WorldWideScience

Sample records for single phosphosoda prep

  1. Expanded HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation in communities in New South Wales, Australia (EPIC-NSW): design of an open label, single arm implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Selvey, Christine; Guy, Rebecca; Price, Karen; Holden, Jo; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; McNulty, Anna; Smith, David; Jin, Fengyi; Amin, Janaki; Cooper, David A; Grulich, Andrew E

    2018-02-02

    The New South Wales (NSW) HIV Strategy 2016-2020 aims for the virtual elimination of HIV transmission in NSW, Australia, by 2020. Despite high and increasing levels of HIV testing and treatment since 2012, the annual number of HIV diagnoses in NSW has remained generally unchanged. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM) when taken appropriately. However, there have been no population-level studies that evaluate the impact of rapid PrEP scale-up in high-risk GBM. Expanded PrEP Implementation in Communities in NSW (EPIC-NSW) is a population-level evaluation of the rapid, targeted roll-out of PrEP to high-risk individuals. EPIC-NSW, is an open-label, single-arm, multi-centre prospective observational study of PrEP implementation and impact. Over 20 public and private clinics across urban and regional areas in NSW have participated in the rapid roll-out of PrEP, supported by strong community mobilization and PrEP promotion. The study began on 1 March 2016, aiming to enroll at least 3700 HIV negative people at high risk of HIV. This estimate took into consideration criteria for PrEP prescription in people at high risk for acquiring HIV as defined in the NSW PrEP guidelines. Study participants receive once daily co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and are followed for up to 24 months. Follow-up includes: testing for HIV at 1 month, HIV and other sexually transmissible infections three-monthly, HCV annually and monitoring of renal function six-monthly. Optional online behavioural surveys are conducted quarterly. The co-primary endpoints are (i) HIV diagnoses and incidence in the cohort and (ii) HIV diagnoses in NSW. EPIC-NSW is a population-based PrEP implementation trial which targets the entire estimated population of GBM at high risk for HIV infection in NSW. It will provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the population impact of PrEP on a concentrated HIV

  2. PMP exam prep

    CERN Document Server

    Mulcahy, Rita

    2013-01-01

    This book has been FULLY updated to reflect PMI's changes to the PMP exam, and should be used to prepare for all PMP exams delivered on or after July 30th of 2013. Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a Thank You letter? Hundreds of thousands of project managers know and understand why PMP Exam Prep is a worldwide best-seller. Years of PMP exam preparation experience, endless hours of ongoing research, interviews with project managers who failed the exam to identify gaps in their knowledge, and a razor-sharp focus on making sure project managers don't waste a single minute of their time studying are THE reasons this book is the best-selling PMP exam preparation guide in the world. PMP Exam Prep, Eighth Edition contains hundreds of updates and improvements from previous editions--including new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering hundreds of sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus games and activities available nowhere else, this book will help y...

  3. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC method for the isolation of single amino acids for AMS-radiocarbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Koudelka, Tomas; Tholey, Andreas; Dreves, Alexander

    2017-07-15

    AMS-radiocarbon measurements of amino acids can potentially provide more reliable radiocarbon dates than bulk collagen analysis. Nonetheless, the applicability of such an approach is often limited by the low-throughput of existing isolation methods and difficulties in determining the contamination introduced during the separation process. A novel tertiary prep-HPLC amino acid isolation method was developed that relies on the combustion of eluted material without requiring any additional chemical steps. Amino acid separation was carried out using a gradient mix of pure water and phosphoric acid with an acetonitrile step in-between runs to remove hydrophobic molecules from the separation column. The amount of contaminant carbon and its 14 C content were determined from two-point measurements of collagen samples of known 14 C content. The amount of foreign carbon due to the isolation process was estimated at 4±1μg and its 14 C content was 0.43±0.01 F 14 C. Radiocarbon values corrected for carbon contamination have only a minor increase in uncertainties. For Holocene samples, this corresponds to an added uncertainty typically smaller than 10 14 Cyears. The developed method can be added to routine AMS measurements without implying significant operational changes and offers a level of measurement uncertainty that is suitable for many archaeological, ecological, environmental, and biological applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. SAT math prep course

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!

  5. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Marino, Mirella; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005-2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005-2011] and second period [2012-2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist's skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a high diagnostic yield and molecular predictive

  6. From modeling to morals: imagining the future of HIV PREP in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Nora J; Bulled, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Amidst growing global endorsements of new biomedical HIV prevention strategies, ARV-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (ARV PrEP) has garnered considerable attention as a potentially promising prevention strategy. Though it may offer more effective protection for certain at-risk groups than conventional prevention strategies (such as sexual partner reduction, condom use, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission), PrEP is more costly. PrEP requires more ongoing contact between individuals and providers, and a level of surveillance from the health system that is not necessary with other preventive measures. In this sense, it represents a new bio-technology for HIV prevention that poses particular challenges for worldwide implementation, given developing countries' struggling health systems and incomplete HIV treatment programs. Since the emergence of PrEP has stimulated ethical discussions premised on incomplete knowledge of efficacy and implementation, this paper explores the ethical parameters of a likely scenario for PrEP usage in a single, resource-poor country. We first develop a plausible model for PrEP deployment and utilization based on current PrEP research, while carefully considering the reigning institutional values of feasibility and effectiveness in global health approaches. Drawing on ethnographic research of HIV treatment and prevention approaches in Lesotho, we address ethical questions arising from this scenario of PrEP delivery. Lesotho presents a compelling and emblematic case study of PrEP's potential successes and pitfalls in a developing country, given the country's high HIV prevalence, struggles to achieve universal access to HIV treatment regimes, continued existence of stigma around the epidemic, and difficulties in addressing persistent social inequalities that fuel infections. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. elPrep: High-Performance Preparation of Sequence Alignment/Map Files for Variant Calling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Herzeel

    Full Text Available elPrep is a high-performance tool for preparing sequence alignment/map files for variant calling in sequencing pipelines. It can be used as a replacement for SAMtools and Picard for preparation steps such as filtering, sorting, marking duplicates, reordering contigs, and so on, while producing identical results. What sets elPrep apart is its software architecture that allows executing preparation pipelines by making only a single pass through the data, no matter how many preparation steps are used in the pipeline. elPrep is designed as a multithreaded application that runs entirely in memory, avoids repeated file I/O, and merges the computation of several preparation steps to significantly speed up the execution time. For example, for a preparation pipeline of five steps on a whole-exome BAM file (NA12878, we reduce the execution time from about 1:40 hours, when using a combination of SAMtools and Picard, to about 15 minutes when using elPrep, while utilising the same server resources, here 48 threads and 23GB of RAM. For the same pipeline on whole-genome data (NA12878, elPrep reduces the runtime from 24 hours to less than 5 hours. As a typical clinical study may contain sequencing data for hundreds of patients, elPrep can remove several hundreds of hours of computing time, and thus substantially reduce analysis time and cost.

  8. Best Practices: A Cure for the New Prep Headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alan T.; Steinbach, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    The teaching of a new course is colloquially known among faculty as a "new prep." New preps are often time-consuming and laborious for instructors. They can be particularly frustrating when this effort does not yield results in the classroom. This research explores how a best practice approach can make the transfer of new preps across…

  9. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ... Personal Stories Photos PLWHA People Living with HIV/AIDS Podcasts PrEP Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prevention PWID People Who Inject Drugs Research Research Agenda Ryan White Ryan White HIV/AIDS ...

  10. Tech Prep Marketing Guide. The Complete Book of Strategies and Practical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Patty

    This guide explains the concept of marketing tech prep and provides marketing principles and strategies to promote tech prep programs. The guide covers the following topics: (1) why it is necessary to market tech prep; (2) what a comprehensive tech prep marketing plan should include; (3) targeting the benefits message; (4) marketing tech prep to…

  11. Predictors of HIV-related risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult female family planning patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Danielle B; Alexander, Kamila A; McDonald-Mosley, Reagan; Willie, Tiara C; Decker, Michele R

    2017-06-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) presents new opportunities for HIV prevention. While women comprise approximately 20% of new HIV infections in the US, significant questions remain about how to most effectively facilitate PrEP uptake for this population. Family planning clinics are a dominant source of health care for young women and support an estimated 4.5 million women annually. We explore characteristics associated with HIV risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult women seeking reproductive health services in a high-prevalence setting. A cross-sectional, clinic-based survey was conducted with women ages 18-35 (n = 146) seeking health care at two family planning clinics in the greater Baltimore, Maryland area, from January to April 2014. An estimated 22% of women reported being worried about HIV risk, and 60% reported they would consider taking a pill daily to prevent HIV. In adjusted models, HIV-related worry was associated with having no college education, being single or dating more than one person, practicing consistent condom use during vaginal sex, and having ever traded sex. PrEP acceptability was significantly associated with being Black (71% vs. 49%, AOR 2.23, CI: 1.89-2.64) and having ever traded sex (83% vs. 58%, AOR 4.94, CI: 2.00-12.22). For women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), PrEP acceptability was significantly lower (57% vs. 62%, AOR .71, CI: .59-.85) relative to their non-abused counterparts. Results suggest that family planning clinics may be a natural setting for PrEP discussion and roll-out. They should be considered in the context of integrating HIV prevention with reproductive health services. Women with a trauma history may need additional support for implementing HIV prevention in the form of PrEP.

  12. PrEP Whores and HIV Prevention: The Queer Communication of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieldenner, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been introduced as another biomedical tool in HIV prevention. Whereas other such tools-including post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and interruption of perinatal transmission-have been embraced by those impacted by HIV, PrEP has been met with more conflict, especially within the gay community and HIV organizations. The "PrEP whore" has come to designate the social value and personal practices of those taking PrEP. This study examines the "PrEP whore" discourse by using queer theory and quare theory. Within these theoretical vantage points, the study explicates four discursive areas: slut shaming, dirty/clean binaries, mourning the loss of condoms, and reclaiming the inner whore. The study illuminates possible discursive strategies that lie outside of the domains of public health and within the individual and community.

  13. No association between the PREP gene and lithium responsive bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grof Paul

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorder (BD is a major psychiatric condition that commonly requires prophylactic and episodic treatment. Lithium (Li has been used for over 40 years now as an effective prophylactic agent. Response to Li treatment seems to be, at least in part, genetically determined. Although we ignore how Li specifically prevents mood episodes, it has previously been suggested that Li exerts an effect on the phosphoinositide pathway, and more recently, it has been proposed that Li may modulate prolyl endopeptidase (PREP. Methods In this study we carried out an association study looking at the PREP gene, located on ch 6q22. Five intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, three coding SNPs and one SNP in the 5' UTR were investigated for their frequency in a BD sample of 180 excellent Li responders, 69 Li nonresponders and 126 controls. Genotyping was carried out using the SNaPshot reaction from Applied Biosystems, which is a modified fluorescent single base pair extension procedure. Results Following correction for multiple testing, no significant genotypic, allelic or estimated haplotypic differences were found between responders and nonresponders or between BD patients and controls. Conclusion PREP is an interesting candidate gene to investigate in genetic studies of BD, but our findings do not support the hypothesis that genetic variation in this gene plays a major role in the etiology of BD or Li response.

  14. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) in industry trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris

    2006-12-01

    To identify patterns in trial testimony that may reflect on the intentions or expectations of tobacco manufacturers with regard to the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). Research was conducted using the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) collection of trial testimony and depositions housed online at Tobacco Documents Online (www.tobaccodocuments.org). Relevant testimony was identified through full-text searches of terms indicating PREPs or harm reduction strategies. The role and function of PREPs in testimony were classified according to common and contrasting themes. These were analysed in the context of broader trial arguments and against changes in time period and the market. Analysis of testimony suggests that the failure of PREPs in the market tempered initial industry enthusiasm and made protection of the conventional cigarette market its major priority. The "breakthrough" character of PREPs has been de-emphasised, with trial arguments instead positioning PREPs as simply another choice for consumers. This framework legitimises the sale of conventional brands, and shifts the responsibility for adoption of safer products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Likewise, testimony has abandoned earlier dramatic health claims made with regard to PREPs, which had undermined industry arguments regarding efforts to reduce harm in conventional products. More recent testimony advocates the broad acceptance of independent guidelines that would validate use of health claims and enable the industry to market PREPs to consumers. Trial testimony reflects the changing role and positioning of PREPs by the tobacco industry. The findings are of particular importance with regard to future evaluation and potential regulation of reduced harm products.

  15. Healthcare Access and PrEP Continuation in San Francisco and Miami After the US PrEP Demo Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblecki-Lewis, Susanne; Liu, Albert; Feaster, Daniel; Cohen, Stephanie E; Cardenas, Gabriel; Bacon, Oliver; Andrew, Erin; Kolber, Michael A

    2017-04-15

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV infection has demonstrated efficacy in randomized controlled trials and in demonstration projects. For PrEP implementation to result in significant reductions in HIV incidence for men who have sex with men in the United States, sufficient access to PrEP care and continued engagement outside of demonstration projects is required. We report the results of a follow-up survey of 173 former participants from the Miami and San Francisco sites of the US PrEP Demo Project, administered 4-6 months after study completion. Survey respondents continued to frequently access medical care and had a high incidence of sexually transmitted infections after completion of the Demo Project, indicating ongoing sexual risk behavior. Interest in continuing PrEP was high with 70.8% indicating that they were "very interested" in continuing PrEP. Among respondents, 39.9% reported continuation of PrEP after completion of the Demo Project, largely through their primary care providers and frequently at low or no cost. Variability in access and engagement was seen, with participants from the San Francisco site, those with medical insurance, and those with a primary care provider at the end of the Demo Project more likely to successfully obtain PrEP medication. Two respondents reported HIV seroconversion in the period between study completion and the follow-up survey. Additional effort to increase equitable access to PrEP outside of demonstration projects is needed to realize the potential impact of this evidence-based prevention intervention.

  16. What Is the Tech Prep/Associate Degree Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Dale

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the nature, importance, and future of the Tech Prep/Associate Degree program. Suggests that these programs must move beyond simple articulation and become aggressive in jointly examining, developing, and sustaining high quality educational programs. (JOW)

  17. PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool (BETA). Infographics Click on the images below to view and download high resolution infographics dedicated to PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis), an HIV ...

  18. PREP-45, Input Preparation for CITATION-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho Carlos, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: A Fortran program has been created, which saves much effort in preparing sections 004 (intervals in the coordinates) and 005 (zone numbers) of the input data file for the multigroup theory code CITATION (version CITATION-2, NESC0387/09), particularly when a thin complicated mesh is used. 2 - Method of solution: A domain is defined for CITATION calculations through specifying its sub-domains (e.g. graphite, lead, beryllium, water and fuel sub-domains) in a compact and simple way. An independent and previous geometrical specification is made of the various types of elements which are envisaged to constitute the contents of the reactor core grid positions. Then the load table for the configuration is input and scanned throughout, thus enabling the geometric mesh description to be produced (section 004). Also the zone placement (section 005) is achieved by means of element description subroutines for the different types of element (which may require appropriate but simple changes in the actual cases). The output of PREP45 is directly obtained in a format which is compatible with CITATION-2 input. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Only rectangular two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates are considered. A maximum of 12 sub-domains in the x direction (18 in the y direction) and up to 8 distinct element types are considered in this version. Other limitations exist which can nevertheless be overcome with simple changes in the source program

  19. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes.

  20. An Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model of PrEP Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex; Altice, Frederick L; Fraenkel, Liana

    2018-03-20

    Despite documented effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP uptake remains low among at-risk populations. The 2015 CDC report estimates that about 1.2 million people in the US have indications for PrEP. However, only 49,158 or 4% of the targeted population are currently using PrEP. Efforts to optimize uptake of PrEP may be facilitated by the development of a comprehensive theoretical framework which can be used to understand reasons for poor uptake and to develop interventions to maximize PrEP uptake and adherence. This article reviews research on correlates of PrEP uptake and presents findings organized within an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model framework. In the context of PrEP uptake, the IMB model asserts that to the extent that at-risk groups are well-informed about PrEP, motivated to act on their knowledge, and have necessary behavioral skills to seek out and initiate PrEP regimen, they will successfully overcome obstacles to initiate and adhere to PrEP. The article proposes an adaptation the IMB model for PrEP uptake, provides empirical support for the adapted IMB model extracted from related research, and discusses its application in PrEP uptake interventions.

  1. PrEP in Europe - expectations, opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Sheena Mary; Noseda, Veronica; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the global trend showing a decline in new HIV infections, the number reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) region of Europe is increasing. Health systems are disparate, but even countries with free access to screening and treatment observe continuing high rates of new infections in key populations, notably men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is only available in France. This commentary describes the European epidemics and healthcare settings where PrEP could be delivered, how need might be estimated for MSM and the residual barriers to access. Health systems and government commitment to HIV prevention and care, both financial and political, differ considerably between the countries that make up Europe. A common feature is that funds for prevention are a small fraction of funds for care. Although care is generally good, access is limited in the middle-income countries of Eastern Europe and central Asia, and only 19% of people living with HIV received antiretroviral therapy in 2014. It is challenging to motivate governments or civil society to implement PrEP in the context of this unmet treatment need, which is driven by limited national health budgets and diminishing assistance from foreign aid. The high-income countries of Western Europe have hesitated to embrace PrEP for different reasons, initially due to key gaps in the evidence. Now that PrEP has been shown to be highly effective in European MSM in two randomized controlled trials, it is clear that the major barrier is the cost of the drug which is still on patent, although inadequate health systems and diminishing investment in civil society are also key challenges to overcome. The momentum to implement PrEP in European countries is increasing and provides a welcome opportunity to expand and improve clinical services and civil society support focused on HIV and related infections including other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections.

  2. Using Online Settings to Identify Gay and Bisexual Men Willing to Take or With Experience Taking PrEP: Implications for Researchers and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Jimenez, Ruben; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-10-01

    Given the ongoing HIV epidemic, it is essential to identify gay and bisexual men who are interested in starting PrEP as well as active PrEP users. We report on online survey data gathered over a 17-month period in 2014-2015 from gay and bisexual men identified through six sources of recruitment (n = 2903): Facebook, a hookup website, two geosocial-sexual networking apps (herein "App 1: Pop-up ads" and "App 2: Banner ads"), and two types of listservs (one focused on general gay nightlife, and one focused on gay sex parties). Willingness to take PrEP were as follows: sex party listservs (71.3%), both apps (69.8%), Facebook (67.6%), hookup website (65.2%), and nightlife listservs (50.5%). Experience having taken PrEP was as follows: sex party listservs (23.4%), App 2: Banner ads (22.5%), nightlife listservs (17.1) Facebook (14.2%), App 1: Pop-up ads (12.4%), and hookup website (2.1%). In multivariable modeling, willingness to go on PrEP was independently associated with being younger, single, a person of color, and having been tested for HIV in the past 12 months. Source of recruitment was largely unassociated with willingness to start PrEP. Number of recent male partners, number of recent condomless anal sex (CAS) events, and when data were collected (i.e., time in months) were not significantly associated with willingness to start PrEP. In multivariable models, experience having taken PrEP was positively associated with sexual identity as gay, number of recent male sex partners, number of recent CAS acts, being tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and time (in months). Experience taking PrEP varied greatly by recruitment source, suggesting both researchers and providers might be well served to utilize digital mediums to effectively identify these individuals; however, should do so with caution as not all digital options may prove fruitful.

  3. Review of HIV Pre exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and example of HIV PrEP Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    strategy • Detail how to utilize HIV PrEP in USAF healthcare settings • Describe issues and challenges regarding HIV PrEP 3 HIV in the USA, 2014...zRnYK4glPmVO.k7S41NscTH6k&hl=en_US ·’m USAF HIV Diagnoses By Gender FIGUR E 6. Nevi diagnoses of HIV infections by sex. active component, U.S. Air Force...10.14 Female 10 0.94 Race ... White 215 5.15 Black 223 26.6 Other 35 13.38 Characteristic Cases (n = 473) - Region of assijnment America -South

  4. Gynecological applications of helical CT using SmartPrep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, Akira; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    SmartPrep is software program for scanning a given region of interest (ROI) at optimal contrast density. An operator can arbitrarily define ROI and preset the CT value at which scanning should be started. After the injection of a contrast medium, system conducts continuous monitoring of the ROI and the operator starts helical scanning of the planned region when the present CT value has been reached. In comparison with conventional helical CT that requires a period of time from the beginning of contrast medium injection to the beginning of scanning, SmartPrep minimizes personal error and better depicts the artery-predominant phase under optimal conditions. In this study we examine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced helical CT using SmartPrep in the evaluation of gynecological disease. When the contrast medium was injected into the dorsal vein of the hand at a rate of 3 ml/sec, strong staining of pelvic arteries was observed in the CT images started at 17 to 23 sec after injection. The early-phase helical CT obtained under these conditions provided good depiction of lesions in cases of placenta accreta and invasive mole, as well as clear demonstration of tumor angiogenesis and evaluation of laterality in cases of cervical cancer. Comparison of the early and delayed phase also facilitated easier evaluation of lymph nodes than conventional comparison of simple and contrast-enhanced CT. The results thus suggest the usefulness of contrast-enhanced helical CT using SmartPrep in gynecology. (author)

  5. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  6. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  7. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode.

  8. The PREP Pipeline: Standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdelys Shamlo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode/.

  9. Family planning providers' role in offering PrEP to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon; Carlson, Kimberly; Witt, Jacki

    2018-03-09

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides a radically different HIV prevention option for women. Not only is PrEP the first discrete, woman-controlled method that is taken in advance of exposure, but it is both safe and highly effective, offering over 90% protection if taken daily. While multiple modalities of PrEP are in development ranging from vaginal rings to injectables and implants, only PrEP with oral tenofovir/emtricitabine is currently FDA-approved. Family planning clinics provide key access points for many women to learn about and obtain PrEP. By incorporating PrEP services into family planning care, family planning providers have the opportunity to meet women's expectations, ensure women are aware of and offered comprehensive HIV prevention options, and reverse emerging disparities in PrEP access. Despite real and perceived barriers to integrating PrEP into family planning care, providing PrEP services, ranging from education to onsite provision, is not only possible but an important component of providing high-quality sexual and reproductive healthcare to women. Lessons learned from early adopters will help guide those in family planning settings initiating or enhancing PrEP services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Home-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP services for gay and bisexual men: An opportunity to address barriers to PrEP uptake and persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A John

    Full Text Available Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. Despite the promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in reducing HIV transmission risk, barriers for uptake and persistence exist. We sought to identify whether GBM in a nationwide cohort who have not yet initiated PrEP (n = 906 would prefer to get PrEP-related care from a primary care provider (PCP compared to a specialist clinic or provider. We then sought to identify their level of interest and factors associated with preference for using home-based PrEP services (i.e., HB-PrEP, defined to participants as conducting HIV/STI self-testing from home with PrEP prescription mailing after an initial in-person clinic visit. We examined the associations of demographics, sexual HIV transmission risk, concern about frequent medical checkups associated with PrEP, health care access, and PrEP intentions with preferences for healthcare provider type and HB-PrEP. Concern about frequent medical checkups were associated with preferring a PCP for PrEP-related care, but men who perceived a barrier to bringing up the topic of PrEP with a doctor preferred a specialist clinic or provider more than a PCP. HB-PrEP was more appealing for younger men and those engaged in sexual HIV transmission risk, suggesting HB-PrEP could help reach GBM most vulnerable to HIV and in need of PrEP. HB-PrEP expansion has potential to increase PrEP uptake and persistence among GBM, particularly for men with barriers to clinic-based care and higher intentions to initiate PrEP. Clinical guidelines regarding HB-PrEP are needed to expand its use.

  11. An investigation into EFL prep-class students' academic emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Yukselir, Ceyhun; Harputlu, Leyla

    2014-01-01

    This present study is an investigation into EFL prep-class students’ academic emotions in learning and taking a test with reference to departments and gender. Academic emotions emerge when the student evaluates achievement related-situations such as studying course materials, taking an exam, doing homework or getting an exam score. In this study, academic emotions about learning and taking a test rather than class-related ones have been evaluated. Nine emotions in total - enjoyment, hope, pri...

  12. Implications of HIV PrEP Trials Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Peter; Fletcher, Courtney V.; DeGruttola, Victor; McGowan, Ian; Becker, Stephen; Zwerski, Sheryl; Burns, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Six randomized clinical trials have been implemented to examine the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and/or TDF/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection (PrEP). Although largely complementary, the six trials have many similar features. As the earliest results become available, an urgent question may arise regarding whether changes should be made in the conduct of the other trials. To consider this in advance, a Consultation on the Implications of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Trials Results sponsored by the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) was held on January 29, 2010, at the Natcher Conference Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD. Participants included basic scientists, clinical researchers (including investigators performing the current PrEP trials), and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the agencies sponsoring the trials: the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the BMGF, and the U.S. NIH. We report here a summary of the presentations and highlights of salient discussion topics from this workshop. PMID:20969483

  13. The Importance of Sexual History Taking for PrEP Comprehension Among Young People of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Sarit A; Gamarel, Kristi E; Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina

    2017-05-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains low, especially among highest priority populations. This study examined four PrEP messaging factors hypothesized to impact comprehension of PrEP educational information: (1) modality (video versus in-person message delivery); (2) frame (risk versus health focus); (3) specificity (gist versus verbatim efficacy information); and (4) sexual history (administered either before or after PrEP education). We examined message comprehension among 157 young people of color (YPoC) eligible for PrEP, using a series of multiple choice questions. Overall, 65.6 % (n = 103) got all message comprehension questions correct. In multivariate analyses, engaging in a sexual history before receiving PrEP education was associated with increased odds of message comprehension (aOR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.06-4.72). This effect was even stronger among those who received PrEP education via video (aOR 3.53; 95 % CI 1.16-10.81) compared to via health educator. This research underscores the importance of sexual history-taking as part of PrEP education and clinical practice for YPoC, and suggests that engaging patients in a sexual history prior to providing them with PrEP education may be key to increasing comprehension.

  14. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Model for Developing Business-Education Partnerships for Tech Prep Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Linda A.

    A research project developed a business-education partnership model for use by the Whatcom County Tech Prep Consortium (or any other consortia) seeking to establish successful collaborative efforts between education and business. Methodology included the following: a survey of the Washington State Tech Prep Director's Association; two telephone…

  16. Learning to Trust. On the Treasure Coast, Tech Prep Proves a Trove for Educators Long Divided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterburn, Patty

    1995-01-01

    Based on the "High Schools That Work" model, the Quad County Tech Prep Consortium in Florida has won several awards for its comprehensive tech prep program. The partnership enables technical students from four school districts to flow smoothly into an associate degree program at Indian River Community College. (JOW)

  17. The Promise and Peril of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Promise and Peril of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Using Social Science to Inform PrEP Interventions among Female Sex Workers. ... Abstract. Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable ...

  18. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  19. Attitude towards antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puro, Vincenzo; Palummieri, Antonio; De Carli, Gabriella; Piselli, Pierluca; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2013-05-14

    To investigate perceptions and attitude to prescribe Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV specialists. A questionnaire developed through a Focus Group and literature review was administered to a convenience sample of HIV specialists during educational courses in two Regions and an online survey in February-May 2012. Participants were classified as having a positive or negative attitude according to their willingness to prescribe PrEP. Demographic and working information, experience with HIV-infected patients, information and provision of antiretrovirals to uninfected persons, self-reported knowledge, perceptions and concerns regarding PrEP were assessed. The association between a different attitude towards PrEP prescription and selected characteristics was assessed through univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Of 311 specialists, 70% would prescribe PrEP, mainly to serodiscordant partners (64%) but also to people at ongoing, high risk of HIV infection (56%); 66% advocated public support of costs. A negative attitude towards PrEP was significantly associated with lack of provision of information on, and prescription of, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis; specialists with a negative attitude believed behavioural interventions to be more effective than PrEP and were more concerned about toxicity. Overall, 90% of specialists disagreed regarding a lack of time for engaging in prevention counselling and PrEP monitoring; 79% would welcome formal guidelines, while those with a negative attitude did not consider this advisable. Although conflicting attitudes appear evident, most specialists seem to be willing, with guidance from normative bodies, to promote PrEP within multiple prevention strategies among vulnerable populations. More scientific evidence regarding effectiveness could overcome resistance.

  20. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion: Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion...

  1. SKILL PREP Program for American Indian Students. Final report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloh, S.; Huebner, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Scientific Knowledge for Indian Learning and Leadership (SKILL) precollege college program of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology concluded the 1994 PREP program on July 22, 1994. The program graduated 22 students from the 4-week residential math/science program for American Indian students. Primary academic focus was physics (30 hours); each student was given a bicycle to solve problems on angular momentum and mechanical advantage. Mathematical calculations and problem solving exercises were done in mathematics class (20 hours). Preliminary results in math, physics, and geology show dramatic increases in student achievement over the 4- week period. The program paired every two students with a faculty member or research scientist, and each team completed a research project.

  2. Dr. Sadik's remarks at PrepCom press conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1994-04-01

    Government officials and representatives from nongovernmental organizations attended the April, 1994, and earlier PrepCom meetings to prepare for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo. Unprecedented population growth, wasteful consumption, depletion of natural resources, increased environmental pollution, widespread poverty, and socioeconomic inequality face the earth. An international consensus exists on the importance of population and the need to focus on the individual and individual choice as the basis for balancing population and resources. Accessible, high quality family planning programs are needed to allow women to make their own choices about family size. Such programs will save many lives each year and slow population growth in developing countries, which often find it hard to provide the people with food, shelter, employment, education, and health. Governments and the international community have already contributed to falling fertility rates in developing countries (1960s- 1994: from 6-7 children to 3-4 children). Around 55% of couples and persons now use a family planning method, an almost 5-fold increase since 1965. Yet, the population is still growing (5.7 to 7.27-7.92 billion projected between 1994 and 2015). A draft Programme of Action has 20-year goals for mortality reduction, universal availability and accessibility to family planning information and services, and completion of at least primary education, particularly for girls. PrepCom is optimistic that the goals can be achieved. A key challenge is providing contraceptives to the 120 million women who want to use them but do not have access to them. Women worldwide want fewer children and high quality reproductive health care (family planning, pre- and postnatal care, STD/AIDS care). The cost for population activities is around $13 billion/year by 2000. International donors would need to increase their assistance by about 4 times to achieve this amount. The

  3. PRESTO-PREP: a data preprocessor for the PRESTO-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    PRESTO-II is a computer code developed to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes. PRESTO-PREP is a data preprocessor that has been developed to expedite the formation of input data sets for PRESTO-II. PRESTO-PREP utilizes a library of nuclide and risk-specific data. Given an initial waste inventory, the code creates the radionuclide portion of the associated input data set for PRESTO-II. 2 references

  4. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Felix

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is

  5. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Daniel A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2010-04-22

    Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi) leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi) animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation) to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is required for

  6. Assesment of standing long jump at children of primery - school age in athletic prep school

    OpenAIRE

    Klapetková, Kristýna

    2017-01-01

    Title: Assesment of standing long jump at children of primery - school age in athletic prep school Aim: Aim of this thesis was to evaluate and compare differences of movement level in standing long jump between children of primary - school age who attend athletic prep school and those who don't. Another aim was the getting to know and the application of Haywood's and Getchell's methodology for qualitative assessment of standing long jump of children. Methodology: The movement level of standin...

  7. Attitude towards antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Puro, Vincenzo; Palummieri, Antonio; De Carli, Gabriella; Piselli, Pierluca; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate perceptions and attitude to prescribe Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV specialists. Methods A questionnaire developed through a Focus Group and literature review was administered to a convenience sample of HIV specialists during educational courses in two Regions and an online survey in February-May 2012. Participants were classified as having a positive or negative attitude according to their willingness to prescribe PrEP. Demographic and working informatio...

  8. PRESTO-PREP: a data preprocessor for the PRESTO-II code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    PRESTO-II is a computer code developed to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes. PRESTO-PREP is a data preprocessor that has been developed to expedite the formation of input data sets for PRESTO-II. PRESTO-PREP utilizes a library of nuclide and risk-specific data. Given an initial waste inventory, the code creates the radionuclide portion of the associated input data set for PRESTO-II. 2 references.

  9. PrEP Awareness, Familiarity, Comfort, and Prescribing Experience among US Primary Care Providers and HIV Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroll, Andrew E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Owczarzak, Jill L; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Bogart, Laura M; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2017-05-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was FDA approved in 2012, but uptake remains low. To characterize what would facilitate health care providers' increased PrEP prescribing, we conducted a 10-city, online survey of 525 primary care providers (PCPs) and HIV providers (HIVPs) to assess awareness, knowledge, and experience with prescribing PrEP; and, comfort with and barriers to PrEP-related activities. Fewer PCPs than HIVPs had heard of PrEP (76 vs 98%), felt familiar with prescribing PrEP (28 vs. 76%), or had prescribed it (17 vs. 64%). PCPs were less comfortable than HIVPs with PrEP-related activities such as discussing sexual activities (75 vs. 94%), testing for acute HIV (83 vs. 98%), or delivering a new HIV diagnosis (80 vs. 95%). PCPs most frequently identified limited knowledge about PrEP and concerns about insurance coverage as prescribing barriers. PCPs and HIVPs differ in needs that will facilitate their PrEP prescribing. Efforts to increase PrEP uptake will require interventions to increase the knowledge, comfort, and skills of providers to prescribe PrEP.

  10. PREP: Production and Reprocessing management tool for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossutti, F; Lenzi, P; Naziridis, N; Samyn, D; Stöckli, F

    2012-01-01

    The production of simulated samples for physics analysis at LHC represents a noticeable organization challenge, because it requires the management of several thousands different workflows. The submission of a workflow to the grid based computing infrastructure starts with the definition of the general characteristics of a given set of coherent samples (called a ‘campaign'), up to the definition of the physics settings to be used for each sample corresponding to a specific process to be simulated, both at hard event generation and detector simulation level. In order to have an organized control of the of the definition of the large number of MC samples needed by CMS, a dedicated management tool, called PREP, has been built. Its basic component is a database storing all the relevant information about the sample and the actions implied by the workflow definition, approval and production. A web based interface allows the database to be used from experts involved in production to trigger all the different actions needed, as well as by normal physicists involved in analyses to retrieve the relevant information. The tool is integrated through a set of dedicated APIs with the production agent and information storage utilities of CMS.

  11. 2016 PREP attitudes in Germany: high awareness and acceptance in MSM at risk of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Christoph D; Hanhoff, Nikola; Krznaric, Ivanka; Knecht, Gaby; Kuemmerle, Tim; Ruesenberg, Robin; Schewe, Knud

    2018-02-24

    To examine current risk behavior, awareness, experience, and attitudes towards pre-exposure-prophylaxis (PrEP), and to estimate a potential impact on the prevention of HIV transmission among HIV-negative MSM in Germany. PrEP was not officially licensed at the time of survey. Web-based questionnaire from 03-06/2016. Potential participants were informed through social media, flyers, and advertisements. Risk contacts were defined as unprotected sexual intercourse under the influence of recreational drugs in the past 6 months. In total, 1208 subjects participated, 342 subjects were excluded for being HIV-infected or non-MSM, leaving 866 subjects to be evaluated in this analysis. Mean age was 37.0 ± 10.4 years. 593 participants (68.5%) were tested for HIV within the past 12 months. A total of 206 STDs in the past 6 months were reported by 144 (16.6%). Aware of PrEP was 748 (86.4%) respondents, while 65.1% reported willingness to use it. Risk behavior was significantly associated with higher PrEP acceptance (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.14-3.90), as was a history of STDs (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.91). The use of condoms would forgo 52.3% of subjects if taking PrEP. Sixty-five respondents (7.5%) reported PrEP use. Only 19 (29.2%) had accessed PrEP under medical supervision. PrEP use was reported by 14.8% with > 5 risk contacts in the past 6 months, compared to 6.3% with one risk contact (p awareness and acceptance, especially among subgroups of MSM at highest risk of HIV infection. Structured access and availability of PrEP to this population may have an important impact on the HIV epidemic in Germany.

  12. PrEP for key populations in combination HIV prevention in Nairobi: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Ide; McKinnon, Lyle; Kimani, Joshua; Cherutich, Peter; Gakii, Gloria; Muriuki, Festus; Kripke, Katharine; Hecht, Robert; Kiragu, Michael; Smith, Jennifer; Hinsley, Wes; Gelmon, Lawrence; Hallett, Timothy B

    2017-05-01

    The HIV epidemic in the population of Nairobi as a whole is in decline, but a concentrated sub-epidemic persists in key populations. We aimed to identify an optimal portfolio of interventions to reduce HIV incidence for a given budget and to identify the circumstances in which pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be used in Nairobi, Kenya. A mathematical model was developed to represent HIV transmission in specific key populations (female sex workers, male sex workers, and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among the wider population of Nairobi. The scale-up of existing interventions (condom promotion, antiretroviral therapy, and male circumcision) for key populations and the wider population as have occurred in Nairobi is represented. The model includes a detailed representation of a PrEP intervention and is calibrated to prevalence and incidence estimates specific to key populations and the wider population. In the context of a declining epidemic overall but with a large sub-epidemic in MSM and male sex workers, an optimal prevention portfolio for Nairobi should focus on condom promotion for male sex workers and MSM in particular, followed by improved antiretroviral therapy retention, earlier antiretroviral therapy, and male circumcision as the budget allows. PrEP for male sex workers could enter an optimal portfolio at similar levels of spending to when earlier antiretroviral therapy is included; however, PrEP for MSM and female sex workers would be included only at much higher budgets. If PrEP for male sex workers cost as much as US$500, average annual spending on the interventions modelled would need to be less than $3·27 million for PrEP for male sex workers to be excluded from an optimal portfolio. Estimated costs per infection averted when providing PrEP to all female sex workers regardless of their risk of infection, and to high-risk female sex workers only, are $65 160 (95% credible interval [CrI] $43 520-$90 250) and $10 920 (95% CrI $4700

  13. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  14. 'I am not a man': Trans-specific barriers and facilitators to PrEP acceptability among transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelius, Jae M; Keatley, JoAnne; Calma, Nikki; Arnold, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The frequent conflation of transgender ('trans') women with 'men who have sex with men (MSM)' in HIV prevention obscures trans women's unique gender identities, social and behavioural vulnerabilities, and their disproportionately high rates of HIV infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious biomedical HIV prevention approach. However, trans women are underrepresented in PrEP research, and are often aggregated with MSM without consideration for their unique positions within sociocultural contexts. This study examined PrEP acceptability among trans women via three focus groups and nine individual interviews (total N = 30) in San Francisco. While knowledge of PrEP was low, interest was relatively high once participants were informed. Due to past negative healthcare experiences, ability to obtain PrEP from a trans-competent provider was cited as essential to PrEP uptake and adherence. Participants noted that PrEP could address situations in which trans women experience reduced power to negotiate safer sex, including sex work. Trans-specific barriers included lack of trans-inclusive marketing of PrEP, prioritisation of hormone use, and medical mistrust due to transphobia. Findings underscore the importance of disaggregating trans women from MSM in HIV prevention strategies to mitigate disparate risk among this highly vulnerable population.

  15. Gendered differences in the perceived risks and benefits of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jennifer J; Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Curran, Kathryn; Mugo, Nelly R; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective for preventing HIV among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Gender roles may influence perceived personal and social risks related to HIV-prevention behaviors and may affect use of PrEP. In this study, interviews and focus groups were conducted with 68 individuals from 34 mutually disclosed serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships in Thika, Kenya. Sociocultural factors that affect adherence to PrEP were explored using grounded analysis. Three factors were identified, which shape perceptions of PrEP: gendered power dynamics and control over decision-making in the household; conflicts between risk-reduction strategies and male sexual desire; culture-bound definitions of women's work. Adherence to PrEP in the Partners PrEP Study was high; however, participants articulated conflicting interests related to PrEP in connection with traditional gender roles. The successful delivery of PrEP will require understanding of key social factors, particularly related to gender and dyadic dynamics around HIV serostatus.

  16. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  17. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Eisingerich, Andreas B; Gomez, Gabriela B; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Semistructured qualitative interview study. Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. 35 policymakers, 35 healthcare workers and 21 non-governmental organisation representatives involved in HIV prevention. Six themes emerged from the data: (1) perceived HIV prevention landscape: prevention initiatives needed to be improved and expanded; (2) PrEP awareness: 50 of 91 participants had heard of PrEP; (3) benefits of PrEP: one component of the combination prevention arsenal that could help prioritise HIV prevention, empower key populations and result in economic gains; (4) challenges of PrEP: regimen complexity, cost and cost-effectiveness, risk compensation, efficacy and effectiveness, stigmatisation and criminalisation, information and training and healthcare system capacity; (5) programmatic considerations: user eligibility, communication strategy, cost, distribution, medication and HIV testing compliance and (6) early versus late implementation: participants were divided as to whether they would support an early introduction of PrEP in their country or would prefer to wait until it has been successfully implemented in other countries, with around half of those we spoke to supporting each option. Very few said they would not support PrEP at all. Despite the multiple challenges identified, there was general willingness to support the introduction of PrEP. Yet, strengthening existing HIV prevention efforts was also deemed necessary. Our results suggest that an effective PrEP programme would be delivered in healthcare facilities and involve non-governmental organisations and the community and consider the needs of mobile populations. Comprehensive information packages and training for users and providers would be critical. The cost of PrEP would be affordable and

  18. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK--A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18-25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health needs of all MSM communities.

  19. The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): using social science to inform prep interventions among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson Bazzi, Angela M; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-09-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub- Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular "re-medicalization" of the HIV epidemic to that of a "reintegration" of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV.

  20. Towards preparedness for PrEP: PrEP awareness and acceptability among MSM at high risk of HIV transmission who use sociosexual media in four Celtic nations: Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankis, Jamie S; Young, Ingrid; Lorimer, Karen; Davis, Mark; Flowers, Paul

    2016-06-01

    To assess the awareness and acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and use sociosexual media at high risk of HIV infection in four Celtic nations. Cross-sectional study. Online self-complete survey of 386 HIV-negative/status unknown MSM who reported condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with ≥2 men in the last year, recruited from gay sociosexual media. One-third (34.5%, 132/386) of the participants were aware of PrEP but over half (58.5%, 226/356) reported that they would be willing to use PrEP if it were available to them. Only men who regularly tested for HIV every 6 months (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.42) were more likely to be aware of PrEP. PrEP acceptability was only associated with reporting ≥5 CAI partners (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.46) in the last year. Low levels of PrEP awareness were reported across these Celtic nations. Only one-third of high-risk MSM had heard of PrEP but over one-half would be willing to take a daily pill to prevent HIV infection. Sociodemographic factors, commercial gay scene proximity and social network use were unrelated to considering PrEP use. However, those reporting most CAI partners were more likely to consider PrEP use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. The Effectiveness of PREP with Lower-Income Racial/Ethnic Minority Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Bergen, Carrie; Inch, Leslie J.; France, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) with lower-income and racial/ethnic minority (African American and Latino/a) couples. Additionally, we tested whether relationship outcomes varied based on the delivery format (i.e., group format vs. couple format). The sample included 321…

  2. Restructuring Student Experiences Using Tech Prep Mapping To Integrate Vocational and Academic Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzoli, Don

    The growing emphasis on accountability and the demand for better prepared students is pressing institutions of higher education to examine restructuring. Student experiences represent an important arena for school restructuring, and a useful approach to changing student experiences is the Tech Prep Mapping (TPM) process. The TPM process requires…

  3. Including an Exam P/1 Prep Course in a Growing Actuarial Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the actuarial science program at our university and the development of a course to enhance students' problem solving skills while preparing them for Exam P/1 of the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuary Society (CAS). The Exam P/1 prep course, formally titled Mathematical Foundations of…

  4. Moving beyond Test-Prep Pedagogy: Dialoguing with Multicultural Preservice Teachers for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Louie F.

    2013-01-01

    In a "post-NCLB era," the schooling experiences of mostly low-income students of color continue to be consumed by a test-prep pedagogy--narrowed curriculum, low expectations, and ignored relationships. In this article the author describes a pedagogical approach using educational dialogues to engage preservice teachers to critically…

  5. rapid mini-prep DNA extraction method in rice (Oryza sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA extraction is an important step in molecular assays and plays a vital role in obtaining highresolution results in gel-based systems, particularly in the case of cereals with high content of interfering components in the early steps of DNA extraction. Here a rapid mini-prep DNA extraction method, optimized for rice, which ...

  6. PrEP as a feature in the optimal landscape of combination HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Jessica B; Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Hallett, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape. We use a model that was previously developed to capture subnational HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. With this model, we can consider how prevention funds could be distributed across and within countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa to enable optimal HIV prevention (that is, avert the greatest number of infections for the lowest cost). Here, we focus on PrEP to elucidate where, and to whom, it would optimally be offered in portfolios of interventions (alongside voluntary medical male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and behaviour change communication). Over a range of continental expenditure levels, we use our model to explore prevention patterns that incorporate PrEP, exclude PrEP, or implement PrEP according to a fixed incidence threshold. At low-to-moderate levels of total prevention expenditure, we find that the optimal intervention portfolios would include PrEP in only a few regions and primarily for female sex workers (FSW). Prioritisation of PrEP would expand with increasing total expenditure, such that the optimal prevention portfolios would offer PrEP in more subnational regions and increasingly for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the lower incidence general population. The marginal benefit of including PrEP among the available interventions increases with overall expenditure by up to 14% (relative to excluding PrEP). The minimum baseline incidence for the optimal offer of PrEP declines for all population groups as expenditure increases. We find that using

  7. ALK status testing in non-small-cell lung carcinoma by FISH on ThinPrep slides with cytology material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minca, Eugen C; Lanigan, Christopher P; Reynolds, Jordan P; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Patrick C; Cicenia, Joseph; Almeida, Francisco A; Pennell, Nathan A; Tubbs, Raymond R

    2014-04-01

    Oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) provide the basis for targeted therapy with crizotinib and other specific ALK inhibitors. Treatment eligibility is conventionally determined by the Food and Drug Administration-approved companion diagnostic fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay on paraffin-embedded tissue (PET). On limited samples such as fine needle aspiration-derived cytoblocks, FISH for ALK is often uninformative. FISH performed on liquid-based ThinPrep slides (ThinPrep-FISH) may represent a robust alternative. Two hundred thirty cytology samples from 217 patients with advanced NSCLC, including a consecutive series of 179 specimens, were used to generate matched ThinPrep slides and paraffin cytoblocks. The same ThinPrep slides used for cytologic diagnosis were assessed by standard ALK break-apart two-color probe FISH, after etching of tumor areas. Ultrasensitive ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) on corresponding cytoblocks [D5F3 antibody, OptiView signal amplification] served as the reference data set. ThinPrep-FISH ALK signals were robust in 228 of 230 cases and not compromised by nuclear truncation inherent in paraffin-embedded tissue-FISH; only two samples displayed no signals. Nine of 178 informative cases (5%) in the consecutive series and 18 of 228 informative cases (7.8%) overall were ALK rearranged by ThinPrep-FISH. In 154 informative matched ThinPrep-FISH and cytoblock-IHC samples, 152 were concordant (10, 6.5% ALK status positive; 142, 92.2% ALK status negative), and two (1.3%) were ThinPrep-FISH positive but IHC negative (sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.6%, overall agreement 98.7%). Detection of ALK gene rearrangements in liquid cytology ThinPrep slides derived from patients with NSCLC can be confidently used for clinical ALK molecular testing.

  8. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use and Condomless Anal Sex: Evidence of Risk Compensation in a Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Moran, Kevin; Feinstein, Brian A; Forscher, Emily; Mustanski, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective at preventing HIV acquisition. It remains unclear if PrEP use increases rates of condomless sex (ie, risk compensation), which may increase risk of infection if PrEP adherence is not optimal. This study aimed to examine whether PrEP use and PrEP adherence were associated with change in sexual risk behaviors in a large longitudinal cohort of YMSM reporting on multiple sexual partnerships over time. Data were obtained from the first 3 visits of an ongoing cohort study of YMSM in Chicago (analytic N = 953; 14.1% HIV-positive at baseline). Participants reported up to 4 sexual partnerships at each visit, including sexual behavior, PrEP use, and PrEP adherence within partnerships. YMSM reported higher rates of receptive condomless anal sex (CAS) in partnerships during which they were on PrEP compared with those when they were not on PrEP. This association was consistent across both HIV-negative and HIV-positive participants reporting on partnerships with both perceived HIV-negative/unknown and HIV-positive partners. The rate of receptive CAS was higher in PrEP nonadherent partnerships compared with non-PrEP partnerships. The rate of receptive CAS was also higher in PrEP nonadherent than adherent partnerships, but this was not statistically significant. These analyses provide compelling data suggesting that YMSM are engaging in risk compensation when on PrEP. If rates of receptive CAS are highest among YMSM who are PrEP nonadherent, PrEP as a prevention strategy could fail to curb HIV incidence among YMSM.

  9. Towards a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasi, Giovanni; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Baruch, Ricardo; Guanira, Juan Vicente; Luque, Ricardo; Cáceres, Carlos F; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool. We discuss the barriers and solutions for a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention strategies in Latin America. Although demonstration projects are ongoing or being planned in a number of countries, to date no Latin American country has implemented a public PrEP programme. The knowledge of policymakers about PrEP implementation needs to be strengthened, and programmatic guidance and cost estimate tools need to be developed to support adequate planning. Despite high levels of awareness among health providers, especially if engaged in HIV or key population care, willingness to prescribe PrEP is still low due to the lack of national policies and guidelines. Key populations, especially men who have sex with men, transgender women and sex workers, have been engaged in demonstration projects, and qualitative research shows high awareness and willingness to use PrEP, especially if accessible in the public sector for free or at affordable price. Concerns of safety, adherence, effectiveness and risk compensation need to be addressed through targeted social communication strategies to improve PrEP knowledge and stimulate demand. Alliance among policymakers, civil society and representatives from key populations, healthcare providers and researchers will be critical for the design and successful implementation of PrEP demonstration projects of locally adapted delivery models. The use of mechanisms of joint negotiation and procurement of antiretrovirals

  10. Evaluation of the Illumina ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit - MPS forensic application for the MiSeq FGx™ benchtop sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Catarina; Parson, Walther

    2017-05-01

    Massively Parallel (Next Generation) Sequencing (MPS) technologies have recently been proven useful and successful in typing various markers relevant in forensic genetics, such as STRs, SNPs and mitochondrial genomes. Early studies investigated self-developed DNA libraries, commercially supplied kits are currently being made available to allow a smoother and gradual implementation of such technologies in forensic laboratories. The ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit (Illumina, CA) is the first commercially available STR kit that can be used on the MiSeq FGx™ (Illumina, CA) benchtop high-throughput sequencer. This kit allows the simultaneous typing of 59 STRs and up to 172 SNPs in a single reaction and presents a short library preparation protocol adapted to contemporary forensic requirements. In this study, we evaluated the beta version of the ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit MiSeq FGx system by investigating reproducibility, sensitivity, mixtures, concordance, casework-type and aDNA samples and found it to perform successfully, proving to be a robust method for future forensic applications. MPS brings the possibility of complex multiplexing, high sensitivity and sequencing resolution to forensics; however, the need for consensual directions on databasing, data storage and nomenclature must be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PreP+07: improvements of a user friendly tool to preprocess and analyse microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claros M Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, microarray gene expression analysis is a widely used technology that scientists handle but whose final interpretation usually requires the participation of a specialist. The need for this participation is due to the requirement of some background in statistics that most users lack or have a very vague notion of. Moreover, programming skills could also be essential to analyse these data. An interactive, easy to use application seems therefore necessary to help researchers to extract full information from data and analyse them in a simple, powerful and confident way. Results PreP+07 is a standalone Windows XP application that presents a friendly interface for spot filtration, inter- and intra-slide normalization, duplicate resolution, dye-swapping, error removal and statistical analyses. Additionally, it contains two unique implementation of the procedures – double scan and Supervised Lowess-, a complete set of graphical representations – MA plot, RG plot, QQ plot, PP plot, PN plot – and can deal with many data formats, such as tabulated text, GenePix GPR and ArrayPRO. PreP+07 performance has been compared with the equivalent functions in Bioconductor using a tomato chip with 13056 spots. The number of differentially expressed genes considering p-values coming from the PreP+07 and Bioconductor Limma packages were statistically identical when the data set was only normalized; however, a slight variability was appreciated when the data was both normalized and scaled. Conclusion PreP+07 implementation provides a high degree of freedom in selecting and organizing a small set of widely used data processing protocols, and can handle many data formats. Its reliability has been proven so that a laboratory researcher can afford a statistical pre-processing of his/her microarray results and obtain a list of differentially expressed genes using PreP+07 without any programming skills. All of this gives support to scientists

  12. A Closer Look at Racism and Heterosexism in Medical Students' Clinical Decision-Making Related to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Implications for PrEP Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Krakower, Douglas S; Underhill, Kristen; Vincent, Wilson; Magnus, Manya; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2018-04-01

    Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants reported anticipated patient behavior (condomless sex, extra-relational sex, and adherence), intention to prescribe PrEP to the patient, biases, and background characteristics. Minimal evidence for racism affecting clinical decision-making emerged. In unadjusted analyses, heterosexism indirectly affected prescribing intention via all anticipated behaviors, tested as parallel mediators. Participants expressing greater heterosexism more strongly anticipated increased risk behavior and adherence problems, which were associated with lower prescribing intention. The indirect effect via condomless sex remained significant adjusting for background characteristics. Prior PrEP education did not buffer any indirect effects. Heterosexism may compromise PrEP provision to MSM and should be addressed in PrEP-related medical education.

  13. Comparison of Plasmagel with LeucoPREP-Macrodex methods for separation of leukocytes for virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G L; Proffitt, M R

    1987-10-01

    Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, NY), which can separate both polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cells from other blood components, and LeucoPREP (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems, Mountain View, CA), which can separate mononuclear cells from other blood components, were used to harvest leukocytes from whole blood for the purpose of virus isolation. Macrodex was combined with the later, in a second step, for recovery of PMN. Of 90 peripheral blood specimens examined, cytomegalovirus was recovered from 10: in six by both methods, in three from Plasmagel prepared cells only, and in one from cells from the LeucoPREP-Macrodex preparation only. Total leukocyte counts, differential counts, and leukocyte viability did not differ significantly for the two methods. Plasmagel provided an efficient, inexpensive means of harvesting leukocytes from whole blood for virus isolation.

  14. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF BELAMCANDA BY MPLC, HSCCC AND PREP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Liang, Yong; Peng, Cuilin; Xie, Huichun; Pan, Man; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Combined with medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for separation and purification of isoflavonoids from the extract of belamcanda. HSCCC separation was performed on a two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether -ethyl acetate - n-butyl alcohol - acetonitrile -0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid at a volume radio of 1:2:1:1:5. Semi-purified peak fractions from HSCCC separation were further purified by Prep-HPLC. Nine well-separated fractions were analyzed by HPLC-UV absorption spectrometry to determine their purities and characterized with ESI-MS(n). Except for peaksland VII (unknown) seven compounds were identified as apocynin (peak II), mangiferin (peak III), 7-O-methylmangiferin (peak IV), hispidulin (peak V), 3'-hydroxyltectoridin (peak VI), iristectorin B (peak VII), isoiridin (peak IX).

  15. Swords, Shields, and the Fight for Our Children: Lessons from Urban Prep

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The grim statistics are well known, but bear repeating: in Chicago, close to 60% of Black boys do not graduate from high school, and only one in forty receive a bachelor's degree by age 25. In the fall of 2006, Urban Prep Charter Academy for Young Men-Englewood Campus, the nation's first all-male charter public high school, was opened. In 2010 and…

  16. Syndemics among individuals enrolled in the PrEP Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, Raquel B; Machado, Iona K; De Vasconcellos, Mauricio T L; Hoagland, Brenda; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Fernandes, Nilo M; Cerqueira, Natalia B; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Goulart, Silvia P; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Luz, Paula M

    2018-02-10

    Concurrent psychosocial problems may synergistically increase the risk of HIV infection (syndemics), representing a challenge for prevention. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of syndemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) enrolled in the Brazilian pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration study (PrEP Brasil Study). Secondary cross-sectional analysis of the PrEP Brasil Study was performed. Of 450 HIV-seronegative MSM/TGW enrolled in the PrEP Brasil Study- conducted at Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil- 421 participants with complete data were included in the present analysis. Syndemics was defined as occurrence of ≥2 of the following conditions: polysubstance (≥2) use, binge drinking, positive depression screen, compulsive sexual behavior, and intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of recent polysubstance use was 22.8%, binge drinking 51.1%, positive depression screening 5.2%, compulsive sexual behavior 7.1%, and IPV 7.3%. Syndemics prevalence was 24.2%, and associated factors were younger age (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.92-0.98 per year increase), TGW vs. MSM (aOR 3.09, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0), some college education or more vs. less than college (aOR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.31-4.75), and multiple male sexual partners in prior 3 months (aOR 1.69, 95% CI: 0.92-3.14). Given the high prevalence of syndemics, particularly of polysubstance use and binge drinking, PrEP delivery offers an opportunity to diagnose and intervene in mental and social well-being. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PREP, Input Preparation for Monte-Carlo Program SPOP. SPOP-4, Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Monte-Carlo Program with Input from PREP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltelli, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - The PREP program (data PRE Processing Unit) prepares samples for a Monte Carlo simulation using the distribution functions of the input variables. Any degree of correlation among the variables can be requested in the input. The SPOP program (Statistics Post Processing Unit) is used for performing uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis on the output of the simulation runs. SPOP provides for each output variable - a histogram and cumulative distribution; - confidence bounds on the cumulative distribution; - mean and confidence bounds on the mean; - estimate of the sensitivity of each output variable to card input variable. 2 - Method of solution: The sampling in PREP can be carried out purely random or by using the Latin Hypercube Technique (LHS). The technique of Iman and Conover is used to eliminate spurious correlations or to impose pre-specified correlations. The prepared samples are stored on an external file for further use. SPOP uses Kolmogorov statistics for estimating confidence bounds on the cumulative distribution and the Tschebyscheff's theorem for the mean end confidence bounds on the mean. The estimation of sensitivities are carried out using: - Smirnov's test; - Spearman's test; - Cramer test; - Two sample T test; - Kendall's test; - Mann-Whitney's test; - Klotz's test; - Sum of squared ranks' test

  18. Minimal Awareness and Stalled Uptake of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among at Risk, HIV-Negative, Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driffin, Daniel D.; Bauermeister, Jose; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, rates of HIV infection are highest among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective form of HIV prevention, but the uptake of this strategy has been slow since FDA approval in 2012, and it is unknown whether information about PrEP is reaching BMSM. Four hundred and thirty-six BMSM in Atlanta, GA were surveyed from January 2012 (6 months prior to PrEP approval) to March 2014 (20 months after approval). Analyses revealed no association between date of survey assessment and awareness of PrEP (20.5% were aware of PrEP before approval and 23.4% were aware after approval; OR=0.99 [0.98–1.02], p=0.952). In a multivariate model, BMSM unaware of PrEP reported lower rates of HIV testing knowledge, fewer experiences with HIV testing, and higher rates of transactional sex than BMSM who were aware of PrEP. Our findings suggest that there is limited understanding of PrEP and that there is considerable groundwork that needs to be achieved in order to reap the full benefits of PrEP. The current findings call attention to the need to both prioritize and better understand how to strengthen the bridge between medical advances and community uptake. PMID:26083143

  19. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  20. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  1. Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women who inject drugs in NYC: the importance of networks and syringe exchange programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2017-06-29

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used. Bivariable analyses, using chi-squared statistics, were conducted to examine correlates of awareness of PrEP with socio-demographic, behavioral, and health care variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted associations and determine differences in awareness of PrEP. The analysis consisted of 118 WWID. Awareness of PrEP was relatively low (31%), and risk factors were high. In the last 12 months, almost two thirds (65%) reported condomless sex, approximately one third (31%) reported transactional sex, and one third (32%) reported sharing injection equipment. In multivariable logistic regression, increased PrEP awareness was associated with reported transactional sex (AOR 3.32, 95% CI 1.22-9.00) and having a conversation about HIV prevention at a syringe exchange program (SEP) (AOR 7.61, 95% CI 2.65-21.84). We did not find race, education, household income, age, binge drinking, or sexual identity to be significantly associated with PrEP awareness. Large proportions of WWID were unaware of PrEP. These findings suggest that social networks (specifically sex work and SEP networks) are an efficient means for disseminating messaging about prevention materials such as PrEP. We recommend that SEP access increase, SEP processes be adopted in other health care settings, and WWID networks be utilized to increase PrEP awareness.

  2. Fertility Intentions, Pregnancy, and Use of PrEP and ART for Safer Conception Among East African HIV Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Thomson, Kerry; Celum, Connie; Haberer, Jessica; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Katabira, Elly; Odoyo, Josephine; Bulya, Nulu; Asiimwe, Stephen; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-09-11

    African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known. We conducted an open-label demonstration project of the integrated delivery of PrEP and ART among 1013 HIV serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda followed quarterly for 2 years. We evaluated fertility intentions, pregnancy incidence, the use of PrEP and ART during peri-conception, and peri-conception HIV incidence. At enrollment, 80% of couples indicated a desire for more children. Pregnancy incidence rates were 18.5 and 18.7 per 100 person years among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women, and higher among women who recently reported fertility intention (adjusted odds ratio 3.43, 95% CI 2.38-4.93) in multivariable GEE models. During the 6 months preceding pregnancy, 82.9% of couples used PrEP or ART and there were no HIV seroconversions. In this cohort with high pregnancy rates, integrated PrEP and ART was readily used by HIV serodiscordant couples, including during peri-conception periods. Widespread scale-up of safer conception counseling and services is warranted to respond to strong desires for pregnancy among HIV-affected men and women.

  3. Flanking region variation of ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit STR and SNP loci in Yavapai Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; King, Jonathan L; Novroski, Nicole M M; Churchill, Jennifer D; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers advantages over current capillary electrophoresis-based analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) loci for human identification testing. In particular STR repeat motif sequence information can be obtained, thereby increasing the discrimination power of some loci. While sequence variation within the repeat region is observed relatively frequently in some of the commonly used STRs, there is an additional degree of variation found in the flanking regions adjacent to the repeat motif. Repeat motif and flanking region sequence variation have been described for major population groups, however, not for more isolated populations. Flanking region sequence variation in STR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the Yavapai population was analyzed using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit and STRait Razor v2s. Seven and 14 autosomal STRs and identity-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (iiSNPs), respectively, had some degree of flanking region variation. Three and four of these identity-informative loci, respectively, showed ≥5% increase in expected heterozygosity. The combined length- and sequence-based random match probabilities (RMPs) for 27 autosomal STRs were 6.11×10 -26 and 2.79×10 -29 , respectively. When combined with 94 iiSNPs (a subset of which became microhaplotypes) the combined RMP was 5.49×10 -63 . Analysis of length-based and sequence-based autosomal STRs in STRUCTURE indicated that the Yavapai are most similar to the Hispanic population. While producing minimal increase in X- and Y-STR discrimination potential, access to flanking region data enabled identification of one novel X-STR and three Y-STR alleles relative to previous reports. Five ancestry-informative SNPs (aiSNPs) and two phenotype-informative SNPs (piSNPs) exhibited notable flanking region variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  5. An Exploratory Investigation of the Promoting Responsibility through Education and Prevention (PREP) after School Program for African American At-Risk Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Elizabeth; Weil, Virginia; Kryah, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) program is an after school substance abuse and violence prevention program for at-risk fourth and fifth grade youths in St. Louis, Missouri. Staffed by licensed clinical social workers and professional volunteers, PREP offers cultural cooking classes, yoga, and art as well as…

  6. Trends in Awareness and Use of HIV PrEP Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men who have Sex with Men in Vancouver, Canada 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Terrance; Khaketla, Moliehi; Armstrong, Heather L; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Hull, Mark W; Olarewaju, Gbolahan; Jollimore, Jody; Edward, Joshua; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A; Moore, David M

    2018-01-17

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) are at the highest risk for HIV infection in British Columbia (BC). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recently licensed but is currently not publicly funded in BC. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a cohort of gbMSM to complete a computer-assisted self-interview with follow-up every 6 months. Stratified by HIV status, we examined trends in awareness of PrEP from 11/2012 to 02/2016 and factors associated with PrEP awareness. 732 participants responded to the PrEP awareness question. Awareness of PrEP among HIV-negative men increased from 18 to 80% (p HIV-positive men, awareness increased from 36 to 77% (p awareness was associated with factors related to HIV risk including sero-adaptive strategies and sexual sensation seeking. Eight HIV-negative men reported using PrEP. Low PrEP uptake highlights that PrEP access should be expanded for at-risk gbMSM in BC.

  7. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojilla, J. Carlo; Koester, Kimberly A.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP Demonstration Project to assess how men who have sex with men (MSM) used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was ‘seasonal’ and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts. PMID:25835463

  8. 'WTF is PrEP?': attitudes towards pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Matthew; Grosso, Ashley; Zapata, Richard; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2017-10-06

    In the USA, gay and other men who have sex with men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV-negative individuals from seroconverting if exposed to HIV, by members of this population remains low, particularly among African-Americans. We conducted two focus groups to assess responses to an online social media campaign focusing on PrEP use in New York City. We designed, produced and disseminated the campaign to address knowledge of PrEP; its physical and psychological side effects; and psychosocial barriers related to PrEP adherence and sex shaming. Focus group participants demonstrated a relatively high knowledge of PrEP, although considerable concern remained about side effects, particularly among Black participants. Participants suggested that stigma against PrEP users was declining as PrEP use became more common, but stigma remained, particularly for those not using condoms. Many focus group participants reported distrust of medical providers and were critical of the commodification of HIV prevention by the pharmaceutical industry. Participants reported that those in romantic relationships confronted unique issues regarding PrEP, namely suspicions of infidelity. Finally, Black participants spoke of the need for more tailored and sensitive representations of Black gay men in future programmes and interventions.

  9. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF BELAMCANDA BY MPLC, HSCCC AND PREP-HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohong; Liang, Yong; Peng, Cuilin; Xie, Huichun; Pan, Man; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Combined with medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for separation and purification of isoflavonoids from the extract of belamcanda. HSCCC separation was performed on a two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether -ethyl acetate - n-butyl alcohol – acetonitrile −0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid at a volume radio of 1:2:1:1:5. Semi-p...

  10. High test-retest-reliability of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgül, Özüm Simal; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Vollert, Jan; Fischer, Marc; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2017-04-24

    Pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) is an established electrophysiological method to evaluate the signal transmission of electrically stimulated A-delta fibres. Although prerequisite for its clinical use, test-retest-reliability and side-to-side differences of bilateral stimulation in healthy subjects have not been examined yet. We performed PREP twice within 3-14days in 33 healthy subjects bilaterally by stimulating the dorsal hand. Detection (DT) and pain thresholds (PT) after electrical stimulation, the corresponding pain ratings, latencies of P0, N1, P1 and N2 components and the corresponding amplitudes were assessed. Impact of electrically induced pain intensity, age, sex, and arm length on PREP was analysed. MANOVA, t-Test, interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Bland-Altmann-Analysis as well as ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis. Measurement from both sides on both days resulted in mean N1-latencies from 142.39±18.12ms to 144.03±16.62ms and in mean N1P1-amplitudes from 39.04±12.26μV to 40.53±12.9μV. Analysis of a side-to-side effect showed for the N1-latency a F-value of 0.038 and for the N1P1-amplitude of 0.004 (p>0.8). We found intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) from 0.88 to 0.93 and a standard error of measurement (SEM)test-retest-reliability for N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude without systematic error and there was no side-to-side effect on PREP. N1-latency (r=0.35, ptest-retest-reliability and negligible side-to-side differences concerning the commonly used parameters N1-latency and N1P1-amplitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-12-02

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preventing HIV among adolescents with oral PrEP: observations and challenges in the United States and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Sybil; Celum, Connie; Wilson, Craig M; Kapogiannis, Bill; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents and young adults aged <25 are a key population in the HIV epidemic, with very high HIV incidence rates in many geographic settings and a large number who have limited access to prevention services. Thus, any biomedical HIV prevention approach should prepare licensure and implementation strategies for young populations. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the first antiretroviral-based prevention intervention with proven efficacy across many settings and populations, and regulatory and policy approvals at global and national levels are occurring rapidly. We discuss available data from studies in the United States and South Africa on the use of oral PrEP for HIV prevention in adolescent minors, along with some of the implementation challenges. Discussion Ongoing studies in the United States and South Africa among youth under the age of 18 should provide the safety data needed by the end of 2016 to contribute to licensure of Truvada as daily PrEP in adolescents. The challenges of completing these studies as well as foreseeable broader challenges highlighted by this work are presented. Adherence to daily PrEP is a greater challenge for younger populations, and poor adherence was associated with decreased efficacy in all PrEP trials. Individual-level barriers include limited familiarity with antiretroviral-based prevention, stigma, product storage, and social support. Structural challenges include healthcare financing for PrEP, clinician acceptability and comfort with PrEP delivery, and the limited youth-friendly health services available. These challenges are discussed in the context of the work done to date in the United States and South Africa, but will likely be magnified in the setting of limited resources in many other countries that are heavily impacted by HIV. Conclusions Adolescent populations are particularly vulnerable to HIV, and oral PrEP in these populations is likely to have an impact on population-level HIV incidence. The

  13. When are declines in condom use while using PrEP a concern? Modelling insights from a Hillbrow, South Africa case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Hannah; Mukandavire, Zindoga; Eakle, Robyn; Prudden, Holly; B Gomez, Gabriela; Rees, Helen; Watts, Charlotte

    2017-09-20

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new prevention approach for those most at risk of HIV infection. However, there are concerns that behavioural disinhibition, specifically reductions in condom use, might limit PrEP's protective effect. This study uses the case of female sex workers (FSWs) in Johannesburg, South Africa, to assess whether decreased levels of condom use following the introduction of PrEP may limit HIV risk reduction. We developed a static model of HIV risk and compared HIV-risk estimates before and after the introduction of PrEP to determine the maximum tolerated reductions in condom use with regular partners and clients for HIV risk not to change. The model incorporated the effects of increased STI exposure owing to decreased condom use. Noting that condom use with regular partners is generally low, we also estimated the change in condom use tolerated with clients only, to still achieve 50 and 90% risk reduction on PrEP. The model was parameterized using data from Hillbrow, Johannesburg. Sensitivity analyses were performed to ascertain the robustness of our results. Reductions in condom use could be tolerated by FSWs with lower baseline condom use (65%). For scenarios where 75% PrEP effectiveness is attained, 50% HIV-risk reduction on PrEP would be possible even with 100% reduction in condom use from consistent condom use as high as 70% with clients. Increased exposure to STIs through reductions in condom use had limited effect on the reductions in condom use tolerated for HIV risk not to increase on PrEP. PrEP is likely to be of benefit in reducing HIV risk, even if reductions in condom use do occur. Efforts to promote consistent condom use will be critical for FSWs with high initial levels of condom use, but with challenges in adhering to PrEP.

  14. [Value of computer-assisted slide-screening system in ThinPrep cervical cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tao, Kun; Yang, Hua; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Yue-Mei; Tan, Zhen-Yu

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the value of computer-assisted slide-screening system (ThinPrep imaging system, TIS) in the diagnosis of cervical Thinprep smears. A total of 19 600 ThinPrep smears were collected, including 9800 slides by TIS-assisted screening from September 2011 to March 2012 and 9800 slides by manual screening from September 2010 to April 2011 as control. The detection rates of abnormal cells and common microbial infection by the different screening methods were compared. With histopathological diagnosis of colposcopic biopsy as the gold standard, the screening efficiency and correlation of cytologic diagnosis among different screening methods were analyzed. Compared with manual screening, the detection rate of abnormal cells in 9800 cases by TIS-assisted screen was increased from 5.4% (525/9800) to 6.8% (665/9800), mainly in the categories of ASCUS and LSIL (P advantages and disadvantages respectively in the detection of microbial organisms. TIS improved screening efficiency by 50%. TIS improves not only the screening efficiency but also the detection of abnormal cells with a reduced false negativity, and it therefore has a broad application prospect.

  15. Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 9, 1997--July 25, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The 1997 Houston Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted at the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 9 to July 25, 1997. Program participants were recruited from the Greater Houston Area. All participants were identified as high-achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Clear Creek, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 194 students starting the program, 165 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups under-represented in the engineering and science professions, and 118 of the 194 were women. Our First Year group for 1997 composed of 96% minority and women students. Second and Third Year students combined were 96% minority or women. With financial support from the Center for Computational Sciences and Advanced Distributed Simulation, the Fourth Year Program was added to PREP this year. Twelve students completed the program (83% minority or women).

  16. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers' Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Calabrese

    Full Text Available Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers' adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers' firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription-financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation-as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014-2015. One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18 primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67% or Southern (22% U.S. Nearly all (94% were medical doctors (MDs, most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred. Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered

  17. Views of policymakers, healthcare workers and NGOs on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): a multinational qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheelock, Ana; Eisingerich, Andreas B.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Gray, Emily; Dybul, Mark R.; Piot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To examine policymakers and providers' views on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and their willingness to support its introduction, to inform policy and practice in this emerging field. Semistructured qualitative interview study. Peru, Ukraine, India, Kenya, Uganda, Botswana and South Africa. 35

  18. Corporate Etiquette and Human Relations: Building Confidence and Competence for the Workplace...Supplemental Materials for Tech Prep Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elaine S.; Palmer, Harriet S.

    This guide contains six learning modules that together constitute a minicourse in corporate etiquette designed to give tech prep students the social skills and business etiquette skills needed to conduct a successful job search. The following topics are covered in the individual modules: social etiquette (making introductions, use of first names,…

  19. The Boeing Company's Tech Prep Story: A Community College Bridge to the School-to-Work Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Carver; Parnell, Dale

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Boeing Tech Prep Program, an associate degree program combining high school and community college vocational and academic curricula. Describes the three phases of the program's development: the provision of seed grants to schools, the development of an associate degree program, and the institution of an internship program. (MAB)

  20. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  1. Awareness and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; De Boni, Raquel B; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Madruga, José Valdez; Kallas, Esper G; Goulart, Silvia Pereira; Cerqueira, Natalia; Torres, Thiago S; Luz, Paula M; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Liu, Albert Y; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G

    2017-05-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended to prevent HIV infection among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) though not available in Brazil where the HIV epidemic persists unabated in this group. This cross-sectional study describes PrEP awareness and willingness and associated factors among MSM and transvestite/transgender women (trans women) pre-screened for the PrEP Brasil study. Awareness was reported by 61.3 % of the participants and was associated with age, education, site, study period and prior HIV testing. Most participants (82.1 %) were willing to use PrEP, which was associated with site, study period, number of male condomless anal sexual partners and anal sex with HIV positive/unknown partners. PrEP information is need among young and less educated individuals. Willingness to use PrEP was high and future studies should be conducted to confirm PrEP acceptability and the characteristics of the population who chose to adopt this intervention.

  2. The Effect of PrEP on HIV Incidence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Context of Condom Use, Treatment as Prevention, and Seroadaptive Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVasseur, Michael T; Goldstein, Neal D; Tabb, Loni P; Olivieri-Mui, Brianne L; Welles, Seth L

    2018-01-01

    HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective tool in preventing HIV infection among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). It is unknown how effective PrEP is in the context of other implemented HIV prevention strategies, including condom use, seroadaption, and treatment as prevention (TasP). We evaluate the impact of increasing uptake of PrEP in conjunction with established prevention strategies on HIV incidence in a high-risk population of MSM through simulation. Agent-based simulation models representing the sexual behavior of high-risk, urban MSM in the United States over the period of 1 year were used to evaluate the effect of PrEP on HIV infection rates. Simulations included data for 10,000 MSM and compared increasing rates of PrEP uptake under 8 prevention paradigms: no additional strategies, TasP, condom use, seroadaptive behavior, and combinations thereof. We observed a mean of 103.2 infections per 10,000 MSM in the absence of any prevention method. PrEP uptake at 25% without any additional prevention strategies prevented 30.7% of infections. In the absence of PrEP, TasP, condom use, and seroadaptive behavior independently prevented 27.1%, 48.8%, and 37.7% of infections, respectively, and together prevented 72.2%. The addition of PrEP to the 3 aforementioned prevention methods, at 25% uptake, prevented an additional 5.0% of infections. To achieve a 25% reduction in HIV infections by 2020, HIV prevention efforts should focus on significantly scaling up access to PrEP in addition to HIV testing, access to antiretroviral therapy, and promoting condom use.

  3. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Arnold

    Full Text Available A recent clinical trial demonstrated that a daily dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabrine (TDF-FTC can reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG women by 44%, and up to 90% if taken daily. We explored how medical and service providers understand research results and plan to develop clinical protocols to prescribe, support and monitor adherence for patients on PrEP in the United States.Using referrals from our community collaborators and snowball sampling, we recruited 22 healthcare providers in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles for in-depth interviews from May-December 2011. The providers included primary care physicians seeing high numbers of MSM and TG women, HIV specialists, community health clinic providers, and public health officials. We analyzed interviews thematically to produce recommendations for setting policy around implementing PrEP. Interview topics included: assessing clinician impressions of PrEP and CDC guidance, considerations of cost, office capacity, dosing schedules, and following patients over time.Little or no demand for PrEP from patients was reported at the time of the interviews. Providers did not agree on the most appropriate patients for PrEP and believed that current models of care, which do not involve routine frequent office visits, were not well suited for prescribing PrEP. Providers detailed the need to build capacity and were concerned about monitoring side effects and adherence. PrEP was seen as potentially having impact on the epidemic but providers also noted that community education campaigns needed to be tailored to effectively reach specific vulnerable populations.While PrEP may be a novel and clinically compelling prevention intervention for MSM and TG women, it raises a number of important implementation challenges that would need to be addressed. Nonetheless, most providers expressed optimism that they eventually could prescribe and monitor PrEP

  4. A randomized clinical pharmacokinetic trial of Tenofovir in blood, plasma and urine in adults with perfect, moderate and low PrEP adherence: the TARGET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Tim R; Siriprakaisil, Oraphan; Klinbuayaem, Virat; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Kubiak, Rachel W; Sukrakanchana, Pra-Ornsuda; Than-In-At, Kanchana; Baeten, Jared; Sirirungsi, Wasna; Cressey, Ratchada; Drain, Paul K

    2017-07-14

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is key component of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, but existing tools to monitor drug adherence are often inaccurate. Detection of tenofovir (TFV) in accessible biological samples, such as fingerprick blood, urine or oral fluid samples could be a novel objective measure of recent TDF adherence. To measure TFV concentrations associated with different levels of TDF adherence, we designed a randomized clinical trial to assess the blood, urine and oral fluid concentrations of TFV in adults with perfect, moderate and low drug adherence. A randomized, open-label, clinical pharmacokinetic study of tenofovir in healthy adult volunteers without HIV or Hepatitis B infection in Thailand. Consenting, eligible participants are randomized (1:1:1) among three groups to receive a controlled number of TDF (300 mg) doses in a combination pill with emtricitabine (FTC, 200 mg) for six weeks. Participants in Group 1 receive a single TDF/FTC tablet once daily (Perfect adherence); Group 2 receive a single TDF/FTC tablet 4 times/week (Moderate adherence); and Group 3 receive a single TDF/FTC tablet 2 times/week (Low adherence). Blood, plasma, urine and oral fluid samples are collected for drug measurement during three study phases: (i) initial 6-week treatment phase; (ii) intensive 24-h blood sampling phase after 6 weeks; (iii) 4-week washout phase. Thirty adults with evaluable pharmacokinetic samples (10 per group) will be enrolled [based on ensuring 25% precision in pharmacokinetic parameter estimates]. Pre-dose drug concentrations during the treatment phase will be descriptive and comparisons between groups performed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. A non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis will be performed on the intensive sampling data at Week 7 and the time course of TFV washout in the difference biological matrices will be reported based on the detected concentrations following drug cessation. The

  5. "I Did Not Want to Give Birth to a Child Who has HIV": Experiences Using PrEP During Pregnancy Among HIV-Uninfected Kenyan Women in HIV-Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Beima-Sofie, Kristin M; Kimemia, Grace; Ngure, Kenneth; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Heffron, Renee A; Baeten, Jared M; Odoyo, Josephine; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kelley, Maureen C; John-Stewart, Grace C

    2017-11-01

    The perceptions, motivations, and beliefs of HIV-uninfected women about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use during pregnancy can influence its uptake and adherence. This study elicited the views of HIV-uninfected women with personal experience taking PrEP during pregnancy. Qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-uninfected women who had personal experience taking PrEP while pregnant. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 HIV-uninfected Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an open-label PrEP demonstration project who became pregnant while using PrEP and continued PrEP through their pregnancy. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed into English. A qualitative descriptive analysis was performed, using a constant comparison approach to identify key themes related to PrEP use in pregnancy. Desire to remain HIV uninfected and have an HIV-free infant were strong motivators influencing continued use of PrEP during pregnancy. Supporting HIV-infected partners and childbearing within an HIV-serodiscordant relationship were also motivators. Women had challenges distinguishing normal pregnancy symptoms from PrEP side effects and were concerned that observed side effects could be signs of danger for the infant related to PrEP exposure. Health care providers were important conduits of knowledge about PrEP, and continuity of PrEP providers throughout pregnancy facilitated adherence. HIV-uninfected women in HIV-serodiscordant couples were motivated to use PrEP during pregnancy to remain HIV uninfected and to have an HIV-free child but had concerns about side effects. Health care providers will be important for PrEP messaging and adherence support in this unique population.

  6. PREPS2 - a PC-based computer program for performing economic analysis of capital projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, M.W.; Brand, D.O.; Chastain, E.T.; Johnson, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    In these times of increased spending to finance new capacity and to meet clean air act legislation, many electric utilities are giving a high priority to controlling capital expenditures at existing generating facilities. Determining the level of capital expenditures which are economically justified is very difficult; units which have higher capacity factors are worth more to the utility. Therefore, the utility can more readily justify higher capital expenditures to improve or maintain reliability and heat rate than on units with lower capacity factors. This paper describes a PC-based computer program (PREPS2) which performs an economic analysis of individual capital projects. The program incorporates tables which describe the worth to the system of making improvements in each unit. This computer program is currently being used by the six Southern Company operating companies to evaluate all production capital projects over $50,000. Approximately 500 projects representing about $300 million are being analyzed each year

  7. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcelino Farias-Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth.

  8. Houston prefreshman enrichment program (Houston PREP). Final report, June 10, 1996--August 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The 1996 Houston Pre-freshman Enrichment Program (PREP) was conducted on the campus of the University of Houston-Downtown from June 10 to August 1, 1996. Program Participants were recruited from the Greater Houston area. All participants were identified as high achieving students with an interest in learning about the engineering and science professions. The goal of the program was to better prepare our pre-college youth prior to entering college as mathematics, science and engineering majors. The program participants were middle school and high school students from the Aldine, Alief, Channel View, Crockett, Cypress-Fairbanks, Fort Bend, Galena Park, Houston, Humble, Katy, Klein, North Forest, Pasadena, Private, and Spring Branch Independent School Districts. Of the 197 students starting the program, 170 completed, 142 students were from economically and socially disadvantage groups underrepresented in the engineering and science professions, and 121 of the 197 were female. Our First Year group for 1996 composed of 96% minority and women students. Our Second and Third Year students were 100% and 93.75% minority or women respectively. This gave an overall minority and female population of 93.75%. This year, special efforts were again made to recruit students from minority groups, which caused a significant increase in qualified applicants. However, due to space limitations, 140 applicants were rejected. Investigative and discovery learning were key elements of PREP. The academic components of the program included Algebraic Structures, Engineering, Introduction to Computer Science, Introduction to Physics, Logic and Its Application to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics, Problem Solving Seminar using computers and PLATO software, SAT Preparatory Seminars, and Technical Writing.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of users of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) amongst men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2014 in a cross-sectional survey: Implications for disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Chen, Yea-Hung; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Henry F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has gained a central role in prevention of HIV infection amongst men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in San Francisco, California, USA. Programmes to enroll men in PrEP are being undertaken by a range of public and private organisations. PrEP will have the largest population impact if it reaches men who are most at risk for HIV infection, and is used in a manner that enables maximal efficacy. Access to PrEP also needs to be equitable. We report on the characteristics of men eligible for and using PrEP. Methods Data were from the 2014 implementation of National HIV Behavioural Surveillance (NHBS) amongst MSM in San Francisco. NHBS uses venue-based sampling as the national standard for sampling MSM. We compare proportions of demographic characteristics of MSM using versus not using PrEP who are HIV-negative and meet CDC guidelines to recommend PrEP. Results Overall, 64.1 % of HIV-negative MSM in San Francisco would meet guidelines for PrEP use, while 9.2 % of MSM overall and 14.5 % of MSM eligible were using PrEP as of 2014. Men using PrEP are more likely to be White and older age. There were no differences between men using and not using PrEP in terms of education, income and health insurance. Conclusions PrEP roll-out efforts should attempt to increase reach for young, Black and Hispanic MSM. Failure to equitably provide access to PrEP could exacerbate the US disparity in new HIV infections for men of colour. PMID:27356041

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of users of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2014 in a cross-sectional survey: implications for disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Chen, Yea-Hung; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has gained a central role in prevention of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in San Francisco, California, USA. Programmes to enrol men in PrEP are being undertaken by a range of public and private organisations. PrEP will have the largest population impact if it reaches men who are most at risk for HIV infection, and is used in a manner that enables maximal efficacy. Access to PrEP also needs to be equitable. We report on the characteristics of men eligible for and using PrEP. Data were from the 2014 implementation of National HIV Behavioural Surveillance (NHBS) among MSM in San Francisco. NHBS uses venue-based sampling as the national standard for sampling MSM. We compare proportions of demographic characteristics of MSM using versus not using PrEP who are HIV-negative and meet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines to recommend PrEP. Overall, 64.1% of HIV-negative MSM in San Francisco would meet guidelines for PrEP use, while 9.2% of MSM overall and 14.5% of MSM eligible were using PrEP as of 2014. Men using PrEP are more likely to be white and of older age. There were no differences between men using and not using PrEP in terms of education, income and health insurance. PrEP roll-out efforts should attempt to increase reach for young, black and Hispanic MSM. Failure to equitably provide access to PrEP could exacerbate the US disparity in new HIV infections for men of colour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit from it and if current regulatory and

  12. Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Its Impact on HIV-1 Transmission in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Carel; Stover, John; Bollinger, Lori; Bacaër, Nicolas; Williams, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background Mathematical modelers have given little attention to the question of how pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may impact on a generalized national HIV epidemic and its cost-effectiveness, in the context of control strategies such as condom use promotion and expanding ART programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We use an age- and gender-structured model of the generalized HIV epidemic in South Africa to investigate the potential impact of PrEP in averting new infections. The model utilizes age-structured mortality, fertility, partnership and condom use data to model the spread of HIV and the shift of peak prevalence to older age groups. The model shows that universal PrEP coverage would have to be impractically high to have a significant effect on incidence reduction while ART coverage expands. PrEP targeted to 15–35-year-old women would avert 10%–25% (resp. 13%–28%) of infections in this group and 5%–12% (resp. 7%–16%) of all infections in the period 2014–2025 if baseline incidence is 0.5% per year at 2025 (resp. 0.8% per year at 2025). The cost would be $12,500–$20,000 per infection averted, depending on the level of ART coverage and baseline incidence. An optimistic scenario of 30%–60% PrEP coverage, efficacy of at least 90%, no behavior change among PrEP users and ART coverage less than three times its 2010 levels is required to achieve this result. Targeting PrEP to 25–35-year-old women (at highest risk of infection) improves impact and cost-effectiveness marginally. Relatively low levels of condom substitution (e.g., 30%) do not nullify the efficacy of PrEP, but reduces cost-effectiveness by 35%–40%. Conclusions/Significance PrEP can avert as many as 30% of new infections in targeted age groups of women at highest risk of infection. The cost-effectiveness of PrEP relative to ART decreases rapidly as ART coverage increases beyond three times its coverage in 2010, after which the ART program would provide coverage to more than 65% of

  13. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use, Seroadaptation, and Sexual Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, San Francisco, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Snowden, Jonathan M; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2016-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration approved pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has presented PrEP as a prevention option for groups at high risk such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Intervention data provide some information on how PrEP affects sexual behavior of MSM in trials, open label extensions, or clinics. However, it is unclear whether sexual risk and preventive behavioral patterns are changing in the population as a whole as PrEP becomes more widely available, whether due to PrEP use or other factors. We examined trends in PrEP use, numbers of condomless anal sex partners, consistent condom use, and seroadaptive strategies in San Francisco-a city which has actively promoted PrEP-using data from National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS). NHBS recruited 1211, 383, 373, and 268 HIV-negative MSM in 2004, 2008, 2011, and 2014, respectively. PrEP use increased from zero in 2004, 2008, and 2011 to 9.6 % in 2014. The proportion of men with no condomless anal sex partners dropped from 60.6 % in 2004, to 58.2 % in 2008, to 54.2 % in 2011, to 40.2 % in 2014. Consistent condom use decreased from 36.8 % in 2004, and 30.5 % in 2008 and 2011, to 18.3 % in 2014. PrEP's introduction and scale-up enters in a pre-existing trend of decreasing condom use and increasing sexually transmitted infections among MSM which may be accelerating in recent years. While PrEP use should be scaled up as a prevention option among those who would benefit most, we believe that public health officials need to be realistic about the possibility that condom use could very well continue to decline as PrEP use increases, and to an extent that may not be directly or indirectly offset by PrEP.

  14. The HOXC13-controlled expression of early hair keratin genes in the human hair follicle does not involve TALE proteins MEIS and PREP as cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Schweizer, Jürgen

    2006-02-01

    We previously showed that the homeodomain protein HOXC13 is involved in the expression control of the early human hair keratin genes hHa5 and hHa2, which contain specific HOXC13 binding sites in their proximal promoters. Hox specificity is generally thought to be enhanced by the interaction with members of the TALE superclass of homeodomain proteins Pbx, Meis, and Prep. Using reverse transcription PCR with total human hair follicle RNA, we demonstrated transcripts of the major TALE proteins PBX1-4, MEIS1, 2 and PREP1, 2 in the human hair follicle. In view of the presence of MEIS/PREP responsive elements in close vicinity to the HOXC13 binding sites of the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, we determined the expression sites of these TALE proteins in the human hair follicle. We found that MEIS1, MEIS2, PREP1 and PREP2 were differentially expressed in the three layers of the inner root sheath. In addition, MEIS2 and PREP1 exhibited expression in the mid-to upper hair cortex, with PREP1 being also expressed in the dermal papilla and the connective tissue sheath of the hair follicle. In virtually all cases, the expression of these TALE proteins was exclusively cytoplasmic. Considering that in contrast, HOXC13 is expressed in the nuclei of matrix, precortex and lower cuticle cells of the hair follicle, our data suggest that despite the presence of MEIS/PREP binding sites in the hHa5 and hHa2 promoters, the HOXC13-controlled activation of these genes in the hair follicle does not seem to involve these TALE proteins as cofactors.

  15. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Mitchell, Kate M; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-03-01

    In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use-one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed 'pimps') was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP use among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindoga Mukandavire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use—one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed ‘pimps’ was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  17. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Golub, Sarit A

    2015-04-01

    In the USA, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention.

  18. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. Methods The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Results Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Conclusions Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention. PMID:25124457

  19. An HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Demonstration Project and Safety Study for Young MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Sybil; Rudy, Bret; Landovitz, Raphael; Kapogiannis, Bill; Siberry, George; Rutledge, Brandy; Liu, Nancy; Brothers, Jennifer; Mulligan, Kathleen; Zimet, Gregory; Lally, Michelle; Mayer, Ken; Anderson, Peter; Kiser, Jennifer; Rooney, Jim; Wilson, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are a key population for implementation of PrEP interventions. This open-label study examined adherence to PrEP and assessed sexual behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in 12 U.S. cities. Methods Eligible participants were 18–22 year old HIV-uninfected MSM who reported HIV transmission risk behavior in the past 6 months. Participants were provided daily TDF/FTC (Truvada®). Study visits occurred at baseline, monthly through week 12, then quarterly through week 48. Dried blood spots (DBS) were serially collected for the quantification of tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP). Results Between March-September 2013, 2186 individuals were approached and 400 were found to be preliminarily eligible. Of those 400, 277 were scheduled for an in-person screening visit and 200 were enrolled (mean age=20.2; 54.5% Black, 26.5% Latino). Diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including urethral and rectal chlamydial/gonococcal infection and syphilis, at baseline was 22% and remained high across visits. At week 4, 56% of participants had TFV-DP levels consistent with ≥4 pills/week. By week 48, 34% of participants had TFV-DP levels consistent with ≥4 pills/week, with a noticeable drop-off occurring at Week 24. Four HIV seroconversions occurred on study (3.29/100 person-years). Condomless sex was reported by >80% of participants and condomless anal sex with last partner was associated with higher TFV-DP levels. Conclusions Acceptability of PrEP was high and most participants achieved protective drug levels during monthly visits. As visit frequency decreased, so did adherence. YMSM in the US may need PrEP access in youth-friendly settings with tailored adherence support and potentially augmented visit schedules. PMID:27632233

  20. Preps and Punks: An Inquiry into Externally Imposed Factors that Contribute to the Social Categorization of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgann Cope Watson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The division of students into social categories is a phenomenon that invites inquiry. Historically, students have tended to migrate towards one of two groups: the preps who embrace all aspects of school life and the punks who reject all aspects of school life. These two groups are reproductions of the social order. This paper inquires into three elements of the discourse of schooling that influence the categorization of students; normalization, the hidden curriculum and the social contract.

  1. The effect of SonoPrep® on EMLA® cream application for pain relief prior to intravenous cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Choi, Sae Won; Kwak, Young Ho

    2012-06-01

    The aim the study was to determine the effect of SonoPrep® on the delivery and analgesic effects of EMLA® cream prior to intravenous (iv) cannulation in a tertiary pediatric emergency department. Children aged between 5 and 10 years were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either sonophoresis with SonoPrep® or sham sonophoresis followed by application of EMLA® cream for 5 min prior to iv cannulation. The primary outcome measurement was the child's rating of pain immediately after iv placement, using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Parents or guardians and blinded researchers were additionally asked to rate their perception of the child's pain using the 10-cm VAS and the Wong-Baker Face scale. A total of 42 patients completed the study (21 in the study group, 21 in the control group). The baseline characteristics between the groups were similar. The VAS pain score was significantly lower in children treated with sonophoresis compared with the sham sonophoresis (median (percentiles 25th-75th), 20.0 (10.0-22.5) vs. 60.0 (31.0-87.5); p sonophoresis using SonoPrep® followed by the 5-min application of EMLA® cream showed significant benefit in young children in terms of pain reduction and patient satisfaction.

  2. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Adam; Cassolato, Matteo; Thuan Wei, Clayton Koh; Wang, Bangyuan; Pang, Joselyn; Lim, Sin How; Azwa, Iskandar; Yee, Ilias; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-08-02

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Malaysia. Recent success has been observed within demonstration projects examining the efficacy of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an antiretroviral -based medication taken by HIV-negative men to prevent sero-conversion. In order for such promising findings to be translated in real-world settings, it is important to understand the acceptability of PrEP, including perceived barriers to access or uptake. As part of a larger mixed-methods study exploring acceptability and willingness to use PrEP among MSM in Malaysia, 19 men took part in audio-recorded focus group discussions hosted by a community-based HIV organization and facilitated by a trained researcher. Discussions focussed on awareness and potential information management, general perceptions of PrEP and potential motivations or barriers to the use of PrEP, including those at the personal, social, health system or structural level. Data were transcribed verbatim and underwent a detailed thematic analysis. Rather than perceiving PrEP as a replacement for condoms in terms of having safer sex, many participants viewed it as an additional layer protection, serving as a crucial barrier to infection on occasions where condom use was intended, but did not occur. It was also perceived as more valuable to "at-risk" men, such as those in HIV sero-discordant relationships or those with a higher number of sexual partners. Elements of discussion tended to suggest that some men taking PrEP may be subject to stigma from others, on the assumption they may be promiscuous or engage in high-risk sexual behaviours. This qualitative study indicates that, broadly speaking, PrEP may be acceptable to MSM in Malaysia. However, in order for its potential to be realized, and uptake achieved, educative interventions are required to inform the target population as to the efficacy and potential, positive impact of PrEP. Given concerns for how those

  4. Associations Between Participant Ratings of PREP for Strong Bonds and Marital Outcomes 1 Year Postintervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Post, Kristina M; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    After completing a relationship education program, collecting participant evaluations of the program is common practice. These are generally used as an index of "consumer satisfaction" with the program, with implications for feasibility and quality. Rarely have these ratings been used as predictors of changes in marital quality, although such feedback may be the only data providers collect or have immediate access to when considering the success of their efforts. To better understand the utility of such ratings to predict outcomes, we evaluated links between participant ratings and changes in self-reported marital satisfaction and communication scores one year later for a sample of 191 Army couples who had participated in a relationship education program delivered by Army chaplains (PREP for Strong Bonds). Overall ratings of general satisfaction with the program and the leader did not predict changes in marital outcomes one year later, whereas higher ratings of how much was learned, program helpfulness, increased similarity in outlook regarding Army life, and helpfulness of communication skills training predicted greater change in communication skills one year later. Higher ratings of items reflecting intent to invest more time in the relationship, and increased confidence in constructive communication and working as a team with the spouse predicted greater increases in both marital satisfaction and communication skills one year later. The constructs of intention and confidence (akin to perceived behavioral control) suggest that the Theory of Planned Behavior may be particularly useful when considering which Army couples will show ongoing benefit after relationship education.

  5. Study guide for 1Z0-071 Oracle Database 12c SQL : Oracle Certification Prep

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This Study Guide is targeted at IT professionals who are working towards becoming an Oracle Database 12c SQL Certified Associate. The book provides information covering all of the exam topics for the Oracle certification exam: "1Z0-071: Oracle Database 12c SQL". The books in the Oracle Certification Prep series are built in lockstep with the test topics provided by Oracle Education's certification program. Each book is intended to provide the information that will be tested in a clean and concise format. The guides introduce the subject you'll be tested on, follow that with the information you'll need to know for it, and then move on to the next topic. They contain no drills or unrealistic self-tests to bump the page count without adding value. The series is intended to provide a concentrated source of exam information that is compact enough to be read through multiple times. This series is ideal for experienced Oracle professionals that are familiar with the topic being tested, but want a means to rapidly re...

  6. Clinical results of a split sample liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep) study of 4,322 patients in a Turkish institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Z S; Başaran, M; Sezgin, Y; Firat, P; Mocan Kuzey, G

    2005-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out to compare the efficacy of liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep) with the conventional Pap smear using a split-sample design in a Turkish university hospital outpatient gynecology clinic. 4,322 consecutive patients were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2003. All the patients underwent conventional Pap tests followed by a ThinPrep test for screening of cervical cancer. The results were evaluated in terms of the Bethesda III classification. All the patients with abnormal tests underwent colposcopy and directed biopsy. While 2.3% of the specimens were unsatisfactory for evaluation in the conventional Pap test group, this rate was 1.7% for the ThinPrep group. Epithelial cell abnormalities were observed in 42 (1.0%) patients in the conventional Pap test group and in 36 (0.8%) patients in the ThinPrep group. ASCUS was observed in 26 patients in the conventional Pap test group whereas the ThinPrep group had 20 cases of ASCUS as the leading cause of abnormal cytology. Biopsy of these cases revealed CIN 1 in two CIN 2-3 in three and cervical/endometrial adenocarcinoma in three patients. The ThinPrep application led to diagnoses of one additional case of CIN 2-3 and one case of adenocarcinoma among the negative or unsatisfactory for evaluation categories of the conventional Pap test group. Despite an adverse bias introduced by the split-sample study design, application of ThinPrep showed an improved rate of specimen adequacy and increased sensitivity for more significant cervical precursor lesions over the conventional Pap test.

  7. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushena Reza-Paul

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka.From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data.Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95% expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%, those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%, who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%, who drink alcohol regularly (49%, and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%.This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means

  8. Diagnostic dilemmas and pitfalls in ThinPrep® cytology of breast fine needle aspiration biopsy:: Report of Six Cases with Histological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa Carniello, Jose Victor; Pareja, Fresia; Santos-Zabala, Maria Laureana; Edelweiss, Marcia

    2017-07-01

    Fine needle aspirations (FNA) of the breast for primary diagnoses have become less popular in the USA and are usually performed for lesions with low or extremely high clinical suspicion. They are also performed for lesions in close proximity to a breast implant. Liquid-based cytological preparations, such as ThinPrep ® (TP), provide a practical alternative to clinicians who are performing FNA. Using a selection of cases that represent challenging diagnoses, we describe common diagnostic pitfalls of breast FNA that are specifically associated with this preparation. Well known breast cytology pitfalls, such as fibroadenoma, when solely examined using a TP slide can be even more challenging since the usual stripped bipolar cells seen in the background of smeared slides, can appear singly dispersed with preserved cytoplasm, resembling carcinoma. We describe that large fragments of solid papillary carcinoma are represented by mostly singly dispersed cells with plasmacytoid features that mimic those of a lobular carcinoma. Since nuclear features are more pronounced in TP, prominent nucleoli and cytological atypia can potentially be overcalled. TP processing might also lead to clumping of epithelioid histiocytes that appear atypical, which increases the suspicion of malignancy. The presence of atypical cells in a TP slide of a peri implant seroma should always undergo additional testing, especially in patients with a prior history of breast carcinoma, to determine if it represents recurrent carcinoma or an implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Familiarity with the aforementioned artifacts associated with TP is essential to avoid diagnostic misinterpretations. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:655-661. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A PREP Panel, Practice-Based, Evaluation of the Handling of the Kerr Demi-Ultra Light Curing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell J

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the handling evaluation (by a group of practice-based researchers, the PREP Panel) of a recently introduced Light Curing Unit (LCU), the Kerr Demi-Ultra, which possesses a number of novel features such as its ultracapacitor power source, and the Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) which provide the light output being placed close to the tip of the light guide. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Testing of new devices and materials with respect to their handling is of importance, given that an easy to handle device should produce better clinical results than one which is difficult to use.

  10. [PrepFiler Express BTATM Lysis Buffer Combined with Silicon Microbeads for Rapid DNA Extraction from Bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, S C; Zhang, H C; Gao, L L

    2017-10-01

    To establish a convenient and rapid method for extracting DNA from bone. Fifteen long bone samples were washed and sterilized. The skeletal fragments were obtained by electric drill, and lysed by PrepFiler Express BTA™ lysis buffer. DNA was then manually extracted by silicon microbeads for further analysis. STR genotyping was successfully obtained in 14 out of the 15 samples, and the detection rate was 93.33%. The method for DNA extraction from bone established in present study is convenient, quick, effective, and with a strong applicability, which is worth spreading and applying. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  11. The Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV Test, Version 2.0, Real-Time PCR Assay Accurately Quantifies Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Chevaliez, Stéphane; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Rodriguez, Christophe; Soulier, Alexandre; Poveda, Jean-Dominique; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Accurate hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantification is mandatory for the management of chronic hepatitis C therapy. The first-generation Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test (CAP/CTM HCV) underestimated HCV RNA levels by >1-log10 international units/ml in a number of patients infected with HCV genotype 4 and occasionally failed to detect it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0 (CAP/CTM HCV v2.0), to accurately quantify H...

  12. PREP KITT, System Reliability by Fault Tree Analysis. PREP, Min Path Set and Min Cut Set for Fault Tree Analysis, Monte-Carlo Method. KITT, Component and System Reliability Information from Kinetic Fault Tree Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Narum, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The PREP/KITT computer program package obtains system reliability information from a system fault tree. The PREP program finds the minimal cut sets and/or the minimal path sets of the system fault tree. (A minimal cut set is a smallest set of components such that if all the components are simultaneously failed the system is failed. A minimal path set is a smallest set of components such that if all of the components are simultaneously functioning the system is functioning.) The KITT programs determine reliability information for the components of each minimal cut or path set, for each minimal cut or path set, and for the system. Exact, time-dependent reliability information is determined for each component and for each minimal cut set or path set. For the system, reliability results are obtained by upper bound approximations or by a bracketing procedure in which various upper and lower bounds may be obtained as close to one another as desired. The KITT programs can handle independent components which are non-repairable or which have a constant repair time. Any assortment of non-repairable components and components having constant repair times can be considered. Any inhibit conditions having constant probabilities of occurrence can be handled. The failure intensity of each component is assumed to be constant with respect to time. The KITT2 program can also handle components which during different time intervals, called phases, may have different reliability properties. 2 - Method of solution: The PREP program obtains minimal cut sets by either direct deterministic testing or by an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm. The minimal path sets are obtained using the Monte Carlo algorithm. The reliability information is obtained by the KITT programs from numerical solution of the simple integral balance equations of kinetic tree theory. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The PREP program will obtain the minimal cut and

  13. Evaluation of COBAS AmpliPrep nucleic acid extraction in conjunction with COBAS AmpliScreen HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV-1 RNA amplification and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Sjerps, M. C.; Reesink, H. W.; Cuypers, H. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This report describes the evaluation of the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument for fully automated generic nucleic acid extraction in conjunction with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA COBAS AmpliScreen

  14. LISA package user guide. Part I: PREP (Statistical PRE Processor) preparation of input sample for Monte Carlo simulations. Program description and user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltelli, A.; Homma, T.

    1992-01-01

    This manual is subdivided into three parts. In the first part, the PREP utility (Statistical Pre Processor) assists in the preparation of a Monte Carlo Analysis of the behaviour of a model encoded into a computer program. The ultimate goal of this type of analysis is to determine the model response to variation in its input parameters, to assess the uncertainties in the model prediction and to correlate these uncertainties with the most influential model parameters. The part of the analysis dealt with by PREP is the preparation of the input stochastic sample for the analysis given the distribution of the input parameters. PREP tries to ease the transformation of the user model from deterministic (one execution corresponding to one set of values for the input parameters) to stochastic (many executions to cover assigned value distributions for the input parameters). PREP is described with reference to two alternative applications: within the LISA package (for the analysis of the risk of a nuclear waste disposal) and with a user supplied model. 8 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and PrEP Acceptability Among Low-Income, Young Black Women: Exploring the Mediating Role of Reproductive Coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara; Kershaw, Trace; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Alexander, Kamila A

    2017-08-01

    A few studies suggest that women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are willing to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), but no research has examined mediators of this relationship. The current study used path analysis to examine a phenomenon closely associated with IPV: reproductive coercion, or explicit male behaviors to promote pregnancy of a female partner without her knowledge or against her will. Birth control sabotage and pregnancy coercion-two subtypes of reproductive coercion behaviors-were examined as mediators of the relationship between IPV and PrEP acceptability among a cohort of 147 Black women 18-25 years of age recruited from community-based organizations in an urban city. IPV experiences were indirectly related to PrEP acceptability through birth control sabotage (indirect effect = 0.08; p coercion. Findings illustrate the importance of identifying and addressing reproductive coercion when assessing whether PrEP is clinically appropriate and a viable option to prevent HIV among women who experience IPV.

  16. Access to Basic HIV-Related Services and PrEP Acceptability among Men Who Have sex with Men Worldwide: Barriers, Facilitators, and Implications for Combination Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ayala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately impacted by HIV globally. Easily accessible combination HIV prevention strategies, tailored to the needs of MSM, are needed to effectively address the AIDS pandemic. Methods and Materials. We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM (n=3748 from 145 countries from April to August 2012. Using multivariable random effects models, we examined factors associated with acceptability of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP and access to condoms, lubricants, HIV testing, and HIV treatment. Results. Condoms and lubricants were accessible to 35% and 22% of all respondents, respectively. HIV testing was accessible to 35% of HIV-negative respondents. Forty-three percent of all HIV-positive respondents reported that antiretroviral therapy was easily accessible. Homophobia, outness, and service provider stigma were significantly associated with reduced access to services. Conversely, community engagement, connection to gay community, and comfort with service providers were associated with increased access. PrEP acceptability was associated with lower PrEP-related stigma, less knowledge about PrEP, less outness, higher service provider stigma, and having experienced violence for being MSM. Conclusions. Ensuring HIV service access among MSM will be critical in maximizing the potential effectiveness of combination approaches, especially given the interdependence of both basic and newer interventions like PrEP. Barriers and facilitators of HIV service access for MSM should be better understood and addressed.

  17. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of

  18. "Get a Blue and You Will See Your Money Back Again": Staffing and Marketing the English Prep School, 1890-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which English prep schools were staffed and marketed in the years before the First World War. Its aim more specifically is to employ a biographical approach to consider the emphasis that the schools placed upon sport, and in particular the extent to which they recruited Oxford and Cambridge Blues as teachers…

  19. The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Science Process Skills and Science Self Efficacy among First Year Prep Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Omema Mostafa Kamel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using metacognitive strategy training on science process skills and science self efficacy in learning disabled first year prep students. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30 boys) and control (n = 30 boys ).…

  20. Evaluation of the Illumina(®) Beta Version ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit for use in genetic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Jennifer D; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    While capillary electrophoresis-based technologies have been the mainstay for human identity typing applications, there are limitations with this methodology's resolution, scalability, and throughput. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers the capability to multiplex multiple types of forensically-relevant markers and multiple samples together in one run all at an overall lower cost per nucleotide than traditional capillary electrophoresis-based methods; thus, addressing some of these limitations. MPS also is poised to expand forensic typing capabilities by providing new strategies for mixture deconvolution with the identification of intra-STR allele sequence variants and the potential to generate new types of investigative leads with an increase in the overall number and types of genetic markers being analyzed. The beta version of the Illumina ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a MPS library preparation method with a streamlined workflow that allows for targeted amplification and sequencing of 63 STRs and 95 identity SNPs, with the option to include an additional 56 ancestry SNPs and 22 phenotypic SNPs depending on the primer mix chosen for amplification, on the MiSeq desktop sequencer (Illumina). This study was divided into a series of experiments that evaluated reliability, sensitivity of detection, mixture analysis, concordance, and the ability to analyze challenged samples. Genotype accuracy, depth of coverage, and allele balance were used as informative metrics for the quality of the data produced. The ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit produced reliable, reproducible results and obtained full profiles with DNA input amounts of 1ng. Data were found to be concordant with current capillary electrophoresis methods, and mixtures at a 1:19 ratio were resolved accurately. Data from the challenged samples showed concordant results with current DNA typing methods with markers in common and minimal allele drop out from the large number of markers typed on these

  1. A Multi-US City Assessment of Awareness and Uptake of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Black Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Matthews, Derrick D; Driffin, Daniel D; Bukowski, Leigh; Wilson, Patrick A; Stall, Ron D

    2017-07-01

    The HIV epidemic among Black men and transgender women who have sex with men (BMTW) demands an urgent public health response. HIV point prevalence among this population ranges from 25 to 43%-a rate far exceeding any other group. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a very promising prevention tool; however, its full potential to slow the epidemic has yet to be realized. For the current study, random time-location sampling at Black Gay Pride Events was used to collect data from N = 1274 BMTW, from five US cities, reporting HIV-negative/unknown status. In-field HIV testing was also provided to participants. Participants were assessed on awareness and use of PrEP, health care factors, HIV testing history, psychosocial variables, and sex behaviors. About one third of participants were aware of PrEP (39%), and a small percentage of participants were users of PrEP (4.6%). In multivariable analyses, being in a relationship, testing for HIV in the past 6 months, and others being aware of one's sexuality were positively associated with PrEP awareness. Higher levels of internalized homophobia and greater numbers of female sex partners were positively associated with PrEP use, while education and condom use were negatively associated. Based on study findings, messaging and uptake of PrEP needs greater expansion and requires novel approaches for scale-up. Improving linkage to HIV testing services is likely critical for engaging BMTW with PrEP. The potential for PrEP to slow the HIV epidemic is high; however, we must strengthen efforts to ensure universal availability and uptake.

  2. The parenting responsibility and emotional preparedness (PREP) screening tool: a 3-item screen that identifies teen mothers at high risk for nonoptimal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Bert, Shannon Carothers

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the ability of a 3-item screening tool (Parenting Responsibility and Emotional Preparedness [PREP]) to detect adolescent mothers at elevated risk for nonoptimal parenting and poor child development outcomes at 2 years of age. DESIGN A 4-site prospective cohort study conducted from December 2001 to August 2007 of adolescent mothers recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy and followed up at 4, 8, 18, and 24 months post partum. SETTING Community clinics and home settings in Birmingham, Alabama; Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri; South Bend, Indiana; and Washington, DC. PARTICIPANTS A total of 270 first-time adolescent mothers (aged 15-19 years) and their infants (birth to 2 years of age). MAIN EXPOSURES Naturalistic observations of parent-child interactions and quality of home environment during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME MEASURES Maternal mental health and cognitive indicators, positive mother-child interactions, quality of home environment, child social-emotional development, and child cognitive development (Bayley scales). RESULTS PREP scores identified adolescent mothers with significantly elevated depressive symptoms and childhood trauma and lower scores of knowledge of infant development and maternal IQ. PREP predicted significantly lower quality of home environments and higher levels of nonoptimal mother-child interactions at 4, 8, and 18 months. PREP also predicted significantly lower child outcomes at 2 years of age for cognitive scores and higher levels of depressive and withdrawal symptoms and dysregulation and negative emotionality. CONCLUSIONS PREP is a low-cost, easily administered, nonstigmatizing screening tool that identifies adolescent mothers who self-recognize that they need help to meet their infants' social, emotional, and cognitive needs.

  3. Purification of patulin from Penicillium expansum culture: high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) versus preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Tsao, R; Yang, R; Zhou, T

    2009-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by species of Penicillium and Aspergillus and is toxic to a wide range of organisms, including humans and livestock. To produce large amount of pure patulin for research purposes, high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) were applied to the purification of patulin. Apple juice was inoculated with P. expansum and containing 0.5 mg patulin per ml was used as a starting material for separation. For HSCCC, a biphasic solvent system consisted of ethyl acetate-hexane-pH 4 acetic acid (7.5:2.5:10, v/v/v) was used. For prep-HPLC, the separation was carried out in a C18 reversed-phase preparative column with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-pH 4 acetic acid (5:95, v/v). Fractions containing patulin were collected and analysed by analytical HPLC and identified by congruent retention time and ultraviolet/visible (UV-VIS) spectrum of the standard. The structure of the purified patulin was confirmed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. HSCCC produced 21.9 mg of patulin from 50 ml apple juice culture whereas the prep-HPLC yielded 18.1 mg. HSCCC also produced purer patulin than the prep-HPLC (98.6 versus 96.3%) and higher recovery (86.2 versus 71.3%). In addition, the HSCCC method is advantageous for its lower cost and a simpler procedure compared with the prep-HPLC. This one-step HSCCC method can potentially provide a simple, effective and environmentally friendly tool for obtaining gram-level pure patulin for toxicology, detoxification and many other patulin-related studies.

  4. The Use of Online Posts to Identify Barriers to and Facilitators of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison to a Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Alisse; Lipshie-Williams, Madeleine; Starrels, Joanna L; Arnsten, Julia H; Rizzuto, Jessica; Cohen, Phillip; Jacobs, Damon; Patel, Viraj V

    2018-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use. We also searched online posts and associated comments (news articles, opinion pieces, blogs and other social media posts) in diverse venues (Facebook, Slate Outward, Huffington Post Gay Voices, Queerty, and My PrEP Experience blog) to identify posts about PrEP. We used content analysis to identify themes and compare potential differences between the peer-reviewed literature and online posts. We identified 25 peer-reviewed articles and 28 online posts meeting inclusion criteria. We identified 48 unique barriers and 46 facilitators to using PrEP. These 94 themes fit into six overarching categories: (1) access (n = 14), (2) attitudes/beliefs (n = 24), (3) attributes of PrEP (n = 13), (4) behaviors (n = 11), (5) sociodemographic characteristics (n = 8), and (6) social network (n = 6). In all categories, analysis of online posts resulted in identification of a greater number of unique themes. Thirty-eight themes were identified in the online posts that were not identified in the peer-reviewed literature. We identified barriers and facilitators to PrEP in online posts that were not identified in a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. By incorporating data both from a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles and from online posts, we have identified salient and novel information about barriers to and facilitators of PrEP use. Traditional

  5. Willingness to use and have sex with men taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): results of online surveys of Australian gay and bisexual men, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Kolstee, Johann; Ellard, Jeanne; Murphy, Dean; Truong, Hong-Ha; de Wit, John

    2017-09-01

    Assess willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), support for others using it and willingness to have sex with partners using PrEP among Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM). National, online cross-sectional surveys of Australian GBM were conducted in 2011, 2013 and 2015. Scales measuring support for and willingness to have sex with men using PrEP were developed in 2015 using factor analysis. Trends and associations with key measures were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. During 2011-2015, 3850 surveys were completed by GBM. Willingness to use PrEP among HIV-negative and untested men did not change between 2011 (28.2%) and 2015 (31.7%, p=0.13). In 2015, willingness to use PrEP was independently associated with younger age, having an HIV-positive regular partner, recent condomless anal intercourse with casual male partners (CAIC), more than 10 male sex partners in the previous 6 months, ever having taken postexposure prophylaxis and having fewer concerns about using PrEP. In 2015, 54.5% of GBM supported other GBM taking PrEP and 39% were willing to have sex with men using PrEP. Support for and willingness to have sex with PrEP users were both associated with being HIV-positive, having a university degree and having two or more male partners in the previous 6 months. Willingness to have sex with men on PrEP was also associated with recent CAIC and using party drugs for sex, but was less likely among men who consistently used or had a positive experience using condoms. Interest in and support for using PrEP are concentrated among men who engage in higher risk practices and who know more about living with HIV. This is consistent with the targeting of PrEP in Australia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Factors contributing to high ThinPrep® Pap test unsatisfactory rates in an academic medical center laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Suzanne M

    2014-05-01

    Specimen adequacy is a key component in the cytologic evaluation of cervical Pap tests. At our institution, yearly unsatisfactory rates continue to be high, placing our laboratory in the 95th percentile for CAP benchmark data for unsatisfactory Pap test rates. Using the 2001 Bethesda System criteria, unsatisfactory Pap test rates were calculated over a ten year period (January 2002 to December 2011) and contributing factors were analyzed. Of the 124,457 ThinPrep Pap tests performed, 4,163 (3.3%) were unsatisfactory for evaluation, the majority (90%) due to too few squamous epithelial cells. Peri/postmenopausal women and those who had received radiation/chemotherapy had the highest unsatisfactory rates; 55% and 25%, respectively. Higher unsatisfactory Pap test rates are related to the patient population served. Defined, reproducible adequacy criteria need to be defined for Pap tests from patients in certain clinical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Massively parallel sequencing of forensic STRs and SNPs using the Illumina®ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit on the MiSeq FGx™ Forensic Genomics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Yu, Jiao; Zhang, Lu; Li, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit (ForenSeq Kit) is designed to detect more than 200 forensically relevant markers in a single reaction on the MiSeq FGx™ Forensic Genomics System (MiSeq FGx System), including Amelogenin, 27 autosomal short tandem repeats (A-STRs), 7 X chromosomal STRs (X-STRs), 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs) and 94 identity-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (iSNPs) with the option to contain 22 phenotypic-informative SNPs (pSNPs) and 56 ancestry-informative SNPs (aSNPs). In this study, we evaluated the MiSeq FGx System on three major parts: methodological optimization (DNA extraction, sample quantification, library normalization, diluted libraries concentration, and sample-to-cell arrangement), massively parallel sequencing (MPS) performance (depth of coverage, sequence coverage ratio, and allele coverage ratio), and ForenSeq Kit characteristics (repeatability and concordance, sensitivity, mixture, stability and case-type samples). Results showed that quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based sample quantification and library normalization and the appropriate number of pooled libraries and concentration of diluted libraries provided a greater level of MPS performance and repeatability. Repeatable and concordant genotypes were obtained by the ForenSeq Kit. Full profiles were obtained from ≥100pg input DNA for STRs and ≥200pg for SNPs. A sample with ≥5% minor contributors was considered as a mixture by imbalanced allele coverage ratio distribution, and full profiles from minor contributors were easily detected between 9:1 and 1:9 mixtures with known reference profiles. The ForenSeq Kit tolerated considerable concentrations of inhibitors like ≤200μM hematin and ≤50μg/ml humic acid, and >56% STR profiles and >88% SNP profiles were obtained from ≥200-bp degraded samples. Also, it was adapted to case-type samples. As a whole, the ForenSeq Kit is a well-performed, robust, reliable, reproducible and highly

  8. Consensus builds on population policy as ICPD PrepCom meetings conclude. Vatican objections firm and vocal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-29

    In April, 1994, at UN headquarters in New York, delegates from almost 200 countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) negotiated a Programme of Action to be ratified following more debate at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September. A sizable consensus emerged for this Preparatory Committee III (PrepCom) meeting. It has an expanded view of population policy that centers more on meeting individual needs and less on achieving strict demographic goals. Thus, it focuses on the unmet need for reproductive health services (family planning, basic women's health care, and services linked to sexually transmitted diseases). It considers women's status and female education as being important themselves as well as key determinants of fertility rates. Disagreement over access to abortion services and reproductive health services for adolescents remain. Unlike earlier world conferences, most of the world is working towards a consensus, while the Vatican and just a few small countries (Benin, Malta, Honduras, and Nicaragua) object to these services. Some topics that US National Conference of Catholic Bishops did not want in the Programme of Action were references to reducing the incidence of unsafe abortion, promoting condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS, and even safe motherhood. The US and Japan have committed sizable increases in population assistance. Some European countries are concerned about how their contributions would be allocated. US Undersecretary for Global Affairs and a mostly female 23-member US delegation attended PrepCom III. Most of the US delegates were from NGOs. Many country delegates were women. Many countries accepted recommendations of the women's caucus. The US's priorities are promotion of universal access to the full range of high quality family planning and reproductive health services; increasing women's status; child survival promotion; serving adolescent needs; augmenting the role and responsibility of men in

  9. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  10. Willingness to Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): An Empirical Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model among High-Risk Drug Users in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Altice, Frederick L; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Evidence from recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials has demonstrated its safety and efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of HIV acquisition for those who are at considerable risk of acquiring HIV infection. With a rapid increase in the amount of research on the efficacy of PrEP for HIV prevention, complementary research on the willingness to use PrEP has grown, especially among MSM, but limited research has been focused among people who use drugs (PWUD). As part of the formative process, we utilized the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change to characterize and guide intervention development for promoting willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. The analysis included 400 HIV-negative high-risk PWUD enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed support for the IMB model as PrEP-related behavioral skills were found to mediate the influence of PrEP-related information and motivation on willingness to use PrEP. The results provide evidence as to the utility of the IMB model to increase willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. It therefore makes an important contribution to our understanding of the applicability of theoretically-grounded models of willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD, who are one of the key risk populations who could benefit from the use of PrEP.

  11. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM.

  12. Cervical histology after routine ThinPrep or SurePath liquid-based cytology and computer-assisted reading in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Rask, Johanne; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers, technological phases were identified by slide preparation, reading technique, and triage of borderline cytology. Trends in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were an indicator of the technology's relative sensitivity, and trends in false-positive tests......BACKGROUND: We compared the sensitivity and specificity of liquid-based cytology (LBC) and computer-assisted reading for SurePath/FocalPoint and ThinPrep with those of manually read conventional cytology in routine cervical screening in four Danish laboratories. METHODS: Using data from five...... an indicator of relative specificity. RESULTS: At 23-29 years, SurePath/FocalPoint statistically significantly increased the detection of ⩾CIN3 by 85% compared with manually read conventional cytology. The 11% increase with ThinPrep was not significant. At 30-44 years, the increase with Sure...

  13. A case study of chewed Truvada® for PrEP maintaining protective drug levels as measured by a novel urine tenofovir assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley-Chareczko, Linden; Clark, Devon; Zuppa, Athena F; Moorthy, Ganesh; Conyngham, Caitlin; Mounzer, Karam; Koenig, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF; Truvada ® ) given as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) successfully blocks HIV when taken once daily prior to potential HIV exposure. A 22-year-old male reported difficulty swallowing FTC/TDF for PrEP and subsequently began chewing the FTC/TDF tablets. Monthly urine samples assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated tenofovir levels >1,000 ng/ml, indicative of protection from HIV acquisition, over a 48-week period. Data from observational studies of HIV-positive patients details the successful treatment of HIV using crushed FTC/TDF delivered via feeding and gastronomy tubes while small, randomized trials of healthy volunteers demonstrate bioequivalence between whole and crushed FTC/TDF.

  14. SutraPrep, a pre-processor for SUTRA, a model for ground-water flow with solute or energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Alden M.

    2002-01-01

    SutraPrep facilitates the creation of three-dimensional (3D) input datasets for the USGS ground-water flow and transport model SUTRA Version 2D3D.1. It is most useful for applications in which the geometry of the 3D model domain and the spatial distribution of physical properties and boundary conditions is relatively simple. SutraPrep can be used to create a SUTRA main input (?.inp?) file, an initial conditions (?.ics?) file, and a 3D plot of the finite-element mesh in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format. Input and output are text-based. The code can be run on any platform that has a standard FORTRAN-90 compiler. Executable code is available for Microsoft Windows.

  15. Maximizing the adequacy of Hologic(®) Cervista(®) HPV HR results on ThinPrep(®) Pap samples treated with glacial acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Aparna; Kucher, Erek; Hoefle, Wanda; Engelhardt, Shawna; Accola, Molly; Barasch, Samuel; Rehrauer, William; Selvaggi, Suzanne M

    2016-03-01

    Although glacial acetic acid (GAA) treatment of bloody cervical samples has reduced the rate of unsatisfactory Pap Tests, recent studies suggest that it may negatively impact high-risk (hr)-HPV test results. The objectives of this study were to compare the levels of genomic DNA between GAA treated and nontreated ThinPrep(®) samples using the Hologic(®) Cervista(®) HPV-HR assay and to compare the adequacy of the ThinPrep(®) Pap Test between aliquoted and nonaliquoted samples. Prior to GAA treatment, 2.5 ml of the cervical sample was prealiquoted from 102 bloody ThinPrep(®) vials. Both GAA treated and nontreated samples were analyzed for hr-HPV using the Cervista(®) HPV HR assay. The levels of genomic DNA were measured and compared between these samples. In addition, ThinPrep(®) Pap Test adequacy rates were calculated and compared on aliquoted and nonaliquoted cervical samples. Of the 102 cervical samples, 95 (93%) nontreated aliquots contained satisfactory levels of genomic DNA as compared to 36 (35%) GAA-treated samples (p < 0.00001). Ninety-nine (97%) aliquoted cervical samples were satisfactory for cytologic evaluation as compared to 1,326 (96%) GAA treated samples from 2013 (nonaliquoted); not statistically significant (p = 0.7968). The levels of genomic DNA were significantly decreased in GAA treated vs non-treated TP samples. Aliquoting from the TP sample prior to treatment with GAA enables accurate measurement of DNA without affecting the adequacy of the TP cytology slide. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Motivated Reasoning and HIV Risk? Views on Relationships, Trust, and Risk from Young Women in Cape Town, South Africa, and Implications for Oral PrEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; McConnell, Margaret; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Celum, Connie; Bennie, Thola; Zuma, Jabulisile; van der Straten, Ariane

    2018-02-05

    In high prevalence environments relationship characteristics are likely to be associated with HIV risk, yet evidence indicates general underestimation of risk. Furthermore uncertainty about partner's risk may challenge PrEP demand among young African women. We conducted quantitative and qualitative interviews with women before and after HIV discussions with partners, to explore how partner's behavior affected risk perceptions and interest in PrEP. Twenty-three women were interviewed once; twelve had a follow-up interview after speaking to their partners. Fourteen women were willing to have their partner contacted; yet two men participated. Several themes related to relationships and risk were identified. These highlighted that young women's romantic feelings and expectations influenced their perceptions of risk within their relationships, consistent with the concept of motivated reasoning. Findings emphasize challenges in using risk to promote HIV prevention among young women. Framing PrEP in a positive empowering way that avoids linking it to relationship risk may ultimately encourage greater uptake.

  17. Evaluation of a new preparative supercritical fluid chromatography system for compound library purification: the TharSFC SFC-MS Prep-100 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Katalin; Weller, Harold N; Kiplinger, Jeffrey; Lefebvre, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Preparative HPLC-MS is often the method of choice for purification of small amounts (libraries for drug discovery. The method is robust, well proven, and widely applicable. In contrast, preparative supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (SFC-MS) has seen only slow acceptance for the same application--despite some potential scientific and economic advantages. One of the reasons for slow adoption of SFC-MS is the lack of well-proven, robust, and commercially available instrumentation. In early 2009, TharSFC (a Waters Company, Pittsburgh, PA) introduced a new fully integrated system for preparative SFC-MS: The SFC-MS Prep-100. We report herein an objective evaluation of the SFC-MS Prep-100, including tests for pump and autosampler performance, sample recovery, sample carryover, fraction triggering, detector/fraction collector synchronization, and overall robustness. Our results suggest that the SFC-MS Prep-100 represents a significant advance over previous generation instrumentation. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Benefits of PrEP as an Adjunctive Method of HIV Prevention During Attempted Conception Between HIV-uninfected Women and HIV-infected Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Risa M; Jaycocks, Amber; Vardavas, Raffaele; Wagner, Glenn; Lake, Jordan E; Mindry, Deborah; Currier, Judith S; Landovitz, Raphael J

    2015-11-15

    Data on effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected women attempting conception with HIV-infected male partners are limited to observational studies. To explore the benefits of PrEP for conception, we developed a model to estimate the average annual probability of a woman remaining HIV-uninfected and having a child ("successful" outcome) via condomless sex with an HIV-infected male. The outcome likelihood is dependent upon parameters defining HIV-1 infectivity. We simulated 2 scenarios: optimal (condomless sex acts limited to the ovulation window), and suboptimal (acts not limited to ovulation). In the optimal scenario when the male is on antiretroviral therapy (ART), the average annual probability of the successful outcome is 29.1%, increasing to 29.2% with the addition of PrEP (P = .45). In the suboptimal scenario, the probability is 26.8% with ART alone versus 27.3% with ART/PrEP (P conception. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; De Boni, Raquel B; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S; Marins, Luana M S; Anderson, Peter L; Luz, Paula M; Costa Leite, Iuri da; Liu, Albert Y; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-04-06

    The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350-699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10-3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08-2.94). The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. Interventions to

  20. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  1. PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A

    2018-02-01

    Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago. The aims of this study are twofold. Aim 1 is to estimate the effectiveness of a peer change agent intervention for (1) increasing the number of referrals made to a PrEP information line, (2) increasing the rate of PrEP adoption among non-participant peers, and (3) increasing PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and intentions among participants. Aim 2 is to determine the individual and network variables that explain peer change agent effectiveness. PrEP Chicago is a social network intervention that utilizes the influence of peer change agents to link young Black men who have sex with men in Chicago to PrEP. Young Black men who have sex with men were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Once screened for eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment sequences: (1) intervention treatment in Year 1 followed by a minimal contact attention control in Year 2 or (2) the minimal contact attention control in Year 1 followed by treatment in Year 2. The treatment consists of a PrEP/peer change agent training workshop followed by booster calls for 12 months. The attention control consists of a sex diary activity designed to help participants assess sexual risk. Psychosocial, sexual health, and network data are collected from all participants at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. In total, 423 participants aged 18-35 have

  2. Development of Whole Slide Imaging on Smartphones and Evaluation With ThinPrep Cytology Test Samples: Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ning; Peng, Xing-Chun; Ma, Shuoxin; Yu, Hong; Jin, Yu-Biao; Zheng, Jun; Fu, Guo-Hui

    2018-04-04

    The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides. The first aim of this study was to delve into the quantifying issues encountered in the development of an Android version. It should also provide insights into future high-resolution real-time feedback medical imaging apps on Android and invoke the awareness of smartphone manufacturers for collaboration. The second aim of this study was to further verify the clinical value of sWSI with cytology samples. This type is different from the frozen section samples in that they require finer detail on the cellular level. During sWSI development on Android, it was discovered that many models do not support uncompressed camera pixel data with sufficient resolution and full field of view. The proportion of models supporting the optimal format was estimated in a test on 200 mainstream Android models. Other factors, including slower processing speed and camera preview freezing, also led to inferior performance of sWSI on Android compared with the iOS version. The processing speed was mostly determined by the central processing unit frequency in theory, and the relationship was investigated in the 200-model simulation experiment with physical devices. The camera preview freezing was caused by the lag between triggering photo capture and resuming preview. In the clinical evaluation, 100 ThinPrep cytology test samples covering 6 diseases were scanned with sWSI and compared against the ground truth of optical microscopy. Among the tested Android models, only 3.0% (6/200) provided an optimal data format, meeting all criteria of quality and efficiency. The image-processing speed

  3. Practice-based PREP Panel handling evaluation of a new impression mixing device and the associated material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor; Crisp, Russell J; Klettke, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the handling of a new impression mixing device and the associated impression material by general dental practitioner members of the PREP Panel. By means of a questionnaire, the participating practitioners recorded their views on the mixing machine and impression materials, having used these for ten weeks. UK general dental practices. General dental practitioner members of a UK practice-based research group. A questionnaire was designed to elicit views on the performance of the mixing device and impression material under test. This was distributed to the practitioners who had used the test materials for 10 weeks and the data thereby obtained collated and presented, principally in the form of VAS scales. Rating of various parameters of the mixing device and impression materials on VAS scales. The Pentamix 3 machine scored well for ease of initial use [4.8 on a visual analogue scale (VAS) where 1 = very difficult to use and 5 = very easy to use]. In a range of criteria (including cleanliness, easy handling, time to fill the tray and overall convenience) the Pentamix scored highly on VAS scales. A maximum score of 5 (on a VAS where 1 = very dissatisfied and 5 = very satisfied) was achieved for reproducible mixing quality. The appreciation of the Pentamix 3 mixing machine was demonstrated by the fact that 85% (n = 11) of evaluators stated that they would recommend it to colleagues. Regarding the impression material under evaluation, 85% (n = 11) of the evaluators stated that they would recommend Impregum Quick impression materials to their colleagues. Within the limitations of this study, the Pentamix 3 automatic impression mixing device scored highly in this assessment, together with the impression materials assessed. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Kok, Inge M C M; Bulten, Johan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Siebers, Albertus G; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiveness threshold analyses to investigate under what circumstances manually screened ThinPrep LBC is cost-effective for screening. The MISCAN-Cervix microsimulation model and data from the Dutch NETHCON trial (including 89,784 women) were used to estimate the costs and (quality-adjusted) life years ((QA)LYs) gained for EU screening schedules, varying cost-effectiveness threshold values. Screening strategies were primary cytological screening with LBC or CP, and triage with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Threshold analyses showed that screening with LBC as a primary test can be cost-effective if LBC is less than 3.2 more costly per test than CP, if the sensitivity of LBC is at least 3-5 % points higher than CP, if the quality of life for women in triage follow-up is only 0.39, or if the rate of inadequate CP smears is at least 16.2 %. Regarding test characteristics and costs of LBC and CP, only under certain conditions will a change from CP to manually screened ThinPrep LBC be cost-effective. If none of these conditions are met, implementation of manually screened ThinPrep LBC seems warranted only if there are advantages other than cost-effectiveness. Further research is needed to establish whether other LBC systems will be more favorable with regard to cost-effectiveness.

  5. Romanowsky staining using liquid-based cytology: A pilot study using Cytolyt(®)/HESPANDER(®) processing solution for ThinPrep(®) preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yuri, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Takasu, Kosho; Emoto, Yuko; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2015-12-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been used to prepare and examine many types of samples. However, the use of Romanowsky stains for LBC has not yet been evaluated. Herein, we report a technique for the use of the Romanowsky May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain using a ThinPrep(®) preparation technique (MGG-LBC). KPL-1 breast cancer cells at a density of 1.25 × 10(5)/20 ml were compared in conventional smear and MGG-LBC preparations. Cell size, nucleus/cytoplasm (N/C) ratio, and morphological findings were investigated. Clinical samples including voided urine and pleural effusion were also examined in MGG-LBC preparations. Cellularity appeared lower with MGG-LBC compared with Papanicolaou-stained smears using the ThinPrep(®) method, though the cell size and N/C ratio showed similar tendencies. Reactive mesothelial cells, normal urothelial cells, urothelial carcinoma cells, crystals, and bacteria were all clear enough for diagnostic purposes after MGG-LBC. Romanowsky staining is necessary for the cytodiagnosis of some conditions. MGG-LBC may contribute to the cytodiagnostic results using LBC preparations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Detection of in situ and invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma on ThinPrep Pap Test: Morphologic analysis of false negative cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chaump

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to calculate the sensitivity and false negative (FN rate of ThinPrep Pap Test (TPPT and carefully analyze missed cases for educational purposes. Materials and Methods: Patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS or invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC over a 17-year-period (1998-2015 were identified. The TPPT immediately preceding the histological diagnosis of AIS/ECA was designated as index Pap (IP. Paps up to 122 months before histologic diagnosis of AIS/ECA were considered for this study. All available negative and unsatisfactory TPPT were re-reviewed. Results: There were 78 patients with histologically-proven AIS (56 or ECA (22 with 184 TPPTs, and 95 of these TPPTs were abnormal. Of the abnormal cases, 55.7% TPPTs were diagnosed as endocervical cell abnormality (atypical endocervical cells/AIS/ECA. Notably, 44.2% of abnormal TPPTs were diagnosed as squamous cell abnormality (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Including the diagnoses of squamous cell abnormality, the sensitivity of index TPPT for histologically-confirmed AIS/ECA was 88%. Eighty-eight of 184 TPPT, including 10 IP, were negative = 87, or unsatisfactory = 1. Forty-two of these slides were available for re-review. Upon review, 21 TPPT (50% were confirmed negative and 21 TPPT (50% were reclassified as abnormal = 20, or unsatisfactory = 1. Of the FN cases, the main difficulty in correct diagnosis was the presence of few diagnostic cell clusters which had less "feathering," and consisted of smaller, rounder cells in small and tighter clusters, with nuclear overlap. In particular, nuclear overlap in three-dimensional groups precluded the accurate diagnosis. Rare FN cases showed squamous cell abnormality on re-review, and rare cases showed obscuring blood or inflammation. Conclusion: A significant proportion of AIS

  7. Detection of in situ and invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma on ThinPrep Pap Test: Morphologic analysis of false negative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaump, Michael; Pirog, Edyta C; Panico, Vinicius J A; D Meritens, Alexandre Buckley; Holcomb, Kevin; Hoda, Rana

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to calculate the sensitivity and false negative (FN) rate of ThinPrep Pap Test (TPPT) and carefully analyze missed cases for educational purposes. Patients with histologically proven adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS) or invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC) over a 17-year-period (1998-2015) were identified. The TPPT immediately preceding the histological diagnosis of AIS/ECA was designated as index Pap (IP). Paps up to 122 months before histologic diagnosis of AIS/ECA were considered for this study. All available negative and unsatisfactory TPPT were re-reviewed. There were 78 patients with histologically-proven AIS (56) or ECA (22) with 184 TPPTs, and 95 of these TPPTs were abnormal. Of the abnormal cases, 55.7% TPPTs were diagnosed as endocervical cell abnormality (atypical endocervical cells/AIS/ECA). Notably, 44.2% of abnormal TPPTs were diagnosed as squamous cell abnormality (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). Including the diagnoses of squamous cell abnormality, the sensitivity of index TPPT for histologically-confirmed AIS/ECA was 88%. Eighty-eight of 184 TPPT, including 10 IP, were negative = 87, or unsatisfactory = 1. Forty-two of these slides were available for re-review. Upon review, 21 TPPT (50%) were confirmed negative and 21 TPPT (50%) were reclassified as abnormal = 20, or unsatisfactory = 1. Of the FN cases, the main difficulty in correct diagnosis was the presence of few diagnostic cell clusters which had less feathering, and consisted of smaller, rounder cells in small and tighter clusters, with nuclear overlap. In particular, nuclear overlap in three-dimensional groups precluded the accurate diagnosis. Rare FN cases showed squamous cell abnormality on re-review, and rare cases showed obscuring blood or inflammation. A significant proportion of AIS/EAC is discovered after Pap showing squamous cell abnormality. FN

  8. The effects of composition, temperature and sample size on the sintering of chem-prep high field varistors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Terry J.

    2007-09-01

    The sintering behavior of Sandia chem-prep high field varistor materials was studied using techniques including in situ shrinkage measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. A thorough literature review of phase behavior, sintering and microstructure in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO varistor systems is included. The effects of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (from 0.25 to 0.56 mol%) and of sodium doping level (0 to 600 ppm) on the isothermal densification kinetics was determined between 650 and 825 C. At {ge} 750 C samples with {ge}0.41 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have very similar densification kinetics, whereas samples with {le}0.33 mol% begin to densify only after a period of hours at low temperatures. The effect of the sodium content was greatest at {approx}700 C for standard 0.56 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and was greater in samples with 0.30 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} than for those with 0.56 mol%. Sintering experiments on samples of differing size and shape found that densification decreases and mass loss increases with increasing surface area to volume ratio. However, these two effects have different causes: the enhancement in densification as samples increase in size appears to be caused by a low oxygen internal atmosphere that develops whereas the mass loss is due to the evaporation of bismuth oxide. In situ XRD experiments showed that the bismuth is initially present as an oxycarbonate that transforms to metastable {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} by 400 C. At {approx}650 C, coincident with the onset of densification, the cubic binary phase, Bi{sub 38}ZnO{sub 58} forms and remains stable to >800 C, indicating that a eutectic liquid does not form during normal varistor sintering ({approx}730 C). Finally, the formation and morphology of bismuth oxide phase regions that form on the varistors surfaces during slow cooling were studied.

  9. High acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis but challenges in adherence and use: qualitative insights from a phase I trial of intermittent and daily PrEP in at-risk populations in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Elst, Elisabeth Maria; Mbogua, Judie; Operario, Don; Mutua, Gaudensia; Kuo, Caroline; Mugo, Peter; Kanungi, Jennifer; Singh, Sagri; Haberer, Jessica; Priddy, Frances; Sanders, Eduard Joachim

    2013-07-01

    This paper used qualitative methods to explore experiences of men who have sex with men and female sex workers in Nairobi and Mtwapa, Kenya, who used oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention as part of a four-month trial of safety, acceptability and adherence. Fifty-one of 72 volunteers who took part in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded trial that compared daily and intermittent dosage of PrEP underwent qualitative assessments after completing the trial. Analyses identified three themes: (i) acceptability of PrEP was high, i.e. side effects were experienced early in the study but diminished over time, however characteristics of pills could improve comfort and use; (ii) social impacts such as stigma, rumors, and relationship difficulties due to being perceived as HIV positive were prevalent; (iii) adherence was challenged by complexities of daily life, in particular post-coital dosing adherence suffered from alcohol use around time of sex, mobile populations, and transactional sex work. These themes resonated across dosing regimens and gender, and while most participants favored the intermittent dosing schedule, those in the intermittent group noted particular challenges in adhering to the post-coital dose. Culturally appropriate and consistent counseling addressing these issues may be critical for PrEP effectiveness.

  10. Stigma, medical mistrust, and perceived racism may affect PrEP awareness and uptake in black compared to white gay and bisexual men in Jackson, Mississippi and Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Taylor, S Wade; Elsesser, Steven A; Mena, Leandro; Hickson, DeMarc; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than two thirds of new HIV infections in the U.S., with Black MSM experiencing the greatest burden. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce MSM's vulnerability to HIV infection. Uptake of PrEP has been limited, particularly among racial and ethnic minority MSM. Four semi-structured focus groups with gay and bisexual men and other MSM at risk for HIV infection were convened in Boston and Jackson in late 2013. The analysis plan utilized a within-case, across-case approach to code and analyze emerging themes, and to compare results across the two cities. Participants recruited in Jackson were primarily Black gay men, while Boston participants were mostly non-Hispanic White gay men. Participants in both sites shared concerns about medication side effects and culturally insensitive health care for gay men. Jackson participants described stronger medical mistrust, and more frequently described experiences of anti-gay and HIV related stigma. Multiple addressable barriers to PrEP uptake were described. Information about side effects should be explicitly addressed in PrEP education campaigns. Providers and health departments should address medical mistrust, especially among Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM, in part by training providers in how to provide affirming, culturally competent care. Medicaid should be expanded in Mississippi to cover low-income young Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM.

  11. Single track and single layer formation in selective laser melting of niobium solid solution alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling GUO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM was employed to fabricate Nb-37Ti-13Cr-2Al-1Si (at% alloy, using pre-alloyed powders prepared by plasma rotating electrode processing (PREP. A series of single tracks and single layers under different processing parameters was manufactured to evaluate the processing feasibility by SLM, including laser power, scanning speed, and hatch distance. Results showed that continuous single tracks could be fabricated using proper laser powers and scanning velocities. Both the width of a single track and its penetration depth into a substrate increased with an increase of the linear laser beam energy density (LED, i.e., an increase of the laser power and a decrease of the scanning speed. Nb, Ti, Si, Cr, and Al elements distributed heterogeneously over the melt pool in the form of swirl-like patterns. An excess of the hatch distance was not able to interconnect neighboring tracks. Under improper processing parameters, a balling phenomenon occurred, but could be eliminated with an increased LED. This work testified the SLM-processing feasibility of Nb-based alloy and promoted the application of SLM to the manufacture of niobium-based alloys. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Melt pool, Niobium alloy, Powder metallurgy, Selective laser melting

  12. Improved respiratory self-navigation for 3D radial acquisitions through the use of a pencil-beam 2D-T2 -prep for free-breathing, whole-heart coronary MRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coristine, Andrew J; Chaptinel, Jerome; Ginami, Giulia; Bonanno, Gabriele; Coppo, Simone; van Heeswijk, Ruud B; Piccini, Davide; Stuber, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    In respiratory self-navigation (SN), signal from static structures, such as the chest wall, may complicate motion detection or introduce post-correction artefacts. Suppressing signal from superfluous tissues may therefore improve image quality. We thus test the hypothesis that SN whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) will benefit from an outer-volume suppressing 2D-T 2 -Prep and present both phantom and in vivo results. A 2D-T 2 -Prep and a conventional T 2 -Prep were used prior to a free-breathing 3D-radial SN sequence. Both techniques were compared by imaging a home-built moving cardiac phantom and by performing coronary MRA in nine healthy volunteers. Reconstructions were performed using both a reference-based and a reference-independent approach to motion tracking, along with several coil combinations. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared, along with vessel sharpness (VS). In phantoms, using the 2D-T 2 -Prep increased SNR by 16% to 53% and mean VS by 8%; improved motion tracking precision was also achieved. In volunteers, SNR increased by an average of 29% to 33% in the blood pool and by 15% to 25% in the myocardium, depending on the choice of reconstruction coils and algorithm, and VS increased by 34%. A 2D-T 2 -Prep significantly improves image quality in both phantoms and volunteers when performing SN coronary MRA. Magn Reson Med 79:1293-1303, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Expression of zebrafish pax6b in pancreas is regulated by two enhancers containing highly conserved cis-elements bound by PDX1, PBX and PREP factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, François M; Pasque, Vincent; Devos, Nathalie; Manfroid, Isabelle; Voz, Marianne L; Motte, Patrick; Biemar, Frédéric; Martial, Joseph A; Peers, Bernard

    2008-05-16

    PAX6 is a transcription factor playing a crucial role in the development of the eye and in the differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine cells as well as of enteroendocrine cells. Studies on the mouse Pax6 gene have shown that sequences upstream from the P0 promoter are required for expression in the lens and the pancreas; but there remain discrepancies regarding the precise location of the pancreatic regulatory elements. Due to genome duplication in the evolution of ray-finned fishes, zebrafish has two pax6 genes, pax6a and pax6b. While both zebrafish pax6 genes are expressed in the developing eye and nervous system, only pax6b is expressed in the endocrine cells of the pancreas. To investigate the cause of this differential expression, we used a combination of in silico, in vivo and in vitro approaches. We show that the pax6b P0 promoter targets expression to endocrine pancreatic cells and also to enteroendocrine cells, retinal neurons and the telencephalon of transgenic zebrafish. Deletion analyses indicate that strong pancreatic expression of the pax6b gene relies on the combined action of two conserved regulatory enhancers, called regions A and C. By means of gel shift assays, we detected binding of the homeoproteins PDX1, PBX and PREP to several cis-elements of these regions. In constrast, regions A and C of the zebrafish pax6a gene are not active in the pancreas, this difference being attributable to sequence divergences within two cis-elements binding the pancreatic homeoprotein PDX1. Our data indicate a conserved role of enhancers A and C in the pancreatic expression of pax6b and emphasize the importance of the homeoproteins PBX and PREP cooperating with PDX1, in activating pax6b expression in endocrine pancreatic cells. This study also provides a striking example of how adaptative evolution of gene regulatory sequences upon gene duplication progressively leads to subfunctionalization of the paralogous gene pair.

  14. Retention, engagement, and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis for men who have sex with men and transgender women in PrEP Brasil: 48 week results of a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, Jose V; Goulart, Silvia; Leite, Iuri C; Freitas, Lucilene; Martins, Luana M S; Torres, Thiago S; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; De Boni, Raquel B; Anderson, Peter L; Liu, Albert; Luz, Paula M; Veloso, Valdiléa G

    2018-03-01

    PrEP Brasil was a demonstration study to assess feasibility of daily oral tenofovir diphosphate disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine provided at no cost to men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women at high risk for HIV within the Brazilian public health system. We report week 48 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) retention, engagement, and adherence, trends in sexual behaviour, and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in this study cohort. PrEP Brasil was a 48 week, open-label, demonstration study that assessed PrEP delivery at three referral centres for HIV prevention and care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), and São Paulo, Brazil (Universidade de São Paulo and Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST e AIDS). Eligible participants were MSM and transgender women who were HIV negative, aged at least 18 years, resident in Rio de Janeiro or São Paulo, and reported one or more sexual risk criteria in the previous 12 months (eg, condomless anal sex with two or more partners, two or more episodes of anal sex with an HIV-infected partner, or history of sexually transmitted infection [STI] diagnosis). Participants were seen at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 for PrEP provision, clinical and laboratory evaluation, and HIV testing. Computer-assisted self-interviews were also done at study visits 12, 24, 36, and 48, and assessed sexual behaviour and drug use. PrEP retention was defined by attendance at the week 48 visit, PrEP engagement was an ordinal five-level variable combining presence at the study visit and drug concentrations, and PrEP adherence was evaluated by measuring tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. Logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of variables with high adherence (≥4 doses per week). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01989611. Between April 1, 2014, and July 8, 2016, 450 participants initiated PrEP, 375 (83%) of whom were retained

  15. High-throughput single-cell manipulation in brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D Steinmeyer

    Full Text Available The complexity of neurons and neuronal circuits in brain tissue requires the genetic manipulation, labeling, and tracking of single cells. However, current methods for manipulating cells in brain tissue are limited to either bulk techniques, lacking single-cell accuracy, or manual methods that provide single-cell accuracy but at significantly lower throughputs and repeatability. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput, efficient, reliable, and combinatorial delivery of multiple genetic vectors and reagents into targeted cells within the same tissue sample with single-cell accuracy. Our system automatically loads nanoliter-scale volumes of reagents into a micropipette from multiwell plates, targets and transfects single cells in brain tissues using a robust electroporation technique, and finally preps the micropipette by automated cleaning for repeating the transfection cycle. We demonstrate multi-colored labeling of adjacent cells, both in organotypic and acute slices, and transfection of plasmids encoding different protein isoforms into neurons within the same brain tissue for analysis of their effects on linear dendritic spine density. Our platform could also be used to rapidly deliver, both ex vivo and in vivo, a variety of genetic vectors, including optogenetic and cell-type specific agents, as well as fast-acting reagents such as labeling dyes, calcium sensors, and voltage sensors to manipulate and track neuronal circuit activity at single-cell resolution.

  16. In the Absence of a Mechanical Bowel Prep, Does the Addition of Pre-Operative Oral Antibiotics to Parental Antibiotics Decrease the Incidence of Surgical Site Infection after Elective Segmental Colectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sarah J; Swenson, Brian R; Hanseman, Dennis J; Midura, Emily F; Davis, Bradley R; Rafferty, Janice F; Abbott, Daniel E; Shah, Shimul A; Paquette, Ian M

    2015-12-01

    Pre-operative oral antibiotics administered the day prior to elective colectomy have been shown to decrease the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) if a mechanical bowel prep (MBP) is used. Recently, the role for mechanical bowel prep has been challenged as being unnecessary and potentially harmful. We hypothesize that if MBP is omitted, oral antibiotics do not alter the incidence of SSI following colectomy. We selected patients who underwent an elective segmental colectomy from the 2012 and 2013 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program colectomy procedure targeted database. Indications for surgery included colon cancer, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or benign polyp. Patients who received mechanical bowel prep were excluded. The primary outcome measured was surgical site infection, defined as the presence of superficial, deep or, organ space infection within 30 d from surgery. A total of 6,399 patients underwent elective segmental colectomy without MBP. The incidence of SSI differed substantially between patients who received oral antibiotics, versus those who did not (9.7% vs. 13.7%, p=0.01). Multivariate analysis indicated that age, smoking status, operative time, perioperative transfusions, oral antibiotics, and surgical approach were associated with post-operative SSI. When controlling for confounding factors, the use of pre-operative oral antibiotics decreased the incidence of surgical site infection (odds ratio=0.66, 95% confidence interval=0.48-0.90, p=0.01). Even in the absence of mechanical bowel prep, pre-operative oral antibiotics appear to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection following elective colectomy.

  17. Frequency of false positive rapid HIV serologic tests in African men and women receiving PrEP for HIV prevention: implications for programmatic roll-out of biomedical interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ndase

    Full Text Available Rapid HIV assays are the mainstay of HIV testing globally. Delivery of effective biomedical HIV prevention strategies such as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP requires periodic HIV testing. Because rapid tests have high (>95% but imperfect specificity, they are expected to generate some false positive results.We assessed the frequency of true and false positive rapid results in the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PrEP. HIV testing was performed monthly using 2 rapid tests done in parallel with HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA confirmation following all positive rapid tests.A total of 99,009 monthly HIV tests were performed; 98,743 (99.7% were dual-rapid HIV negative. Of the 266 visits with ≥1 positive rapid result, 99 (37.2% had confirmatory positive EIA results (true positives, 155 (58.3% had negative EIA results (false positives, and 12 (4.5% had discordant EIA results. In the active PrEP arms, over two-thirds of visits with positive rapid test results were false positive results (69.2%, 110 of 159, although false positive results occurred at <1% (110/65,945 of total visits.When HIV prevalence or incidence is low due to effective HIV prevention interventions, rapid HIV tests result in a high number of false relative to true positive results, although the absolute number of false results will be low. Program roll-out for effective interventions should plan for quality assurance of HIV testing, mechanisms for confirmatory HIV testing, and counseling strategies for persons with positive rapid test results.

  18. Performance evaluation of cobas HBV real-time PCR assay on Roche cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanah; Hur, Mina; Bae, Eunsin; Lee, Kyung-A; Lee, Woo-In

    2018-02-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is important for the diagnosis and management of HBV infection. We evaluated the analytical performance of the cobas HBV NAAT (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) on the cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test (CAP/CTM HBV). Precision was evaluated using three levels of cobas HBV/HCV/HIV-1 Control Kit, and linearity was evaluated across the anticipated measuring range (10.0-1.0×109 IU/mL) at seven levels using clinical samples. Detection capability, including limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ), was verified using the 4th WHO International Standard for HBV DNA for NAT (NIBSC code: 10/266). Correlation between the two systems was compared using 205 clinical samples (102 sera and 103 EDTA plasma). Repeatability and total imprecision (coefficient of variation) ranged from 0.5% to 3.8% and from 0.5% to 3.5%, respectively. Linearity (coefficient of determination, R2) was 0.999. LOB, LOD and LOQ were all acceptable within the observed proportion rate (85%). Correlation was very high between the two systems in both serum and plasma samples (correlation coefficient [r]=0.995). The new cobas HBV real-time PCR assay on the cobas 4800 System showed reliable analytical performances.

  19. How Bioethics is Complementing Human Rights in Realizing Health Access for Clinical Trial Participants: The Case of Formative PrEP Access in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome

    2015-06-11

    Following the demise of apartheid, human rights in South Africa are now constitutionally enshrined.The right to health in South Africa's Constitution has been credited with transforming the lives of millions of people by triggering programmatic reforms in HIV treatment and the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV.However, a constitutionally enshrined right to health offers no guarantee that clinical trial participants will enjoy post-trial access to beneficial interventions. Using access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in South Africa as an example, this paper argues that adherence to bioethics norms could realize the right to health for trial participants following the end of a clinical trial. Copyright 2015 Singh. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  20. Chem-Prep PZT 95/5 for Neutron Generator Applications: Particle Size Distribution Comparison of Development and Production-Scale Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIPOLA, DIANA L.; VOIGT, JAMES A.; LOCKWOOD, STEVEN J.; RODMAN-GONZALES, EMILY D.

    2002-01-01

    The Materials Chemistry Department 1846 has developed a lab-scale chem-prep process for the synthesis of PNZT 95/5, a ferroelectric material that is used in neutron generator power supplies. This process (Sandia Process, or SP) has been successfully transferred to and scaled by Department 14192 (Ceramics and Glass Department), (Transferred Sandia Process, or TSP), to meet the future supply needs of Sandia for its neutron generator production responsibilities. In going from the development-size SP batch (1.6 kg/batch) to the production-scale TSP powder batch size (10 kg/batch), it was important that it be determined if the scaling process caused any ''performance-critical'' changes in the PNZT 95/5 being produced. One area where a difference was found was in the particle size distributions of the calcined PNZT powders. Documented in this SAND report are the results of an experimental study to determine the origin of the differences in the particle size distribution of the SP and TSP powders

  1. COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® Taqman ® HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0: an in vitro test for hepatitis C virus RNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2015-02-01

    The COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0, is an in vitro, fully automated, real-time, nucleic acid amplification test indicated for quantifying hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in the plasma/serum of patients infected with HCV of genotypes 1-6 who are receiving anti-viral therapy. By quantifying levels of HCV RNA in these patients, the test can be used early in the course of treatment to predict the likelihood of a sustained virologic response being achieved and can also be used to assess virologic response during treatment as part of response-guided therapy. The test has excellent sensitivity, high specificity and a broad linear range of quantitation. It correlates well with version 1.0 of the same test, but has the benefit of better sensitivity and genotype inclusivity and a smaller sample input volume. It also correlates well with other available HCV tests, including other quantitative real-time PCR tests (specifically the COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HCV Test, version 2.0, used with the high pure system, and the Abbott Realtime and Artus HCV QS-RGQ tests), the Versant(®) branched DNA quantitative test, the COBAS(®) Amplicor HCV Qualitative PCR Test and the Versant(®) HCV qualitative transcription-mediated amplification assay. The test is not indicated for HCV infection diagnosis or to screen for the presence of HCV in blood/blood products.

  2. Negative computer-imaged ThinPrep Pap test and positive hybrid capture2 HPV co-testing results: A quality assurance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rema; Molina, David; Halligan, Allison M; Vakil, Behzad; Alperstein, Susan A; Hoda, Rana S

    2015-09-01

    Women ≥30 years of age with negative (-) Pap tests and positive (+) HPV co-test results have a higher prevalence and cumulative risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+). Thus, the current management in these women is to repeat co-test in 12 months or immediate reflex genotyping for HPV16 or HPV 16/18. If genotyping is not an option, timely quality assurance (QA) rescreen of such Pap tests may be a valuable alternative. All ThinPrep Pap tests (TPPT) interpreted as negative for intra epithelial lesion (NILM) or NILM with reactive cellular changes (NILM/RCC) and a (+) high-risk HPV [Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), Qiagen, Hilden, Germany] co-test result over a 45-month period (10/2009-06/2013) underwent monthly QA review. The TPPT were screened by the TP Imaging System [TIS, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA]. Twenty five thousand six hundred and seventy five (18%) NILM and NILM/RCC TPPT of a total of 141,548 TPPT underwent HPV co-test. HPV test was (+) in 2,300 (8.9%) TPPT cases. HPV (+) cases by age group were Pap, and one case showed endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) on biopsy. Timely QA review of HPV (+) Pap (-) co-tests is a valuable monitor. Ninety percentage of reclassified cases were in ≥30 age group and 70% were originally signed out by using TIS 22 Field of View (FOV) only. Three reclassified cases had significant findings on follow up (F/U). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Project PrEPare (ATN082): The Acceptability and Feasibility of an HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Trial with Young Men who Have Sex with Men (YMSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Sybil; Siberry, George; Bell, Margo; Lally, Michelle; Kapogiannis, Bill; Green, Keith; Fernandez, M. Isa; Rutledge, Brandy; Martinez, Jaime; Garofalo, Robert; Wilson, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the feasibility of a combination prevention intervention for young men who have sex with men (YMSM), an anticipated target population for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods Project PrEPare, a pilot study using a randomized 3-arm design, compared an efficacious behavioral HIV-prevention intervention (3MV) alone, 3MV combined with PrEP (tenofovir/emtricitabine), and 3MV combined with placebo. Eligible participants were 18–22 year old HIV-uninfected men who reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past year. Participants were screened for preliminary eligibility at youth venues and community organizations, and were also referred through social networks. Laboratory screening determined final eligibility. Behavioral and biomedical data were collected at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter for 24 weeks. Results Sixty-eight youth (mean age = 19.97 years; 53% African-American, 40% Latino were enrolled; 58 were randomized. Self-reported medication adherence averaged 62% (range 43–83%) while rates of detectable tenofovir in plasma of participants in the FTC/TDF arm ranged from 63.2% (week 4) to 20% (week 24). There were 5 ≥ Grade 2 adverse events possibly/probably related to the study medication. Sexual risk behavior declined from baseline to week 24 in all study arms. Conclusions The feasibility of enrolling at risk youth, particularly YMSM of color, into Project PrEPare has been demonstrated. The acceptability of the group intervention along with counseling and testing was high. Self-reported medication adherence and corresponding plasma drug concentrations were low indicating the need for enhanced adherence counseling. Exploration of PrEP use among youth in non-randomized, open label trials is warranted. PMID:24135734

  4. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC and Prep-HPLC Guided by DPPH-HPLC Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijie Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments. Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated and purified from leaves of L. japonica using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC and prep-HPLC. The n-butanol extract was firstly isolated by HSCCC using methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (0.5% acetic acid (2:2:1:5, v/v, yielding five fractions F1, F2 (rhoifolin, F3 (luteoloside, F4 and F5 (collected from the column after the separation. The sub-fractions F1, F4 and F5 were successfully separated by prep-HPLC. Finally, nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1, lonicerin (2, rutin (3, rhoifolin (4, luteoloside (5, 3,4-Odicaffeoylquinic acid (6, hyperoside (7, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9 were obtained, respectively, with the purities over 94% as determined by HPLC. The structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR. Antioxidant activities were tested, and the isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activities.

  5. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC) and Prep-HPLC Guided by DPPH-HPLC Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daijie; Du, Ning; Wen, Lei; Zhu, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Du, Jinhua; Li, Shengbo

    2017-02-02

    In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica) was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments). Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated and purified from leaves of L. japonica using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and prep-HPLC. The n-butanol extract was firstly isolated by HSCCC using methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (0.5% acetic acid) (2:2:1:5, v/v), yielding five fractions F1, F2 (rhoifolin), F3 (luteoloside), F4 and F5 (collected from the column after the separation). The sub-fractions F1, F4 and F5 were successfully separated by prep-HPLC. Finally, nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1), lonicerin (2), rutin (3), rhoifolin (4), luteoloside (5), 3,4-Odicaffeoylquinic acid (6), hyperoside (7), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8), and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9) were obtained, respectively, with the purities over 94% as determined by HPLC. The structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H- and 13C-NMR. Antioxidant activities were tested, and the isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activities.

  6. The effectiveness of acetic acid wash protocol and the interpretation patterns of blood contaminated cervical cytology ThinPrep® specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ThinPrep® (TP cervical cytology, as a liquid-based method, has many benefits but also a relatively high unsatisfactory rate due to debris/lubricant contamination and the presence of blood. These contaminants clog the TP filter and prevent the deposition of adequate diagnostic cells on the slide. An acetic acid wash (AAW protocol is often used to lyse red blood cells, before preparing the TP slides. Design: From 23,291 TP cervical cytology specimens over a 4-month period, 2739 underwent AAW protocol due to initial unsatisfactory smear (UNS with scant cellularity due to blood or being grossly bloody. Randomly selected 2739 cervical cytology specimens which did not undergo AAW from the same time period formed the control (non-AAW group. Cytopathologic interpretations of AAW and non-AAW groups were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: About 94.2% of the 2739 cases which underwent AAW were subsequently satisfactory for evaluation with interpretations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS 4.9% (135, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL 3.7% (102, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL 1% (28. From the 2739 control cases, 96.3% were satisfactory with ASCUS 5.5% (151, LSIL 5.1% (139, and HSIL 0.7% (19. The prevalence of ASCUS interpretations was similar (P = 0.33. Although there were 32% more HSIL interpretations in the AAW group (28 in AAW vs. 19 in non-AAW, the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.18. AAW category; however, had significantly fewer LSIL interpretations (P = 0.02. The percentage of UNS cases remained higher in the AAW group with statistical significance (P < 0.01. Conclusions: While AAW had a significantly higher percent of UNS interpretations, the protocol was effective in rescuing 94.2% of specimens which otherwise may have been reported unsatisfactory. This improved patient care by avoiding a repeat test. The prevalence of ASCUS and HSIL

  7. Confident in Their College Prep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Every year, the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) at UCLA conducts The Freshman Survey, a national longitudinal study that covers a wide range of student characteristics--from secondary school achievement and activities to educational and career plans to values, attitudes, beliefs, and self concept. To identify the academic and personal…

  8. An inhibitory switch derepressed by pbx, hox, and Meis/Prep1 partners regulates DNA-binding by pbx1 and E2a-pbx1 and is dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-pbx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, K R; Knoepfler, P; McGrath, S; Kamps, M P

    1999-12-23

    The Pbx/Exd family of homeodomain (HD) proteins contribute to the transcriptional and developmental roles of other Hox and Meis/Prep1/Hth HD proteins through heterodimer formation. E2a-Pbx1 is an oncogenic derrivative of Pbx1 produced by the t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. E2a-Pbx1 heterodimerizes with Hox but not with Meis/Prep1 proteins, produces acute myeloid leukemia in mice, and blocks differentiation of cultured murine myeloid progenitors. Here, we characterize negative and positive regulatory sequences that flank the Pbx1 HD and determine their importance for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. A 25 residue predicted alpha helix preceding the Pbx1 HD bound the HD and prevented both its binding to DNA and its ability to heterodimerize with Hox proteins. Addition of 39 residues N-terminal to this inhibitory helix exposed a Pbx dimerization interface that orchestrated cooperative DNA-binding of E2a-Pbx1 and all Pbx proteins as homodimers and heterdimers. Sequences inhibiting DNA-binding and mediating Pbx dimerization coincided with those reported to have nuclear export function. An additional 103 residues N-terminal to the Pbx dimerization interface restored heterodimerization with Hox and Meis1/Prep1 proteins. This negative switch domain - comprised of the inhibitory helix and N-terminal regions required for its partner-mediated derepression - was dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. While stabilizing the heterodimer, the 310 helix C-terminal to the Pbx1 HD was also dispensable for the ability of E2a-Pbx1 to heterodimerize with Hox proteins and immortalize myeloblasts. Retention of myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1 proteins lacking all Pbx1 sequences N- or C-terminal to the HD indicates that Hox proteins, or a yet undefined factor that binds the Pbx1 HD and derepresses DNA-binding by the HD, cooperate with E2a-Pbx1 in myeloid immortalization.

  9. Effect of Thin Prep® imaging system on laboratory rate and relative sensitivity of atypical squamous cells, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke R Koltz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Automated screening of Thin Prep ® Papanicolaou Tests has become increasingly common in clinical practice. Increased productivity has initiated laboratory use of the Thin Prep ® Imaging System (TIS. Increased sensitivity is a potential additional benefit of TIS. Published studies have shown an increase in discovery of dysplastic cells. This study evaluates the effect of TIS on the incidence of atypical squamous cells high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded (ASC-H and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL results on Thin Prep ® Pap Tests by comparing TIS-assisted and manual screening findings and the diagnoses on subsequent follow-up in a screening population over a 1-year time period. Materials and Methods: A compilation of all ASC-H and HGSIL cases was prepared by conducting a computerized search over a 1-year period (7/06-6/07. The accumulated cases include Thin Prep Pap tests that were both TIS and manually screened. Follow-up results of cytologic and histologic cervical specimens were obtained for a time period extending to 2010. Interpretation utilizing TIS was in place 10 months prior to the study′s initiation. Results: During the study period 70,522 Pap tests were performed in our laboratory. One third (33% of Pap tests were screened with assistance of TIS. Manual screening was performed on 47,380 Pap tests of which 153 (0.32% were interpreted as ASC-H and 164 (0.35% were interpreted as HGSIL. During the same time period automated screening (TIS was performed on 23,111 Pap tests. Interpretation of 62 (0.27% cases provided an ASC-H result, while 71 (0.31% were HGSIL. Follow-up cervical dysplasia by colposcopic biopsy and cone biopsy was distributed proportionally between TIS and manual screening for both ASC-H and HGSIL categories. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III was identified on follow-up biopsy of 41% TIS cases and 45% manually screened cases for ASC-H. In the HGSIL subset 71

  10. Simultaneous purification of DNA and RNA from microbiota in a single colonic mucosal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Aina E F; Tannæs, Tone M; Vatn, Simen; Ricanek, Petr; Vatn, Morten Harald; Jahnsen, Jørgen

    2016-06-28

    Nucleic acid purification methods are of importance when performing microbiota studies and especially when analysing the intestinal microbiota as we here find a wide range of different microbes. Various considerations must be taken to lyse the microbial cell wall of each microbe. In the present article, we compare several tissue lysis steps and commercial purification kits, to achieve a joint RNA and DNA purification protocol for the purpose of investigating the microbiota and the microbiota-host interactions in a single colonic mucosal tissue sample. A further optimised tissue homogenisation and lysis protocol comprising mechanical bead beating, lysis buffer replacement and enzymatic treatment, in combination with the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) resulted in efficient and simultaneous purification of microbial and human RNA and DNA from a single mucosal colonic tissue sample. The present work provides a unique possibility to study RNA and DNA from the same mucosal biopsy sample, making a direct comparison between metabolically active microbes and total microbial DNA. The protocol also offers an opportunity to investigate other members of a microbiota such as viruses, fungi and micro-eukaryotes, and moreover the possibility to extract data on microbiota and host interactions from one single mucosal biopsy.

  11. "Immunocytochemical expression of P53, PTEN, FAS (CD95), P16INK4A and HPV L1 major capsid proteins in ThinPrep cervical samples with squamous intraepithelial lesions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapsa, D; Frangou-Plemenou, M; Kondi-Pafiti, A; Stergiou, E; Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P; Patsouris, E; Chelidonis, G; Athanassiadou, P

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the immunocytochemical expression of p53, PTEN, Fas, p16, and HPV L1 capsid proteins in cervical smears with low and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL, respectively). A total of 92 ThinPrep cervical samples, comprising 11 cases of HSIL, 61 cases of LSIL, and 20 negative cases were studied by immunocytochemical methods. The results obtained in LSIL cases were correlated with the available follow up data. Abnormal p53, PTEN, or Fas expression was found in a subset of HSIL cases, while positive expression for p16 was significantly associated with the diagnosis of HSIL (P 0.05). Our results suggest that loss of PTEN or Fas expression and p53 overexpression may be involved in the process of neoplastic transformation of the cervical epithelium. Furthermore, negative or weak immunocytochemical staining for p16 in a Pap smear may strongly argue against the presence of a high grade lesion, while the combined p16/L1 staining pattern may be useful as a diagnostic adjunct for differentiating between LSIL and HSIL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of the MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit with the PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for Detection of Salmonella spp. in Dry Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Flannery, Jonathan; Bastin, Benjamin; Bird, Patrick; Crowley, Erin Sutphin; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James R; Goins, David; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    A method modification validation study was conducted to validate the Applied Biosystems MicroSEQ™ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit for the detection of Salmonella spp. in 375 g samples of dried pet food. The MicroSEQ assay protocol, using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Rapid Spin DNA Sample Preparation Kit, was compared to the reference method detailed in the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM; Chapter 5, Salmonella) for detection of Salmonella spp. For each method, 20 replicates were analyzed at a low contamination level of 0.2-2 CFU/test portion, five replicates were analyzed at a high level of contamination of 2-5 CFU/test portion, and five control replicates were also analyzed at 0 CFU/test portion (uninoculated). Statistical analysis was conducted using the Probability of Detection statistical test to determine the ability of the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit to detect Salmonella from 375 g samples of dried pet food in comparison to the FDA-BAM reference method. The results demonstrated that the MicroSEQ Salmonella spp. Detection Kit was able to accurately detect Salmonella spp. present in dry pet food after an enrichment time of 20 h.

  13. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  14. Single photon from a single trapped atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingjan, J.; Jones, M.P.A.; Beugnon, J.; Darquiee, B.; Bergamini, S.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum treatment of the interaction between atoms and light usually begins with the simplest model system: a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light wave. Here we demonstrate an elegant experimental realization of this system using an optically trapped single rubidium atom illuminated by resonant light pulses. We observe Rabi oscillations, and show that this system can be used as a highly efficient triggered source of single photons with a well-defined polarisation. In contrast to other sources based on neutral atoms and trapped ions, no optical cavity is required. We achieved a flux of single photons of about 10 4 s -1 at the detector, and observe complete antibunching. This source has potential applications for distributed atom-atom entanglement using single photons. (author)

  15. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  16. Rapid MR imaging of the liver. Comparison of twelve techniques for single breath-hold whole volume acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Jenner, Goeran; Cooper, T.G.; Potchen, E.J.; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1994-01-01

    Twelve magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences for single breath-hold whole volume acquisition of the liver were evaluated on volunteers. Liver and spleen contrast to noise ratio (C/N), overall image quality, and grade of artifacts were compared. The 12 sequences included T 2 -weighted fast spin echo (FSE) with or without fat suppression (FS), fast multiplanar spoiled gradient recalled imaging (FMPSPGR), fast gradient recalled imaging without preparation pulses (FGR), FGR with inversion recovery preparation pulse nulling the liver or fat (IR-FGR-L and IR-FGR-F), FGR with driven equilibrium preparation pulse (DE-FGR), single shot moderately or heavily T 2 -weighted spin echo echo planar imaging (SE-EPI-mT2 and SE-EPI-hT2), multi-shot moderately T 2 -weighted spin echo echo planar imaging (multi-shot SE-EPI-mT2), inversion recovery EPI, and gradient echo EPI. In the quantitative analysis, FSE + FS showed a significantly higher C/N ratio than the others (p<0.05). In the qualitative evaluation, DE-prepFGR, and single and multi-shot SE-EPI-mT2 had good results, as did FSE and FSE + FS. Further studies should be conducted to determine whether or not these breath-hold sequences can obviate current conventional non-breath-hold sequences. (author)

  17. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas hembras prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and secretion of insulin in hyperandrogenized and hyperestrogenized prepuberal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En trabajos publicados previamente, realizados con distintos modelos experimentales de ratas, se halló una asociación entre la hiperandrogenización y la resistencia a la insulina caracterizada por hiperinsulinismo que, en ocasiones, se acompañaba de un deterioro de la tolerancia a la glucosa. Para obtener información adicional sobre el efecto de los esteroides sexuales sobre los mecanismos de regulación de la glucemia, se estudió el efecto de la administración de dosis altas de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas hembras prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un estado de resistencia a la insulina caracterizado por hiperinsulinemia, que se correspondía con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, la hiperestrogenización de estas ratas prepúberes hembras no produjo cambios en los perfiles de la glucemia, de la insulinemia ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans estimulados con concentraciones de glucosa cercanos al rango fisiológico. Se concluyó que en este modelo experimental la hiperandrogenización produce un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina.In previously published studies conducted with different experimental models of rats, it was found an association between hyperandrogenization and insulin resistance characterized by hyperinsulinism that, on occasions, was accompanied by glucose tolerance deterioration. To obtain additional information on the effect of sexual steroids on the glycemia regulation mechanisms, it was studied the effect of the administration of high doses of

  18. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and insulin secretion in prepubescent rats receiving high doses of androgens and strogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una sobredosis de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas machos prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró, in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina, con hiperinsulinemia, que no se corresponde con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, se comprobó que la hiperestrogenización no indujo cambios en los perfiles de glucemia, ni de insulinemia, ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans de este grupo de ratas hiperestrogenizadas.The effect of an overdose of testosterone heptanoate and estradiol in male prepubescent rats on the behavior of glycemia and insulinemia was studied in vivo during a glucose tolerance test. The capacity of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose from the islets of Langerhans of these rats that were administered a high dose of androgens and estrogens was explored in vitro. It was found that the high level of circulating androgens was accompanied by a deterioration of sensitivity to insulin with hyperinsulinemia that does not correspond to an increase of the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans. However, it was demonstrated that the high level of circulating estrogens did not produce changes either in the glycemia and insulinemia profiles or in the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans in this group of rats that received an elevated dose of estrogens.

  19. Abbott RealTime hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assays for prediction of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kentaro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Izumi; Ohno, Tomoyoshi; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Kurbanov, Fuat; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Nojiri, Shunsuke; Joh, Takashi; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-02-01

    Two commercial real-time PCR assays are currently available for sensitive hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA quantification: the Abbott RealTime HCV assay (ART) and Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay (CAP/CTM). We assessed whether the two real-time PCR assays were more effective than Roche Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor test, v.2.0 (CAM) for prediction of the sustained virological response (SVR) to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) in chronic hepatitis C. Sixty patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1b (37 males and 23 females, 53 +/- 12 years of age) were treated with PEG-IFNalpha2b plus RBV for 48 weeks. Stored specimens at nine time points for each patient (at baseline, on treatment, and 24 weeks after treatment) were tested by the two real-time PCR assays and CAM. Twenty-six (43.3%) patients reached SVR. The positive predictive values (PPVs) for SVR of undetectable HCV RNA at week 12 by CAM, ART, and CAP/CTM were 74.3%, 88.0%, and 95.2%, respectively. An undetectable HCV RNA level by CAM, ART, and CAP/CTM correctly predicted SVR at week 4 in 100%, 100%, and 100% of patients, at weeks 5 to 8 in 91.7%, 100%, and 100% of patients, at weeks 9 to 12 in 55.6%, 75%, and 87.5% of patients, and at weeks 13 to 24 in 0%, 26.7%, and 40% of patients, respectively. Of 16 patients who relapsed after treatment, HCV RNA was detectable in 2 patients at the end of treatment by CAP/CTM but undetectable by ART and CAM. HCV RNA tests using ART and CAP/CTM are considered to be more effective at predicting SVR than CAM, and the PPV for SVR was slightly higher in CAP/CTM than in ART.

  20. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  1. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule spectroscopy. (SMS), confocal microscopy,. FCS, sm-FRET, FLIM. 1 High-resolution spectrum re- fers to a spectrum consisting of very sharp lines. The sharp lines clearly display transitions to ...

  2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE. February 2015. GENERAL ARTICLE. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. Keywords. Single-molecule ..... Resonance Energy. Transfer (FRET) is an elegant technique to measure the distance between a donor and an acceptor molecule. FRET refers to the.

  3. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct. Keywords. Nonlocality; single particle; hidden variables. PACS Nos 03.67.Ba; 03.65.Ta; 32.80.Lg; 07.79.Fc. 1. Introduction. Quantum nonlocality [2] for single particle is a subject of debate since the origin.

  4. Single gaze gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Lilholm, Martin; Gail, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gaze gestures and their applicability as a generic selection method for gaze-only controlled interfaces. The method explored here is the Single Gaze Gesture (SGG), i.e. gestures consisting of a single point-to-point eye movement. Horizontal and vertical, long and short SGGs were...

  5. Understanding Single Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Peter J.

    The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed--a life spiral…

  6. Single-sided NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  7. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  8. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  9. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  10. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  11. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  12. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  13. Single photon ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)

  14. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A and Anhydrosafflor Yellow B in Safflower Series of Herb Pairs Using Prep-HPLC and a Selective Knock-Out Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Qu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Carthami Flos, safflower, important in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, is known for treating blood stasis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease in clinical and experimental studies. It is widely accepted that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA and anhydrosafflor yellow B (ASYB are the major bioactive components of many formulae comprised of safflower. In this study, selective knock-out of target components such as HSYA and ASYB by using preparative high performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC followed by antiplatelet and anticoagulation activities evaluation was used to investigate the roles of bioactive ingredients in safflower series of herb pairs. The results showed that both HSYA and ASYB not only played a direct role in activating blood circulation, but also indirectly made a contribution to the total bioactivity of safflower series of herb pairs. The degree of contribution of HSYA in the safflower and its series herb pairs was as follows: Carthami Flos-Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma Rubra (CF-GR > Carthami Flos-Sappan Lignum (CF-SL > Carthami Flos-Angelicae Sinensis Radix (CF-AS > Carthami Flos-Astragali Radix (CF-AR > Carthami Flos-Angelicae Sinensis Radix (CF-AS > Carthami Flos-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (CF-GL > Carthami Flos-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (CF-SM > Carthami Flos (CF, and the contribution degree of ASYB in the safflower and its series herb pairs: CF-GL > CF-PS > CF-AS > CF-SL > CF-SM > CF-AR > CF-GR > CF. So, this study provided a significant and effective approach to elucidate the contribution of different herbal components to the bioactivity of the herb pair, and clarification of the variation of herb-pair compatibilities. In addition, this study provides guidance for investigating the relationship between herbal compounds and the bioactivities of herb pairs. It also provides a scientific basis for reasonable clinical applications and new drug

  16. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  17. A Single Atom Antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinter, Florian; Williams, Joshua B; Weller, Miriam; Waitz, Markus; Pitzer, Martin; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Schober, Carl; Kastirke, Gregor; Müller, Christian; Goihl, Christoph; Burzynski, Phillip; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus S; Jahnke, Till; Dörner, Reinhard; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Gokhberg, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the smallest possible implementation of an antenna-receiver complex which consists of a single (helium) atom acting as the antenna and a second (neon) atom acting as a receiver. (paper)

  18. Single Beam Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan; Ruterbusch, Paul H.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how holography can be used as part of undergraduate physics laboratories. The authors propose a single beam technique of holography, which will reduce the recording scheme as well as relax the isolation requirements. (HM)

  19. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  20. prep: an agony in five fits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iverson, G.J.; Lee, M.D.; Zhang, S.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 Psychological Science, the flagship journal of the Association for Psychological Science, began their current practice of asking contributors to compute the statistic in lieu of the traditional p-value. In a polemic comprising five Fits we argue that is misnamed, commonly miscalculated,

  1. CTBT PrepCom work in Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, D.

    2002-01-01

    The history, location and facilities of Namibia's Tsumeb Geophysical Research Station are briefly described. The station's seismic and infrasound activities together with its IMS and CTBTO membership are mentioned. Manpower, training and budgetary constriants are noted

  2. Principal Prep for Common Core Gaining Traction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, top officials in the school leadership world were worried. It seemed to them that principals were being overlooked in national conversations about how to get educators ready for the Common Core State Standards. But that is changing. The past six months have seen a surge of activity to acquaint principals with the new standards and…

  3. Environmental Education Programs and Materials. PREP-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Stanley L.; And Others

    Information concerning programs and materials for environmental education is provided. In the report, environmental education is defined as: ". . . the educational process dealing with man's relationship with his natural and manmade surroundings, and including the relation of population, pollution, resource allocation and depletion,…

  4. Prep-ME Software Implementation and Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Highway agencies across the United States are moving from empirical design procedures towards the mechanistic-empirical (ME) based pavement design. Even though the Pavement ME Design presents a new paradigm shift with several dramatic improvements, i...

  5. Single-Photon Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit. Using master-equation simulations, we also study the crossover from the weak-coupling many-photon to the single-photon strong-coupling regime. Finally, we find non-Gaussian steady states of the mechanical oscillator when multiphoton transitions are resonant. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  6. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  7. Biocatalytic Single Enzyme Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kim, Jungbae

    2004-03-31

    As an innovative way of enzyme stabilization, we recently developed a new enzyme composite of nano-meter scale that we call "single-enzyme nanoparticles (SENs)" (9). Each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a porous composite organic/inorganic network of less than a few nanometers think. This approach represents a new type of enzyme-containing nanostructure. In experiments with perotease (chymotrypsin, CT), the activity of single enzyme nanoparticle form of the enzyme was greatly stabilized compared to the free form, without imposing a serious mass transfer limitation of substrates. In this chapter we will describe the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of the new SENs.

  8. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions......LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...

  9. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! Kankan Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 151-164. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...

  12. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  13. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  14. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Reidsma, Dennis; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Volpe, G; Kolkmeier, Jan; Camurri, A.; Kolkmeier, Jan; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer

  15. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  16. Single reusable spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  17. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy: Every Molecule is Different! ... Author Affiliations. Kankan Bhattacharyya1. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 India.

  18. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  19. Beyond the Single Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Yekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of world literature have the opportunity to help students explore the more complex reality behind the stereotypes that they often see in the media. If we don't encourage students to challenge one-dimensional "single stories" that characterize an entire people--whether Muslims, Russians, Mexicans, African Americans, Chinese,…

  20. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    activity. LDH single sheets have been reported to be effective sorbents, catalysts in electrochemical and photochemical reactions, and building thin films together with other nanomaterials for designing new functionalities. Here we focus on the delamination of FeII-FeIII LDHs into single sheet iron oxide...... was rapid compared to other iron oxides, reaching equilibrium within 60 minutes. Arsenic sorption and acid-base titration data could be successfully described with a 1pk Basic Stern Model (BSM). The point of zero charge was around 8. The intrinsic surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K...... became abundant at low pH. (3) Electrochemical reduction of chlorinated compounds using an SSI modified electrode. Here, the electrochemical reactivity of SSIs coated on indium tin oxide coated glass electrodes was investigated. Iron on the SSI modified electrode showed a typical Cyclic Voltammetry...

  1. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  2. Watching single molecules dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  3. Single Purpose Satellite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Warren

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the need for tactically responsive space systems capable of supporting battlefield and fleet commanders. Terminology used to describe this category of satellite system varies according to organization or agency. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Lightsat, the Naval Space Command's SPINSAT, and the Air Force Space Command s TACSAT, are reviewed. The United State Space Command's space support mission IS addressed and the role single-purpose satellites can play ...

  4. Single rotor turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  5. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Broumi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

  6. Always single and single again women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K G; Moon, S

    1997-04-01

    What is it like to be a single woman today? Are the experiences of women who have always been single different from those who find themselves single again after having been married? How can family therapists promote the development of single women both individually and relationally? The purpose of this phenomenological, multiple-case study was to investigate perceptions of being single among heterosexual single women between the ages of 30 and 65. Nine focus group interviews and a semistructured, mailed questionnaire were used to collect the data. Constant comparative analyses were used to develop the findings. The findings were organized around the most salient theme that emerged from the analyses: single women have unresolved or unrecognized ambivalences about being single. This overarching theme was supported by three subassertions: (a) single women are aware of both the advantages and the drawbacks of being single; (b) single women are ambivalent about the reasons for their singleness; (c) although content with being single, many women simultaneously experience feelings of loss and grief. Implications for the clinical practice of family therapy and future research on single women are discussed.

  7. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  8. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangier, P.; Abram, I.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  9. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  10. Heralded single-photon absorption by a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, N.; Rohde, F.; Schuck, C.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Ghosh, J.; Haase, A.; Hennrich, M.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission and absorption of single photons by single atoms is a fundamental limit of matter-light interaction, manifesting its quantum mechanical nature. As a controlled process, it is also a key tool in quantum optical information technology . Controlled single-photon emission is well advanced ; for controlled single-photon absorption by a single atom, proposals exist but only preliminary experimental steps have been taken . Here we report the absorption of single photons by a single trapped ion: employing a photon pair source, detection of the quantum-correlated partner photon heralds the presence of the resonant photon at the atom. We find clear correlations between the detection of the herald and the absorption process in the atom; we also demonstrate polarization control of this process. Our experiment evidences previously unexplored interaction between a single absorber and a quantum light source; with improved control over the coupling, it will open up new avenues in quantum technology.

  11. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium...

  12. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  13. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  14. Coronary single vessel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Kober, G.; Satter, P.; Gruentzig, A.; Myler, R.; Sterzer, S.

    1980-01-01

    The seven-years-survival rate is about 80 percent with respect to the most favourable long-time prognosis for coronary single vessel diseases under conservative therapy. In this contribution the control angiography of 76 patients after aorto-coronary bypass operation or transluminal angioplastic is reported. Only two patients subjected to a bypass operation. The recidivity rate is 10 percent after an operation, whereby it is not possible to make a recidivity prognosis. If a recidivity shows up it is being developped during the first three months. If the control angiography three months after the operation shows a good result, then a favourable steady state result can be expected. A comparison of the result with four different centers is given. (APR) [de

  15. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2010-04-01

    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    and briefly describe the methods that are preferred for SNP typing in forensic genetics. In addition, we will illustrate how SNPs can be used as investigative leads in the police investigation by discussing the use of ancestry informative markers and forensic DNA phenotyping. Modern DNA sequencing......Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  17. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  18. Single atom spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Armstrong, J. N.; Hua, S. Z.; Chopra, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Single atom spintronics (SASS) represents the ultimate physical limit in device miniaturization. SASS is characterized by ballistic electron transport, and is a fertile ground for exploring new phenomena. In addition to the 'stationary' (field independent) scattering centers that have a small and fixed contribution to total transmission probability of electron waves, domain walls constitute an additional and enhanced source of scattering in these magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs), the latter being both field and spin-dependent. Through the measurement of complete hysteresis loops as a function of quantized conductance, we present definitive evidence of enhanced backscattering of electron waves by atomically sharp domain walls in QPCs formed between microfabricated thin films [1]. Since domain walls move in a magnetic field, the magnitude of spin-dependent scattering changes as the QPC is cycled along its hysteresis loop. For example, as shown in the inset in Fig. 1, from zero towards saturation in a given field direction, the resistance varies as the wall is being swept away, whereas the resistance is constant upon returning from saturation towards zero, since in this segment of the hysteresis loop no domain wall is present across the contact. The observed spin-valve like behavior is realized by control over wall width and shape anisotropy. This behavior also unmistakably sets itself apart from any mechanical artifacts; additionally, measurements made on single atom contacts provide an artifact-free environment [2]. Intuitively, it is simpler to organize the observed BMR data according to all possible transitions between different conductance plateaus, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1; the solid circles show experimental data for Co, which follows the predicted scheme. Requisite elements for the observation of the effect will be discussed in detail along with a review of state of research in this field. Practically, the challenge lies in making

  19. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  20. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  1. The single entity option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, M.C.; Roberts, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, an owner hires an engineer to design a power facility or other project and then circulates the completed plans to several contractors for competitive bidding. Although there are many variations on this theme, there is an alternative method which is growing in popularity--the design-build concept. In this construction method, the same entity designs and constructs the facility. The design builder may be a single firm with both design and construction capacity in-house, or it may be a combination of two or more firms with complementary abilities. If there are multiple firms, they may be structured as a joint venture or with one of the firms prime and the others in a subcontracting role. The critical aspect is that the owner contracts with one entity which has the responsibility for both designing and constructing the facility. According to statistics compiled by the Design-Build Institute of America and F.W. Dodge DATALINE2, a national reporter of construction statistics and information, from April 1995 to April 1996 the number of design-build contracts increased 103 percent over the previous year. Of a total $212 billion construction market, about $37.2 billion--18 percent--was design build. The strongest growth was in the category of industrial--plants, refineries, factories and warehouses--in which the concept use was up more than 300 percent from the previous year

  2. Single-dopant resonance in a single-electron transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Golovach, V. N.; Jehl, X.; Houzet, M.; Pierre, M.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Glazman, L. I.

    2011-01-01

    Single dopants in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied in great details recently as they are good candidates for quantum bits, provided they are coupled to a detector. Here we report coupling of a single As donor atom to a single-electron transistor (SET) in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Both capacitive and tunnel coupling are achieved, the latter resulting in a dramatic increase of the conductance through the SET, by up to one order of magnitude. The experimental resu...

  3. Tentacle Probes: differentiation of difficult single-nucleotide polymorphisms and deletions by presence or absence of a signal in real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Brent C; Kulesh, David A; Norwood, David A; Wasieloski, Leonard P; Caplan, Michael R; West, Jay A A

    2007-12-01

    False-positive results are a common problem in real-time PCR identification of DNA sequences that differ from near neighbors by a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or deletion. Because of a lack of sufficient probe specificity, post-PCR analysis, such as a melting curve, is often required for mutation differentiation. Tentacle Probes, cooperative reagents with both a capture and a detection probe based on specific cell-targeting principles, were developed as a replacement for 2 chromosomal TaqMan-minor groove binder (MGB) assays previously developed for Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis detection. We compared TaqMan-MGB probes to Tentacle Probes for SNP and deletion detection based on the presence or absence of a growth curve. With the TaqMan-MGB Y. pestis yp48 assays, false-positive results for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis occurred at every concentration tested, and with the TaqMan-MGB B. anthracis gyrA assays, false-positive results occurred in 21 of 29 boil preps of environmental samples of near neighbors. With Tentacle Probes no false-positive results occurred. The high specificity exhibited by Tentacle Probes may eliminate melting curve analysis for SNP and deletion mutation detection, allowing the diagnostic use of previously difficult targets.

  4. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  5. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  6. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  7. Do single women value early retirement more than single men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that inco...... are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...... and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while men...

  8. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  9. Single-cavity SLED device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, B.A.

    1984-09-01

    The conventional SLED device used at SLAC requires two cavities. However, the same effect can be obtained with a single cavity; the theory and operation of the device is the same, only the hardware is changed. The single-cavity device is described here

  10. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  11. Quantum transport through single molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Oliveros, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes three-terminal transport measurements through single molecules. The interest in this field stems from the dream that single molecules will form the building blocks for future nanoscale electronic devices. The advantages are their small size -nanometers-, and their synthetic

  12. Single-dopant resonance in a single-electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovach, V. N.; Jehl, X.; Houzet, M.; Pierre, M.; Roche, B.; Sanquer, M.; Glazman, L. I.

    2011-02-01

    Single dopants in semiconductor nanostructures have been studied in great detail recently as they are good candidates for quantum bits, provided they are coupled to a detector. Here we report the coupling of a single As donor atom to a single-electron transistor (SET) in a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Both capacitive and tunnel coupling are achieved, the latter resulting in a dramatic increase of the conductance through the SET, by up to one order of magnitude. The experimental results are well explained by the rate-equation theory developed in parallel with the experiment.

  13. Validation of dilution of plasma samples with phosphate buffered saline to eliminate the problem of small volumes associated with children infected with HIV-1 for viral load testing using Cobas AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Madisa; Nkoane, Tapologo; Sebetso, Gaseene; Sakyi, Bright; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Gaolathe, Tendani

    2013-12-01

    The sample requirement of 1 mL for the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0) limits its utility in measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for small volume samples from children infected with HIV-1. Viral load monitoring is the standard of care for HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. The study aimed to validate the dilution of small volume samples with phosphate buffered saline (1× PBS) when quantifying HIV-1 RNA in patient plasma. HIV RNA concentrations were determined in undiluted and diluted pairs of samples comprising panels of quality assessment standards (n=52) as well as patient samples (n=325). There was strong correlation (R(2)) of 0.98 and 0.95 within the dynamic range of the CAP CTM HIV v2.0 test between undiluted and diluted samples from quality assessment standards and patients, respectively. The difference between viral load measurements of diluted and undiluted pairs of quality assessment standards and patient samples using the Altman-Bland test showed that the 95% limits of agreement were between -0.40 Log 10 and 0.49 Log 10. This difference was within the 0.5 Log 10 which is generally considered as normal assay variation of plasma RNA levels. Dilution of samples with 1× PBS produced comparable viral load measurements to undiluted samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Single banking supervision and the single supervisory mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A resolution seems to have been found for the banking crisis. The first steps have been made towards the construction of the Economic and Monetary Union, steps involving the single supervision of banks, in order to avoid the discount of a new financial crisis on the expense of the EU state members. The Single Supervisory Mechanism – SSM is to become effective as of March 1, 2014, at the earliest.

  15. Single-electron thermal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Ono, Yukinori; Fujiwara, Akira

    2014-07-11

    We report the observation of thermal noise in the motion of single electrons in an ultimately small dynamic random access memory (DRAM). The nanometer-scale transistors that compose the DRAM resolve the thermal noise in single-electron motion. A complete set of fundamental tests conducted on this single-electron thermal noise shows that the noise perfectly follows all the aspects predicted by statistical mechanics, which include the occupation probability, the law of equipartition, a detailed balance, and the law of kT/C. In addition, the counting statistics on the directional motion (i.e., the current) of the single-electron thermal noise indicate that the individual electron motion follows the Poisson process, as it does in shot noise.

  16. Single-employer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  17. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  18. Single Sign On Internal (SSOi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides single sign-on solution for internal facing VA applications. Allows internal users access to a variety of VA systems and applications using a reduced set of...

  19. Allographic Agraphia for Single letters

    OpenAIRE

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a se...

  20. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw [Moraga, CA; Cang, Hu [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Cangshan [Berkeley, CA; Wong, Chung M [San Gabriel, CA

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  1. Single--stranded DNA mycoplasmaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniloff, J.; Das, J.; Nowak, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two general types of single--stranded DNA bacteriophases have been described, icosahedral virions (e.g., 0X174) and filamentous virions (e.g., M13). Mycoplasmavirus MVL51 appears to represent another type of single--stranded DNA phage, with a genome size close to that of 0X174 and a nonlytic mode of infection like that of filamentous phages. The bullet shaped MVL51 morphology is unlike that of other known phages.

  2. Analysis of single biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The extraction of elemental information from single cultured cells using nuclear microscopy is an area of great potential because it can provide both quantitative information on the uptake of elements by the cell, and also its elemental response to a wide variety of external stimuli. A recent technique based on nuclear physics technology enables the analysis of single cells down to the parts per million level to be achieved

  3. Single VDTA Based Dual Mode Single Input Multioutput Biquad Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dual mode, single input multioutput (SIMO biquad filter configuration using single voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA, three capacitors, and a grounded resistor. The proposed topology can be used to synthesize low pass (LP, high pass (HP, and band pass (BP filter functions. It can be configured as voltage mode (VM or current mode (CM structure with appropriate input excitation choice. The angular frequency (ω0 of the proposed structure can be controlled independently of quality factor (Q0. Workability of the proposed biquad configuration is demonstrated through PSPICE simulations using 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS process parameters.

  4. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  5. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  6. Allographic agraphia for single letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS's performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way.

  7. From joint to single audits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses audit quality differences between audits by a single big audit firm and joint audits with either one or two big audit firms. We exploit the unique situation in Denmark beginning on 1 January 2005, at which time a long-standing mandatory joint audit system for listed companies...... was replaced by a voluntary joint audit system. First, we report the results of a survey of Danish CFOs’ views on and their experiences with the choice of single or joint audits and their perceptions of audit quality. Second, based on data from the mandatory joint audit abolition year and the following two...... years, we test the audit quality differences using abnormal accruals. Most CFOs perceive that audit quality by a single big four audit firm is the same as it is in joint audits with either one or two big four audit firms. The results of our empirical analysis are in line with the perceptions. We find...

  8. Comparison of Two Massively Parallel Sequencing Platforms using 83 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for Human Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Apaga, Dame Loveliness T.; Dennis, Sheila E.; Salvador, Jazelyn M.; Calacal, Gayvelline C.; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) technology to vastly expand the capabilities of human identification led to the emergence of different MPS platforms that use forensically relevant genetic markers. Two of the MPS platforms that are currently available are the MiSeq? FGx? Forensic Genomics System (Illumina) and the HID-Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM)? (Thermo Fisher Scientific). These are coupled with the ForenSeq? DNA Signature Prep kit (Illumina) and the HID-Ion AmpliSe...

  9. Health Insurance without Single Crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Standard insurance models predict that people with high risks have high insurance coverage. It is empirically documented that people with high income have lower health risks and are better insured. We show that income differences between risk types lead to a violation of single crossing...... in an insurance model where people choose treatment intensity. We analyse different market structures and show the following: If insurers have market power, the violation of single crossing caused by income differences and endogenous treatment choice can explain the empirically observed outcome. Our results do...

  10. Single transverse mode protein laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Itir Bakis; Min, Kyungtaek; Umar, Muhammad; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Begar, Efe; Conkar, Deniz; Firat Karalar, Elif Nur; Kim, Sunghwan; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2017-12-01

    Here, we report a single transverse mode distributed feedback (DFB) protein laser. The gain medium that is composed of enhanced green fluorescent protein in a silk fibroin matrix yields a waveguiding gain layer on a DFB resonator. The thin TiO2 layer on the quartz grating improves optical feedback due to the increased effective refractive index. The protein laser shows a single transverse mode lasing at the wavelength of 520 nm with the threshold level of 92.1 μJ/ mm2.

  11. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...... demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  12. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the state for the business. The article used methods of system analysis, comparison, forecasting and modelling. It analyses the process of evolution of the simplified taxation system, accounting and reporting from the moment of its adoption until today. The article presents the structure of the quantitative composition of single tax payers depending on the selected groups. It marks out and characterises administrative and fiscal factors that do not facilitate further development of entrepreneurship in Ukraine. In the result of the conducted studies the article outlines problem aspects of organisation of taxation of the small business and offers specific and real ways of their overcoming or partial solution.

  13. Single port Billroth I gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R Huddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experience has allowed increasingly complex procedures to be undertaken by single port surgery. We describe a technique for single port Billroth I gastrectomy with a hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomosis in the resection of a benign tumour diagnosed incidentally on a background of cholelithiasis. Materials and Methods: Single port Billroth I gastrectomy and cholecystectomy was performed using a transumbilical quadport. Flexible tipped camera and straight conventional instruments were used throughout the procedure. The stomach was mobilised including a limited lymph node dissection and resection margins in the proximal antrum and duodenum were divided with a flexible tipped laparoscopic stapler. The lesser curve was reconstructed and an intracorporal hand sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed using unidirectional barbed sutures. Intraoperative endoscopy confirmed the anastomosis to be patent without leak. Results: Enteral feed was started on the day of surgery, increasing to a full diet by day 6. Analgesic requirements were a patient-controlled analgesia morphine pump for 4 postoperative days and paracetamol for 6 days. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged on the eighth day. Histology confirmed gastric submucosal lipoma. Discussion: As technology improves more complex procedures are possible by single port laparoscopic surgery. In this case, flexible tipped cameras and unidirectional barbed sutures have facilitated an intracorporal hand-sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis. Experience will allow such techniques to become mainstream.

  14. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  15. Single chirality through crystal grinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduin, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be

  16. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  17. Single cell electroporation on chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the results of the development of microfluidic cell trap devices for single cell electroporation are described, which are to be used for gene transfection. The performance of two types of Lab-on-a-Chip trapping devices was tested using beads and cells, whereas the functionality for

  18. CERN single sign on solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormancey, E

    2008-01-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page

  19. Single photon searches at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.

  20. Single photon searches at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1985-12-01

    The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented

  1. Single Cell Isolation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that the heterogeneity of individual cells within a genetically identical population can be critical to their peculiar function and fate. Conventional cell based assays mainly analysis the average responses from a population cells, while the difference within individual cells may often be masked. The cell size, RNA transcripts and protein expression level are quite different within individual cells and these variations are key point to answer the problems in cancer, neurobiology, stem cell biology, immunology and developmental biology. To better understand the cell-to-cell variations, the single cell analysis can provide much more detailed information which may be helpful for therapeutic decisions in an increasingly personalized medicine. In this review, we will focus on the recent development in single cell analysis, including methods used in single cell isolation, analysis and some application examples. The review provides the historical background to single cell analysis, discusses limitations, and current and future possibilities in this exciting field of research.

  2. A Single-Pulse Integrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1974-01-01

    A single-pulse integrator is described. It gives a relative measure of the integral of the output signal from a coil monitor on the Risø 10 MeV linear accelerator, and displays the value on a digital voltmeter. The reproduccibility is found to be better than ±1% for an accelerated pulse charge...

  3. Acceleration of single pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, K.

    2018-01-01

    A method for single pixel imaging (SPI) is introduced. The method is proposed to accelerate optical measurement. The method is also useful for high-definition imaging. The processing procedure of the method is described and some features of the based on the proposed method is described.

  4. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter........ The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed...

  5. Plant single-cell and single-cell-type metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue

    2014-10-01

    In conjunction with genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, plant metabolomics is providing large data sets that are paving the way towards a comprehensive and holistic understanding of plant growth, development, defense, and productivity. However, dilution effects from organ- and tissue-based sampling of metabolomes have limited our understanding of the intricate regulation of metabolic pathways and networks at the cellular level. Recent advances in metabolomics methodologies, along with the post-genomic expansion of bioinformatics knowledge and functional genomics tools, have allowed the gathering of enriched information on individual cells and single cell types. Here we review progress, current status, opportunities, and challenges presented by single cell-based metabolomics research in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  8. Theoretical Investigations Regarding Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind

    Neoclassical Valence Bond Theory, Quantum Transport, Quantum Interference, Kondo Effect, and Electron Pumping. Trap a single organic molecule between two electrodes and apply a bias voltage across this "molecular junction". When electrons pass through the molecule, the different electron paths can...... interfere destructively or constructively. Destructive interference effects in electron transport could potentially improve thermo-electrics, organic logic circuits and energy harvesting. We have investigated destructive interference in off-resonant transport through organic molecules, and have found a set...

  9. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  10. Laproendoscopic single site oesophageal diverticulectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphrenic divericula are uncommon disorders of the lower oesophagus, which are symptomatic in only 15-20% of cases. The optimum treatment modality for such cases remains an oesophageal diverticulectomy with long myotomy with or without an antireflux operation. Recently, this is increasingly being done through the laparoscopic approach. Here we describe the first reported case of oesophageal diverticulectomy through the laparoendoscopic single site approach. A 57-year-old man presented to us with 6 months history of dysphagia and regurgitation. Patient was investigated with upper gastrointestinal (UGI endoscopy, barium swallow, CECT chest and abdomen, oesophageal manometry and 24 hour pH study. He was diagnosed to have lower oesophageal diverticulum with mildly elevated pressure readings in manometric studies with normal peristalsis. Based on his symptoms, he was taken up for surgery. A laparoscopic transhiatal oesophageal diverticulectomy with myotomy was done through laparoendoscopic single site technique. The procedure lasted 160 min. There was no intraoperative complication. Gastrograffin study was done on postoperative day 2 following which he was started on liquids. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on fourth day. He remained asymptomatic on follow up. Oesophageal diverticulectomy is possible through laparoendoscopic single site approach if necessary expertise is available.

  11. Single-Cell Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Elly; Herr, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Little headway has been made in single cell protein analysis, aside from tools that rely solely on antibody-probe based detection (i.e., flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry), which are limited by low specificity and multiplexing capabilities. To address these protein analysis gaps, we have introduced a single-cell western blot (scWestern). The protein assay is capable of highly specific analysis by coupling antibody-based detection with a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) protein separation. Cells are settled via gravity into polyacrylamide (PA) microwells, chemically lysed in the wells, and then subjected to PAGE through the walls of the microwells and into the surrounding PA gel. Over a thousand single-cell separations are performed simultaneously, and multiple protein targets of interest are investigated. After PAGE separation, photo-immobilization of all proteins to the gel allows for antibody probing and lends to the archival quality of the scWestern assay where new proteins targets can be investigated months after the initial separations are performed.

  12. Single-cell western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Syed M S

    2015-01-01

    Cell heterogeneity is a variation in cellular processes in functionally similar cells. Cells from the same tissue which are considered genetically identical may have difference in size, structure, and level of protein expression which can lead to major impact on the functions of cell leading to difference in physiological consequences. Single-cell proteome-wide studies are used to detect cell heterogeneity. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry do play an important role in evaluating cell heterogeneity. However, these methods are based on separation by antibodies with limited specificity. Cross-reactivity can occur leading to bias in result. Western blot is done to separate the proteins according to molecular weight. Therefore, off-target and on-target signals can be discriminated. Detection of protein expression from a tissue can be done with the help of western blot. However, it is unable to differentiate protein expression of individual cells. For detection of this cell-to-cell variation, a highly advanced technique termed "single-cell western blotting" is carried out. Single-cell western blot has enabled us to detect protein expression at cellular level at a fairly advanced high resolution using a western blot designed to assess cell heterogeneity.

  13. Measuring single-cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, William H; Bryan, Andrea K; Diez-Silva, Monica; Suresh, Subra; Higgins, John M; Manalis, Scott R

    2011-07-05

    We have used a microfluidic mass sensor to measure the density of single living cells. By weighing each cell in two fluids of different densities, our technique measures the single-cell mass, volume, and density of approximately 500 cells per hour with a density precision of 0.001 g mL(-1). We observe that the intrinsic cell-to-cell variation in density is nearly 100-fold smaller than the mass or volume variation. As a result, we can measure changes in cell density indicative of cellular processes that would be otherwise undetectable by mass or volume measurements. Here, we demonstrate this with four examples: identifying Plasmodium falciparum malaria-infected erythrocytes in a culture, distinguishing transfused blood cells from a patient's own blood, identifying irreversibly sickled cells in a sickle cell patient, and identifying leukemia cells in the early stages of responding to a drug treatment. These demonstrations suggest that the ability to measure single-cell density will provide valuable insights into cell state for a wide range of biological processes.

  14. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Broumi, Said; Talea, Mohamed; Bakali, Assia; Smarandache, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.

  15. Experimental techniques for single cell and single molecule biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.T.; Zhou, E.H.; Li, A.; Vedula, S.R.K.; Fu, H.X.

    2006-01-01

    Stresses and strains that act on the human body can arise either from external physical forces or internal physiological environmental conditions. These biophysical interactions can occur not only at the musculoskeletal but also cellular and molecular levels and can determine the health and function of the human body. Here, we seek to investigate the structure-property-function relationship of cells and biomolecules so as to understand their important physiological functions as well as establish possible connections to human diseases. With the recent advancements in cell and molecular biology, biophysics and nanotechnology, several innovative and state-of-the-art experimental techniques and equipment have been developed to probe the structural and mechanical properties of biostructures from the micro- down to picoscale. Some of these experimental techniques include the optical or laser trap method, micropipette aspiration, step-pressure technique, atomic force microscopy and molecular force spectroscopy. In this article, we will review the basic principles and usage of these techniques to conduct single cell and single molecule biomechanics research

  16. Identification of single-input-single-output quantum linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Matthew; GuÅ£ǎ, Mǎdǎlin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate system identification for single-input-single-output general (active or passive) quantum linear systems. For a given input we address the following questions: (1) Which parameters can be identified by measuring the output? (2) How can we construct a system realization from sufficient input-output data? We show that for time-dependent inputs, the systems which cannot be distinguished are related by symplectic transformations acting on the space of system modes. This complements a previous result of Guţă and Yamamoto [IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 61, 921 (2016), 10.1109/TAC.2015.2448491] for passive linear systems. In the regime of stationary quantum noise input, the output is completely determined by the power spectrum. We define the notion of global minimality for a given power spectrum, and characterize globally minimal systems as those with a fully mixed stationary state. We show that in the case of systems with a cascade realization, the power spectrum completely fixes the transfer function, so the system can be identified up to a symplectic transformation. We give a method for constructing a globally minimal subsystem direct from the power spectrum. Restricting to passive systems the analysis simplifies so that identifiability may be completely understood from the eigenvalues of a particular system matrix.

  17. Patterning of Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Corzo, Daniel

    2017-06-12

    As the internet-of-things hardware integration continues to develop and the requirements for electronics keep diversifying and expanding, the necessity for specialized properties other than the classical semiconductor performance becomes apparent. The success of emerging semiconductor materials depends on the manufacturability and cost as much as on the properties and performance they offer. Solution-based semiconductors are an emerging concept that offers the advantage of being compatible with large-scale manufacturing techniques and have the potential to yield high-quality electronic devices at a lower cost than currently available solutions. In this work, patterns of high-quality MAPbBr3 perovskite single crystals in specific locations are achieved through the modification of the substrate properties and solvent engineering. The fabrication of the substrates involved modifying the surface adhesion forces through functionalization with self-assembled monolayers and patterning them by photolithography processes. Spin coating and blade coating were used to deposit the perovskite solution on the modified silicon substrates. While single crystal perovskites were obtained with the modification of substrates alone, solvent engineering helped with improving the Marangoni flows in the deposited droplets by increasing the contact angle and lowering the evaporation rate, therefore controlling and improving the shape of the grown perovskite crystals. The methodology is extended to other types of perovskites such as the transparent MAPbCl3 and the lead-free MABi2I9, demonstrating the adaptability of the process. Adapting the process to electrode arrays opened up the path towards the fabrication of optoelectronic devices including photodetectors and field-effect transistors, for which the first iterations are demonstrated. Overall, manufacturing and integration techniques permitting the fabrication of single crystalline devices, such as the method in this thesis work, are

  18. Single event upset test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russen, L.C.

    1984-11-01

    It has been shown that the heavy ions in cosmic rays can give rise to single event upsets in VLSI random access memory devices (RAMs). Details are given of the programs written to test 1K, 4K, 16K and 64K memories during their irradiation with heavy charged ions, in order to simulate the effects of cosmic rays in space. The test equipment, which is used to load the memory device to be tested with a known bit pattern, and subsequently interrogate it for upsets, or ''flips'', is fully described. (author)

  19. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  20. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-01-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M and O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between

  1. Single-cell photoacoustic thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Wang, Lidai; Li, Chiye; Liu, Yan; Ke, Haixin; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-02-01

    A novel photoacoustic thermometric method is presented for simultaneously imaging cells and sensing their temperature. With three-seconds-per-frame imaging speed, a temperature resolution of 0.2°C was achieved in a photo-thermal cell heating experiment. Compared to other approaches, the photoacoustic thermometric method has the advantage of not requiring custom-developed temperature-sensitive biosensors. This feature should facilitate the conversion of single-cell thermometry into a routine lab tool and make it accessible to a much broader biological research community.

  2. Twins or two single children

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Walke

    2002-01-01

    Based on Swedish register data, we compared the influence of a twin birth on the divorce risk with the influence of the sequential birth of two single children. The divorce risk for a woman with a very young child was lower than the risk for women without children or women with children older than 3.5 years. This behaviour was essentially independent of the number of children and whether or not the woman gave birth to twins. The effect of parity was much smaller than the effect of child age. ...

  3. Single-molecule nanopore enzymology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wloka, Carsten; Maglia, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Biological nanopores are a class of membrane proteins that open nanoscale water-conduits in biological membranes. When they are reconstituted in artificial membranes and a bias voltage is applied across the membrane, the ionic current passing through individual nanopores can be used to monitor chemical reactions, to recognize individual molecules and, of most interest, to sequence DNA. More recently, proteins and enzymes have started being analysed with nanopores. Monitoring enzymatic reactions with nanopores, i.e. nanopore enzymology, has the unique advantage that it allows long-timescale observations of native proteins at the single-molecule level. Here we describe the approaches and challenges in nanopore enzymology. PMID:28630164

  4. Performance of the cobas Hepatitis B virus (HBV) test using the cobas 4800 system and comparison of HBV DNA quantification ability between the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV test version 2.0 and cobas HBV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Hyun-Ji; Chang, Chulhun L; Kim, Hyung-Hoi

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels are used to predict the response to therapy, determine therapy initiation, monitor resistance to therapy, and establish treatment success. To verify the performance of the cobas HBV test using the cobas 4800 system for HBV DNA quantification and to compare the HBV DNA quantification ability between the cobas HBV test and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV version 2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0). The precision, linearity, and limit of detection of the cobas HBV test were evaluated using the 4th World Health Organization International Standard material and plasma samples. Clinical samples that yielded quantitative results using the CAP/CTM v2.0 and cobas HBV tests were subjected to correlational analysis. Three hundred forty-nine samples were subjected to correlational analysis, among which 114 samples showed results above the lower limit of quantification. Comparable results were obtained ([cobas HBV test] = 1.038 × [CAP/CTM v2.0]-0.173, r = 0.914) in 114 samples, which yielded values above the lower limit of quantification. The results for 86.8% of the samples obtained using the cobas HBV test were within 0.5 log 10 IU/mL of the CAP/CTM v2.0 results. The total precision values against the low and high positive controls were 1.4% (mean level: 2.25 log 10 IU/mL) and 3.2% (mean level: 6.23 log 10 IU/mL), respectively. The cobas HBV test demonstrated linearity (1.15-6.75 log 10 IU/mL, y = 0.95 × 6 + 0.17, r 2  = 0.994). The cobas HBV test showed good correlation with CAP/CTM v2.0, and had good precision and an acceptable limit of detection. The cobas HBV test using the cobas 4800 is a reliable method for quantifying HBV DNA levels in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Single- and double-island ferromagnetic single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnas, J.; Weymann, I.; Wisniewska, J.; Kowalik, M.; Kunert, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Electronic transport in a ferromagnetic single-electron transistor has been considered theoretically in the sequential tunneling regime. The device consists of two external leads and one or two islands as the central part, connected to the leads by tunneling barriers. External gates are additionally attached to the islands. Generally, the two external electrodes and the islands can be ferromagnetic with arbitrary orientation of the corresponding magnetic moments. We have carried out detailed theoretical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics and spin-valve magnetoresistance in the limit of fast spin relaxation on the islands. Asymmetry in tunneling probabilities of spin-majority and spin-minority electrons leads to interesting features in the transport characteristics, like for instance magnetoresistance oscillations with the bias and gate voltages, negative differential resistance, and others

  6. Single-Molecule Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hayashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic resonance (SR is a well-known phenomenon in dynamical systems. It consists of the amplification and optimization of the response of a system assisted by stochastic (random or probabilistic noise. Here we carry out the first experimental study of SR in single DNA hairpins which exhibit cooperatively transitions from folded to unfolded configurations under the action of an oscillating mechanical force applied with optical tweezers. By varying the frequency of the force oscillation, we investigate the folding and unfolding kinetics of DNA hairpins in a periodically driven bistable free-energy potential. We measure several SR quantifiers under varied conditions of the experimental setup such as trap stiffness and length of the molecular handles used for single-molecule manipulation. We find that a good quantifier of the SR is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the spectral density of measured fluctuations in molecular extension of the DNA hairpins. The frequency dependence of the SNR exhibits a peak at a frequency value given by the resonance-matching condition. Finally, we carry out experiments on short hairpins that show how SR might be useful for enhancing the detection of conformational molecular transitions of low SNR.

  7. Biomechanics of single cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernick, Kristin B; Prevost, Thibault P; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona

    2011-03-01

    This study presents experimental results and computational analysis of the large strain dynamic behavior of single neurons in vitro with the objective of formulating a novel quantitative framework for the biomechanics of cortical neurons. Relying on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, novel testing protocols are developed to enable the characterization of neural soma deformability over a range of indentation rates spanning three orders of magnitude, 10, 1, and 0.1 μm s(-1). Modified spherical AFM probes were utilized to compress the cell bodies of neonatal rat cortical neurons in load, unload, reload and relaxation conditions. The cell response showed marked hysteretic features, strong non-linearities, and substantial time/rate dependencies. The rheological data were complemented with geometrical measurements of cell body morphology, i.e. cross-diameter and height estimates. A constitutive model, validated by the present experiments, is proposed to quantify the mechanical behavior of cortical neurons. The model aimed to correlate empirical findings with measurable degrees of (hyper)elastic resilience and viscosity at the cell level. The proposed formulation, predicated upon previous constitutive model developments undertaken at the cortical tissue level, was implemented in a three-dimensional finite element framework. The simulated cell response was calibrated to the experimental measurements under the selected test conditions, providing a novel single cell model that could form the basis for further refinements. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single scattering properties of hydrosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, L.; Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The single scattering or inherent optical properties (IOPs) of hydrosols play an important role in the complete study of ocean optics, ocean color remote sensing, and ocean biogeochemistry research. Measurements show that hydrosols can be of various sizes and shapes, which suggests that general non-spherical models should be considered for the study of IOPs of hydrosols. In this work, the IOPs of randomly oriented non-spherical hydrosols of both absorbing and non-absorbing types are modeled using the Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation (ADDA). We have defined the degree of optical non-sphericity (DONS) and investigated the dependence of DONS on refractive indices, sizes, and aspect ratios. For particles with non-unit aspect ratios, the magnitude of DONS increases with an increase of refractive index and aspect ratio. In general, the value of DONS increases with increase in particle size. The variation of DONS with respect to refractive indices and aspect ratios of the hydrosols makes it an important parameter in the study of ocean optics. Dependence of backscattering fraction on non-sphericity, size, and aspect ratio of the hydrosols is also demonstrated. The modeling of single scattering properties of hydrosols with different microphysical parameters would help to interpret the ocean radiation field measured by in situ or remote sensing sensors. Understanding the IOPs of hydrosols would lead to better radiative transfer models in ocean waters and new remote sensing technologies of hydrosol compositions.

  9. Single-molecule magnet engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Bendix, Jesper; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    Tailoring the specific magnetic properties of any material relies on the topological control of the constituent metal ion building blocks. Although this general approach does not seem to be easily applied to traditional inorganic bulk magnets, coordination chemistry offers a unique tool...... to delicately tune, for instance, the properties of molecules that behave as "magnets", the so-called single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Although many interesting SMMs have been prepared by a more or less serendipitous approach, the assembly of predesigned, isolatable molecular entities into higher nuclearity...... complexes constitutes an elegant and fascinating strategy. This Feature article focuses on the use of building blocks or modules (both terms being used indiscriminately) to direct the structure, and therefore also the magnetic properties, of metal ion complexes exhibiting SMM behaviour. This journal is...

  10. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 μHy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode

  11. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  12. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 ..mu..Hy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode.

  13. Single fatherhood due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Justin M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of widowed fatherhood in the USA. Fathers whose spouses have died from cancer constitute a potentially vulnerable population as they adjust to their role as sole or primary caregiver while managing their own grief and that of their children. The importance of addressing the psychological needs of widowed fathers is underscored by data showing that father's coping and emotional availability are closely tied to their bereaved children's mental health. Surprisingly, scant attention has been given to the phenomenon of widowed fatherhood with virtually no clinical resources or research studies devoted to fathers who have lost their wives to cancer. This commentary highlights key challenges facing this underserved population of widowers and calls for development of research agendas and clinical interventions for single fathers due to cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Twins or two single children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on Swedish register data, we compared the influence of a twin birth on the divorce risk with the influence of the sequential birth of two single children. The divorce risk for a woman with a very young child was lower than the risk for women without children or women with children older than 3.5 years. This behaviour was essentially independent of the number of children and whether or not the woman gave birth to twins. The effect of parity was much smaller than the effect of child age. The influence of twins on the divorce risk appeared to fall between that of a first and a second singleton.

  15. Single photon emission computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooge, P. de.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis two single-photon emission tomographic techniques are presented: (a) longitudinal tomography with a rotating slanting-hole collimator, and (b) transversal tomography with a rotating gamma camera. These methods overcome the disadvantages of conventional scintigraphy. Both detection systems and the image construction methods are explained and comparisons with conventional scintigraphy are drawn. One chapter is dedicated to the determination of system parameters like spatial resolution, contrast, detector uniformity, and size of the object, by phantom studies. In separate chapters the results are presented of detection of tumors and metastases in the liver and the liver hilus; skeletal diseases; various pathological aberrations of the brain; and myocardial perfusion. The possible use of these two ect's for other organs and body areas is discussed in the last chapter. (Auth.)

  16. Magnetic remanence in single atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, F; Rusponi, S; Stepanow, S; Wäckerlin, C; Singha, A; Persichetti, L; Baltic, R; Diller, K; Patthey, F; Fernandes, E; Dreiser, J; Šljivančanin, Ž; Kummer, K; Nistor, C; Gambardella, P; Brune, H

    2016-04-15

    A permanent magnet retains a substantial fraction of its saturation magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field. Realizing magnetic remanence in a single atom allows for storing and processing information in the smallest unit of matter. We show that individual holmium (Ho) atoms adsorbed on ultrathin MgO(100) layers on Ag(100) exhibit magnetic remanence up to a temperature of 30 kelvin and a relaxation time of 1500 seconds at 10 kelvin. This extraordinary stability is achieved by the realization of a symmetry-protected magnetic ground state and by decoupling the Ho spin from the underlying metal by a tunnel barrier. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Chemical Transfer (Single Small-Scale) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Chemical Transfer Facility (CTF)  is the only U.S. single small-scale  facility, a single repository for the Army’s...

  18. Constructing the single woman in therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Jill

    2002-01-01

    This article brings a social constructionist perspective to discussion of the therapeutic literature on singleness and draws on the author's research interviews with single women to consider how therapists might make use of this perspective in their practice.

  19. Time relative single-photon (photoelectron) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Binqiao

    1988-01-01

    A single-photon (photoelectron) measuring system is designed. It researches various problems in single-photon (photoelectron) method. The electronic resolving time is less than 25 ps. The resolving time of single-photon (photoelectron) measuring system is 25 to 65 ps

  20. The Promise of Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is…

  1. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  2. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  3. Optomechanics of Single Aluminum Nanodisks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Nung; Dongare, Pratiksha D; Chakraborty, Debadi; Zhang, Yue; Yi, Chongyue; Wen, Fangfang; Chang, Wei-Shun; Nordlander, Peter; Sader, John E; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan

    2017-04-12

    Aluminum nanostructures support tunable surface plasmon resonances and have become an alternative to gold nanoparticles. Whereas gold is the most-studied plasmonic material, aluminum has the advantage of high earth abundance and hence low cost. In addition to understanding the size and shape tunability of the plasmon resonance, the fundamental relaxation processes in aluminum nanostructures after photoexcitation must be understood to take full advantage of applications such as photocatalysis and photodetection. In this work, we investigate the relaxation following ultrafast pulsed excitation and the launching of acoustic vibrations in individual aluminum nanodisks, using single-particle transient extinction spectroscopy. We find that the transient extinction signal can be assigned to a thermal relaxation of the photoexcited electrons and phonons. The ultrafast heating-induced launching of in-plane acoustic vibrations reveals moderate binding to the glass substrate and is affected by the native aluminum oxide layer. Finally, we compare the behavior of aluminum nanodisks to that of similarly prepared and sized gold nanodisks.

  4. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  5. Solar Car, Solar Boat: Model Classroom Projects. Seattle Tech Prep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seattle Community Coll. District, Washington.

    This booklet shows how teachers at Ingraham High School and Madison Middle School in Seattle (Washington) challenged their students to tackle demanding technical projects. It also shows how well the students responded to that challenge. The booklet begins with the background of the project, the framework for which would be a university-sponsored…

  6. Pathogen-Reduced, Platelet Additive Solution, Extended Stored Platelets (PREPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    used for all future experiments. Platelet counts pre- and post-storage for up to 22 days confirmed the reproducibility of our original experiment...abdominal cramping . Slowing the collection rate, pausing the collection and/or administering oral calcium (TUMS) will effectively address these...muscle cramps , tremors, tetany, laryngospasm, seizures and life threatening cardiac arrhythmias. • Blood Loss: In rare and unusual circumstances, blood

  7. Final report for the Pre-Freshman Enrichment Program (PREP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This project reflected cooperation across the disciplines in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics and computer science. The University of the Pacific served as the center for this pre-college program. The idea was to use this link as a pilot program.

  8. Pathogen-Reduced, Plasmalyte-Extended Stored Platelets (PREPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    maintaining circulating platelet counts in thrombocytopenic cancer patients, transfusion of fresh whole blood in the field might provide adequate platelet...effective contraceptive during the course of the study; 6. Those subjects who will be reinfused within 10 days of their 500 mL WB collection must meet...50 kg (110 pounds). 2. Hematocrit: 38% 3. Oral Temperature: 37.5C 4. Blood Pressure: Systolic 180 mmHg; diastolic 100 mmHg 5. Heart Rate

  9. Prep-ME Software Implementation and Enhancement : technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Pavement ME Design (previously MEPDG/DARWin-ME) is a significant advancement in pavement design, though requiring more inputs from various sources. Through efforts by the Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) and Federal Highway Administrat...

  10. The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mary E.

    Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

  11. Single-Cell Genomic Analysis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual cells in an organism are variable, which strongly impacts cellular processes. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled single-cell genomic analysis to become widespread, addressing shortcomings of analyses conducted on populations of bulk cells. While the field of single-cell plant genomics is in its infancy, there is great potential to gain insights into cell lineage and functional cell types to help understand complex cellular interactions in plants. In this review, we discuss current approaches for single-cell plant genomic analysis, with a focus on single-cell isolation, DNA amplification, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. We outline the technical challenges of analysing material from a single plant cell, and then examine applications of single-cell genomics and the integration of this approach with genome editing. Finally, we indicate future directions we expect in the rapidly developing field of plant single-cell genomic analysis.

  12. Single-Organ Gallbladder Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Tan, Carmela D.; Rodríguez, E. René; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitis (SV) involving abdominal structures usually has a poor prognosis. Gallbladder vasculitis (GV) has been reported as part of SV (GB-SV) and focal single-organ vasculitis (GB-SOV). We analyzed clinical and histologic characteristics of patients with GV to identify features that differentiate GB-SOV from the systemic forms of GV. To identify affected patients with GV we used pathology databases from our institution and an English-language PubMed search. Clinical manifestations, laboratory and histologic features, treatment administered, and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided in 2 groups, GB-SOV and GB-SV. As in previous studies of single-organ vasculitis, GB-SOV was only considered to be a sustainable diagnosis if disease beyond the gallbladder was not apparent after a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Sixty-one well-characterized patients with GV were included (6 from our institution). There was no significant sex bias (32 female patients, 29 male). Median age was 52 years (range, 18–94 yr). GB-SOV was found in 20 (33%) and GB-SV in 41 (67%) patients. No differences were observed in age, sex frequency, or duration of gallbladder symptoms between groups. Past episodes of recurrent right-upper quadrant or abdominal pain and lithiasic cholecystitis were more frequent in GB-SOV patients, whereas acalculous cholecystitis occurred more often in GB-SV. In GB-SV, gallbladder-related symptoms occurred more often concomitantly with or after the systemic features, but they sometimes appeared before SV was fully developed (13.5%). Constitutional and musculoskeletal symptoms were reported only in GB-SV patients. Compared to GB-SOV, GB-SV patients presented more often with fever (62.5% vs 20%; p = 0.003) and exhibited higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (80 ± 28 vs 37 ± 25 mm/h, respectively; p = 0.006). All GB-SV patients required glucocorticoids and 50% of them also received cytotoxic agents. Mortality in

  13. Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows:...... experiments held together with the prospects in localization microscopy and single molecule manipulation experiments gave QDs a promising future in single molecule research....

  14. Single Top Physics at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    zur Nedden, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A summary over the single top analyses in the ATLAS and CMS experiments is given. In this talk, the measurements of the single top cross sections in the t-channel, the Wt-channel and the s-channel are shown as the basis for a rich physics program with single top quarks. After discussing also the differential and fiducial cross sections and the V_tb properties, the single-top analyses are used as the bases for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Searches for Mono-tops, Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and anomalous couplings are discussed.

  15. Single top quark production with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccolo Davide

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of single top quark production performed using the CMS experiment [1] data collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and in 2012 at 8 TeV, are presented. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production are also presented. The results include the measurement of the charge ratio in the single top t-channel.

  16. Search for Single Top Production at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    Single top production in e^+e^- annihilations is searched for in data collected by the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies from 189 to 209 GeV, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 634 pb-1. Investigating hadronic and semileptonic top decays, no evidence of single top production at LEP is obtained and upper limits on the single top cross section as a function of the centre-of-mass energy are derived. Limits on possible anomalous couplings, as well as on the scale of contact interactions responsible for single top production are determined.

  17. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai; Lv Junhong; Wang Guohua; Wang Ying; Li Minqian; Zhang Yi; Li Bin; Li Haikuo; An Hongjie

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as 'cutting', 'pushing', 'folding', 'kneading', 'picking up', 'dipping', etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10 nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed. (authors)

  18. Single-molecule tracking in living cells using single quantum dot applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the behavior of single molecules in living cells is very useful for understanding cellular events. Quantum dot probes are particularly promising tools for revealing how biological events occur at the single molecule level both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we will introduce how single quantum dot applications are used for single molecule tracking. We will discuss how single quantum dot tracking has been used in several examples of complex biological processes, including membrane dynamics, neuronal function, selective transport mechanisms of the nuclear pore complex, and in vivo real-time observation. We also briefly discuss the prospects for single molecule tracking using advanced probes.

  19. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  20. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    November 2008 physics pp. 1109–1114. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms. SOHRAB ABBAS1,∗, APOORVA G WAGH1, MARKUS STROBL2 and. WOLFGANG ... vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an ... Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms.

  1. The probe rules in single particle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mathias P.; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) enables light microscopy at a sub-diffraction limited spatial resolution by a combination of imaging at low molecular labeling densities and computational image processing. SPT and related single molecule imaging techniques have found a rapidly expanded use within...

  2. Experience with single-layer rectal anastomosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Khubchandani, M; Upson, J

    1981-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence following resection of the large intestine is a serious complication. Satisfactory results of single-layer anastomosis depend upon meticulous technique and a scrupulously clean colon. Out of 65 single-layer anastomoses involving the rectum, significant leakage occurred in 4 patients. The results are reported in order to draw attention to the safety and efficacy of one-layer anastomosis.

  3. A practical alternative to single tree selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    When landowners want to develop and maintain an uneven-aged tree structure in eastern hardwood stands, single-tree selection often is suggested as the only advisable, long-term partial regeneration harvest method. Single-tree selection is preferred because it provides a means for improving quality and controlling stocking of the residual stand necessary for sustained...

  4. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  5. Saha equation, single and two particle states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeft, W. D.; Girardeau, M. D.; Strege, B.

    1990-01-01

    Single- and two-particle properties in a dense plasma are discussed in connection with their role in the mass action law for a partially ionized plasma. The two-particle-bound states are nearly density independent, while the continuum is essentially shifted. The single-particle states are damped, and their energy has a negative shift and a parabolic behavior for small momenta.

  6. Surface chemistry: Single handedness in flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2017-03-01

    Planar molecules may break mirror symmetry when aligned on a surface, but both right- and left-handed forms will be created. Starting with a single-handed precursor, chiral adsorbates of planar hydrocarbons with a single handedness are formed in on-surface reactions.

  7. Reducing deaths in single vehicle collisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    A third of road deaths in the EU are caused by collisions that involve a single motorised vehicle where the driver, rider and/or passengers are killed but no other road users are involved. These single vehicle collisions (SVCs), and how to prevent them occurring, are the subject of this report.

  8. Single Chromatin Fibre Assembly Using Optical Tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Martin L.; Pope, L.H.; Leuba, S.H.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Here we observe the formation of a single chromatin fibre using optical tweezers. A single -DNA molecule was suspended between two micron-sized beads, one held by a micropipette and the other in an optical trap. The constrained DNA molecule was incubated with Xenopus laevis egg extract in order to

  9. Single-Gender Education: Educators' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of educator's views regarding single-gender education was the basis of this study. The significance of the intended study is to show the educator's view of single-gender education as it relates to student academic achievement and behavioral incidents. A quantitative study was conducted utilizing a sample population of regular and…

  10. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    on a gallium arsenide platform. This platform offers near-unity coupling between embedded single-photon emitters and a photonic mode, as well as the ability to suppress decoherence mechanisms, making it highly suited for quantum information applications. In this thesis we show how a single-photon router can...

  11. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  12. Undergraduate Single Mothers' Experiences in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Using Astin's (1993) College Impact Model, this chapter explores the current literature as it relates to single mothers in undergraduate postsecondary education. The chapter looks at the ways that undergraduates who are single mothers are counter to the "ideal-student" norms. Policy and best-practice recommendations conclude the chapter.

  13. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  14. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  15. BILATERAL SINGLE SESSION URETEROSCOPY FOR URETERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety and success rate of bilateral single session rigid retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) for bilateral ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent bilateral single session ureteroscopic calculus removal. Results: Out of 70 renal units in 35 patients treated, ...

  16. Sprout Singling in North Alabama Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma Naka; Philip G. Cannon

    2004-01-01

    Many commercial hardwood species grow quite well in northern Alabama and most regenerate by stump sprouts after harvest. The number of sprouts on a stump depends on several factors such as species and stump size. To determine if the practice of singling (removing all but the single best sprout from a stump) might be a means of accelerating the growth rate of one stem...

  17. Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision.

  18. Upconversion luminescence behavior of single nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiajia; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-09-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have made a significant and valuable contribution to materials science, photophysics, and biomedicine due to their specific spectroscopic characteristics. However, the ensemble spectroscopy of UCNPs is limited because of the electronic behavior in average effect, which ignores the fact that these nanoparticles are heterogeneous. With regards to the research focus on heterogeneous intrinsic structures, unique photophysical phenomena, and advanced applications, the optical characterization of single UCNPs have been promoted to the frontier development of the UCNPs community. In this review, we give an overview of the importance of single UCNPs characterization, typical principles of UC, and single particle detection methods. Considerable emphasis is placed on the specific spectroscopic study of single UCNPs, which shows fantastic photophysical phenomena beyond ensemble measurement. Parallel efforts are devoted to the current applications of single UCNPs.

  19. 75 FR 15675 - Professional Research Experience Program in Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... show evidence of a 3.0 or higher grade point average in a curriculum acceptable to the sponsoring... PREP-CSTL coordinator include: serving as a single point of contact for University staff, PREP-CSTL...' academic programs. (30 points.) (b) Experience in providing students pursuing degrees in physics, chemistry...

  20. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to 1D nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption.......We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption....

  1. Single-centre comparison of a novel single-step balloon inflation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subject. Single-centre comparison of a novel single-step balloon inflation device and Amplatz sheath dilatation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy – a pilot study. Outcome measures. Single procedure success rates, retreatment rates, hospital stay, haemoglobin concentration, calculi volume, calculi configuration, patient ...

  2. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennessen, Kristin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  4. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  5. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G. [PIMAyC, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Apdo. Postal 14-805, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera, G.; Mercado, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    We study single spin asymmetries of D{sup 0} and D{sup -} mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  6. Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Zacarias, G.; Herrera, G.; Mercado, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study single spin asymmetries of D 0 and D - mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)

  7. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  8. Single-cell technologies in environmental omics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-10-22

    Environmental studies are primarily done by culturing isolated microorganisms or by amplifying and sequencing conserved genes. Difficulties understanding the complexity of large numbers of various microorganisms in an environment led to the development of techniques to enrich specific microorganisms for upstream analysis, ultimately leading to single-cell isolation and analyses. We discuss the significance of single-cell technologies in omics studies with focus on metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. We propose that by reducing sample heterogeneity using single-cell genomics, metaomic studies can be simplified.

  9. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and future trends of relaxor-PT sensors are also suggested in this review paper.

  10. Intrinsic chirp of single-cycle pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qiang; Zheng Jian; Dai Jianming; Ho, I-Chen; Zhang, X.-C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fourier transform-limited electromagnetic pulse has been regarded to be free of chirps for a long time. This is no longer true if the pulse duration goes down to or less than one optical cycle. We report the experimental observation of intrinsic chirps in such pulses with the sub-single-cycle terahertz (THz) waveforms obtained with a standard THz time-domain spectroscopy system. The results confirm the break down of the carrier-envelope (CE) expression for single-cycle optical pulses, and may influence the experimental measurements and theoretical modeling with single-cycle pulses.

  11. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  12. Who will resettle single Syrian men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Turner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement programmes for Syrian refugees severely restrict access to resettlement for single Syrian men, despite the conditions of vulnerability, insecurity and danger in which they live.

  13. Epigenetics reloaded: the single-cell revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheda, Poonam; Schneider, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Mechanistically, how epigenetic states are inherited through cellular divisions remains an important open question in the chromatin field and beyond. Defining the heritability of epigenetic states and the underlying chromatin-based mechanisms within a population of cells is complicated due to cell heterogeneity combined with varying levels of stability of these states; thus, efforts must be focused toward single-cell analyses. The approaches presented here constitute the forefront of epigenetics research at the single-cell level using classic and innovative methods to dissect epigenetics mechanisms from the limited material available in a single cell. This review further outlines exciting future avenues of research to address the significance of epigenetic heterogeneity and the contributions of microfluidics technologies to single-cell isolation and analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Watching single protein molecules in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri

    (NCS1). The NMR solution structure of NCS1, in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy and mutational analysis, suggested a novel role for the C-terminal tail in regulating conformational stability. On the single-molecule level, the C-domain folded through a partially folded intermediate state....... This knowledge-gap is partly due to our inability to unveil the details of folding mechanisms that can be buried in the ensemble-averaged output of traditional bulk methods. Single-molecule techniques have provided a perspective beyond the ensemble average and enable studying the folding trajectories of protein...... molecules in unprecedented detail. These methods can, in principle, detect rare folding or misfolding events, and ultimately lead to a reconstruction of the free energy landscape. In this thesis, the folding mechanism of both single- and double-domain proteins is unraveled using single-molecule optical...

  15. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Demonstration of Coupled Tiamat Single Assembly Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novascone, Stephen R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gardner, Russell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pawlowski, R. P. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pastore, Giovanni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Toth, Alex [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report corresponds to milestone L3:PHI.PCI.P15.03, which was originally intended to investigate the time discretization approaches with the newly developed fully coupled Tiamat capability, targeting single assembly problems.

  17. Single cell enzyme diagnosis on the chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sissel Juul; Harmsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Mette Juul

    2013-01-01

    Conventional diagnosis based on ensemble measurements often overlooks the variation among cells. Here, we present a droplet-microfluidics based platform to investigate single cell activities. Adopting a previously developed isothermal rolling circle amplification-based assay, we demonstrate detec...

  18. Approaches to single-nanoparticle catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambur, Justin B; Chen, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are among the most important industrial catalysts, with applications ranging from chemical manufacturing to energy conversion and storage. Heterogeneity is a general feature among these nanoparticles, with their individual differences in size, shape, and surface sites leading to variable, particle-specific catalytic activity. Assessing the activity of individual nanoparticles, preferably with subparticle resolution, is thus desired and vital to the development of efficient catalysts. It is challenging to measure the activity of single-nanoparticle catalysts, however. Several experimental approaches have been developed to monitor catalysis on single nanoparticles, including electrochemical methods, single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, X-ray microscopy, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This review focuses on these experimental approaches, the associated methods and strategies, and selected applications in studying single-nanoparticle catalysis with chemical selectivity, sensitivity, or subparticle spatial resolution.

  19. Distributed Processing Using Single-chip Microcomputers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchett, William

    1996-01-01

    This project investigates the use of single-chip microprocessors as nodes in a token ring control network and explores the implementation of a protocol to manage communication across such a network...

  20. Single Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy: Our First Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Barbaros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to reduce incisional morbidity and improve cosmetic outcomes by using less and smaller trocars. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy is a new laparoscopic procedure. Herein we would like to present our experiences.Material and Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2009, data of the 7 patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic splenectomy were evaluated retrospectively.Results: There were 7 patients (5 females and 2 males with a mean age of 29.9 years. The most common splenectomy indication was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy was performed successfully in 6 patients. In one patient the operation was converted to an open procedure.Conclusion: With surgeons experienced in minimally invasive surgery, single incision laparoscopic splenectomy could be performed successfully. However, in order to demonstrate the differneces between standard laparoscopic splenectomy and SILS splenetomy, prospective randomized comparative studies are required.

  1. 78 FR 38843 - Single Application Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... searchable, accessible text (not an image); Microsoft Word; WordPerfect; Rich Text Format (RTF); or ASCII... notice responding to the question of a single application, all of them positive. On March 28, 2012, the...

  2. Single Shell Tank (SST) Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAASS, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides an initial program plan for retrieval of the single-shell tank waste. Requirements, technical approach, schedule, organization, management, and cost and funding are discussed. The program plan will be refined and updated in fiscal year 2000

  3. Single Shell Tank (SST) Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    2000-03-21

    This document provides an initial program plan for retrieval of the single-shell tank waste. Requirements, technical approach, schedule, organization, management, and cost and funding are discussed. The program plan will be refined and updated in fiscal year 2000.

  4. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  5. A Variable Single Photon Plasmonic Beamsplitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Niels Møller; Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander

    Plasmonic structures can both be exploited for scaling down optical components beyond the diffraction limit and enhancing andcollecting the emission from a single dipole emitter. Here, we experimentally demonstrate adiabatic coupling between two silvernanowires using a nitrogen vacancy center as ...

  6. Defect free single crystal thin layer

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami Tarek Mahmoud

    2016-01-28

    A gallium nitride film can be a dislocation free single crystal, which can be prepared by irradiating a surface of a substrate and contacting the surface with an etching solution that can selectively etch at dislocations.

  7. Single Top-Quark Production at CDF

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The main challenge of the single top-quark search at the Tevatron is the huge background from W+jets events and QCD events, which makes the use of advanced multivariate techniques essential. The recent single top analyses using either the matrix element method, neural networks, likelihood discriminants or boosted decision trees as well as the combination of the former three analyses will be presented...

  8. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Saverio; Nozza, Arrigo; Del Pezzo, Chiara; Mereu, Liliana

    2014-09-01

    To examine the feasibility of performing pelvic lymphadenectomy with robotic single site approach. Recent papers described the feasibility of robotic-single site hysterectomy [1-3] for benign and malign pathologies but only with the development of new single site 5mm instruments as the bipolar forceps, robotic single site platform can be safely utilized also for lymphadenectomy. A 65 year-old, multiparous patient with a body mass index of 22.5 and diagnosed with well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium underwent a robotic single-site peritoneal washing, total hysterectomy, bilateral adnexectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The procedure was performed using the da Vinci Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) through a single 2,5 cm umbilical incision, with a multi-channel system and two single site robotic 5mm instruments. A 3-dimensional, HD 8.5mm endoscope and a 5mm accessory instrument were also utilized. Type I lymphonodes dissection for external iliac and obturator regions was performed [4]. Total operative time was 210 min; incision, trocar placement and docking time occurring in 12 min. Total console time was 183 min, estimated blood loss was 50 ml, no intra-operative or post-operative complications occurred. Hospital discharge occurred on post operative day 2 and total number of lymphnodes removed was 33. Difficulties in term of instrument's clashing and awkward motions have been encountered. Robotic single-site pelvic lymphadenectomy using bipolar forceps and monopolar hook is feasible. New developments are needed to improve surgical ergonomics and additional studies should be performed to explore possible benefits of this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A single gene defect causing claustrophobia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kordi, Ahmed; Kästner, Anne; Grube, Sabrina; Klugmann, M.; Begemann, Martin; Sperling, Swetlana; Hammerschmidt, K.; Hammer, Christian; Stepniak, Beata; Patzig, J.; Monasterio-Schrader, Patricia; Strenzke, N.; Flügge, G.; Werner, Hauke B.; Pawlak, R.

    2013-01-01

    Claustrophobia, the well-known fear of being trapped in narrow/closed spaces, is often considered a conditioned response to traumatic experience. Surprisingly, we found that mutations affecting a single gene, encoding a stress-regulated neuronal protein, can cause claustrophobia. Gpm6a-deficient mice develop normally and lack obvious behavioral abnormalities. However, when mildly stressed by single-housing, these mice develop a striking claustrophobia-like phenotype, which is not inducible in...

  10. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Sohrab; Wagh, Apoorva G.; Strobl, Markus; Treimer, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to the incidence angle. We have measured the variation of neutron deflection and transmission across a Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms. The results agree well with theory. (author)

  11. Faith in action: serving single moms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Crista L; Lovan, Sherry; Cornell, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, female-headed households represented 29.9% (4.4 million) of all U.S. families, with many living below the poverty line. A church in Bowling Green, Kentucky, began a Single Mothers' Oil Change service, incorporating health screening by nurses using Pender's Health Promotion Model. Nurses are equipped to identify health barriers and offer health promotion guidance and social support to single, low-income women.

  12. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer ......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  13. Relaxation dynamics of a single DNA molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshen, E.; Zhao, W. Z.; Carmon, G.; Rosen, S.; Granek, R.; Feingold, M.

    2005-06-01

    The relaxation of a single DNA molecule is studied. The experimental system consists of optical tweezers and a micron-sized bead that is tethered to the bottom of the sample by a single double-stranded DNA molecule. The bead slows down the DNA relaxation from a strongly stretched configuration such that it is passing through stretched equilibrium states. This allows for a theoretical description of the relaxation trajectory, which is in good agreement with experiment.

  14. New Physics in Single-Top Production

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, OM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation for TOP 2013 the latest results on searches of physics beyond the Standard Model using single-top signatures from CDF, CMS, D0 and ATLAS are collected. This includes searches for unknown resonances like W' or b*, measurements of the W helicity fractions and top polarisation in single-top events, as well as tests for CP violation, FCNC or anomalous weak couplings.

  15. Preparation of TiC single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheerer, B.; Fink, J.; Reichardt, W.

    1975-07-01

    TiC single crystals were prepared by vertical zone melting for measurements of the phonon dispersion by inelastic neutron scattering. The influence of the starting material and of the growing conditions on the growth of the crystal were studied. The crystals were characterized by chemical methods, EMX and neutron diffraction. It was possible to grow single crystals with a volume of up to 0.6 cm 3 and mosaic spread of less then 0.4 0 . (orig.) [de

  16. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  17. Work life and mental wellbeing of single and non-single working mothers in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2009-08-01

    This study examined levels and predictors of mental wellbeing in Scandinavian working single and non-single mothers, with a special focus on financial stress, job characteristics and work-family conflict. The European Social Survey Round 2 (2005) provided questionnaire data from 73 single and 432 non-single working mothers in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Respondents answered questions about the outcome variables life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, and predictor variables financial stress, job characteristics, work-family conflict, and social support. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the relationships between predictor variables and mental wellbeing outcomes. Single working mothers scored significantly lower on life satisfaction and happiness, but not on positive affect, than did non-single mothers. Financial stress was higher in the single mother group. There were no significant differences in levels of enriching or stressful job characteristics, or in levels of social support. While financial stress and work-family conflict were important predictors in both groups, the relationship between financial stress and wellbeing was far stronger in the single mother group. Confidant support was a significant predictor only in the single mother group, and social participation only in the non-single mothers group. This study suggests that the Scandinavian welfare democracies have not yet been successful in relieving the financial pressure experienced by single working mothers. Development of efficient financial support systems should be prioritized. Ways to reduce work-family conflict in both single and non-single mothers in Scandinavia should also be given increased attention.

  18. Identifying single copy orthologs in Metazoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Creevey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of single copy (1-to-1 orthologs in any group of organisms is important for functional classification and phylogenetic studies. The Metazoa are no exception, but only recently has there been a wide-enough distribution of taxa with sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes to gain confidence in the wide-spread single copy status of a gene.Here, we present a phylogenetic approach for identifying overlooked single copy orthologs from multigene families and apply it to the Metazoa. Using 18 sequenced metazoan genomes of high quality we identified a robust set of 1,126 orthologous groups that have been retained in single copy since the last common ancestor of Metazoa. We found that the use of the phylogenetic procedure increased the number of single copy orthologs found by over a third more than standard taxon-count approaches. The orthologs represented a wide range of functional categories, expression profiles and levels of divergence.To demonstrate the value of our set of single copy orthologs, we used them to assess the completeness of 24 currently published metazoan genomes and 62 EST datasets. We found that the annotated genes in published genomes vary in coverage from 79% (Ciona intestinalis to 99.8% (human with an average of 92%, suggesting a value for the underlying error rate in genome annotation, and a strategy for identifying single copy orthologs in larger datasets. In contrast, the vast majority of EST datasets with no corresponding genome sequence available are largely under-sampled and probably do not accurately represent the actual genomic complement of the organisms from which they are derived.

  19. Generating single microwave photons in a circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, A A; Schuster, D I; Gambetta, J M; Schreier, J A; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Frunzio, L; Majer, J; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2007-09-20

    Microwaves have widespread use in classical communication technologies, from long-distance broadcasts to short-distance signals within a computer chip. Like all forms of light, microwaves, even those guided by the wires of an integrated circuit, consist of discrete photons. To enable quantum communication between distant parts of a quantum computer, the signals must also be quantum, consisting of single photons, for example. However, conventional sources can generate only classical light, not single photons. One way to realize a single-photon source is to collect the fluorescence of a single atom. Early experiments measured the quantum nature of continuous radiation, and further advances allowed triggered sources of photons on demand. To allow efficient photon collection, emitters are typically placed inside optical or microwave cavities, but these sources are difficult to employ for quantum communication on wires within an integrated circuit. Here we demonstrate an on-chip, on-demand single-photon source, where the microwave photons are injected into a wire with high efficiency and spectral purity. This is accomplished in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, with a microwave transmission line cavity that enhances the spontaneous emission of a single superconducting qubit. When the qubit spontaneously emits, the generated photon acts as a flying qubit, transmitting the quantum information across a chip. We perform tomography of both the qubit and the emitted photons, clearly showing that both the quantum phase and amplitude are transferred during the emission. Both the average power and voltage of the photon source are characterized to verify performance of the system. This single-photon source is an important addition to a rapidly growing toolbox for quantum optics on a chip.

  20. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, Michael; Zang, Ling; Liu, Ruchuan; Adams, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

  1. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Andre; Schoendube, Jonas; Zimmermann, Stefan; Steeb, Maximilian; Zengerle, Roland; Koltay, Peter

    2015-07-24

    The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting) respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage), laser microdissection (17%), manual cell picking (17%), random seeding/dilution (15%), and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12%) are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field.

  2. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Single-molecule manipulation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deyu; Liu, Siyun; Gao, Ying

    2018-01-25

    Compared to conventional ensemble methods, studying macromolecules at single-molecule level can reveal extraordinary clear and even surprising views for a biological reaction. In the past 20 years, single-molecule techniques have been undergoing a very rapid development, and these cutting edge technologies have revolutionized the biological research by facilitating single-molecule manipulation and detection. Here we give a brief review about these advanced techniques, including optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy (AFM), hydrodynamic flow-stretching assay, and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET). We are trying to describe their basic principles and provide a few examples of applications for each technique. This review aims to give a rather introductory survey of single-molecule techniques for audiences with biological or biophysical background. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The discursive climate of singleness: the consequences for women's negotiation of a single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Jill; Wetherell, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    The privileging of marriage and long-term partnerships contributes to the marginalization of single women. This article explores the ways in which women defined as single work with the typical constructions of their identity available in the public arena. We view 'singleness' as a discursively constructed social category. Using data from interviews with 30 women, we examine the identity that women construct for themselves through their talk. We present the four main interpretative repertoires...

  5. Fast recognition of single molecules based on single-event photon statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shuangli; Huang Tao; Liu Yuan; Wang Jun; Zhang Guofeng; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang

    2007-01-01

    Mandel's Q parameter, which is determined from single-event photon statistics, provides an alternative way to recognize single molecules with fluorescence detection, other than the second-order correlation function. It is shown that the Q parameter of an assumed ideal double-molecule fluorescence with the same average photon number as that of the sample fluorescence can act as the criterion for single-molecule recognition. The influence of signal-to-background ratio and the error estimates for photon statistics are also presented. We have applied this method to ascertain single Cy5 dye molecules within hundreds of milliseconds

  6. Controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse and a series of single Trichel pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Berendt, Artur; Akishev, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a simple method for the controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses of a regulated repetition frequency in air is proposed. The concept of triggering a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses is based on the precise controlling the voltage inception of the negative corona, which can be accomplished through the use of a ramp voltage pulse or a series of such pulses with properly chosen ramp voltage pulse parameters (rise and fall times, and ramp voltage pulse repetition frequency). The proposal has been tested in experiments using a needle-to-plate electrode arrangement in air, and reproducible Trichel pulses (single or in a series) were obtained by triggering them with an appropriately designed voltage waveform. The proposed method and results obtained have been qualitatively analysed. The analysis provides guidance for designing the voltage ramp pulse in respect of the generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses would be a helpful research tool for the refined studies of the fundamental processes in a negative corona discharge in a single- (air is an example) and multi-phase gaseous fluids. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of Trichel pulses can also be attractive for those corona treatments which need manipulation of the electric charge and heat portions delivered by the Trichel pulses to the object.

  7. Single molecule Studies of DNA Mismatch Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie, Dorothy A.; Weninger, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair involves is a widely conserved set of proteins that is essential to limit genetic drift in all organisms. The same system of proteins plays key roles in many cancer related cellular transactions in humans. Although the basic process has been reconstituted in vitro using purified components, many fundamental aspects of DNA mismatch repair remain hidden due in part to the complexity and transient nature of the interactions between the mismatch repair proteins and DNA substrates. Single molecule methods offer the capability to uncover these transient but complex interactions and allow novel insights into mechanisms that underlie DNA mismatch repair. In this review, we discuss applications of single molecule methodology including electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, particle tracking, FRET, and optical trapping to studies of DNA mismatch repair. These studies have led to formulation of mechanistic models of how proteins identify single base mismatches in the vast background of matched DNA and signal for their repair. PMID:24746644

  8. Single Atoms in Nearly Concentric Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Adrian Nugraha; Nguyen, Chi Huan; Lewty, Nick; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Quantum Optics Group Team

    2017-04-01

    Strong interaction between photons and neutral single atoms are usually observed in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) systems with high finesse mirrors and small physical volume. We demonstrate another approach that employs a near concentric cavity with relatively low finesse mirrors ( 100) and large physical separation between mirrors ( 10 mm). The transmission spectrum of our CQED system with trapped single atoms is observed to exhibit two resolved normal mode peaks, in which the single atom cooperativity is estimated to be around 0.4. The cooperativity of the system can be improved further by increasing the finesse of the mirrors or moving the cavity closer to the concentric point. The successful realization of concentric CQED systems will open opportunities for scaling up with applications in quantum computing. This work is supported by the National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education, Singapore.

  9. Single molecule transcription profiling with AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jason; Mishra, Bud; Pittenger, Bede; Magonov, Sergei; Troke, Joshua; Teitell, Michael A.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2007-01-01

    Established techniques for global gene expression profiling, such as microarrays, face fundamental sensitivity constraints. Due to greatly increasing interest in examining minute samples from micro-dissected tissues, including single cells, unorthodox approaches, including molecular nanotechnologies, are being explored in this application. Here, we examine the use of single molecule, ordered restriction mapping, combined with AFM, to measure gene transcription levels from very low abundance samples. We frame the problem mathematically, using coding theory, and present an analysis of the critical error sources that may serve as a guide to designing future studies. We follow with experiments detailing the construction of high density, single molecule, ordered restriction maps from plasmids and from cDNA molecules, using two different enzymes, a result not previously reported. We discuss these results in the context of our calculations. Based on invited talk at the International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology 2006.

  10. Behaviour of Corroded Single Stud Shear Connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of corrosion on the static behavior of stud shear connectors was investigated. An innovative test setup for single stud shear connectors was designed and established. Two series of specimens having different stud diameters were fabricated and tested. The test specimens were firstly corroded to different corrosion rates by the electronic accelerating method. Static loading tests were then performed to obtain the load-slip curves and ultimate strengths of the corroded test specimens. The actual corrosion rates were measured from the studs obtained from the tested specimens. The test results were compared with the push out test specimens having similar corrosion rates. It is shown that the test results obtained from the single stud shear connectors are conservative compared with the corroded push test specimens, which prove the validation of the single stud shear connector test method. The effect of corrosion on the behavior of stud shear connectors was also presented.

  11. Improved Sensing with a Single Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekatski, P.; Skotiniotis, M.; Dür, W.

    2017-04-01

    We consider quantum metrology with arbitrary prior knowledge of the parameter. We demonstrate that a single sensing two-level system can act as a virtual multilevel system that offers increased sensitivity in a Bayesian single-shot metrology scenario, and that allows one to estimate (arbitrary) large parameter values by avoiding phase wraps. This is achieved by making use of additional degrees of freedom or auxiliary systems not participating in the sensing process. The joint system is manipulated by intermediate control operations in such a way that an effective Hamiltonian, with an arbitrary spectrum, is generated that mimics the spectrum of a multisystem interacting with the field. We show how to use additional internal degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion to achieve a high-sensitivity magnetic field sensor for fields with arbitrary prior knowledge.

  12. Microplastic relaxations of single and polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, W.; Weiss, B. [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Materialphysik; Chen, D.L.

    1998-05-01

    The microplasticity of high-purity molybdenum single crystals and of Mo polycrystals of technical purity has been investigated by relaxation step tests in uniaxial compression. A new model for the evaluation of relaxation tests in the microplastic range of b.c.c metals is presented which takes into account the decrease of the mobile dislocation density due to exhaustion of non-screw dislocations. The model allows an independent determination of the activation volume and of the microstructure parameters controlling dislocation exhaustion. The results indicate that in the high-purity single crystals the deformation rate is controlled by interactions of non-screw dislocations with the grown-in network. In the polycrystals additional interactions with impurity atoms seem to occur. In the single crystals the activity and subsequent exhaustion of two different glide systems was observed, followed by a gradual onset of screw dislocation motion. (orig.) 26 refs.

  13. Single microwave photon detection in the micromaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M L; Varcoe, B T H; Wilkes, G J

    2009-01-01

    High-efficiency single photon detection is an interesting problem for many areas of physics, including low temperature measurement, quantum information science and particle physics. For optical photons, there are many examples of devices capable of detecting single photons with high efficiency. However reliable single photon detection of microwaves is very difficult, principally due to their low energy. In this paper, we present the theory of a cascade amplifier operating in the microwave regime that has an optimal quantum efficiency of 93%. The device uses a microwave photon to trigger the stimulated emission of a sequence of atoms where the energy transition is readily detectable. A detailed description of the detector's operation and some discussion of the potential limitations of the detector are presented.

  14. Single-particle Schroedinger fluid. I. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of a single quantal particle moving in a time-dependent external potential well is formulated specifically to emphasize and develop the fluid dynamical aspects of the matter flow. This idealized problem, the single-particle Schroedinger fluid, is shown to exhibit already a remarkably rich variety of fluid dynamical features, including compressible flow and line vortices. It provides also a sufficient framework to encompass simultaneously various simplified fluidic models for nuclei which have earlier been postulated on an ad hoc basis, and to illuminate their underlying restrictions. Explicit solutions of the single-particle Schroedinger fluid problem are studied in the adiabatic limit for their mathematical and physical implications (especially regarding the collective kinetic energy). The basic generalizations for extension of the treatment to the many-body Schroedinger fluid are set forth

  15. Watching single protein molecules in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri

    . This knowledge-gap is partly due to our inability to unveil the details of folding mechanisms that can be buried in the ensemble-averaged output of traditional bulk methods. Single-molecule techniques have provided a perspective beyond the ensemble average and enable studying the folding trajectories of protein...... molecules in unprecedented detail. These methods can, in principle, detect rare folding or misfolding events, and ultimately lead to a reconstruction of the free energy landscape. In this thesis, the folding mechanism of both single- and double-domain proteins is unraveled using single-molecule optical......, with transition states located almost halfway between the native and unfolded states. When pulled from the N- and C-termini, both experiments and simulations suggested that the molecule populates a transition state that resembles that observed during chemical denaturation, with respect to structure and position...

  16. Autonomous calibration of single spin qubit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Unden, Thomas; Zoller, Jonathan; Said, Ressa S.; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-12-01

    Fully autonomous precise control of qubits is crucial for quantum information processing, quantum communication, and quantum sensing applications. It requires minimal human intervention on the ability to model, to predict, and to anticipate the quantum dynamics, as well as to precisely control and calibrate single qubit operations. Here, we demonstrate single qubit autonomous calibrations via closed-loop optimisations of electron spin quantum operations in diamond. The operations are examined by quantum state and process tomographic measurements at room temperature, and their performances against systematic errors are iteratively rectified by an optimal pulse engineering algorithm. We achieve an autonomous calibrated fidelity up to 1.00 on a time scale of minutes for a spin population inversion and up to 0.98 on a time scale of hours for a single qubit π/2 -rotation within the experimental error of 2%. These results manifest a full potential for versatile quantum technologies.

  17. Single-molecule theory of enzymatic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Tal; Reuveni, Shlomi; Urbakh, Michael

    2018-02-22

    The classical theory of enzymatic inhibition takes a deterministic, bulk based approach to quantitatively describe how inhibitors affect the progression of enzymatic reactions. Catalysis at the single-enzyme level is, however, inherently stochastic which could lead to strong deviations from classical predictions. To explore this, we take the single-enzyme perspective and rebuild the theory of enzymatic inhibition from the bottom up. We find that accounting for multi-conformational enzyme structure and intrinsic randomness should strongly change our view on the uncompetitive and mixed modes of inhibition. There, stochastic fluctuations at the single-enzyme level could make inhibitors act as activators; and we state-in terms of experimentally measurable quantities-a mathematical condition for the emergence of this surprising phenomenon. Our findings could explain why certain molecules that inhibit enzymatic activity when substrate concentrations are high, elicit a non-monotonic dose response when substrate concentrations are low.

  18. Single-particle dispersion in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Xiao, Zuoli

    2018-04-01

    Single-particle dispersion statistics in compressible box turbulence are studied using direct numerical simulation. Focus is placed on the detailed discussion of effects of the particle Stokes number and turbulent Mach number, as well as the forcing type. When solenoidal forcing is adopted, it is found that the single-particle dispersion undergoes a transition from the ballistic regime at short times to the diffusive regime at long times, in agreement with Taylor's particle dispersion argument. The strongest dispersion of heavy particles is announced when the Stokes number is of order 1, which is similar to the scenario in incompressible turbulence. The dispersion tends to be suppressed as the Mach number increases. When hybrid solenoidal and compressive forcing at a ratio of 1/2 is employed, the flow field shows apparent anisotropic property, characterized by the appearance of large shock wave structures. Accordingly, the single-particle dispersion shows extremely different behavior from the solenoidal forcing case.

  19. Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen the development of a number of novel biophysical methods that allow the manipulation and study of individual biomolecules. The ability to monitor biological processes at this fundamental level of sensitivity has given rise to an improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Through the removal of ensemble averaging, distributions and fluctuations of molecular properties can be characterized, transient intermediates identified, and catalytic mechanisms elucidated. By applying forces on biomolecules while monitoring their activity, important information can be obtained on how proteins couple function to structure. The Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics provides an introduction to these techniques and presents an extensive discussion of the new biological insights obtained from them. Coverage includes: Experimental techniques to monitor and manipulate individual biomolecules The use of single-molecule techniques in super-resolution and functional imaging Single-molec...

  20. Single molecule transcription profiling with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Jason; Mishra, Bud; Pittenger, Bede; Magonov, Sergei; Troke, Joshua; Teitell, Michael A; Gimzewski, James K

    2007-01-01

    Established techniques for global gene expression profiling, such as microarrays, face fundamental sensitivity constraints. Due to greatly increasing interest in examining minute samples from micro-dissected tissues, including single cells, unorthodox approaches, including molecular nanotechnologies, are being explored in this application. Here, we examine the use of single molecule, ordered restriction mapping, combined with AFM, to measure gene transcription levels from very low abundance samples. We frame the problem mathematically, using coding theory, and present an analysis of the critical error sources that may serve as a guide to designing future studies. We follow with experiments detailing the construction of high density, single molecule, ordered restriction maps from plasmids and from cDNA molecules, using two different enzymes, a result not previously reported. We discuss these results in the context of our calculations

  1. Matching Parasitic Antenna for Single RF MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    . In order to have such performance, an antenna with rich pattern modes is required by the system, thus the ESPAR antenna is investigated. The critical part on such antenna is parasitic element impedance matching. Unlike the conventional smith-chart matching method which assumes the minimal resistance......Single RF MIMO communication emerges a novel low cost communication method which does not consume as much power as the conventional MIMO. The implementation of such single RF MIMO system is done by mapping the weighting factors to the polarizations or the radiation patterns of the antennas...

  2. From Single Market to Economic Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb.......Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb....

  3. Single Molecule Biophysics Experiments and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yang, Haw; Silbey, Robert J; Rice, Stuart A; Dinner, Aaron R

    2011-01-01

    Discover the experimental and theoretical developments in optical single-molecule spectroscopy that are changing the ways we think about molecules and atoms The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. This latest volume explores the advent of optical single-molecule spectroscopy, and how atomic force microscopy has empowered novel experiments on individual biomolecules, opening up new frontiers in molecular and cell biology and leading to new theoretical approaches

  4. NOD3: Single dish reduction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Peter; Krause, Marita; Beck, Rainer; Schmidt, Philip

    2017-11-01

    NOD3 processes and analyzes maps from single-dish observations affected by scanning effects from clouds, receiver instabilities, or radio-frequency interference. Its “basket-weaving” tool combines orthogonally scanned maps into a final map that is almost free of scanning effects. A restoration tool for dual-beam observations reduces the noise by a factor of about two compared to the NOD2 version. Combining single-dish with interferometer data in the map plane ensures the full recovery of the total flux density.

  5. Coherent manipulation of single spins in semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald; Awschalom, David D

    2008-06-19

    During the past few years, researchers have gained unprecedented control over spins in the solid state. What was considered almost impossible a decade ago, in both conceptual and practical terms, is now a reality: single spins can be isolated, initialized, coherently manipulated and read out using both electrical and optical techniques. Progress has been made towards full control of the quantum states of single and coupled spins in a variety of semiconductors and nanostructures, and towards understanding the mechanisms through which spins lose coherence in these systems. These abilities will allow pioneering investigations of fundamental quantum-mechanical processes and provide pathways towards applications in quantum information processing.

  6. Light Emitting Transistors of Organic Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2009-03-01

    Organic light emitting transistors (OLETs) are attracting considerable interest as a novel function of organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Besides a smallest integration of light source and current switching devices, OLETs offer a new opportunity in the fundamental research on organic light emitting devices. The OLET device structure allows us to use organic single crystals, in contrast to the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), the research of which have been conducted predominantly on polycrystalline or amorphous thin films. In the case of OFETs, use of single crystals have produced a significant amount of benefits in the studies of pursuit for the highest performance limit of FETs, intrinsic transport mechanism in organic semiconductors, and application of the single crystal transistors. The study on OLETs have been made predominantly on polycrystalline films or multicomponent heterojunctions, and single crystal study is still limited to tetracene [1] and rubrene [2], which are materials with relatively high mobility, but with low photoluminescence efficiency. In this paper, we report fabrication of single crystal OLETs of several kinds of highly luminescent molecules, emitting colorful light, ranging from blue to red. Our strategy is single crystallization of monomeric or oligomeric molecules, which are known to have a very high photoluminescence efficiency. Here we report the result on single crystal LETs of rubrene (red), 4,4'-bis(diphenylvinylenyl)-anthracene (green), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophene-2-yl)benzene (AC5) (green), and 1,3,6,8-tetraphenylpyrene (TPPy) (blue), all of which displayed ambipolar transport as well as peculiar movement of voltage controlled movement of recombination zone, not only from the surface of the crystal but also from the edges of the crystals, indicting light confinement inside the crystal. Realization of ambipolar OLET with variety of single crystals indicates that the fabrication method is quite versatile to various light

  7. Quantum identity authentication with single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang ho; Heo, Jino; Jang, Jin Gak; Kwon, Daesung

    2017-10-01

    Quantum identity authentication with single photons is proposed in the paper. It can verify a user's identity without exposing to an authentication key information. The protocol guarantees high efficiency in that it can verify two bits of authentication information using just a single photon. The security of our authentication scheme is analyzed and confirmed in the case of a general attack. Moreover, the proposed protocol is practicable with current technology. Our quantum identity authentication protocol does not require quantum memory registration and any entangled photon sources.

  8. Imaging of tautomerism in a single molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwoński, Hubert; Stupperich, Clemens; Hartschuh, Achim; Sepioł, Jerzy; Meixner, Alfred; Waluk, Jacek

    2005-04-20

    Fluorescence imaging is used to visualize directly the transfer of two inner hydrogen atoms in single porphycene molecules. This reaction leads to a chemically equivalent but differently oriented structure and hence results in a rotation of the transition dipole moments. By probing single immobilized molecules with an azimuthally polarized laser beam in the focal spot of a confocal microscope we observe ring-like emission patterns, possible only for a chromophore with two nearly orthogonal transition dipole moments. Numerical simulations of the observed emission patterns yield a value of 72 degrees for the angle between the S0-S1 transition moments in the two tautomeric forms.

  9. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  10. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  11. Dual color single particle tracking via nanobodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, David; Winterflood, Christian M; Ewers, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool to investigate the function of biological molecules by following their motion in space. However, the simultaneous tracking of two different species of molecules is still difficult to realize without compromising the length or density of trajectories, the localization accuracy or the simplicity of the assay. Here, we demonstrate a simple dual color single particle tracking assay using small, bright, high-affinity labeling via nanobodies of accessible targets with widely available instrumentation. We furthermore apply a ratiometric step-size analysis method to visualize differences in apparent membrane viscosity. (paper)

  12. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device......Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...

  13. The world at a critical turning point. Edited transcripts of the forums held in the United Nations on 8-9 April, 14 April, 22 October and 27-29 October 1998 and 15 and 22 April 1999 by the NGO Committee on Disarmament, in cooperation with the UN Department for Disarmament Affairs and the UN Department of Public Information, and the 11 May 1999 presentations by NGOs to the third PrepCom for the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This publication includes the edited transcripts of the panel discussions held in the United Nations by the NGO Committee on Disarmament in 1998 and early 1999 and the presentations made by NGOs on May 11, 1999 at the third Prep Com for the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference to be held in the year 2000. NGOs need to be much more active, on a much larger scale, to play an effective role at the UN and with their own governments. The NGO Committee on Disarmament welcomes the membership of all individuals and organizations that have an interest in the activities of the UN in the disarmament, international security and peacekeeping areas. Agreement on the agenda and timing of a fourth Special Session on Disarmament (SSOD IV) was not reached by the working group that met for the fourth year during the Disarmament Commission in April, 1999. The Disarmament Commission operates under rules of consensus, and the objection of India prevented a resolution of this issue. It could be resolved by the First Committee, with a vote. The stumbling block has been the differing views of delegations on the importance of the Final Document of the First Special Session on Disarmament. NGO experts could make a very worthwhile contribution to the discussion on nuclear weapons and on conventional disarmament, UN peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace enforcing that might Increase the chances of a worthwhile SSOD IV. We welcome your suggestions. The major focus of the First Committee discussion in November, 1998 was on the resolution put forth by Ireland, Sweden, Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, New Zealand and South Africa. That called for a new agenda. Much of the discussion that asked 'How Can We Make Greater Progress Towards Nuclear Disarmament and Prevent Further Proliferation?' focuses on the New Agenda Coalition resolution. Resolution 53/77Y was adopted without the support of the US, UK, France, the Russian Federation, India, Pakistan or Israel (China abstained.) Nevertheless, 114

  14. Resonant interaction of a single atom with single photons from a down-conversion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, C.; Rohde, F.; Piro, N.; Almendros, M.; Huwer, J.; Mitchell, M. W.; Hennrich, M.; Haase, A.; Dubin, F.; Eschner, J.

    2010-01-01

    We observe the interaction of a single trapped calcium ion with single photons produced by a narrow-band, resonant down-conversion source [A. Haase , Opt. Lett. 34, 55 (2009)], employing a quantum jump scheme. Using the temperature dependence of the down-conversion spectrum and the tunability of the narrow source, absorption of the down-conversion photons is quantitatively characterized.

  15. Pervasive within-Mitochondrion Single-Nucleotide Variant Heteroplasmy as Revealed by Single-Mitochondrion Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Morris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A number of mitochondrial diseases arise from single-nucleotide variant (SNV accumulation in multiple mitochondria. Here, we present a method for identification of variants present at the single-mitochondrion level in individual mouse and human neuronal cells, allowing for extremely high-resolution study of mitochondrial mutation dynamics. We identified extensive heteroplasmy between individual mitochondrion, along with three high-confidence variants in mouse and one in human that were present in multiple mitochondria across cells. The pattern of variation revealed by single-mitochondrion data shows surprisingly pervasive levels of heteroplasmy in inbred mice. Distribution of SNV loci suggests inheritance of variants across generations, resulting in Poisson jackpot lines with large SNV load. Comparison of human and mouse variants suggests that the two species might employ distinct modes of somatic segregation. Single-mitochondrion resolution revealed mitochondria mutational dynamics that we hypothesize to affect risk probabilities for mutations reaching disease thresholds. : Morris et al. use independent sequencing of multiple individual mitochondria from mouse and human brain cells to show high pervasiveness of mutations. The mutations are heteroplasmic within single mitochondria and within and between cells. These findings suggest mechanisms by which mutations accumulate over time, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. Keywords: single mitochondrion, single cell, human neuron, mouse neuron, single-nucleotide variation

  16. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Sumanta; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit

  17. Does single blind peer review hinder newcomers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeber, Marco; Bacchelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    Several fields of research are characterized by the coexistence of two different peer review modes to select quality contributions for scientific venues, namely double blind (DBR) and single blind (SBR) peer review. In the first, the identities of both authors and reviewers are not known to each

  18. Projection operator treatment of single particle resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, A.; Beres, W.P.

    1976-01-01

    A projection operator method is used to obtain the energy and width of a single particle resonance. The resonance energy is found without scanning. An example of the first g/sub 9/2/ neutron resonance in 40 Ca is given and compared with the traditional phase shift method. The results of both approaches are quite similar. 4 figures

  19. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. March 2007 physics pp. 467–479. Characteristics of photoconductivity in thallium monosulfide single crystals. I M ASHRAF, H A ELSHAIKH and A M BADR. Physics Department ... pendencies of carrier lifetime on light intensity, applied voltage and temperature are also ..... 14, 797 (1935) (in Japanese). [10] A T ...

  20. Electron impact single ionization of copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron impact single ionization cross sections of copper have been calculated in the binary encounter approximation using accurate expression for as given by Vriens and Hartree–Fock momentum distribution for the target electron. The BEA calculation based on the usual procedure does not show satisfactory ...

  1. Single top quark cross sections at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, Kevin Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This presentation covers single top production in the t-channel, s-channel, tW, and tZq production modes. Differential cross-sections for t-channel and tW are covered, as well as the latest inclusive measurements in s-channel and tZq.

  2. EC nuclear: toward the single market 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    The setting-up of a single market has long been an objective (Euratom Treaty). One of the Commission's (CEC) concerns will be to ensure that safety requirements are met in the worldwide trend in standardization of components. Cost advantages (manufacture, operation and maintenance) and improved safety are gained from standardization, and are important in a slack market

  3. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in-plan...

  4. Systematic hardness measurements on single crystals and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vickers and knoop hardness measurements were carried out on CsBr and CsI single crystals. Polycrystalline blanks of CsCl, CsBr and CsI were prepared by melting and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Vickers hardness measurements were carried out on these blanks. The hardness values were correlated with the lattice ...

  5. Overview of ESO Large Single Dish Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will briefly summarize the motivation, methodology and outcome of the ESO Submm Single Dish Strategy WG. The WG was established by the ESO Director for Science and completed its work at the end of 2015. I will summarize the status of the report recommendations, which, among other things, led to the organization of the AtLAST workshop.

  6. Single incision laparoscopic colorectal resection: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A prospective case series of single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal resections for malignancy using conventional laparoscopic trocars and instruments is described. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (seven men and four women with colonic or rectal pathology underwent single incision multiport laparoscopic colectomy/rectal resection from July till December 2010. Four trocars were placed in a single transumblical incision. The bowel was mobilized laparoscopically and vessels controlled intracorporeally with either intra or extracorporeal anastomosis. Results: Three patients had carcinoma in the caecum, one in the hepatic flexure, two in the rectosigmoid, one in the descending colon, two in the rectum and two had ulcerative pancolitis (one with high grade dysplasia and another with carcinoma rectum. There was no conversion to standard multiport laparoscopy or open surgery. The median age was 52 years (range 24-78 years. The average operating time was 130 min (range 90-210 min. The average incision length was 3.2 cm (2.5-4.0 cm. There were no postoperative complications. The average length of stay was 4.5 days (range 3-8 days. Histopathology showed adequate proximal and distal resection margins with an average lymph node yield of 25 nodes (range 16-30 nodes. Conclusion: Single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy is feasible without extra cost or specialized ports/instrumentation. It does not compromise the oncological radicality of resection. Short-term results are encouraging. Long-term results are awaited.

  7. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological...

  8. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    of a single Au-Au bond and show that the breaking force is dependent on the loading rate. We probe the temperature and structural dependencies of breaking and suggest that the paradox can be explained by fast breaking of atomic wires and slow breaking of point contacts giving very similar breaking forces....

  9. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater ...

  10. Quantum sensors based on single diamond defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelezko Fedor

    2014-01-01

    NV centers in diamond are promising sensors able to detect electric and magnetic fields at nanoscale. Here we report on the detection of biomolecules using magnetic noise induced by their electron and nuclear spins. Presented results show first steps towards establishing novel sensing technology for visualizing single proteins and study of their dynamics. (author)

  11. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to ...

  12. Single-mode biological distributed feedback laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Lemmer, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Single-mode second order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers of riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatine films on nanostructured low refractive index material are demonstrated. Manufacturing is based on a simple UV nanoimprint and spin-coating. Emission wavelengths of 543 nm and 562 nm for two...

  13. EMISAR single pass topographic SAR interferometer modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Woelders, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) has augmented its dual-frequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar system (EMISAR) with single pass across-track interferometric (XTI) modes. This paper describes the system configuration, specifications and the operating modes. Analysis of data acq...

  14. Nuclear structure and the single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Strottman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of nuclear structure on meson-induced single-charge-exchange reactions on light nuclei is discussed within the context of the Glauber approximation. Selection rules which are expected to be approximately obeyed in elastic and inelastic pion and kaon scattering are proposed. Theoretical predictions are presented for (π + ,π 0 ) and (K + ,K 0 ) reactions on 13 C. 14 figures

  15. Single gene retrieval from thermally degraded DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To simulate single gene retrieval from ancient DNA, several related factors have been investigated. By monitoring a 889 bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product and genomic DNA degradation, we find that heat and oxygen (especially heat) are both crucial factors influencing DNA degradation. The heat influence ...

  16. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  17. Delayed Single Stage Perineal Posterior Urethroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Shahnawaz; Shahzad, I.; Baloch, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture/distraction defect. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients were selected for delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture / distraction defect. All were initially suprapubically catheterized followed by definitive surgery after at least 3 months. Results: Thirty male patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 10 months, 2 patients were excluded as they developed failure in first 3 months postoperatively. Mean patients age was 26.25 ± 7.9 years. On follow-up, 7 patients (23.3 percentage) experienced recurrent stricture during first 10 months. Five (16.6 percentage) patients were treated successfully with single direct visual internal urethrotomy. Two patients (6.6 percentage) had more than one direct visual internal urethrotomy and considered failed. Re-do perineal urethroplasty was eventually performed. The overall success rate was 93.3 percentage with permissive criteria allowing single direct visual internal urethrotomy and 76.6% with strict criteria allowing no more procedures postoperatively. Conclusion: Posterior anastomotic urethroplasty offers excellent long-term results to patients with posterior urethral trauma and distraction defect even after multiple prior procedures. (author)

  18. Acoustic Energy Storage in Single Bubble Sonoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Michael P.; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    1996-01-01

    Single bubble sonoluminescence is understood in terms of a shock focusing towards the bubble center. We present a mechanism for significantly enhancing the effect of shock focusing, arising from the storage of energy in the acoustic modes of the gas. The modes with strongest coupling are not

  19. Unvented single stack sanitary drainage system I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Najman, Z.

    This report forms the basis of the preparation of design recommendations. In the observation tables all single results from 147 tests of charging are dispersed on 53 test set-ups. At test set-ups in 1 till 4 floors height discharge pipes with dimensions of 100, 125, and 150 mm were tested with di...

  20. Combination of Single Dish and Interferometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuben, Peter; Burkutean, Sandra; Stanke, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    I will review techniques how to combine single dish and interferometric data in the radio regime. Packages such as MIRIAD and GILDAS will also be compared to how this is currently done in CASA. An associated tutorial will focus and compare solutions in CASA using the QAC frontend, for which scripts are available in the github repository.

  1. Spatially incoherent single channel digital Fourier holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Roy; Rosen, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    We present a new method for recording digital Fourier holograms under incoherent illumination. A single exposure recorded by a digital camera is sufficient to record a real-valued hologram that encodes the complete three-dimensional properties of an object.

  2. The single electron chemistry of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Flowers, R.A. II.

    1991-04-22

    The simplest explanation for these shifts in the infrared spectra is there exists in coal single electron donors which are capable of transferring an electron to TCNQ in the ground state. All of the TCNQ placed in the coal appears to be converted to the radical anion as displayed in the IR spectrum for all of the coals except for the 100% loading.

  3. On detecting selective sweeps using single genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eSinha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis of human adaptation has remained a central focal point of modern population genetics. One major area of interest has been the use of polymorphism data to detect so-called 'footprints' of selective sweeps - patterns produced as a beneficial mutation arises and rapidly fixes in the population. Based on numerous simulation studies and power analyses, the necessary sample size for achieving appreciable power has been shown to vary from a few individuals to a few dozen, depending on the test statistic. And yet, the sequencing of multiple copies of a single region, or of multiple genomes as is now often the case, incurs considerable cost. Enard et al. (2010 have recently proposed a method to identify patterns of selective sweeps using a single genome - and apply this approach to human and non¬human primates (chimpanzee, orangutan and macaque. They employ essentially a modification of the Hudson, Kreitman and Aguade (HKA test - using heterozygous single nucleotide poly¬morphisms (SNPs from single individuals, and divergence data from two closely related spe¬cies (human-chimpanzee, human-orangutan and human-macaque. Given the potential importance of this finding, we here investigate the properties of this statistic. We demonstrate through simulation that this approach is neither robust to demography nor background selection; nor is it robust to variable recombination rates.

  4. An introduction to single implant abutments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Warreth, Abdulhadi

    2013-01-01

    This article is an introduction to single implant abutments and aims to provide basic information about abutments which are essential for all dental personnel who are involved in dental implantology. Clinical Relevance: This article provides a basic knowledge of implants and implant abutments which are of paramount importance, as replacement of missing teeth with oral implants has become a well-established clinical procedure.

  5. Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D. D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.

  6. Single gene retrieval from thermally degraded DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    So, based on known geothermal gra- dients and the depth of ancient remains, one can try to estimate the chances of retrieval of single genes. Acknowledgements. We thank Prof. Gerard Peter Latawiec (University of Read- ing, UK) for his critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by the NSFC key project ...

  7. Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre (SST) was investigated and compared with that under a conventional dual tyre (CDT). Contact areas and contact pressures over a range of loading conditions were measured and compared. Two approaches were...

  8. Antiferromagnetism in chromium alloy single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Trego, A.L.; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1965-01-01

    The antiferromagnetism of single crystals of dilute alloys of V, Mn and Re in Cr has been studied at 95°K and 300°K by neutron diffraction. The addition of V causes the diffraction peaks to decrease in intensity and move away from (100), while Mn and Re cause them to increase and approach (100) s...

  9. Single-photon imaging in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbon, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the architectural design and fabrication of medium and large arrays of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) for a variety of applications in physics, medicine, and the life sciences. Due to dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of

  10. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Hasan Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. → It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. → Formation of single phase MoB from MoO 3 + B 2 O 3 + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. → Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO 3 , B 2 O 3 and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo 2 B 5 were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase α-MoB was obtained.

  11. Nanoscale three-dimensional single particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Aurélie; Lamb, Don C

    2011-11-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) in biological systems is a quickly growing field. Many new technologies are being developed providing new tracking capabilities, which also lead to higher demands and expectations for SPT. Following a single biomolecule as it performs its function provides quantitative mechanistic information that cannot be obtained in classical ensemble methods. From the 3D trajectory, information is available over the diffusional behavior of the particle and precise position information can also be used to elucidate interactions of the tracked particle with its surroundings. Thus, three-dimensional (3D) SPT is a very valuable tool for investigating cellular processes. This review presents recent progress in 3D SPT, from image-based techniques toward more sophisticated feedback approaches. We focus mainly on the feedback technique known as orbital tracking. We present here a modified version of the original orbital tracking in which the intensities from two z-planes are simultaneously measured allowing a concomitant wide-field imaging. The system can track single particles with a precision down to 5 nm in the x-y plane and 7 nm in the axial direction. The capabilities of the system are demonstrated using single virus tracing to follow the infection pathway of Prototype Foamy Virus in living cells.

  12. Single crystal surface structure by bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction is becoming an important tool in the measurements of surface structures. Single crystalline samples are used as in Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)-studies. The X-ray technique is somewhat more involved due to the need of bright, collimated photon sources, in general...

  13. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  14. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girit, Caglar O [Berkeley, CA; Zettl, Alexander K [Kensington, CA

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  15. Congenital malformation of inner ear, single cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Pazmino, Julio Cesar; Marrugo Pardo, Gilberto Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the inner ear are rare conditions, but their detection requires high diagnostic accuracy. In this report we describe the case of a patient with single or common cavity, discuss the corresponding radiological images, describe the treatment of this patient with a cochlear implant, and review the classification and differential diagnosis of the other anomalies of the inner ear.

  16. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  17. Single scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Safdar, C.A.; Yasir, U.; Rasool, N.; Kanwal, S.; Boota, M.; Rehman, J.U.

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively asses the results of single scrotal incision orchidopexy (SSIO) performed at our centre with ligation of the patent processus vaginalis in children having palpable undescended testes (UDT). Study Design: Quasi-experimental with retrospective data. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric surgery Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from April 2007 to December 2011. Patients and Methods: After making a single transverse incision at superior scrotal border, the testis was identified; gubernaculums and the sac were dissected to the highest level and divided. The testis was placed into the scrotum and fixed to the scrotal fascia/skin. All patients were assessed at 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months post operatively, and then yearly. Results: A total of 38 orchidopexies were performed in 33 patients. The patients age ranged from 14 months to 7 years (mean:2.1 years). Bilateral UDT were found in 5 patients (15.1%). Operative time ranged from 20 to 45 minutes (mean: 36 minutes). The single scrotal incision technique was successful in all 38 cases (100%). All testes were easily fixed in the scrotum. Two patients (5.2%) developed scrotal haematoma and one patient (2.6%) developed stitch abscess. All showed good an atomical and cosmetic results up to a minimum of six months of follow-up. Conclusion: Single scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended testis is a simple and safe technique. It has shown to consume shorter time and give good cosmetic results. (author)

  18. Lattice effects in YVO3 single crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquina, C; Sikora, M; Ibarra, MR; Nugroho, AA; Palstra, TTM

    In this paper we report on the lattice effects in the Mott insulator yttrium orthovanadate (YVO3). Linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments have been performed on a single crystal, in the temperature range from 5 K to room temperature. The YVO3 orders antiferromagnetically at T-N =

  19. Single-Sex Schools and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank; Russo, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews single-sex schools' history and legal status. Explores constitutional dimensions of gender-based discrimination delineated in five leading cases (in Philadelphia, New York City, Detroit, Mississippi, and Virginia). Due to claims of Equal Protection Clause and/or Title IX violations, such schools are unlikely to proliferate. (20 references)…

  20. Conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gets, A. V.; Krainov, V. P., E-mail: vpkrainov@mail.ru [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperatures is calculated. It is shown that it is much higher than the well-known conductivity of a model 1D Fermi system. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect.