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Sample records for single poultry house

  1. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  2. Effects of Poultry Species and Housing Types on the Poultry Wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate information on the characteristics of wastes generated from poultry production particularly in the tropical region is lacking. This study investigated and characterized the wastes of different poultry species which included broiler, cockerel and layer with each under battery cage and or deep litter housing systems.

  3. Inorganic PM in poultry house using rice hull bedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  4. Thermal Inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christopher B; Spackman, Erica

    2017-09-15

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable, heating poultry houses may provide an alternative disinfection method. The objective was to determine the time necessary to inactivate AIV in poultry litter at temperatures achievable in a poultry house. Low pathogenic (LP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-48.9°C, at ∼5.5°C intervals and highly pathogenic (HP) AIV inactivation was evaluated between 10.0°-43.3°C, at ∼11°C intervals. Samples were collected at numerous time points for each temperature. Virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs was conducted to determine if viable virus was present. Each sample was also tested by real-time RT-PCR. Low pathogenicity AIV was inactivated at 1day at 26.7°C or above. At 10.0, 15.6 and 21.1°C, inactivation times increased to 2-5days. Highly pathogenic AIV followed a similar trend; the virus was inactivated after 1day at 43.3°C and 32.2°C, and required 2 and 5days for inactivation at 21.1°C and 10.0°C respectively. While low pathogenicity AIV appeared to be inactivated at a lower temperature than high pathogenicity AIV, this was not due to any difference in the strains, but due to fewer temperature points being evaluated for high pathogenicity. Endpoints for detection by real-time RT-PCR were not found even weeks after the virus was inactivated. This provides a guideline for the time required, at specific temperatures to inactivate AIV in poultry litter and likely on surfaces within the house. Heat treatment will provide an added level of safety to personnel and against further spread by eliminating infectious virus prior to cleaning a house. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Energie- en eiwitbehoefte van biologisch gehouden pluimvee = Energy and protein requirements of organic housed poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this literature review, the physiological basis for possible differences in energy and protein requirements of organic versus conventional poultry is investigated. Energy need for maintenance of organic housed poultry seems to be increased, whereas protein requirements might not differ between

  6. Development of water scrubbers to reduce fine dust emission from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Harn, van J.; Melse, R.W.; Cambra-Lopez, M.

    2010-01-01

    Poultry housings with litter are a major contributor to fine dust emissions (PM10/PM2.5) in the Netherlands. Poultry producers are in need of dust mitigation options that are cost effective. Such an option could be provided by adequately designed water scrubbers. Catchment of dust particles by water

  7. effects of poultry species and housing types on the poultry wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS T. NWAKUNOBI

    Physical components of wastes from deep litter are however, higher ... The results of the analyses of variance (ANOVA) indicate that poultry species and ... T. U. Nwakonobi, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, ... density, aggregate stability and aeration can be ... In area of intense poultry production,.

  8. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  9. Housing: plastered versus un-plastered brooder walls in poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to study the health impact of inadequate brooder house with poor make-up on chicks. Two brooder houses were constructed with a mixture of sand and cementitious materials consisting of lime and/or gypsum to form concrete blocks. Brooder 1 was plastered with cement (cemented) and ...

  10. Water supply rates for recirculating evaporative cooling systems in poultry housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporative cooling (EC) is an important tool to reduce heat stress in animal housing systems. Expansion of ventilation capacity in tunnel ventilated poultry facilities has resulted in increased water demand for EC systems. As water resources become more limited and costly, proper planning and des...

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating air pollutant emissions from poultry houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 560 million broilers are produced on the Delmarva Peninsula each year. However, emissions from poultry houses have come under intense scrutiny due to the potential human and environmental effects of the released particulate matter (PM), ammonia, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ammonia an...

  12. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  13. Attenuated Phenotype of a Recent House Finch-Associated Mycoplasma gallisepticum Isolate in Domestic Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, K; Tulman, E R; Beaudet, J; Liao, X; Dhondt, K V; Dhondt, A A; Hawley, D M; Ley, D H; Kerr, K M; Geary, S J

    2017-06-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum , known primarily as a respiratory pathogen of domestic poultry, has emerged since 1994 as a significant pathogen of the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus ) causing severe conjunctivitis and mortality. House finch-associated M. gallisepticum (HFMG) spread rapidly and increased in virulence for the finch host in the eastern United States. In the current study, we assessed virulence in domestic poultry with two temporally distant, and yet geographically consistent, HFMG isolates which differ in virulence for house finches-Virginia 1994 (VA1994), the index isolate of the epidemic, and Virginia 2013 (VA2013), a recent isolate of increased house finch virulence. Here we report a significant difference between VA1994 and VA2013 in their levels of virulence for chickens; notably, this difference correlated inversely to the difference in their levels of virulence for house finches. VA1994, while moderately virulent in house finches, displayed significant virulence in the chicken respiratory tract. VA2013, while highly virulent in the house finch, was significantly attenuated in chickens relative to VA1994, displaying less-severe pathological lesions in, and reduced bacterial recovery from, the respiratory tract. Overall, these data indicate that a recent isolate of HFMG is greatly attenuated in the chicken host relative to the index isolate, notably demonstrating a virulence phenotype in chickens inversely related to that in the finch host. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Ammonia production in poultry houses can affect health of humans, birds, and the environment-techniques for its reduction during poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sadia; King, Annie J

    2018-06-01

    Due to greater consumption of poultry products and an increase in exports, more poultry houses will be needed. Therefore, it is important to investigate ways that poultry facilities can coexist in close proximity to residential areas without odors and environmental challenges. Ammonia (NH 3 ) is the greatest concern for environmental pollution from poultry production. When birds consume protein, they produce uric acid, ultimately converted to NH 3 under favorable conditions. Factors that increase production include pH, temperature, moisture content, litter type, bird age, manure age, relative humidity, and ventilation rate (VR). NH 3 concentration and emissions in poultry houses depend on VR; seasons also have effects on NH 3 production. Modern ventilation systems can minimize NH 3 in enclosed production spaces quickly but increase its emissions to the environment. NH 3 adversely affects the ecosystem, environment, and health of birds and people. Less than 10 ppm is the ideal limit for exposure, but up to 25 ppm is also not harmful. NH 3 can be minimized by housing type, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, manure handling practices, litter amendment, and diet manipulation without affecting performance and production. Antibiotics can minimize NH 3 , but consumers have concerns about health effects. Administration of probiotics seems to be a useful replacement for antibiotics. More studies have been conducted on broilers, necessitating the need to evaluate the effect of probiotics on NH 3 production in conjunction with laying hen performance and egg quality. This comprehensive review focuses on research from 1950 to 2018.

  15. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: fzanatta@vicosa.ufv.br

    2008-07-01

    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  16. 76 FR 76890 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    .... FSIS-2005-0018] Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry... major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products and ground or chopped meat and poultry... Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 82148) that, among other...

  17. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernaki-Leffer, A M; Almeida, L M; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Anjos, A; Vogado, K M

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week). Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points). There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  18. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. Chernaki-Leffer

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22 for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week. Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points. There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house.

  19. A simple mathematical method to estimate ammonia emission from in-house windrowing of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Szogi, Ariel A; Moore, Philip A

    2018-05-12

    In-house windrowing between flocks is an emerging sanitary management practice to partially disinfect the built-up litter in broiler houses. However, this practice may also increase ammonia (NH 3 ) emission from the litter due to the increase in litter temperature. The objectives of this study were to develop mathematical models to estimate NH 3 emission rates from broiler houses practicing in-house windrowing between flocks. Equations to estimate mass-transfer areas form different shapes windrowed litter (triangular, rectangular, and semi-cylindrical prisms) were developed. Using these equations, the heights of windrows yielding the smallest mass-transfer area were estimated. Smaller mass-transfer area is preferred as it reduces both emission rates and heat loss. The heights yielding the minimum mass-transfer area were 0.8 and 0.5 m for triangular and rectangular windrows, respectively. Only one height (0.6 m) was theoretically possible for semi-cylindrical windrows because the base and the height were not independent. Mass-transfer areas were integrated with published process-based mathematical models to estimate the total house NH 3 emission rates during in-house windrowing of poultry litter. The NH 3 emission rate change calculated from the integrated model compared well with the observed values except for the very high NH 3 initial emission rate from mechanically disturbing the litter to form the windrows. This approach can be used to conveniently estimate broiler house NH 3 emission rates during in-house windrowing between flocks by simply measuring litter temperatures.

  20. Endotoxin and dust at respirable and nonrespirable particle sizes are not consistent between cage- and floor-housed poultry operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirychuk, Shelley P; Reynolds, Stephen J; Koehncke, Niels K; Lawson, Joshua; Willson, Philip; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Marciniuk, Darcy; Classen, Henry L; Crowe, Trever; Just, Natasha; Schneberger, David; Dosman, James A

    2010-10-01

    Individuals engaged in work in intensive animal houses experience some of the highest rates of occupationally related respiratory symptoms. Organic dust and in particular endotoxin has been most closely associated with respiratory symptoms and lung function changes in workers. It has previously been shown that for intensive poultry operations, type of poultry housing [cage-housed (CH) versus floor-housed (FH)] can influence the levels of environmental contaminants. The goal of the study was to determine the differences in endotoxin and dust levels at different size fractions between CH and FH poultry operations. Fifteen CH and 15 FH poultry operations were sampled for stationary measurements (area) of dust and associated endotoxin. Fractioned samples were collected utilizing Marple cascade impactors. Gravimetric and endotoxin analysis were conducted on each of the filters. When assessed by individual Marple stage, there was significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration (endotoxin units per cubic meter) in the size fraction >9.8 μm for the FH operations whereas at the size fraction 1.6-3.5 μm, the CH operations had significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration than the FH operations. Endotoxin concentration in the dust mass (endotoxin units per milligram) was significantly greater in the CH operations as compared to the FH operations for all size fractions >1.6 μm. As such, endotoxin in the respirable fraction accounted for 24% of the total endotoxin in the CH operations whereas it accounted for only 11% in the FH operations. There was significantly more dust in all size fractions in the FH operations as compared to the CH poultry operations. There is more endotoxin in the presence of significantly lower dust levels in the respirable particle size fractions in CH poultry operations as compared to the FH poultry operations. This difference in respirable endotoxin may be important in relation to the differential respiratory response experienced by

  1. Low-cost monitoring of campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mette Sofie Rousing; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Löfström, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain......The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two...... standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100...

  2. Evaluation of the hygienogram scores and related data obtained after cleaning and disinfection of poultry houses in Flanders during the period 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; De Reu, K; Van Weyenberg, S; Van Coillie, E; Meyer, E; Van Meirhaeghe, H; Van Immerseel, F; Vandenbroucke, V; Vanrobaeys, M; Dewulf, J

    2018-02-01

    Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of poultry houses is an essential aspect in farm hygiene management. Adequate performance of the different steps of a C&D protocol and the use of suitable products are key to prevent and control zoonoses and animal diseases. Hygiene monitoring on total aerobic flora through sampling with agar contact plates at different locations of the poultry house results in a hygienogram score that is used to evaluate the proper execution of C&D.This study analyzed the hygienogram scores of 19,739 poultry flocks in Flanders after C&D. Data relating to the C&D protocol, i.e., year, season, husbandry system, production type, cleaning product, sampler, active components of the disinfectant, disinfection time, disinfection temperature, and disinfection responsible, were collected.The average hygienogram score decreased significantly over time, suggesting a general improvement between 2007 and 2014. Differences in scores were found among the husbandry systems, with the barn/aviary system having a significantly better hygienogram score compared to the floor house, furnished cage, and battery. Significantly better scores also were found when a cleaning product was used in the C&D protocol. Disinfection with a peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide combination or formaldehyde gave the best scores. In addition, C&D protocols using ≥2 different disinfectants showed improved results compared to the use of one single disinfectant. Finally, disinfection applied by a specialist contractor resulted in a better score compared to disinfection by the farmer.In conclusion, analysis of the hygienogram scores and related data allowed identifying several factors, resulting in an improvement, which may reduce the total bacterial load in poultry stables and, consequently, the number of zoonotic and pathogenic micro-organisms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Prevalence of toxigenic Penicillium species associated with poultry house in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswara Rao, Vankudoth; Girisham, Sivadevuni; Madhusudhan Reddy, Solipuram

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of mycotoxigenic Penicillium species in poultry houses of Telangana, India, was studied during 4 seasons between June 2009 and May 2010. Fungi belonging to 13 genera, including Penicillium, comprising 43 species were collected using petri plates. Fourteen Penicillium species demonstrated varying degrees of mycotoxigenicity. Chemical and chromatographic analysis of the different poultry feed samples revealed 8 different mycotoxins with ochratoxin A (OTA) predominating. The mean contamination rate of OTA was 38%. OTA quantities ranged between 5.78 and 6.73 µg/kg -1 , 10.13 and 14.23 µg/kg -1 , and 12.33 and 15.20 µg/kg -1 in starter, broiler, and layer feeds, respectively. Statistically significant positive correlation between prevalence of Penicillium species and the monsoon, autumn, and spring seasons and negative correlation between prevalence and the autumn, spring, and summer seasons were observed. These findings may serve as risk exposure indicators and contribute toward the initiation of a sustainable control program.

  4. Antibacterial efficacy of commercial disinfectants on dirt floor used in poultry breeder houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Pilotto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Dirt floors are used on most Brazilian poultry farms since the construction of concrete floors is very expensive. In vitro tests carried out to verify the effectiveness of disinfectants do not consider the adverse conditions found in poultry farms. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of six commercial disinfectants on the reduction of total and fecal coliforms on the dirt floor of breeder houses. The amount of disinfectant solution to be used per square meter was defined by counting total and fecal coliforms at different soil depths and by analyzing soil physical properties. Coliforms were detected at 0.5 cm, and one liter of disinfectant solution was sufficient for soil saturation at this depth. After that, the efficacy of six commercial products (caustic soda, hydrated lime, phenols 1 and 2, iodine, glutaraldehyde, and quaternary ammonium in reducing the number of coliforms, after six hours of contact with the dirt floor, was assessed using the most probable number (MPN method. Escherichia coli specimens isolated from the dirt floor were used to evaluate in vitro effectiveness of disinfectants. Products that yielded the best results in the MPN method were also effective in the in vitro tests. Among the tested disinfectants, hydrated lime was the most efficient, reducing the initial contamination by 2.9 log after six hours of contact with the dirt floor.

  5. Size reduction of ammonia scrubbers for pig and poultry houses: Use of conditional bypass vent at high air loading rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Mosquera, J.

    2006-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both acid and biological air scrubbers are used for removal of ammonia from exhaust air at pig and poultry houses. Current regulations require that scrubbers are dimensioned for treating the maximum airflow rate that may occur, so on average these systems are overdimensioned and

  6. Degradation of Insecticides in Poultry Manure: Determining the Insecticidal Treatment Interval for Managing House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Ahmad, Hamdan

    2016-04-01

    It is crucial to understand the degradation pattern of insecticides when designing a sustainable control program for the house fly, Musca domestica (L.), on poultry farms. The aim of this study was to determine the half-life and degradation rates of cyromazine, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin by spiking these insecticides into poultry manure, and then quantitatively analyzing the insecticide residue using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The insecticides were later tested in the field in order to study the appropriate insecticidal treatment intervals. Bio-assays on manure samples were later tested at 3, 7, 10, and 15 d for bio-efficacy on susceptible house fly larvae. Degradation analysis demonstrated that cyromazine has the shortest half-life (3.01 d) compared with chlorpyrifos (4.36 d) and cypermethrin (3.75 d). Cyromazine also had a significantly greater degradation rate compared with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. For the field insecticidal treatment interval study, 10 d was the interval that had been determined for cyromazine due to its significantly lower residue; for ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), the suggested interval was 7 d. Future work should focus on the effects of insecticide metabolites on targeted pests and the poultry manure environment.

  7. Two semidetached single family houses in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    DIEGO JOVELLS, FERNANDO JOSÉ

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo Fin de Grado de modalidad Intercambios Académicos. České Vysoké Učení Technické v Praze | Czech Technical University in Prague [en] This Bachelor’s Thesis is intent on building a single family house in Veleslavín, a district of Prague, part of Prague 6, situated in the west of the city. The chosen foundations, the structure, the installations of electricity, cold and hot water, heating system, and sanitation network are going to be studied in this project. Some plans will be done, ...

  8. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chernaki-Leffer,AM.; Almeida,LM.; Sosa-Gómez,DR.; Anjos,A.; Vogado,KM.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter a...

  9. 76 FR 31217 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC83 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... the Rural Housing Service (RHS) Section 502 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) by eliminating the lender's published Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) rate for first mortgage loans with no...

  10. with rice hulls on pH and ammonia emissions from poultry houses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of aluminum sulfate [alum; Al2(SO3)4·14H2O] as top dressing to poultry litter has been proven in reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization under both laboratory and field tests; however, there has been no information of alum application in mixing methods from poultry litter or rice hulls. The aim of the experiment was ...

  11. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  12. Surface disinfection tests with Salmonella and a putative indicator bacterium, mimicking worst-case scenarios in poultry houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Sayers, A.R.; Davies, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    Surface disinfection studies mimicking worst-case scenarios in badly cleaned poultry houses were made with 3 bacterial isolates (Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella senftenberg, and Enterococcus faecalis), and 3 1% disinfectant solutions, formaldehyde (F; 24.5% vol/vol), glutaraldehyde...... hard water, except when feed chain links with fats were disinfected using 30degreesC before and after disinfection, for which the peroxygen compound seemed more effective. Enterococcus faecalis was equally or less susceptible than S. enteritidis and S. senftenberg, indicating its suitability...... as an indicator bacterium. For the peroxygen compound, S. senftenberg was more susceptible than S. enteritidis in spite of higher minimum inhibitory concentrations to this disinfectant for the former....

  13. Poultry Houses, WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some aggregated county data, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Poultry Houses dataset current as of 2009. WI Livestock Consortium Livestock Premises; confidentiality protected by law; use for animal health emergencies only; some...

  14. Ammonia Production In Poultry Houses And Its Effect On The Growth Of Gallus Gallus Domestica Broiler Chickens A Case Study Of A Small Scale Poultry House In Riverside Kitwe Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sipalo Maliselo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chickens deaminate excess amino acids and excrete the derived nitrogen in the urine mainly as uric acid which is readily converted to ammonia. This gas has adverse effects on the health of chickens and air quality. Production of ammonia and its effect on the growth of chickens was monitored at a poultry house of House Number 5743 Mukuba Road in Riverside Kitwe from 21st August 2013 to 6th June 2014. Two batches of fifty day old hybrid broiler chicks were bred in house A and B 5 m x 7 m under the same management system in three phases. House A chicks were fed on Novatek feed only while those in house B were fed on Novatek feed blended with 0.5 0.7 and 0.9 ww bamboo charcoal of amp8804600m particle size. Weekly mass recording by the use of a weighing scale provided a measure of growth rate while analysis of the excreta using Kjeldahl method at the Copperbelt University and Nkana Water and Sewerage Company laboratories in Kitwe provided a means of monitoring the amount of ammonia generated. Chickens in house B showed a slightly faster growth rate from 28 to 42 days than those in house A. The f-test results from the study showed that there was a significant effect of ammonia concentration on chicken growth rate P0.05. The results obtained from excreta-litter mixture analysis showed a significant adsorption of ammonia by bamboo charcoal P0.05. The study further indicated a direct dependency of ammonia concentration in excreta on chicken age moisture content and pH.

  15. Housing Retention in Single-Site Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Severe Alcohol Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel K.; Clifasefi, Seema L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied housing retention and its predictors in the single-site Housing First model. Methods. Participants (n = 111) were chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems who lived in a single-site Housing First program and participated in a larger nonrandomized controlled trial (2005–2008) conducted in Seattle, Washington. At baseline, participants responded to self-report questionnaires assessing demographic, illness burden, alcohol and other drug use, and psychiatric variables. Housing status was recorded over 2 years. Results. Participants were interested in housing, although a sizable minority did not believe they would be able to maintain abstinence-based housing. Only 23% of participants returned to homelessness during the 2-year follow-up. Commonly cited risk factors—alcohol and other drug use, illness burden, psychiatric symptoms, and homelessness history—did not predict resumed homelessness. Active drinkers were more likely to stay in this housing project than nondrinkers. Conclusions. We found that single-site Housing First programming fills a gap in housing options for chronically homeless people with severe alcohol problems. PMID:24148063

  16. Respiratory Protection Behavior and Respiratory Indices among Poultry House Workers on Small, Family-Owned Farms in North Carolina: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Gregory D; Gallagher, Barbara; Shaw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate respiratory behavior and respiratory indices of poultry workers on family-owned, poultry farms with 10 or less employees in North Carolina. A field study was conducted to collect data on participants (N = 24) using spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of workers (76%) ranked respiratory protection as being important, yet 48% reported never or rarely wearing respiratory protection when working in dusty conditions. A large percent of workers reported eye (55%) and nasal (50%) irritation and dry cough (50%). On average, pulmonary lung function and Feno tests were normal among nonsmokers. In bivariate analysis, significant associations were identified between working 7 days on the farm (P = .01), with eye irritation, and working 5 or fewer years in poultry farming (P = .01). Poultry workers on family-owned farms spend a considerable amount of work time in poultry houses and report acute respiratory-related health symptoms. Administrative controls among small, family-owned poultry farms are necessary to improve and promote safety and health to its employees.

  17. Reflective properties of domestic fowl (Gallus g. domesticus), the fabric of their housing and the characteristics of the light environment in environmentally controlled poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, N B; Wathes, C M

    1999-05-01

    1. The light intensity and spectral power distribution in 3 broiler and 6 layer houses were sampled and converted to a measure which takes account of the domestic fowl's spectral sensitivity (termed lux corrected). Light intensity was highly variable around the layer houses (mean 33.2, s.d. 37.7 lux (corrected)) and to a lesser extent in the broiler houses (mean 5.2, s.d. 2.2 lux (corrected)). The mean intensities were also very much lower than on a sunny, June day at midday at Silsoe (42,937 lux (corrected)) and of different power distributions. 2. The reflectivity of the plumage of 15 traditional breeds of domestic fowl was surveyed. Most feathers showed a characteristic pattern of reflectivity, increasing either side of a wavelength of lambda = 400 nm. In 13 breeds the tail and wing feathers were darker than the breast and back feathers. Reflectivity at lambda = 700 nm was a good predictor of reflectivity at lambda = 320 nm. Food, bedding, wood and skin all had similar reflectivities to feathers. Metal, plastic and rubber all had more constant reflectivities across the spectrum. 3. The reflectivities of the fresh, feathered carcases of 3 male broilers (Cobb) and 3 layer hens (ISA Brown) were measured. There were small changes in hue and saturation within and between individual carcases, even for the apparently white broiler chickens. 4. Photographs were taken, with and without a UV(A)-only pass filter, of a broiler cock (Cobb), layer hen (ISA Brown) and cock jungle fowl. No additional patternation was evident in the UV(A)-only photographs and the jungle fowl lost most of its ornamentation. The texture of bare skin was enhanced in the UV(A)-only photographs. 5. The implications of these results for poultry behaviour are discussed.

  18. Short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for space heating in a single-family house. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses located in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts. Every hour the hourly heat load for each...... house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used. The models are optimized to fit the individual...... noise and that practically all correlation to the climate variables are removed. Furthermore, the results show that the forecasting errors mainly are related to: unpredictable high frequency variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), shifts in resident behavior patterns...

  19. Splitting Terraced Houses Into Single Units Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, D.

    2017-05-01

    This paper introduces a method to subdivide complex building structures like terraced houses into single house units comparable to units available in a cadastral map. 3D line segments are detected with sub-pixel accuracy in traditional vertical true orthomosaics as well as in innovative oblique true orthomosaics and their respective surface models. Hereby high gradient strengths on roofs as well as façades are taken into account. By investigating the coplanarity and frequencies within a set of 3D line segments, individual cut lines for a building complex are found. The resulting regions ideally describe single houses and thus the object complexity is reduced for subsequent topological, semantical or geometrical considerations. For the chosen study area with 70 buidling outlines a hit rate of 80% for cut lines is achieved.

  20. Enhanced Dispersion and Removal of Ammonia Emitted from a Poultry House with a Vegetative Environmental Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung S. Ro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs, which are composed of tolerant trees, shrubs, and tall grasses, can be used to control and reduce the transport of ammonia (NH3 emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs. However, the effectiveness of VEBs has not been quantitated. In this study, we measure the dispersion and removal of NH3 in simulated emissions from a small broiler house that was equipped with a VEB. The dispersion enhancement due to the VEB was estimated by comparing the measured downwind concentration of the co-released tracer gas, methane (CH4, to the theoretical CH4 concentrations at the same distance downwind without the VEB. The accuracy of the theoretical downwind concentrations calculated using the forward Lagrangian stochastic (fLS technique was 95%, which was validated by comparing the measured and calculated CH4 concentrations in a separate experiment without the VEB. The VEB enhanced the dispersion of CH4 and reduced the downwind concentration to 63% of the theoretical concentration. In addition to dispersion, the VEB removed another 22% of the NH3, resulting in a net 51% decrease of the theoretical downwind concentration. These results clearly demonstrated that the VEB was effective both in dispersing and removing NH3 emitted from the broiler house.

  1. Single women and housing choices in urban Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Nakano, L.

    2013-01-01

    Japan has experienced a particularly sharp decline in marriage in recent decades and a subsequent increase in ‘never-marrieds’ and single-person households. Social fragmentation has been associated with prolonged economic instability and neoliberalization that has restructured employment, housing

  2. Development of an air heating system for single family housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gunner, Amalie; Nikolaisen, Christian Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    The initial objective of the project was to break with common thinking about Space heating and to document that air heating can be used as the sole source of heating in a single Family house. The basic idea is that the ventilation must be installed in any case and it may equally well form the heat...

  3. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2...

  4. Effects of microbial aerosol in poultry house on meat ducks’ immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanliu YU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of microbial aerosols on immune function of ducks and shed light on the establishment of microbial aerosol concentration standards for poultry. A total of 1800 1-d-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with 360 ducks in each. To obtain objective data, each group had three replications. Concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin in different groups were created by controlling ventilation and bedding cleaning frequency. Group A was the control group and hygienic conditions deteriorated progressively from group B to E. A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to detect the aerosol concentration of aerobes, gram-negative bacteria, fungi and AGI-30 microbial air sampler detect the endotoxin, and Composite Gas Detector detect the noxious gas. In order to assess the immune function of meat ducks, immune indicators including H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme and immune organ indexes were evaluated. Correlation coefficients were also calculated to evaluate the relationships among airborne bacteria, fungi, endotoxin and immune indicators. The results showed that the concentration of airborne aerobe, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, endotoxin have a strong correlation to H5 AIV antibody titer, IgG, IL-2, T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme and immune organ indexes, respectively. In addition, when the concentration of microbial aerosol reach the level of group D, serum IgG (6 - 8 weeks, lysozyme (4 week were significantly higher than in group A (P < 0.05; serum IL-2 (7 and 8 weeks , T-lymphocyte transformation rate, lysozyme (7 and 8 weeks, spleen index (6 and 8 weeks and bursa index (8 week were significantly lower than in group A(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. The results indicated that a high level of microbial aerosol adversely affected the immune level of meat ducks. The microbial aerosol values in group D provide a basis

  5. Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit de pluimveehouderij; studie naar mogelijkheden van aanbrengen waterfilm op strooisel = Measures to reduce fine dust emissions from poultry houses; possibility of supplying a waterfilm on litter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, H.H.; Harn, van J.

    2010-01-01

    In this desk study the possibilities of reducing fine dust emission from poultry housings by applying a water film on bedding material was studied. This measure can be perspective in laying hens, but not in broilers and parent stock.

  6. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing...... services as well as other promoting issues to overcome the behavioural, organizational, legal and social barriers that exist in sustainable renovation. A starting point for such a change has been to get an overview of the existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical...

  7. In vivo efficiency evaluation of a phage cocktail in controlling severe colibacillosis in confined conditions and experimental poultry houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sereno, Rui; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-12-15

    Infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause important economic losses to poultry industry. The studies presented herein, aimed at investigating the in vivo performance of a cocktail of three phages in treating severe respiratory E. coli infections in experimentally contaminated birds and naturally infected flocks. Three lytic coliphages, phi F78E (Myoviridae), phi F258E (Siphoviridae) and phi F61E (Myoviridae) were combined in a 5.0 × 10(7)PFU/ml cocktail to be used in naturally APEC infected flocks (refractive to antibiotherapy). Experimentally infected birds were treated with phi F78E at two different titres (10(7)PFU/ml and 10(9)PFU/ml). Phage administration was performed orally and by spray, in a single application. The morbidity, mortality and pathology scores were compared with control birds not receiving phage therapy. The results revealed that the success of phage therapy in experimental rooms was dosage dependent, being 10(7)PFU/ml not enough to treat the infected chickens whereas a concentration of 10(9)PFU/ml of phi F78E allowed a decrease of 25% and 43% in chickens' mortality and morbidity, respectively. In the large scale experiments, the results obtained showed a remarkable efficacy of the low titre phage cocktail (10(7)PFU/ml) in decreasing the flocks' mortality to levels below 0.5% in no more than 3 weeks, with no recidivism. Based on the results we can conclude that phage treatment is a valuable alternative to control APEC infections in poultry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobin's q for Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    from 2003 to 2006. The activity in the construction sector has been increasing too, but with some time lag caused by what seems to be an inelastic supply. In the long run, house prices will be determined by the replacement cost of houses, e.g. the cost of constructing a similar house including the cost...... of land. This can be used as a guide as to how much prices are to fall, in order to bring them back to the fundamental value. It can also be seen as a warning or indication of a price bubble. This paper presents a calculation of the value of Tobin's q for single-family houses in Denmark from 1968 to 2008....... It shows that the value of Tobin's q has risen by around 40 percent from 2003 to 2006, caused by increasing house prices. This was not a sustainable development, and prices and the value of Tobin's q are now falling. In order for the value of Tobin's q to reach its fundamental value of 1, prices have...

  9. Economy Controls Energy Retrofits of Danish Single-family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    A great energy saving potential is found in the 440,000 Danish single-family houses erected between 1960 and 1979, but the potential is not exploited. To utilize this potential homeowners must be motivated to conduct energy saving retrofits. This paper presents results from a survey from 2012 where...... 883 Danish single-family house owners completed a questionnaire about energy retrofit. The objective of this paper is, based on the survey results, to determine how Danish homeowners can be motivated to conduct energy retrofits. The conclusion is that the financial aspect of an energy retrofit...... about the potential improvements within these parameters is found among the homeowners and therefore there is a vital need for more information about this. A combination of this knowledge of the non-economic improvements, a sensible investment size and information and education about the current...

  10. Single-Family Houses That Meet The Future Energy Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    ). Before any further tightening of the regulations are introduced, however, it is necessary to illustrate the consequences of such actions with regard to finance, building technology, indoor climate and comfort. Therefore a series of investigations and experimental projects are being launched, in order...... to examine these consequences thoroughly. The department is presently contributing to this end by participating in quite a few investigative projects, where single-family houses are designed to meet the proposed future energy demands. This paper describes the results obtained from one such project where...... the department, in co-operation with a major building entrepreneur, has developed a single-family house that shows that there are no evident problems in meeting the future energy demands....

  11. Cold Storage for a Single-Family House in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Mongibello; Giorgio Graditi

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the operation, modeling, simulation, and cost evaluation of two different cold storage systems for a single-family house in Italy, that differ from one another on the cold storage material. The two materials used to perform the numerical simulations of the cold storage systems are represented by cold water and a phase change material (PCM), and the numerical simulations have been realized by means of numerical codes written in Matlab environment. The main finding of the p...

  12. Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    . The results show that despite the barriers the owners can in fact be motivated to perform private energy renovations. A sound project economy is all-important for this to happen and it should if possible be supported by improvements in both comfort, indoor environment and architecture to increase......The PhD project is based on requirements from the European Union to reduce the energy consumption and on current renovation needs of and a huge energy saving potential in the Danish single-family houses from the 1960’s and 1970’s. The project focuses on the barriers for energy renovations...... of these houses and on defining motivation factors for the homeowners. The barriers are many and variating in influence and studies show that both professionals and homeowners are affected. The barriers range from lack of interest and knowledge to uncertainties about among others economy and technical solutions...

  13. Energy renovation of an old single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, L.L.; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    After having identified a large potential for profitable energy renovation of the existing building stock, a demonstration project was carried out in practice. This paper deals with the methods and results from the demonstration project concerning a 161 m² poorly insulated single-family house built...... saving improvements carried out in the project are “easy to carry out” and cost-beneficial measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, insulation of walls under windows and a new second window-frame with energy-saving glass. The work was carried out by professional contractors at a total......). If a conservative way of financing the building work of 157,000 DKK is assumed, the first year’s cost equals DKK 8,500 and the house owner will gain a net saving the first year of DKK 7,500....

  14. Administration of Brevibacillus laterosporus spores as a poultry feed additive to inhibit house fly development in feces: a new eco-sustainable concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiu, L; Satta, A; Floris, I

    2014-03-01

    The success of a microbial pesticide application against house flies developing in manure should accomplish the uniform mixing of active ingredients with this breeding medium, thus enhancing residual effects. The oral administration of the entomopathogenic bacterium Brevibacillus laterosporus to caged poultry species allows the homogeneous incorporation of its active ingredients with fly breeding media. Feces from treated broilers or hens show toxicity against exposed fly adults and larvae. Insecticidal effects are concentration-dependent with a lethal median concentration (LC50) value of 1.34 × 10(8) and 0.61 × 10(8) spores/g of feces for adults and larvae, respectively. Manure toxicity against flies was maintained as long as chickens were fed a diet containing adequate concentrations of B. laterosporus spores. Toxicity significantly decreased after spore administration to birds was interrupted. When poultry diet contained 10(10) spores/g, mortality of flies reared on feces exceeded 80%. The use of B. lateroporus spores as a feed additive in poultry production systems fostering a more integrated approach to farming is discussed.

  15. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank is a......, the control strategy of intelligent solar heating systems is investigated and the yearly auxiliary energy use of the systems and the electricity price for supplying the consumers with domestic hot water and space heating are calculated....... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys......Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...

  16. Simultaneous detection of airborne aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone in a poultry house by immunoaffinity clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaling; Chai, Tongjie; Lu, Guozhong; Quan, Chunsan; Duan, Huiyong; Yao, Meiling; Zucker, Bert-Andree; Schlenker, Gerd

    2008-06-01

    An AOZ method, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was optimized on HPLC condition such as mobile phase and wavelength to simultaneously quantify six kinds of mycotoxins [four aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA)]. Conditions for immunoaffinity clean-up, HPLC and photo-derivatization were optimized in this study and successfully applied in assessment of airborne mycotoxins from a poultry house in Dalian, China. Fifty-two air samples were collected with AGI-30 air samplers using pure water as collection media. Twenty air samples (20/52, 38.46%) were positive for four toxins. Among the positive samples, airborne mycotoxin concentrations (mean+/-S.D.) for AFG(2), AFB(1), and ZEA were 0.189+/-0.024 (n=9), 0.080+/-0.003 (n=11) and 2.363+/-0.030 (n=5)ng/m(3) air, while the concentration for OTA was 8.530 (n=1)ng/m(3). No positive sample was found for either AFG(1) or AFB(2). A chicken may inhale 0.019-0.057 ng AFG(2), 0.013-0.019 ng AFB(1), 0.436-0.513 ng ZEA, and 1.706 ng OTA, respectively, in a day. A poultry worker may inhale 0.504-1.512 ng AFB(1), 0.752-2.28 ng AFG(2), 68.240 ng OTA, and 17.432-20.512 ng ZEA in a working day. This is the first report on airborne mycotoxins in poultry house. These data may have importance in animal and public health implications.

  17. Cold Storage for a Single-Family House in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mongibello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the operation, modeling, simulation, and cost evaluation of two different cold storage systems for a single-family house in Italy, that differ from one another on the cold storage material. The two materials used to perform the numerical simulations of the cold storage systems are represented by cold water and a phase change material (PCM, and the numerical simulations have been realized by means of numerical codes written in Matlab environment. The main finding of the present work is represented by the fact that, for the considered user characteristics, and under the Italian electricity tariff policy, the use of a proper designed cold storage system characterized by an effective operation strategy could represent a viable solution from an economical point of view.

  18. Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit pluimveehouderij: validatie van een luchtwassysteem met water als wasvloeistof bij twee pluimveebedrijven = Measures to reduce fine dust emissions from poultry housings: validation of a scrubber system with water as scrubbing solution at two poultry farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hol, J.M.G.; Dousma, F.; Nijeboer, G.M.; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the removal efficiency for fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5) has been determined at two scrubbers located at two different poultry houses in addition, inlet and outlet concentrations were measured for ammonia, greenhouse gases and odour.

  19. 75 FR 9867 - Discontinuation of the Notice of Availability of Funding; Multi-Family Housing, Single Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Discontinuation of the Notice of Availability of Funding; Multi- Family Housing, Single Family Housing AGENCY... its existing and continuing Multi-Family and Single-Family Housing programs for which it receives... Analyst, Multi- Family Housing Programs, telephone 202-720-1753 and Myron Wooden, Loan Specialist, Single...

  20. Transformation of the Housing Market in Tokyo since the Late 1990s: Housing Purchases by Single-person Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kubo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to clarify the correlation between the transformation of the Japanese housing market and the increasing number of single-person households in Japan, with a special focus on the supply of compact condominiums. In order to achieve the abovementioned purpose, the changes in the Japanese housing market and diversification of the Japanese household structure are described. Finally, the features of the supply strategies of condominium suppliers, which reflect the diversification of the household structure and increasing need for condominiums by single-person households in central Tokyo, are examined.

  1. Importância e medidas de controle para Alphitobius diaperinus em aviários Importance and measures of control for Alphitobius diaperinus in poultry houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Karoline Japp

    2010-07-01

    ó-inerte que não deixa resíduos na carne de frango e no ambiente.The growth in poultry production because of the high market's demand causes an increase in the confinement raising, which increases the density of birds in poultry houses. As a result of this function, there is moisture increase in broiler litter, both from the excreta and drinkers, which favors the growth of the coleopterons Alphitobius diaperinus, popularly known as darkling beetle. The direct contact of the insects with the broiler litter as well as their feeding from dead and sick broilers make the A. diaperinus a vehicle for various pathogens, especially bacteria, protozoa and viruses. Besides the relationship with the pathogens, the darkling beetle can cause damage to poultry house, because at the larva stage they tent to burrow in to the insulating material and destroying the protection of polyurethane used for thermal insulation of poultry houses in countries with cold climate, which have to be changed every two or three years. Another harming factor to the broilers is the replacement of theirs balanced diet for larvae and adults of coleopterons, which affect the weight gain, mainly within younger individuals. Due to this factor, the presence of darkling beetle in poultry installations becomes a health as well as financial problem. The control of A. diaperinus is regarded as difficult and the use of chemical insecticides is common in poultry raising, even though it has disadvantages because it leaves residue in the carcass and in the environment. The presence of high amount of organic matter in poultry causes the decrease of the effectiveness of chemical insecticides. Several studies have been developed in research for alternatives, such as nematodes, fungi entomopathogenics, but they are not yet available commercially. Another line of research is the use of diatomaceous earth, an inert and non toxic powder which leaves no residues in chicken meat or in the environment.

  2. Sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    , the financial possibilities of the homeowner etc. Calculation of packages of energy efficient renovation solutions targeted the three segments of houses show that primary energy use and heating bill can be reduced with up to about 75% or a factor 4 corresponding to the level of a new house or better. It seems...... that the passive house level can not quite be reached with standard solutions. They require that more ambitious measures are applied. The total investment needed to reduce the heating bill by a factor 4 including replacement of e.g. roof and windows is up to EUR 100,000. It is generally difficult to obtain...... be seen as a possibility to make it easy for the homeowner to comply with possible future requirements to realize far-reaching energy savings in connection with extensive renovations, provided that the building sector offers the solutions. Homeowners need someone to take care of all relevant steps...

  3. Indoor climate perceived as improved after energy retrofitting of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2014-01-01

    The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...

  4. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry. 701.56 Section 701.56 Agriculture Regulations... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.56 Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b...

  5. Efficiency of single-family houses and harmonisation of their life cycle participants’ interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerija Kvederyte

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient single-family house is the main purpose of the life cycle. It determines the necessity to evaluate various decisions of the life cycle of single-family houses and possibilities to satisfy objectives and requirements of the participants of that process. To design and achieve an effective process of the life cycle of a single-family house, it is necessary to take care of its efficiency starting from the determination of needs and objectives and ending with the usage of a building.

  6. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...

  7. SBS symptoms in relation to dampness and ventilation in inspected single-family houses in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedje, Greta; Wang, Juan; Norbäck, Dan; Nilsson, Håkan; Engvall, Karin

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months. A large proportion of houses exhibited building or construction problems. In total, 40% of houses had dampness problems in the foundation, and this was related to a higher prevalence of both mucous and dermal symptoms, and any SBS symptoms. Furthermore, high air humidity was related to more symptoms, with the relationship with absolute humidity being stronger than that with relative humidity or moisture load. Symptoms were also more prevalent in houses with a high U value, reflecting a poor thermal insulation. Compared to natural ventilation, living in a house with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation was related to a lower prevalence of general symptoms and any SBS symptoms, but there were only weak associations between measured air exchange rate and symptoms. A large proportion of single-family houses have dampness problems in the foundation, and pollutants may enter the living space of the house and affect the health of the occupants. Furthermore, absolute air humidity should be measured more often in indoor air studies.

  8. Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof

  9. Seasonal variations of radon concentrations in single-family houses with different sub-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in 70 single-family houses selected according to the type of sub-structure and the type of soil underneath the house. Five categories of sub-structure were included - slab-on-grade, crawl space, basement, and combinations...... of basement with slab-on-grade or crawl space. Half of the houses are located on clayey till and the other half on glaciofluvial gravel. In each house radon was measured in a living room and a bedroom, in the basement if present, and in the crawl space if present and accessible. The measurements were made...... with track detectors on a quarterly basis throughout a year. For living rooms and bedrooms the seasonal variations range from being highly significant for the slab-on-grade houses to being insignificant for the crawl space houses. For basements and crawl spaces the geometric mean radon concentrations do...

  10. Telemetric assessment of social and single housing: Evaluation of electrocardiographic intervals in jacketed cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Robert A; Tichenor, Stephen D; Regalia, Douglas E; York, Kristina; Holzgrefe, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    Proactive efforts to socially house laboratory animals are a contemporary, important focus for enhancing animal welfare. Jacketing cynomolgus monkeys has been traditionally considered an exclusionary criterion for social housing based on unsubstantiated concerns that study conduct or telemetry equipment might be compromised. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of jacketing naïve, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys in different single and social housing types based on parallel comparisons of heart rate. Eight naive cynomolgus monkeys were randomized into pairs and ECG data were collected for 24h from each animal in each housing condition using a crossover design. Caging paradigms consisted of standard individual, standard pair, quaternary pair (4 linked cages), and European-style pair housing in non-sequential order varied by pair to control for possible time bias. Dosing and blood collection procedures were performed to characterize any effects of housing on ECG data during study conduct. There was no increase in the incidence of equipment damage in pair vs. individually housed animals. Further, animals in all 4 housing paradigms showed similar acclimation assessed as heart rate (mean 139-154 beats per minute), and maintained similar diurnal rhythms, with an expected slowing of the heart rate at night (aggregate lights out HR 110±4bpm compared to daytime 146±7bpm). This study demonstrates the effects of different social access and housing types on the study-naïve cynomolgus monkeys during jacketed cardiovascular telemetry data collection in a repeat-dose toxicology study design. There were no discernible effects of social housing on baseline ECG parameters collected via jacketed telemetry, and all animals maintained expected diurnal rhythms in all housing settings tested. These data demonstrate that cynomolgus monkeys can be socially housed during data collection as a standard practice, consistent with global efforts to improve study animal welfare. Copyright

  11. Effect of Food Residues in Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel and Polystyrene Surfaces by Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba María Paz-Méndez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. The ability of Salmonella to produce biofilm is one of the main obstacles in reducing the prevalence of these bacteria in the food chain. Most of Salmonella biofilm studies found in the literature used laboratory growth media. However, in the food chain, food residues are the principal source of nutrients of Salmonella. In this study, the biofilm formation, morphotype, and motility of 13 Salmonella strains belonging to three different subspecies and isolated from poultry houses was evaluated. To simulate food chain conditions, four different growth media (Tryptic Soy Broth at 1/20 dilution, milk at 1/20 dilution, tomato juice, and chicken meat juice, two different surfaces (stainless steel and polystyrene and two temperatures (6 °C and 22 °C were used to evaluate the biofilm formation. The morphotype, motility, and biofilm formation of Salmonella was temperature-dependent. Biofilm formation was significantly higher with 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth in all the surfaces and temperatures tested, in comparison with the other growth media. The laboratory growth medium 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth enhanced biofilm formation in Salmonella. This could explain the great differences in biofilm formation found between this growth medium and food residues. However, Salmonella strains were able to produce biofilm on the presence of food residues in all the conditions tested. Therefore, the Salmonella strain can use food residues to produce biofilm on common surfaces of the food chain. More studies combining more strains and food residues are necessary to fully understand the mechanism used by Salmonella to produce biofilm on the presence of these sources of nutrients.

  12. Effect of Food Residues in Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel and Polystyrene Surfaces by Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Méndez, Alba María; Lamas, Alexandre; Vázquez, Beatriz; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos Manuel

    2017-11-29

    Salmonella spp. is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. The ability of Salmonella to produce biofilm is one of the main obstacles in reducing the prevalence of these bacteria in the food chain. Most of Salmonella biofilm studies found in the literature used laboratory growth media. However, in the food chain, food residues are the principal source of nutrients of Salmonella . In this study, the biofilm formation, morphotype, and motility of 13 Salmonella strains belonging to three different subspecies and isolated from poultry houses was evaluated. To simulate food chain conditions, four different growth media (Tryptic Soy Broth at 1/20 dilution, milk at 1/20 dilution, tomato juice, and chicken meat juice), two different surfaces (stainless steel and polystyrene) and two temperatures (6 °C and 22 °C) were used to evaluate the biofilm formation. The morphotype, motility, and biofilm formation of Salmonella was temperature-dependent. Biofilm formation was significantly higher with 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth in all the surfaces and temperatures tested, in comparison with the other growth media. The laboratory growth medium 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth enhanced biofilm formation in Salmonella . This could explain the great differences in biofilm formation found between this growth medium and food residues. However, Salmonella strains were able to produce biofilm on the presence of food residues in all the conditions tested. Therefore, the Salmonella strain can use food residues to produce biofilm on common surfaces of the food chain. More studies combining more strains and food residues are necessary to fully understand the mechanism used by Salmonella to produce biofilm on the presence of these sources of nutrients.

  13. Land cover in single-family housing areas and how it correlates with urban form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Boye; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    Land cover composition is a valuable indicator of the ecological performance of a city. Single-family housing areas constitute a substantial part of most cities and may as such play an important role for sustainable urban development. From aerial photos we performed detailed GIS-based mapping...... of land cover in three detached single-family housing areas in Denmark of different urban form but comparable housing densities (ranging from 10.0 to 11.3 houses per hectare). The findings were subjected to statistical analysis and landscape metrics. Land cover varied with urban form: A traditional...... spatial configuration with rectangular parcels contained significantly more vegetation and less impervious surfaces per parcel than newer Radburn-inspired configurations with more quadratic parcels. Correlation analysis showed size of paved access ways to be positively correlated with distance from road...

  14. 75 FR 82148 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... organization, members of the regulated industry, trade and professional associations, and a city health... to it during cooking that alter the calories, fat, and protein. For those reasons, the poultry trade... 82154

  15. Method for planning extensive energy renovation of detached single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde

    , and 22% occurs in single-family houses, making this the largest single contributor to the total consumption after road transport (DEA, 2015a). There is a large potential for achieving energy savings in this sector, especially among the large number of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s...... that the use of this approach produced a better renovation with a larger energy saving. The initial evaluation helped the house owners identify a maintenance backlog, and the use of an independent advisor helped ensure quality throughout the process. Renovations are too often carried out for just one purpose......: maintenance, to update functions or to reduce energy consumption. But a lot can be gained by combining these efforts, which can reduce expenses for planning and execution and avoid doing things twice. Research for this thesis demonstrated this approach by carrying out a renovation based on maintenance...

  16. An Investigation of Energy Storage Possibilities in Single Family Houses for Smart Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark it will be a challenge in near future to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. Smart grid solutions which exploit all storage capacities are essential to meet this challenge. In this work single family houses...... with heat pumps and floor heating are investigated for storage capability. The aim is to shift energy consumption a few hours in time to mitigate the effect of fluctuating production from wind and other renewable energy sources on the grid. Based on measurements in six inhabited houses for approximately...... a year prediction models are analysed. The main topic of this work is to investigate how behaviour of inhabitants affect the quality of predictions. Unfortunately the output of the models for single inhabited single family houses seems to give large standard deviations of the predictions, and aggregated...

  17. On the thermal inertia and time constant of single-family houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedbrant, J.

    2001-08-01

    Since the 1970s, electricity has become a common heating source in Swedish single-family houses. About one million small houses can use electricity for heating, about 600.000 have electricity as the only heating source, A liberalised European electricity market would most likely raise the Swedish electricity prices during daytime on weekdays and lower it at other times. In the long run, electrical heating of houses would be replaced by fuels, but in the shorter perspective, other strategies may be considered. This report evaluates the use of electricity for heating a dwelling, or part of it, at night when both the demand and the price are low. The stored heat is utilised in the daytime some hours later, when the electricity price is high. Essential for heat storage is the thermal time constant. The report gives a simple theoretical framework for the calculation of the time constant for a single-family house with furniture. Furthermore the comfort time constant, that is, the time for a house to cool down from a maximum to a minimum acceptable temperature, is derived. Two theoretical model houses are calculated, and the results are compared to data from empirical studies in three inhabited test houses. The results show that it was possible to store about 8 kWh/K in a house from the seventies and about 5 kWh/K in a house from the eighties. The time constants were 34 h and 53 h, respectively. During winter conditions with 0 deg C outdoor, the 'comfort' time constants with maximum and minimum indoor temperatures of 23 and 20 deg C were 6 h and 10 h. The results indicate that the maximum load-shifting potential of an average single family house is about 1 kw during 16 daytime hours shifted into 2 kw during 8 night hours. Upscaled to the one million Swedish single-family houses that can use electricity as a heating source, the maximum potential is 1000 MW daytime time-shifted into 2000 MW at night.

  18. Moisture supply in Danish single-family houses – the influence of building style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    According to ISO 13788 internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if building style and geographical location are import......According to ISO 13788 internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if building style and geographical location...

  19. To stay or to go? Postretirement housing choices of single Baby Boomer women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanidis, Foula Z; Robinson, Linda J; Reid, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Single women of the Baby Boomer generation are often financially disadvantaged in the retirement planning process due to their lower accumulated savings compared to male retirees. This disadvantage impacts significant consumption decisions such as postretirement housing choices. This study uses the theory of planned behavior to examine how certainty in intentions influences preparing and planning for postretirement housing. A typology of single Baby Boomer women is developed based on their financial, demographic, and psychological circumstances. Each segment likely requires different informational strategies and financial services to foster proactive planning for retirement. Significant implications exist for social policy and the financial services sector.

  20. Online short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    . Every hour the hourly heat load for each house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation, and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used......This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for heating in a single-family house. Both space and hot tap water heating are forecasted. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts...... variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), peaks presumably from showers, shifts in resident behavior, and uncertainty of the weather forecasts for longer horizons, especially for the solar radiation....

  1. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...... houses. A one-stop-shop in the form of a full-service concept could be seen as a possibility to make it easy for the homeowner to comply with possible future requirements to realize far-reaching energy savings in connection with extensive renovations, provided that the building sector offers...... includes an ideal full-service concept and technical renovation solutions targeted to different types of single-family houses....

  2. Central Control of Heat Pump for Smart Grid Purposes Tested on Single Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in Denmark in the near future is to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. In this work a central control system using heat pumps in single family houses to help balancing the grid is investigated. The central...

  3. Inventorying Toronto's single detached housing stocks to examine the availability of clay brick for urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Deniz; Gorgolewski, Mark

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the stocks of clay brick in Toronto's single detached housing, to provide parameters for city scale material reuse and recycling. Based on consensus from the literature and statistics on Toronto's single detached housing stocks, city scale reusable and recyclable stocks were estimated to provide an understanding of what volume could be saved from landfill and reintroduced into the urban fabric. On average 2523-4542 m(3) of brick was determined to be available annually for reuse, which would account for 20-36% of the volume of virgin brick consumed in new house construction in 2012. A higher volume, 6187 m(3) of brick, was determined to be available annually for recycling because more of the prevalence of cement-based mortar, which creates challenges for brick reuse in Toronto. The results demonstrated that older housing containing reusable brick were being mostly landfilled and replaced with housing that contained only recyclable brick. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Barriers for Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses and Suggested Solutions to Overcome These

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2011-01-01

    As much as 40% of the total energy consumption in Denmark is utilized by the building sector and most of this energy is used for heating. Political initiatives have been taken to reduce this amount considerably but for this to happen, the energy consumption of the existing residential housing stock...... must be reduced dramatically. The greatest saving potential is found among the approximately 440.000 standardised single-family houses which were constructed in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It is found that barriers preventing the implementation of this great potential are present in various forms among all...

  5. Detail, Facture, and Colour in the Architecture of Polish Single-Family Houses after 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztafrowski, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents single-family houses architecture transformations since 1989, with particularly close attention paid to the significance of detail, facture, and colour. The article presents the architecture as an art of designing and building facilities with both use and aesthetic value, an art of shaping space and building forms. Architectural work should correspond to the intended function, technique, economic and aesthetic requirements, thus shaping all elements of human immediate environment, both inside and outside of the building. Architecture of the building is perceived as form, structure, and function, as well as detail, facture, and colour. Facture and colour are created through materials used for external finishes. The solid of the building is noticed first while looking at the building, then the finishes detail such as colour, facture, and detail. Materials for external finishes are commonly selected for their aesthetic value equally with their technical characteristics. The detail was always a characteristic element of style. However, currently the fashion for details can be observed, the fashion for usage of materials for external finishes and inter-connected with that colour and facture. The architecture of Polish single-family houses underwent considerable metamorphosis after system change of 1989 - from destitute in form, devoid in detail and colour socmodernism, to architecture extremely varied in terms of form, utilised structures, materials, and detail. Hence, appearance of the phenomenon called fashion can be observed in the architecture, understood as constant changeability, seeking novelty, and creation based on opinion-forming centres. The architectural fashion consists of form, function, structure, building materials, detail, facture, and colour trends, e.g. after rejecting socmodernism, steep roofs characteristic for single-family houses trend started. After 1989, initially individual single-family house projects were created; however

  6. Housing Resources and Programs for Single Student Parents at Community and Technical Colleges. Fact Sheet #C396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Abby; Otto, Jessica; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana

    2012-01-01

    Parents with dependent children now make up almost one in four students pursuing higher education in the United States (Miller, Gault, and Thorman 2011). Single parents face particular challenges pursuing higher education, including securing safe and affordable housing. Single mothers often must spend over half of their income on housing expenses,…

  7. Poultry Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  8. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond; Aabrekk, Synnøve; Svendsen, Svend; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Paiho, Satu; Ala-Juusela, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the Nordic countries there is significant primary energy saving potential in single-family houses from 1970s. ► There are several behavioral, economical and market related hindrances to adoption of energy efficiency measures. ► One-stop-shop business models to offer full service energy renovation packages are slowly emerging. ► Marketing strategies and policy measures are required to promote full service energy renovation of single-family house. - Abstract: In Nordic countries significant primary energy saving potential exists in houses built before 1980. These old houses need to be renovated, which provides an opportunity for implementation of energy efficiency measures. However, there are several economic and market hindrances and the renovation markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow-up (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses are discussed

  9. The building process of single-family houses and the embeddedness (or disembeddedness) of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    People building their own houses have, at least theoretically, substantial autonomy when choosing, for example, a heating system and windows. In this article, focus is on the process of building new single-family houses and how energy efficiency and energy-efficient technology are incorporated into the building process. The conclusions emphasize energy as only one factor in housing purchase decisions. It is a big challenge to make low-energy building important to consumers. Consumer preferences for new products are unlikely to fully develop unless individuals have the opportunity to interact with them. It is difficult for consumers to know what to ask for if they lack experience of energy-efficient technologies. In the studied cases, the building codes and established standards became extremely decisive for how energy issues were included in the process. There is a need to change the design of incentives so as to make the least energy-efficient choice the most expensive. The most energy-efficient solution should be standard, and if the buyer wants to depart from that standard and build using less energy-efficient construction, then that should cost more. -- Highlights: •Actors do not see energy efficiency as a critical problem. •Factors other than costs and price were important in the decision making. •Energy issues just one factor in housing purchase decisions. •The consumers don′t know what to ask for. •Building norms should require the most energy efficient solution

  10. Backyard Poultry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-18

    Dr. Colin Basler, an epidemiologist with CDC, discusses his article on Salmonella infections associated with keeping live poultry in backyards.  Created: 1/18/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/18/2017.

  11. Energy Efficiency Potential in the U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Typical approaches for assessing energy efficiency potential in buildings use a limited number of prototypes, and therefore suffer from inadequate resolution when pass-fail cost-effectiveness tests are applied, which can significantly underestimate or overestimate the economic potential of energy efficiency technologies. This analysis applies a new approach to large-scale residential energy analysis, combining the use of large public and private data sources, statistical sampling, detailed building simulations, and high-performance computing to achieve unprecedented granularity - and therefore accuracy - in modeling the diversity of the single-family housing stock. The result is a comprehensive set of maps, tables, and figures showing the technical and economic potential of 50 plus residential energy efficiency upgrades and packages for each state. Policymakers, program designers, and manufacturers can use these results to identify upgrades with the highest potential for cost-effective savings in a particular state or region, as well as help identify customer segments for targeted marketing and deployment. The primary finding of this analysis is that there is significant technical and economic potential to save electricity and on-site fuel use in the single-family housing stock. However, the economic potential is very sensitive to the cost-effectiveness criteria used for analysis. Additionally, the savings of particular energy efficiency upgrades is situation-specific within the housing stock (depending on climate, building vintage, heating fuel type, building physical characteristics, etc.).

  12. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single family houses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions...... in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7% reduction in natural gas consumption....

  13. Different heating systems for single family house: Energy and economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turanjanin Valentina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock energy consumption accounts for about 38% of final energy consumption in Republic of Serbia. 70% of that energy is consumed by residential sector, mostly for space heating. This research is addressed to the single family house building placed in the Belgrade city. The house has ground and first floor with total heating area of 130 m2 and pellet as space heating source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate energy and economic analysis for different heating systems. Several homeheating were compared: Option 1 (biomass combustion boiler using pellet as a fuel, Option 2 (gas combustion boiler and Option 3 (heat pump. The building performance was evaluated by TRNSYS 17 simulation code. Results show estimated savings using renewable energy sources. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008

  14. Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof-mounted photovoltaic modules. The modules are fixed on special cradles which fold at night to expose the roof to the night sky, thereby enhancing night-time cooling, which is substantial in the desert environment. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. Application to a typical Middle-Eastern desert site reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present-day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  15. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... provided on the same website noted above. Any questions related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards... the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program for... County, ND. Both areas were having significant problems administering the Housing Choice Voucher program...

  16. POULTRY-RELATED MICROBIOME CHANGES FROM EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT TO FINAL PRODUCT: A SINGLE PASTURED-RAISED FLOCK FARM-TO-FORK ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: While conventionally grown poultry continues to dominate the U.S. poultry industry, there is an increasing demand for locally-grown, “all natural” alternatives. Unfortunately, limited research has been done on this type of poultry management practice, and thus many of these management e...

  17. Development of piglets raised in a new multi-litter housing system vs. conventional single-litter housing until 9 weeks of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwamerongen, van S.E.; Soede, N.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the development until 9 wk of age of piglets raised in either a multi-litter (ML) system or a conventional single-litter (SL) system. The ML system consisted of a multi-suckling system with 5 sows and their litters before weaning, followed by housing in a pen with enrichment in a

  18. Rural poultry production in two agro-ecological zones of Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illango, J.; Etoori, A.; Olupot, H.; Mabonga, J.

    2002-01-01

    A baseline study on rural poultry production, management and health was conducted in six selected villages in an agro-pastoral and montane zone of Uganda during the wet and dry season. In the 114 rural households visited, the farmers were interviewed by using a questionnaire. Poultry flocks were examined and samples were collected for laboratory investigations. A free-range management system with mixed poultry species was practiced by farmers in both zones. The major poultry flock parameters in the agro-pastoral and montane zone were, respectively, mean flock size of 22 (with a range of 3-65) and 17.5 (with a range of 6-60); mean hen:cock ratio of 2.6 to 1 and 4.8 to 1; mean egg production per hen per year of 8.8 and 11.5; mean hatchability of 70.8% and 85.7%; mean chick mortality of 39.6% and 28.6%. The flock ownership was single, mixed or shared among family households. Women were more involved in most of the activities regarding poultry management, although in both zones a division of labour existed within the household. Men predominantly made the decisions on sale, consumption and treatment of poultry. The most important health problems in the flocks in both zones in the two seasons were coughing, diarrhoea, fowl pox and internal parasites. It was concluded that the major constraints affecting rural poultry production in the two zones were diseases especially Newcastle disease and parasites, inadequate housing and poor feed supplementation especially in the dry season. Women had important responsibilities in rural poultry production in the two zones. The findings form the basis for an assessment of the effects of interventions on rural poultry production in the two zones. (author)

  19. Avaliação do bem-estar de frangos de corte em dois galpões comerciais climatizados Evaluation of poultry well-being in two commercial climatized poultry houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Alves Damasceno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar as condições do ambiente interno em dois galpões comerciais de frangos de corte equipados com dois sistemas de resfriamento diferentes: placas porosas umedecidas de celulose associadas à nebulização (SRPN e placas umedecidas de sombrite associadas à nebulização (SRSN. Nos galpões estudados, situados em Itaberaí, GO, foram avaliadas quatro variáveis térmicas (temperatura, índice de temperatura de globo negro e umidade, carga térmica de radiação e entalpia, três respostas fisiológicas (temperaturas retal e da pele, e frequência respiratória e três índices de desempenho produtivo (ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar das aves. Os resultados indicaram que os sistemas avaliados não foram suficientemente adequados para promover condições de conforto às aves, não sendo observada diferença estatística significativa entre o desempenho das aves neles alojados. A taxa de mortalidade no galpão SRSN foi 15% maior em relação ao galpão SRPN, porém, ambas são inferiores àquelas sugeridas para as aves em estudo.The main goal of this study was to evaluate the environmental conditions inside two commercial broiler houses equipped with different cooling systems: wet cellulose pads associated with misting (SRPN and wet black screen pads associated with misting (SRSN. In the studied broiler houses, located in Itaberaí, Goiás, Brazil, four thermal variables (temperature, black globe temperature and humidity indices, thermal radiation load and enthalpy, three physiological responses (rectal temperature, skin temperature and respiration frequency, and three productivity performance indexes (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion for broiler chickens were evaluated. The results indicate that the evaluated systems were not sufficient to promote thermal comfort conditions for the birds and in general, no significant statistical difference was noticed between the

  20. Accumulation of dioxins and PCB in house fly larvae (musca domestica) reared in poultry manure and used in feed for organic laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Fischer, Christian Holst

    2014-01-01

    higher content of the persistent organic environmental contaminants dioxins and PCB than eggs from conventional hens held indoor in cages. 1,2 The elevated levels of dioxins and PCB are most likely due to the hens picking in soils contaminated by industrial activities, burning of waste, chemical spillage...... etc. As manure from free range hens is expected to have elevated contents of dioxins and PCB, we investigated whether larvae reared in this type of manure accumulate dioxins and PCB, and if feeding organic laying hens with these larvae would increase the levels of dioxins and PCB in the hen eggs...... larvae, poultry manure, compost and compound feed as well as pooled egg samples from each group were analysed for levels of dioxins and PCB. Analytical procedure: after extraction of the sample with a mixture of pentane and acetone (88:12), the extracts were cleaned-up on a multilayer silica column...

  1. Avaliação da propagação de sinais de radiofrequência para tecnologia Zigbee em granja de frango de corte Evaluation of radiofrequency signals for Zigbee technology in poultry housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se, neste trabalho, realizar a predição de sinais de radiofrequência para a aplicação de Rede de Sensores Sem Fio (RSSF de monitoramento e controle em uma granja de frango de corte. A tecnologia de comunicação sem fio utilizada foi a Zigbee, com o padrão IEEE 802.15.4 compondo a camada física e de enlace. Desenvolveu-se, para automatizar a leitura de potências, um aplicativo em linguagem Delphi e, para a predição de sinais de RF (Radiofrequência, utilizou-se o modelo Shadowing adaptado. Todos os testes foram realizados em granja comercial, no Município de Tuiuti, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram boas condições de transmissão até 131 m, indicando que a tecnologia Zigbee é adequada, segundo a perspectiva de propagação de sinais, para a implementação de RSSF em granjas de frango de corte.This study aimed to conduct an evaluation for the implementation of Wireless Sensors Network (WSN of tracking and control in a poultry farm. The wireless technology used was Zigbee, with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard forming the physical layer and link layer. To automate the power measurement a DELPHI language software was developed and, for the prediction of RF signals, an adjusted model of the shadowing was used. All tests were performed in a commercial broiler farm, in the city of Tuiuti in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of this study indicate that Zigbee technology is appropriate, from the perspective of signal propagation, to implement WSN in poultry housing.

  2. Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Singly- and Group-Housed Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Sarah E.; Clifford, James O.; Tomko, David L.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nonhuman primates display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors. Captivity changes these behaviors, and disrupts normal social hierarchies. In captivity, animals may exhibit stereotypical behaviors which are thought to indicate decreased psychological well-being (PWB). If an animal's behaviors can be made to approach those seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal it is assumed that PWB is adequate. Environmental enrichment (EE) devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act's requirement that the PWB of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether various EE devices improve the PWB of captive squirrel monkeys. The present study used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several EE devices in reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed singly or in groups. Results showed that the EE devices used did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  3. Study of heating systems with finite elements to be used in poultry shed houses; Estudo de sistemas de aquecimento aplicado a galpoes avicolas com uso de elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leva, Flavia Fernandes de

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and compare the behavior of temperature inside poultry sheds with bell jar type gas conventional heating and heating in the floor with use of a heat exchanger. It was used the public domain program FEMM 4.2 for the analysis of temperature through the use of finite elements techniques with data collected from two lots. Heating in the floor is made with the hot water flowing through a heat exchanger, which is installed below the bed; this hot water is from solar heaters. From the results obtained with the simulations can be observed that the heating through the floor provides a more homogeneous distribution breast when compared with the bell jar type heating. The flow of heat is upwards supplying thus the most needed heating of the bird that is the pectoral part. Energy consumption evaluation was made with use of LPG; this has enabled a comparative analysis of the quantity of electric energy necessary to provide the same thermal energy and the financial expenses obtained with the heating though LPG or electric energy for each lot. (author)

  4. In-house L-band niobium single cell cavities at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Koizumi, Susumu; Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi; Kako, Eiji; Shishido, Toshio

    1993-01-01

    For the TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator) as an energy frontier accelerator of the next generation improving the performance of the niobium superconducting cavities is the most important issue and much reduction of fabrication cost of cavities is another key. Since manufacturing of niobium material requires hard techniques due to the easily oxidizable metal, fabrication of niobium cavities has been conducted in only companies providing enough equipments in Japan. KEK has accumulated the fabrication technics such as forming method by deep drawing, trimming, centering of beam tubes, electron beam welding and measurement of manufacturing error so on. We made in-house L-band single cell cavities using these technologies. In this paper we present these manufacturing of the niobium cavities and estimate the fabrication cost as exactly as possible. The manufacturing error is also described. (author)

  5. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present an economic overview of the opportunities for energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark financed over the long term. The paper focuses on the economic difference between energy savings and the repayment of investment. Taking out the average remaining 20% equity...... in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  6. Using a One-Stop-Shop Concept to Guide Decisions when Single-Family Houses are renovated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    of renovation. The scope of the project was to carry out renovations on up to three houses. The project revealed that the concept on its own was not enough to motivate the house owners to engage in extensive renovation. However, interviews with the house owners indicated that the renovations that took place had...... was to determine how a one-stop-shop (OSS) or full-service concept could be used to guide the extensive energy renovation of single-family houses. The purpose was partly to identify the benefits and disadvantages of using the concept and partly to evaluate the potential of the OSS concept for increasing the degree...... probably been expanded and improved with the use of the concept and that the renovations in general benefitted from an independent adviser....

  7. Theoretical overview of heating power and necessary heating supply temperatures in typical Danish single-family houses from the 1900s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    in typical Danish single-family houses constructed in the 1900s. The study provides a simplified theoretical overview of typical building constructions and standards for the calculation of design heat loss and design heating power in Denmark in the 1900s. The heating power and heating demand in six typical...... Danish single-family houses constructed in the 1900s were estimated based on simple steady-state calculations. We found that the radiators in existing single-family houses should not necessarilrbe expected to be over-dimensioned compared to current design heat loss. However, there is considerable...... potential for using low-temperature space heating in existing single-family houses in typical operation conditions. Older houses were not always found to require higher heating system temperatures than newer houses. We found that when these houses have gone through reasonable energy renovations, most...

  8. Free chlorine loss during spraying of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water and its antimicrobial effect on airborne bacteria from poultry house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Spray-application of membraneless acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC – the major germicidal component in MLAEW over distance during spraying, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The anti-microbial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined. materials and methods. MLAEW was prepared at two FC concentrations: app. 15 and 60 mg L -1 , and sprayed at three air temperatures (18, 25, 32 °C. The original MLAEW solution and MLAEW aerosols collected at 0, 25, and 50 cm from the spray nozzle were analyzed for FC concentrations. Bacteria were immersed into these MLAEW samples and numerated for viable count after 0.5, 2 and 5-min treatments. results. MLAEW aerosols collected at 0 cm lost 11.7–13.2% FC, compared with the original MLAEW solution. This initial loss was affected neither by the initial FC concentration (P = 0.13 nor by air temperature (P = 0.57. The rate of FC loss during travelling was 0.79–0.87 % per cm of aerosol travel distance (% cm -1 at 18 °C, 1.08–1.15 % cm -1 at 25 °C, and 1.35–1.49% cm -1 at 32 °C. This travelling loss was affected by air temperature (P = 0.02, but not by initial FC concentration (P = 0.38. Bacteria were completely inactivated at 0.5 min when treated with MLAEW samples with FC > 16.8 mg L -1 , in 2 min when FC > 13.8 mg L -1 , and in 5 min when FC > 7.2 mg L -1 . conclusion. Airborne bacteria from aviary hen house can be effectively inactivated by MLAEW with adequate FC concentration and contact time. During spraying, the anti-microbial efficacy of MLAEW aerosols decreased over distance due to FC loss which exacerbated at higher air temperatures.

  9. Assessment of nutritional value of single-cell protein from waste-activated sludge as a protein supplement in poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M; Lebitso, Moses T

    2012-12-01

    The amount of protein wasted through sludge in Gauteng, South Africa, amounts to 95 000 metric tonne/yr, with the order of magnitude of the national protein requirement of approximately 145 000 metric tonne/yr. Waste-activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that treat domestic wastewater contains protein in a ratio of 2:1 against fishmeal. This protein source has not been utilized because of the high content of toxic heavy metals and other potential carcinogenic pollutants in the sludge. In this study, a pretreatment method of modified aqua regia dilute acid wash was used to lower the metal content by approximately 60%. However, this resulted in a 33% loss of amino acids in the acid-washed WAS. A feed substitution test in poultry with different fishmeal-sludge ratios (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% WAS as percent substitution of fishmeal) showed no impact of sludge single-cell protein (SCP) on mortality rate. However, sludge substitution in the feed yielded weight gains and cost savings up to 46%.

  10. Intensified Sampling in Response to a Salmonella Heidelberg Outbreak Associated with Multiple Establishments Within a Single Poultry Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alice; Defibaugh-Chavez, Stephanie; Douris, Aphrodite; Vetter, Danah; Atkinson, Richard; Kissler, Bonnie; Khroustalev, Allison; Robertson, Kis; Sharma, Yudhbir; Becker, Karen; Dessai, Uday; Antoine, Nisha; Allen, Latasha; Holt, Kristin; Gieraltowski, Laura; Wise, Matthew; Schwensohn, Colin

    2018-03-01

    On June 28, 2013, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was notified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of an investigation of a multistate cluster of illnesses of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. Since case-patients in the cluster reported consumption of a variety of chicken products, FSIS used a simple likelihood-based approach using traceback information to focus on intensified sampling efforts. This article describes the multiphased product sampling approach taken by FSIS when epidemiologic evidence implicated chicken products from multiple establishments operating under one corporation. The objectives of sampling were to (1) assess process control of chicken slaughter and further processing and (2) determine whether outbreak strains were present in products from these implicated establishments. As part of the sample collection process, data collected by FSIS personnel to characterize product included category (whole chicken and type of chicken parts), brand, organic or conventional product, injection with salt solutions or flavorings, and whether product was skinless or skin-on. From the period September 9, 2013, through October 31, 2014, 3164 samples were taken as part of this effort. Salmonella percent positive declined from 19.7% to 5.3% during this timeframe as a result of regulatory and company efforts. The results of intensified sampling for this outbreak investigation informed an FSIS regulatory response and corrective actions taken by the implicated establishments. The company noted that a multihurdle approach to reduce Salmonella in products was taken, including on-farm efforts such as environmental testing, depopulation of affected flocks, disinfection of affected houses, vaccination, and use of various interventions within the establishments over the course of several months.

  11. Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Markakis, N; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater recycling has been and continues to be practiced all over the world for a variety of reasons including: increasing water availability, combating water shortages and drought, and supporting environmental and public health protection. Nowadays, one of the most interesting issues for wastewater recycling is the on-site treatment and reuse of grey water. During this study the efficiency of a compact Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SMBR) system to treat real grey water in a single house in Crete, Greece, was examined. In the study, grey water was collected from a bathtub, shower and washing machine containing significant amounts of organic matter and pathogens. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the system was approximately 87%. Total suspended solids (TSS) were reduced from 95mgL(-1) in the influent to 8mgL(-1) in the effluent. The efficiency of the system to reduce anionic surfactants was about 80%. Fecal and total coliforms decreased significantly using the SMBR system due to rejection, by the membrane, used in the study. Overall, the SMBR treatment produces average effluent values that would satisfy international guidelines for indoor reuse applications such as toilet flushing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Poultry Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Verel W.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use in poultry operations and gives examples of cutting costs of brooding, lighting, ventilation, feeding, watering, waste removal, housing design, construction and maintenance. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  13. Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Insecticides for Use Against the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae): Determination of Resistance Levels on a Malaysian Poultry Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ahmad, Hamdan; Jaal, Zairi; Rus, Adanan Che

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the toxicology of two commercial larvicides--cyromazine (Neporex 50SP) and ChCy (combination of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, Naga 505)--and five commercial adulticides--thiamethoxam (Agita 10WG), cyfluthrin (Responsar WP), lambda-cyhalothrin (Icon 2.8EC), fipronil (Regent 50SC), and imidacloprid (Toxilat 10WP)--was examined against the WHO/VCRU (World Health Organization/ Vector Control Research Unit) susceptible strain and the AYTW (Ayer Tawar) field strain of house fly, Musca domestica L. These pesticides were administered topically, in the diet, or as a dry residue treatment on plywood. Probit analysis using at least five concentrations and the concentration that was lethal to 50% (LC(50)) of the organisms was applied to compare the toxicology and resistance levels of the AYTW population to different insecticides. In the larvicide laboratory study, ChCy was more effective than cyromazine, with a significantly lower LC(50) value when administered topically or in the diet, although the AYTW population was susceptible to both larvicides with a resistance ratio (RR) <10. For the adulticide laboratory study, cyfluthrin and fipronil exhibited the lowest LC50 values of the adulticides, indicating that they are both effective at controlling adult flies, although lambda-cyhalothrin showed moderate resistance (RR = 11.60 by topical application; 12.41 by plywood treatment). Further investigation of ChCy, cyromazine, cyfluthrin, and fipronil under field conditions confirmed that ChCy and cyromazine strikingly reduced larval density, and surprisingly, ChCy also exhibited adulticidal activity, which significantly reduced adult fly numbers compared with the control group. Cyfluthrin and fipronil were also confirmed to be effective, with a significant reduction in adult fly numbers compared with the control group. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  15. Moisture supply in Danish single-family houses – the influence of occupant behaviour and type of room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2017-01-01

    According to ISO 13788, the internal moisture supply in dwellings can be described by humidity classes defined by outdoor temperature, occupancy and ventilation. Hygrothermal measurements in indoor air in 500 Danish single-family houses were made to investigate if this corresponds with reality....... The study focuses on the dependency of number and age of occupants, occupants’ time spent in the house, square meters living space, ventilation habits and type of room. Moisture supply depends on the type of room; bathroom, basement and living room have the highest values. None of the other parameters seems...

  16. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface. The prefabricated element was designed to fulfil the requirements of low energy consumption required by the new Danish Building Regulations. The base of the house was cast in one working operation and c...

  17. Prefabricated EPS Elements used as Strip Foundation of a Single-family House with a Double Brick Wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A new prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was demonstrated on site as the base of a single-family house with a double brick wall. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m underneath the finished ground surface....... The prefabricated element was designed to fulfil the requirements of low energy consumption required by the new Danish Building Regulations. The base of the house was cast in one working operation and completed within two working days. The element, made of expanded polystyrene, was designed to be handled on site...

  18. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Resanović Radmila M.; Nešić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

  19. Evaluation of a Heating System in Poultry Houses Using a CFD Model / Evaluación de un Sistema de Calefacción en Galpones Avicolas Usando un Modelo en CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Alves Damasceno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.. The objective of this study was to adapt and validate a computer model using the Computational Fluid Dinamics (CFD, in the prediction of temperature and air speed in a duct distribution system coupled to a heating furnace that is used in typical poultry houses in tropical and subtropical countries. The validation of the model with experimental data was satisfactory, presentingnormalized mean square error NMSE values of 0.25 and 0.02 for air temperature and air speed, respectively. The results evidenced that the proposed model is adequate for predicting the air speed and temperature for this type of system, and could be used to improve the efficiency of the distribution of heat inside and around air ducts using different air speeds, types of materials and dimensions. / Resumen. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar y validar un modelo computacional haciendo uso de la dinámica de fluidos computacional (CFD para predecir la temperatura y la velocidad del aire en un sistema de distribución de ductos acoplado a un sitema de calefacción que es utilizado en las instalaciones avícola en los países tropicales y subtropicales. La validación del modelo con los datos experimentales fue satisfactoria, presentando valores medios normalizados del error cuadrado NMSE de 0,25 y 0,02 para la temperatura y velocidad del aire respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que el modelo propuesto es adecuado para predecir la velocidad del aire y la temperatura alrededor de este tipo de sistema, y podría ser utilizado para mejorar la eficiencia la distribución de calor en el interior y alrededor de los conductos, usando diferentes velocidades, tipos de materiales y dimensiones. 

  20. Estimation of Hedonic Single-Family House Price Function Considering Neighborhood Effect Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Shimizu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the formulation of hedonic models, in addition to locational factors and building structures which affect the house prices, the generation of the omitted variable bias is thought to occur in cases when local environmental variables and the individual characteristics of house buyers are not taken into consideration. However, since it is difficult to obtain local environmental information in a small neighborhood unit and to observe individual characteristics of house buyers, these variables have not been sufficiently considered in previous studies. We demonstrated that non-negligible levels of omitted variable bias are generated if these variables are not considered.

  1. Prevalence and covariates of food insecurity among residents of single-room occupancy housing in Chicago, IL, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Bowen, Sarah K; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika

    2016-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that food insecurity is a significant public health concern among people who are homeless or marginally housed. The present study assessed prevalence of food insecurity and its covariates among a group of marginally housed individuals living in single-room occupancy (SRO) dwellings, a population for which there is little extant health or nutrition research. Cross-sectional survey incorporating the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Ten private SRO residences in the Uptown neighbourhood of Chicago, IL, USA, 2013. SRO residents over 18 years of age who were able to communicate verbally in English (n 153). Food insecurity was widespread among SRO residents, with 75 % of the sample considered food insecure and 52 % meeting criteria for severe food insecurity. Bivariate analyses indicated that female gender, eating most meals at a soup kitchen, having a mental health condition, problem drinking, having at least one chronic health condition, and diabetes were all significantly associated with food insecurity. In the multivariate ordered logistic regression model, eating most meals at a soup kitchen remained as the only significant correlate of food insecurity (OR=10·13). SRO residents and other marginally housed populations face unique food access challenges. Although targeted assistance in the form of food stamps and congregate meal programmes remains critical, efforts to prevent and address food insecurity among homeless and marginally housed individuals should include policy interventions that recognize poverty as the root cause of food insecurity and aim to increase overall income and improve housing conditions.

  2. Numerical simulation of a cooling tower coupled with heat pump system associated with single house using TRNSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, R.; Sammouda, H.; Farhat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate a cooling tower coupled with heat pump system and a single zone using TRNSYS. • We examine the temperature of water inside the cooling tower and inside the single zone. • We study the temporal evolution of the all parameters for 4500 h operation in winter in Tunisia. - Abstract: The industrial cooling towers in Tunisia meet difficulties due to the poor coordination between the utility and process sectors. In this study, we will consider especially the vapor recovery of the wastewater from the industrial activity in south Tunisia. By using the heat pump for high capacity, the problem for vapor from wastewater may be resolved. The coupling for the cooling tower and the heat pump system is investigated by TRNSYS software. The system of cooling tower is also associated with a single zone which is related to heat exchangers. An optimization model for the operation of a cooling water system was developed that accounts for a cooling tower, and a network of pipelines and heat exchangers for heating a single house. This work is based on numerical studies; the cooling tower performance, the single house, the heat pump and the heat exchanger that are simulated using TRNSYS model. The circulation of cooling water system is assured by a counter flow. The evaluations of the cooling tower geometry and performances are based on an adaptive version of Merkel’s method witch integrated in TRNSYS. The results of optimization using TRNSYS are validated by several theoretical and experimental studies

  3. 78 FR 8448 - Streamlining Inspection and Warranty Requirements for Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... calling the Regulation Division at 202-402-3055 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with speech... Requirements for High Loan-to-Value Ratio Mortgages AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary of Housing... (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with speech or hearing impairments may access this number...

  4. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  5. State of inertia: psychological preparation of single Australian and UK baby boomer women for retirement housing change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanidis, Foula Z; Robinson, Linda J; Reid, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The transition into retirement is an important life phase that presents significant challenges in respect to well-being, lifestyle, and consumption choices. This article examines the consumption context of housing after retirement, in particular for the low-resourced cohort of single baby boomer women. Utilizing an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model, we examine the relationship between intention and actual behavior, in this case financial advice seeking, as an important component of the psychological preparedness of single female baby boomer women. Our analysis showed both Australian and UK single baby boomer women display different behaviors in terms of seeking advice and their mental preparedness to adjust to a change in their living arrangements. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and further research.

  6. The role of rodents in avian influenza outbreaks in poultry farms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Blokhuis, Simon J; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Burt, Sara A

    2017-12-01

    Wild migratory birds are associated with global avian influenza virus (AIV) spread. Although direct contact with wild birds and contaminated fomites is unlikely in modern non-free range poultry farms applying biosecurity measures, AIV outbreaks still occur. This suggests involvement of other intermediate factors for virus transmission between wild birds and poultry. This review describes current evidence of the potential role of rodents in AIV transmission from wild birds to poultry and between poultry houses. Rodents can be abundant around poultry houses, share their habitat with waterfowl and can readily enter poultry houses. Survival of AIV from waterfowl in poultry house surroundings and on the coat of rodents suggests that rodents are likely to act as mechanical vector. AIVs can replicate in rodents without adaptation, resulting in high viral titres in lungs and nasal turbinates, virus presence in nasal washes and saliva, and transmission to naïve contact animals. Therefore, active AIV shedding by infected rodents may play a role in transmission to poultry. Further field and experimental studies are needed to provide evidence for a role of rodents in AIV epidemiology. Making poultry houses rodent-proof and the immediate surroundings unattractive for rodents are recommended as preventive measures against possible AIV introduction.

  7. Space heating with ultra-low-temperature district heating - A case study of four single-family houses from the 1980s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    . These benefits can be maximized if district heating temperatures are lowered as much as possible. In this paper we report on a project where 18 Danish single-family houses from the 1980s were supplied by ultra-low-temperature district heating with a supply temperature as low as 45 °C for the main part...... the four houses were modelled in the building simulation tool IDA ICE. The simulation models included the actual radiator sizes and the models were used to simulate the expected thermal comfort in the houses and resulting district heating return temperatures. Secondly measurements of the actual district...... heating return temperatures in the houses were analysed for different times of the year. The study found that existing Danish single-family houses from the 1980s can be heated with supply temperatures as low as 45 °C for the main part of the year. Both simulation models and test measurements showed...

  8. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single-family houses in Denmark. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen Kjaerbye, V. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde (Denmark)); AKF (Danish Institute of Governmental Research, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Larsen, Anders E. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde (Denmark)); Togeby, M (Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 percent reduction in natural gas consumption. (Author)

  9. EFFECT OF POULTRY MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera-Nuñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry meal on weight gain and carcass yield, under a housing system. 30 Swiss x Zebu steers were used, with an approximate weight of 353 kg, which were assigned under a completely randomized design in three treatments. T1 (control concentrate without poultry meal; T2 concentrate + 30% poultry meal and T3 concentrate + 35% poultry meal. The composition of the concentrate was based on ground sorghum, maize grain, wheat bran, ground mineral salt bale with 18% crude protein and 70% TDN. A significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the percentage of carcass weight of 53.0 was observed; 59.5 and 58.8% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results indicate that supplementation based poultry meal 35% promoted greater yield in feedlot steers.

  10. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  11. Toepassingsmogelijkheden van schuim voor het doden van pluimvee = Application of foam for emergency depopulation of poultry farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Culling animals is an important instrument in fighting infectious animal diseases. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases filling a poultry house with foam is a possible alternative to depopulating the house with CO2 gas

  12. Single-Family Housing Value Resilience of Walkable Versus Unwalkable Neighborhoods During a Market Downturn: Causal Evidence and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minjie; Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lee, Chanam; Frank, Lawrence D

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the resilience of single-family housing values in walkable versus unwalkable neighborhoods during the economic downturn from 2008 to 2012 in Dallas, Texas. Using propensity score matching and difference in differences methods, this study established a natural experimental design to compare before-and-after value changes of single-family (SF) homes in walkable neighborhoods with unwalkable neighborhoods during the Great Recession. Two thousand seven hundred ninety-nine SF homes within 18 Tax Increment Financing (TIF) districts were categorized into walkable (Walk Score ≥50) and unwalkable (economic benefit. Increased awareness of the sustained value of walkable communities can be used by lenders who finance and by policy makers who regulate placemaking. Results from this study can be integrated with research that demonstrates health-care cost savings of walkable environments to create an even more comprehensive set of evidence-based interventions to increase their supply.

  13. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  14. Qualidade do ovo de galinhas poedeiras criadas em galpões no semi-árido paraibano Quality of eggs of laying hens reared in poultry houses in the semi-arid Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair L. Trindade

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar índices ambientais dos galpões e os zootécnicos em aves de postura leve da linhagem Lohamann, em condições de verão e inverno de 2005 na região do semi-árida paraibana, foi o objetivo primordial deste trabalho, no qual se utilizaram 34.500 aves com diferentes idades: 32, 50, 60 e 71 semanas, acondicionadas em quatro galpões. Avaliaram-se os índices ambientais temperatura do ar, umidade relativa do ar, índice de temperatura do globo negro e umidade, carga térmica de radiação e velocidade do vento; e os produtivos (produção total de ovos, peso do ovo, peso do albúmen, peso da gema e peso das cascas, parâmetros geométricos (área e volume e a unidade Haugh (UH do ovo, em função da idade. Quanto ao ambiente no interior dos aviários, não houve diferença significativa na media dos índices ambientais, que ficaram dentro da zona de conforto. A idade das aves teve influência nos índices produção total, peso do ovo e peso da gema. A maior produção foi obtida com aves mais jovens, enquanto o peso do ovo e da gema foi com aves de maior idade. Os parâmetros geométricos volume e área do ovo não foram influenciados pela idade das aves. Conforme a UH os ovos de melhor qualidade se referem aos das aves com 32 e 50 semanas.The objective of this research was to evaluate production indexes for laying hens of the Lohamann lineage, under the summer and winter conditions of 2005, in São José da Mata district of Campina Grande, which is located in the Paraíban semi-arid region. 34.500 hens were used with ages of 32, 50, 60 and 71 weeks, and which were reared in four poultry houses. The production indexes (total production of eggs, egg weight, albumen weight, egg yolk weight, and rinds weight, geometric parameters (area and volume and Haugh unit of egg were calculated as a function of hen age. The production indexes in all rearing systems followed the technical recommendations. The age of the hens influenced the indexes of

  15. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    2013-01-01

    the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses...... markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow......-up (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while...

  16. Optimum Envelope of a Single-Family House Based on Life Cycle Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Hamelin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology used for the life cycle cost (LCC and life cycle energy (LCE analyses of the case study house in Quebec, Canada. The TRNSYS energy analysis program is coupled with GenOpt, a general purpose optimization program, for the purpose of this study. The particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used for the search for the optimum solution. Results show that the optimum levels of insulation should be higher than the reference values, even for the case of LCC analysis. The results are for the most part still valid if electricity costs are assumed to increase below the inflation rate for the duration of the study period.

  17. Comparative analysis of family poultry production in twelve African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.B.; Dwinger, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)

  18. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resanović Radmila M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease in body mass, number and quality of eggs, greater food conversion, and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression results in increased sensitivity to infective agents and a bad vaccinal response. Morevover, mycotoxin residues in poultry meat, eggs and products derived from them pose a threat to human health. In order to prevent and reduce the negative implications of mycotoxins in the poultry production, it is necessary to create both global and national strategies for combatting mycotoxins, advance diagnostic techniques and procedures, intensify the control of food quality, introduce new limits on the maximum amount of mycotoxins allowed in food and poultry feed used for certain species and categories of animals, and synchronise it with the European standards.

  19. Smart Growth and the Challenge of Nimby: Multifamily Dwellings and their Association with Single-Family House Selling Prices in Tallahasse, Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huston GIBSON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizens protest development when they consider it undesirable. One type of development commonly perceived as undesirable by single-family home owners is proximate multifamily housing, often considered a cause of property devaluation. This study assesses multifamily housing, by typology, and its monetary association with proximate single-family housing prices. The research design is a cross-sectional study using multivariate regression. The unit of analysis is the detached single-family dwelling. The study population is a sample taken from all arms-length owner-occupied, primary residence, detached single-family property transactions recorded in Tallahassee-Leon County, Florida, USA, during 2008. The key findings show no statistically significant negative associations between multifamily housing and single-family property selling prices in the sample; in fact, the two were positively correlated. These findings address single-family homeowner concerns about proximate multifamily housing and should bolster the political feasibility of Smart Growth policy, which recommends denser urban infill.

  20. Space heating with ultra-low-temperature district heating - a case study of four single-family houses from the 1980s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    . These benefits can be maximized if district heating temperatures are lowered as much as possible. In this paper we report on a project where 18 Danish single-family houses from the 1980s were supplied by ultra-low temperature district heating with a supply temperature as low as 45 degrees C for the main part...... of the year. The houses were heated by the existing hydraulic radiator systems, while domestic hot water was prepared by use of district heating and electric boosting. This paper evaluated the heating system temperatures that were necessary in order to maintain thermal comfort in four of the houses. First...... the four houses were modelled in the building simulation tool IDA ICE. The simulation models included the actual radiator sizes and the models were used to simulate the expected thermal comfort in the houses and resulting district heating return temperatures. Secondly measurements of the actual district...

  1. Common Diseases of Poultry in Kaduna State: Perspective of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several reports on prevailing poultry diseases across some states in Nigeria have been documented. The common prevailing poultry diseases in Kaduna Sate ... As a single entity, Coccidiosis appeared to be the most occurring disease ... Private Veterinary Clinics have pivotal role to play in disease reporting in the country.

  2. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...

  3. Experimental investigations on solar heating/heat pump systems for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Perers, Bengt

    In the period 2013-2017 the project “Experimental investigations on solar heat pump systems for single family houses” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer in the combi...

  4. 78 FR 41075 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Single Family Quality Assurance-Solicitation of Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Administration (FHA): Single Family Quality Assurance--Solicitation of Information on Quality Lending Practices... the efficiency and effectiveness of FHA's quality assurance process (QAP). The objective of FHA's QAP is to promote quality lending practices by FHA's approved lenders; practices that protect the...

  5. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  6. Beyond nearly zero-energy buildings: Experimental investigation of the thermal indoor environment and energy performance of a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    A detached, one-story, single-family house in Denmark was operated with different heating and cooling strategies for 1 year. The strategies compared during the heating season were floor heating without ventilation, floor heating supplemented by warm air heating (ventilation system), and floor...... but it was not possible to reach the intended operative temperature when the outside temperatures were very low. During the cooling season, the cooling demand was high and overheating was a problem. Although the house was designed as a plus-energy house, it did not perform as one under the Danish climate conditions...

  7. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  8. Emission of Harmful Gases from Poultry Farms and Possibilities of Their Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Brouček Jan; Čermák Bohuslav

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to methodology that can help to assess emission of gases from poultry housings and could be used to expand the knowledge base of researchers, policymakers and farmers to maintain sustainable environment conditions for farming systems. Concentration and emission of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in poultry barns are discussed in this paper. Surveys of ammonia and greenhouse gases mean concentrations and emission factors in different poultry systems ar...

  9. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan- Cooperatives/Condominiums AGENCY: Office of...

  10. Lesser mealworms on poultry farms: A potential arena for the dissemination of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increase in poultry production due to market demand stimulates an increase in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and thus confined raising resulting in an increased density of birds in poultry houses. The close quarters and high bird numbers generally favor the survival of insect pes...

  11. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  12. Salmonella in Wastes Produced at Commercial Poultry Farms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D. J.; Olechowski-Gerhardt, Carolyn; Berkowitz, J.; Finstein, M. S.

    1969-01-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study. PMID:5370457

  13. Salmonella in wastes produced at commercial poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, D J; Olechowski-Gerhardt, C; Berkowitz, J; Finstein, M S

    1969-11-01

    Composite samples of freshly voided excreta from 91 poultry houses were tested qualitatively for Salmonella; 26 (29%) were positive. The houses were located on 36 farms, 18 of which (50%) yielded one or more positive samples. In a separate, quantitative study, Salmonella densities ranged from less than 1 to over 34,000 per g of excreta (dry weight). High densities were noted in waste from cage houses, but not in waste from floor houses (litter or wire floors). Salmonella-shedding chickens were located in only one small area of the row of cages examined in detail. A total of 15 Salmonella serotypes were identified during the study.

  14. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, J; Rabbani, I; Aslam, S; Ahmad, H A

    2015-12-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960's and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country's economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan's poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry.

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  16. Initiatives for the energy renovation of single-family houses inDenmark evaluated on the basis of barriers and motivators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified, and arr......The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified......, suggestions are madefor improvement in four areas: (1) focus on non-energy benefits rather than investment, (2) enhance-ment of subsidy system, (3) including relevant renovation plans in the energy performance certificate(EPC), and (4) long-term regulation on the maximum allowed energy consumption of houses....

  17. Capability of Poultry Farmers Association for Extension Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dr funmi owolade

    information on poultry management techniques and marketing during in-house ... optimum human and material resources for extension services delivery to its .... vii. investigate the constraints to extension services programme in Oyo state. ..... developing countries in Agricultural Extension in Nigeria S.F. Afolayan (ed) Ilorin.

  18. A Comparison of Cats (Felis silvestris catus Housed in Groups and Single Cages at a Shelter: A Retrospective Matched Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Suchak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The merits of various housing options for domestic cats in shelters have been debated. However, comparisons are difficult to interpret because cats are typically not able to be randomly assigned to different housing conditions. In the current study, we attempted to address some of these issues by creating a retrospective matched cohort of cats in two housing types. Cats in group housing (GH were matched with cats in single housing (SH that were the same age, sex, breed, coat color, and size. Altogether we were able to find a match for 110 GH cats. We compared these two groups on several measures related to their experience at the shelter such as moves and the development of behavioral problems. We also compared these groups on outcomes including length of stay, live release, and returns after adoption. We found that while the frequency of moves was similar in both groups, SH cats were more likely to be moved to offsite facilities than GH cats. SH cats also spent a smaller proportion of time on the adoption floor. Length of stay and, live release and returns after adoption did not significantly differ across groups, however GH cats were two times as likely to be returned after adoption. Future research should look at the behavioral impacts of shelter decision-making regarding moving and management of cats in different housing systems.

  19. Poultry production and constraints in Eastern Province of Rwanda: case study of Rukomo sector, Nyagatare district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazimpaka, Eugene; Tukei, Micheal; Shyaka, Anselme; Gatari, Eugene N

    2018-04-01

    A study was conducted in Rukomo sector, Nyagatare district, to determine the status of poultry production. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 poultry farmers randomly as 20 farmers from each of the five cells. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and presented in chart and tables. The majority of the farmers (84%) reared their poultry in free range system while 10% practiced semi-intensive and only 6% did intensive production. Only 12% of the respondents kept exotic poultry breeds. The breeding stock were mostly obtained from local markets (63%) and the average flock size was about 1-10 birds per homestead (70%). The confinement of poultry at night was either in the main domestic house (33%), in kitchen (32%), or in separate poultry house (35%). Flock records were rare and kept by only 9% of respondents. Poultry products were reportedly at high demand by 87% of respondents and 89% farmers reported profit from their enterprises. Lack of veterinary and financial assistance was reported by 72% of respondents. Newcastle disease (57%) was the main health constraint followed by ectoparasites and internal worms. Many farmers (50%) were in dire need of veterinary assistance and financial support to improve their poultry enterprises. Poor management practices were reported to be one of the crucial factors leading to poor production. Lack of quality feeds (38%) and feeding of poultry, credit (20%), and poor market accessibility (19%) were the main challenges reported.

  20. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  1. Stunning systems for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to minimize the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method for slaughter should be consider...

  2. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  3. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  4. Smallholder Poultry Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Karsten Nellemann; Thomsen, Karin; Whyte, Michael

    Smallholder poultry production is practised by most rural households throughout the developing world; despite the fact that its contribution to livelihoods appears to be of little nominal value when observed by researchers and other outsiders. This paper utilizes a Sustainable Livelihoods Framewo...

  5. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  6. Housing as a Social Determinant of Health: Exploring the Relationship between Rent Burden and Risk Behaviors for Single Room Occupancy Building Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of health determinants research recognizes that housing and health are intimately linked. This study explores the relationship between rent burden (the ratio of rent to income) and health risk behaviors among a sample of single room occupancy (SRO) building residents. Cross-sectional data were gathered from a sample of 162 residents living in privately owned, for-profit SROs in Chicago. Findings indicated that participants who had full rental subsidies and thus were designated in a no-rent-burden category were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including illicit drug use, having multiple sexual partners, and having sex without a condom, in comparison to participants with moderate or high-rent burdens. These findings suggest that interventions to increase housing stability and affordability and bolster reliable income sources (in addition to rental subsidies) may be key in reducing risk behaviors and improving health for vulnerably housed populations such as SRO residents.

  7. CFD Prediction on the Pressure Distribution and Streamlines around an Isolated Single-Storey House Considering the Effect of Topographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, J.; Zaini, S. S.; Aziz, M. S. A.; Majid, T. A.; Deraman, S. N. C.; Yahya, W. N. W.

    2018-04-01

    Single-storey houses are classified as low rise building and vulnerable to damages under windstorm event. This study was carried out with the aim to investigate the pressure distribution and streamlines around an isolated house by considering the effect of terrain characteristics. The topographic features such as flat, depression, ridge, and valley, are considered in this study. This simulation were analysed with Ansys FLUENT 14.0 software package. The result showed the topography characteristics influence the value of pressure coefficient and streamlines especially when the house was located at ridge terrain. The findings strongly suggested that wind analysis should include all topographic features in the analysis in order to establish the true wind force exerted on any structure.

  8. The development of a code of practice for single house on-site wastewater treatment in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W

    2011-01-01

    The performance of six separate percolation areas was intensively monitored to ascertain the attenuation effects of unsaturated subsoils with respect to on-site wastewater effluent: three sites receiving septic tank effluent, the other three sites receiving secondary treated effluent. The development of a biomat across the percolation areas receiving secondary treated effluent was restricted on these sites compared to those sites receiving septic tank effluent. This created significant differences in terms of the hydraulic loading on the percolation areas with implications for the transport and attenuation of indicator microorganisms and nitrogen down through the subsoils and into the groundwater. The results of this work have formed a large input into the production of a new Code of Practice Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems Serving Single Houses. This has led to changes in the design of on-site hydraulic loading from 180 L per capita per day (L/c.d) down to 150 L/c.d. The range of acceptable subsoils receiving septic tank effluent has narrowed for more highly permeable subsoils following a series of tracer studies using bacteriophages. However, the range has been extended for lower permeability subsoils (range 0.08 down to 0.06 m/d) receiving secondary treated effluent in order to encourage the effluent to spread further along the trenches. The maximum individual length of percolation trenches receiving secondary effluent has also been reduced to 10 m to encourage dispersion on a wider area. This paper thus highlights how research can directly feed into a Code of Practice.

  9. Radiation processing of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Hauser, G.A.M.; Clarke, I.R.; Thomas, A.C.

    1977-06-01

    Gamma irradiation, through its ability to inactivate microorganisms, has been shown to effectively extend the shelf life of commercially slaughtered chickens from 2-4 d to 14-21 d under normal refrigeration temperatures. Although a high percentage of carcasses were contaminated with Salmonella, the level of contamination was relatively low; the doses applied for shelf-life extention thus also served to eliminate this pathogen. Even when carcasses were artificially inoculated with Salmonella of levels several orders of magnitude higher than normal, the recommended radiation doses (3 or 5 kGy) were still capable of rendering the product 'pathogen free'. Irradiated poultry could not be distinguished organoleptically from control samples, even when twice the maximum recommended dose was applied. In conclusion, the irradiation of commercially produced poultry in South Africa with relatively low doses can be of significant benefit by (1) markedly extending the acceptable shelf life and (2) eliminating pathogenic bacteria present on the commercially available product [af

  10. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or..., Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... governing the importation of live birds and poultry and poultry meat and products from the APHIS-defined EU...

  11. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter.

  12. Energy renovation services for single-family houses. Generalization and challenges of the one-stop-shop service model; Pientalojen energiaremonttipalvelut. Kokonaispalvelumallin yleistyminen ja sen haasteet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiho, S.; Kuusisto, J.; Stenlund, O.; Ala-Juusela, M.

    2012-08-15

    There are about 1.1 million single-family houses in Finland. 75% of these houses were built before year 1990. Majority of the houses remain at the energy- and eco-efficiency level of their construction time. If all of these houses were renovated to meet the state-of-the- art energy-efficiency requirements, the savings in nationwide consumption of heating energy would be 11.8 TWh. There are lots of typical single-family houses in the Finnish housing stock from the construction period. Renovation concepts with typical solutions can be developed for these typical houses. However, it must always be ensured that the selected concept suits the particular house. Comprehensive, full-service or one-stop-shop service models can be developed based on the renovation concepts. These may also include other services such as a building condition survey or a study, energy certificate, equipment and system installations, financial services, operation and maintenance services, and energy-monitoring and consumption analysis. It is natural to connect the one-stop-shop service model into the renovation process. The process includes stages for marketing, preliminary building inspection and energy audit, a detailed building inspection and energy analysis, a proposal for an integrated solution, the actual repair work, and quality assurance and continuous commissioning. Different stages involve different actors and service providers. There are several options for which type of organization or agent takes the main responsibility for the one-stop-shop service. Depending on the responsible organization, the content provider's business model and priorities differ. The one-stop-shop services business has been a narrow part of actors' whole business, so far. Some actors have already stopped providing the services, either due to the lack of demand or unprofitableness of the services. In an ideal model, the value promise and the main features of the model are the same, but the service

  13. Radon in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Essling, M.A.; Markun, F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the concentrations of 222 Rn and its short-lived daughter products in the air of single-family houses in the midwestern US. During the past year, more than 200 houses were added to the study, resulting in a total of more than 400 houses. So far, results are available for 270 of these houses, equally divided between the Chicago area and Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. 6 refs

  14. Marker-assisted selection in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, D.-J. de; Hocking, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Among livestock species, chicken has the most extensive genomics toolbox available for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). The uptake of MAS is therefore not limited by technical resources but mostly by the priorities and financial constraints of the few remaining poultry breeding companies. With the cost of genotyping decreasing rapidly, an increase in the use of direct trait- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-associations in MAS can be predicted. (author)

  15. Effects of bedding material on ammonia volatilization in a broiler house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from poultry house bedding material is a major production issues because the buildup of ammonia within the facilities is a human health issue and can negatively impact the performance of the birds. Major operational cost is associated with the ventilation of poultry houses to ...

  16. Social anthropological and interdisciplinary research on the conversion of electrically heated single family houses to heating by combined pellet-solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Annette

    2004-01-01

    The social anthropological research presented here is part of the interdisciplinary research project PESTO, which focuses on the (partial or complete) conversion of single family houses from electric heating to heating by combined pellet-solar heating systems. Basic to this research is the assumption that it is more likely that energy conversions are carried through, and that they are successful on a long-term basis, if the new products are designed to fit as well as possible into the everyday lives of people. The anthropological interest in the project can be divided into two parts; motives for or against a conversion among men and women in Swedish households, and product design and placement in (previously) electrically heated single-family houses. Literature studies and semi-structured qualitative interviews are the main methods used in the anthropological part of the project. During the next 3-year project period, these investigations will be used to support information and marketing, and to formulate recommendations for conversion practice of electrically heated single-family houses to combined pellet-solar heating. (Author)

  17. Environmental and economic performance of heating systems for energy-efficient dwellings: Case of passive and low-energy single-family houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, L.; Massart, C.; Van Moeseke, G.; De Herde, A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption of the building stock, a major trend is to drastically reduce the space-heating (SH) needs by improving the thermal performance of the envelope. In general, this measure is combined with efficient heating systems to minimize the delivered energy and greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, these better systems are often more expensive so that the extra-investment could be hardly recovered for small-scale energy consumption. The main objective of the article is to show how equilibria between cost-effectiveness and environmental performance of heating systems are changed when small SH needs are considered (i.e. for passive and low-energy houses). The scope is limited to new single-family dwellings. Furthermore, the passive house standard provides means of simplifying the SH by using the ventilation air: the idea is that savings should counterbalance the extra-investment in super-insulation. In theory, a new global economic optimum is generated at the passive house level. The second objective of the work is to study which conditions could lead to this new optimum. Only a detached-house typology is investigated to address this last issue. Regarding methodology, all the investigations are done considering the Belgian context. Energy and environmental performance is evaluated using a method that complies with the EN-15603 and EN-15316 standards. - Highlights: ► Cost-benefit analysis is performed without incentives and is based on the Belgian market. ► Equilibria between cost-effectiveness and environmental performance of heating systems are changed for very low-energy houses. ► The space-heating simplification at the passive house level can hardly produce a new global economic optimum.

  18. Energy house - dream house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    An energy house a prefabricated house with an extensive minimization of heat losses, is air-conditioned by means of a combined heating system consisting of hot water cycle and recirculating heating. The energy system is trivalent: wind power, solar energy with heat pumps and normal oil heating.

  19. Poultry Slaughtering and Processing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Agriculture Production Poultry Slaughtering and Processing in the United States This dataset consists of facilities which engage in slaughtering, processing, and/or...

  20. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  1. 78 FR 61667 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Metro FMR Area 2016 Area. Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA 2015 New Haven-Meriden, CT HUD Metro FMR 2016 Area...) in the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit program is outside of the scope of this notice. However, HUD...

  2. Barriers and opportunities for business collaboration in the nZEB single-family housing renovation market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebut, F.; Warmuth, H.; Supper, S.; Hilderson, W.; Artola, I.; Thuring, M.; Van Holm, M.; Münke, R.; Pannier, P.; Bensmann, K.; Haavik, T.; Kleiven, T.; Solberg, S.S.; Kunkel, S.; Faber, M.; Van der Have, J.A.; Mlecnik, E.; Straub, A.

    2014-01-01

    Research was done in Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway as part of the Intelligent Energy Europe project, entitled “COHERENO - Collaboration for housing nearly zero-energy renovation” (www.cohereno.eu) to better understand the emergence of collaboration structures for nZEB

  3. 77 FR 61157 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... HMFA. Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA New Haven-Meriden, CT HMFA. North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL MSA... areas of New Jersey, Anchorage and several non-metropolitan areas of Alaska, Dallas, TX and Burlington... Projects and Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Projects at Risk If a current HUD Section 8 project uses rents...

  4. Analysis of the thermal behaviour of a low cost, single-family, more sustainable house in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoletti, Giane [Departamento de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, UFSM, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Nucleo Orientado para a Inovacao da Edificacao, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Sattler, Miguel A.; Morello, Alessandro [Nucleo Orientado para a Inovacao da Edificacao, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Efforts have been made in Brazil to improve the thermal performance of low-cost buildings. Since 1997 studies on low-cost housing have been developed by Nucleo Orientado para a Inovacao da Edificacao, the construction sector of the Engineering College of the Rio Grande do Sul University, Brazil. In 2000 a prototype of a low-cost house was built on the university campus. This prototype has undergone several evaluations in an attempt to assess its thermal and environmental performance, like: energy consumption, rainwater harvesting, use of sustainably managed wood for window frames and doors, besides a detailed accounting of overall costs. The thermal performance of the house was monitored, by recording outdoor and indoor air temperatures and relative humidity, over the period of whole year. A brief appraisal of such results, as well as the annual heating and cooling degree-hours are presented. Daily swings in outdoor are a common climatic event in Porto Alegre and the building response to daily temperature swings, greater than 10 K, and hot and cold spells are presented. The results show that the thermal performance of the prototype is fairly satisfactory, considering the limitations of a low-cost house, when artificial heating and cooling is not affordable. (author)

  5. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...

  6. Human Contacts and Potential Pathways of Disease Introduction on Georgia Poultry Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Hofacre, C.L.; Smith, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    and spread of a highly infectious pathogen, such as the currently circulating H5N1 influenza virus, a survey was administered to growers in two counties in Georgia representing areas of low and high poultry densities. Survey questions regarding horizontal contacts and management were sent to commercial...... broiler and breeder-layer chicken producers. Responses were used to estimate and compare contact rates and patterns between the two regions. The distribution of high-risk visitors (i.e., those going inside the poultry houses) to poultry farms did not vary significantly between growers in counties...... county. Data obtained in this study support the observations of published poultry disease outbreak investigations and highlight the differences in farm vulnerability to disease introduction within areas of different poultry densities and management practices....

  7. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Problems of Waste Management at Poultry Plants and Ways to Address Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, L. P.; Kostryakova, O. N.

    2017-11-01

    The paper analyzes scientific literature on manure recycling and systems of waste management at two poultry plants that use different technologies of poultry housing and manure disposal and calculates the volumes of waste generation for two plants. The authors suggest an economically and ecologically efficient manure utilization technology, consider the feasibility of replacing traditional fuel with the one produced by manure recycling and calculate expected profits and the payback time of equipment.

  9. Quality function deployment in the organic animal food sector: application to poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Naspetti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of an Italian investigation into the development of food quality for poultry meat in the organic sector, using the quality function deployment technique. The results show that among the characteristics of poultry, meat consumers assign greater importance to those that are strictly related to animal welfare issues. Price and product appearance (i.e., colour, presence of fat come in second. To meet these needs, producers can effectively operate along the supply chain by acting on poultry housing type, genotype lines, and stocking density. Information about these issues should then be shared with the consumers (i.e., clear product labelling.

  10. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ..., 94, 95, and 104 [Docket No. APHIS-2009-0094] RIN 0579-AD45 Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... as the APHIS-defined European Union poultry trade region and adding it to the list of regions we...

  11. Replacing critical radiators to increase the potential to use low-temperature district heating – A case study of 4 Danish single-family houses from the 1930s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    radiator sizes and heating demands in 4 existing Danish single-family houses from the 1930s. A year-long dynamic simulation was performed for each of the houses to evaluate the potential to lower the heating system temperatures. The results indicate that there is a large potential to use low......-temperature district heating in existing single-family houses. In order to obtain the full potential of low-temperature district heating, critical radiators must be replaced. Based on a novel method, a total of nine radiators were identified to be critical to ensure thermal comfort and low return temperatures in two...

  12. Neighbourhood Acceptability of Poultry Farms Located in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... due to poultry production in their neighbourhood. It was recommended that farmers should be encouraged to adopt technologies that can keep poultry litters dry and odourless. In addition, poultry farm locations should be sited far away from residential areas. Keywords: Poultry Farms, Acceptability, Waste management, ...

  13. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  14. Possible financing schemes for one-stop-shop service for sustainable renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    energy use behaviour of the occupants and the difficulty to predict future energy prices. The options to finance energy efficiency renovations include homeowners’ own resources, mortgage refinancing, flex loan, personal loan, financing by service providers, preferential loan, subsidies/grants, credit...... for the homeowners, and banks will have a less risky asset in their portfolio. In situations where homeowners cannot avail additional mortgage financing, e.g. those who recently purchased a house and used the limit to such loans, banks may consider an energy efficient renovation plan prepared by an entrepreneur...

  15. Caracterização elétrica de filmes ultrafinos de PANI/PVS: material potencial para detecção de amônia em galpões de criação avícola Preparation and characterization of ultrathin PANI/PVS: films for control the ammonia level in poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela de C. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho filmes ultrafinos de PANI/PVS foram caracterizados óptica, elétrica e morfologicamente para estudo da viabilidade desses sistemas como elemento ativo de sensores de amônia. Os filmes automontados foram depositados entre microeletrodos metálicos formados por uma fina camada de NiCr recoberto com Au. Medidas de absorção na região do UV-VIS mostraram o crescimento linear dos filmes, enquanto a análise das imagens de microscopia de força atômica mostrou o aumento da rugosidade, do tamanho de grão e do tamanho da partícula com a espessura dos filmes. A caracterização elétrica dc evidenciou uma significativa mudança na resistência elétrica do sistema quando a espessura do filme tornou-se equivalente à espessura do eletrodo de NiCr. Esse efeito foi atribuído à alta resistência elétrica da interface NiCr-filme. A impedância complexa obtida foi típica de materiais sólidos desordenados, com influência da interface NiCr-filme em baixas frequências. Por fim, os filmes mostraram ainda aumento de resistência elétrica em cerca de três vezes quando expostos às condições ambientais de galpões de criação avícola ([NH3] In this work we investigated the optical, electrical and morphological properties of ultrathin PANI/PVS films as active material of ammonia sensor for a poultry house. The layer-by-layer polymer films were deposited onto NiCr interdigitated microelectrode recovered with Au (NiCr/Au line arrays. The buildup of the multilayers was monitored at each deposition step by UV-VIS spectroscopy while the atomic force microscopy (AFM was employed to monitor the change in the roughness, in the grain and particle sizes. We observed a significant change in the dc conductivity when the thickness of the films was close to that of the NiCr layer. This effect is attributed to the higher interfacial electrical resistance between NiCr and the polymer film, compared to the resistance of the Au-film interface and

  16. Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, S. E.; Clifford, J. O.; Tomko, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors over a broad area. Captivity limits these behaviors and consequently may disrupt normal social organizations. In captivity, squirrel monkeys may exhibit stereotypical behaviors that are believed to indicate decreased psychologic well-being. When a monkey's behavior can be made to approach that seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal, it is assumed that psychologic well-being is adequate. Environmental enrichment devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act requirement that psychologic well-being of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether various environmental enrichment devices improve the psychologic well-being of captive squirrel monkeys. In the study, we used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several environmental enrichment devices for reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed alone or in groups. Analysis of our results revealed that the environmental enrichment devices did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  17. Clinical aspects of immunosuppression in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rеsаnоvić Rаdmilа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity is ability to stop an infection. Immunosupression is a status where the immunity is reduced. Humoral (antibodies and/or cell immunity may be depressed. Immunosupression can be caused by infectious agents, improper feeding balance (deficiencies, lack of biosecurity, management failures, stress or by a combination of these factors. Each of these possible causes must be seriously worked out to prevent the consequences of immunosupression on profitability. Environmental factors and numerous infectious pathogens have been identified as a multi-factorial cause of various degrees of immunosupression. Mainly subclinical character and coinfections make the diagnosis of the primary immunosuppressive agents difficult. On the other hand, early diagnosis and identification of contributing factors are important to develop strategies to fight immunosupression in birds successfully. A combination of biosecurity measures, optimized housing condition and stress reduction together with appropriate vaccination strategies is necessary for the successful control of immunosupression in commercial poultry.

  18. American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) Perspective of Alternative Poultry Production Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) is a nonprofit educational and networking organization dedicated to encouraging the production, processing, and marketing of poultry raised on pasture, and is the largest industry group focused on pastured poultry. APPPA passionately embr...

  19. Poultry manure effects on soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, M.; Martin, J. V.; Miralles de Imperial, R.; Leon-Cofreces, C.; Garcia, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been made to value the effects produces on the organisms of the ground (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (bed wood shaving or straw) on an agricultural ground. The use doses respond to agronomic and non environmental considerations. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosms, Multi-Species Soil System (MS.3) developed in the Environment department of the INIA, tool that allows in a single test to value of joint form, the effects of organic remainders on representative organisms of the ground. (Author) 1 refs.

  20. THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DETERMINATION POULTRY GRADE AND POULTRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Makhonina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There was proposed the system of classification of poultry by grades, taking into account the rate of individual bone-in and boneless pieces, and minced meat according to objective quality indexes, namely the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and mass fraction of protein in terms of protein quality (ratio of tryptophan to hydroxyproline, the ratio of the energy value and other indicators established for land and water-floating bird and is comparable to similar measures for beef and pork. Was given the quantitative criteria for rating the quality of poultry meat for content of muscle, connective and fatty tissues (skin with fat in gutted carcass and its parts, installed there output and factors consumer value (FCV. Also was given the comparative rate of biological value of raw meat of slaughter animals and poultry, poultry meat mechanically deboning and nutritional supplements of animal and vegetable origin. It is established, that poultry meat mechanically separated on the functional-technological properties and bioavailability significantly superior to animal and vegetable proteins. The biological value of the lump meat of chickens-broilers and hens egg directions 1 grade has values 73.12 and 72.92%, the same time the biological value of goose meat from deboning carcasses of 2 and 1 grades has high values and varies from 79.77 to 81.14%. The new approach of the definition types of meat poultry and poultry products increases the range of foods allowed by the introduction in the recipe of sausage stuffing alternative sources of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin, adequate and balanced protein composition that is a definite contribution to the solution of the problem of providing the population with goods of high quality and enhance production efficiency.

  1. The First "Comfort Houses" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The "Comfort Houses" is the most ambitious building project in passive houses in Denmark until today. Eight single family houses are built and designed by seven different consortiums. Besides fulfilling the German passive house standard the goal was to build the houses according to Danish tradition...

  2. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  3. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  4. Profitability of Backyard Poultry Farming in Sokoto Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    results further showed that variable costs were the most important costs accounting for 88.41% of the total cost and ... and farmers in the business were faced with the problem of disease outbreak. .... backyard poultry farming is low compared to their ... Female. Single. Married. Islam. Christianity. Primary. Secondary. Tertiary.

  5. 76 FR 66950 - Privacy Act; Notice of Revision of System of Records, the Single Family Housing Enterprise Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Family Mortgage Asset Recovery Technology System (SMART) 5. A80S--Single Family Acquired Assets..., inclusive communities and quality affordable homes. This notice deletes and supersedes prior notice..., address, date of birth, home address, and social security number; racial/ethnic background, if disclosed...

  6. Simulation study on single family house with solar floor and domestic hot water heating system by EESLISM; EESLISM ni yoru taiyonetsu danbo kyuto jutaku no simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, H; Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Indoor thermal conditions and energy performance were simulated, by the aid of EESLISM as a common simulation program for indoor thermal conditions and energy systems, for an actual two-storied single family house equipped with solar-heated floors and a domestic hot water (DHW) heating system, in order to investigate applicability of the simulation program. The house, built in Shibuya Ward in Tokyo, has a total floor area of 164m{sup 2}, with a living room, dining room and study heated by the solar system for a total floor area of 35m{sup 2}. A heat-storage tank is provided, dedicated to the DHW system. The solar collector is of flat type, with selectively light-absorbing planes, having a total collector area of 11.46m{sup 2}. The operating conditions of the floor-heating and DHW systems are almost reproduced. It is necessary to take surrounding conditions into consideration; solar radiation in daytime will be overestimated if adjacent buildings are neglected to give higher temperature in the space and on the wall on the south than the observed level. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Simulations at Czech poultry market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Rumánková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the possible scenarios of the development of the poultry market in the Czech Republic, in view of the trends in production, consumption and foreign trade. The individual scenarios are based upon the forecasts of selected factors that have a substantial impact on the poultry market and whose changes can be expected in the subsequent years with great likelihood. The article sets out and addresses various scenarios for the period of 2012–2014. The scenarios are based upon the partial equilibrium model of the poultry market, which has been derived on the basis of time series and panel data within the years 1995–2009. The conducted analysis clearly shows that changes in the prices of agricultural producers will have an effect on changes in the production of poultry meat, an increase in VAT through consumer prices will impact the rate of domestic consumption, as well as changes in disposable income. Similarly, a change in the exchange rate will have an effect on the amount of poultry imported into the Czech Republic.

  8. World`s first fuel cell in a single-family home - The VNG natural gas house: Low-emission energy meets all household needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    VNG - Verbundnetz Gas Aktiengesellschaft of Leipzig, Germany, has pioneered the development of a decentral home energy system combining very high efficiencies with extremely low emissions. The company has installed the world`s first fuel cell total energy system using natural gas as an energy source to generate both heat and power in a single-family home. It replaces the gas-fired mini power station operated as part of the VNG natural gas house project which was instrumental in the rapid advancement of small-scale co-generation technology. The objective of VNG and its project partners is to collect reliable data for advancing fuel cell technology development, allowing appliance manufacturers to design a competitive system for introduction on the market within a few years. Discerning consumers will then be able to opt for an innovative, highly efficient system to meet all their household energy needs. (orig.)

  9. Investigation and description of European buildings that may be representative for “nearly-zero” energy single family houses in 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Svendsen, Svend; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2013-01-01

    As part of European energy politics and strategies for reduction of fossil fuels all new buildings should have a “nearly zero” energy consumption in 2020. This creates a strong need for research in cost-effective technologies and solutions that will contribute to the fulfilment of the ambitious...... of a set of reference parameters that can be expected to be representative for the behaviour of the “nearly zero” energy building of 2020 in different European climatic zones. This paper provides an overview of how single family houses with a very low energy demand for space heating and cooling can...... towards different orientations, where the windows in all rooms are dimensioned based on the diffuse daylight access at the specific location, it is shown that an equal window distribution will allow fulfilment of an ambitious energy target, while simultaneously enabling a balanced daylight access across...

  10. Ionizing energy treatment of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an ionizing energy treatment to poultry carcasses results in a decrease of the number of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. Salmonellae. At the same time the refrigerated shelf life of treated poultry products is considerably increased. To achieve these beneficial effects doses ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 kGy are needed, but in poultry doses over 5.00 kGy may cause undesirable side-effects. To asses the microbiological quality of ionizing radiation treated end-products adequate isolation methods should be used to include all sublethally injured microorganisms in the colony counts. The assessment of the required lethality of an ionizing energy treatment is difficult as D 10 (decimal reduction) - values depend greatly on several parameters

  11. The health status and well-being of low-resource, housing-unstable, single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Tach, Laura; Guerra, Terry; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S

    2017-03-01

    The health and well-being of single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in US cities who participate in housing programmes is not well described. This two-phase, mixed-methods study explores the health status of families who were participants in a housing-plus programme in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2013 and the relationship between the characteristics of the neighbourhoods in which they lived and their perceptions of well-being and safety. In phase 1, data collected with standardised health status instruments were analysed using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests to describe the health of single parents and one randomly selected child from each parent's household in comparison to population norms. In a subset of survey respondents, focus groups were conducted to generate an in-depth understanding of the daily lives and stressors of these families. Focus group data were analysed using content analysis to identify key descriptive themes. In phase 2, daily activity path mapping, surveys and interviews of parent-child dyads were collected to assess how these families perceive their health, neighbourhood and the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on the families' day-to-day experience. Narratives and activity maps were combined with crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department to analyse the relationship between crime and perceptions of fear and safety. Phase 1 data demonstrated that parent participants met or exceeded the national average for self-reported physical health but fell below the national average across all mental health domains. Over 40% reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression. Parents described high levels of stress resulting from competing priorities, financial instability, and concern for their children's well-being and safety. Analysis of phase 2 data demonstrated that neighbourhood characteristics exert influence over parents' perceptions of their environment and how they permit

  12. Recovery of ammonia from poultry litter using flat gas permeable membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, M J; Szögi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2013-06-01

    The use of flat gas-permeable membranes was investigated as components of a new process to capture and recover ammonia (NH3) in poultry houses. This process includes the passage of gaseous NH3 through a microporous hydrophobic membrane, capture with a circulating dilute acid on the other side of the membrane, and production of a concentrated ammonium (NH4) salt. Bench- and pilot-scale prototype systems using flat expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes and a sulfuric acid solution consistently reduced headspace NH3 concentrations from 70% to 97% and recovered 88% to 100% of the NH3 volatilized from poultry litter. The potential benefits of this technology include cleaner air inside poultry houses, reduced ventilation costs, and a concentrated liquid ammonium salt that can be used as a plant nutrient solution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Emission of Harmful Gases from Poultry Farms and Possibilities of Their Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouček Jan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to methodology that can help to assess emission of gases from poultry housings and could be used to expand the knowledge base of researchers, policymakers and farmers to maintain sustainable environment conditions for farming systems. Concentration and emission of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in poultry barns are discussed in this paper. Surveys of ammonia and greenhouse gases mean concentrations and emission factors in different poultry systems are showed. This paper is also gives the findings in emission mitigation, especially to different manure handling practices, management schemes, housing and facility designs for broilers and laying hens. Finally this paper focused on investigating practical means to reduce air emissions from animal production facilities.

  14. Poultry management: a useful tool for the control of necrotic enteritis in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    The intestinal ecosystem of poultry has been inevitably changed as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. The re-emergence of necrotic enteritis has been the most significant threat for the poultry industry, which, in clinical form, causes high mortality and in subclinical forms, affects growth and feed conversion. It is one of the most common and economically devastating bacterial diseases in modern broiler flocks in terms of performance, welfare and mortality. Necrotic enteritis is a multi-factorial disease process, in which a number of co-factors are usually required to precipitate an outbreak of the disease. Although, Clostridium perfringens has been identified as the aetiological agent of the disease, the predisposing factors that lead to over-proliferation of C. perfringens and the subsequent progression to disease are poorly understood. Any factor that causes stress in broiler chicks could suppress the immune system and disturb the balance of the intestinal ecosystem, in such a way that the risk of a necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreak increases. Poultry management could significantly affect the pathogenesis of NE. In particular, feed restriction and coccidiosis vaccination can protect against NE, while extreme house temperature, feed mycotoxins and high stocking density predispose to NE. It becomes really important to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to clarify the interactions between husbandry, nutritional and infectious factors and the outbreak of necrotic enteritis. This is necessary and extremely important in order to develop managerial strategies at the farm level to control the incidence and severity of the disease in the post-antibiotic era.

  15. Natural ventilation in organic poultry houses in cold weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    This topic was suggested as a way to address concerns with winter ventilation and temperature control. The suggestion came with a request that the presentation cover “proper management in cooler ambient temps. The broad issue is most organic egg production is brown and these birds have an easy abil...

  16. evaluation of a modified passive solar housing system for poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The hourly efficiency of the solar brick passive system was estimated at about 78.42% in a day of May and ... to high cost and unavailability of kerosene in most developing .... sulted in intermittent rainfall, cloud cover and sunshine. From the ...

  17. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  18. [Epizootiology of aegyptianellosis in poultry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Ts S

    1983-01-01

    Epizootiologic studies were carried out on avian aegyptianellosis, especially with birds raised at poultry dressing combines and industrial poultry farms within the country. It was found that the mechanism of infection transmission was mediated not only by the role of Argas persicus ticks but also by bed bug insects of the Cimex genus, belonging to the Hemiptera order. Carriers of aegyptianellosis might also be migratory birds coming from tropical countries, such as swallows. It is concluded that avian aegyptianellosis can be referred to the group of the natural focal transmissive infections.

  19. Biogas from poultry waste-production and energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Karoline Carvalho; Schneider, Roselene Maria; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m -2 were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days. The efficiency of the biodigestion process was evaluated by biogas production in relation to total solids (TS) added, as well as the potential for power generation. Quantified volumes ranged from 8.9 to 41.1 L of biogas for aviary 1, and 6.7 to 33.9 L of biogas for aviary 2, with the sixth bed reused from both aviaries registering the largest biogas potential. Average potential biogas in m 3  kg -1 of TS added were 0.022 to 0.034 for aviary 1 and 0.015 to 0.022 for aviary 2. Energy values ​​of biogas produced were calculated based on calorific value and ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kWh for chicken litter without fermentation and from 0.05 to 0.27 kWh for chicken litter with fermentation. It was concluded that the re-use of poultry litter resulted in an increase in biogas production, and the use of fermentation in the microbiological treatment of poultry litter seems to have negatively influenced production of biogas.

  20. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  1. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  2. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites."nMethods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites."nResults: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa."nConclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.  Keywords: Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus bursa, Poultry, Iran

  3. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  4. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... for some poultry classes, while extensive cross breeding has produced poultry with higher meat yields... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) for consultation to ensure that there is no inconsistency... classifications, proposed changes to the game hen classes, and other proposed editorial changes. Response: FSIS...

  5. Replacing critical radiators to increase the potential to use low-temperature district heating – A case study of 4 Danish single-family houses from the 1930s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Low-temperature district heating is a promising technology for providing homes with energy-efficient heating in the future. However, it is of great importance to maintain thermal comfort in existing buildings when district heating temperatures are lowered. This case study evaluated the actual radiator sizes and heating demands in 4 existing Danish single-family houses from the 1930s. A year-long dynamic simulation was performed for each of the houses to evaluate the potential to lower the heating system temperatures. The results indicate that there is a large potential to use low-temperature district heating in existing single-family houses. In order to obtain the full potential of low-temperature district heating, critical radiators must be replaced. Based on a novel method, a total of nine radiators were identified to be critical to ensure thermal comfort and low return temperatures in two of the case-houses. If these radiators were replaced it would be possible to lower the average heating system temperatures to 50 °C/27 °C in all four houses. - Highlights: • Comparison of dynamically calculated heat demands and radiator sizes. • Method for identification and evaluation of critical radiators was tested. • Existing houses can be heated with low-temperature heating for most of the year. • Replacing critical radiators helps ensure comfort and low return temperatures.

  6. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis reports investigations using gamma-radiation to decontaminate poultry carcasses. The application to foods of doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to reduce the number of viable specific non-sporeforming pathogenic microorganisms so that none is detectable in the treated food by any standard method is termed radicidation. The doses used in this study were at such a level that no undesirable or unfavourable side-effects occurred. The effects of these doses were studied on salmonellae and other microorganisms present in, or associated with poultry carcasses and in liquid and on solid culture media as well. Decimal reduction (D 10 ) values were estimated. These represent the dose (kGy) required to achieve a reduction in initial colony count from N 0 to 0.1 N 0 . Together with the estimation of the numbers of Salmonella present per carcass the data were used to predict the effect of an ionizing radiation treatment of poultry. Data on the effect of ionizing radiation on the total microflora of poultry carcasses were also collected. (Auth.)

  7. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  8. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  9. [Routes of pathogenic staphylococcal contamination of slaughter poultry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, L; Zakhartsev, Ts; Baĭl'ozov, D

    1977-01-01

    The contamination of birds with pathogenic staphylococci was followed up during their slaughter handling and trimming at two poultry-dressing houses. It was found that water cooling and evisceration were mostly contributing to contamination. Taking part in the dissemination of Staphylococcus infection were also the female workers on the slaughter belt, especially those that had wounds on their hands. Studied were the properties of a total of 881 strains of staphylococci, 43.35 per cent of them being defined as Staph. aureus, and 56.64 per cent--as Staph. edidermidis.

  10. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  11. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  12. Prevention of poultry-borne salmonellosis by irradiation: Costs and benefits in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, B.F; Forbes, G.I.; MacLeod, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Poultry-borne salmonellosis is the most common foodborne infection in Scotland for which the vehicle can be identified. The cost of the disease to society in terms of health service use, absence from work, morbidity, and mortality is substantial. The study estimates the total cost of poultry-borne salmonellosis in Scotland and compares it with the cost of a single preventive measure: the irradiation of poultry meat. The results suggest that the public health benefits exceed irradiation costs. This conclusion is, however, sensitive to assumptions made in the analysis, particularly those related to the cost of unreported cases of salmonellosis. 19 refs, 3 tabs

  13. Technical and Economic Evaluation of «Electric House» Project: Investigation of Possibility to Use Electric Power as Single Energy Carrier in Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Oleshkevich; Y. V. Makosko

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers special features of the «Electric House» project where the building is provided with electric power, cold water and sewerage system. The «Electric House» is characterized by ecological cleanness, high reliability in power supply and low capital costs. While running the «Electric House» an annual expenditure of equivalent fuel is increased due to low efficiency of electric power generation at power plants. The profit obtained due to «Electric House» construction is depleted...

  14. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  15. Control of poultry red mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important ectoparasite in European egg production. The mites hide in cracks and crevices in the near vicinity of the resting places of the birds, coming out to feed mainly during the night. Under favourable conditions the population can...... grow rapidly, leading to serious problems. Large mite populations may cause anaemia or even death to the poultry, but also in lower numbers mites may be a nuisance to the birds causing decreased egg production and egg quality. Furthermore, they may have the potential of acting as reservoir......-pathogenic fungi and desiccant dust. The dust is diatomaceous earth (of natural origin), synthetic silica products or combinations of the two. The progress of the work with desiccant dusts will be reported. So far, 7 different products have been tested in the laboratory with regard to their efficacy, speed...

  16. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses....... In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH...

  17. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Fungal/mycotic diseases of poultry-diagnosis, treatment and control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Verma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Ruchi; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Shambhu Dayal

    2013-12-01

    Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.

  19. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamdar, S.N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile ( 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to o C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature

  20. Effects of labor motivation in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Broiler production is a significant economic activity in Brazil, and employs a large number of stockpeople in the integration process. Considering that the stockperson's perception may lead to better performance of his/her tasks and flock handling, this study aimed at verifying possible interactions between poultry productivity and stockperson's perception, emotions, and motivation. The study methodology considered two aspects: qualitative analysis, using Ergonomic Work Analysis, with observational method, and by applying a questionnaire and interview, and classification of the answers into positive relationship and "affection" to the job or negative relationship and "disaffection" to the job; and quantitative analysis, applying the Test of Hypothesis for Comparison of Means both for total flock mortality and Weight Equivalent Index data. Qualitative results showed that the stockpeople were aware that the housing environment causes specific health symptoms, as well as they presented different responses as to flock handling. Quantitative data showed a correlation between reduction of total flock mortality and positive relationship towards the broilers and "affection" to the job, whereas no statistical evidence that the same individuals influenced broiler Weight Equivalent Index was detected.

  1. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg produc­tion, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites.Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites per­formed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plas­tic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer,s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites.Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa.Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.

  2. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P litter, with a corresponding positive effect on the building environment and poultry health. For these reasons, litter amendment with alum could be recommended as a

  3. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  4. The Eco House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbett, A. (Leicester Ecology Trust (United Kingdom))

    The Eco House is a former park keeper's lodge on the periphery of Leicester's largest public park. Taken over by Leicester Ecology Trust in 1990, the Eco House was a successor to the Trust's earlier low energy house. This has been a local authority decant house, retrofitted to show the potential for increased energy efficiency in older buildings. Many of the ideas from the earlier project were adopted by the new with a widening of its remit to include all matters of environmental concern connected with people's homes. So in addition to energy efficiency, other issues addressed include conservation of resources, wildlife, organic gardening, food production, water, environmental consumerism, recycling and health. Given that the use of energy is regarded by many environmentalists to be the single most important environmental issue today, and one which is easiest for households to address, it remains the project's dominant theme. (author)

  5. POULTRY WASTE MANAGEMENT IN BOTSWANA: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Moreki; S.C. Chiripasi

    2011-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify methods that are used to dispose of poultry waste in Botswana. It appears that the predominant methods of poultry waste disposal in Botswana are direct disposal at the landfills, application as a fertilizer in gardens or farms, burning and compositing. The use of poultry manure and/or litter to raise fertility status of the soil appears to be appropriate given that soils in Botswana are generally poor in plant nutrients, especially phosphorus. Giv...

  6. Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y.; Thomas, Prasad; Schmoock, Gernot; Abou-El-Azm, Kamel; Wieler, Lothar H.; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian

    2018-01-01

    C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains...

  7. Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  8. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  9. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  10. Current wheeze, asthma, respiratory infections, and rhinitis among adults in relation to inspection data and indoor measurements in single-family houses in Sweden-The BETSI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Engvall, K; Smedje, G; Nilsson, H; Norbäck, D

    2017-07-01

    In the Swedish Building Energy, Technical Status and Indoor environment study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate, and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally, 7.3% were smokers, 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma, 11.2% current wheeze, and 9.5% current asthma symptoms. Totally, 50.3% had respiratory infections and 26.0% rhinitis. The mean air exchange rate was 0.36/h, and the mean moisture load 1.70 g/m 3 . Damp foundation (OR=1.79, 95% CI 1.16-2.78) was positively associated while floor constructions with crawl space (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84) was negatively associated with wheeze. Concrete slabs with overlying insulation (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.24-3.92) and brick façade (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.73) were associated with rhinitis. Moisture load was associated with respiratory infections (OR=1.21 per 1 g/m 3 , 95% CI 1.04-1.40) and rhinitis (OR=1.36 per 1 g/m 3 , 95% CI 1.02-1.83). Air exchange rate was associated with current asthma symptoms (OR=0.85 per 0.1/h, 95% CI 0.73-0.99). Living in homes with damp foundation, concrete slabs with overlying insulation, brick façade, low ventilation flow, and high moisture load are risk factors for asthma, rhinitis, and respiratory infections. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Spatial relationships between nitrogen status and pitch canker disease in slash pine planted adjacent to a poultry operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Zamora, Isabel; Bliss, Christine; Jokela, Eric J.; Comerford, N.B.; Grunwald, Sabine; Barnard, E.; Vasquez, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pitch canker disease (Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell) causes serious shoot dieback, reduced growth and mortality in pines found in the southern and western USA, and has been linked to nutrient imbalances. Poultry houses with forced-air ventilation systems produce nitrogen (N) emissions. This study analyzed spatial correlations between pitch canker disease and foliar, forest floor, soil, and throughfall N in a slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) plantation adjacent to a poultry operation in north Florida, USA. Tissue and throughfall N concentrations were highest near the poultry houses and remained elevated for 400 m. Disease incidence ranged from 57-71% near the poultry houses and was spatially correlated with N levels. Similarly, stem mortality ranged from 41-53% in the most heavily impacted area, and declined to 0-9% at distances greater than 400 m. These results suggest that nutritional processes exacerbate changes in disease susceptibility and expression in slash pine. - Local emissions from poultry production appear to significantly contribute to the spatial distribution of N and pitch canker disease in managed slash pine ecosystems

  12. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  13. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  14. Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants And Impacts Of Poultry Production Technologies On Productivity ... unbalanced feeding of poultry and low level of education of poultry farmers. ... were suggested by the study as a means of consolidating the gains of the impact.

  15. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  16. Irradiation of meats and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de

  17. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  18. Exploring contacts facilitating transmission of influenza A(H5N1) virus between poultry farms in West Java, Indonesia: A major role for backyard farms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Karo-Karo, Desniwaty; Pribadi, Eko Sugeng; Bouma, Annemarie; Bodewes, Rogier; Vernooij, Hans; Diyantoro; Sugama, Agus; Muljono, David H; Koch, Guus; Tjatur Rasa, Fadjar Sumping; Stegeman, Arjan

    2018-08-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been reported in Asia, including Indonesia since 2003. Although several risk factors related to the HPAIV outbreaks in poultry in Indonesia have been identified, little is known of the contact structure of farms of different poultry production types (backyard chickens, broilers, layers, and ducks). This study aims to quantify the contact rates associated with the movement of people, and movements of live birds and products and equipment that affect the risk of HPAIV H5N1 transmission between poultry farms in Indonesia. On 124 poultry farms in 6 districts in West Java, logbooks were distributed to record the movements of farmers/staff and visitors and their poultry contacts. Most movements in backyard chicken, commercial native chicken, broiler and duck farms were visits to and from other poultry farms, whilst in layer farms visits to and from poultry companies, visits to egg collection houses and visit from other poultry farms were most frequent. Over 75% of persons visiting backyard chicken and duck farms had previously visited other poultry farms on the same day. Visitors of backyard chicken farms had the highest average contact rate, either direct contact with poultry on other farms before the visits (1.35 contact/day) or contact during their visits in the farms (10.03 contact/day). These results suggest that backyard chicken farms are most at risk for transmission of HPAIV compared to farms of the other poultry production types. Since visits of farm-to-farm were high, backyard farms could also a potential source for HPAIV transmission to commercial poultry farms. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fungal and bacterial metabolites in commercial poultry feed from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, C N; Bandyopadhyay, R; Sulyok, M; Warth, B; Krska, R

    2012-08-01

    Metabolites of toxigenic fungi and bacteria occur as natural contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins) in feedstuffs making them unsafe to animals. The multi-toxin profiles in 58 commercial poultry feed samples collected from 19 districts in 17 states of Nigeria were determined by LC/ESI-MS/MS with a single extraction step and no clean-up. Sixty-three (56 fungal and seven bacterial) metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging up to 10,200 µg kg⁻¹ in the case of aurofusarin. Fusarium toxins were the most prevalent group of fungal metabolites, whereas valinomycin occurred in more than 50% of the samples. Twelve non-regulatory fungal and seven bacterial metabolites detected and quantified in this study have never been reported previously in naturally contaminated stored grains or finished feed. Among the regulatory toxins in poultry feed, aflatoxin concentrations in 62% of samples were above 20 µg kg⁻¹, demonstrating high prevalence of unsafe levels of aflatoxins in Nigeria. Deoxynivalenol concentrations exceeded 1000 µg kg⁻¹ in 10.3% of samples. Actions are required to reduce the consequences from regulatory mycotoxins and understand the risks of the single or co-occurrence of non-regulatory metabolites for the benefit of the poultry industry.

  20. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D

    2017-06-01

    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Preliminary economic analysis of poultry litter gasification option with a simple transportation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Atul C; English, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Several environmental issues are related to the disposal of poultry litter. In an effort to provide a more environmentally friendly alternative than landfill disposal or spreading as a soil amendment, work has been carried out previously at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). This past UTSI work was concentrated on developing a catalytic steam gasification concept to produce energy from poultry litter. In the past UTSI studies, preliminary design and economics for a stationary, centralized gasification plant capable of processing approximately 100 ton/day of poultry litter were developed. However, in this preliminary design the economic impact of transporting litter to a centralized gasification plant location was not addressed. To determine the preliminary impact of transporting the poultry litter on the overall economics of this energy conversion plant design, a simple transportation model was developed. This model was used in conjunction with the earlier plant design prepared at UTSI to determine the economic feasibility of a centralized, stationary poultry litter gasification plant. To do so, major variables such as traveling distance, plant feed rate (or capacity), fluctuations in the sales price of the product gas (that means value of the energy), population density of poultry farms, impact of tipping fees, and cost of litter were varied. The study showed that for plant with a capacity of 1000 ton/day to be able to withstand several changes in economic conditions and sustain itself, the poultry farm density would need to be approximately 0.3 houses/mi2. Smaller plants would need either a higher energy price or some kind of subsidy to be economically feasible.

  2. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  3. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  5. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  6. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.

  7. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  8. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. David Chapman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry.

  9. Vaccination of chickens against coccidiosis ameliorates drug resistance in commercial poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H. David; Jeffers, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a problem wherever livestock are raised under intensive conditions and drugs are used to combat parasitic infections. This is particularly true for the anticoccidial agents used for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by protozoa of the apicomplexan genus Eimeria in poultry. Resistance has been documented for all the dozen or so drugs approved for use in chickens and varying levels of resistance is present for those currently employed. A possible solution may be the introduction of drug-sensitive parasites into the houses where poultry are raised so that they may replace such drug-resistant organisms. This can be achieved by utilizing live vaccines that contain strains of Eimeria that were isolated before most anticoccidial compounds were introduced. Such strains are inherently drug-sensitive. Practical proposals to achieve this objective involve the alternation of vaccination with medication (known as rotation programs) in successive flocks reared in the same poultry house. A proposal for a yearly broiler production cycle involving chemotherapy and vaccination is presented. There are few, if any, examples in veterinary parasitology where it has proved possible to restore sensitivity to drugs used to control a widespread parasite. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether this can result in sustainable and long-term control of Eimeria infections in poultry. PMID:25516830

  10. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from broiler houses with downtime windrowed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging poultry manure management practice is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this practi...

  11. 24 CFR 982.604 - SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Single Room Occupancy (sro) § 982.604 SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a) For a person... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.604 Section 982.604 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  12. Retrospective dosimetry: Preliminary use of the single aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocol for the measurement of quartz dose in young house bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, D.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    with the expected values based on their known age and confirms the absolute accuracy of the SAR method. It is concluded that a similar to 18 mGy fallout dose component can be detected on a background of similar to 100 mGy; this detection limit is controlled by uncertainties in the natural dose rare measurement......In retrospective dosimetry, the total dose absorbed by some pre-existing dosemeters, such as house bricks or tiles, is used to derive the dose to the population arising from a nuclear accident. This paper uses the newly developed SAR protocol to determine the total dose in young house bricks from...... the vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor site and from Roskilde, Denmark. For these samples, it is shown that high precision (similar to 1%) on the mean estimates of total dose can be achieved with similar to 20 independent measurements. The SAR total dose estimates of two Danish house bricks agree...

  13. USING A GERMICIDAL INSTALLATION TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION AT A POULTRY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Mayorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the effect of bactericidal installation in combination with a device for creating a water curtain on the microclimate in the poultry house and environment. Methods. Epizootic research was carried out according to "epizootic methodology", FGI «Federal Centre for Animal Health» (FGI «ARRIAH». Gas composition of air was investigated by means of universal gas-analyzer (UG-2; the content of carbon dioxide was measured by Subbotin-Nagorskiy titrimetric method; the amount of dust in the air was measured by a gravimetric (weight method. Air humidity was calculated by means of August statistical psychrometer. Evaluation of the microbial contamination of air was carried out using the Krotov’s device. Results. The performed studies before and after the air bactericidal purification in a poultry farm showed a reduction of carbon dioxide and ammonia by 2-2.5 times, the total microbial contamination of air by 1.9 times and the dust by 4.3 times. We found a direct link between the increases in the amount of microbial bodies of air depending on the age of the bird. Thus, after air-cleaning in the poultry house room where they kept 15-d-old chicks, we calculated 5 thousand microbial cells per one m3 found (E.coli, and at the age of 45 days, the level of contamination reached 11 thousand microbial bodies. Conclusion. Research in the poultry house reveals that using bactericidal installation paired with water curtain device can significantly reduce the concentration of gases, dust and microorganisms in the air of the house and decrease the release into the environment, which will undoubtedly have an impact on the ecological situation of the environment, animal and human health. 

  14. Survival and Movement of Insect Parasitic Nematodes in Poultry Manure and Their Infectivity Against Musca domestica

    OpenAIRE

    Georgis, Ramon; Mullens, Bradley A.; Meyer, Jeffery A.

    1987-01-01

    Survival, infectivity, and movement of three insect parasitic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae All strain, S. bibionis SN strain, and Heterorhabditis heliothidis NC strain) in poultry manure were tested under laboratory conditions. The majority (70-100%) of the nematodes died within 18 hours after exposure to the manure. Nematodes exposed to manure slurry for 6 hours killed at least 95% of the house fly larvae, Musca domestica, but nematodes exposed for 12 hours achieved less than 40% larval mo...

  15. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptati...

  16. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  17. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  18. 25 solar houses single-family of promotion publishes in Cantimpalos (Segovia); 25 viviendas unifamilares solares de promocion publica en Cantimpalos (Segovia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, G.

    2008-07-01

    We present in this article a set of social houses built in Sevogia for the Autonomous Administration of Castilla y Leon in which have been applied some bio climatic and passive techniques. In this communication are described the main architectural features and are exposed the energy saving calculated and some of the results obtained through monitoring. (Author)

  19. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  20. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  1. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  2. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  3. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  4. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  5. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75 Poultry...

  6. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF...

  7. Perception of Farm Succession Planning by Poultry Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed poultry farm characteristics and poultry farmers' perception of farm succession planning in southwest Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting poultry farmers in Oyo and Osun states. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results reveal that poultry farmers ...

  8. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.; Živanov Nenad M.; Živković Jasmina Z.; Milojević Miloš J.; Teodosin Jovan M.; Pećanac Savka L.; Milić Dragan V.; Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.; Đekić Jovo P.

    2005-01-01

    Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with m...

  9. Poultry studies and anthropological research strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, M.

    2002-01-01

    Poultry are not simply birds; they are also a human creation, a social and cultural practice. The human element is the justification for an anthropology of poultry. Such an anthropology combines the objective research strategies familiar to the natural sciences with what is often called 'subjective' or qualitative research. In the study of poultry management, it is important that both research strategies focus on differences and variation. The subjective approach is particularly useful in identifying and understanding how the motivations and strategies of local actors are dependent on the social positions, which they occupy in their specific societies. (author)

  10. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments; Processing...

  11. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  12. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  13. Use of SCGE method for detection of DNA comet in irradiated samples of poultry and shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaei, R.; Hosseini, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    DNA in food may sustain damage by gamma irradiation.This damage can be detected by a sensitive technique, called single cell gel electrophoresis. This is a simple and low-cost technique for rapid screening of the cells of irradiated foodstuffs. For this purpose, poultry and shrimp samples were irradiated by the 60 Co gamma radiation. The radiation doses for poultry were 2,5 and 7 kGy and for shrimp were 3 and 7kGy, respectively. The irradiation samples were compared with those of unirradiated types (control). In addition, the effects of shelf-life and temperature were considered on the poultry samples only. We have found that this technique is easily applicable for identification of irradiated from unirradiated samples and it is found to be irrespective of the applied dose. It is worth mentioning that any DNA change arising from any source, for example temperature fluctuation, may be detected by the single cell gel electrophoresis technique

  14. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chickens...... and poultry sources (litter, water, rodent and lizard fecal samples) were collected from fourteen (14) poultry farms in 2007, 2010 and 2011 and were analyzed for S. Kentucky. Results and conclusions: Six percent of the samples were positive for S. Kentucky - all resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin...

  15. Enzymes in Poultry and Swine Nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poultry production in China and the potential for using enzyme preparations .... The feed manufacturers produce about 310 × 106t of high-quality feed, saving about 30%, ...... Chickens and experimental designs used in the three experiments.

  16. Sustainable development perspectives of poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Horsted, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    or more of the four aspects, e.g., pollution and antibiotic use, biodiversity (environmental aspects), conditions for farm workers and animal welfare (social aspects), governance of the food chain (institutional aspects), and the development of poultry from a valuable food to a cheap staple food...... throughout major parts of the world (economic aspects). There are numerous potential pathways for sustainable development of poultry production. Poultry are living, sentient animals that can be well integrated into many different types of urban and rural farming systems, where they benefit from...... and contribute to such systems and to the livelihood of households around the globe, with special emphasis on women. Furthermore, local production provides potential for production with minimum transport and, concomitantly, minimum usage of fossil fuels. Among the terrestrial animals, poultry has the best...

  17. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  18. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-01-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  19. Energetic Analysis of Poultry Processing Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Olatayo JEKAYINFA

    2007-01-01

    Energy audit of three poultry processing plants was conducted in southwestern Nigeria. The plants were grouped into three different categories based on their production capacities. The survey involved all the five easily defined unit operations utilized by the poultry processing industry and the experimental design allowed the energy consumed in each unit operation to be measured. The results of the audit revealed that scalding & defeathering is the most energy intensive unit operation in al...

  20. Carry-over of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between sequential and adjacent poultry flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Thomas; Weber, Rita Margarete; Hamedy, Ahmad; Glünder, Gerhard

    2011-01-10

    Nineteen flocks of four poultry species were monitored at a veterinary field station to investigate the distribution and spread of Campylobacter genotypes between sequential and adjacent flocks. Caecal and liver samples were obtained at frequent intervals from birds of all flocks and examined for Campylobacter. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed to genotype Campylobacter isolates. Of the 1643 caecal and liver samples investigated, 452 (27.5%) caecal samples and 11 (0.7%) liver samples contained Campylobacter. Of the caecal isolates 76.3% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 23.7% were identified as Campylobacter coli. Poultry flocks were largely colonized by more than one AFLP type and an intense exchange of Campylobacter genotypes between different poultry flocks occurred. These findings indicate that multiple genotypes can constitute the Campylobacter population within single poultry flocks, hinting to different sources of exposure and/or genetic drifts within the Campylobacter population. Nevertheless, in most flocks single Campylobacter genotypes predominated. Some strains superseded others resulting in colonization by successive Campylobacter genotypes during the observation period. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the large genetic diversity of Campylobacter must be considered in epidemiological evaluations and microbial risk assessments of Campylobacter in poultry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycotoxins and their impact on poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Goran R.Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two years after the great expansion of "AGROŽIV" company, it was evident that mycotoxins have great impact on all segments of poultry production. During that year we were for the first time faced up with problems in poultry fattening. It was not possible to explain the present problems only by bacterial and viral infections, so we assumed that there is another reason for the observed clinical picture. From that time we started to pay more attention on contamination of poultry feed with mycotoxins. In the four years' period, from 1988 to 2002, 57 samples were analyzed for the presence of mycotoxins. Mycotoxicological investigations revealed the presence of T-2 toxin in 19 samples at concentrations less than 0.3 mg/kg, in 18 samples at concentration of 0.5 mg/kg, and in 3 samples 1.0 mg/kg. Beside this, type A trichotecene DAS was found in 6 of tested samples, and ochratoxin A and in 1 sample. Clinical picture and damages varied depending on mycotoxins' concentrations and poultry age. To exceede this problem in animal production we tried to use the organic and anorganic mycotoxin adsorbents as additives of poultry feed, but the results were not satisfactory enough. So, we resumed that if we really want to resolve problem of mycotoxins we have to start from the field production of poultry feed components.

  2. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  3. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  4. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or receive...

  5. Dutch notes on BAT (Best Available Techniques) for pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, H.J.M.; Van de Weerdhof, A.M. [Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries, National Reference Centre Agriculture, Ede (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    This document describes available environmental control techniques for the pig- and poultry intensive lifestock farms. The purpose of this document is to support the identification of BAT for the European pig- and poultry housing, following the requirements of article 16 of the Council Directive 96/61, concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC Directive), which has been adopted on 24 September 1996. In this document, an attempt is made to include all relevant environmental aspects of the presented techniques. In this way, the integral weighing of available techniques is facilitated. Economical aspects of presented techniques are given as well. This document comprises the following elements: Process description; Emissions, economics and energy demand; and Candidate Best Available Techniques The rules concerning covered manure storage and low emission housing are based on the Environmental Management Act. This act sees to the activities in the 'appliance', which is in fact the farmyard and the animal-housing. The permit based on the Environmental Management Act regulates the nuisance and the environmental effects in relation to the housing. Manure application does not take place in the appliance but the application techniques are also added in this document as extra information. Those measures which are based on the Manure Act and the Manure Relocation Act are not taken into account. The Netherlands will deliver separate information on these subjects.

  6. Sydney Opera House Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House".......Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House"....

  7. Presence of Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y; Thomas, Prasad; Schmoock, Gernot; Abou-El-Azm, Kamel; Wieler, Lothar H; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian

    2018-06-01

    C. difficile has been recognized as a potential zoonotic agent encouraging investigations of C. difficile prevalence and ribotypes in animals. Here we report the prevalence and diversity of Egyptian C. difficile in I) samples from healthy poultry (n = 50), II) samples from diseased poultry (n = 54), and III) poultry meat (n = 150). Thirteen isolates were obtained from seven healthy and five diseased animals, but no C. difficile was cultured from poultry meat. The isolated C. difficile strains belonged to 3 different PCR-ribotypes (039/2, 205 and 001/FLI01). The detection of strains related to RT 001 known for its ability to cause disease in humans makes poultry a potential reservoir for pathogenic C. difficile. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Housing Stability among Homeless Individuals with Serious Mental Illness Participating in Housing First Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carol; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Locke, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory study of three programs using the Housing First approach to provide permanent supportive housing for single, homeless adults with serious mental illness and often co-occurring substance-related disorders. This approach provides direct, or nearly direct, access to housing that is intended to be…

  9. Process for the aerobic conversion of poultry manure into high-protein feedstuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, M.L.; Roberts, E.D.; Mitchell, D.W.; Kargi, F.; Austic, R.E.; Henry, A.; Vashon, R.; Seeley, H.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A two-stage aerobic continuous process is suggested for the conversion of poultry waste into a single-cell protein (SCP) product. The technical feasibility of the process is examined in this paper. Using bench-scale apparatus the approximate growth kinetics have been discovered. Possible modes of product recovery have been examined. The product consists primarily of a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens which has a lysine-rich (approx. 9.3%) amino acid profile that could make this product an attractive feed ingredient for poultry diets.

  10. Recent advances in role of chromium and its antioxidant combinations in poultry nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is reared in open side houses in most of the tropical countries, which results in huge temperature variation in shed causing stress resulting in increased demand of antioxidant supplementation. Since cooling of poultry houses or environment control is very expensive, thus methods focused on nutritional modifications appears to be the much logical approach. Stress increases mineral and vitamin mobilization from tissues and their excretion. Effect of some minerals and vitamin supplements such as chromium (Cr and ascorbic acid to elevate the negative effects of environmental stress is well documented. Cr functions as an antioxidant and its deficiency are said to disrupt carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Cr has been utilized for weight gain, to improve feed conversion ratio, increase relative organ weight, muscle development, decrease cholesterol, increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and improve nutrient digestion. Therefore, the present review discusses the beneficial aspects of Cr with its effect in different doses and antioxidant combinations to explore and promote its optimum utilization in poultry nutrition and production.

  11. Evaluation of mice infected to Salmonella Spp in Poultry farms of Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hadadian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 290 mice and rats fecal samples from commercial layer and broiler poultry houses were tested for Salmonella sp. presence. All samples were cultured on Selenite F broth media and passaged on SS agar and McConkey agar. The suspected colonies were cultured on Urea and TSI agars to be confirmed as Salmonella sp.. Finally, Salmonella isolates were identified genetically and biochemically by PCR and conventional methods, respectively. Serogrouping and Antibiotic resistance profiling were done for further differentiation of isolates. Twenty eight (9.65% Salmonellas were isolated from (out of 290 samples. Eight (28.6%, seven (25%, four (14.3%, and two (7.2% isolates were located in serogroups C, D, B and E, respectively. Seven isolates (25% belonged to Arizona subspecies and just one non-motile serogroup D Salmonella was isolated. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, but they were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and neomycin in decreasing order. In addition to former surveys, this study confirmed the role of mice and rats in spreading of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. In conclusion it is essential to take appropriate measurements (measures for pest management in poultry houses to approach the prevention of some bacterial infection like  (such as salmonellosis.

  12. Global restriction of using antibiotic growth promoters and alternative strategies in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Hossan Md; Huque, Khan Shahidul; Kamaruddin, Kazi M; Beg, M D Anwarul Haque

    2018-03-01

    A growing global concern of antibiotic use in poultry diets due to its potential adverse effects on birds and human health, food safety and the environment has led to a complete ban or restricted use in some countries, and, at the same time, expanding options for the use of alternative feed additives. Multiple, rather than a single additive may replace antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry. Blending of feeding additives and hygienic farm management, vaccination and biosecurity may help achieve good intestinal health, stabilise enteric ecosystems and result in sustainable and cost effective production performance of birds. Moreover, controlling unsolicited ingredients at the production level must have the support of different markets responsible for the supply of safe and quality poultry products for consumers. This requires the further increase and diversification of value added poultry products and the expansion of their markets through strategic planning and gradual limitation of live bird markets. More research is warranted in order to explore suitable, reliable and cost effective alternatives to AGPs for commercial use, and strategic poultry value chain development.

  13. Housing markets and housing policies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Piyush; Rao, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Issues of housing in India are synonymous with ignorance of housing in active government involvement at the policy and program formulation levels. They are also due to the problems that unplanned urbanization, income disparity, poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment brought. These issues extenuated the housing problem, causing a housing shortage of 51 million in 2011. Though India has a long history of establishing policies, programs, and institutions to cater to housing, without allocating ad...

  14. Risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in poultry husbandry by citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, P M; Ekkel, E D; Kemp, B; Stassen, E N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Differences in risk perceptions of public health and food safety hazards in various poultry husbandry systems by various stakeholder groups, may affect the acceptability of those husbandry systems. Therefore, the objective was to gain insight into risk perceptions of citizens, poultry farmers, and poultry veterinarians regarding food safety and public health hazards in poultry husbandry systems, and into factors explaining these risk perceptions. We surveyed risk perceptions of Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat, avian influenza introduction in laying hens, and altered dioxin levels in eggs for the most commonly used broiler and laying hen husbandry systems in Dutch citizens (n = 2,259), poultry farmers (n = 100), and poultry veterinarians (n = 41). Citizens perceived the risks of the three hazards in the indoor systems higher and in the outdoor systems lower than did the professionals. Citizens reported higher concerns regarding aspects reflecting underlying psychological factors of risk perception compared to professionals. Professionals indicated a relatively low level of personal control, which might imply risk denial. Of the socio-demographic characteristics, gender and childhood residence were associated with risk perceptions. The influence of other factors of risks perception are discussed. It is suggested that risk perceptions of all stakeholder groups are influenced by affect, stigma, and underlying values. To adapt current or new husbandry systems that can count on societal support, views of key stakeholders and multiple aspects such as animal welfare, public health, food safety, and underlying values should be considered integrally. When trade-offs, such as between animal welfare and public health have to be made, insight into underlying values might help to find consensus among stakeholders. PMID:29161444

  15. Analysis of risk factors from salmonella infections and determination of critical control points in poultry industry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.

  16. Case study of low-temperature heating in an existing single-family house-A test of methods for simulation of heating system temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    and the calculated indoor temperatures and radiator return temperatures were compared to temperatures measured in the case house. The results showed that the detail of the simulation model has a large influence on the results obtained. The estimated return temperatures from the radiators varied by up to 16 degrees C...... depending on the assumptions made in the simulation model. The results indicated that a detailed building simulation model can provide a good estimate of the actual heating system operation, provided that actual radiators and realistic indoor temperatures are taken into account in the model. (C) 2016......Low-temperature heating provides an efficient way of heating our buildings. To obtain a high efficiency it is important that the heating systems in the buildings are operated with both low supply and return temperatures. This study set out to investigate how typical assumptions in the modelling...

  17. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...... on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C...

  18. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq

    2018-07-15

    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Coccidiostats in unmedicated feedingstuffs for poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radičević, T.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Nikolić, D.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Spirić, D.

    2017-09-01

    Coccidiostats are compounds that are widely used as feed additives to prevent and treat coccidiosis, a contagious disease affecting mainly poultry, and which is associated with warm and humid conditions, as can be found on poultry farms. In Serbia and in the EU, specific coccidiostats are authorized as poultry feed additives. A wide range of these products is available for prevention (as additives) and treatment of coccidiosis (as veterinary medicinal products). The aim of this study is to present findings of residues of coccidiostats in unmedicated feed for chickens for fattening and laying hens as possible causes for coccidiostat residues in liver and eggs. The reasons for these compounds occurring in animal tissues and primary products of animal origin could be an inappropriate withdrawal period after the last administration of medicated feed or cross-contamination of unmedicated feed during the production on the same production line as medicated feedingstuffs, because of inadequate cleaning procedures and/or hygiene practices.

  20. Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of antibiotics and compliance with standard practices in Poultry Health ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Antibiotics use among poultry farmers was motivated by factors such as growth promotion ( x̄ = 2.38), ...

  1. Farmers' reason for going into poultry production in Plateau state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... This study aimed at investigating the effect of the reasons for going into poultry ... Hence poultry farmers need services of veterinary doctors, subsidies on feeds and drugs, and

  2. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... streptomycin and tylosin among poultry farms in. Ekiti State, Nigeria. ... in poultry production due to its possibility of forming residue in ... withdrawal periods are not observed before selling ... Manipulating pig production IX.

  3. The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat in the Kumasi ... reduced its freshness and taste and made it less healthy for consumption. ... the government should subsidize the cost of inputs for the local poultry industry, ...

  4. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  5. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  6. Alternative agriculture as a substitute for environmental remediation. Production of poultry in radiologically contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, I.L.; Kennamer, R.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Exploiting the physiological and ecological characteristics of domesticated species has seldom been considered as a means of returning radiologically contaminated areas to safe agricultural production. However, the proper choice of cultivated and domesticated species, together with appropriate husbandry practices, may allow safe production of foods, fibre and energy. As an example, factors that could permit safe production of food products for human consumption from poultry raised in contaminated areas are considered. These factors include radionuclide transfer from the environment into poultry and methods for reducing radionuclide uptake and/or decontaminating chickens to yield acceptable food products. Studies of growth and feed intake rates of chickens under intensive management and free-ranging husbandries, 137 Cs uptake by chickens exposed to contaminated sediments, potential effects of husbandry on 137 Cs concentrations and 137 Cs elimination by chickens after removal of contaminated feed are described. Data from these and other studies are combined in simulation models of the 13 '7Cs kinetics of chickens. Chicken product 137 Cs concentrations ([ 137 Cs]s) decrease with increases in body mass, apparently as a result of decreasing mass specific intake rates. Husbandries that increase contaminant intake (e.g. free-ranging rearing conditions versus brooder house production) or access to contaminated soils (e.g. scattering feed directly onto contaminated solid versus the use of feeders) increase total body [ 137 Cs]s. However, model simulations indicate that it is possible to produce safe poultry products (especially eggs) at all but unrealistically high feed contamination levels. Even when dietary 137 Cs levels produce [ 137 Cs]s in poultry products that exceed acceptable limits, the high metabolism of poultry leads to a rapid decrease in [ 137 Cs]s once the chickens are placed on uncontaminated rations. This permits the use of contaminated feed or forage for

  7. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Swiatkiewicz, S; Dlugosz, Jakub; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein wit...

  8. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  9. Sustainable Plus-energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    This study is an outcome of Elforsk, project number 344-060, Bæredygtige Energi-Plus huse (Sustainable plus-energy houses). The focus of this report is to document the approach and the results of different analyses concerning a plus-energy, single family house. The house was designed...... for an international student competition, Solar Decathlon Europe 2012 and after the competition it was used as a full-scale experimental facility for one year. During this period, different heating and cooling strategies were tested and the performance of the house regarding the thermal indoor environment and energy...... was monitored. This report is structured as follows. Chapter 1 presents the project and briefly explains the different phases of the project. The details of the house’s construction and its HVAC system are explained in Chapter 2, along with the energy efficiency measures and innovations. Chapter 3 introduces...

  10. Characterization of broiler poultry production system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuza, Francis; Manishimwe, Rosine; Mahoro, Janvier; Simbankabo, Thomas; Nishimwe, Kizito

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48.6 %) and urban (37.8 %) areas and hired male youth (62.2 %) mainly aged 19-35 years. The majority of respondents (68 %) kept less than 500 birds per batch. Recordkeeping was well practiced (91.9 %) and (62.6 %) had permanent poultry houses and all farmers used deep litter system. Purchased feedstuffs were reportedly (92 %) mixed at farm level as the main feed resource. Maize bran was reported (97.06 %) the main, basal feedstuff. The mortality rates of chick and growers were 12.3 and 9.4 %, respectively. The slaughter age was reportedly 60 days with an average dressing percentage of 75.67 %. The main challenges reported were scarcity and unaffordability of quality feeds (59.5 %), lack of market access (45 %) and lack of credit (21 %). The farmers had various views on improving broiler production in Rwanda ranging from establishing feed processing industries 62.2 %, improving marketing facilities 35.1 %, increasing availability of day-old chick and access credit 27 %, to intensification of farmer training 16.2 %.

  11. 77 FR 24873 - Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... require that all establishments that slaughter poultry have written programs to address sanitary dressing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 381 and 500 [Docket No. FSIS-2011-0012] RIN 0583-AD32 Modernization of Poultry... the proposed rulemaking ``Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection'' and responding to questions...

  12. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted from March 2011 to July 2011 on antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun State. Using a well-structured questionnaire, a total of 58 poultry farms were randomly surveyed from the four geo-political zones of Ogun State. All the 58 (100%) poultry farms used one or more antibiotics.

  13. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  14. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and...

  15. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  16. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds...

  17. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  18. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  19. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  20. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition...

  1. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  2. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide.

  3. Economics of poultry manure utilization in land quality improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid growth of Nigerian's poultry has made it more advantageous in terms of providing the essential raw material for soil fertility enhancement than other livestock. This paper evaluates the benefits of poultry manure use among integrated poultry-maize farmers in Ekiti and Osun States of Nigeria for improved land ...

  4. Climate change and poultry production in Nigeria: Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined perceived effects and adaptation measures employed by poultry farmers against climate change in derived savannah zone of Enugu State. One hundred and twenty randomly selected poultry farmers were used. The respondents were mainly small scale with 6 years of experience in poultry production ...

  5. Training needs of small scale poultry farmers on improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry business is a job opportunity for numerous for earning income and ... needs of the small scale commercial poultry farmers to improve poultry production ... strategies (88%) while only 24.1% of the respondents need training on types of ...

  6. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total carotenoid content was not significantly affected by poultry manure application. The phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Water and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of poultry manure while the bulk density was not ...

  7. Simulation and optimisation of a ground source heat pump with different ground heat exchanger configurations for a single-family residential house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low-temperature h....... For the studied geographical location, passive cooling by bypassing the heat pump and using only the ground heat exchanger can provide acceptable room temperatures.......In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low......-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling system. The present work evaluates the performance in relation to thermal comfort and energy consumption of a GSHP with different GHE concepts. The different configurations are analyzed being part of the energy supply system of a low-energy residential house...

  8. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  9. Application of modern nutrition principles in poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be improved by formulating poultry feeds based on the daily feed intake and .... for phase 1(20- 28 weeks) are shown in Table 4. The sulfur amino acid .... per 100birds per day, they will receive 10070less of all nutrients than is desired. ..... of copper and two levels of nutrient density. Nutrient. Egg. Egg-. Feed density. Copper.

  10. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  11. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  12. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  13. Mycotoxins in poultry feed in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Mutairi, M; Beg, K R; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Ali, L N; Saeed, T

    2006-05-01

    A survey was conducted at a poultry feed production unit in Kuwait for mycotoxin contamination in the samples of yellow maize, soybean meal, wheat bran used as raw material and the poultry feed prepared for broiler starter, broiler finisher, and layer mash. Individual aflatoxins were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column purification. Repeated analysis revealed average aflatoxin concentration in maize at 0.27 ppb (range 0 to 1.69 ppb), soybean meal at 0.20 ppb (range 0 to 1.27 ppb), wheat bran at 0.15 ppb (range 0 to 1.07 ppb), prepared poultry feed for broiler starter at 0.48 ppb (range 0 to 3.26 ppb), broiler finisher at 0.39 ppb (range 0 to 1.05 ppb), and layer mash at 0.21 ppb (range 0 to 1.30 ppb). Other mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone), were detected by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average levels of ochratoxin A ranged from 4.6 to 9.6 ppb, fumonisin from 1.4 to 3.2 ppm, DON from 0.17 to 0.29 ppm, and zearalenone from 46.4 to 67.6 ppb in various commodities and prepared feed samples. The study revealed the coexistence of determined mycotoxins, although their concentrations in general were found to be lower than the permissible levels, wherever defined, for the poultry feed.

  14. Control of poultry coccidiosis: changing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, A K; Maharana, B R

    2011-06-01

    Coccidiosis is the most important protozoan disease affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Control of poultry coccidiosis is presently based on managerial skills and the use of prophylactic coccidiostatic drugs. With the emergence of drug resistant Eimeria strains, emphasis has been laid on development and use of safer vaccines; some of them have been commercialized successfully. The present review deals with the various factors responsible for the development of clinical coccidiosis in poultry as well as an overview of the currently available inducers and boosters of immunity against coccidiosis. There are three groups of vaccines currently available against coccidiosis which can be distinguished on the basis of characteristics of the Eimeria species included in the respective products, viz. vaccines based on live virulent strains, vaccines based on live attenuated strains, and vaccines based on live strains that are relatively tolerant to the ionophore compounds. The latter vaccine combines the early chemotherapeutic effect of ionophores with the late prophylactic effect of vaccination. Although in the near future more varieties of oocyst based live vaccines are expected, identification of selective coccidian-specific immunoprotective molecules is likely to get more attention to facilitate the sustainable control of poultry coccidiosis.

  15. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.

    2015-01-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiologica...

  17. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  18. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  19. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG... Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified...

  20. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare.

  1. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  2. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  3. Risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection among poultry workers, Hong Kong, 1997-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Carolyn Buxton; Lim, Wilina; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Sims, Les; Fukuda, Keiji; Mak, K H; Rowe, Thomas; Thompson, William W; Conn, Laura; Lu, Xiuhua; Cox, Nancy J; Katz, Jacqueline M

    2002-04-15

    In 1997, outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) among poultry coincided with 18 documented human cases of H5N1 illness. Although exposure to live poultry was associated with human illness, no cases were documented among poultry workers (PWs). To evaluate the potential for avian-to-human transmission of H5N1, a cohort study was conducted among 293 Hong Kong government workers (GWs) who participated in a poultry culling operation and among 1525 PWs. Paired serum samples collected from GWs and single serum samples collected from PWs were considered to be anti-H5 antibody positive if they were positive by both microneutralization and Western blot testing. Among GWs, 3% were seropositive, and 1 seroconversion was documented. Among PWs, approximately 10% had anti-H5 antibody. More-intensive poultry exposure, such as butchering and exposure to ill poultry, was associated with having anti-H5 antibody. These findings suggest an increased risk for avian influenza infection from occupational exposure.

  4. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight...

  5. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  6. Housing's impact on wood products sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2017-01-01

    What are the market conditions for woodworkers involved in construction-based sectors and what investments are planned to improve capabilities in the current business environment? For a fifth straight year, construction-based mar­kets continued their growth trends in 2016, as U.S. spending on single family housing, multi-family housing, and nonresidential construction...

  7. Effect of Feeding Schedule on Fractionated Particulate Matter Distribution in Rooster House

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  8. Trends and the effect of management on macronutrients in fractionated particulate matter in rooster house

    Science.gov (United States)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  9. Biofiltration of exhaust air from animal houses: removal efficiencies and practical experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hol, J.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Two wood-chip biofilters (capacity and surface area for biofilter #1: 75.000 m3/hour from poultry manure dryer, 68 m2; biofilter #2: 100,000 m3/hour from fattening pig house, 188 m2; media depth: 25 cm) were monitored during 6 - 10 months. Average ammonia (NH3) and odour removal efficiencies were 42

  10. Experiences from the Design Processes of the First "Comfort Houses" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The "Comfort Houses" is the most ambitious building project in passive houses in Denmark until today. Eight single family houses are built and designed by seven different consortiums. Besides fulfilling the German passive house standard the goal was to build the houses according to Danish tradition...

  11. Family Open House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Family Open House Join us for an afternoon of science fun. The Fermilab Family Open House is a party for children of all ages to learn about the world of physics. The Open House is supported by Open House? Check out our YouTube video to learn more! Explore physics concepts with hands-on

  12. Impact of Poultry Litter Cake, Cleanout, and Bedding following Chemical Amendments on Soil C and N Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter B. Watts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter is a great alternative N source for crop production. However, recent poultry litter management changes, and increased chemical amendment use may impact its N availability. Thus, research was initiated to evaluate the effect that broiler cake and total cleanout litter amended with chemical additives have on C and N mineralization. A 35-day incubation study was carried out on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults soil common to the USA Appalachian Plateau region. Three poultry litter components (broiler cake, total cleanout, and bedding material from a broiler house were evaluated and compared to a soil control. Chemical amendments lime (CaCO3, gypsum (CaSO4, aluminum sulfate (AlSO4, and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4 were added to the poultry litter components to determine their impact on C and N mineralization. Litter component additions increased soil C mineralization in the order of broiler cake > total cleanout > bedding > soil control. Although a greater concentration of organic C was observed in the bedding, broiler cake mineralized the most C, which can be attributed to differences in the C : N ratio between treatments. Chemical amendment in addition to the manured soil also impacted C mineralization, with AlSO4 generally decreasing mineralization. Nitrogen mineralization was also significantly affected by poultry litter component applications. Broiler cake addition increased N availability followed by total cleanout compared to soil control, while the bedding resulted in net N immobilization. Chemical amendments impacted N mineralization primarily in the broiler cake amended soil where all chemical amendments decreased mineralization compared to the no chemical amendment treatment. This short-term study (35-day incubation indicates that N availability to crops may be different depending on the poultry litter component used for fertilization and chemical amendment use which could

  13. Effect of Newcastle Disease Control and Improved Management on the Performance of Indigenous Poultry in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondwasy, H.O.; Okitoi, L.O.; Obali, M.P.; Mukisira, E.A.; Jong, R.

    1999-01-01

    indigenous poultry farming is an important enterprise for small-scale farmers in the mandate areas of the Regional Research Centre (RRC) Kakamega, A topical Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) study involving 407 farmers identified the main constraints to rural poultry production in the area as Newcastle disease (NCD), predation, and inadequate feeding or supplementation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of vaccination against Newcastle disease (NCD), daytime housing for chicks and feed supplementation on indigenous poultry production. The trial was implemented in four RRC clusters, each representing a specific agro-ecological zone.The clusters included Sabatia (UM 1 ), Butula (LM 1 ) Malava (LM 2 ), and Uranga (LM 3 ). Each cluster comprised of 22 to 35 experimental farmers in four groups assigned to the various treatments thus: Group 1 vaccination, 2. vaccination and supplementation, 3. vaccination, supplementation and daytime housing of chicks and 4. control group or farmer's practice. Since farmers adopted treatments according to their preference, the composition of each group varied as the experiment progressed. Birds were vaccinated after every three months to prevent NCD attacks,' To' avoid predation, the chicks were housed in movable or permanent structures where supplements such as brewers waste, blood and rumen contents from slaughterhouses were provided. From January 1997, data was collected weekly from individual households by frontline extension staff. Monthly monitoring and data verification on flock composition and dynamics, eggs production and utilisation, feed use and growth rates, was done by researchers and agricultural extensionists. The results demonstrated that Newcastle disease could be controlled by routine vaccination; feed supplementation improved the performance of housed birds in three clusters, but not in Sabatia where scarcity of feed was pronounced. It was further concluded that predation continued to constrain

  14. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2015-09-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiological analysis to establish the incidence of NTS in poultry to evaluate the risk to human health. A total of 1215 samples (including poultry meat, tissues, egg and environmental samples) were collected from 154 commercial layer farms from southern India and screened for NTS. Following identification by cultural and biochemical methods, Salmonella isolates were further characterized by multiplex PCR, allele-specific PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 21/1215 (1.73 %) samples tested positive for NTS. We found 12/392 (3.06 %) of tissue samples, 7/460 (1.52 %) of poultry products, and 2/363 (0.55 %) of environmental samples tested positive for NTS. All the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline, which is routinely used as poultry feed additive. The multiplex PCR results allowed 16/21 isolates to be classified as S. Typhimurium, and five isolates as S. Enteritidis. Of the five S. Enteritidis isolates, four were identified as group D Salmonella by allele-specific PCR. All of the isolates produced different banding patterns in ERIC PCR. Of the thirteen macro restriction profiles (MRPs) obtained by PFGE, MRP 6 was predominant which included 6 (21 %) isolates. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed higher incidence of contamination of NTS Salmonella in poultry tissue and animal protein sources used for poultry. The results of the study warrants further investigation

  16. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  17. Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalova, Vesela I; Kim, Jihyuk; Patterson, Paul H; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Woo K

    2016-01-01

    Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed.

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL POULTRY MICROFLORA

    OpenAIRE

    Garda S. A.; S. G. Danilenko; G. S. Litvinov

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics based on normal microflora of the birds using perspective strains become increasingly popular for treatment and prophylaxis of dysbacteriosis in poultry. The purpose of the work is the biotechnological data analysis of the composition and functions of the microflora of different birds’ biotopes. One of biotechnological methods for the study of bacterial flora in the birds is a method of in vivo bacteriological control — analysis of group samples of fresh droppings. To study bir...

  19. Comparative genomics of quinolone‐resistant and susceptible Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin from major poultry producing European countries (GENCAMP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Garcia‐Graells, Cristina; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2018-01-01

    clustered in four main clusters. All trees revealed that the isolates were clustered according to the presence/absence of the gyrA mutations causing fluoroquinolone resistance and ST‐types. The cgMLST trees of only FQ‐R and FQ‐S isolates showed that isolates from the same country of origin were distributed...... into multiple clusters similarly to the trees combining FQ‐R and FQ‐S isolates. The different phylogenetic methods, ranging from single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis to gene‐by‐gene approaches such as rMLST, cgMLST, wgMLST and core genome tree, provided concordant results, but it is not known which...... is the most accurate method for identifying the country of origin of the isolates. Allele frequency analysis of isolates under this study and a selection of previously published C. jejuni genomes in ENA showed association of geographical origin of poultry C. jejuni populations between Romania‐Poland, Italy...

  20. Energetic Analysis of Poultry Processing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Olatayo JEKAYINFA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy audit of three poultry processing plants was conducted in southwestern Nigeria. The plants were grouped into three different categories based on their production capacities. The survey involved all the five easily defined unit operations utilized by the poultry processing industry and the experimental design allowed the energy consumed in each unit operation to be measured. The results of the audit revealed that scalding & defeathering is the most energy intensive unit operation in all the three plant categories, averagely accounting for about 44% of the total energy consumption in the processing plants. Other processing operations consuming energy in the following order are eviscerating (17.5%, slaughtering (17%, washing & chilling (16% and packing (6%. The results of the study clearly indicated that the least mechanized of the plants consumed the highest energy (50.36 MJ followed by the semi-mechanized plant (28.04 MJ and the most mechanized plant (17.83 MJ. The energy audits have provided baseline information needed for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion in the poultry processing industries in the study area.

  1. Innova House - Ottawa`s advanced house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    A pilot program was developed to provide the housing industry with a means to field test innovative technologies, products and building systems, and to evaluate their overall performance. Under Canada`s Advanced House Program, ten demonstration houses were designed, built and monitored. Ottawa`s Innova House, was one of the ten houses built for this program. The innovative energy saving features of the house included (1) air distribution with small diameter ducts and an electronically commutated motor, a 2.6 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system, (3) an energy recovery ventilator (ERV) with free-cooling mode, (4) a 94 per cent efficient integrated gas heating and hot water system, (5) airtight drywall construction, (6) CFC-free exterior insulation, (7) a natural-gas-engine heat pump for air conditioning, (8) a prototype sealed combustion gas range and clothes dryer, and (9) a manifold plumbing system to conserve water. It was designed to consume one half of the energy consumed in an R-2000 home and one third of the energy of a conventional house. Several of the mechanical elements did not perform at expected levels, (lower than expected efficiencies from the heating and cooling systems and a malfunctioning ERV), nevertheless, overall performance of the house was still very close to the targets. The construction and operation of the house was described. tabs., figs.

  2. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  3. Survey of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekue, F.N.; Pone, K.D.; Mafeni, M.J.; Nfi, A.N.; Njoya, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area in Cameroon was conducted using a baseline survey covering the rainy and dry seasons from December, 1999-June, 2000. This survey focused mainly on the characterization of the flock size and structure, housing system, feeding, marketing of chickens, health, flock breeding and ownership patterns. The results showed that among poultry species surveyed, chickens predominated in all households, followed by ducks (15.4%) and pigeons (7.7%). A cock had access to about 2-3 hens and one hen had a brood of 1-3 chicks at a time with an overall higher hen/cock and chicks/hen ratio for the dry season. Production and reproduction performance results showed that hens laid about 3 clutches of 12 eggs per year and this was similar for both seasons. The most predominant disease symptoms in descending order of importance included diarrhoea, coughing and ectoparasitism. Although the overall disease occurrence rate was high in growers, chicks suffered from many unclassified ailments. From the survey results, ethno-veterinary therapy featured as the most frequent method of treating diseases in rural poultry in the Bamenda area. With regard to flock ownership and management patterns, the survey results showed that women owned birds in the majority of the cases (38.5%) followed by men (23.1%) and children (15.3%). Although all gender categories were involved in village chicken management, the greatest participation came from women, followed by men, children and the family as a whole. Construction of shelters was mainly a job for the men with assistance from the children. Women were mostly involved in providing water to the birds, preparing supplementation rations and selling eggs. Finally, with regard to household decision making on issues related to poultry management, men played the leading role (66.7%), followed by women (28.4%) and then children (3.7%). (author)

  4. Tenacity of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in different types of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A; Stallknecht, D; Ritz, C; García, M

    2012-08-01

    To determine the risk of infection associated with exposure to low-pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus-contaminated poultry litter, the tenacity of low pathogenic A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2), A/Mallard/MN/355779/00(H5N2), and A/turkey/Ohio/313053/04(H3N2) was evaluated. Viral stocks were incubated with poultry litter from commercial flocks at 25°C. Three types of poultry litter, wood shavings, shavings plus gypsum, and shavings plus peanut hulls, from commercial broiler flocks were used. The 3 low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses retained infectivity for one day in wood shavings and shavings plus peanut hulls litter types, whereas in wood shavings plus gypsum, litter viruses remained infective for up to 3 d. In contrast to the survivability in litter, all the viruses maintained infectivity in water for 4 d at titers of log(10)4.5. The infectivity of A/Ck/CA/431/00(H6N2) shed by experimentally infected layers, broilers, and turkeys was retained for one day, independently of the type of litter. In commercial production where a high density of birds are housed, the viral load shed by an infected flock will be significantly higher than the viral load shed 3 d postinfection obtained under the experimental conditions used in this study. Therefore proper management and disposal of poultry by products, such as windrow composting of litter and the composting of carcasses during an AI outbreak should be implemented.

  5. Sustainable coccidiosis control in poultry production: the role of live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Cherry, T E; Danforth, H D; Richards, G; Shirley, M W; Williams, R B

    2002-05-01

    The development of new methods of administering coccidiosis vaccines has facilitated their use in the hatchery and thereby improved prospects for the economic vaccination of broilers. The acquisition of protective immunity to Eimeria species is boosted by further exposure to infection after vaccination. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of non-attenuated and attenuated vaccines are considered and the key role that oocyst production plays in establishing and maintaining uniform immunity in a flock of chickens is discussed. In addition to immunisation, a possible advantage to the application of certain vaccines is that their use could repopulate poultry houses with drug-sensitive organisms. Theoretical rotation programmes in which the use of drugs is alternated with that of vaccines are described. Variability of the cross-protective immune response between strains of the same species should be considered during vaccine development and subsequent use. The significance of less common species of Eimeria, not included in all vaccines, also needs to be assessed. An important consideration is the occurrence of pathogens other than Eimeria (such as the bacterium Clostridium) in flocks given coccidiosis vaccines and the methods by which they might be controlled. More research is required into the relationship between bacterial and viral infections of poultry and coccidiosis vaccination. Vaccines need to be developed that are simple to apply and cost effective for use in areas of the world where small-scale poultry production is commonplace. In the near future it is likely that more live vaccines based upon oocysts derived from attenuated strains of Eimeria will be developed but in the longer term vaccines will be based on the selective presentation to the host of specific molecules that can induce protective immunity. This achievement will require significant investment from the private and public sectors, and, if successful, will facilitate the sustainable

  6. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  7. Essays on Housing Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Claes

    In Denmark and in many countries around the world, housing markets are of considerable importance for households and policy-makers alike. As the boom and bust in the US and Danish housing market so aptly demonstrated, disruptions in the housing market potentially have wide-ranging consequences...... for individual households and for the aggregate economy. Housing is important because we all have to live somewhere, but also because it serves as a considerable source of both wealth and debt. As such, housing market policy can not only create vast benefits for many, but can also have substantial negative...... impacts for all, and should therefore be a topic of major interest for economists and policy makers alike. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays on Housing Markets”, analyzes the Danish housing market during the 2000s, with a focus on how policy changes affected house prices and how changes in house prices...

  8. The bishops and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellabarger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    According to Catholic social teaching, housing is not a commodity but a human right. To ensure that all people--especially low-income elderly and other vulnerable populations--have access to affordable housing, the church has established a variety of programs, services, and advocacy efforts. Much of this work is based on key concepts: preserving existing housing stock, creating new programs to provide more options for the underserved, empowering residents and communities to deal with housing issues, establishing partnerships to make organizations' efforts more successful, making housing affordable, and ending discrimination in housing. Although church ministries, community groups, the private sector, and other players must work together to find solutions to the housing crisis, federal leadership is essential. Especially with the housing affordability gap growing and the U.S. population aging, the federal government must provide the resources, leadership, and direction for effective housing solutions.

  9. Characteristics and parameters of family poultry production in Africa. Results of a FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to promote the use of nuclear techniques for improving disease diagnosis and monitoring disease control programmes in order to optimise animal production in developing countries. An applied research programme was initiated in 1998 with funding from the Regular Budget to promote farmyard poultry production in Africa by developing practical vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease and Gumboro disease in various countries in Africa and monitoring immunity using an ELISA technique. Following initial discussions with experts from various universities and FAO it became clear that in order to improve farmyard poultry production effectively it was essential to initiate a holistic approach. Consequently, it was decided to first collect production data of the existing situation in a standardised fashion, subsequently analyse the production constraints and finally initiate interventions not only by vaccinating poultry but also by introducing improvements in housing, feeding and commercialisation. At the same time a practical and robust ELISA test for detecting antibodies against Newcastle disease was developed at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The results of the standardised survey to collect production data of the current situation are reported in the present publication together with an analysis of production constraints, a number of review articles on family poultry production in Africa and a comparative analysis of the results from the various countries

  10. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Pathak; B.G. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  11. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Kopeć; Krzysztof Gondek; Kalina Orłowska; Zdzisław Kulpa

    2014-01-01

    Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum...

  12. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen......Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  13. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  14. Active house concept versus passive House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    The passive house concept is the present trend in energy efficient sustainable dwellings. Within the passive house concept every effort is made to minimize the energy use. Substantial savings can be achieved by passive energy systems, especially natural ventilation, summer shading and winter solar

  15. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date. PMID:20111681

  16. The role of probiotics in the poultry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutful Kabir, S M

    2009-08-12

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer's protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date.

  17. Estimate of rational use of electricity in production systems of poultry chickens with different types of air conditioning and intensity; Producao de frangos de corte com diferentes tipos de climatizacao e intensidade luminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Leda G.F.; Moura, Daniella J.; Carvalho, Thayla M.R.; Lima, Karla A.O.

    2010-07-01

    With the advancement in the broiler production has become necessary to use larger poultry houses and automated, such as the Dark House. It is necessary to adjust the electrical system of these companies to contribute to the improvement and quality of electric power. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of production systems: Dark House and Conventional, verify means to optimize them. The study was conducted in commercial poultry houses located in the region of Capivari-SP being a conventional production system and the other with negative tunnel (Dark House). Two Sagas 4500 were installed in each poultry house and record consumption (kWh) Demand (kW) and Power Factor in both production systems. Was calculated indicators of electricity, which are: Load Factor and Specific Consumption. It was found that the results could be optimized by implementing a program of preventive maintenance and repair of Power Factor. Was found to be necessary for implementation of technical efficiency in production systems aimed at optimizing the use of electricity even the system Dark House showing feasibility in use due to the higher value obtained in the same production period. (author)

  18. Radon levels in the 1988 Swedish housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Mellander, H.; Mjoenes, L.

    1993-01-01

    Radon levels have been measured in about 1300 randomly selected Swedish dwellings as part of a nation-wide energy and indoor climate study, ELIB. The measurements were performed in the heating season 1991-92 with alpha track detectors using an integration time of three months. In single-family houses the weighted mean was 141 Bq/m 3 (78 Bq/m 3 geometric) for the living area; for multi-family houses the corresponding values were 75 and 40 Bq/m 3 . More than 5% of the single-family houses and 1% of the dwellings in multi-family houses had levels above the action level for existing houses - 400 Bq/m 3 . Since 1981 Swedish building regulations have included limits on radon in new houses. The investigation shows that radon levels in houses built after 1981 are significantly lower than those in houses built before 1981. (orig.). (6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  19. House owners’ experience and satisfaction with Danish low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Kragh, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify experience and satisfaction with new Danish detached low-energy single-family houses. A questionnaire survey was carried out in the autumn of 2013 among owners of newly built energy class 2015 houses. It included i.a. questions on their overall satisfacti...

  20. Location, location, location: Extracting location value from house prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Jens; Schulz, Rainer; Wersing, Martin; Werwatz, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The price for a single-family house depends both on the characteristics of the building and on its location. We propose a novel semiparametric method to extract location values from house prices. After splitting house prices into building and land components, location values are estimated with adaptive weight smoothing. The adaptive estimator requires neither strong smoothness assumptions nor local symmetry. We apply the method to house transactions from Berlin, Germany. The estimated surface...

  1. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  2. Allegheny County Older Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Older housing can impact the quality of the occupant's health in a number of ways, including lead exposure, housing quality, and factors that may exacerbate...

  3. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  4. Biological conversion of poultry and animal waste to a feedstuff for poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Boushy, A.R.; Klaassen, G.J.; Ketelaars, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    Poultry and animal waste can be converted into a high protein feed-stuff by biological digestion and degradation, oxidation or by the action of micro-organisms and algae. These processes might help to solve the accummulating problem of disposal of poultry and animal waste, which in some cases are not suitable as soil fertilizers and cause pollution problems. International co-operation between advanced industrialized countries and developing areas is not only desirable but essential to overcome malnutrition by increasing the animal protein supply in the form of meat and eggs. Only a limited number of published data are available but nevertheless five types of treated waste are considered useful under certain conditions as feedstuffs for poultry: 1. housefly pupae meal - caged layer manure degraded by housefly larvae; 2. earthworm meal - another biodegradation of caged layer manure; 3. liquor and residue from a ditch used for oxidizing swine liquid manure; 4. aerobic fermentation of poultry manure; and 5. meals produced from algae grown in ponds of sedimented animal waste and sewage. 46 references.

  5. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  6. 9 CFR 381.194 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased poultry, and parts of carcasses of poultry that died otherwise... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS...

  7. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  8. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods......, and other advantages can be a high possibility of automation and detection of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The strength of rapid methods lies in their ability to screen large numbers of samples, identify the negative ones, allowing resources to be focused on confirming and culturing of presumptive...

  9. Microbiological quality of poultry meat: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Mead

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, including those capable of spoiling the product during chill storage, and certain foodborne pathogens. Human illness may follow from handling of raw meat, undercooking or mishandling of the cooked product. While Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. remain the organisms of greatest global concern in this respect, others present include the more recently reported Arcobacter and Helicobacter spp. and, occasionally, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Also considered here is the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance among poultry-associated pathogens. Because of the need for a systematic and universally applicable approach to food safety control, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP concept is increasingly being introduced into the Poultry Industry, and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA is being applied to microbial hazards. Among a number of completed and on-going studies on QRA are those undertaken by FAO/WHO on Salmonella and Campylobacter in broilers. In the case of Campylobacter, however, any QRA must assume at present that all strains have the same pathogenic potential for humans and comparable survival capabilities, even though this is unlikely to be the case. Implementation of the HACCP system in poultry processing plants addresses zoonotic agents that are not detectable by conventional meat inspection procedures and can help to control contamination of carcasses with spoilage organisms. The system brings obvious benefits in optimising plant hygiene, ensuring compliance with legislation and providing evidence of 'due diligence' on the part of the processor. It is now being applied globally in two different situations: in one, such as that occurring in the USA, carcass contamination is clearly reduced as carcasses pass through the process and are finally chilled in super-chlorinated water. There is also the option to use a chemical-rinse treatment for further

  10. O Comportamento das Aves Poultry Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Campos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre o comportamento das aves, principalmente as galinhas, datam de 1912, quando o gênero Gallus passou a ser estudado com mais intensidade na área da Genética. Tais estudos eram simplesmente filosóficos até o início da década de 80, quando uma nova era da produção industrial avícola surgiu, objetivando um maior volume de produção econômica em todas as áreas de exploração. Esse objetivo reativou de maneira científica os estudos de comportamento das aves face à tecnologia de produção empregada nos sistemas de exploração, tornando-os mais acentuados já na década de 90, culminando com um simpósio internacional realizado nos Estados Unidos onde foram traçados os objetivos ou linhas de pesquisas na exploração avícola. O intuito era evitar problemas com os movimentos ambientalistas, traçando novos rumos para uma produção eficiente sem interferir no comportamento das aves já no início do novo milênio. Esta revisão, tem como objetivo principal uma análise científica e filosófica sobre o comportamento das aves em diversos métodos de exploração.Studies on poultry behavior initiated in 1972, at that time, fowls from Gallus domesticus species were the most important animal for the initial studies of Genetic. Since then, just the philosophical concepts where involved in those studies. However, at the beginning of 80 decade, these studies were intensified taking into account technological approaches for an economical industrial poultry production. Meanwhile, the reactions from activists involved in the behavior of the animal subjected to production became more strong at the beginning of 90's as well as those studies on chicken behavior. Finally, in 1998, an international symposium, promoted by chicken behavior scientists were held in the United States, in order to establish new methods of exploitation of poultry without interfering in its normal behavior, at the beginning of new millenium. The main

  11. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... as social initiatives in the existing stock....

  12. Smart Solar Housing Renovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.; Bruijn, de D.M.P.; Vos, S.J.H.; Weijers, K.A.M.; Straver, M.C.W.; Scartezzini, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    After World War II, the demand for houses in the Netherlands was enormous. Large housing construction programs were established in the fifties, sixties and seventies. Nowadays, these houses are facing some societal, economic and technological problems. On the other hand, many of the occupants are

  13. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  14. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  15. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Housing and Health: The relationship between housing ... The authors in chapter one, deal extensively with historical context of housing and health chronologically ... Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action.

  16. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  17. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  18. Trends in microbial control techniques for poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    Fresh poultry meat and poultry products are highly perishable foods and high potential sources of human infection due to the presence of several foodborne pathogens. Focusing on the microbial control of poultry products, the food industry generally implements numerous preventive measures based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) food safety management system certification together with technological steps, such as refrigeration coupled to modified atmosphere packaging that are able to control identified potential microbial hazards during food processing. However, in recent years, to meet the demand of consumers for minimally processed, high-quality, and additive-free foods, technologies are emerging associated with nonthermal microbial inactivation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, and natural alternatives, such as biopreservation or the incorporation of natural preservatives in packaging materials. These technologies are discussed throughout this article, emphasizing their pros and cons regarding the control of poultry microbiota and their effects on poultry sensory properties. The discussion for each of the preservation techniques mentioned will be provided with as much detail as the data and studies provided in the literature for poultry meat and products allow. These new approaches, on their own, have proved to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms in poultry meat. However, since some of these emergent technologies still do not have full consumer's acceptability and, taking into consideration the hurdle technology concept for poultry processing, it is suggested that they will be used as combined treatments or, more frequently, in combination with modified atmosphere packaging.

  19. Economic efficiency among small scale poultry farmers in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... household size and extension, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the small scale poultry farmers. Keywords: economic efficiency, small scale poultry farmers, stochastic frontier production model. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  20. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  1. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential Greenhouse Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal matter on potential greenhouse gas emission and its field application. Poultry litters were randomly assigned to four treatments viz; salt solution, alum, air exclusion and the control (untreated). Alum treated faeces had higher (p<0.05) percentage nitrogen ...

  2. A survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a survey of major constraints limiting commercial poultry production in Gombe metropolis, 2,121 poultry cases were presented at the Gombe State Veterinary Clinic between January 1995 and December 2004. Out of the total number of cases presented, Newcastle disease (ND) accounted for 14.66%, chronic respiratory ...

  3. 75 FR 57200 - National Poultry Improvement Plan and Auxiliary Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... samples from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird flocks... required only for egg- type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition poultry, and game bird.... Avian Influenza Clean program of the Plan in Sec. 145.23(h); Meat-type breeding chickens from a flock...

  4. Effects of Climate Change on Poultry Production in Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the effects of climate change on poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. Eighty three (83) poultry farmers were interviewed to elicit relevant information in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that majority ...

  5. Poultry-based poverty alleviation projects in Ehlanzeni District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High price of poultry feeds force PAPs to stock fewer chickens was the major production constraint followed by diseases, in particular New Castle and Bronchitis are killing chickens and water supply is so erratic and unreliable that it affects effective running of poultry-based PAPs. It was concluded that despite the wide range ...

  6. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  7. The Challenges and Prospects of the Poultry Industry in Dormaa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The poultry industry is perceived to be a major contributor to Ghana's development through employment creation and the enhancement of nutrition and food security. In spite of these contributions, the poultry industry is entangled with a number of problems that necessitate redress. The purpose of the study was to determine ...

  8. Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-parametric analysis of production efficiency of poultry egg farmers in Delta ... analysis of factors affecting the output of poultry farmers showed that stock ... should be put in place for farmers to learn the best farm practices carried out on the ...

  9. Effect of Retention Time on Biogas Production from Poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on different retention times in the anaerobic fermentation of slurry from poultry droppings and cassava peels. The system adopted in this work was batch-type. Daily gas production fell slightly from 130 to 32 litres as retention time was increased from 10 to 40 days for poultry droppings. For cassava ...

  10. Yield analysis at a poultry processing plant in Harare, Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to establish the yield of parts or organs of chickens brought for slaughter at a poultry processing plant in Harare. Results of the study will furnish management and other poultry farmers with information that will enable them to identify yield losses and sustainable ways of minimizing resultant ...

  11. Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 juin 2016 ... Farmers have also formed 18 marketing groups (716 men and 1,007 women) to negotiate better prices. For example, farmers obtained up to 75% more than the average price for bulk poultry purchases. Read the story of change: Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya (PDF, 423 KB).

  12. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  13. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    The research employed a mixed method approach by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data which were analysed using descriptive analysis in SPSS. The results are ... critical examination of mass housing design in. Nigeria will show ...

  14. [Microbiological studies in poultry meat production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, G

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  15. (Microbiological studies in poultry meat production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monov, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  16. Biofilms associated with poultry processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D; Geornaras, I; von Holy, A

    1996-01-01

    Aerobic and Gram-negative bacteria were enumerated on non-metallic surfaces and stainless steel test pieces attached to equipment surfaces by swabbing and a mechanical dislodging procedure, respectively, in a South African grade B poultry processing plant. Changes in bacterial numbers were also monitored over time on metal test pieces. The highest bacterial counts were obtained from non-metallic surfaces such as rubber fingered pluckers and plastic defeathering curtains which exceeded the highest counts found on the metal surfaces by at least 1 log CFU cm-2. Gram-negative bacterial counts on all non-metallic surface types were at least 2 log CFU cm-2 lower than corresponding aerobic plate counts. On metal surfaces, the highest microbial numbers were obtained after 14 days exposure, with aerobic plate counts ranging from 3.57 log CFU cm-2 to 5.13 log CFU cm-2, and Gram-negative counts from 0.70 log CFU cm-2 to 3.31 log CFU cm-2. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of bacterial cells on non-metallic and metallic surfaces associated with poultry processing. Rubber 'fingers', plastic curtains, conveyor belt material and stainless steel test surfaces placed on the scald tank overflow and several chutes revealed extensive and often confluent bacterial biofilms. Extracellular polymeric substances, but few bacterial cells were visible on test pieces placed on evisceration equipment, spinchiller blades and the spinchiller outlet.

  17. Biofiltration of exhaust air from animal houses: Evaluation of removal efficiencies and practical experiences with biobeds at three field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, Roland W.; Hol, Annemieke

    2017-01-01

    Three wood-chip based biofilters (‘biobeds’) with media depth of 0.25 m were monitored during 6–12 months (capacity and surface area for biofilter #1: 75,000 m3 h−1 from poultry manure dryer, 68 m2; biofilter #2: 100,000 m3 h−1 from pig house, 188 m2; biofilter #3: 300,000 m3 h−1 from pig house, 440

  18. Structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Salkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to carry out a marketing research of the state and structure of the poultry meat market in Ukraine; to identify the factors that hold back and stimulate the development of the poultry market and potential opportunities for growth. The competitive advantages of producers are determined and the main trends in the poultry meat market are characterized. The balance of supply and demand for meat and meat products in Ukraine has been studied. The Herfindahl-Hirschman index was used to determine the level of competition in the chicken meat market, which showed the disadvantages of competition in the market. The market is monopolistic, which poses a threat to the development of competition. The constraining factors of poultry meat market development are determined. Based on the conducted research, potential opportunities for the development of the industry and the competitiveness of the Ukrainian poultry meat producer in the external and internal market are identified.

  19. PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY BALANCE OF POULTRY MEAT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Grgić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an important protein source in the human consumption. The main factors that have a positive effect on the development of the poultry industry are short production cycle, relatively low cost and the lack of religious restrictions on consumption. Chicken meat has the biggest share in the structure of poultry meat. The paper objective was to calculate the level of self-sufficiency degree in poultry meat in Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012 and the degree of self-sufficiency in 2016 based on the results obtained. The method of balancing was used for calculation of self-sufficiency degree. The degree of self-sufficiency in the production of poultry meat in Croatia is higher than in other types of meat being between 80 and 90%. However, further decrease is expected and in 2016 domestic production would meet 81.17% of the domestic needs.

  20. Current status and phenotypic characteristics of Bulgarian poultry genetic resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneva, A.; Gerzilov, V.; Lalev, M.; Lukanov, H.; Mincheva, N.; Oblakova, M.; Petrov, P.; Hristakieva, P.; Dimitrova, I.; Periasamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria. (author)

  1. Airway Obstruction Among Latino Poultry Processing Workers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIRABELLI, MARIA C.; CHATTERJEE, ARJUN B.; MORA, DANA C.; ARCURY, THOMAS A.; BLOCKER, JILL N.; CHEN, HAIYING; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; MARÍN, ANTONIO J.; SCHULZ, MARK R.; QUANDT, SARA A.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities. PMID:24965321

  2. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Maatregelen ter vermindering van fijnstofemissie uit de pluimveehouderij: indicatieve evaluatie van positieve ionisatie van uitgaande ventilatielucht = Measures to reduce fine dust emission from poultry: indicative evaluation of positive ionization of exhaust air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study a positive ionization system (end of pipe technique) is indicatively evaluated for its potential to remove fine dust from exhaust air of poultry houses. From this study it is concluded that the system can be effective and applicable.

  4. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  5. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparango, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have conWrmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy ofin poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and eYcacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this pou...

  6. Financial investments for zero energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepkova, Natalija; Zubka, Domantas; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The climate is constantly changing and is already affecting our future. The construction sector has become energy-intensive and a serious source of pollution. Today, houses use more energy and fossil fuels than ever before. In fact, buildings currently consume more than one-third of all energy......, but single-family houses should also be included in the renovation process and turned into zero energy buildings, which will be the standard in the near future of today’s construction sector. Read about the list of conclusions the investigations of a renovation project of a detached house into a nearzero...

  7. Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mansoori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coccidiosis of domestic fowl, caused by species of the Genus Eimeria, is responsi­ble for important economic losses in poultry production. Because different species and/or strains can vary in pathogenicity and other biological parameters, their precise characteriza­tion is important for epizootiological studies.Methods: Fifty samples from litter, whole intestinal tract and feces were collected from poul­try houses located in different provinces of Iran. One hundred twenty male day-old broi­ler chicks were challenged with three selected isolates. Data on weight gain, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR, food intake, lesion scoring and shedding of oocysts per gram of feces were rec­orded and analyzed by the Duncan's test.Results: In all treatments, the challenged groups had statistically significant lower weight gain than that of unchallenged control group. Isolate three caused the lowest weight gain and food intake and the worst lesion score as well as FCR. Despite originating from close geographi­cal regions for isolates 1 and 2, the difference in biopathologic factors may be either due to different proportion of identified species or the different pathogenicity of the species present in the isolates.Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of considering various species of Eimeria in designing the preventive, control and treatment strategies to prevent coccidiosis in different regions of Iran. Further characterization of each isolate would be the next step to provide a basis for coccidiosis research with well-characterized local isolates.

  8. Effect of in-house chicken litter composting on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions and pathogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhouse composting is a management practice to reduce pathogen in poultry litter. In between flocks, growers windrow the litter inside the broiler houses. This results in high temperatures that can reduce some pathogens in the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of NH3 and...

  9. In-Migration and Housing Choice in Ho Chi Minh City: Toward Sustainable Housing Development in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducksu Seo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation of Vietnam’s Doi Moi policy in 1986, the rate of urbanization has rapidly increased with a great influx of immigrants from rural areas. With such migration becoming a large acceleration factor for urban growth, the shortage of housing has become a critical problem in the cities. The Vietnamese government encouraged self-built housing and public–private partnerships to produce different types of housing stock. There are few available academic studies about housing choice in Vietnam to help understand movement dynamics and to foster sustainable housing development. The purpose of this study is to analyze housing choice and moving determinants in Ho Chi Minh City, and thereby establish recommendations for sustainable housing development in Vietnam. For an empirical study, a citizen questionnaire survey was conducted in HCMC and an in-depth analysis was carried out. The results indicate that the row house type for single-family housing is strongly preferred, but a preference for apartments is also observed for future planning. The factors influencing housing choice and movement are family income, housing ownership, housing typology, and commuting environment. These phenomena suggest that the government should prudently consider affordable housing development in many districts. The results of this study will help to establish policies for sustainable housing development in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

  10. Contact structures in the poultry industry in Great Britain: Exploring transmission routes for a potential avian influenza virus epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder Kieran

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercial poultry industry in United Kingdom (UK is worth an estimated £3.4 billion at retail value, producing over 174 million birds for consumption per year. An epidemic of any poultry disease with high mortality or which is zoonotic, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, would result in the culling of significant numbers of birds, as seen in the Netherlands in 2003 and Italy in 2000. Such an epidemic would cost the UK government millions of pounds in compensation costs, with further economic losses through reduction of international and UK consumption of British poultry. In order to better inform policy advisers and makers on the potential for a large epidemic in GB, we investigate the role that interactions amongst premises within the British commercial poultry industry could play in promoting an AIV epidemic, given an introduction of the virus in a specific part of poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Results Poultry premises using multiple slaughterhouses lead to a large number of premises being potentially connected, with the resultant potential for large and sometimes widespread epidemics. Catching companies can also potentially link a large proportion of the poultry population. Critical to this is the maximum distance traveled by catching companies between premises and whether or not between-species transmission could occur within individual premises. Premises closely linked by proximity may result in connections being formed between different species and or sectors within the industry. Conclusion Even quite well-contained epidemics have the potential for geographically widespread dissemination, potentially resulting in severe logistical problems for epidemic control, and with economic impact on a large part of the country. Premises sending birds to multiple slaughterhouses or housing multiple species may act as a bridge between otherwise separate sectors of the industry, resulting in the potential for large

  11. An evaluation of the presence of pathogens on broilers raised on poultry litter treatment-treated litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M J; Cherry, T E

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the presence of salmonella, campylobacter, and generic Escherichia coli on broilers raised on Poultry Litter Treatment (PLT)-enhanced litter in comparison with those raised on untreated litter. Two Company A farms included three houses on each farm as the treated group and three houses per farm as controls. Two complete growouts were evaluated on each farm. The Company B study included 10 farms with two paired houses per farm, one house as the treated group and one house as the control. One growout was evaluated per farm. The pathogen sampling consisted of litter sampling and whole bird rinses on the farm and in the processing plant. Litter pH, ammonia concentration, total litter bacteria, temperatures, and humidity were also recorded. The study with Company A resulted in lower mean levels of pH, ammonia concentration, total litter bacteria, litter E. coli, and bird rinse counts for salmonella and E. coli in houses treated with PLT. The results for Company B closely resembled those for Company A, but also included campylobacter data, which showed no difference between treated and control groups. The data indicate that PLT may be a beneficial component for on-farm pathogen reduction.

  12. From Council Housing to Social Housing. The successes and misfortunes of Social Housing policies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Terranova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues dealt with are three: the need for medium – and large – scale territorial planning; the quality of housing; the solutions to guarantee secure flows of financing to launch programmes of public residential housing (ERP. A premise of any ERP programme is the planning and construction of a fast rail network to guarantee mass mobility. Once this premise has been satisfied, it is possible to identify agricultural areas to be expropriated for ERP interventions. This programme is characterised by operating above the municipal level, and it requires a structure that has the administrative powers of an agency. As regards the quality of housing, the following equation has to be dispensed with: public residential housing = ugly building characterised by alienation and anomy. Planners from this century have been called on to rise the challenge. To be certain of obtaining finance for ERP programmes, the old road of contributions at source from workers should be pursued as well as the establishment of a single fund that gathers together all the financing foreseen by laws made over the years and not spent, set aside for ERP.

  13. Profile of selected bacterial counts and Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in a poultry slaughter establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W O; Williams, W O; Prucha, J C; Johnston, R; Christensen, W

    1992-01-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service determined populations of bacteria on poultry during processing at a slaughter plant in Puerto Rico in November and December 1987. The plant was selected because of its management's willingness to support important changes in equipment and processing procedures. The plant was representative of modern slaughter facilities. Eight-hundred samples were collected over 20 consecutive 8-hour days of operation from 5 sites in the processing plant. Results indicated that slaughter, dressing, and chilling practices significantly decreased the bacterial contamination on poultry carcasses, as determined by counts of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli. Salmonella was not enumerated; rather, it was determined to be present or absent by culturing almost the entire rinse. The prevalence of Salmonella in the study decreased during evisceration, then increased during immersion chilling.

  14. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiw, Elżbieta; Rzewuska, Katarzyna; Stoś, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Korsak, Dorota

    2011-06-01

    In 2007 and 2008, a monitoring study was carried out in Poland to examine the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in raw and cooked chicken products available on the retail market. A total of 912 samples were tested: 443 samples of raw chicken meat, 146 samples of giblets, and 323 ready-to-eat poultry products (150 samples of spit-roasted chicken, 56 samples of smoked chicken, and 117 samples of pâté and cold meats). A high level of contamination of raw chicken meat (51.7% of samples) and chicken giblets (47.3% of samples) was detected. However, thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were found in only 1.2% of the ready-to-eat poultry products.

  15. Identification and quantification of aflatoxins and aflatoxicol from poultry feed and their recovery in poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, G; Carvajal, M; Méndez-Ramírez, I; Avila-González, E; Chilpa-Galván, N; Castillo-Urueta, P; Flores, C M

    2010-05-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic fungal secondary metabolites and are known mycotoxins pathological to animals and humans. Poultry litter is frequently used as a food supplement for ruminants, and when poultry feed contains AF, the litter becomes contaminated as well, thus having an effect on livestock health. This study identified and quantified AF (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)) from poultry feed and their recovery, together with their metabolites (AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and aflatoxicol) in litter. An experiment with 25 Hy-Line W-36 hens, in their second production stage, 121 wk old, was carried out. Hens were distributed in 3 groups placed in individual cages and 1 ration of 250 g of feed was given to each hen daily. Nine hens of the control group were fed with clean feed, without AFB(1); the other 2 experimental groups, with 8 hens each, were fed with 2 AFB(1) concentrations: 30 and 500 microg.kg(-1). The feed was replaced and weighed daily throughout a 7-d period to register the amount of feed consumed by the hens. Litter from each hen was collected, weighed, and dried individually. The chemical analysis of 40 g of each one of the 200 feed and 200 litter samples was chemically extracted and concentrated with immunoaffinity columns for total AF. To quantify AF, calibration curves for each AF were done by HPLC. Feed samples of the 3 groups presented significant difference with AFB(2) and AFG(2), whereas in litter samples, there were significant differences for AFG(2) in the 500 microg.kg(-1) group. Poultry litter had traces of AFM(1), AFM(2), AFP(1), and AFL with no significant differences among treatments. Aflatoxin B(1) prevalence in litter samples can cause damages in livestock because this mycotoxin reduces the digestibility of ruminant feed up to 67%.

  16. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  17. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  18. Risk factors for the introduction of high pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus into poultry farms during the epidemic in the Netherlands in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M E; Bouma, A; Ekker, H M; Fonken, A J M; Stegeman, J A; Nielen, M

    2005-06-10

    An epidemic of high pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI) occurred in the Netherlands in 2003. A census survey of 173 infected and 401 uninfected commercial poultry farms was carried out to identify factors associated with the introduction of the HPAI virus into poultry farms. Data on farm size, production characteristics, type of housing, presence of cattle and pigs were gathered by the National Inspection Service for Livestock and Meat from all farms included in this study. For each risk factor (RF) available for analysis, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio was calculated (stratified on farm size and housing type). We found an increased risk of HPAI virus introduction in layer finisher type poultry: OR = 2.05 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.29-3.27). An explanation for this increased risk is the high number of contacts between these farms, especially via cardboard egg trays used for removal of eggs during the epidemic. Our analysis did not indicate significant differences between the infected and uninfected farms with regard to housing type, presence of cattle or pigs. Since layer finisher type farms are assumed to be at higher risk for HPAI virus introduction, more specific control measures might be applied in future outbreaks.

  19. Nutrition in Relation to Diseases and Heat stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Das

    Full Text Available Different diseases conditions and stress factors are responsible for high morbidity and mortality of present day poultry. Nutritional strategy and proper feed formulation with specific dietary regimen can combat this up to a certain extent. The incidence of various infectious diseases, nervous disorders and metabolic disorders can be minimized through proper feed regimen. There is a stiff competition and restrictions in the global market of poultry products which can be addressed with proper management of emerging and important diseases with economic productions and quality poultry products free of elements detrimental to human health. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry and poultry product through dietary manipulations. Heat stress can lead to a reduction in the defense mechanisms of birds or to a relative state of immunosuppression. The health status of the poultry is facing new challenges today which can be suitably addressed by the right scientific and advanced nutritional manoeuvres and make the poultry farming more profitable and presentable in the global market. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000: 429-432

  20. The significance of Campylobacter jejuni infection in poultry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, S M

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter is a significant cause of enterocolitis in consumers of undercooked poultry meat. Campylobacter jejuni is the most significant of the three thermophilic Campylobacter species, and is responsible for intestinal colonization in poultry and food-borne enteritis in humans. Generally, C. jejuni is apathogenic in poultry, although newly hatched chicks and turkeys may develop a transient diarrhoea following infection. Modern intensive poultry production favours the introduction of infection into commercial growing units, resulting in intestinal colonization during the second to fourth weeks inclusive. Routes of infection include contaminated fomites, infected water supply, rodents, insects, and free-living birds. Vertical transmission is considered unlikely. Contamination of poultry meat is enhanced by deficiencies in transport and processing of broilers and turkeys. Scalding, defeathering and evisceration represent the significant points of cross-contamination during processing. Epidemiological correlation has been established between consumption of contaminated chicken and outbreaks of human campylobacteriosis. Amelioration of infection by application of improved standards of hygiene and decontamination is possible in the context of commercial poultry production. Improvement in washing of carcasses, and the application of chemical disinfectants and gamma irradiation have the potential to reduce the prevalence of C. jejuni contamination in poultry meat. These innovations, together with improved storage and handling of meat products, will reduce the risk of campylobacteriosis to consumers.

  1. Family poultry production in Mauritius: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugessur, V.S.; Seenevassen Pillay, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of Mauritius has been self-sufficient in poultry meat and eggs for more than two decades and has been successfully meeting the increasing demand for these commodities. About 85% of the poultry meat is presently produced by four industrial farms, 10% by small commercial producers, and around 5% by family (backyard) poultry farms. The flourishing broiler production industry has transformed the erstwhile important traditional backyard poultry farming of indigenous chickens into an insignificant side activity on the main island of Mauritius, while on the other hand, scavenging chickens continue to be an important source of both food and income on Rodrigues, the second biggest island territory of the Republic. A survey carried out on 30 selected family poultry farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues in 1999 and 2000 enabled the identification of the major problems faced by smallholder poultry farmers. At the same time the results provided a basis for future interventions for improving family poultry production. The results showed that diseases like fowl pox, Newcastle disease, Gumboro disease, respiratory and parasitic diseases occurred all year round on 42% and 82% of farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. Low to mild helminth and lice infestations were detected on 40% and 50% of the farms in Mauritius and Rodrigues, respectively. (author)

  2. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  3. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  4. Cassava: Nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie K. Morgan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient supply, high prices and competition with the human food and biofuel industries means there is a continuous demand for alternative energy sources for poultry. As a result, cassava is becoming an increasingly important ingredient in poultry diets, largely due to its high availability. Efficient use of cassava products has been shown to reduce feed costs of poultry production. The utilisation of cassava is, however, limited by a number of factors, including its high fibre and low energy content and the presence of anti-nutritional factors, primarily hydrocyanic acid (HCN. With correct processing the inclusion level of cassava in poultry diets could be increased. Extensive research has been conducted on cassava products for poultry, but there is still a lack of consistency amongst the measured nutritive values for cassava and its products, hence variation exists in results from poultry studies. This paper reviews the nutrient composition of cassava products and its value as an alternative energy source in poultry diets.

  5. The Housing Finance Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Richard K. Green; Susan M. Wachter

    2007-01-01

    While other countries dismantled their segmented housing finance systems and linked housing finance to capital markets through deregulated depositories, the US linked housing finance to capital markets through depository deregulation and securitization. Elsewhere securitization has not developed. The US provided the underpinnings for its mortgage security infrastructure with the creation of FNMA in 1938 and in order to create liquidity in the mortgage market required the standardization of mo...

  6. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...... for everyone. In 1924 he designed a house for himself and his family: one of the first examples of functionalism in Denmark....

  7. Notes from the field: multistate outbreak of human salmonella infections linked to live poultry from a mail-order hatchery in Ohio--February-October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Colin; Forshey, Tony M; Machesky, Kimberly; Erdman, C Matthew; Gomez, Thomas M; Brinson, Denise L; Nguyen, Thai-An; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Bosch, Stacey

    2015-03-13

    In early 2014, five clusters of human Salmonella infections were identified through PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. Many ill persons in each of these clusters reported contact with live poultry, primarily chicks and ducklings, from a single mail-order hatchery; therefore, the clusters were merged into a single investigation. During February 3-October 14, 2014, a total of 363 persons infected with outbreak strains of Salmonella serotypes Infantis, Newport, and Hadar were reported from 43 states and Puerto Rico, making it the largest live poultry-associated salmonellosis outbreak reported in the United States.

  8. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eMuir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with confined rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory and offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGE, have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level and multi-trait selection have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Also, multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by l greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being . Because social effects are improved with such programs, it might be possible to increase stocking density, increase light levels, and use larger groups in floor pens. However, such changes raise ethical concerns that may constrain making these choices.

  9. Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherazai, S.T.H.; Shar, Z.; Iqbal, M.; Sumbal, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

  10. 9 CFR 381.27 - Inauguration of service; notification concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. 381.27 Section 381.27 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... concerning regulations; status of uninspected poultry products. The inspector in charge or his supervisor...

  11. 9 CFR 93.206 - Declaration and other documents for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.206 Section 93.206 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  12. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  13. 9 CFR 93.217 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.217 Section 93.217 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  14. 9 CFR 93.203 - Ports designated for the importation of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of poultry. 93.203 Section 93.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  15. 9 CFR 93.214 - Import permit and declaration for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry. 93.214 Section 93.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  16. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  17. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  18. Does stimulant use impair housing outcomes in low-demand supportive housing for chronically homeless adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Ellen L; Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests low-demand housing (i.e., not contingent upon abstinence) is effective in helping people exit homelessness, even among recent active substance users. Whether active users of illicit drugs and stimulants have worse housing outcomes than primary alcohol users, however, is unknown. A total of 149 participants in a multisite supportive housing program who reported high levels of active substance use at program entry were classified as either (1) predominantly "Alcohol Use" (>10 of 30 days alcohol, but not >10 days of drug use) or (2) "Illicit Drug Use" (>10 of 30 days any single illicit drug use with or without alcohol use). Sub-analysis of the "Illicit Drug Use" group compared participants reporting high levels of "Stimulant Use" (>10 days cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine use) to those with high levels of "Non-stimulant Use" (>10 days marijuana or other non-stimulant drug use). Group differences in housing outcomes were examined with mixed model multivariate regression. During 24-month follow-up, days housed increased dramatically for both the "Alcohol Use" and the "Illicit Drug Use" groups without significant differences. Sub-analysis of illicit drug users showed stimulant use was associated with fewer days housed (p = .01) and more days homeless (p = .02) over time. Among illicit drug users, stimulant users have somewhat less successful housing outcomes than other active drug and alcohol users, though both groups maintained substantial housing improvements in low-demand housing. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Effects of housing system on the costs of commercial egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W A; Sumner, D A

    2015-03-01

    This article reports the first publicly available egg production costs compared across 3 hen-housing systems. We collected detailed data from 2 flock cycles from a commercial egg farm operating a conventional barn, an aviary, and an enriched colony system at the same location. The farm employed the same operational and accounting procedures for each housing system. Results provide clear evidence that egg production costs are much higher for the aviary system than the other 2 housing systems. Feed costs per dozen eggs are somewhat higher for the aviary and lower for the enriched house compared with the conventional house. Labor costs are much lower for the conventional house than the other 2, and pullet costs are much higher for the aviary. Energy and miscellaneous costs are a minimal part of total operating costs and do not differ by housing system. Total capital investments per hen-capacity are much higher for the aviary and the enriched house. Capital costs per dozen eggs depend on assumptions about appropriate interest and depreciation rates. Using the same 10% rate for each housing system shows capital costs per dozen for the aviary and the enriched housing system are much higher than capital costs per dozen for the conventional house. The aviary has average operating costs (feed, labor, pullet, energy, and miscellaneous costs that recur for each flock and vary with egg production) about 23% higher and average total costs about 36% higher compared with the conventional house. The enriched housing system has average operating costs only about 4% higher compared with the conventional house, but average total costs are 13% higher than for the conventional house. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to control Campylobacter in the New Zealand poultry meat food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J; Horn, Beverley J; Dunn, Alex H; Parris, Ruth; Green, F Terri; McNickle, Don C

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of interventions to control Campylobacter in the New Zealand poultry supply examined a series of interventions. Effectiveness was evaluated in terms of reduced health burden measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Costs of implementation were estimated from the value of cost elements, determined by discussions with industry. Benefits were estimated by changing the inputs to a poultry food chain quantitative risk model. Proportional reductions in the number of predicted Campylobacter infections were converted into reductions in the burden of disease measured in DALYs. Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated for each intervention, as cost per DALY reduction and the ratios compared. The results suggest that the most cost-effective interventions (lowest ratios) are at the primary processing stage. Potential phage-based controls in broiler houses were also highly cost-effective. This study is limited by the ability to quantify costs of implementation and assumptions required to estimate health benefits, but it supports the implementation of interventions at the primary processing stage as providing the greatest quantum of benefit and lowest cost-effectiveness ratios.

  1. The identification of fungi collected from the ceca of commercial poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J A; Caldwell, D Y; Nisbet, D J

    2017-07-01

    Under normal conditions, fungi are ignored unless a disease/syndrome clinical signs are reported. The scientific communities are largely unaware of the roles fungi play in normal production parameters. Numerous preharvest interventions have demonstrated that beneficial bacteria can play a role in improving productions parameters; however, most researchers have ignored the impact that fungi may have on production. The goal of the present study was to record fungi recovered from commercial broiler and layer houses during production. Over 3,000 cecal samples were isolated using conventional culture methodology and over 890 samples were further characterized using an automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) methodology. Eighty-eight different fungal and yeast species were identified, including Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Sporidiobolus spp, and 18 unknown genera were separated using rep-PCR. The results from the present study will provide a normal fungi background genera under commercial conditions and will be a stepping stone for investigating the impact of fungi on the gastrointestinal tract and on the health of poultry. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2017.

  2. Environmental tolerance of free-living stages of the poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbiat, Behdad; Jansson, Désirée S; Höglund, Johan

    2015-04-15

    The poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli is re-emerging in laying hens in many European countries due to the increase in non-caged housing. A series of in vitro experiments was carried out to study the in ovo larval development (embryonation) under different environmental conditions. Between 83% and 96% of the eggs developed to L3 within 7-21 days of incubation in water between 20 and 30°C. Twenty-six percent completed development at 33°C and 4% at 35°C after 31 days. At 15°C parasite egg development was low with 8% L3 after 56 days. In another trial larval development occurred, when parasite eggs were exposed to freeze-thaw cycle (30' to 12h) followed by incubation for 2 weeks at 25°C. Alkaline and acidic conditions in the range of pH 2.5-12.5 had no adverse effect on development. Oxygen and relative humidity above 70% were necessary for development to occur. Thus, some A. galli eggs may complete development at conditions prevailing in poultry barns in temperate climate zones throughout the year. Although exposure to a 1% or 2% dilution of the broad-spectrum disinfectant chlorocresol for 4h or longer was ovicidal, further work is required to improve the method of application in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of poultry droppings and house hold waste on the yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Data collected include plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, days to ... leaves, and number of branches, throughout the study period while UC82B recorded the lowest.

  4. MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION TO ESTIMATE THE ENERGY BALANCE FOR A POULTRY HOUSE WITH MISTING COOLING

    OpenAIRE

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ; ILDA DE FÁTIMA FERREIRA TINÔCO; KELLER SULLIVAN OLIVEIRA ROCHA; MARCIO ARÊDES MARTINS; MARCOS OLIVEIRA DE PAULA

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar y validar un modelo matemático simplificado en estado permanente, para predecir la distribución de temperatura en un galpón avícola comercial, equipado con sistemas de ventilación de presión negativa y nebulización interna. El modelo fue validado a partir de datos experimentales obtenidos en condiciones de verano. Se encontró para condiciones con temperatura externas de 26, 27, e 29°C, las mejores combinaciones que debe tener el galpón, entre la...

  5. Enhanced dispersion and removal of ammonia emitted from a poultry house with a vegetative environmental buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs), composed of tolerant trees, shrubs, and tall grasses, can be used to control and reduce the transport of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations (AFOs). However, the effectiveness of VEBs has not been quantitated. Here, we measure the dispersio...

  6. MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION TO ESTIMATE THE ENERGY BALANCE FOR A POULTRY HOUSE WITH MISTING COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar y validar un modelo matemático simplificado en estado permanente, para predecir la distribución de temperatura en un galpón avícola comercial, equipado con sistemas de ventilación de presión negativa y nebulización interna. El modelo fue validado a partir de datos experimentales obtenidos en condiciones de verano. Se encontró para condiciones con temperatura externas de 26, 27, e 29°C, las mejores combinaciones que debe tener el galpón, entre la energía generada por efecto de la nebulización (qmisting y por la rata de ventilación (V, el coeficiente global de perdida de calor del techo (Ut y el coeficiente global de perdida de calor de las paredes (Upar, que permitan mantener la mayor parte del galpón con temperaturas que se encuentren dentro de la faja de conforto térmico para las aves de que para temperaturas externas (24 a 29 °C.

  7. Broiler-Housing Conditions Affect the Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last decades animal production has considerably increased worldwide to sustain an ever-growing human population. Among animal reared for consumption purposes, chickens are undoubtedly one of the most successful, mainly due to their rapid growth rate. The development of broiler farming has been accompanied in recent years by a substantial attention to animal welfare. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of different housing conditions on both feed conversion ratio and mortality of male broiler flocks through a large-scale study (more than 100 million birds involving 977 farms belonging to one major producer. For this, we evaluated nine features of the housing system using a linear model with random effect. The features were: roofing, floor, drinkers, feeders, water source, color curtain color, management, light and ventilation. A total of 3516 poultry flocks were assessed. Positive ventilation, metal and clay roof, dirt floor and owner management were shown to reduced mortality. Concrete floor, negative ventilation, blue curtains, fluorescent lightening, owner management, tap water and well water significantly improved FCR. We discuss our findings in relation with economic constraints and provide advices to encourage farmers using simple devices that will improve both production and chicken survival.

  8. Slaughter house solid waste management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhenny Ratnawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid slaughter house waste (SSW in Indonesia is generally disposed of into open dumped landfill. This type of solid waste can cause odor and atmospheric pollution if discharged directly into the environment. Additionally, it may spread disease due to the nesting vectors, and the resulting leachate can lead to groundwater contamination. This paper reviews the characterization of slaughter house (SH types and SSW generation potential and to review the development of treatment technology of SSW and its application. The SH in Indonesia is divided into 3 classes, namely: 1 SH for large and small ruminants; 2 SH for poultry; 3 SH for pigs. Application technologies in Indonesia include compost and biogas technologies, and the use of rumen content for animal feed. Problem in biogas technology is generally caused by the high nitrogen content in the SSW. The most suitable raw material for biogas production is herbivore waste. The main advantages of using SSW for compost production are: the appropriate characteristics for composting process, free of hazardous contaminant, and appropriate composting technologies are available to reduce environmental problems caused by SSW. In addition, rumen content is considered to be a potential alternative for animal feed because have high content of amino acids (approximately 73.4% of the total protein and rich in vitamin B complex. Among the disadvantages, the composting process of SSW requires long time period and generate air pollutants, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.

  9. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  10. A Painted House In Ankara: Dedebayrak House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Karaaslan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservative family lifestyle in the Ottoman State affected the ways that houses were planned and decorated. Different decorative programs emerged with major differences in each period. New techniques and styles began to be seen in the 18th century thanks to the influence of the West. This article will focus on the decoration of Dedebayrak House in Ankara. Decoration in the architecture found within the boundaries of Ankara consist mostly of geometrical or floral decorations and various inscriptions. The Dedebayrak House not only has these kind of decorations, but also it has these decorations in its architectural descriptions, so it makes this house the only one to have survived in Ankara. Moreover, this building is especially important as the décor included work belonging to Nakkaş Mustafa. However, these decorative features do not remain today. The situation in Turkey is such that architecture is not conserved, which leads to many historically important buildings vanishing. Neither local authorities, nor the owner of these buildings look after these buildings properly, leading their specific historical features to be lost. This situation both damages the urban fabric and harms the historical heritage of the city. Therefore, decorative features in the building will be analysed both on their own and compared to other buildings in Ankara in order to create an overall picture.

  11. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  12. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  13. Housing consumption and urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Young, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa places immense pressure on urban services to meet the needs of the burgeoning urban population. Although several country- or city-level reports offer insight into the housing challenges of specific places, little is known about regional patterns affecting housing markets. This lack of clear knowledge on the relative importance of the factors influen...

  14. House of tomorrow today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenberg, J.J.N.; Ham, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The House of Tomorrow Today is a project focussing on a healthy, energy producing dwelling to be realized with today¿s proven technology. The project aims at an energy plus level based on the principles as formulated in SmartBuilding (Slimbouwen) [1] ActiveHouse [2] and HoTT [3] It can be seen as

  15. The Index House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Radon Research and Demonstration Project. The project involved the monitoring of the Index House for indoor radon, and was one of the earliest programs involving indoor radon contamination. The history of the house, the investigation, and testing and remediation procedures are discussed

  16. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  17. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves Extracts of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum on Poultry Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Nallaiyan, S.; Radhakrishnan, U.; Doraiswamy, H.; Palanisamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Indian poultry industry in general, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, layer industry in particular, is remarkably fast and it is growing on leaps and bounds with respect to poultry egg production. The layer birds in poultry were affected by bacterial pathogens. However, antimicrobial activities of Diplazium muricatum and Diplazium travancoricum were examined using agar diffusion method against E. coli, Bacillus and Klebsiella isolated from poultry litter collected from poultry farm...

  19. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  20. Modelling the feed mix for poultry production, the case of Adama Musa farms, in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Amponsah; Dominic Otoo; A. K. Peprah; S. D. Ampofo

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has a significant importance on national economy. It is a popular industry for the small holders with tremendous contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment creation. Poultry feed cost represents over sixty (60) percent of the total cost of poultry production; consequently, efficient feed formulation practice is required for a sustainable poultry industry. Many Ghanaian poultry farmers, however, employ inefficient methods like rule of thumb, experiences, a...