal, allows investigation of the strongly non-linear regime. The behaviour of transients in both the linear and non-linear regimes is observed and modeled by including Duffing and non-linear damping terms in a harmonic oscillator equation. We show that the non-linear regime can result in faster mechanical response times, on the order of 10 μs for the device and circuit presented, potentially enabling the magnetic moments of single molecules to be measured within their spin relaxation and dephasing timescales.

  1. High temperature probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  2. Microneurosurgical water probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogády, P; Wurm, G

    2005-04-01

    When constructing the micro-neurosurgical water ball probe, the authors have simply combined the properties of a ball probe with an irrigational function and the supportive role of water current to form a new irrigating ball dissector. The micro-instrument has an outlet mechanism with which the surgeon can regulate the flow of physiological solution into the operational field. Its point has the properties of a ball probe, and the overall bayonet shape facilitates surgical interventions in deep tissues under microscopic control. The water probe therefore enables the surgeon to perform precise mechanical preparation supported by a regulated current of water and a targeted irrigation in the operational field. The physiological solution in the pressure infusion cuff is under minimal pressure and directly connected to the probe. Due to the fact that one device can be used for various purposes the water ball probe represents an advantageous alternative to conventional micro-neurosurgical preparation.

  3. Temperamental dimensions of the TEMPS-A in females with co-morbid bipolar disorder and bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakowski, Janusz K; Kaminska, Katarzyna; Charytonik, Jolanta; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effect of co-morbid bipolar disorder and bulimia on temperamental dimensions measured by TEMPS-A, relative to "pure" bulimia and "pure" bipolar disorder, in female patients. The study was performed on 47 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) with a mean age of 36±10 years, 96 patients with bulimia or bulimic type of anorexia, mean age 26±9 years and 50 control healthy females (HC), mean age 29±6 years. Among bulimic patients, a group of 68 subjects with co-morbid bulimia with bipolarity (BD+B) was identified, based on positive score of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). The TEMPS-A questionnaire, 110 questions version, has been used, evaluating five temperament domains: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Parametric analysis was performed for 4 groups (BD, "pure" bulimia (PB), BD+B and HC), with 28 subjects randomly chosen from each group, using analysis of variance and cluster analysis. All clinical groups significantly differed from control group by having higher scores of depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments and lower of hyperthymic one. Among patients, significantly higher scores of cyclothymic and irritable temperaments were found in BD+B compared to both PB and BD. These differences were also reflected in cluster analysis, where two clusters were identified. Bipolarity in bulimic patients assessed only by the MDQ. These results show that co-morbid bulimia and bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme dimensions of both cyclothymic and irritable temperaments, significantly higher than each single diagnosis. Possible clinical implications of such fact are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Expressed Emotions, Burden and Family Functioning in Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients of a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed

  6. Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Woogen, Michelle; Glahn, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, bipolar disorder has been conceptualized as a disease involving episodic rather than chronic dysfunction. However, increasing evidence indicates that bipolar disorder is associated with substantial inter-episode psychosocial and vocational impairment. Here we review the contributions of neurocognitive deficits and structural and functional neuroanatomic alterations to the observed functional impairments. In particular, compelling evidence now suggests that neurocognitive impairm...

  7. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  8. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  9. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  10. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…